A study was designed to determine the red cell values (hemoglobin and hematocrit) of neonates born in the high altitude of Abha and to compare these values with known values of other lowland areas of Saudi Arabia. From the cord blood of 587 normal, appropriate for gestational age and term infants born in 1993 in Abha Maternity Hospital, the ranges of Hb and Hct were 130 to 240 g/L and 0.24 to 0.79 L/L respectively. The mean Hb was 187 g/L. There was no significant difference between the male and female values. Also, 17% of the infants in this study were polycythemic, while no polycythemia was recorded in these lowland areas and only 2% to 4% in the general global newborn population. It was therefore revealed that Abha newborns had higher red cell values at the birth when compared to other newborns in the low altitude areas of Riyadh and Jeddah (P<0.001). We postulate that high altitude (2700 meters above sea level) of Abha, and therefore its relative hypoxia, has induced high red cell values in infants born in the city. The phenomenon therefore warrants the adoption of higher red cell reference values and not necessarily those already documented in other Saudi new born populations. (author)
Adolescence is characterized by rapid physiological, social and cognititive changes. Aim of the present work is to study mental health of Saudi adolescent secondary school girls in Abha city, Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 secondary schools for girls using the Arabic version of the symptom-revised checklist 90 (SCL 90-R), a mental health questionnaire that was administered to the girls by fourth-year female medical students. The most prevalent mental symptoms in the 545 female students were phobic anxiety (16.4%), psycchoticism (14.8%), anxiety (14.3%), and somatization (14.2%). The prevalence of depression, paranoid ideation and interpersonal sensitivity amounted to 13.9%, 13.8% and 13.8%, respectively. The least prevalent mental symptoms were hostility (12.8%) and obsessive-compulsive behavior (12.3%). Overall, psychological symptoms (in terms of a positive global severity index) were found in 16.3% of the girls. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, no significant relationship was found with sociodemographic factors. Psychological symptoms and disorders are prevalent in secondary school girls and health professionals need to be able to recognize, manage and follow-up mental health problems in young people. Further research is needed to explore the magnitude of the problem at the national level. (author)
Al-Binali Ali Mohamed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate knowledge, or inappropriate practice, of breastfeeding may lead to undesirable consequences. The aim of this study was to assess breastfeeding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among female teachers in the Abha Female Educational District and identify factors that may affect breastfeeding practice in the study population. Methods A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among school teachers in Abha Female Educational District during the months of April to June, 2011. Breastfeeding KAP of participants who had at least one child aged five years or younger at the time of the study were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire, based on their experience with the last child. Results A total of 384 women made up of 246 (61.1% primary-, 89 (23.2% intermediate- and 49 (12.8% high-school teachers participated in the study. One hundred and nineteen participants (31% started breastfeeding their children within one hour of delivery, while exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was reported only by 32 (8.3% participants. Insufficient breast milk and work related problems were the main reasons given by 169 (44% and 148 (38.5% of participants, respectively, for stopping breastfeeding before two years. Only 33 participants (8.6% had attended classes related to breastfeeding. However, 261 participants (68% indicated the willingness to attend such classes, if available, in future pregnancies. Conclusions This study revealed that breast milk insufficiency and adverse work related issues were the main reasons for a very low rate of exclusive breastfeeding among female school teachers in Abha female educational district, Saudi Arabia. A very low rate of attending classes addressing the breastfeeding issues during pregnancy, and an alarming finding of a high percentage of babies receiving readymade liquid formula while still in hospital, were also brought out by the present study. Such
This study examined the role of women's work as a possible determinant (among others) of low birth weight in the population of women followed in a Primary Health Care (PHC) center in Abha, Southern Saudi Arabia. All antenatal care files for all deliveries in the preceding 5 years were studied and the relevant data from 7067 files were collected and analyzed. Low birth weight was significantly higher in working mothers (odds ratio=1.31), adolescent mothers (odds ratio= 2.56), and low parity mothers (OR= 1.28). Anemia of the mother contributed an odds ratio of 1.23 for low birth weight baby and inadequate antenatal care (less than 3 visits during pregnancy) had an odds ratio of 1.9. Female babies were significantly more prone to low birth weight (odds ratio 1.34). It is suggested that further evaluation of women's work conditions to detect and remedy stressful conditions especially during pregnancies, health education and better antenatal care may prevent a good proportion of low birth weight deliveries. PMID:15565933
Al-Homrany Mohammed; Khan Mohd; Al-Khaldi Yahia; Al-Gelban Khalid; Al-Amri Hasan
It is well known that effective management of hypertension reduces the incidence of myo-cardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. The Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, introduced the Quality Assurance Guidelines with the hope to improve the management of hypertension in its centers. We conducted an audit of two Primary Health Care Centers namely, Al-Manhal (MPHCC) and Al-Numais (NPHCC), to evaluate how well hypertension was managened at these centers. A check list was ...
Shaaban, Fathy; Al-Salami, Ali E.
Abha is the capital of Asir province in Saudi Arabia. It is situated 2200 meters (7200 ft) above the sea level in the fertile mountains of the south-western Saudi Arabia. One of the most important structures of this region is Abha dam that acts as a barrier that impounds water or underground streams thereby retaining the ground water of the region. With the passage of time, various environmental factors such as ground movement, wind and changes in temperature may have significant effect on these various structure factors and may lead to invisible cracks and other structural defects. Because the dams and tunnels are prone to sudden collapse, there is potential great risk to lives of the people and significant economic loss in this area. The use of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity techniques is a non-invasive scan and could assess the conditions of various built structures as well as the earth beneath or surrounding it. So the GPR system with appropriate types of antennas (1.5 GH, 1 GH, 400 MH and 100 MH) and electrical resistivity in one dimension (VES) and two dimensions (electrical profiling and imaging) is used in this work. This work aims to investigate the dam structure, developing cracks or areas of increased moisture. Also to study the surrounding areas to detect seepage from pond that may affect nearby buildings and the dam itself. It reveals that, the depth of water bearing layer ranges from 2 m to 10 m, where the three geoelectric layers are present. The first layer has resistivity values ranging from 44 Ω m-1200 Ω m with thickness ranging from 3 m to 18 m that is interpreted as the wadi deposits. The second layer having resistivity values from 11 Ω m to 137 Ω m is interpreted as the water saturated in the fractured basements. The third layer of resistivity values ranging from 2200 Ω m to 90,000 Ω m is interpreted as dry, massive basements. The GPR results provided internal images of the slab, showing its morphology, areas
Al-Homrany, Mohammed A; Khan, Mohd Yunus; Al-Khaldi, Yahia Mater; Al-Gelban, Khalid S; Al-Amri, Hasan Saed
It is well known that effective management of hypertension reduces the incidence of myo-cardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. The Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, introduced the Quality Assurance Guidelines with the hope to improve the management of hypertension in its centers. We conducted an audit of two Primary Health Care Centers namely, Al-Manhal (MPHCC) and Al-Numais (NPHCC), to evaluate how well hypertension was managened at these centers. A check list was derived from the Quality Assurance Manual to audit the process and to assess the health outcome. A retrospective study on a chosen sample of 120 files of hypertensive patients, out of 256 from both the Primary Health Care Centers was performed, during the last three months of the year 2000. Results showed that 61% of the patients were between 45-64 years of age, 56% were females, 85% were married, 54% were illiterate and 7.5% were smokers. A total of 92% of the patients had primary hypertension and 25% had a positive family history of hypertension. Beta-blockers were the most commonly used drugs in both the centers. Although the recording of the information was not perfect, there was no statistical difference in the socio-demongraphic data and also the means of the total score in both the centres. On the other hand, carrying out the important procedures for hypertensive patients was found to be better at MPHCC in comparison to NPHCC (p services and all these factors need to be addressed to improve care. PMID:18974594
Full Text Available It is well known that effective management of hypertension reduces the incidence of myo-cardial infarction, stroke and vascular complications. The Ministry of Health, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, introduced the Quality Assurance Guidelines with the hope to improve the management of hypertension in its centers. We conducted an audit of two Primary Health Care Centers namely, Al-Manhal (MPHCC and Al-Numais (NPHCC, to evaluate how well hypertension was managened at these centers. A check list was derived from the Quality Assurance Manual to audit the process and to assess the health outcome. A retrospective study on a chosen sample of 120 files of hypertensive patients, out of 256 from both the Primary Health Care Centers was performed, during the last three months of the year 2000. Results showed that 61% of the patients were between 45-64 years of age, 56% were females, 85% were married, 54% were illiterate and 7.5% were smokers. A total of 92% of the patients had primary hypertension and 25% had a positive family history of hypertension. Beta-blockers were the most commonly used drugs in both the centers. Although the recording of the information was not perfect, there was no statistical difference in the socio-demongraphic data and also the means of the total score in both the centres. On the other hand, carrying out the important procedures for hypertensive patients was found to be better at MPHCC in com-parison to NPHCC (p < 0.05. The commonly missed procedures were chest x-rays, electrolytes and ECG. Hypertension was well controlled in 63% of the patients, 58% were found to have obesity, 9% suffered from hypertension-related complications while almost 50% had good compliance to appointment in both the centers. Our study reveals that the process of hypertension care at the two Primary Health Care Centres in Aseer region was not in accordance with the recommended national standards. The reasons include lack of updating systems, recall system and
Zaman, Gaffar Sarwar
Background: We evaluated the influence of lifestyle patterns such as watching TV, working with computer and idle sitting time on perceptions of obesity and beliefs about overweight are associated with obesity and overweight amongst Expatriates in Abha. Materials and Methods: The method used in this study was a cross-sectional survey with a self-administered paper-based questionnaire. The survey collected information on lifestyle choices and the risk factors that contribute to obesity. In addi...
Saudi Arabia is a country of the first importance because of its oil reserves (26% of the known world reserves) and its oil production: the third of the whole Opec production. This energetic gold mine finances up to 75% of the budget and assures 90% of its exports. The capacity of Saudi Arabia to refine crude oil is now comparable to that of France. Nevertheless the inflexibility of government expenditures makes foreign investors necessary to a balanced industrial development. It is expected that the Board of Trade soon presents some dispositions in order to promote and ease the opening to foreign investors. (A.C.)
In 1985, Saudi Arabia's population stood at 9.6 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate was 78/1000 and life expectancy was 60 years. Literacy was at the 50% level among men and 25% among women. Of the work force of 3 million, 66% are foreign workers. The labor force is distributed as follows: agriculture, 14%; industry, 11%; services, commerce, and government, 53%; construction, 20%; and oil and mining, 2%. The GDP was US$98.1 billion in 1985-86, with an annual growth rate of 8% and a per capita GDP of $9800. Under the impact of rapid economic growth, urbanization has advanced rapidly and 95% of the population is now settled. Saudi Arabia, a monarchy, is divided into 14 provinces that are governed by princes or relatives of the royal family. Oil is the major source of foreign exchange, contributing 81% of government revenues. Ample government funds and foreign exchange resources are available for development, defense, and aid to other Arab and Islamic countries. The government has sought to allocate its petroleum income to transform its relatively undeveloped oil-based economy into that of a modern industrial state while maintaining traditional Islamic values. The standard of living of most Saudis has improved significantly. A shortage of skilled workers at all levels remains the principal obstacle to rapid development. PMID:12178138
This presentation reviewed the geopolitics of energy in the Middle East, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia as a potential hotspot. The author examined the question of who actually governs Saudi Arabia and the core relationship between Crown Prince Abdullah and the interior Minister, Prince Nayef. Issues regarding the country's social stability were discussed with reference to the high unemployment rate. The financial security of Saudi Arabia was also discussed with reference to the need for economic and political reform. Expectations for Saudi petroleum output were outlined along with regional spurs for energy competition and OPEC participation
Hamid, Mohamed E; Mohammed M. Assiry; Joseph, Martin R.; Haimour, Waleed O.; Abdelrahim, Ihab M.; Al-Abed, Fatin; Fadul, Abdalla N.; Ahmed M. Al-Hakami
Objectives: To isolate, identify, and determine the prevalence of Candida and other yeasts of clinical importance in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving retrospective analysis of 6100 samples submitted to the Microbiology Laboratory, Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Saudi Arabia between 2011 and 2012, and prospective isolation and identification of 84 isolates recovered from various clinical specimens presented to the Microbiology Laboratory between 201...
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical presentation, endoscopic features and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer (DU) patients in southern Saudi Arabia, located 3150 m above sea level, and to compare results with those from low altitude regions of the Kingdom.METHODS: Prospective study of patients with proven DU referred for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at Asir Central Hospital, Abha, southern Saudi Arabia over an 18-month period.RESULTS: Of 126 patients with proven DU, 72% were...
Torkey, Ashraf M El; Dhafer, Hathal M Al
Amphimela raydahensis sp. nov. is described from Garf Raydah Nature Reserve (Abha, Asir Province), southwestern Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This species was collected using black light traps at different elevations dominated by cacti and wild olive trees. This is the first confirmed species of Amphimela known from the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:26624320
We described a Saudi patient infected with Diphyllobothrium latum D. latum. A 38-year-old male presented, complaining of passing worms. He had a history of recent travel to Europe and South East Asia. Stools examination revealed typical D. latum eggs. He was treated with praziquantel followed by saline purge, after which he discharged an intact tapeworm. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the worm confirmed the diagnosis of D. latum. This is the first case of diphyllobothriasis to be reported in Saudi Arabia. The epidemiology and methods of prevention of diphyllobothriasis are discussed. (author)
Allergenicity Prosopis juliflora pollen antigen has been reported fromonly a few countries, including the US, South Africa, India and Kuwait. Insome parts of Saudi Arabia, species of Prosopis have been introduced by themillions as roadside ornamentation. There appear to be four flowering seasonsduring which pollen grains float in all directions. However, the role ofProsopis pollen as the sensitizing and/or rhinitis in the Kingdom has neverbeen evaluated. A total of 473 allergic patients suffering from the bronchialasthma in four different geographical regions (Abha, Qassim, Hofuf, Gizan),and attending allergy clinics and chest disease centers of university andMinistry of Health hospitals in the region were tested for immediatehypersensitivity reaction to Prosopis Juliflora allergens. Airborne pollengrains at one center were also studied for one full year, using volumetricsampling techniques. A total of 76.1% patients in Qassim, 37.5% in Gizan, 29%in Abha and 11% in Hofuf reacted positively to Prosopis antigen. Multiplesensitivities to other pollen antigens were detected in all patients. Thelevel of airborne Prosopis pollen detected in Gizan exceeded 90 grains m ofair. In view of documented evidence of Prosopis pollen as a sensitizingfactor in Saudi Arabia has been confirmed. However the cause of elicitationof symptoms in many multiple sensitive patients, together with the questionof cross-reactivities, needs thorough and detailed investigation. In vitroconfirmation of all positive results is also required to incriminate Prosopisas one of the major allergens in parts of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Objective was to determine the prevalence of hyperlipidemia among Saudis of both genders in rural and urban communities. Selected Saudis in the age group of 30-70 years were studied over a 5-year period between 1995 and 2000 in Saudi Arabia. Data were obtained from history, physical examination and analysis of fasting plasma lipids. The data were analyzed to classify individuals with hypercholesterolemia (HC) (total cholesterol >=5.2 mmol/l) and hypertriglyceridemia (HT) (total triglycerides >=1.69 mmol/l). Logistic regression analysis was performed to provide a risk assessment model and correlation with other coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The number of study samples included in the final analysis was 16,819. The prevalence of HC was 54% with mean cholesterol level of 5.4+-1.52 mmol/l. Prevalence of HC among males was 54.9% and 53.2% for females, while 53.4% among urban Saudis and 55.3% for rural Saudis. Hypertriglycemia prevalence was 40.3% with mean triglycerides level of 1.8+-1.29 mmol/l. Males had statistically significant higher HT prevalence of 47.6% compared to 33.7% in females (p<0.0001). Hyperlipidemia is reaching higher prevalence rates in KSA. This finding may suggest that CAD will soon be a major health problem. Reduction in obesity by adopting healthier eating problem habits and increasing physical activity are of considerable importance to our community. (author)
A comprehensive review is provided of Saudi Arabia's petroleum industry covering oil and gas exploration and production, refining, oil and gas trade, marketing and Saudi overseas investments. Profiles of key Saudi decision makers are provided. A statistical appendix includes data from the start of oil production in Saudi Arabia in 1938. Part I Geological potential; Part II The Saudi energy economy; Part III Production capacity; Part IV The oil refining sector ; Part V Exports and logistics; Part VI Overseas petroleum industry investments; Part VII The decision makers; Part VIII Statistical Appendix; Reserves, Production, Exports, Prices 1950 to 1999. (Author)
Energy and the Saudi economy were discussed with reference to reserves, oil prices, gross domestic product co-movements, and gas resources and development. In particular, this presentation reviewed the emergence and prospects of the petrochemical industry of Saudi Arabia using statistical, institutional and economic analyses relying on a wide range of data sources. Saudi Arabia has the world's largest oil reserves, at 263 billion barrels. In the 1990s, more than 54 Tcf of non-associated gas reserves were added to Saudi Arabia's resource base, more than doubling its proven non-associated gas reserves to approximately 97 Tcf. With 138 Tcf of associated gas reserves, Saudi Arabia holds the fourth largest gas reserves in the world at nearly 235 Tcf. First, this presentation identified and evaluated the endowments as well as the institutional and strategic forces that are driving the growth of the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia. Some of the economic, technical and geopolitical factors that influenced the increase in oil prices between 2003 and 2005 were also identified. The dual relationship between the Saudi petrochemical industry and long term economic performance of the Saudi economy were illustrated within a broad domestic economic diversification policy objective. The future growth prospects and challenges facing the Saudi petrochemical industry were also evaluated with respect to the evolving economic reform policies and Saudi international commitments. Potential implications for the petrochemical industry in North America were also identified, in terms of technology transfer and having Saudi Arabia secure the markets in order to meet its commitment to the World Trade Organization. tabs., figs
El-Hawagry, Magdi S; Al Dhafer, Hathal M
This new species (Phthiria sharafi sp. nov.) represents the first record of the subfamily Phthiriinae (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Saudi Arabia. The species was collected from Garf Raydah Protected Area, Abha, Asir Province, south-western part of Saudi Arabia, using a Malaise trap erected in a site rich in olive, cactus and Juniper trees. The type locality has an Afrotropical influence, with the Afrotropical elements predominant, and a closer affiliation to the Afrotropical region than to the Palearctic region or the Eremic zone. PMID:25544092
Saleh, Mahmoud Abdullah
The history of higher education in Saudi Arabia is outlined, especially as it relates to Islamic religion and educational philosophy, and its rapid growth is chronicled. These aspects are examined: Saudi students studying abroad, foreign students in Saudi Arabia, women's education, the Ministry of Higher Education's role, and financing. (MSE)
Dialdin Osman; Elsaudi Mohammed
We examine dividend policy in a unique environment in Saudi Arabia, where (1) firms distribute almost 100% of their profits in dividends, (2) firms are highly levered mainly through bank loans, and (3) there are no income or capital gains taxes. Some common factors that affect dividend policy of both financial and non-financial firms, we found some factors that affect only non-financial firms. In particular, the common factors are profitability, size, and business risk. Government ownership, ...
Duwais, Abdul-Aziz M.
During the past decade, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has undergone rapid economic growth and development. This expansion stems from the increase in the Kingdom's production of petroleum--oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues. However, despite this growth, Saudi Arabia is one of the top foodstuff importers among developing countries. It has been estimated that the value of Saudi agriculture imports in 1981 increased about 33 percent to ...
The future strategy of Saudi Arabia with respect to its oil production capacity is discussed. A major uncertainty affecting planning is the prospect of an Iraqi return to the market as and when Saddam Hussein falls or he manages to comply fully with all the UN resolutions and sanctions are lifted. It is believed that Iraq could at very short notice be capable of exporting 2mb/d of crude rising to 2.5 mb/d within a few months. This is 10% of OPEC's physically traded crude. Also taken seriously are Baghdad's assertions that Iraq will have a production capacity of about 6mb/d by the year 2000. Saudi officials are concerned that OPEC is not ready to tackle the impact of an Iraqi return to the market at a time when some OPEC members are producing above quota anyway. The most likely outcome is thought to be that OPEC would simply raise their nominal production ceiling. Against this background, Saudi Arabia has embarked on the exploitation of the gigantic oil reserves of the Shaybah field. This development offers the kingdom an ability, on the one hand, to increase its earnings while remaining within its OPEC quota and, on the other hand, to increase output substantially should it ever appear that its best interests are served by not adhering to quotas. (UK)
Mubarak Ali AlGahtany
Full Text Available Adeloye-Odeku disease, also known as congenital inclusion dermoid cyst (CIDC of the anterior fontanelle was first described by Adeloye A and Odeku EL, as a solitary congenital subgaleal inclusion dermoid cyst of the anterior fontanelle. This rare lesion was initially thought to be confined to Africans . The universal distribution of this cyst has subsequently been shown in accumulated literature of other ethnic distribution ,Caucasian, Indians, Chinese, Japanese, Turkish and others. This is the first published report that we know of Adeloye-Odeku disease in Arab-Saudi children in Abha, Saudi Arabia. Four patients with Adeloye-Odeku disease, two boys and two girls, Saudi patients with ages ranging from 3months to 9 years are presented. Successful surgical excision of the cyst was achieved in each of the three patients who consented for surgery with no recurrence. The oldest patient did not go for surgery due to parental refusal but the lesion proved to be stable on follow up.
On 9 May 2008, Mohammed I. Al Suwaiyel, President of the King Abdulaziz City of Science and Technology, representing the Government of Saudi Arabia, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a protocol to the 2006 cooperation agreement between CERN and Saudi Arabia. Members of the Saudi Arabian Government visit ATLAS.The purpose of the protocol is to define the operational framework needed to carry out various specific tasks provided for in the cooperation agreement in order to promote the development of a high energy particle physics community in Saudi Arabia and its ultimate visible participation as a member of the global CERN community. Signing the protocol, Mohammed I. Al-Suwaiyel said: "The Saudi Arabian Government has taken a number of initiatives to promote R&D in the interests of our country’s development and the advancement of science. Thanks to this protocol, Saudi scientists will be able to work towards this go...
Hicham Benjelloun; Abdulkader M.A. Abdullah
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how best to diversify in Saudi Arabia's stock market. Design/methodology/approach – The analysis proceeds as follows: first, repeated sampling with replacement from a sample of 62 actual companies' monthly stock returns from January 2001 to June 2006 is used to simulate the performance of various portfolio sizes; second, a modified Statman diversification model is used to evaluate the performance of index funds in Saudi Arabia and thus ass...
In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs
The historical socio-economic and political conditions of Saudi Arabia are an essential aspect of understanding a woman's position in Saudi society. The persistence of women's exclusion from public life in contemporary Saudi Arabia is one of the most heated debates not only among Muslims but also worldwide, as Saudi society comes under more and…
Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to study the role of energy consumption in economic growth in Saudi Arabia over the period of 1971–2012 using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration procedure, and based on neoclassical growth, endogenous growth, and ecological-economics viewpoints. Our empirical results show the existence of a cointegrating relationship between the different variables investigated. In addition, all the inputs (conventional and non-conventional Granger cause economic growth in both the short and long runs. Our findings confirm the energy-led growth hypothesis in the case of Saudi Arabia. Hence, energy conservation policies may deteriorate economic growth in Saudi Arabia if they are not followed by measures that improve energy efficiency, energy saving technologies and encourage the investment and use of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energies that can participate in the attenuation of climate changes.
This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness. Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/17/2010.
Al Rawaf, Haya Saad; Simmons, Cyril
Describes the development and expansion of formal education for women in Saudi Arabia since 1960. Discusses girls' curriculum in elementary and secondary schools, the influence of conservative attitudes toward sex roles, and the growth of female higher education despite a lack of female employment. Contains 20 references. (SV)
F. R. Pazheri
Full Text Available The expansion of power generation in Saudi Arabia is essential in order to meet the expected growth of its electricity demand. Due to the availability of high solar irradiation, vast rainless area and longtime sun light, Saudi Arabia is one of the most suitable countries to utilize solar energy resources in greater extend. Kingdom has planned to increase the production of solar power in order to meet a considerable share of country’s future energy demand. Numerous installation and research works are going on nowadays in the kingdom in order to attain its targets of solar power capacity in the coming years. Hence latest updates of country’s solar industry are essential for further research and R&D works in this field. Saudi Arabia’s current status and future possibility of solar industry are discussed in this paper.
The aims of the present survey were to determine whether differences existed between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia in career development, positions occupied within their employment, and to analyze the effect of different variables on their career development in some of the provinces in Saudi Arabia. A self-conducted questionnaire was distributed among male and female dentists, general practitioners as well as specialists, working at several governmental hospitals in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaires consisted of 40 questions in the format of multiple choices and yes/no answer. Data were analyzed by gender with the significant difference level set at (P < 0.05). The response rate was 40.8% of which 51.9% were females and 48.1% males with 70% of them below 45 years of age. No significant difference was found between males and females in having higher education or additional degrees. The specialty that was highly reported among females was pedodontics and in males, orthodontics. Males were more likely to hold authorized administrative positions (63%), while females held administrative positions which were internally arranged by their departments (57%). Eighty-three percent of female respondents thought that there was favouritism towards males in appointment to administrative positions, while only 5.5% of male respondents reported that there was favouritism to females in occupying the same positions. There was no significant difference between male and female dentists in Saudi Arabia with respect to job opportunities, working hours and relationships with their colleagues. In addition, there is evidence of an intensifying determination of female dentists in Saudi Arabia, to pursue their chosen career while coping with the diverse demands of being a professional, a wife and mother. (author)
Most of the Saudi desalination plants are of the multistage flash (MSF) type. These plants are often constructed as a dual purpose installation, producing power and water. MSF plants are considered to be energy intensive, where the energy cost is a major controlling parameter in the overall cost of desalination. Oil price fluctuations affect the cost of desalted water significantly. On the other hand, nuclear power offers price stability in the long term. Nuclear powered desalination provides long term availability of indigenous fuel, as well as long term fuel price stability. It has a minimum environmental impact if compared with other conventional desalination processes. The operational expenses of nuclear desalination are far lower than those of conventional plants. implementation of nuclear desalination in Saudi Arabia is essential where large water requirements exist. The CANDU PHWR is the appropriate type of nuclear reactor for Saudi Arabia. A hybrid reverse osmosis/MSF CANDU PHWR is the candidate system for applying dual purpose nuclear desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. (author)
Al-Goosi, Adbullah I.
The modern economy of Saudi Arabia depends primarily on oil exports. Oil being the source of most of the country's exports, foreign exchange, and government revenues, it follows that the oil sector affects the economy rather than the economy affecting the oil sector. Saudi Arabia lacks natural resources for most of its essential goods and because of sudden high income, it has become necessary to introduce new strategies for producing necessary goods and services. Since Saudi Arabia depends mo...
Alkhareif Ryadh M.
Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.
The argument for and against the application of peaceful nuclear energy in Saudi Arabia is discussed in terms of the country's industrial development and power requirement for electricity and desalination. The discussion leads to the conclusion that due to its large oil reserve, Saudi Arabia may tolerate a considerate approach to nuclear energy up to the year 2000. Beyond this date, nuclear energy should be used in order to achieve the desired industrial maturity in the country. The introduction of nuclear energy, however, will be faced with three constraints, namely man power availability, cooling water requirement, and the size of the electrical grid. The period 1980-2000 is thus most suitable for important preparation steps, among which are the adoption of regulatory provisions, establishment of nuclear facilities with necessary equipments, and staff training for regulatory, organizational, and technical activities. The paper outlines a scheme for the initiation steps and efforts to meet these requirements. (orig.)
Eriksen, Jonas Nogel; Kababo, Anas Yoseph; Madsen, Signe Røskva; Petersen, Asger Bagge
In this project we seek to analyse what security issues the country of Saudi Arabia is facing in the Middle East and the Gulf. These issues are analysed from the theoretical framework of Barry Buzan, Ole Wæver and Jaap de Wilde, and their theory on Regional Security Complex. The analysis framework of securitization is divided into five sectors, our analysis being conducted only in the political, military, economic and societal sectors. This has allowed us to deconstruct and get an understandi...
Malik F. Saleh; Muneer Abbad; Mohammed Al-Shehri
A review of the literature on successful implementation of ERP reveals that there are many case studies undertaken by researches, but very few have empirically examined the success factors of ERP implementation. While most of those empirical studies were undertaken in Western countries, very few had examined the implementations in Middle Eastern countries and none in Saudi Arabia. Factors and challenges of ERP implementation in developing countries differ from those of Western countries. Henc...
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors (ME) in patients admitted to King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Medication errors are documented by the nurses and physicians standard reporting forms (Hospital Based Incident Report). The study was carried out in King Fahd University Hospital, Alkhobar, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and all the incident reports were collected during the period from January 2008 to December 2009. The incident reports were analyzed for age, gender, nationality, nursing unit, and time where ME was reported. The data were analyzed and the statistical significance differences between groups were determined by Student's t-test, and p-values of <0.05 using confidence interval of 95% were considered significant. There were 38 ME reported for the study period. The youngest patient was 5 days and the oldest 70 years. There were 31 Saudis, and 7 non-Saudi patients involved. The most common error was missed medication, which was seen in 15 (39.5%) patients. Over 15 (39.5%) of errors occurred in 2 units (pediatric medicine, and obstetrics and gynecology). Nineteen (50%) of the errors occurred during the 3-11 pm shift. Our study shows that the prevalence of ME in our institution is low, in comparison with the world literature. This could be due to under reporting of the errors, and we believe that ME reporting should be made less punitive so that ME can be studied and preventive measures implemented (Author).
Fahaid H. Al-Hashem
Full Text Available Problem statement: Living in high altitude areas results in chronic hypoxia, which induces complex metabolic and endocrine adaptations. The current study investigated the endocrine responses of male Westar rats chronically exposed to high altitude-induced hypoxia in Abha City, in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Approach: The rats were separated in to 2 groups of 10 rats. The first group was kept at an altitude of 600 m above sea level in the King Saud University animal house in Riyadh City and designated the low altitude group; the second group of rats was transferred to the King Khalid University animal house in Abha City, which is 2800 m height above sea level and was designated the high altitude group. All rats were housed under the same laboratory conditions and fed the same diet. Blood samples were collected from both groups of animals 45 days after transferring the high altitude group to Abha City. Results: The data revealed that the rats transferred to the high altitude area had significant decreases in serum Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH and testosterone levels and significant increases in the levels of serum cortisol, free Triiodothyronine (T3 and free Thyroxin (T4 compared to rats kept at low altitude. Conclusion: The current study demonstrates that rats chronically exposed to high altitude hypoxia experienced alternations in various hormones. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of human endocrine and metabolic physiology in hypoxic conditions.
Al Mohandis, Ahmed A. [احمد عبد القادر المهندس
The main goal of this paper is to characterize the mineral clay deposits in Saudi Arabia; especially their mineral composition, deposit size, geological setting and possible uses. Different published reports and papers on clay deposits of Saudi Arabia have been reviewed. Three major clay deposits have been studied by XRD, DTA and chemical analyses. Saudi clay deposits consist generally of kaolinite as a major mineral, and small amounts other clay minerals, such as montmorillonite and illite. ...
This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and q...
Mansour Saleh AlYami
Full Text Available Achieving and maintaining a stable nursing workforce is an important issue for the well-being of the rapidly growing population of Saudi Arabia. However, high turnover of expatriate staff and low recruitment of Saudi nationals have led to a serious staff shortage in the professions, particularly of well-qualified and experienced nurses. Nursing leaders need to work to improve the image of nurses and facilitate the recruitment of women into the nursing profession. Reduced working hours and part-time contracts with increased salaries and benefits could attract more young women to the profession, as might the provision of facilities such as private transportation and on-site childcare. Furthermore, establishing a national association for nurses would advance the nursing profession and help to ensure that all nurses undertake fully comprehensive training before entering the workforce.
Abdulrazzak, Mohammed J.; Khan, Muhammad Z. A.
Domestic water conservation in arid climates can result in efficient utilization of existing water supplies. The impacts of conservation measures such as the installation of water-saving devices, water metering and pricing schemes, water rationing and public awareness programs, strict plumbing codes, penalties for wasting water, programs designed to reduce leakage from public water lines and within the home, water-efficient landscaping, economic and ethical incentives are addressed in detail. Cost savings in arid climates, with particular reference to Saudi Arabia, in relation to some conservation techniques, are presented. Water conservation technology and tentative demonstration and implementation of water conservation programs are discussed.
The new economic trends of Saudi Arabia are detailed in this article. This country can take an important place on the world petroleum market in the future; he has the quarter of world petroleum reserves, and is determined to keep its place of first petroleum exporter. New developments projects are arising: electric power, telecommunications, civil aviation, seawater desalination. In terms of financing, as the state cannot finance all these new projects, new means are used: privatisation, BOT (build-operate-transfer) contracts, and offset programs. (N.C.)
Full Text Available Abdulaziz Al-Ahaideb,1 Hamza M Alrabai,1 Osama A Alrehaili,1 Abdulaziz N Aljurayyan,1 Ranyah M Alsaif,2 Nizar Algarni,1 Hazem M Al-Khawashki,1 Abdulrahman D Algarni1 1Department of Orthopedics, 2Department of Physiotherapy, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to assess the quality of the Saudi Orthopedic Residency Program. Methodology: As a comparator, a cross-sectional survey involving 76 Saudi residents from different training centers in Saudi Arabia namely; Riyadh, Jeddah, Medina, Abha, and Dammam and 15 Canadian. Results: The results showed that Canadian residents read more peer-reviewed, scholarly articles compared with Saudi residents (P=0.002. The primary surgical role for residents was to hold retractors during surgery. The survey respondents strongly supported the ability to recommend removal of incompetent trainers. Saudi trainees were more apprehensive of examinations than Canadian trainees (P<0.0001. Most residents preferred studying multiple-choice questions before examinations. Saudi and Canadian participants considered their programs to be overcrowded. Unlike Canadian participants, Saudi trainees reported an inadequate level of training (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Educational resources should be readily accessible and a mentorship system monitoring residents' progress should be developed. The role of the resident must be clearly defined and resident feedback should not be ignored. Given the importance of mastering basic orthopedic operative skills for residents, meaningful remedial action should be taken with incompetent trainers. Keywords: evaluation, medical education, orthopedic board, residency program, training
The objective of this study was to identify various stress factors affecting dentists and to evaluate their stress manifestations and stress management. A questionnaire was distributed among dentists residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire classified stress factors into professional, patient-related, dental procedure-related, and office management factors. Sign and symptoms of stress manifestations and management were also evaluated. The sample included 80 females and 75 males, with 47% of them below the age of 30 years. Out of the total sample, the largest percentage (60.6%) were general practitioners, 47.7% had experience of less than 5 years and 32.2% had 11 years of experience. The highest mean scores of stress were related to professional factors and dental procedure-related factors. Among those, the main significant factors that caused stress in the surveyed sample were lack of time in relation to workload (76.1%), limited visibility and accessibility (67.7%). The most common manifestations of stress were nervousness (95%), musculoskeletal fatigue (72%) and anger (58%). Dentists predominantly managed their stress by praying and reading holy books (80%) and by spending time alone (75%) or with family and friends (70%). The most prevalent and significant causes of stress among dentists working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were professional in nature. Stress has been manifested by nervousness and musculoskeletal problem and was mainly managed by praying and spending time alone or with family and friends. (author)
This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by cons...
... universities. Billions more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's... architecture, engineering, design and construction firms. Saudi Arabia's transport sector--including...
Full Text Available Education remains one of the most important economic development indicators in Saudi Arabia. This is evident in the continuous priority of the development and enhancement of education. The application of technology is crucial to the growth and improvement of the educational system in Saudi Arabia. Introducing SMART Table technology in the Saudi Arabian education system is argued in this paper as being able to assist teachers and students in the process of accommodating both technological changes and new knowledge. SMART Tables also can enhance the level of flexibility in the educational system, thus improving the quality of education within a modern Saudi Arabia. It is crucial to integrate technology effectively and efficiently within the educational system to improve the quality of student outcomes. This study will consider the potential benefits and recommendations associated with the adoption of SMART Tables in Saudi Arabian education system.
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud; Muhammad Rahatullah Khan (Rahatullah, M, K.,)
Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Sau...
Since 9/11, both in the Middle East and worldwide, the academic, political and religious focus on extreme radicalisation has intensified. The attacks carried out in Riyadh, the capital of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by Al-Qaeda in 2003, motivated a succession of bombings within and outside of the Kingdom. These events have led to a plethora of general and specific studies to understand the phenomenon of extremism. This thesis investigates radicalisation in Saudi Arabia since 2001, focus...
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Alyahya, Haifa; Alshahwan, Hatem; Mahyijari, Nawal Al; Shaffi A Shaik
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and correlates of smartphone addiction among university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between September 2014 and March 2015. An electronic self administered questionnaire and the problematic use of mobile phones (PUMP) Scale were used. Results: Out of 2367 study subjects, 27.2% stated that they spent more than 8 hours per day using their smartphones....
Al-Baghli, Nadira A.; Al-Ghamdi, Aqeel J.; Khalid A Al-Turki; Ahmad G El-Zubaier; Al-Mostafa, Bader A.; Fadel A Al-Baghli; Al-Ameer, Mahmood M.
Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect d...
Payne, Mark; Almansour, Maram
This paper presents findings from an exploratory study of foreign language planning in Saudi Arabia. In terms of official policy, the sole foreign language taught in Saudi public schools is English. Therefore, researching foreign languages there is often limited to researching the area of English as a Foreign Language. However, evidence shows that…
Spicer, Richard G.
One practitioner's experience in setting up on-the-job training in Saudi Arabia is described, including training materials, cultural environment, and the Saudi work ethic. In a related article, off-duty life for Americans is discussed, including dress for women and men, cultural aspects, and entertainment. (CT)
Full Text Available Fahad D Alosaimi,1 Abdulhadi Alhabbad,2 Mohammed F Abalhassan,3 Ebtihaj O Fallata,4 Nasser M Alzain,5 Mohammad Zayed Alassiry,6 Bander Abdullah Haddad71Department of Psychiatry, King Saud University, Riyadh, 2Department of Psychiatry, Prince Mohammed Medical City, Aljouf, 3Department of Medicine, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mental Health Hospital, Jeddah, 5Department of Psychiatry, Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Dammam, 6Medical Services Department, Abha Psychiatric Hospital, Abha, 7Department of Medicine, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To study the pattern of psychotropic medication use and compare this pattern between inpatient and outpatient psychiatric settings in Saudi Arabia.Method: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between July 2012 and June 2014 on patients seeking psychiatric advice at major hospitals in five main regions of Saudi Arabia. Male (n=651 and female (n=594 patients who signed the informed consent form and were currently or had been previously using psychotropic medications, irrespective of the patient’s type of psychiatric diagnosis and duration of the disease, were included. A total of 1,246 patients were found to be suitable in the inclusion criteria of whom 464 were inpatients while 782 were outpatients.Results: Several studied demographic factors have shown that compared with outpatients, inpatients were more likely to be male (P=0.004, unmarried (P<0.001, have less number of children (1–3; P=0.002, unemployed (P=0.001, have a lower family income (<3,000 SR; P<0.001, live in rural communities (P<0.001, have a lower body mass index (P=0.001, and are smokers (P<0.001; however, there were no differences with regard to age or educational levels. The current frequency of use of psychotropic medications in overall patients was antipsychotics (76.6%, antidepressants (41.4%, mood stabilizers
Mutlaq B. Alotaibi
Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to gain an understanding of the adoption behavior of mobile computing in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it aimed to acquire new insight into mobile computing trends, specifically in Saudi Arabia, in order to develop hypotheses and formulate precise criteria for mobile computing evaluation. In order to achieve these aims, the researcher created a focus group by recruiting eight participants with solid background knowledge of usability engineering and mobile computing. The focus group proposed a four-phase process: determination, qualification, categorization and evaluation of the mobile computing applications developed by Saudi organizations. During the determination phase, two hundred and twenty seven (n=227 mobile applications were determined as having been developed by organizations in Saudi Arabia. During the qualification phase, one hundred and forty two (n=142 mobile applications were qualified. Within the categorization phase, the experts categorized only the qualified applications into a two-level categorization hierarchy. Finally, in the evaluation phase, the qualified applications were evaluated in terms of purpose, platform, visual appearance, content, organization and usability. The results herein revealed that 43% of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia were M-Government applications, while 57% were M-Business applications. In addition, the study proposed a sample of thirty six (n=36 applications as having statistical significance from all of the mobile applications in Saudi Arabia.
Abeer Abdullah Al Saud
Full Text Available Literature is ripe with the scholarly contributions on brand development from all aspects. The new marketing tools and techniques are introduced frequently. However, the impact social media has had on brand development is no match to traditional promotion in 4Ps. The information about Saudi Arabia is specially rare. This article based on a survey of 200 social media users on www.surveymonkey.com evaluates the role of social media in brand development in Saudi Arabia. The results from this Saudi example show that social media including Facebook and Twitter are among the most effective tool to develop a brand as compared to traditional promotional methods. It has also been found that these media are more successful in Saudi Arabia to develop the brand recall and image.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical education in Saudi Arabia is facing multiple challenges, including the rapid increase in the number of medical schools over a short period of time, the influx of foreign medical graduates to work in Saudi Arabia, the award of scholarships to hundreds of students to study medicine in various countries, and the absence of published national guidelines for minimal acceptable competencies of a medical graduate. Discussion We are arguing for the need for a Saudi national medical licensing examination that consists of two parts: Part I (Written which tests the basic science and clinical knowledge and Part II (Objective Structured Clinical Examination which tests the clinical skills and attitudes. We propose this examination to be mandated as a licensure requirement for practicing medicine in Saudi Arabia. Conclusion The driving and hindering forces as well as the strengths and weaknesses of implementing the licensing examination are discussed in details in this debate.
AlGhamdi, Rayed; Drew, Steve; Al-Ghaith, Waleed
This paper presents the preliminary findings of a study researching the diffusion and the adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. It reports new research that identifies and explores the key issues that positively and negatively influence retailers in Saudi Arabia regarding the adoption of electronic commerce. Retailers in Saudi Arabia have been reserved in their adoption of electronically delivered aspects of their business. Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastes...
Mussaed AlabdelmoneamFaculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Shaqra University, Shaqra University, Saudi ArabiaBackground: This work was a retrospective study undertaken in a tertiary eye care hospital to evaluate the putative prevalence and referral patterns for keratoconus by gender, age, and region of Saudi Arabia.Methods: Files from 1638 keratoconus patients from different regions of Saudi Arabia referred to King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between January 1999 and ...
Michelsen, Nils; Reshid, Mustefa; Siebert, Christian; Schulz, Stephan; Rausch, Randolf; Knöller, Kay; Weise, Stephan; Al-Saud, Mohammed; Schüth, Christoph
Arid countries like Saudi Arabia often depend on fossil groundwater. Hence, thorough studies of the available resources are crucial. In the course of such investigations, analyses of δ18O and δD are frequently applied to constrain the provenance of the waters and to reconstruct the (paleo)climatic conditions during their recharge. Yet, to be able to evaluate the isotopic signature of the groundwater, one also has to know the isotopic composition of current precipitation. Although a few rain water analyses are available for Central Saudi Arabia in the literature - mostly in unpublished consultant reports - a Local Meteoric Water Line has never been established. To complement the available data, 28 rain events occurring in Riyadh between 2009 and 2013 were studied for their stable isotope composition. Samples were collected as integral samples, i.e., they represent the entire precipitation event. Moreover, one event was sampled several times, aiming at an evaluation of intra-storm variability. During selected storms, a grab sample was taken for 3H analysis. The event samples showed δ18O and δD values scattering between -6.5 and +9.5 and between -30 and +50 ‰ V-SMOW, respectively. In the course of the event that was sequentially sampled, a proceeding isotopic depletion was observed with respect to both isotopes. The relatively large ranges of δ-values for 18O and D of approximately 7 and 38 ‰ V-SMOW highlight the general need for integral sampling. The obtained grab samples are characterized by moderate 3H concentrations of a few Tritium Units. Further results will be presented and discussed in view of associated weather data (e.g. rain amount and temperature) and the probable moisture sources derived from back-trajectories, which were calculated using HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model; Draxler & Rolph, 2003). References Draxler, R.R. & Rolph, G.D. (2013): HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory
Aba Alkhail, Bandar A.
This dissertation consists of three chapters. Chapter one presents a theoretical model using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) approach to investigate the role of world oil prices in explaining the business cycle in Saudi Arabia. This model incorporates both productivity and oil revenue shocks. The results indicate that productivity shocks are relatively more important to business cycles than oil shocks. However, this model has some unfavorable features that are associated with both investment and labor hours. The second chapter presents a modified theoretical model using DSGE approach to examine the role of world oil prices versus productivity shocks in explaining the business cycles in Saudi Arabia. To overcome the unfavorable features of the baseline model, the alternative model adds friction to the model by incorporating investment portfolio adjustment cost. Thus, the alternative model produces similar dynamics to that of the baseline model but the unfavorable characteristics are eliminated. Also, this chapter conducts sensitivity analysis. The objective of the third chapter is to empirically investigate how real world oil price and productivity shocks affect output, consumption, investment, labor hours, and trade balance/output ratio for Saudi Arabia. This chapter complements the theoretical model of the previous chapters. In addition, this study builds a foundation for future studies in examining the impact of real world oil price shocks on the economies of key trade partners of Saudi Arabia. The results of the third chapter show that productivity shocks matter more for macroeconomic fluctuations than oil shocks for the Saudis' primary trade partners. Therefore, fears of oil importing countries appear to be overstated. As a whole, this research is important for the following reasons. First, the empirical model is consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model in that productivity is a driving force of business cycles in Saudi Arabia
Abdel Gader Abdel Galil
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The blood donor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The aim of this study is to explore the attitudes, beliefs and motivations of Saudis toward blood donation. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Donor Centers at King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH Blood Bank and King Saud University Students Health Center, Riyadh. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to donors (n = 517 and nondonors (n = 316, between February and June 2008. All were males. Results: Ninety-nine percent of the respondents showed positive attitude toward blood donations and its importance for patients care, and object the importation of blood from abroad. Blood donors: Ninety-one percent agree that that blood donation is a religious obligation, 91% think no compensation should be given, 63% will accept a token gift, 34% do not object to donating six times/year and 67% did not mind coming themselves to the donor center to give blood. Nondonors: Forty-six percent were not asked to give blood and those who were asked mentioned fear (5% and lack of time (16% as their main deterrents. Reasons for rejection as donors include underweight and age (71% and health reasons (19%. Seventy-five percent objected to money compensation but 69% will accept token gifts and 92% will donate if a relative/friend needs blood. Conclusion: These results reflect an encouraging strong positive attitude toward blood donation. Further future planning with emphasis on educational/publicity programs and careful organization of donor recruitment campaigns could see the dream of total voluntary nonremunerated blood donations should not take long to be true.
Abu-Elmagd, Muhammad; Assidi, Mourad; Schulten, Hans-Juergen; Dallol, Ashraf; Pushparaj, Peter; Ahmed, Farid; Scherer, Stephen W; Al-Qahtani, Mohammed
The biomedical research sector in Saudi Arabia has recently received special attention from the government, which is currently supporting research aimed at improving the understanding and treatment of common diseases afflicting Saudi Arabian society. To build capacity for research and training, a number of centres of excellence were established in different areas of the country. Among these, is the Centre of Excellence in Genomic Medicine Research (CEGMR) at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, with its internationally ranked and highly productive team performing translational research in the area of individualized medicine. Here, we present a panorama of the recent trends in different areas of biomedical research in Saudi Arabia drawing from our vision of where genomics will have maximal impact in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. We describe advances in a number of research areas including; congenital malformations, infertility, consanguinity and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, cancer and genomic classifications in Saudi Arabia, epigenetic explanations of idiopathic disease, and pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. We conclude that CEGMR will continue to play a pivotal role in advances in the field of genomics and research in this area is facing a number of challenges including generating high quality control data from Saudi population and policies for using these data need to comply with the international set up. PMID:25951871
Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Nora Sahly; Dana Sawan; Souzan Kafy; Faten Alzaban
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for th...
Ziad A. Memish
Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in animals in the Arabian Peninsula. Although Saudi Arabia is the largest country in the Peninsula, little has been published about the rabies situation in the country. A total of 11 069 animal bites to humans were reported during 2007–2009, and 40 animals suspected of rabies were examined for rabies infection from 2005 through 2010. Results suggest that animal-related injuries in Saudi Arabia remain a public health problem, with feral dogs accounting for the majority of bites to humans and for the majority of animals found to be rabid. Over the last 10 years, no confirmed human rabies case has been reported. More detailed information about the epidemiology of animal bites and that of animal rabies in Saudi Arabia would be of great interest, notably to provide a basis on which vaccination recommendations could be made for the numerous international travellers visiting the country.
Charbel El Bcheraoui,1 Mohammed Basulaiman,2 Mohammad A AlMazroa,2 Marwa Tuffaha,1 Farah Daoud,1 Shelley Wilson,1 Mohammad Y Al Saeedi,2 Faisal M Alanazi,2 Mohamed E Ibrahim,2 Elawad M Ahmed,2 Syed A Hussain,2 Riad M Salloum,2 Omer Abid,2 Mishal F Al-Dossary,2 Ziad A Memish,2 Abdullah A Al Rabeeah,2 Ali H Mokdad1 1Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA; 2Ministry of Health of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Background: Dietar...
Full Text Available The goals of chronic dialysis treatment for end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients include restoration of the highest achievable state of personal physical health and preservation as well as restoration and development of the highest level of psychological and social functions. We conducted this study to evaluate factors influencing the process of adaptation such as religious faith, economic status and extended family-tribal system. It was hoped that studying these factors might provide further dimension to our understanding of the psychopathology of ESRD patients, and to help offer new ideas to improve the quality of their lives. A sample comprising 54 patients with ESRD was studied in Abha hemodialysis centre in Southern Saudi Arabia. The socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory data were collected. The psychiatric status of the patients was evaluated using a structured "The Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale" (CPRS clinical interview. The result indicated that the major co-morbidity (in 60% of these patients was a depressive illness due to renal failure diagnosable according to DSM-IV criteria. Our study suggests the need for specific anti-depressant treatment in order to ameliorate many distressing symptoms, which may affect the quality of these patients′ life. Concomitant social problems of poverty, absence of spouse and illiteracy, dictate a more prompt attitude in initiating support systems and attention to providing leisure activities.
Al Alwan, Ibrahim; Felimban, Naila; Altwaijri, Yasmin; Tamim, Hani; Al Mutair, Angham; Shoukri, Mohamed; Tamimi, Waleed
Background: The ages of onset of pubertal characteristics are influenced by genetic, geographic, dietary and socioeconomic factors; however, due to lack of country-specific norms, clinicians in Saudi Arabia use Western estimates as standards of reference for local children. Aims: The aim of the Riyadh Puberty Study was to provide data on pubertal development to determine the average age of onset of pubertal characteristics among Saudi boys. Methods: Cross-sectional study among male school chi...
International Monetary Fund
KEY ISSUES Context. Saudi Arabiaâ€™s economy has grown very strongly in recent years, benefitting from high oil prices and output, strong private sector activity, and government spending. It has played a systemic and stabilizing role in the global oil market. The economy has not been affected by the recent global financial market volatility. The Saudi population is young, growing, and increasingly well educated. Outlook and risks. The near term economic outlook is positive. Oil production is ...
Jamjoom, Ghazi A.; Azhar, Esam I.; Moujahid A. Kao; Radadi, Raja M.
BACKGROUND Although virologically confirmed dengue fever has been recognized in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, since 1994, causing yearly outbreaks, no proper seroepidemiologic studies on dengue virus have been conducted in this region. Such studies can define the extent of infection by this virus and estimate the proportion that may result in disease. The aim of this study was to measure the seroprevalence of past dengue virus infection in healthy Saudi nationals from different areas in the city of J...
Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA) began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand f...
KKhodran H. Al-Zahrani and M. B. Baig
Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources affecting the Saudi development plans. The acute shortage of fresh water resources poses a major challenge in Saudi Arabia. Demand for fresh water is on the rise as sufficient water is no longer available to meet daily needs. Some 95% of water comes from aquifers. Desalination plants and waste water reclamation projects provide about 4% and 1% water respectively. About 30% of the water for household consumption comes from desalinating p...
Alameen, Lubna; Male, Trevor; Palaiologou, Ioanna
The empirical research for this paper was undertaken with leaders of early years setting in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The investigation sought to establish to what extent it was possible to behave in line with the concept of pedagogical leadership in the twenty-first century in an Arab Muslim monarchy, dominated by Islam, where directive…
Collection of Clinical Data That Will be Used in This Study and Will Form a Data Bank for Asthma in Saudi Arabia; Identify Known and NOVEL Genetic Risk Factors Contributing to Asthma Susceptibility; Study the Mechanistic Roles of the Genetic Variants Within Major Asthma Susceptibility Genes
This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and
With the actual development of petroleum and petrochemical industry it is obvious that Saudi Arabia goes on to take an important place on the worldwide market; with its part in world reserves but with its determination to keep its place of first world exporter. From the point of view of its petroleum production, financial constraints can delay its expansion
Borg, Simon; Alshumaimeri, Yousif
This paper examines university teacher educators' engagement with and in educational research. Survey results collected from eighty-two teacher educators at a leading university in Saudi Arabia pointed to modest levels of research activity and also suggested that these individuals held largely technical views of what research is. Their assessments…
Alakeel, Ali M.
Learning computer programming is one of the main requirements of many educational study plans in higher education. Research has shown that many students face difficulties acquiring reasonable programming skills during their first year of college. In Saudi Arabia, there are twenty-three state-owned universities scattered around the country that…
King, Elizabeth J.
Describes the current status of higher education for women in Saudi Arabia and discusses the special problems of access to library materials encountered by women in this society, focusing on the collections, services, and administration of two women's colleges' libraries. A proposed national educational development plan is briefly described. (CLB)
Shows links between Islamic doctrine and girls' education in Saudi Arabia providing examples of ways in which the Islamic attitude towards women and social life is applied to educational policy. Summarizes educational opportunities available for girls and women and notes milestones in the 26-year history of girls' education. (JHZ)
... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... introduce suppliers of information technology (IT) and communication products and services to potential..., estimated at $3.7 billion in 2010. The Communication and Information Technology Commission (CITC), the......
Full Text Available This study intends to identify factors that may affect consumer behavior in Saudi Arabia while shopping online. Although Saudi Arabia has the largest and fastest growing ICT in the Middle East and the online shopping activities in Saudi are increasing rapidly, it is still lagging behind the global development. The four factors–website design quality, perceived trust, perceived convenience and advertisements & promotions were selected from the available literature. A survey was conducted and questionnaire that includes 25 questions was distributed randomly to a sample of 107 participants in Dammam city (in the Eastern Province of the kingdom. The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS software. The result indicates one hypothesis has been accepted. The findings of the study are analyzed and discussed further at the end of this paper.
Mansour, A A; Hassan, S A
We studied knowledge of nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation in 150 pregnant Saudi women at three primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used an interview schedule to collect data regarding the women's knowledge and to determine the effects of certain independent variables on the knowledge scores. Green et al.'s (1980) PRECEDE model provided the theoretical framework for the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data. The majority of the women had poor nutrition knowledge scores, with no significant differences among the three centers. A positive relationship was found between knowledge score and educational level. Negative relationships were found between knowledge score and number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and number of living children. The findings have several implications for efforts to improve the health status of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8002417
The aim of this study is to assess the clinical presentation of 23 patients with subacute thyroiditis (SAT) and the diagnostic value of radionuclear scan. This is a cohort study, which consists of 23 patients with a suspected diagnosis of subacute thyroiditis. The study was carried out in the Endocrinology Clinic, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between July 2002 and July 2004. Medical charts including age, gender, clinical presentation, systemic symptoms and clinical examination of the thyroid gland were reviewed. Laboratory data included white blood count and its differential count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies. The radionuclear scan results were also noted. The mode of therapy provided to patients and the outcome of the treatment during a follow up period of 2 years was reported. Twenty-three adult patients with subacute thyroiditis (15 females and 8 males with a female to male ratio of 1.9:1) were reviewed over a 2-year period. The mean age was 35.8+9.2 years. Eighteen patients (78%) had an upper respiratory tract infection at the initial clinical presentation. Twenty patients (87%) visited an Ear, Nose and Throat specialist for sore throat and abnormal sensation in the throat at least 2 weeks before presentation to the endocrinologist. Two patients were admitted to a medical unit with a diagnosis of fever of unknown origin for 4 weeks. All patients had an elevated free thyroxine (35.7+19.8 pmol/L) and suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) (0.043+0.065IU). The radionuclear scan showed either no uptake at all in 12 patients or minimal uptake in 11 patients (0.32+0.55%). Eight patients (35%) received prednisolone therapy alone with an average dose of 30-40 mg daily for 7-8 days; 7 patients (30%) were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) only. Eight (35%) patients were treated with both NSAIDs and corticosteroids. Hypothyroidism, with elevated
Full Text Available Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1,2 Mohammed H Al-Assiri,1 Manar Al-Omani,2 Alwaleed Al Johar,3 Abdulaziz Al Hakbani,3 Ahmed S Alaskar1,2 1King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, 2King Saud bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 3College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Introduction: In Saudi Arabia, voluntary donors are the only source of blood donation. The aim of this study was to assess the level of public knowledge and attitude toward blood donation in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using a previously validated questionnaire that comprises 38 questions to assess the levels of knowledge, attitudes, and motivations towards blood donation, 469 Saudi adults who attended different shopping malls in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were surveyed. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify the significant predictors of blood donation, with the significance set at P<0.05. Results: Approximately half of all subjects (53.3% reported that they had previously donated blood, 39% of whom had donated more than once. The knowledge percentage mean score was 58.07%, denoting a poor level of knowledge, with only 11.9% reporting a good level of knowledge. The attitude percentage mean score towards donation was 75.45%, reflecting a neutral attitude towards donating blood, with 31.6% reporting a positive attitude. Donation was significantly more prevalent among males than females (66% versus 13.3%; P<0.001. After adjustment for confounders, a higher knowledge score (t=2.59; P=0.01, a higher attitude score (t=3.26; P=0.001, and male sex (t=10.45; P<0.001 were significant predictors of blood donation. An inability to reach the blood donation centers and a fear of anemia were the main reasons for females not donating blood (49.9% and 35.7%, respectively, whereas a lack of time was the main reason for males (59.5%. Conclusion: Prevalence of blood donation was less than satisfactory among the Saudi public, probably due to misconceptions, poor
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration U.S. Clean Energy and Energy Efficiency Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia Riyadh and Dhahran, Saudi Arabia April 14-18, 2012 AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice....
Objectives: To explore the challenges facing pharmacovigilance in Saudi Arabia and formulate recommendations to improve it from the perspective of healthcare professionals in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a qualitative study of 4 focus group discussions with pharmacists, physicians, and academicians held under the auspices of the King Saud University School of Pharmacy and the Center for Medicine in the Public Interest, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 29 eligible healthcare professionals w...
Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategie...
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The...
The first report of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in Saudi population of the Eastern Province paved the way for extensive investigations to determine the distribution and molecular pathogenesis of G6PD deficiency in Saudis in different parts of the country. During a national study lasting from 1980 to 1993, 24,407 Saudi in 31 different areas of Saudi Arabia screened for G6PD deficiency using spectrophoretic estimation of enzyme activity and electrophoretic separation of the phenotypes. The results in the males and females were separately analyzed and showed a statistically significant difference in the frequency in the male (0.0905) and female (0.041) population (P<0.05). The frequency in the male varied from 0 to 0.398 and in the female from 0 to 0.214. The phenotypes identified included G6PD-A, G6PD-Mediterranean and G6PD-Med-Like with G6PD-B as the normal phenotype in all areas. This study shows that G6PD deficiency is a frequently identified single-gene disorder in Saudi Arabia and G6PD-Mediterranean is the major variant producing the severe deficiency state in this population. (author)
Alsuwaida Abdulkareem; Farag Youssef; Al Sayyari Abdulla; Mousa Dujanah; Alhejaili Fayez; Al-Harbi Ali; Housawi Abdulrahman; Mittal Bharati; Singh Ajay
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their esti...
Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The que...
Al-Kadri HM; Madkhali A; Al-Kadi MT; Bakhsh H; Alruwaili NN; Tamim HM
Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Azza Madkhali,1 Mohammed T Al-Kadi,2 Hanadi Bakhsh,1 Nourah N Alruwaili,2 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, 2King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: In this study, we aimed to assess the rate of adolescent delivery in a Saudi tertiary health care center and to investigate the association between maternal...
Mobaraki, A E H; Söderfeldt, B
In Saudi Arabia, local interpretations of Islamic laws and social norms have a negative impact on the health and well-being of women. The objective of this literature review was to discuss gender inequity in Saudi Arabia and its relation to public health. Despite the scarcity of recent statistics and information regarding gender inequity in Saudi Arabia, this review is an attempt to explore this sensitive issue in this country. Women's roles and rights in Saudi society were examined, including education, marriage, polygamy, fertility, job opportunities, car driving and identification cards. Further research to assess knowledge, attitudes and practices towards health care of Saudi men and women is recommended. PMID:20214168
This paper reports on the prevalence of oral lichen planus among 4277 dental patients aged 18-73 years, seen in the Dental Department, King Fahad Central Hospital, Gizan, Saudi Arabia, between 1982 and 1987. Oral mucosal lesions, diagnosed as lichen planus, were clinically and histologically identified in 72 subjects (40 males and 32 females). The average age of the affected group was 49 years. No correlation was evident between lichen planus and tobacco habits in this study, nor was there any association with diabetes or hypertension. The average period of follow-up was 3.2 years, during which time 4 patients developed malignant transformation of their oral lesions. The prevalence of lichen planus in this study was 1.7%, which is higher than the prevalence figures reported earlier for this disease in Saudi Arabia. (author)
Al-Hajoj, Sahal; Varghese, Bright
Saudi Arabia is the third-largest Arab country with a moderate annual burden of tuberculosis. However, tuberculosis (TB) is among several infectious diseases that have not been brought under control, despite the government's considerable efforts. This is clearly evidenced by the ongoing transmission of several imported and indigenous clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, the country faces the threat from rising proportions of extrapulmonary TB, non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections, and drug resistance. Furthermore, the country falls behind the global targets set by World Health Organization for the success rate of TB treatment. The country needs more population-based research studies, centralized and easily accessible clinical data registries, and centralized research and diagnostic facilities. This review focused on the trends of mycobacterial infections and on future proposals to improve TB control measures in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25771458
Intakhab Alam Khan
The present paper attempts to explore the characteristics of an effective teacher of English. Some related factors such as qualification, attributes, roles, and professional ethics have also been dealt with. In Saudi Arabia, the teacher of English plays the most important role in the process of teaching/learning. There are so many factors such as L1 interference, parental attitude, home environment, schooling etc that are usually influential in the case of educational setting in general and E...
Mohamed A. Almannie
This study examines the practice of school superintendents in Saudi Arabia in five roles as seen by education supervisors within school district offices. The purpose of the study is to examine the leadership of school superintendents in these five roles: work environment, rules and regulations, implementation of technology, accountability, and professional development of the education supervisors in school districts. The study sample consists of 276 education supervisors working in 30 school ...
Al-Kahtani, Safer H.; Sofian, Badr El-din E.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the preference change in the demand for meat subject to random coefficients in Saudi Arabia. A Fortran 77 program has been designed to estimate the demand function for meat using Kalman filtering techniques and maximum likelihood approach. The initial values of the coefficient and covariance estimates are an essential prior information in the Kalman filtering techniques. Results provide substantial random coefficients in red meat, implying important...
Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C
The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099
Saeed, Abdalla A.
Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Sa...
This paper discusses the progress in transition to knowledge-based economy in Saudi Arabia. As for the methodology, this paper uses updated secondary data obtained from different sources. It uses both descriptive and comparative approaches and uses the OECD definition of knowledge-based economy and the World Bank Knowledge Index (KI) and Knowledge Economy Index (KEI) and other indicators often used in the international literature to examine progress in transition to a knowledge-based economy ...
Sherif, Sherin A.; Al-Kahtani, Safer H.
Managerial efficiency for broiler producers in Saudi Arabia is generally difficult to achieve. High investment costs coupled with relatively high average production costs and the consequent incompetent market prices, have resulted in projects either working at less than full capacity or being shut down completely. The aim here is to determine the most efficient production alternatives (actions) available to managers under business risk considerations. The ordinary stochastic dominance approac...
Mounir Belloumi; Atef Saad Alshehry
This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989) and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001) and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995). Additionally, to test the ro...
Rajaa M. Milyani
The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia) was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80) moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minut...
Haifa Abdulaziz Al-Turki
Background. The objective of this study was to estimate trends in ectopic pregnancies (EP) in a tertiary care center of Eastern Saudi Arabia. Method. Information about patients with ectopic pregnancies who had been admitted to King Fahd Hospital of the University, AlKhobar, between January 2000 and 31 December 2011 was collected from a computerized hospital registry. Age-specific ectopic pregnancy incidence was calculated. The data was analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social S...
Full Text Available This article examines the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's gender-segregated higher education system and how it is used to transmit the Kingdom's traditional societal expectations to the employment sector. With Saudi Arabia's current need for economic change, the education system is retarding instead of accelerating reform. A background consisting of Saudi Arabian history, governing laws, religious beliefs and women's roles is examined. I then discuss the education system's preservation goal by considering segregation, women's mobility, videoconferencing courses, and the roles of professors. I attempt to explain how the current education system fails to prepare its students for the global economy: by limiting women's access to the labor market, and by not preparing men for the realities of the global market and therefore creating the need for migrant workers. In conclusion, conserving culture is significant, but for economic change to occur, the extent of cultural conservatism and its effect on the education system need to be re-evaluated.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the long-term and causal relationship between energy intensity, real GDP per capita, urbanization and industrialization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971–2012 using the breakpoint unit root tests developed by Perron (1989 and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model bounds testing to cointegration proposed by Pesaran et al. (2001 and employing a modified version of the Granger causality test proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995. Additionally, to test the robustness of the results, the fully modified ordinary least squares (OLS regression, the dynamic OLS regression, and the Hansen test are used. Our results show that the variables are cointegrated when energy intensity is the dependent variable. It is also found that urbanization positively affects energy intensity in both the short term and the long term. Causality tests indicate that urbanization causes economic output that causes energy intensity in the long term. Our results do not support the urban compaction hypothesis where urban cities benefit from basic public services and economies of scale for public infrastructure. Therefore, measures that slow down the rapid urbanization process should be taken to reduce energy intensity in Saudi Arabia. In addition, reducing energy inefficiency in energy consumption should be a strategy to attain sustainable development in the near future in Saudi Arabia.
Saudi Arabia's role in global energy markets is changing. The kingdom is reshaping itself as a supplier of refined petroleum products while moving beyond its long-held role as a simple exporter of crude oil. This change is commensurate with the typical development trajectory of a state progressing to a more advanced stage of global economic integration. Gains from increased refining include reducing fuel imports and capturing margins now bequeathed to competitors. Refining also allows the kingdom to export its heavy crude oil to a wider array of customers, beyond select importers configured to handle heavy crudes. However, the move also presents strategic complications. The world's 'swing supplier' of oil may grow less willing or able to adjust supply to suit market demands. In the process, Saudi Arabia may have to update the old “oil for security” relationship that links it with Washington, augmenting it with a more diverse set of economic and investment ties with individual companies and countries, including China. -- Highlights: •Saudi Arabia is diverting crude oil into an expanding refining sector. •In doing so, the kingdom is moving beyond its role as global “swing supplier” of crude oil. •The kingdom will benefit from increased refining, including enhanced demand for heavy crude. •Strategic complications may force it to seek security partners beyond Washington
Full Text Available Only few studies regarding glomerulonephritis, with relatively small numbers of patients, have so far been published from different centers in Saudi Arabia, and have reported conflicting results regarding the patterns, even in the same city. The possible reasons for these differences include the small number of patients in the different studies, differences in the indications for renal biopsies, referral bias, geographical differences, and, sometimes, the non-availability of the necessary diagnostic facilities in the reporting centers. In order to overcome these problems, a registry for glomerulonephropathy was attempted in Saudi Arabia. Six large referral hospitals from different regions of Saudi Arabia participated in this registry. Biopsy reports and clinical information of 1294 renal biopsies were obtained. There were 782 renal biopsies due to glomerulonephritis (GN accounting for 77.2% of the total biopsies. Five hundred eighty seven (72.6% were primary glomerulonephritidis. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS (21.3% and membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN (20.7% were the most common types found in the primary glomerulonephritidis. Membranous glomerulonephritis (MGN was present in only 10.6% of the cases. IgA nephropathy was found in 6.5% of the cases. Of the secondary glomerulo-nephritides, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE was the most common indication for biopsy (57.0% and amyloidosis was found in only 3.2% of the biopsies. In conclusion, FSGS and MPGN were the most common forms of primary glomerulonephritis in adult patients in Saudi Arabia. MGN was not as common as in the western world. SLE was the commonest cause of secondary GN. Amyloidosis was not as common as in other Arab countries. There is a need for more centers from Saudi Arabia to join this national GN registry. Similar registries can be established in different Arab countries, which all would, hopefully, lead to a Pan-Arab GN registry.
Full Text Available Background/Aim: Dyspepsia is a common gastrointestinal disorder and is the most common indication for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGIE. In recent years, it has been observed in several centers that there is a change in the causes of dyspepsia as revealed by UGIE. Our main objectives were: (1 To study the pattern of upper gastrointestinal pathology in patients with dyspepsia undergoing upper endoscopy; (2 Compare that with the pattern seen 10-15 years earlier in different areas of KSA. Materials and Methods: Retrospective study of all UGI endoscopies performed at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Southern Saudi Arabia during the years 2005-2007 on patients above 13 years of age. Patients who underwent UGIE for reasons other than dyspepsia were excluded. The analysis was performed using the SPSS 14 statistical package. Results: A total of 1,607 patients underwent UGI endoscopy during the three-year study period (age range, 15-100. There were 907 males (56.4% and 700 female (43.6%. Normal findings were reported on 215 patients (14% and the majority had gastritis (676 = 42%, of whom 344 had gastritis with ulcer disease. Moreover, 242 patients (15% had gastro-esophageal reflux (GERD, with or without esophagitis or hiatus hernia. Also, a total of 243 patients had duodenal ulcer (DU (15% while only 12 had gastric ulcer (0.7%. Discussion and Conclusion: There is clear change in the frequency of UGIE lesions detected recently compared to a decade ago with an increasing prevalence of reflux esophagitis and hiatus hernia. This could be attributed to changes in lifestyle and dietary habits such as more consumption of fat and fast food, increased prevalence of obesity, and smoking. These problems should be addressed in order to minimize the serious complications of esophageal diseases.
Ghulam, Ayman S.
Meteorologists are required to provide accurate and comprehensive weather information for planning and operational aviation, agricultural, water projects and also for the public. In general, weather phenomena such as thunderstorms over the area between the tropics and the middle latitudes are not fully understood, particularly in the Middle East area, for many reasons such as: 1) the complexity of the nature of the climate due to the wide-ranging diversity in the topography and landscape in the area; 2) the lack of meteorological data in the area; and 3) the lack of studies on local weather situations. In arid regions such as Saudi Arabia, the spatial and temporal variation of thunderstorms and associated rainfall are essential in determining their effects on social and economic conditions. Thunderstorms form rapidly, due to the fact that the significant heating of the air from the surface and the ensuing rainfall usually occurs within a short period of time. Thus, understanding thunderstorms and rainfall distribution in time and space would be useful for hydrologists, meteorologists and for environmental studies. Research all over the world has shown, however, that consideration of local factors like Low Level Jets (LLJ), moisture flux, sea breezes, and the Red Sea Convergence Zone (RSCZ) would be valuable in thunderstorm prediction. The combined effects of enhanced low-level moisture convergence and layer destabilization due to upslope flow over mountainous terrain has been shown to be responsible for thunderstorm development in otherwise non-favourable conditions. However, there might be other synoptic features associated with heavy thunderstorms or cause them, but these features have not been investigated in any research in Saudi Arabia. Thus, relating the local weather and synoptic situations with those over the middle latitudes will provide a valuable background for the forecasters to issue the medium-range forecasts which are important for many projects
Full Text Available Little is known about the geographic distribution of common cancers in Saudi Arabia. We explored the spatial incidence patterns of common cancers in Saudi Arabia using spatial autocorrelation analyses, employing the global Moran’s I and Anselin’s local Moran’s I statistics to detect nonrandom incidence patterns. Global ordinary least squares (OLS regression and local geographically-weighted regression (GWR were applied to examine the spatial correlation of cancer incidences at the city level. Population-based records of cancers diagnosed between 1998 and 2004 were used. Male lung cancer and female breast cancer exhibited positive statistically significant global Moran’s I index values, indicating a tendency toward clustering. The Anselin’s local Moran’s I analyses revealed small significant clusters of lung cancer, prostate cancer and Hodgkin’s disease among males in the Eastern region and significant clusters of thyroid cancers in females in the Eastern and Riyadh regions. Additionally, both regression methods found significant associations among various cancers. For example, OLS and GWR revealed significant spatial associations among NHL, leukemia and Hodgkin’s disease (r² = 0.49–0.67 using OLS and r² = 0.52–0.68 using GWR and between breast and prostate cancer (r² = 0.53 OLS and 0.57 GWR in Saudi Arabian cities. These findings may help to generate etiologic hypotheses of cancer causation and identify spatial anomalies in cancer incidence in Saudi Arabia. Our findings should stimulate further research on the possible causes underlying these clusters and associations.
There are neither nuclear power reactors nor are there research reactors in Saudi Arabia. However, the country imports a lot of radioactive sources that are used in different fields such as medicine, hydrology, industry and research. Usage of radioactive material is governed by national and the IAEA regulations for the safe usage and transport of radioactive materials. KACST (King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology) is an independent scientific organization established in 1977. It is the national competent authority that sets the rules of transporting, using and disposing of radioactive sources in Saudi Arabia.. This paper discusses the role of KACST and other authorities in the country regarding the 1) licensing and evaluation of the importing and exporting applications of radioactive sources and/or devices in Saudi Arabia, 2) The regulatory framework of radiation protection in Saudi Arabia, 3) the management of radioactive wastes in Saudi Arabia. (author)
Full Text Available This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived enjoyment, usefulness, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. High and low online spenders among women in Saudi Arabia are equivalent. The structural weights are also largely equivalent, but the regression paths from perceived site quality to perceived usefulness is not invariant between high and low e-shoppers in Saudi Arabia. This research moves beyond online shopping intentions and includes factors affecting online shopping continuance. The research model explains 60% of the female respondentsâ€™ intention to continue shopping online. Online strategies cannot ignore either the direct and indirect spending differences on continuance intentions, and the model can be generalized across Saudi Arabia.
Al-Harbi, Saleh; Al-Harbi, Adel S.; Al-Khorayyef, Abdullah; Al-Qwaiee, Mansour; Al-Shamarani, Abdullah; Al-Aslani, Wafa; Kamfar, Hayat; Felemban, Osama; Barzanji, Mohammed; Al-Harbi, Naser; Dhabab, Ruqaia; Al-Omari, Mohammed Ahmed; Yousef, Abdullah
OBJECTIVE: Assessing the knowledge and awareness of the Saudi society about bronchial asthma in children. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were randomly distributed to 1039 Saudi Arabians in May 2014 at Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. RESULTS: The awareness of bronchial asthma questions showed that 67% of total sample thought that it could be a fatal disease, and only 13.2% thought that there is a difference between bronchial asthma and chest allergies in children. 86.1% thought that the symptoms of bronchial asthma include dyspnea and nocturnal cough, and 45.7% thought that fever, a runny nose and throat inflammation are not symptoms. 60.2% thought that infectious respiratory diseases may increase bronchial asthma progression. In addition, 40% thought that the use of antibiotics doesn’t help in diminishing bronchial asthma complications, and some thought that the patient can stop medication after an acute asthma attack. 34.1% thought that inhaled medication for asthma doesn’t cause addiction. Very highly significant results are shown between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, the level of education, marital status, and if the individual knows a person who suffers from bronchial asthma (P < 0.001). There are positive correlations between bronchial asthma knowledge and age, marital status, and level of education (r = 0.152, 0.150, 0.197), respectively. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that bronchial asthma knowledge in the Saudi Arabian population is insufficient, and efforts should be carried out to spread bronchial asthma management. PMID:26933459
Bassam Hamdar; Hussin Hejase; Tamar Sayed
Water is one of the most precious and valuable resources in the world generally and in Saudi Arabia specially. Situated in the tropical and sub-tropical desert region with arid climate, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is exposed to dry winds and limited water resources .Therefore, the scarcity of fresh water resources poses a major challenge and affects the Saudi development plans since they realized that their supply of freshwater cannot be taken for granted. Moreover, the demand for fresh...
Al-Kadri, Hanan M.; Kamal, Mehak; Bamuhair, Samira S.; Omair, Aamir A.; Bamefleh, Hana S.
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and characteristics of abnormal pap smear in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Methods: In this retrospective case control study conducted in the Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Histopathology at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, all pap smears screened for Saudi women between 2008 and 2011 were reviewed. Approximately 5000 pap smears are screened annually at King Abdulaziz Medical City utilizing the Bethesda III...
Abulkhair, Omalkhair A.; Al Tahan, Fatina M.; Young, Susan E.; Musaad, Salma MA.; Jazieh, Abdul-Rahman M.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite its relatively low incidence in Saudi Arabia, breast cancer has been the most common cancer among Saudi females for the past 12 consecutive years. The objective of this study was to report the results of the first national public breast cancer screening program in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Women 40 years of age or older underwent breast cancer screening. Mammograms were scored using the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS). Correlations between im...
This study attempts to explain why crude oil prices fluctuate, the main cause being the quota regime, which characterises the OPEC agreements. Given that the Saudi oil supply is inelastic in the short term, a shock in the oil market is accommodated by an immediate price change. By contrast, a dominant firm behaviour in the long term causes an output change, which is accompanied by a smaller price change. This explains why oil prices overshoot. The results of a general equilibrium model applied to Saudi Arabia support this analysis. They also indicate that Saudi Arabia does not have any incentive for altering the crude oil market equilibrium with either positive or negative supply shocks, as its welfare declines; and that it has an incentive (disincentive) for intervening if a negative (positive) demand shock hits the crude oil market. A second set of simulations is designed to understand what kind of OECD policy might help to bring down prices. A tax cut would worsen the situation, whereas policies that can increase the price elasticity of demand seem to be very effective. (Author)
Abdulkarim K Alhowaish
Full Text Available Background: Diabetes imposes a large economic burden on the individual, national healthcare systems, and countries. Objective: To determine the economic impact of diabetes mellitus on Saudi healthcare system, both now and in the future. Materials and Methods: This research study uses a prevalence-based approach that combines the demographics of the population (classified by nationality, sex and age group with and without diagnosed diabetes in 1992 and 2010. The economic impact of diabetes is estimated in this study, using secondary sources of information provided by Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance and Central Department of Statistics and Information databases. Results: People diagnosed with diabetes, on average, have medical healthcare expenditures that are ten times higher ($3,686 vs. $380 than what expenditures would be in the absence of diabetes. Over 96% of all medical healthcare expenditures attributed to diabetes are incurred by persons of Saudi nationality, with the remaining 4% incurred by persons of non-Saudi nationality. The population age 45-60 incurs 45% of diabetes-attributed costs, with the remaining population under age 15 incurs 3.8%, age 15-44 incurs 27.5%, and age 60 and above incurs 23.8%. Conclusion: The actual national healthcare burden because of diabetes is likely to exceed the $0.87 billion estimated in this study, because it omits the indirect costs associated with diabetes, such as absenteeism, lost productivity from disease-related absenteeism, unemployment from disease-related disability, lost productivity due to early mortality by disease. The social cost of intangibles such as pain and suffering and care provided by non-paid caregivers as well as healthcare system administrative costs, cost of medications, clinician training programs, and research and infrastructure development is also omitted from this research study. Further studies are needed to confirm the present findings and to improve our
Al-Alaiyan, Saleh; Alfaleh, Khalid M
Congenital anomalies contribute a significant proportion of infant morbidity and mortality, as well as fetal mortality. They are generally grouped into three major categories: structural/metabolic, congenital infections, and other conditions. The most prevalent conditions include congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, Down syndrome, and neural tube defects. Several prenatal diagnostic procedures have been introduced, both cytogenetic (such as chorion biopsy, amniocentesis and funiculocentesis) and biophysical (ultrasound 2-D, 3-D and 4-D, ultrasonography with Doppler, etc.). Insufficient data are currently available from Saudi Arabia on the epidemiology of the lethal congenital abnormalities which should be a priority due to high rate of consanguineous marriages among first cousins and their association with congenital anomalies. In terms of consanguinity and birth defects, a significant positive association has been consistently demonstrated between consanguinity and morbidity, and congenital defects with a complex etiology appear to be both more prevalent in consanguineous families and have a greater likelihood of recurrence. A debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus still exists among the senior Islamic scholars in many of the Islamic countries. The progressive interpretations of Islam have resulted in laws allowing for early abortion on request in two countries; six others permit abortion on health grounds and three more also allow abortion in cases of rape or fetal impairment. In Saudi Arabia, efforts to legalize abortion in certain circumstances have been recently discussed among Senior Religious Scholars and specialized physicians to permit abortions in certain circumstances. In this mini-review we discuss the current debate regarding aborting a malformed fetus in Saudi Arabia with a focus on the Islamic perspective. PMID:24027674
Mahmoud, Mahmoud Abdulrahman; Al-Zalabani, Abdulmohsen H; Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A
In the last decade, public health (PH) has come to the frontlines in Saudi Arabia. The recent outbreak of a novel corona virus (MERS-CoV) highlighted the importance of PH services and the need for a competent PH workforce. The urgency and panic induced by infectious disease outbreaks explain the heightened interest. Decision makers' interest in public health was observed through a series of decisions, including creating a position for Deputy Minister for Public Health, changing the name of "Directorate of Primary Healthcare Centers" to "Directorate of Public Health" in all health regions and initiating a special scholarship program to prepare health administration professionals in collaboration with US-based universities. A distinguished group of PH leaders in Saudi Arabia was gathered in a structured workshop that was organized by the Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, college of medicine to discuss the current status and future needs of PH education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The workshop highlighted the need for PH education development and outlined the challenges ahead. The main challenges laid out by participants in the workshop were the development of an appropriate PH curriculum, appropriate training spots for practical placement, the development of research priorities for PH to satisfy the needs of PH programs and agencies, attracting the most qualified academic staff, the enrolment of highly motivated students and finally, the establishment of a quality assurance program to ensure the quality of PH education programs. The development of a framework for graduate competencies in PH was perceived to be a top priority. Moreover, setting a PH workforce surveillance system, building partnership between PH academic institutions and PH services providers, implementing national campaigns to explain what PH is about and illuminating the role of PH workers were also of utmost importance. PMID:26984034
Peeling skin syndrome (PSS) is a rare genodermatoses of probable autosomal recessive inheritance in Saudi Arabia, consanguinity of parents is common and consequently the occurrence of family disease, including that of the skin, is not uncommon. To characterize the clinical and pathological features of PSS in Saudi Arabia, we reviewed the medical records and clinical photographs of patients with recurring blistering diseases and conducted a histopathologic evaluation of skin biopsies to identify the site of cleavage. Eleven persons with PSS were seen at King Khalid National Guard Hospital in Jeddah between the years 1986 and 2005. Ages ranged between 2 and 15 years and there were 9 males (81.8%) and 2 females (18.2%). The most common presentation in the majority of patients was localized spontaneous peeling of the skin. Eight patients (72.8%) had a history of vesicles that were small, dry and peeled away. Trauma did no play role in blister formation. All patients were local from Bedouin tribes where a family history of a similar complaint was documented in 8 cases (72.7%). And consanguinity of marriage was evident on 6 patients (54.5%). Histological examination of the biopsies showed either intracorneal or superficial subcorneal cleavage above the granuler layer in all biopsied patients. Although rare, PSS occurs in Saudi Arabia and is most likely related to consanguinity of marriages. This disease is generally mild and is characterized by intrascorneal cleavage within the superficial epidermis. The disease should be recognized and not confused with other vasicobullous disease. (author)
Bin Abdulrahman, Khalid A; Tawfik, Bassel
The kingdom of Saudi Arabia is currently witnessing a massive support for its healthcare services. This year's fiscal budget for health care is by far the largest in the history of the kingdom. While pursuing the conventional goals of healthcare delivery systems, such as equity, affordability and availability of services, the ministry of education (MOE), formerly called ministry of higher education (MOHE), is also seeking to achieve certain excellence standards, which are expected to set the bar for other countries in the region to follow suit. Almost all, under construction, university hospitals were adopting a paradigm shift in the standard of health care and training provided. This report summarizes these standards. PMID:26984027
B. H. Alharbi; M. J. Pasha; N. Tapper
Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human healt...
Despite the fact that Saudi Arabia is a leading producer of oil and natural gas, a member of G-20, has the largest and fastest growth of ICT marketplaces in the Arab region, and is very wealthy, online retailing activities are not progressing at the same speed as its growing ICT marketplace. For this reason, the attitudes of retailers in companies at different stages of e-commerce maturity were investigated to determine what factors are causing this problem. The data collection included two s...
The Ablah sedimentary succession represents a molasse basin in the Neo-Proterozoic Shield of Saudi Arabia. A rhyolite flow interbedded in the succession has been dated by the Pb/Pb method at 641± 1 Ma, indicating that the basin is a local expression of Panafrican tectonism in the south of the shield. Consequently, the Panafrican phase that has previously been described in the north can now be extrapolated to the south of the shield. This age determination also enables post-Panafrican events, which differ between the south and the north, to be analysed over the entire shield. (authors)
This article sets out to analyse the Saudi gas initiative in the context of the decision-making process in Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2002. It describes the overall context in which the initiative was made. It focuses on the personalities and institutions that were important in its birth and its evolution. The article argues that a mixture of personalities (especially that of Crown Prince Abdullah and foreign minister Saud al-Faisal) and institutions (especially a clutch of new bodies formed in 1999 and 2000) were pivotal in the emergence of the initiative. It also looks at the obstacles that were placed in the way of the initiative, arguing that Saudi Aramco and the minister of oil, Ali Naimi, were key blocking players. Over time, the Saudi gas initiative has come to be seen as a benchmark of the wider cause of economic liberalization in the Kingdom. The lack of progress in the initiative since the initial indicative contract awards in June 2001 has reflected the lack of movement in the general reformist strategy
Al-Surimi, Khaled; Househ, Mowafa; Almohandis, Essam; Alshagathrh, Fahd
Medical device evaluation presents several unique challenges due to the great diversity and complexity of medical devices and their rapid technological evolution. There has been a variety of work conducted on the development of disease based registries and health surveillance systems in Saudi Arabia. However, the progress of medical device registry systems and post-market medical device surveillance systems remains in its infancy in Saudi Arabia and within the region. In 2007, a royal decree assigned the responsibility for regulating medical devices to the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA). Soon afterwards, the SFDA established the Medical Devices National Registry (MDNR) to house medical device information relating to manufacturers, agents, suppliers and end-users. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview on the Medical Device National Registry (MDNR) in Saudi Arabia and describe the current experience and future work of establishing a comprehensive medical device registry and post-market surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26152943
Al-Khateeb, S. A. H.
This study argues that ideological rather than material constraints are the major obstacles that limit full female participation in the Saudi Arabian labour force and hinder Saudi working women from combining their double roles as mothers and paid workers. As a developing country, Saudi Arabia is facing multiple problems. One of these challenges is the great shortage of human resources. In 1984/85, 59.8 per cent of the labour force in Saudi society was foreign. Female ...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence, characteristics, and distribution of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire about musculoskeletal pain in different parts of the body was completed by 165 construction workers from the construction industries in Dammam and Riyadh cities. The descriptive data were analyzed using chi-square test. The level of statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Eighty (48.5% of the responding workers had pain in neck, shoulders, lower back, hand, knee, or ankle. The majority of respondents had low back pain (50% followed by knee pain (20%. The average intensity of pain at all sites during activity and rest was 6.65 and 3.59, respectively. Thirty-four (42.5% respondents had dull aching pain and 24 (30% had cramping pain. There was an association between years of experience, duration of break during work, and use of protective equipment with the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in construction workers (P<0.05. Most of the workers complaining of pain got medical treatment (62.5% and only 25% received physical therapy. It can be concluded from this study that the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among construction workers in Saudi Arabia is high.
Beneath the harsh deserts of Saudi Arabia lie dark chambers and complex mazes filled with strange shapes and wondrous beauty. Radon concentration measurements have been carried out in the desert caves of Al-Somman Plateau in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etch track detectors with an inlet filter, were used in this study. A total of 59 dosimeters were placed in five caves for a period of six months. Out of 59 dosimeters, 37 could be collected for analysis. Measurements showed significant variations in radon concentrations in caves depending upon their natural ventilation. The results of the study show that the average radon concentration in the different caves ranges from 74 up to 451Bqm-3. The average radon concentration in four of the caves was low in the range 74-114Bqm-3. However, one cave showed an average radon concentration of 451Bqm-3. Radon is not a problem for tourists in the majority of caves. However, sometimes it may imply some limitation to the working time of guides
Almogbel, Y S; Abughosh, S M; Almogbel, F S; Alhaidar, I A; Sansgiry, S S
Identifying the predictors of smoking in one of the top cigarette-consuming countries in the world is a vital step in smoking prevention. A cross-sectional study assessed the predictors of smoking in a cohort of male students in 3 universities in Saudi Arabia. A pre-tested, validated questionnaire was used to determine sociodemographic characteristics, academic performance, peers' smoking, and presence of a smoker within the family. Of the 337 participants, 30.9% were current smokers (smoked 1 or more cigarettes within the last 30 days). Lower academic performance (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.02-5.17), peer smoking (OR = 4.14, 95% CI: 1.53-11.3) and presence of other smokers in the family (OR = 2.77, 95% CI: 1.37-5.64) were the significant predictors of smoking status identified using multiple logistic regression analysis. These findings highlight the influence of family and peer pressure in initiating cigarette use among the youth of Saudi Arabia. PMID:24673080
With the evolution of health services in Saudi Arabia, there has been increase in the number of medical practice litigations. The author analyzed the medical malpractice litigation that was referred to the National Medico-Legal Committee (MLC) in order to evaluate the magnitude and underlying factors of the problem in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of the official records of Medico-Legal malpractice over the period 1420H-1424H (199-2003) was performed. The incidence among different medical specialties, location, and final resolution of each claim were identified. Data analysis revealed an increasing trend in the total number of claims over the study period, with a sharp increase in the transition between 1422H and 1423H (2001-200). The distribution of claims over different medical specialties showed that obstetrical practice took the lead with 27%, followed by general surgery and subspecialties, represented by 17% each, internal medicine 13%, while pediatrics contributed 10% of claims: the fewest claims were in dentistry with 2.5%. The majority of claims were referred to the Ministry of Health and private sectors medical facilities. Most claims were from the Riyadh region over the period between 1420H to 1422H (1999-2001), while thereafter, during 1423 and 1424H (2002 and 2003), the Holy Capital had the highest number of claims referred to the MLC. Adherence to standards of medical practice is by far the best approach to avoid or reduce the incidence of litigation. (author)
Nadira A Al-Baghli
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD and their determinants in a screening campaign in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: All national residents in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia aged 30 years and above, were invited to participate in a screening campaign for the early detection of diabetes and hypertension at more than 300 examination posts throughout the eastern province. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart attack, angina, arterial disease, stroke, and transient ischemic attack. Weight, height, blood pressure, and glucose concentration were measured. Results: Out of 197,681 participants, 5372 (2.7% were aware of a history of a CVD. The prevalence correlated well with age. It was higher in women, widows, and subjects with lower level of education. More than 75% of affected subjects had two or more risk factors. Conclusion: A substantial proportion of those with a history of CVD had multiple risk factors, necessitating an effective, focused policy for the prevention and treatment. Increased effort is required to promote an awareness of cardiac disease and also probably target primary care providers involved in the screening process.
Abdelrahman, M.A.; Nimmo, B.G.
Direct and total radiation measurements carried out over several years in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in support of the Research Institute's solar energy programs have indicated a relatively large diffuse radiation component. This is primarily due to airborne particulates carried aloft by the prevailing winds in a desert environment and occurs particularly during the Shamal (north wind) sandstorm season. As a first step in quantifying the nature of this atmospheric turbidity, spectral beam solar radiation measurements for the period July 1980 to June 1981 were made in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia (Lat. 26/sup 0/ 23', Long. 50/sup 0/ 00'), using broad-band filter techniques. Schott filters (OG1, RG2 and RG8) arranged on an automatically rotated disk mounted on an Eppley Normal Incidence Pyrheliometer were used for the measurements. The Beer-Lambert relation was used to calculate optical depths from which values of the Angstroem Coefficient of Turbidity, ..beta.., were obtained for the wavelength exponent, ..cap alpha.. = 1.3. In addition, Herovanu's method was used to obtain ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. values for each month. The 12-month average values of ..beta.. and ..cap alpha.. were 0.22 and 1.28, respectively. 12 references, 3 figures, 1 table.
M. A. U Mridha
Full Text Available Neem (Azadirachta indicaA.Juss. is a multipurpose agroforestry tree that is well adapted to a wide range of climatic and soil conditions and has gained worldwide recognition for its pharmaceutical and pesticidal properties.The world's largest pure Neem plantations are available in the plains of Arafat, Saudi Arabia where 50,000 thousands Neem trees were planted to provide shade from the blazing summer sun for the millions of Hajis (Muslim pilgrims. Sporadic mature Neem trees are also found in Medinah, Taif and elsewhereof the Kingdom. The Neem tree is adapted to Arafat under harsh climatic conditions of Saudi Arabia and the plantation may be extended to other parts of the Kingdom as a avenue tree and also to minimize the desertification under changing climatic conditions and to improve the environmental condition of the country. At Arafat mixed plantations may be advocated to save the present plantation which may come from climate change as well as pest and diseases problems. So care must be taken to monitor the diseases of Neem tree at Arafat on a regularbasis. Because of insufficient growth of Neem at Arafat the methods of green cultivation with microbial inoculants, organic fertilizers, mycotrophic green manure plants may be practiced for successful plantation.
Bukhari, Najat A; Al-Otaibi, Reem A; Ibhrahim, Mohammed M
Teucrium (Lamiaceae) is a large and polymorphic genus distributed mainly in Europe, North Africa and in the temperate parts of Asia. In this study, the anatomical features of the leaf and stem of Teucrium polium are investigated. Teucrium has 19 taxa in Iran, which mainly grow in the Irano-Turanian region between 700 and 2000 m above sea level. T. polium belonging to sect. Polium, is a perennial herb growing on Lorestan province. The leaves clearly exhibit xeromorphy due to features such as thick cuticle layer, thick outer epidermal cell wall, high density of trichomes and thick palisade layer of the mesophyll. Anatomical studies on T. polium revealed that the stem shares the general characteristics of the Labiatae family. The aim of our approach was to study the morphological and taxonomical parameters for T. polium in Saudi Arabia. The results of this study showed that there was no influence of environment on the structure of stomata and trichomes as studying species with T . polium. In conclusion our study shows we have studied the geographical distribution of the species in Saudi Arabia and in the world. PMID:25737650
Madadin, Mohammed; Al-Saif, Dalia M; Khamis, Amar Hassan; Taha, Attia Z; Kharoshah, Magdy A; Alsayyah, Ahmed; Alfehaid, Suha; Yaghmour, Khalid; Hakami, Ahmad Yahia; Bamousa, Manal S; Menezes, Ritesh G; Almadani, Osama M
Medico-legal tasks are not exclusive to forensic medical experts -any physician may face medico-legal issues in his career. Hence, the practice of medicine requires education in legal issues. In Saudi Arabia, there are 30 universities with medical colleges, but we do not know how they teach undergraduate forensic medicine and medico-legal issues. The aim of this study was to discover undergraduate training courses in forensic medicine in Saudi universities. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving all colleges of medicine in Saudi Arabia. A structured, self-administered questionnaire containing 13 items relating to the undergraduate forensic medicine course was distributed. Out of a total of 30 universities, 27 universities responded. Of these 27 universities, 16 (59.26%) teach forensic medicine to undergraduate medical students, and 11 (40.74%) do not teach forensic medicine in their undergraduate curriculum. Of the 27 universities that responded, none has a department of forensic medicine. Eleven universities that do not teach forensic medicine have no forensic medicine unit/division or faculty at all. Forensic medicine belongs to the pathology department in 11 universities, while it belongs to different departments in five universities. There is variation in teaching methods, years where the course is taught and length of the course. Practical and morgue visits take place in 7/16 (43.8%) universities, while 9/16 (56.3%) universities only teach the theoretical aspects of forensic medicine. All 16 universities teach forensic medicine only to medical students and do not teach it to students in other colleges such as dentistry and nursing. PMID:27354384
Full Text Available Background/Aim: α-1 antitrypsin (AAT deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI. The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods : A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PIFNx01S and PIFNx01Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype, whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype. The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures.
Full Text Available Limited data exit on the epidemiology of cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia particularly in relation to the differences between local citizens and expatriates. The aim of this analysis is to describe the current prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among patients attending general practice clinics in Saudi Arabia. In a cross- sectional epidemiological study, the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, obesity, smoking, and abdominal obesity was evaluated in stable adult outpatients attending primary care clinics in Saudi Arabia. Groups comparison were made between local Saudi patients and expatriates. A total of 550 participant were enrolled form different clinics in Saudi Arabia (71% were male, mean age was 43 ± 10 years. Nearly half of the study cohort had more than two cardiovascular risk factors (49.6%. Dyslipidemia had the highest prevalence (68.4%. Furthermore, prevalence of hypertension (47.5% vs. 31.4%, dyslipidaemia (75.2% vs. 55.1% and abdominal obesity (63.9% vs. 52.2% were higher among expatriates compare to Saudis (p-value < 0.001. This analysis clearly shows that there is a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors prevalence in Saudi population. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with risk factors have poor overall control. Programmed community based screening is needed for all cardiovascular risk factors in Saudi Arabia. Increased awareness and improved primary care services may decrease incidence of coronary artery disease and improve overall quality of life.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. Timeframe for Recruitment...
Al-Mushayt, Omar S; Haq, Kashiful
The informatization practice of countries all over the world has shown that the level of a government's informatization is one main factor that can affect its international competitive power. At present, e-government construction is regarded as one of the most important tasks for the national economy and society upliftment and informatization in Saudi Arabia. Unlike the traditional governments, an e-government takes on a new look with its framework and operation mode more suitable for the contemporary era. In fact, it is a basic national strategy to promote Saudi Arabia's informatization by means of e-government construction. This talk firstly introduces the basic concepts and relevant viewpoints of egovernment, then reviews the development process of e-government in Saudi Arabia, and describes the current states, development strategies of e-government in Saudi Arabia. And also review e-government maturity models and synthesize them e-government maturity models are investigated, in which the authors have prop...
Growing demand for science teachers in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, fed by increasing numbers of public school students, is forcing the Saudi government to attract, recruit and retain well-qualified science teachers. Beginning science teachers enter the educational profession with a massive fullfilment and satisfaction in their roles and positions as teachers to educating children in a science classroom. Nevertheless, teachers, over their early years of practice, encounter numerous challenges to provide the most effective science instruction. Therefore, the current study was aimed to identify academic and behavioral classroom challenges faced by science teachers in their first three years of teaching in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, new science teacher gender, school level and years of teaching experience differences in perceptions of the challenges that they encountered at work were analyzed. The present study also investigated various types of support that new science teachers may need to overcome academic and behavioral classroom challenges. In order to gain insights about ways to adequately support novice science teachers, it was important to examine new science teachers' beliefs, ideas and perceptions about effective science teaching. Three survey questionnaires were developed and distributed to teachers of both sexes who have been teaching science subjects, for less than three years, to elementary, middle and high school students in Al Jouf public schools. A total of 49 novice science teachers responded to the survey and 9 of them agreed to participate voluntarily in a face-to-face interview. Different statistical procedures and multiple qualitative methodologies were used to analyze the collected data. Findings suggested that the top three academic challenges faced by new science teachers were: poor quality of teacher preparation programs, absence of appropriate school equipment and facilities and lack of classroom materials and instructional
Waleed H. BuAli; Abdul Sattar Khan; Mohammad Hussain Al-Qahtani; Shaikha aldossary
Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM) to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7%) ou...
Rayed AlGhamdi; Steve Drew; Thamer Alhussain
This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four...
The objective of this study is to explore the knowledge, attitudes and intake of energy drinks among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was carried out to select 1061 school children aged 12–19 years, from Jeddah city, Saudi Arabia. A short self-reported questionnaire was administrated in order to collect the data. Of adolescents in the study, 45% drank energy drinks (71.3% males and 35.9% females; P
Hajar, Saad; Hazmi, Ali Al; Wasli, Mustafa; Mousa, Ahmed; Rabiu, Mansour
Objectives: To determine the prevalence and causes of blindness and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in Jazan district, Southern Saudi Arabia. Methods: Using the standardized Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness (RAAB) and DR cross-sectional methodology, 3800 subjects were randomly selected from the population of ≥50 years of age in Jazan, Saudi Arabia between November 2011 and January 2012. Participants underwent screening comprised of interview, random blood glucose test, and ophthalmic assess...
Nouf AlMobarak; Rawan AlAbdulrahman; Shahad AlHarbi; Wea’am AlRashed
This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their se...
AL Anazi, Abdullah D.; Alyousif, Mohamed S.
This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were...
Mustafa S Saeed; Ali S Alkhoshaiban; Yaser Mohammed Ali Al-Worafi; Chiau Ming Long
The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS ...
Abanmy, Norah O.; Al-quait, Nouf A.; Alami, Amani H.; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H.; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa
In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items...
Mutlaq B. Alotaibi
Electronic Commerce (E-Commerce) has a growing potential in Saudi Arabia, due to widespread use of the internet and the maturity of the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure. The purpose of this paper is to assess the quality of E-Commerce websites in Saudi Arabia, using a proposed evaluation instrument. To achieve this aim, six E-Commerce websites were selected for evaluation and then categorized into three categories: domestic, regional and international. Each category consisted of two...
Al-Qurashi, Faisal O.; Abdullah A Yousef; Awary, Bassam H.
Objectives: To assess the epidemiological characteristics of prematurity and survival rate in preterm infants diagnosed at a university hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out of 476 preterm infants who were admitted with the diagnosis of prematurity to King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia, between June 2008 and 2013. Demographics, birth weight, and neonatal survival rate were analyzed. Results: Four hundred and...
Hasan A Alzahrani,1 Owiss H Alzahrani21Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: To identify medical students' perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS) of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM), in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify stude...
Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general inte...
Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender an...
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent....
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure student gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The 234-respondent sample consists of 61.5% women and 38.5% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male and female groups are equivalent. Th...
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
Purpose — This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure gender differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. Design/Methodology — The 465-respondent sample consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Findings — Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Both male...
Many regard Saudi Arabia as a conservative and religious nation with a perception of some degree of neglect or discrimination towards its female population. This deters many to realize the kind of revolution this nation is going through, especially in the field of education. Many might not realize that the kingdom of Saudi Arabia has state of art educational institutions with best possible equipment and infrastructure in the world. In addition, the government is providing very lucrative schol...
Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Sa...
El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Hammad, Sabry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We examined the effect of body mass index in early pregnancy on pregnancy outcome since no study in Saudi Arabia has addressed this question. METHODS: This prospective cohort study involved women registered for antenatal care during the first month of pregnancy at primary health care centers in Al-Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Data was collected from records and by direct interview. RESULTS: The study included 787 women. Compared to normal weight women (n=307), overweight (n...
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
This study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure regional differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample consists of 650 female respondents. A structural equation model confirms model fit. Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjective norms are determinants of online shopping continuance in Saudi Arabia. Women in the eastern, western, and central region groups are equivalent. T...
Alkhayal A; Aldhukair S; Alselaim N; Aldekhayel S; Alhabdan S; Altaweel W; Magzoub ME; Zamakhshary M
Abdullah Alkhayal,1 Shahla Aldhukair,2 Nahar Alselaim,1 Salah Aldekhayel,1 Sultan Alhabdan,1 Waleed Altaweel,3 Mohi Elden Magzoub,4 Mohammed Zamakhshary1,21Department of Surgery, King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 2Public Health Section, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Urology Department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 4Department of Medical Education, King Saud b...
Alsultan, S. H.; Rahman, A. A.
This paper reviews the current Geographic Information System (Longley et al.) implementation and status in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Based on the review, several problems were identified and discussed. The characteristic of these problems show that the country needs a national geospatial centre. As a new initiative for a national geospatial centre, a study is being conducted especially on best practice from other countries, availability of national committee for standards and policies on data sharing, and the best proposed organization structure inside the administration for the KSA. The study also covers the degree of readiness and awareness among the main GIS stakeholders within the country as well as private parties. At the end of this paper, strategic steps for the national geospatial management centre were proposed as the initial output of the study.
This paper presents an analysis of energy and exergy utilization in the agricultural sector of Saudi Arabia by considering the sectoral energy and exergy flows for a period of 12 years between 1990 and 2001. Energy and exergy analyses are conducted for its two essential devices, namely tractors and pumps, and hence the sectoral energy and exergy efficiencies are obtained for comparison for a period of 12 years. Two main energy sources are diesel for tractors and electricity for pumps in the sector. It is found that the overall exergy efficiencies in this sector are slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies, e.g. 74.19-69.20% for exergy efficiency and 74.94-74.60% for energy efficiency from 1990 to 2001. The present technique is proposed as a useful tool in sectoral analysis of energy and exergy utilization, developing energy policies and providing energy conservation measures
Al-Mofleh, Ibrahim A; Azzam, Nahlah A
We attempted, through systematic review to explore the epidemiology and risk factors of Crohn's disease (CD) with special attention to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). We selected articles that contained population-based, epidemiological, and clinical character studies of CD. We collected data concerned with the prevalence, demographic features, and the possible etiology of CD that might explain its emergence in KSA. The prevalence of CD in Western countries ranged between 11-43/100,000 with flawless evidence of CD prevalence emerging in previously low incidence areas like Asia. Prevalence in KSA has markedly increased over the last 3 decades. Combined ileal and colonic involvement was the most frequently affected site. Diet, smoking, drugs, and westernization of life are assumed to contribute to the pathogenesis. There is convincing evidence of CD emerging in Asia, including KSA. Westernization of lifestyle and smoking is probably the major contributing factors. Genetic studies are warranted. PMID:24252887
Full Text Available This study report results of a survey conducted in the EasternProvince of Saudi Arabia to explore the procedures and financialtechniques that large-size contractors utilise in replacingequipment. The results indicated that contractors set severalreplacement alternatives that they evaluate by using a set ofvarious qualitative and quantitative factors. The contractors’business objectives, employee safety and morale, and, contractors’image in the industry were found to be the most influentialqualitative factors affecting the decision of equipment replacement.Inflation, downtime, obsolescence, salvage value, and depreciationare among the top quantitative factors that contractors considerwhile making a decision to replace equipment. Because of theirsimplicity and practicality, the net present value, payback period,and the economic life are the most popular techniques that areutilised for analysing the financial issues of proposed replacementalternatives.
Alhadlaq, H.; Alshaya, F.; Alabdulkareem, S.; Perkins, K. K.; Adams, W. K.; Wieman, C. E.
Over the last decade, science education researchers in the US have studied students' beliefs about science and learning science and measured how these beliefs change in response to classroom instruction in science. In this paper, we present an Arabic version of the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) which was developed to measure students' beliefs about physics at King Saud University (KSU) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We describe the translation process, which included review by four experts in physics and science education and ten student interviews to ensure that the statements remained valid after translation. We have administered the Arabic CLASS to over 300 students in introductory physics courses at KSU's men's and women's campuses. We present a summary of students' beliefs about physics at KSU and compare these results to similar students in the US.
Short-wave reflectivity or albedo is an important component of net radiation which represents the major determinant of radiation balance of crop surface. This study was conducted on an irrigated alfalfa crop field at Al-Kharj agricultural area in Saudi Arabia, grown according to normal agricultural practices. Data on radiation balance and crop cover were collected over a number of days from March to October 1986, crop albedo varying from 0–4 in early morning to 0–20 at noon, the overall mean value of the crop albedo being estimated at 0–26. The relation between the individual components of radiation balance was studied, and a significant correlation between incident radiation and net radiation was found. Possible causes responsible for changes in crop albedo were discussed. (author)
Altamimi, Ahmed A.; Lee, Lay Wah; Sayed-Ahmed, Al-sayed A.; Kassem, Mostafa M.
Special education in Saudi Arabia was formally established in 1962. The earliest cited literature on special education written in English was a 1970 government report. This article presents results from the first synthesis of internationally published Saudi special education literature over a 44-year period. This synthesis yielded information…
Mohammed E Alsubaiei
Conclusion: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia.
Suaad S. Alwakeel
Full Text Available The occurrence of harmful aflatoxins from agricultural products varies with geographic location, farming practices and processing. To date, no data was reported from Saudi Arabia on mycotoxin content of nuts and edible seeds. Forty samples of edible nuts and dried seeds were randomly collected from different locations in Al-Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Fungi were detected by seed-plate and dilutions plate method and were cultured on glucose-Czapek's agar, sucrose-Czapek's agar and starch yeast agar. Purified fungal isolates were identified morphologically. Mycotoxins were extractedusing chloroform and detected by thin layer chromatography. Bacterial analysis was done using total plate count method. There was a predominance of A. niger and A. flavus in all medium types. Aflatoxin B1 (8.5 µg mL-1 was detected in peanuts containing A. flavus. Aflatoxin B1 (1.7 µg mL-1 and B2 (1.7 µg mL-1 was detected in sunflower seeds containing A. terreus. T2 toxin (2.8 mg mL-1 was detected in pumpkinseeds containing Stachybotrys chartarum and DAS (2.4 µg mL-1 was detected in a salted peanut sample containing Trichthecium roseum. Four nut samples showed contamination with bacteria. Turkish pine seeds and American walnut had total plate counts of 12x10. Pakistani pine seeds and Iranian salted pistachio had TPC of 3x10. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from American walnut samples. Government authorities for food safety consumption should continue to monitor and set appropriate guidelines and information initiatives for public knowledge on the safety of these agricultural products whole year round.
Tarek Tawfik Amin
Full Text Available Tarek Tawfik Amin1, Feroze Kaliyadan2, Nouria Saab Al-Muhaidib31Community Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Dermatology Section; 3Vice Dean for Female Students, College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi ArabiaObjective: To assess the preferred methods for assessment among medical students at both preclinical and clinical stages of medical education and the possible correlates that promote these preferences.Subjects and methods: All medical students from the third year onwards were surveyed. A self-administered anonymous questionnaire was designed to gather information on the preferred assessment method for course achievement. The preferred methods were also evaluated in relation to cognitive functions. Preference for specific exam format, in the form of multiple choices, short essay questions, or both, and the stated reasons for that preference, was also included in the questionnaire.Results: Out of 310 questionnaires distributed, 238 were returned. Written tests, projects, portfolios, and take home exams were the preferred modes for assessing students’achievements in a course; oral tests including a viva voce were the least preferred type of assessment. Questions that tested the domains of ‘understanding’ and ‘application’ were the most preferred type while those entailing ‘analysis’ were the least preferred. Multiple choice question format was the most preferred type of question (68.7% at both pre- and clinical stages.Conclusion: Students’ assessments at the College of Medicine, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, do not use the full range of cognitive domains. The emphasis on higher domains for medical students’ assessment incorporating critical thinking should increase as the students’ progress through their medical courses.Keywords: medical students, assessment, exams, multiple choices, essay
Suliman H Al-Fifi
Full Text Available Aim: To study the reasons, magnitude and outcome of drowning following submersion in water of children admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Aseer Province, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all pediatric patients (0-13 years old who drowned and were admitted to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Aseer Central Hospital, Southwestern Saudi Arabia, between January 1st 1999 and December 31st 2009. Results: A total of 19 cases were admitted following submersion in water. The mean age was 5.2 years ±3.8. Majority of victims (94.1% were from the highland areas. Events most frequently occurred in the summer (46.7%, followed by spring and winter, 33.3% and 20%, respectively. Home events constituted 44.4% of submersion cases. Of these, 55.6% drowned in a washing container, While 53.4% submersed in swimming pools. Twenty-two percent of these accidents occurred in the sea and in wells while 11.1% occurred in a lake. The mean duration of submersion was 4.04 minutes ± 5.35. Cardiac arrest was reported upon arrival at hospital in 42.1% of the victims. There were seven deaths (36.8 % and in one patient (5.2 % there was severe brain injury. In all deceased cases, no adults were watching the children when the accidents occurred. Conclusion: Drowning is a significant risk factor facing our children and can claim lives. The media as well as the authority should play a major role in increasing the public awareness to minimize or prevent such a problem.
Lihavainen, H.; Alghamdi, M. A.; Hyvärinen, A.-P.; Hussein, T.; Aaltonen, V.; Abdelmaksoud, A. S.; Al-Jeelani, H.; Almazroui, M.; Almehmadi, F. M.; Al Zawad, F. M.; Hakala, J.; Khoder, M.; Neitola, K.; Petäjä, T.; Shabbaj, I. I.; Hämeri, K.
This is the first time to clearly derive the comprehensive physical properties of aerosols at a rural background area in Saudi Arabia. Aerosol measurements station was established at a rural background area in the Western Saudi Arabia to study the aerosol properties. This study gives overview of the aerosol physical properties (PM10, PM2.5, black carbon and total number concentration) over the measurement period from November 2012 to February 2015. The average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 95 ± 78 μg m-3 (mean ± STD, at ambient conditions) and 33 ± 68 μg m-3 (at ambient conditions), respectively. As expected PM10 concentration was dominated by coarse mode particles (PM10-PM2.5), most probably desert dust. Especially from February to June the coarse mode concentrations were high because of dust storm season. Aerosol mass concentrations had clear diurnal cycle. Lower values were observed around noon. This behavior is caused by wind direction and speed, during night time very calm easterly winds are dominating whereas during daytime the stronger westerly winds are dominating (sea breeze). During the day time the boundary layer is evolving, causing enhanced mixing and dilution leading to lower concentration. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were comparable to values measured at close by city of Jeddah. Black carbon concentration was about 2% and 6% of PM10 and PM2.5 mass, respectively. Total number concentration was dominated by frequent new particle formation and particle growth events. The typical diurnal cycle in particle total number concentration was clearly different from PM10 and PM2.5.
Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Abid A. Ansari
Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number o...
Full Text Available Sleep medicine is a relatively new specialty in the medical community. The practice of sleep medicine in Saudi Arabia (KSA began in the mid to late nineties. Since its inception, the specialty has grown, and the number of specialists has increased. Nevertheless, sleep medicine is still underdeveloped in the KSA, particularly in the areas of clinical service, education, training and research. Based on available data, it appears that sleep disorders are prevalent among Saudis, and the demand for sleep medicine service is expected to rise significantly in the near future. A number of obstacles have been defined that hinder the progress of the specialty, including a lack of trained technicians, specialists and funding. Awareness about sleep disorders and their serious consequences is low among health care workers, health care authorities, insurance companies and the general public. A major challenge for the future is penetrating the educational system at all levels to demonstrate the high prevalence and serious consequences of sleep disorders. To attain adequate numbers of staff and facilities, the education and training of health care professionals at the level of sleep medicine specialists and sleep technologists is another important challenge that faces the specialty. This review discusses the current position of sleep medicine as a specialty in the KSA and the expected challenges of the future. In addition, it will guide clinicians interested in setting up new sleep medicine services in the KSA or other developing countries through the potential obstacles that may face them in this endeavor.
Ouda, Omar K. M.; Shawesh, Ahmad; Al-Olabi, Tareq; Younes, Firas; Al-Waked, Rafat
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents' feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.
Abdalla A Saeed
Full Text Available Background: dyslipidemia and obesity are key independent modifiable risk factors for many non communicable chronic diseases. Patterns of association between these factors may help prevention and control. This study aims to assess the association between lipids profile and obesity among adults in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and identify anthropometric predictors of dyslipidemia.Methods: data were collected and analyzed from a cross-sectional study using WHO STEPwise approach that included 4 990 Saudi adults aged 15- 64 years selected by stratified, multistage, cluster random sampling technique. Lipid profiles (cholesterol categories and triglycerides were determined spectrophotometrically by colorimetric biochemical methods. Obesity was determined by calculation of body mass index (BMI=Kg/m2, waist and hip circumferences and ratio and waist to height ratio.Results: the overall prevalence of obesity ranged from 33.8 to 44.4 % and the overall dyslipidemia prevalence ranged from about 25 to 44% depending on type of dyslipidemia and anthropometrics used. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and mean concentration of lipids profile were generally significantly higher in obese than non obese. The indicator waist/height ratio was the significant predictor for all types of dyslipidemia and all levels of serum lipids.Conclusions: the prevalence dyslipidemia and obesity are high and they are positively associated. Waist/height ratio was the most important predictor of dyslipidemia among adults.
Full Text Available Aim: To review a general hospital′s experience with sarcoidosis and the clinical pattern of the disease among Saudis. Methods: A retrospective file review was carried out on all patients with a proven diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a general hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia over a period of 11 years (1998-2008. Results: Sixty-nine patients, of whom 33 cases were included in the analyses, were diagnosed to have sarcoidosis during the study period. There were 18 females and 15 males. The mean age was 44.5 years (SD 17. The most common presentations were cough (48%, dyspnea (21%, joint pain (18%, splenomegaly (12%, hepatomegaly (9%, and lymphadenopathy (5%. The biochemical analysis showed elevated calcium levels in 6% and elevated angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE in 14 (46.7%. The tuberculin skin test was negative in all tested patients (n = 29 except one patient. The patients were classified using the modified Scadding classification system. None of the patients was in stage 0, 39.4% were in stage 1, 45% were in stage 2 and 15% were in stage 3.. The diagnosis in all patients was proven histologically. The outcome was favorable in most patients (85%, and in 6% of the patients, the course was chronic and progressive, although 66% received active treatment. Conclusion: Sarcoidosis does occur in native Saudis. The clinical presentation of these patients was similar to the western pattern of disease with some differences such as relative lack of cardiac, eye, parotid, and central nervous system involvement. The rarity of cardiac and central nervous system involvement was comparable with other Middle Eastern studies. Sarcoidosis, though rare in our community, should still be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with the typical presentation after excluding tuberculosis.
Alosaimi, Fahad D; Kazim, Sana N.; Almufleh, Auroabah S.; Aladwani, Bandar S.; Alsubaie, Abdullah S.
Objectives: To examine perceived stress among residents in Saudi Arabia and its associated risk factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study of all residents registered at the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, was conducted between May and October 2012. We assessed the likelihood of stress using the perceived stress scale (PSS). Results: Out of the 4000 residents contacted, 1035 responded and 938 were included. The mean (±standard deviation) PSS score was 22.0±5.1 (m...
Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah Al; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Ataur Rahman
Some 12.8 million in the age group 5–15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were sel...
Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)
Alfarraj, Dunia A.; Ali M. Somily; Alssum, Rasheed M.; Abotalib, Zeinab M.; El-Sayed, Amal A.; Al-Mandeel, Hazim H.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) infection among Saudi women, its clinical presentation, and its association to infertility. Methods: This study was conducted between October 2012 and July 2013 at King Khalid University Hospital and King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Female patients aged between 19 and 46 years old with infertility problems seen at both hospitals were recruited to join the study. A separate gro...
Youssef, A. M.; Al-Kathery, M.; Pradhan, B.
Escarpment highways, roads and mountainous areas in Saudi Arabia are facing landslide hazards that are frequently occurring from time to time causing considerable damage to these areas. Shear escarpment highway is located in the north of the Abha city. It is the most important escarpment highway in the area, where all the light and heavy trucks and vehicle used it as the only corridor that connects the coastal areas in the western part of the Saudi Arabia with the Asir and Najran Regions. More than 10 000 heavy trucks and vehicles use this highway every day. In the upper portion of Tayyah valley of Shear escarpment highway, there are several landslide and erosion potential zones that affect the bridges between tunnel 7 and 8 along the Shear escarpment Highway. In this study, different types of landslides and erosion problems were considered to access their impacts on the upper Tayyah valley's bridge along Shear escarpment highway using remote sensing data and field investigation. These landslides and erosion problems have a negative impact on this section of the highway. Results indicate that the areas above the highway and bridge level between bridge 7 and 8 have different landslides including planar, circular, rockfall failures and debris flows. In addition, running water through the gullies cause different erosional (scour) features between and surrounding the bridge piles and culverts. A detailed landslides and erosion features map was created based on intensive field investigation (geological, geomorphological, and structural analysis), and interpretation of Landsat image 15 m and high resolution satellite image (QuickBird 0.61 m), shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM 90 m), geological and topographic maps. The landslides and erosion problems could exhibit serious problems that affect the stability of the bridge. Different mitigation and remediation strategies have been suggested to these critical sites to minimize and/or avoid these problems in the future.
Yasser S. A. Mazrou
Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egypt...
Alomair, Miznah O.
In light of the progressive changes occurring in Saudi Arabia, developing female leadership capacity and effectiveness in the country's higher education is vital. This literature review examines the scholarship and research on female leadership in higher education in Saudi Arabia, describes the major barriers for female leaders, and provides a…
Gaafar, A; Fadl, A; el Kadaro, A Y;
is caused by Leishmania major zymodeme LON-1, and in Saudi Arabia by L. major LON-4. Sporotrichoid leishmaniasis was significantly more common in Sudan, occurring in 23% of patients compared with 10% in Saudi Arabia. Lymph node involvement was slightly more prevalent in the Sudan. Clinical and pathological...
Almuslmani, B.; Al-Motari, E.; Bingley, R. M.; Teferle, F. N.; Moore, T.
Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains in the south-western part of Saudi Arabia, have been established, with the GDMS GPS network now comprising a total of 59 stations. In this presentation we will introduce the new GPS network in Saudi Arabia established by GDMS and will present the initial results from campaigns in March 2003 and March 2005. We show preliminary estimates of absolute and relative Arabian plate motions inferred from the GPS network and a detailed comparison of the results based on the Bernese GPS software versions 4.2 and 5.0.
Saudi Arabia has ambitious plans for nuclear power. Given this context, this paper examines the economics of nuclear power and compares it to two other sources of electricity, natural gas and solar energy. It calculates the costs of electricity generation, water desalination and the opportunity cost associated with forgone oil and gas revenues. A sensitivity analysis is included to account for variations in important parameters within the comparative cost analysis. Our results suggest that for a large range of parameters, the economics of nuclear power are not favorable in comparison with natural gas, even if the currently low domestic natural gas prices in Saudi Arabia were to rise substantially. Further, electricity from solar plants has the potential to be cheaper than nuclear power within the next decade if the rapid decline in solar energy costs in the last decade continue, i.e., before the first planned nuclear power plant would be completed. However, unless the price of oil drops substantially below current values, it would be more economically optimal to export the oil than using it for generating electricity. - Highlights: • Future projections show nuclear power is not cost effective for Saudi Arabia. • A combination of solar and natural gas could largely meet future electricity demand. • There are multiple, non-economic, motivations for Saudi Arabia's nuclear program. • Saudi Arabia would economically benefit by not using oil for electricity generation
B. H. Alharbi
Full Text Available Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 µm (PM10 and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004 at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health in the urban area of Riyadh city using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA Air Quality Index (AQI and break down analysis of five criteria pollutants (O3, CO, NO2 and SO2 and PM10 and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S. The concentrations of selected pollutants in ambient air has shown upward trends except for sulfur dioxide (SO2 and hydrogen sulfide (H2S, which exhibited decreasing trends over the time. Using the AQI based on a health perspective, a breakdown analysis was conducted. The results confirmed that 71% of the time Riyadh city air is of “Good” quality using the AQI and causes almost no health impacts on city inhabitants. The remaining 29% of more problematic air quality is caused by PM10 (74% and SO2 (~24%. The study has revealed that both ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO have little contribution to Riyadh air pollution at 2% and 0.52%, respectively.
Objective was to find out the prevalence and relation between osteoarthritis of knees and obesity in Al-Ahsa region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study included 243 male and female patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of knees of knees in between June 2001 to March 2003. All patients were recruited from the Physical Therapy Department, King Fahd Hofuf Hospital, Hofuf, KSA. The clinical diagnosis was supported plain x-rays of knees, and of other joint if needed. The weight and height of all patients were taken using one standard weight and height scale, and body mass index was also calculated and recorded. More than 90.53% of the patients referred with osteoarthritis of knees were obese or overweight. The mean body weight of all patients was 84.61 kg and the mean weight was 1.59 meters. Osteoarthritis of the knees was more in obese female than male patients with a female to male ratio of 2.37:1. Obesity is a disease. The aim of all health professionals and others in the community should be directed to the prevention of this disease and its risk to develop multiple complications. (author)
The influences on indoor radon concentrations in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia survey was carried out for 786 dwellings. The measurements were obtained by using a passive integrating ionization system with an E-Perm® Electret ion chamber. Radon levels ranged from 1 to 195 Bq m−3, with a mean value of 24.68 Bq m−3, the geometric mean and the geometric standard deviation are 21 and 2 respectively. 98.5% of the results were below the action level recommended by WHO of 100 Bq.m−3. The results were found to vary substantially due to types of houses and rooms, ventilation, seasons and building materials. Radon concentrations were higher in houses with no ventilation systems, and central air conditioners, and were relatively lower in well ventilated houses with red bricks and water air conditioners. - Highlights: • Limited information about indoor radon in Riyadh. • Several factors influence Radon level were investigated in 786 dwellings in Riyadh over one year. • Some results are over the action level and are advised to improve their ventilation systems
Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 50 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were taken using a radon gas analyzer. These materials included sand, aggregate, cement, gypsum, hydrated lime, ceramics and granite. It was found that the granite samples were the main source of radon emanations. A total of 32 local and imported granite samples were tested. It was found that the radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from not detectable to 10.6 Bq m-2 h-1 with an average of 1.3 Bq m-2 h-1. The linear correlation coefficient between emanated radon and radium content was 0.92. The normalized radon exhalation rates from 2.0 cm thick granite samples varied from not detectable to 0.068 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1) with an average of 0.030 (Bq m-2 h-1)/(Bq kg-1). The average radon emanation of the granite samples was found to be 21% of the total radium concentration. Therefore, granite can be a source of indoor radon as well as external gamma-radiation from the uranium decay series. PMID:11378931
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document
Background: Acinetobacter baumannii causes infections of respiratory, urinary tract, blood stream and surgical sites. Its clinical significance has increased due to its rapidly developing resistance to major groups of antibiotics used for its treatment. There is limited data available on antimicrobial susceptibility of A. baumannii from Saudi Arabia. Objectives: To determine the patterns of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii and predisposing factors for its acquisition.Subjects and Methods: In this descriptive study, 72 hospitalized patients infected with A baumannii were studied. The clinical and demographic data of the patients were collected using a predesigned questionnaire. Isolation and identification of A.baumannii from all clinical specimens were done using standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susce ptibility testing was performed by disk diffusion method recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: Majority of the isolates (61.1%) were from respiratory tract infections. A.baumannii isolates showed high drug resistance to piperacil lin (93.1%), aztreonam (80.5%), ticarcillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline (76.4%, each) and cefotaxime (75%). Only amikacin showed low rate of resistance compared to other antibiotics (40.3%). About 36% patients had some underlying diseases with diabetes mellitus (11%) being the predominant underlying disease. Conclusions: High antimicrobial resistance to commonly used antibiotics was seen against A.baumannii isolates. Only amikacin was most effective against it. (author)
Abdou, Adel A.
The study of mosque acoustics, with regard to acoustical characteristics, sound quality for speech intelligibility, and other applicable acoustic criteria, has been largely neglected. In this study a background as to why mosques are designed as they are and how mosque design is influenced by worship considerations is given. In the study the acoustical characteristics of typically constructed contemporary mosques in Saudi Arabia have been investigated, employing a well-known impulse response. Extensive field measurements were taken in 21 representative mosques of different sizes and architectural features in order to characterize their acoustical quality and to identify the impact of air conditioning, ceiling fans, and sound reinforcement systems on their acoustics. Objective room-acoustic indicators such as reverberation time (RT) and clarity (C50) were measured. Background noise (BN) was assessed with and without the operation of air conditioning and fans. The speech transmission index (STI) was also evaluated with and without the operation of existing sound reinforcement systems. The existence of acoustical deficiencies was confirmed and quantified. The study, in addition to describing mosque acoustics, compares design goals to results obtained in practice and suggests acoustical target values for mosque design. The results show that acoustical quality in the investigated mosques deviates from optimum conditions when unoccupied, but is much better in the occupied condition.
Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R.
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.
Sulaiman O. Aljaloud
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to understand the usage patterns of dietary supplements among professional athletes in Saudi Arabia. The survey consisted of sixteen questions divided into four categories: use of supplements, reason for consumption of supplements, personal beliefs about supplements, and behavior. The questionnaires were given to the three teams residing in Riyadh: Al Hilal, Al Nasr, and Al-Shabab. Out of the 105 athletes surveyed, we found that only 98 are currently taking dietary supplements and the mean age and standard deviation were 25.74±2.90. The survey results showed a high percentage of athletes (93.3%; n=98 using different dietary supplements throughout the season, 43.8% (n=43 reported using supplements for performance, and 32.6% (n=32 believed in health benefits as a reason for using dietary supplements. Our results showed that a total of 87 (88.7%, 81 (82.6%, and 51 (52.0% athletes are consuming sports drinks, vitamin C, and multivitamins, respectively. Meanwhile, those supplements ranking among the least used included omega 6 (18.6%, creatine (16.3%, and Ginkgo biloba (10.2%. A majority of athletes indicated that their use of supplements was for the purpose of improving their health and performance.
Abdullah I. Al-Zarah
Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to determine the Physical and chemical characteristics of Al-Khobar aquifer in the Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS varies from 4400 mg L-1 along the Gulf coast on the eastern side to around 1800 mg L-1 on the western side. Sodium (Na is the dominant cation followed by Mg, Ca and K in descending order. Whereas, the anion concentration order is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. Nitrate concentration was found to be higher than the recommended limit for drinking purposes. The Saturation Indices (SI indicated that the regional groundwater is under-saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite, halite, pyrite and aragonite minerals and oversaturated with respect to goethite and hematite minerals. The hardness of groundwater is very high as compared to the established standards. The F contents are within permissible limits for drinking. The nitrate contents are within permissible limits for domestic use. Two water types i.e., Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 and Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4 dominate the Al-Ahsa whereas Na-Ca-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 water types are dominant in Al-Dammam, Al-Khobar and Al-Qatif areas. Overall, the study provided useful information on some important hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater of the eastern region. Further studies are required to determine heavy trace metals concentration for multiple uses.
Full Text Available Among one of the most far-reaching influences of the Internet, especially from the perspective of business and market models, is the concept and application of eCommerce. Today, this erstwhile ‘experimental’ commerce model has become a standard platform for streamlining business flows and broadening product outreach. This is validated by the significant emphasis by a number of countries in developing robust eCommerce architectures tailored to suit their economical-social systems. An interesting case study in this perspective is the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially given its emphasis on local, regional and religious traditions. Presently, with a tremendous growth rate in Internet connectivity, the Kingdom is actively moving towards large-scale adoption of eCommerce systems. In 2001, a two year project was initiated to study the present influence of Internet on social, educational and business systems within the Kingdom. One of the major aspects was the analysis of user responses collected over the two-year period through a number of surveys, which were designed based on two prominent behavioural models: Theory of Planned Behaviour and Roger’s Theory of Diffusion of Innovations. The consequent analysis of the results was supported and in some cases verified with linear regression models. This paper reports on the consequent findings, which identify factors that may significantly affect the adoption of eCommerce in the Kingdom.
Full Text Available To obtain a more recent and comprehensive insight into the prevalence of glomerular diseases in our patient population, medical records of 200 patients with biopsy proven glomerulonephritis (GN, between January 1994 and June 1999, at the King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were analyzed. Primary glomerular disease was found to be the most prevalent, accounting for 63.5% of all glomerular diseases. Among primary glomerular diseases, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS was the most common histological lesion (34.6% and was associated with a high prevalence of hypertension (86.4%, nephrotic syndrome (68.18%, hematuria (63.6% and renal functional impairment (27.3%. Mesangioproliferative GN was the second most common lesion (25.1% followed by mesangiocapillary GN (15.7%, IgA nephropathy (10.2%, and minimal change disease (8.5%. Amongst secondary glomerular diseases, lupus nephritis was the most prevalent (24.5%. In conclusion, primary glomerular diseases constituted the commonest group encountered and the prevalence of FSGS was quite high with male sex and young adults predominating. FSGS was also associated with a high prevalence of end-stage renal disease. Further collaborative studies are necessary to explore the predisposing factors and associations of glomerular disease, especially FSGS.
Al-Kheliewi, Abdullah S.; Jamil, M. F.; Basar, M. R.; Tuwaili, W. R. [National Center for Radiation Protection, King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology, 11442 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
For usage of radioactive substances, any facility has to register and take license from relevant authority of the country in which such facility is operating. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the authority for managing radioactive sources and providing licenses to organizations for its usage is the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). This paper describes the system that automates registration and licensing process of the National Center of Radiation Protection. To provide 24×7 accesses to all the customers of NCRP, system is developed as web-based application that provide facility to online register, request license, renew license, check request status, view historical data and reports etc. and other features are provided as Electronic Services that would be accessible to users via internet. The system also was designed to streamline and optimize internal operations of NCRP besides providing ease of access to its customers by implementing a defined workflow through which every registration and license request will be routed. In addition to manual payment option, the system would also be integrated with SADAD (online payment system) that will avoid lengthy and cumbersome procedures associated with manual payment mechanism. Using SADAD payment option license fee could be paid through internet/ATM machine or branch of any designated bank, Payment will be instantly notified to NCRP hence delay in funds transfer and verification of invoice could be avoided, SADAD integration is discussed later in the document.
Passive radon dosimeters, based on alpha particle etched track detectors, were used in the indoor radon survey of the College of Science for Girls in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A total of 95 dosimeters were distributed in the academic departments and the administrative building in the College. The exposure time in all the buildings was one complete lunar year in the period October 2001-October 2002 to get the average annual indoor radon concentration. All the buildings were constructed with ready-made concrete, except the administrative building which constructed with ordinary concrete bricks. A significant difference in the average indoor radon concentrations in the two types of buildings was found. The average indoor radon concentration in the ready-made concrete buildings was 6+/-2Bqm-3 whereas that for the ordinary concrete brick building was 24+/-2Bqm-3. This could be due to the fact that ready-made concrete has a significantly less voids for the radon to emanate compared with ordinary concrete bricks. The indoor radon concentration in the ground floor is slightly higher than that in the first and second floors
Al Ahmad, Azzam M; Sallam, Mohamed F; Khuriji, Mohamed A; Kheir, Salah M; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes fauna from three zoogeographic regions: the Afrotropical, Oriental, and Palaearctic regions. To study the mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) fauna of these regions in Saudi Arabia, larval collections were made at 15 sites during 2005-2006. Thirty-three species representing nine genera were found. Six species, Anopheles culicifacies Giles s.l., Anopheles subpictus Grassi s.l., Culex arbieeni Salem, Culex simpsoni Theobald, Culex univittatus Theobald, and Ochlerotatus detritus Haliday are reported for the first time for Saudi Arabia. An annotated checklist and an illustrated key to the fourth-instar larvae of the 33 species are presented, along with some remarks about problematic species. Eleven species of genus Anopheles Meigen, five species of tribe Aedini, 13 species of genus Culex L., two species of genus Culiseta Felt, one species of genus Lutzia Theobald, and one species of genus Uranotaenia Lynch Arribátlzaga were recorded during the study. PMID:21845930
Full Text Available There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 % suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and recorded during Hajj season 1432 H (2011 in Makkah. Prevention and control strategies of FMD in Saudi Arabia particularly during Hajj seasons were discussed.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model conceptual framework that is aimed at promoting trust in the online retailingenvironment in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Despite rapid Internet growth, the development of onlineretailing in Saudi Arabia continues to progress very slowly compared to that of the developed and leadingdeveloping countries. To determine the reason behind the sluggish growth of online retailing in the KSA, amixed methods study involving retailers and customers was conducted in four stages. The outcomes of the studypoint to distrust in the online retailing environment in Saudi Arabia as a key inhibitory factor for growth. As such,a five-part model is proposed to promote trust in the online shopping environment in the KSA.
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a developing country and is rich in natural resources. The export sector plays an important role in the economic growth of a country. Basically, economic growth of a country depends on the nature and type of relationship between exports and domestic economic growth. Modern econometric techniques such as Vector Auto-Regression (VAR), Impulse Response Function (IFR) and the Granger-causality test were applied to determine long-term relationship between exports and domestic economic growth from 1970 to 2005. It was found that the export sector of Saudi Arabia caused a significant effect on the economic growth and a positive influence on other economic activities in the long run. Also, a long-term equilibrium existed among the various macroeconomic variables such as RGDP, RC, RG, RI, RX and RM considered in the study. It is apparent that a steady state condition can be reached between exports and economic growth in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranThe Peripheral Vascular Disease Research Chair and Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaPurpose: Atherosclerotic disease (AD is the leading cause of death worldwide and in Saudi Arabia. Intensive risk reduction therapy plays a major role in reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AD. The level of awareness of this important fact amongst physicians (family physicians, general internists, cardiologists and vascular surgeons in managing these patients in Saudi Arabia is not currently known. This study was conducted to examine the perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in patients with AD amongst physicians in Saudi Arabia in two clinical presentations; coronary artery disease (CAD and peripheral artery disease (PAD.Materials and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 897 physicians at different hospitals in four provinces in Saudi Arabia.Results: The recommended targets of low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, blood glucose, and blood pressure in patients with CAD and PAD were known as 40% and 36%; 70% and 66%; and 32% and 28% of physicians, respectively. The initiation of antiplatelet medications, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors, statins, and nicotine replacement therapy for smokers in patients with CAD and PAD were recommended by 98% and 97%; 52% and 34%; 61% and 56%; and 50% and 43% of physicians, respectively. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold for initiating risk reduction therapy, whereas vascular surgeons had the highest threshold.Conclusion: The level of physician awareness of atherosclerosis risk reduction therapy across Saudi Arabia has revealed knowledge and action gaps. A call to action to implement effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy and increase public awareness is needed
Zulqarnain, B J; Khan, N; Khattab, S
The symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction (TMD), reported by 705 female university students of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, are analysed. The population is representative of the educated class of Saudi Arabia. The most frequently reported symptoms were jaw feeling tired (34.5%), awareness of uncomfortable bite (31.3%), pain in front of the ear (22.4%) and discomfort upon wide opening (22.4%). The frequency of subjective reactions was, pain interferes with activity (42%), disturbed sleep (40.6%), taking of medication (27.8%) and pain being frustrating or depressing (26.8%). Some interesting relationships were found between the reported symptoms and marital status, residence and college of education. These findings are similar to those reported in a Bedouin community in Egypt, but lower than that in a Saudi Arabian population attending dental clinics, Saudi male dental students and high school students. PMID:9888230
A.F. Alsayeqh; shawkat mohamed fathi
There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMDV (O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3), most of them were detected and identified in different regions of Saudi Arabia. FMDV serotype O was the most frequent strain in last decade. Outbreaks of FMDV repeatedly occur among cattle, sheep and goats in various regions of Saudi Arabia during years 1994, 1995, 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2008 and 2010. Recently, 14 (0.78 %) suspected cases of FMDV out of inspected 1800 cows were observed and...
Thomas, Jacob; Sivadasan, M; Al-Ansari, A M; Alfarhan, Ahmed; El-Sheikh, Mohamed; Basahi, Mohamed; Alatar, A A
Recent field works in the central and southern regions of Saudi Arabia including agricultural centers have managed to collect four vascular plants new to terrestrial and wetland flora of the country. These new additions include one new genus Malvastrum A. Gray (M. coromandelianum) subsp. capitato-spicatum (O. Kuntze) S.R. Hill, Potamogeton perfoliatus L. (Potamogetonaceae), Euphorbia tirucalli L. (Euphorbiaceae) and Sesuvium portulacastrum (L.) L. (Aizoaceae). Detailed morphological description, distribution and habitat of each of these species are provided along with illustrations and photographs. The report of new additions to the flora of Saudi Arabia indicated that the country needs thorough botanical explorations. PMID:25313281
Wael Mohamed Lotfy
Full Text Available Climate change is an emerging global problem. It has hazardous effects that vary across different geographic regions and populations. It is anticipated to have significant effects in Saudi Arabia. The present work reviews the future of human parasitoses in Saudi Arabia in response to the expected climate change. The key projections are increased precipitations, flash floods, unstable temperatures, sea-level rise and shoreline retreat. Such environmental changes could strongly influence the epidemiology of fly-borne, mosquito-borne, snail-borne and water-borne human parasitoses in the country.
Almushait, Mona A.; Dajem, Saad M. Bin; Elsherbiny, Nahla M.; Eskandar, Mamdoh A.; Al Azraqi, Tarik A.; Makhlouf, Laila M.
This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pregnant women in the south western region of Saudi Arabia and to find out the possible risk factors that may lead to infection. This cross sectional hospital based study was carried out at three hospitals in the south western region of Saudi Arabia from January 2008 to August 2010. Blood samples from 487 pregnant women were collected and used to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies IgM and IgG by enzyme linked immunosorbent...
Al-Kadri HM; Al-Anazi SA; Tamim HM
Hanan M Al-Kadri,1 Sultana A Al-Anazi,1 Hani M Tamim21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, 2College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Cesarean section (CS) rate has shown creepy increase. We aimed in this work to identify factors contributing to increasing rate of CS in central Saudi Arabia.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City. T...
Full Text Available This research paper has examined the statistical significance of various problems in implementation ofe-commerce solution in business organizations in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. KSA (Kingdom of Saudi Arabiahas witnessed substantial progress in the field of ICT related infrastructural development in the first decade of21st century. However, despite these positive developments and abundant resources, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia(KSA in particular and GCC member countries in general have not been able to catch up with the pace of digitaldevelopment in the rest of the world. The research paper attempts to identify the problems in implementinge-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This research paper on the basis of analysis of data throughhierarchical multiple regression modeling and multiple response analysis of the data has identified statisticallysignificant problems in implementation of e-commerce in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and outlined key policyoptions that this country as well as other GCC nations can consider in formulation of policies to stimulate,support and maximize the effect e-commerce has on their economies.
Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Memish, Ziad A.; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H
Background Tobacco consumption is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The Saudi Ministry of Health started a national tobacco control program in 2002 with increased and intensified efforts after joining the World Health Organization Framework Convention for Tobacco Control in 2005. Methods In order to assess the status of tobacco consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we conducted a survey on 10735 individuals aged 15 years or older (5253 men and 5482 women) which was ...
N. Al-Hamdan; Saeed, A; Kutbi, A.; Choudhry, A. J.; Nooh, R.
Objective. To determine the prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and treatment practices of known adult hypertensives in Saudi Arabia. Methods. Cross-sectional community-based study using the WHO stepwise approach. Saudi adults were randomly chosen from Primary Health Care Centers catchment areas. Data was collected using a questionnaire which included sociodemographic data, history of hypertension, risk factors, treatment practices, biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Collecte...
This study is set in Saudi Arabia within the context of increasing national and international emphasis on inclusive education of deaf students and where policy overtly supports increasingly inclusive schools. This research is important because it is one of the few qualitative Saudi Arabian studies that have been conducted within the interpretive paradigm with a view to understanding the complexity of inclusive education. It specifically explores the factors that have influenced its theory and...
El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Tuffaha, Marwa; Daoud, Farah; Kravitz, Hannah; AlMazroa, Mohammad A; Al Saeedi, Mohammad; Memish, Ziad A.; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H
Objectives We conducted a large household survey in 2013 to determine the current status of oral health practices and use of oral health services in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods The Saudi Health Information Survey is a national multistage survey of individuals ≥ 15 years of age. We used a backward elimination multivariate logistic regression model to measure the association between having been to a dental clinic during the last year, and sex, age, marital status, education, time...
Al-Turki, Turki A.; K. Swarupanandan; Davy, Anthony J.
During the period from 1964 to 1999 Saudi Arabian species of Salicornia were wrongly treated under the European species, S. europaea L. Recent explorations proved that there are two separate allopatric species of Salicornia in Saudi Arabia, one inhabiting the inland salt-marshes of the Najd (highlands) and the other inhabiting the Arabian Gulf Coast (lowlands). Morphological, ecological and exploratory studies confirm that they are two distinct species. The two species differ in features of b...
The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extra...
The Saudi academic Mamoun Fandy (1999:252-53) observes that rentier analysis dominates contemporary Arab Gulf studies. According to Fandy, this discourse has now become a hegemonic discourse that is no longer deterred by alternative hypotheses or alternative data. It is a self-contained discourse that reaffirms its validity and reliability via a detour of narrative. Fandy's observation is in particular true for Saudi Arabia and the other GCC monarchies (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar and the Un...
Rayed AlGhamdi; Jeremy Nguyen; Ann Nguyen; Steve Drew
This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influe...
The US-Saudi Arabia partnership is, on the aspect of international relations, the main victim of September 11, 2001 terror events. If it is excessive today to claim that the President Bush government wishes to weaken the Saudi state, the 2002 trends of the US foreign policy have deeply modify the world energy deal to the detriment of OPEC and its main producing country
Miller-Rosser, Kolleen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen
Global nursing shortages have necessitated closer scrutiny of recruitment and retention initiatives of nurses both locally and internationally. For many decades the nursing workforce of Saudi Arabia has relied on international expatriates to be the backbone of the industry. In recent years however, Saudi women have been recruited into nursing preparation courses conducted at degree level. The many twists and turns of providing a local Saudi Arabian nursing workforce has paralleled Saudi's own history and this paper follows that journey. Our research has enabled us to provide some insights into nursing pre and post the enlightenment that accompanied the Prophet Mohammed's influence. We emphasize the influences of women leaders who emerged in Mohammed's time and bring lasting authority to the development of nursing in Saudi Arabia. The cultural issues that bind women in this society are explicated and related to recruitment and retention issues in nursing. Education matters, both past and present, are highlighted emphasizing the gains that nursing as a distinct occupation has made. Finally the paper concludes with a summation of contemporary achievements in Saudi Arabia moving nursing towards the much needed professional status and parity with other careers in health care. PMID:17279862
Full Text Available Remah M Kamel Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Jazan, Saudi Arabia Background: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is a worldwide-distributed sexually transmitted infection that may lead to infertility. Objectives: This study aims to report the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women in Saudi Arabia. Patients and methods: A community-based study carried out at the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at Jazan General Hospital, Saudi Arabia. The study group included 640 Saudi infertile women who were aged between 18 and 40 years and who attended the gynecology clinic for infertility examination throughout 1 year of study (from July 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012. The randomized control group included 100 Saudi fertile women who attended the obstetrics clinic for routine antenatal care. All recruited women were screened for chlamydia infection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for detection of serum-specific antibodies and then retested by the McCoy cell culture technique. Results: The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among infertile women was high, at 15.0%. The rate of chlamydia infection detected by ELISA was 9.84%, and it was 12.03% by the culture method (P = 0.2443. Conclusion: The high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among Saudi infertile women demands a national screening program for early detection among infertile couples. ELISA is available as a simple screening test alternative to the culture method. Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, ELISA, McCoy cell culture, infertility, sexually transmitted infection
Annual rainfall records of 20 stations for 30 years are used in order to detect rainfall regimes and climatic features of Saudi Arabia using harmonic analysis techniques. In this study, the percentages of variance, amplitudes, and phase angles are calculated in order to depict the spatial and temporal characteristics of the country's rainfall. The first harmonic explains 42 % of rainfall variation in the western (W) region. This percentage increases toward east (E) and north (N) with 69 and 67 %, respectively. In the southwest (SW) region, the percentages explain 43 % of rainfall variation. The percentages of variance in W and SW are lower than in the E, NW, and central (C) regions. This implies significant contributions of the second harmonic in W and SW regions with 26 and 16 %, respectively. The high percentages of the second and third harmonics in W and SW regions suggest that these two regions are affected by different weather systems at different times. The SW region has the highest amplitudes of the first, second, and third harmonics. The amplitude of the first harmonic reaches to 21 mm in SW and 9 mm in both C and E regions. The time of maximum rainfall is calculated using phase angle; the result reflects that maximum rainfall is shifted forward on the time axis toward the spring season in SW and C regions, January in E and NW regions, and October and November in the W region. This reveals that the SW region is a completely different climatic region, though some of what affects this region also affects the central region. Conditions in the E and NW regions are mainly affected by Mediterranean weather systems, while the W region is affected by unstable conditions caused by the active Red Sea Trough (RST) in October and November.
Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Abdelaziz Eldeib; Sabri Hammad
Objective: To highlight some clinical and epidemiological features of dengue fever.Methods:All patients who were admitted to hospitals in Holly Mecca City, Saudi Arabia and were confirmed as dengue fever (DF) or dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were included in this study. The data were collected from patient files and through direct interview with patients or their relatives. Cases were followed through their hospital stay. Routine laboratory investigations were done and diagnosis was confirmed by PCR.Results: Most of cases admitted in stable condition (94.37%) and only one case (1.41%) died. Dengue-1 and 3 types were the prevalent dengue viruses and cases in age group 16-44 were the most frequent (70.40%). The most common symptoms was fever reported from all cases followed by headache (74.60%), myalgia and anorexia (67.60%), back pain (59.20%) and chills (54.90%). DF represented (60.57%) of the cases while DHF represented (39.43%). About half of cases had underground water tanks for human use, 5.60% had over house roof water tanks and 43.70% had both types, 16.90% of these tanks were uncovered. Approximately 70.00% of cases reported presence of small collection of water nearby houses and 46.80% reported the presence of mosquitoes within their houses.Conclusions: Most dengue fever cases might be endogenous in origin due to prevalence of mosquitoes and their breeding places within the houses and in nearby localities. Control of mosquitoes and their breeding places will contribute to prevention of dengue fever.
Rajaa M. Milyani
Full Text Available The aerobic microbial skin flora of 40 healthy subjects living in Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia was determined. Two age groups: children and adults; including males and females were investigated. Seven sites were studied: forehead, axilla, chest, groin, leg, toe web and anterior nares. The skin was sampled by rubbing the chosen site with a surfactant substance (Tween 80 moistened cotton swab which was dipped back in the surfactant container and the resulted suspension was agitated for one minute. Thirty three microbial species were isolated from the seven sites of the study group, in which Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter lwoffii, corynebacterium species and Staphylococcus (Staph. aureus dominated among children (30% each. The most other prevalent isolates recovered were Alkaligenes species, Bacillus species, Chryseomonas luteola, Staph. epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staph. hominis (27.5% each. Organisms including Candida albicans, Enterobacter agglomerans, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Klebsiella oxytoca, Micrococcus luteus, Micrococcus roseus, Micrococcus varians, Micrococcus species, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pseudomonas species, Staph. capitis, Staph. cohnii, Staph. saprophyticus, Staph. simulans, Staph. warneri, Staph. xylosus, viridans-type streptococcus and yeasts were also found in different percentage. Higher isolation rates of Acinetobacter lwoffii, Staph. aureus, Alkaligenes species, Corynebacterium species, Chryseomonas luteola, Enterobacter agglomerans, Staph. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci were noted in children from the seven sites. However, Chryseomonas luteola, and Pseudomonas species, were found only in the groin area among males. Otherwise, no significant differences were recorded in the isolation rates from each site separately in relation to age and sex. The role of the isolated microorganisms
To explore the role of radiological examination and certain biochemichal values in diagnosing and assessing severity of nutritional rickets. There were cases of nutritional rickets (age range between 3-36 months) seen at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah,Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, during the period 1997-1999 were studied. Determinatin of calcium (Ca), phosphate(PO4),alkaline phosphate(ALP),hand and wrist x-rays,were performed for all cases. 60 cases of nutritional rickets were dignosed within 2 years,38.3% of the patients presented with swollen wristand 28.3% with bowleg.The bone profile at the time of diagnosis: Ca=2.33+-0.23,PO4=1.47+-0.40 and ALP=925+-418. Approximately 81.7% of the patients had a normal of Ca level, 18.3% had low serum PO4 level, 98.3%high value of ALP. X-ray studies indicated that,58.3% of patients have active rickets, 35% had minimal changes, and 6.7% showed healed rickets. Among those having active rickets 20% had low PO4 level ,83% had normal Ca vlaue , and 100% had high ALP.The mean value +- Sd of biochemical values in this group : Ca=2.34+-0.24, PO4= 1.45+-0.42,ALP=1067+-452. The later was significantly higher compared to other groups (P=0.004). Radiological examination and ALP remains essential to confirm clinical diagnosis of rickets and assessment of severity. (author)
Ingested corrosive material is a major pediatric emergency all over the world. The corrosive material can cause damage to the digestive tract, ranging from minor injury to strictures, and sometimes even death. We aimed to review the pattern of corrosive ingestion in children who had been admitted to Aseer Central Hospital in the Southwestern region of Saudi Arabia. This is a retrospective study of all children who had been admitted with a history of corrosive ingestion to Aseer Central Hospital over a period of five years period from 1990 to 1995. The records of 72 patients (38 males and 34 females) were reviewed. The data included age, sex, time lapse till admission, action taken by parents, presenting symptoms, general management given to the child, barium study, endoscopy, and the postcorrosive ingestion outcome of the child. The mean age of the pediatric patients was 28 + - 20 months. Different types of corrosives were encountered. The most common type was 5.25% hypochlorite in 36 patients (50%), kerosene in 12 patients (16.7%), caustic soda in nine patients (12.5%), hydrogen chloride and N-alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (HC and ADB) in eight patients (11.1%), and other material in seven patients (9.7%). Endoscopy was done in 30 patients (31.7%), 14 of whom were abnormal. Barium swallow was performed in 11 patients; five of them showed strictures that required frequent dilatation whereas one needed interposition surgery. Corrosive injury is still a major pediatric emergency among young children. It carries a major risk of complications (mainly stricture) and requires standardized management based on evidence-based medicine. (author)
Fraihi, Khalid J. Al; FAMCO, Dip; FAMCO, Fellow; Latif, Shahid A.
Objectives: To investigate perceptions and expectations of patients regarding hospital outpatient services by using a service quality gap model and factors influencing such gaps. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted between October and November 2014 in the outpatient waiting areas of a hospital in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, a sample of 306 patients was selected by convenience sampling technique. The data was collected through an Arabic version of the service quality (SERVQUAL) questionnaire consisting of 2 parts: patients’ demographic characteristics, and 22 items scales of patients’ expectations and perceptions of SERVQUAL. The data was analyzed by confirmatory factor analysis, independent, and paired t samples tests and one way analysis of variance test. Results: The results showed that the proposed model for service quality dimensions had a good fit by satisfying the recommended values. The patients’ expectations exceeded perceptions in all service quality dimensions indicating statistically significant service quality gaps (t=26.3, pempathy dimension contributed most patients’ expectations (4.7 ± 0.5) and perceptions (3.7 ± 0.8) scores, and responsiveness contributed least to expectations (4.5 ± 0.6) and perceptions (3.2 ± 0.8) scores. Prompt services showed highest service quality gap, while observation of privacy showed the smallest service quality gap in the statements. The study showed a significant association between gender, age, education, multiple visits, and service quality dimensions. Conclusion: The proposed model is valid and reliable and significant service quality gaps of all 5 dimensions need to be prioritized and addressed by focused improvement efforts of hospital management. PMID:27052285
Marwa Tuffaha; Charbel El Bcheraoui; Farah Daoud; Hessah Abdulla Al Hussaini; Fahad Alamri; Mohammad Al Saeedi; Mohammed Basulaiman; Memish, Ziad A.; AlMazroa, Mohammad A.; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A.; Mokdad, Ali H
Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS) is a cross-sectional national multistage...
Somers, Patricia; Caram, Chris A.
Describes the oppression endured by Saudi Arabian women, and discusses the state of education, higher education, and employment for them. States that it will be difficult for Saudi women to achieve their aspirations brought about by higher education due to the growing number of unemployed Saudi males and the heavy rule of the monarchist…
Alsunni, Ahmed A.; Waleed I Albaker; Ahmed Badar
Objective: To identify the determinants of misconceptions about diabetes in patients registered with a diabetes clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out at a diabetes clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Eastern Saudi Arabia, from January to December 2012. A total of 200 diabetic patients were interviewed using a questionnaire comprising 36 popular misconceptions. The total misconception score was calculate...
Al Eissa, Majid; Almuneef, Maha
Objectives: To describe increased child abuse and neglect (CAN) reporting and the characteristics of the reports in the context of the development of a system of intervention for one of the hospital-based child protection centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia aligned with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) Article 19.…
Alrashidi, Oqab; Phan, Huy
This paper discusses the education context and English teaching and learning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The paper is organised into five main sections. The first section offers a brief glance at the social, religious, economic, and political context in KSA. The second section provides an overview of the education system in KSA, which…
M. K. Al-Sadoon
Full Text Available This investigation evaluated the epidemiological aspects of scorpion stings in different areas of Saudi Arabia. A total of 72,168 cases of scorpion stings recorded in Ministry of Health Medical Centers in 11 selected areas of Saudi Arabia were analyzed based on area, age, sex, time of sting, sting site, treatment outcome, time of year, and scorpion species. Stings occurred throughout the year; the highest frequency was in June (15.08%, the lowest in February (2.52%. Most patients were male (61.8%; the majority of which were more than 15 years old (65.4%. Nocturnal envenomation (47.74% was more common than diurnal (43.91%; most stings were in exposed limbs (90.95%, mainly in the lower limbs (63%. Most envenomings were mild (74.48% and all evolved to cure, except for one death. Envenomation was characterized by local pain, erythema, headache, vomiting, and anxiety. This study found that the Leiurus quinquestriatus (Ehrenberg 1828, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier 1807, and Apistobuthus pterygocercus (Finnegan 1807 were responsible for most of the stings, indicating their medical importance in Saudi Arabia. The study shows low threat to life despite the high number of stings; this is a result of the availability of medical facilities and the multi-center antivenom use in different areas of Saudi Arabia.
Hein, Sascha; Tan, Mei; Aljughaiman, Abdullah; Grigorenko, Elena L.
This study investigates factors in the home environment and their influence on children's analytical, creative, and practical skills. A sample of 294 gifted children (195 male) was recruited from grades 4-7 in Saudi Arabia, where the family context is highly influenced by the principles of Islam. Results did not confirm the effect of birth…
An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.
Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Li, Li
This article aims at discussing facts regarding teaching Arabic, and the curriculum for doing so in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, in order to convey the attention that the Ministry of Education has paid to the teaching and learning of Arabic in public education. It also shows the different developments that have occurred in the contents of the…
Murshid, Ebtissam Z.
The purpose of this study is to report base line information about characteristics, and dental experiences of a group of autistic children in three major cities of Saudi Arabia. Most of the children (76.2%) included in the study were diagnosed with autism before the age of 5 years. More than half of the children (53.7%) had no previous dental…
Ashaalan, Latifah; Al-zeiby, Ibtisam
This study aimed to identify the extent to which caregivers, social workers and psychologists working in orphanages in Saudi Arabia adopt one or more of the following five methods of care when treating children: attention vs. non-attention, equality vs. discrimination, kindness vs. cruelty, acceptance vs. rejection and democracy vs.…
Al dakeel, Taghreed M.; Almannie, Mohamed A.
The general school district of Riyadh is one of largest in the country of (45) school districts in Saudi Arabia. The school districts play an important roles in the development of education, therefore the objective of the study is to examine the roles of the management in the school districts to see if it is achieving competitive advantage. After…
Hamadneh, Burhan M.
The current study aims to identify the level of job creativity among learning disabilities teachers from their perspective in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and investigate the differences according to gender, scientific qualification and years of experience. The study sample consisted of (80) male and female teachers, who were randomly selected from…
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine policies and solutions addressing (a) improving education for citizens of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and (b) providing alternative instructional delivery methods, including e-learning for those living in remote areas. Theoretical Framework: The theoretical framework of this study was based on the…
Parkinson, Simon C; Djilali, Ned; Krey, Volker; Fricko, Oliver; Johnson, Nils; Khan, Zarrar; Sedraoui, Khaled; Almasoud, Abdulrahman H
Balancing groundwater depletion, socioeconomic development and food security in Saudi Arabia will require policy that promotes expansion of unconventional freshwater supply options, such as wastewater recycling and desalination. As these processes consume more electricity than conventional freshwater supply technologies, Saudi Arabia's electricity system is vulnerable to groundwater conservation policy. This paper examines strategies for adapting to long-term groundwater constraints in Saudi Arabia's freshwater and electricity supply sectors with an integrated modeling framework. The approach combines electricity and freshwater supply planning models across provinces to provide an improved representation of coupled infrastructure systems. The tool is applied to study the interaction between policy aimed at a complete phase-out of nonrenewable groundwater extraction and concurrent policy aimed at achieving deep reductions in electricity sector carbon emissions. We find that transitioning away from nonrenewable groundwater use by the year 2050 could increase electricity demand by more than 40% relative to 2010 conditions, and require investments similar to strategies aimed at transitioning away from fossil fuels in the electricity sector. Higher electricity demands under groundwater constraints reduce flexibility of supply side options in the electricity sector to limit carbon emissions, making it more expensive to fulfill climate sustainability objectives. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of integrated long-term planning approaches for Saudi Arabia's electricity and freshwater supply systems. PMID:26807884
Kentab, Mohammad Yousef
The study aimed to identify the barriers to accountability implementation in the education directorates and to know the suggestions for applying accountability in the education directorates in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the study members' point of view. For the purpose of achieving the objectives and procedures of the study, the descriptive…
Objective was to assess the prevalence of HIV-1 genetic subtypes in Saudi Arabia in samples that are serologically positive for HIV-1 and compare the HIV-1 genetic subtypes prevalent in Saudi Arabia with the subtypes prevalent in other countries. Thirty-nine HIV-1 positive samples were analyzed for HIV-1 subtypes using molecular techniques. The study is retrospective study that was conducted in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and in Abbott laboratories (United States of America) from2004 to 2007. All samples were seropositive for HIV-1 group M. Of the 39 seropositive samples, only 12 were polymerase chain reaction positive. Subtype C is the most common virus strain as it occurred in 58% of these samples; subtype B occurred in 17%; subtypes A, D and G were found in 8% each. The phylogenetic tree was also identified for the isolates. Detection of HIV subtypes is important for epidemiological purposes and may help in tracing the source of HIV infections in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Khoshaim, Heba Bakr; Ali, Tasneem
Universities and colleges at the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia assess new applicants using academic indicators, such as high school grade point average (HSGPA) and the score of a national standardized test (the General Aptitude Test), to ensure that they are academically fit to join the institution. Such criteria have been suggested in previous research…
Almdal, Thomas Peter; Handlos, Line Neerup; Vistisen, Dorte;
We studied the glycaemic threshold and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in screen-detected diabetes in Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Portugal. The prevalence of diabetes-specific retinopathy started to increase at an HbA1c level of 6-6.4% and in individuals with HbA1c >7.0% the prevalence was 6.0%....
This work is an answer, in political terms, to the question : what are, for a petroleum and natural gas exporter country (Saudi Arabia), the data and priorities to take into consideration for the use of natural gas in electric power and industrial development ? (O.L.)
Mazawi, Andre Elias
This paper describes the academic profession in Saudi Arabia, a state dependent upon oil exports, and explores how different social groups are accommodated within the higher education system. The discussion examines the relationship between political power and academic labour, and seeks to explain how local policies and practices are negotiating…
Ahmad, Afnan Masaoud
This paper discusses the issues with EFL teaching in Saudi Arabia, including the reliance on traditional teaching methodologies and banning use of first languages in classrooms. As a result, these traditional teaching practices produce less proficient learners who have limited knowledge about proper linguistic use. In order to overcome these…
This is a comprehensive review of the salient key features of the actual English instructional practices in Saudi Arabia. The goal of this work is to gain insights into the practices and pedagogic approaches to English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching currently employed in this country. In particular, we identify the following central features…
Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Treff, Marjorie
This article describes the teaching and learning culture of a newly established women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The academic culture at Effat College in 2002 included administrators and teachers from many nations, which created unique challenges in cross-cultural communication. These challenges, in turn, affected the development and…
Shaker, Randa E.; Babgi, Amani A.
As the works of females have been present in many fields of our lives, the history mentions little trace of these facts. The field of dentistry was among these professions. This paper will review the presence of dental practice by women world wide and will present a review of dentistry in Saudi Arabia.
Al Mulhim, Ensaf
The paper reports some of the reasons behind the low use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) by teachers. The paper has reviewed a number or studies from different parts of the world and paid greater attention to Saudi Arabia. The literature reveals a number of factors that hinder teachers' use of ICT. This paper will focus on lack…
Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal...
Mona Abdullah Almushait
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI in pregnant women, to identify infectious agents causing the infection, and to explore relationship of specific socio–cultural factors with UTI. This study was conducted at the antenatal clinic of Abha General Hospital, Saudi Arabia from September 2012 to January 2013 on 402 pregnant Saudi women. Midstream urine sample was obtained. A urine analysis test and culture were done as well as socio-demographic data sheet was completed. Among the 402 studied pregnant women, 12.7% were affected with UTI. The main causative agent was escherichia coli(e-coli followed by staphylococci. It was found that UTI was strongly affected by the presence of previous history of reproductive tract inflammation, history of previous UTI attacks, the presence of UTI related complaints, washing and drying the perineum area, the direction of washing and drying the perineum area, frequency of changing diaper during menstruation and the average of cleaning the bathtub (P= 0.002, 0.000, 0.000, 0.000, 0.05, 0.000 and 0.002 respectively. Our study showed a significant percentage on prevalence of UTI among Saudi pregnant women.
Alzaheb, Riyadh A
Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081
Full Text Available This paper presents findings from a study examining the diffusion and adoption of online retailing in Saudi Arabia. Although the country has the largest and fastest growing Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector in the Arab region, growth in e-commerce activities has not progressed at a commensurate rate. In general, Saudi retailers have not kept pace with the global growth of online retailing. The authors have conducted research to identify and explore key issues that influence Saudi retailers in deciding whether or not to adopt online channels. As part of a larger research project using mixed methods, this paper focuses on a quantitative analysis of responses obtained from a survey of retailers in Saudi Arabia. The design of the questionnaire instrument was based on the findings of a qualitative analysis reported in a previous paper. The main findings of the current study include a list of key factors that affect retailers’ e-commerce adoption, such as lack of online payment options and lack of clear legislation on e-commerce in Saudi Arabia, and quantitative indications of the relative strengths of the various relationships.
Alzaheb, Riyadh A.
Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early. PMID:27420081
Riyadh A. Alzaheb
Full Text Available Mothers’ instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants’ socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study’s infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.
The genus Moringa was the family of Moringaceae and Moringa oleifera and Moringa peregrina are the most famous species of Moringa. M. peregrina is widely grown in Saudi Arabia, Iran and India. Therefore, based on these reports, this study aimed to investigate the first systematic attempt to regulate the genetic diversity of the species M. peregrina in Saudi Arabian samples collected from several geographic locations using internal transcribed sequences. Genomic DNA was separated by CTAB extraction method and PCR was performed. Later on, DNA sequencing was performed for PCR products with ITS. In conclusion, the present study affords the first report on genetic stability of M. peregrina using ITS analysis in Saudi Arabia. Further studies are suggested in order to study in different regions. PMID:25737651
Ali M Al-Amri
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the attitude of future physicians regarding the disclosure of diagnosis, prognosis, benefits, and adverse effects of therapeutic intervention if they happen to have cancer. It also examined the differences if any between regions or gender. Materials and Methods: A total of 332 medical students from University of Dammam, in the Eastern Province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of nine questions on the attitudes to disclosure of information on cancer. This self-administered questionnaire was completed by the students in the presence of an investigator. Results: The vast majority of Saudi medical students stated that they would like to know about diagnosis of cancer (92.8% and only 7.2% wanted information withheld from them. Further, 67% of the males and 74.1% of the females wanted family members to know (P = 0.01, but one-third (33% did not want their family to know. Only 24.1% of the male and 21.1% of female students wanted their friends to know. In addition, -97% of the males and 98.8% of the females wanted to know the diagnosis, and 97% and 95.8% of females and males, respectively, would like to know the side effects of the therapy. Almost 95% of male and 93.4% of female students wanted to know the prognosis. Also, 98% of medical students from the Eastern Region would want the diagnosis of cancer to be disclosed compared to 73.6% of those from other regions (P = 0.01. There is no difference between the genders in attitudes toward the disclosure of the diagnosis, 94.6% and 92.2% (P = 0.38. Conclusions: There was a consensus among Saudi medical students on the knowledge of the benefits of treatment, adverse effects of therapy, and prognosis. Female students significantly more than males would like their families to be informed. Significantly more medical students from the Eastern Region than those from other regions would like the diagnosis of
Al-Otaibi, Nasir K.
Saudi Arabia is a major oil-producing nation facing a rapidly-growing population, high unemployment, climate change, and the depletion of its natural resources, potentially including its oil supply. Technology transfer is regarded as a means to diversify countries' economies beyond their natural resources. This dissertation examined the opportunities and barriers to utilizing technology transfer successfully to build renewable energy resources in Saudi Arabia to diversify the economy beyond oil production. Examples of other developing countries that have successfully used technology transfer to transform their economies are explored, including Japan, Malayasia, and the United Arab Emirates. Brazil is presented as a detailed case study to illustrate its transition to an economy based to a much greater degree than before on renewable energy. Following a pilot study, the Delphi Method was used in this research to gather the opinions of a panel of technology transfer experts consisting of 10 heterogeneous members of different institutions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including aviation, telecommunication, oil industry, education, health systems, and military and governmental organizations. In three rounds of questioning, the experts identified Education, Dependence on Oil, and Manpower as the 3 most significant factors influencing the potential for success of renewable energy technology transfer for Saudi Arabia. Political factors were also rated toward the "Very Important" end of a Likert scale and were discussed as they impact Education, Oil Dependence, and Manpower. The experts' opinions are presented and interpreted. They form the basis for recommended future research and discussion of how in light of its political system and its dependence on oil, Saudi Arabia can realistically move forward on renewable energy technology transfer and secure its economic future.
Calvert, John R.; Al-Shetaiwi, A. S.
Gives an overview of women in both general and technical-vocational education and employment in Saudi Arabia. Reports on a survey of 220 private business managers: 83% indicated that Saudi women had limited participation in technical jobs; 63% suggested that vocational-technical education did not promote women's participation. (Contains 51…
Mohamed Al Saeed ** Mohamed Abu Shady *Mohamed Hatem *Khalid Alzahrani
Full Text Available Mesenteric ischemia is relatively a rare disorder seen in the emergency department (ED. Due to the effect of hypobaric hypoxia and higher liability for thrombosis encountered in high altitude areas, acute occlusive mesenteric ischemia (AOMI would represent an actual challenge in Taif and related districts. Another risk factor is that about twenty-five percent of Saudis are victims of diabetes due to the changes in lifestyle and diet leading to increasing levels of obesity. Vague nonspecific clinical findings and limitations of diagnostic studies in addition to cultural and social factors, may lead to late presentation making the diagnosis a significant challenge and in turn higher morbidity and mortality are expected. Objectives: In this study, we review type of AOMI, pattern of presentation, laboratory, radiological, Intraoperative findings and results of treatment in 36 patients who were admitted to King Abdul Aziz Specialist Hospital and King Faisal Hospital, Al Taif, Saudi Arabia from January 2009 to January 2012. Methods: 36 patients with final diagnosis of AOMI were included in this retrospective study by means of review of their files and medical records. Results: The disease was more common in men than women (23 male and 13 females. The mean age of patients was 54 years. The mean time of presentation was 2.4 days after occurrence of symptoms. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom of patients followed by nausea, vomiting, constipation and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination; tachycardia was prevalent, Oliguria was seen in approximately 69.4% of patients, 11.1% of patients were in shock status. All patients had abdominal tenderness and 61.1% of patients had marked peritoneal signs (rebound tenderness with guarding or/and rigidity. Twenty one/36 (58.3% patients were diabetics, 17/36 patients (47.2% were hypertensive and 8/36 patients (22.2% with associated cardiac disorders. In laboratory tests, Leukocytosis was present in all
Craigie, Neil W.
Given the unavailability of high resolution biostratigraphic data and difficulties in using lithostratigraphy for stratigraphic correlation, it was decided to employ chemostratigraphy to propose a scheme for the Silurian Qusaiba Member encountered in five wells in Eastern Saudi Arabia. Chemostratigraphy may be defined as a reservoir correlation technique involving the utilization of inorganic geochemical data. Although Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) were used to acquire data for 50 elements, the scheme is based on changes in the following 'key' element ratios: Zr/Th, Cr/Ti, Th/Nb, Zr/P, Y/Yb, Zr/Yb and Y/P. Variations in these parameters are largely dependent on changes in source/provenance, reflecting increases or decreases in the abundances of particular detrital heavy minerals. The scheme comprises a hierarchical order of four zones, seven subzones and four divisions. The zones are labelled C1, C2, C3 and C4 is ascending stratigraphic order, with two, three and two subzones identified in C2, C3 and C4 respectively. In addition to this, chemostratigraphic divisions are noted in two of the subzones. The chemostratigraphic scheme is considered robust as chemozones (general term used to describe any zone, subzone or division) are clearly defined in each well using geochemical profiles and binary diagrams plotted for key element ratios. Furthermore, high levels of statistical confidence are associated with the chemozones and most are correlative between three or more wells. The nonexistence of chemozones in particular wells is mainly explained by the sampling strategy employed. For example, the absence of subzone C3-2 (occurring towards the center of zone C3) in wells 4 and 5 is most likely to be explained by the uppermost part of the Qusaiba Member not being sampled. In other instances, particular chemozones may be missing as a result of erosion/non-deposition on a
Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; Alghamdi MM; Dohal AA; El-Sheemy MA
Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospi...
Alshahrani Bander Sayaf
Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....
Albawardy, Faisal Abdullah
Although there is consensus that national Human Resource Development policy is important, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) the ways in which strategic human resources development (SHRD) is undertaken by employing organisations remains under-researched. The study investigated the value attached to learning in multinational private and also public organisations in Saudi Arabia. The three research objectives were to: examine the strategic value of learning from CEO managers‟ and HRD practiti...
This research discusses Electronic Government (e-Government), in particular the challenges that face its development and widespread adoption in Saudi Arabia. In this research e-government is defined as a matrix of stakeholders: Government to Government, Government to Business and Government to Citizens, using information and communications technology to deliver and/or consume services. Electronic Government has been implemented in developed countries for some time, while in Saudi Arabia it i...
Elsayid, Mohieldin; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Jahman; Alkulaibi, Yasser Abdullah; Alanazi, Abdullah; Qureshi, Shoeb
Background: Notwithstanding, the growing incidence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathies (SCH) such as sickle cell anemia (SCA) or sickle cell disease, sickle/beta-thalassemia; the exact prevalence remains obscure in Saudi Arabia. Hence, this study is an attempt to determine the frequency of SCA and sickle cell trait (SCT) among all anemic patients with SCH treated at the King Abdul-Aziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the hemoglobin (Hb) S and other Hb patterns (Hb AS and...
Alshahrani Bander Sayaf
Saudi Arabia Southern Region hospitals have shortage of health professionals especially doctors. Retention of quality doctors and minimizing staff turnover has, therefore, become a major priority for hospitals. Job satisfaction is recognized as key factor influencing retention of doctors. In our paper special emphasis is put on doctors working is Southern Region hospitals of Saudi Arabia. By conducting correlation analysis we determine the most important factors conducive to job satisfaction....
Al Agili, Dania
Dania E Al AgiliDepartment of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is planning a master’s program in dental public health (DPH) to address the lack of adequate DPH professionals in the country. A needs assessment survey or situational analysis is typically recommended as the foundation of any curriculum development process. We conduct...
Al Agili DE
Dania E Al AgiliDepartment of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The Faculty of Dentistry at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, is planning a master’s program in dental public health (DPH) to address the lack of adequate DPH professionals in the country. A needs assessment survey or situational analysis is typically recommended as the foundation of any curriculum development process. We conducted t...
Al-Saraj, Taghreed M.
With the increase in globalization, the study of English has become common in Saudi Arabia, but students’ experiences of foreign language anxiety (FLA) have been underexamined. Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries are culturally distinct from the Western world, where the most popular assessments of FLA were developed. Through a qualitative and then quantitative study, the current research examined the suitability of the most popular existing FLA questionnaire, the Foreign Language Classroom ...
Mahaba, Hisham M.; El-Tayeb, Abd El Kader A.; El-Sekibi, Dahl K; El Gofaei, Ali F.; El-Baz, Hisham S.; Ismail, Nanees A.
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The acquisition of infection occurs early in life. The availability of safe and efficacious vaccines has led to the feasibility of an effective control of HBV infection. This study compares the pattern of HBsAg positivity among selected groups of patients with similar groups in other regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Objectives: This study is conducted to determine the prevalence of HBsAg positive subjects am...
Alqahtani, Mohammed M.; Peter Salmon
Objective : To determine the prevalence of psychological disorders and somatization among primary care patients from a semi-urban area of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Design : Screening of consecutive patients with the 12-item and 28-item versions of the General Health Questionnaires and assessments of physical symptoms associated with somatization, using the HSCL-12. Eight primary care health centres in Assir, Saudi Arabia. Results : About half of the sample had one or more psycholo...
This essay inquires into the process of gender role negotiation in Saudi Arabia by examining the dynamics of organizations that straddle ambiguous state-society boundaries and how they have been used to pioneer successful gender reform initiatives in the conservative oil kingdom. The specific case of inquiry is the Jeddah Chamber of Commerce and Industry (JCCI), the leading organization in which women were elected to governance positions for the first time in the history of Saudi Arabia. Th...
Alhaeli, Alaa; Bahkali, Salwa; Ali, Anna; Househ, Mowafa S; El-Metwally, Ashraf A
Dengue fever (DF) is the most serious mosquito-borne viral disease worldwide. DF is an acute febrile illness caused by Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, which are endemic in certain cities of Saudi Arabia, such as Jeddah and Makkah (Mecca). An online literature search was conducted using relevant keywords to retrieve DF studies conducted in Saudi Arabia. Forty-five articles were identified initially. After screening for exclusion and retrieving full texts, a total of 10 articles were used for this review. Four studies were cross-sectional, and three observed a seroprevalence ranging from 31.7% to 56.9%, either among clinically suspected cases or among patients visiting the hospital for other reasons. Evidence extracted from risk factors and distribution studies indicated that young males are commonly affected. Fever, vomiting, thrombocytopenia and leukopoenia were the common features of the three studies related to clinical presentation of DF. One cross-sectional study concerning an educational program for DF demonstrated that a positive family history of DF, literate mothers, and age over 17 years were the predictors of a high DF knowledge score. However, the paucity of large epidemiological studies limits the generalizability of such evidence. Future studies in Saudi Arabia should focus upon the expansion of DF to other cities in the Kingdom. Larger epidemiological studies are needed for estimating the true burden and incidence of DF in the Saudi population, as they are limited to seroprevalence among clinically suspected cases and hospital-based patients. PMID:26106040
Abu-Zaid, Ahmed; Alamodi, Abdulhadi A; Alkattan, Wael; Alkattan, Khaled; Obeidat, Akef S
Engaging medical students in scholarly research activities and producing clinically competent and research-oriented medical workforces are essential demands, particularly in developing countries. Dual-degree MD-PhD programs offer simultaneous rigorous education in medicine and research, and train its graduates (physician-scientists) to successfully catalyze translational research evolutions. Literature fundamentally identifies dual-degree MD-PhD programs as the single most important, well-established, popular and influential programs toward commencing physician-scientist professions. While the physician-scientist population is alarmingly vanishing in the West with ongoing efforts to reverse this undesired trend, such population is largely nonexisting, unfortunately to start with, in Saudi Arabia. This is simply because no single dual-degree MBBS-PhD program is yet established in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we call on the Saudi Higher Education bodies to implement dual-degree MBBS-PhD programs with anticipated generation of competent physician-scientists in Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever report to call for such innovative implementation. PMID:26984038
Khaled A. ALASMARI
Full Text Available Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information will form the base for analyzing the various efforts that the Saudi Arabia nation has in place for countering money laundering in narcotics trade. The paper will then explain the challenges facing these efforts, and the future of money laundering in Saudi Arabia. The largest criminal activity associated with money laundering is terrorism financing. The several terror attacks associated with Saudi Arabia’s terror groups like Al-Qaida have made the government realize the importance of curbing money laundering in an effort to counter terrorism. Thus, anti-money laundering strategies are set in place to address all the avenues of money laundering.
Meo, Sultan Ayoub
Saudi Arabia is the largest country of the Arabian Peninsula, blessed with significant natural resources, including oil, gas and minerals. Saudi Arabia has recognised the importance of education in social and economic transformation, and has established a large number of universities, research and advanced technical institutes which have broken the metropolitan boundaries and have been extended to the far-flung areas of the country. There are 68 universities and degree-awarding institutes. The educational budget reached its highest-ever level of $56.56 billion for the year 2014. About 124,000 Saudi students are pursuing higher education in about 500 universities around the world. Saudi Arabia produced 177826 research papers in Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) database and in the year 2014 alone, 26168 research papers were published in indexed science journals with a rising h-index of 144. The country is turning into a regional hub for advanced education, research, science and technology while swiftly shifting from an oil-based to a knowledge-based economy. PMID:26440844
Alsubaiei, Mohammed E.; Cafarella, Paul A.; Frith, Peter A.; McEvoy, R. Doug; Effing, Tanja W.
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programs proven to be one of the most effective treatment options for respiratory diseases; yet, they are not well-established in hospitals in Saudi Arabia. AIM: To determine the main barriers for setting up PR programs in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Health care providers involved in treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were recruited from 22 general government hospitals. Data were collected using questionnaires: Full version if they had heard about PR before the study, and a short version if they had not heard about PR before. RESULTS: A total of 123 health care providers were recruited (physicians [n = 44], nurses [n = 49], and respiratory therapists/technicians [n = 30]). Only 3.2% of the recruited health care providers had heard about PR programs before. According to the health care providers, the main barriers for setting up PR programs were a lack of (1) hospital capacity (75.6%), (2) trained health care providers (72.4%), and (3) funds (48.0%). There were significant differences in barriers reported by the health care providers. Compared to physicians, nurses were more likely to nominate the PR costs as a barrier (18.0% vs. 38.8%; P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: There is a worrisome lack of knowledge regarding content and benefits of PR programs among Saudi health care providers treating COPD patients. These findings imply that improving awareness and increasing education of the health care providers regarding PR will be required before PR can be more widely implemented as an integral treatment modality for patients with COPD in Saudi Arabia. PMID:27168860
There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3)-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males) adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The overall prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients (Author).
Full Text Available There are no available data about the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD and its risk factors in the general population of the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. To estimate the prevalence of CKD and its associated risk factors in the Saudi population, we conducted a pilot community-based screening program in commercial centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Candidates were interviewed and blood and urine samples were collected. Participants were categorized to their CKD stage according to their estimated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD3-based, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation and the presence of albuminuria. The sample comprised 491 (49.9% were males adult Saudi nationals. The mean age was 37.4 ± 11.3 years. The over-all prevalence of CKD was 5.7% and 5.3% using the MDRD-3 and CKD-EPI glomerular filtration equations, respectively. Gender, age, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes mel-litus were not significant predictors of CKD in our cohort. However, CKD was significantly higher in the older age groups, higher serum glucose, waist/hip ratio and blood pressure. Only 7.1% of the CKD patients were aware of their CKD status, while 32.1% were told that they had protein or blood in their urine and 10.7% had known kidney stones in the past. We conclude that prevalence of CKD in the young Saudi population is around 5.7%. Our pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of screening for CKD. Screening of high-risk individuals is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy to detect CKD patients.
Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia is higher than osteoporosis in the Saudi women above 40 years in the Northern part of Saudi Arabia. The major cause of low BMD is lack of exercise even though there is a high prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 274-278
Glowacki-Dudka, Michelle; Usman, Irianti; Treff, Marjorie
This study examines the breakdown of professional and personal communication and relationship through the lens of cultural differences. The case is based on the experience of two female adult educators--an American and a Saudi--working within continuing education at a private women's college in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Graduates of the same U.S.…
"Women constitute the key resource for attaining the goal of health for all by the year 2000," maintains a report by The World Health Organization. Achieving this goal requires massive efforts including (1) the training of women health care professionals; and (2) the nonformal health education of women, the primary health care providers to their families and communities. This paper focuses on the first area, specifically on the education of women nurses in a Third World country, Saudi Arabia, where traditional attitudes persist against intermingling of the genders and the treatment of women by men. It examines the progress and problems encountered in recruiting Saudi women for nursing education and practice; describes the evolution of nursing education programs; and analyzes the obstacles to women's participation in these programs and in the nursing profession. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the problem, increase women's participation, and contribute to that country's health development. The paper is based upon primary and secondary data, including official statistics; personal interviews with Saudi women health professionals and students; the memoirs of a leading Saudi woman nurse and educator, the author's personal observations and experiences with the health care system during four years of residence in Saudi Arabia, and available literature on the subject. PMID:8284700
Yasser S. A. Mazrou
Full Text Available Egypt is one of the important orange exporters and Saudi Arabia also is an important import orange market. The Saudi orange market is a main market for Egypt which has a market share that exceeds half of Saudi orange market by 55.72%. This article aims to discover the degree of market power for Egyptian orange exports and other competitors in the Saudi market and if it is considered a measure of the relative mark- up by applying Residual Demand Elasticity approach. The results show that Egyptian orange exports has just a statistically signified market power by SUR and 3-SLS and has a negative sign, which may gain monopolistic profits by the relative mark-up over its marginal cost by about 63.7% without losing any of its market share. The source of Egyptian orange exports market power is due to: 1- product differentiation where Egypt exports navel orange most its export season compared with sweet orange which exported from other competitors. 2- Saudi Arabia Market demand characteristics which reflect on the consumers preference for Egyptian oranges.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Nada A Abahussain
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15–19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatmen...
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the state of software engineering practice for software industry in Saudi Arabian organizations. The main goal was mainly to gain insight into the ways these organizations are using to adopt software engineering techniques and also the sources of obstacles and difficulties faced by these organizations. To achieve that, we have designed and conducted a survey that measures the adoption of various software engineering practices. Results clearly reveal that there are several weaknesses in applying software engineering practices in Saudi Arabia especially for small organizations.
M. AlQuaiz, AlJoharah; R Siddiqui, Amna; H Qureshi, Riaz; A Fouda, Mona; A. AlMuneef, Maha; A Habib, Fawzia; M Turkistani, Iqbal
This is a review of the changing pattern of chronic diseases among women in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data from national surveys conducted in KSA, whose results were published between 1996 and 2011 were used. The results showed that over a period of ten years the prevalence of obesity increased in Saudi women from 23.6% to 44.0% and in men from 14.2% to 26.2%; self-reported physical inactivity worsened in both women (from 84.7% to 98.1%) and men (from 43.3% to 93.9%); prevalence of s...
Bahijri, Suhad M; Jambi, Hanan A.; Al Raddadi, Rajaa M.; FERNS, Gordon; Tuomilehto, Jaakko
BACKGROUND: Type 2 (T2DM) is believed to be common in Saudi Arabia, but data are limited. In this population survey, we determined the prevalence of T2DM and prediabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A representative sample among residents aged ≥ 18 years of the city of Jeddah was obtained comprising both Saudi and non-Saudi families (N = 1420). Data on dietary, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics were collected and anthropometric measurements taken. Fasting plasma glucose ...
RASEM N. KAYED; M Kabir Hassan
As this paper examines the relationship between Islamic values and entrepreneurial activity, it seeks to establish whether these values can be more effectively tapped into to raise the profile of Islamic form of entrepreneurship. A written, self-administered questionnaire among a random sample of Saudi entrepreneurs in the city of Riyadh was employed to generate descriptive data to assess the views and attitudes of Saudi entrepreneurs toward both conventional and Islamic forms of entrepreneur...
Ayman M. Sabry; Hassan, Mohamed M.; Mohamed, Alaa A.
The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus), Mousa (Solea solea), Hamor (Greasy grouper), Shour (Lethrinus lentjan), Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus), Harid (Scarus arabicus) and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm) were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were co...
Nadia Al Tamimi
Full Text Available A sample of 50 wives and 50 husbands from Saudi Arabia completed a battery of scales assessing different aspects of couple relationship functioning which had been translated from English to Arabic. The selection of measures was based on the Vulnerability-Stress-Adaptation Model (VSA, Karney & Bradbury, 1995 and included measures of partner attachment, conflict behaviour, and relationship with members of the family-in-law as predictors and marital satisfaction as criterion variable. All scales of the test battery showed acceptable reliability. The newly developed conflict behaviour scale consisted of three theoretically meaningful factors (Positive behaviour, Negative behaviour, and Abuse. All instruments showed evidence for convergent validity and contributed significantly to the prediction of relationship satisfaction. The results showed in general a similar pattern of correlations in Saudi Arabia as previous studies in Western countries.
A Malaise trap was used during different time periods between 2002 and 2006, in the Asir province of Saudi Arabia at different localities. Nine known species of Milichiidae (some of them of medical importance) have been identified. These are: Desmometopa m-nigrum (Zetterstedt, 1848); D. varipalpis Malloch 1927; D. singaporensis Kertesz 1899; Leptometopa rufifrons Becker 1903; L. latipes (Meigen 1830); L. nilssoni Sabrosky, 1987; Milichia pubescens Becker 1907; Milichiella lacteipennis (Loew 1866); Enigmilichia dimorphica Deeming, 1981, from South-Western Saudi Arabia, the last seven species of the above are recorded for the first time. Biological information and distribution of these species are included. The fauna of Milichiidae found in this study is much more of Afrotropical than Palaearctic origin. (author)
Full Text Available This paper reports the results of an online survey study, which was conducted to investigate the use of software project management tools in Saudi Arabia. The survey provides insights of project management in the local context of Saudi Arabia from ten different companies which participated in this study. The aim is to explore and specify the project management tools used by software project management teams and their managers, to understand the supported features that might influence their selection. Moreover, the existence of the Arabic interface, the Hijri calendar and the Arabic documentation has been specially considered, due to the nature of the local context in dealing with the Hijri calendar and the prolific use of Arabic as the formal language in communication with clients in the public sector.
Radwan, A I; Bekairi, S I; Prasad, P V
Sera from 2,630 apparently normal adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Kharj cities) were examined serologically by the Rose Bengal and standard United States of America Brucella plate agglutination tests. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the restricted populations of tested camels was 8%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels raised in small numbers in the backyards of 24 houses in Riyadh and those intensively raised on one large camel farm near Al-Kharj were 4.3% and 8.6% respectively. Fresh milk samples from 100 brucellosis seropositive camels from Riyadh and Al-Kharj were cultured on Brucella-selective media. Brucella melitensis biovars 1 and 2 were isolated and identified from 26 camels. Epidemiologically, brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia appeared to be connected with B. melitensis infection of sheep and goats, and also represents a serious public health risk. PMID:1472730
Youssef, Ahmed M.; Al-Harbi, Hasan M.; Gutiérrez, Francisco; Zabramwi, Yasser A.; Bulkhi, Ali B.; Zahrani, Saeed A.; Bahamil, Alaa M.; Zahrani, Ahmed J.; Otaibi, Zaam A.; El-Haddad, Bosy A.
Approximately 60 % of the 2,150,000 km2 area of Saudi Arabia is underlain by soluble sediments (carbonate and evaporite rock formations, salt diapirs, sabkha deposits). Despite its hyper-arid climate, a wide variety of recent sinkholes have been reported in numerous areas, involving significant property losses. Human activities, most notably groundwater extraction, have induced unstable conditions on pre-existing cavities. This work provides an overview of the sinkhole hazard in Saudi Arabia, a scarcely explored topic. It identifies the main karst formations and the distribution of the most problematic sinkhole areas, illustrated through several case studies covering the wide spectrum of subsidence mechanisms. Some of the main investigation methods are presented through selected examples, including remote sensing, trenching and geophysics. Based on the available data, the main causal factors are identified and further actions that should be undertaken to better assess and manage the risk are discussed.
Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.
Al-Kheliewi, A. S.
Saudi Arabia have no nuclear industry. Nevertheless, many radioactive sources, for different purposes, have been used in the country. There is upswing in the number of companies that recruit nuclear technology in their daily work. The National Center for Radiation Protection (NCRP) takes the full commitment and responsibility for monitoring and regulating the movement of radioactive sources in the country. NCRP issues the licenses for import, export, and use of radioactive sources. It, also, protects the country from any trespassing radiation through a sizable net of early warning and radiation monitoring stations along the borders of Saudi Arabia. This paper talks about the procedures of licensing, importing, exporting of radioactive sources. It, also, sheds light on types of implementing radioactive sources in different practices encompass medicine, industry, research. The NCRP has established an electronic web site to ease the communication with all users in the country. This site is yet in the experimental stage.
Full Text Available Thirty-one patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD were offered continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD at the Dammam Central Hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia over a period of five years. The group included 21 women and 10 men with a mean age of 41.3 ± 17.2 years. The main indication for CAPD was poor or failed vascular access (51.4%. Peritonitis remained the major complication with an overall incidence of 0.62 episode per patient year. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the main causative organism. Therapy with CAPD lasted a mean of 26 ± 7.4 months. Our results, showing good technique survival and low peritonitis rate, suggest that CAPD should be promoted to become a full arm of the integrated care of ESRD in Saudi Arabia.
Nayyar, Z. A.; Zaigham, N. A.; Aburizaiza, O. S.; Mahar, G. A.; Eusufi, S. N.
Global energy scenario is changing drastically toward decline, as new major discoveries of fossil fuel are not coming up significantly on regional basis. In case of Saudi Arabia, one of the largest fossil fuel producers, the major oil fields have started exhausting significantly as revealed from the literature research study. Considering the future energy crisis, different other renewable options presently have became imperative to be consider anticipating for the national development. Wind energy in one of them. The development of wind energy technology requires the baseline data relevant to the wind trends and their potentials. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to develop wind power density map of the Makkah Province of Saudi Arabia based on the meteorological data collected at different sparsely located weather stations. GIS application has provided a good option to interpolate the gap areas between the sparsely located weather recording stations. This paper describe the methodology and results of the present study.
Alshalaan, Nasser A.
Studies indicate that many teachers have negative beliefs about science, which translates into low teacher efficacy, resulting in avoidance of science teaching or in ineffective science teaching behaviors. Highly efficacious teachers have been found to be more likely to use inquiry and student-centered teaching strategies, while teachers with a low sense of science-teaching efficacy are more likely to use teacher-directed strategies, such as didactic lectures and reading from the textbook (Czemiak, 1990). The purpose of this study was to investigate preservice science teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy changes and their correlation to teaching environment factors during the student teaching semester. Moreover, it explains how teaching environment factors and preservice teachers' science-teaching self-efficacy beliefs may relate to their use of teaching strategies in the science classroom during their student teacher training at teachers' colleges in Saudi Arabia. The population of this study is consisted of 184 middle and elementary preservice science teachers who were doing their student teaching at nine teachers' colleges (i.e., teachers' colleges of Riyadh, Dammam, Alrras, Almadinah, Alihsa, Jeddah, Makah, Altaief, and Abha) in Saudi Arabia during the spring semester of 2005. Three instruments were used to collect data for this study: (1) to measure science teaching self-efficacy, the researcher adapted the Science Teaching Efficacy Belief Instrument form B designed specifically for preservice teachers (STEBI-B); (2) to measure the school environment, the researcher adapted the Organizational Health Inventory (OHI), developed by Hoy, Tarter & Kottkamp (1991); and (3) to measure the type and frequency of instructional strategies that preservice science teachers use in the classroom, the researcher adapted the teaching practice subscale from The Local Systemic Change through Teacher Enhancement Science K-8 Teacher Questionnaire (Horizon Research, Inc., 2000
The subject-matter is intriguing as Saudi Arabia is perceived as the incarnation of Islam. In fact, it has no constitution since the Quran is regarded as its constitution. Moreover, Islam was instrumental in its state building. But Dr. Lacroix is, after his field work, well-placed to discuss the issue. His talk is based on his Ph.D from Paris, his French book and its English edition that is to be published soon by Harvard University Press.
Magdi El-Hawagry; Hathal Al Dhafer
Abstract Five bee-fly species ( Bombyliidae , Diptera ) have been listed in this paper as new to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Four of the recorded species have been identified to the level of species, namely: Bombomyia discoidea (Fabricius, 1794), Spogostylum candidum (Sack, 1909), Exoprosopa linearis Bezzi, 1924, and Exoprosopa minos (Meigen, 1804), while the fifth one only to genus, Desmatoneura sp. The species have been collected from Al-Baha and Asir Provinces in the south-western part of...
Ayesha Nuzhat; Raneem O. Salem; Mohammed S.A. Quadri; Nasir Al-Hamdan
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine preferred learning styles of undergraduate medical students at King Saud Bin Abdul Aziz University for Health Sciences, King Fahad Medical College, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross sectional study of preclinical students with 74 male and 72 female (n= 146) was performed. The validated VARK questionnaire was used to categorize the learning styles of students. The questionnaire consists of 16 items which identify four different learning styles:...
Alqumber, Mohammed A
Objectives: To determine Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) prevalence on retail surfaces and shoppers plastic bags. Methods: From 20 June to 10 August 2011, in a cross-sectional epidemiological study, 17 supermarkets from 2 cities, Albaha and Altaif, Saudi Arabia were sampled. A total of 800 samples, which comprised 200 samples per surveyed surface, were studied. These included baskets, trolleys, conveyer belts, and outgoing shoppers’ plastic bags. Clostridium difficile strains were isolat...
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.; Vaux Halliday, S
The objective of this study is to clarify the theoretical problem and identify factors that could explain the level of continuance intention of e-shopping in context of Saudi Arabia. The study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure age differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions. Structural equation model confirms model fit. The research findings confirm that Perceived usefulness, enjoyment, and subjec...
Alghamdi, Faris S.
ABSTRACT Objectives: To examine the impact of service quality perception on patient satisfaction and determine which dimension from 5 dimensions (tangible, reliability, responsive, assurance, and empathy) has the greatest impact on patient satisfaction. Methods: A total of 183 eligible patients participated in this study. This study was conducted in Al-Baha province, Saudi Arabia from June 2013 to August 2013. We utilized the cross-sectional method, using a modified Assessment of Service Qual...
Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab; Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E. A.; Syam Mohan; Sara Taha; Manal Mohamed Elhassan; Maged El-Setouhy
Background. Catha edulis Forsk. (Khat) is used for its psychoactive effects among people in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, although its utilization is illegal in some countries such as Saudi Arabia. This study examined the pattern of Khat use and assessed the applicability of the Drug Abuse Screening Test-10 (DAST-10) to measure Khat dependence. Methods. A pretested questionnaire was used to gather data from 603 respondents. Variables included demographic characteristics, pattern of use, r...
Aljuaid, Mohammed; Mannan, Fahmida; Chaudhry, Zain; Rawaf, Salman; Majeed, Azeem
Objectives To identify the key issues, problems, barriers and challenges particularly in relation to the quality of care in university hospitals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), and to provide recommendations for improvement. Methods A systematic search was carried out using five electronic databases, for articles published between January 2004 and January 2015. We included studies conducted in university hospitals in KSA that focused on the quality of healthcare. Three independent revie...
Kajenthira, Arani; Siddiqi, Afreen; Anadon, Laura Diaz
Saudi Arabia is the third-largest per capita water user worldwide and has addressed the disparity between its renewable water resources and domestic demand primarily through desalination and the abstraction of non-renewable groundwater. This study evaluates the potential costs of this approach in the industrial and municipal sectors, exploring economic, energy, and environmental costs (including CO2 emissions and possible coastal impacts). Although the energy intensity of desalination is a global concern, it is particularly urgent to rethink water supply options in Saudi Arabia because the entirety of its natural gas production is consumed domestically, primarily in petrochemical and desalination plants. This burgeoning demand is necessitating the development of more expensive high-sulfur gas resources that could make desalination even pricier. The evolving necessity to conserve non-renewable water and energy resources and mitigate GHG emissions in the region also requires policy makers to weigh in much more considerably the energy and environmental costs of desalination. This paper suggests that in Saudi Arabia, the implementation of increased water conservation and reuse across the oil and natural gas sectors could conserve up to 29% of total industrial water withdrawals at costs recovered over 0-30 years, depending on the specific improvement. This work also indicates that increasing wastewater treatment and reuse in six high-altitude inland cities could save a further $225 million (2009 dollars) and conserve 2% of Saudi Arabia's annual electricity consumption. By these estimates, some anticipated investments in desalination projects could be deferred by improving water efficiency in industry and prioritizing investment in sewage and water distribution networks that would ensure more effective water reclamation and reuse. Simultaneously, such initiatives would conserve non-renewable natural gas resources and could help prevent the lock-in of potentially
Huda Umar Alwehaibi
Critical thinking is important for shaping the way students learn and think. However, there is a need for a systematic direct instruction aimed at developing effective critical thinking skills.This study aims to investigate the effect of a proposed critical thinking program on developing the critical thinking skills of college students. During a 5-week intervention, 80 second-year female students of the English Department of Princess Noura Bint Abdulrahman Univetsity (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia) un...
Jameel M. Al-Khayri; Magda I. Hassan
Consumers awareness and attitude towards GM food vary among different nations and thought to be affected by socio-demographic attributes. The present study was conducted to assess the consumer knowledge about GM food and to determine the level of acceptance of GM products in Saudi Arabia. A consumer questionnaire was designed to generate a demographic profile for participating consumers and assess their perception. Data were collected in Al-Hassa, Eastern Province, based on 420 randomly selec...
Shalhoub, S; Abdraboh, S; Palma, R; AlSharif, H; Assiri, N
In September 2015, a confirmed case of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was diagnosed in a healthcare worker in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Given the absence of confirmed MERS cases in Jeddah at the time, an epidemiological index case investigation took place. The investigation identified a probable source of an index case who had been in hospital in Jordan in August 2015 while there was an ongoing MERS outbreak and who then subsequently sought medical care in Jeddah. PMID:27210272
Full Text Available An Applied study aims at analyzes the metadata of Arabic Libraries' Web Sites in Egypt and Saudi Arabia, it begins with a methodological introduction, then the study analyzes the web sites using Meta Tag Analyzer software, it included the following web sites : Library of Alexandria, Egyptian Libraries, Egyptian National, King Fahd National Library, King Abdel Aziz Public Library, and Mubarak Public Library.
The objective of this study is to determine the perception of retail service quality and its relationship withsatisfaction for customers of hypermarkets in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Data was collected throughself-administered questionnaires using convenience sampling technique. Out of 220 responses, 185 were finallychosen and analyzed for descriptive statistics as well as significant relationship between hypermarket servicequality and customer satisfaction. The respondents reported h...
Obeidat Sadek A; Aldossary Oweida F; Marei Mohammed A; Onazi Atallah S; Almohaya Mohammed S; Almansor Mohammed A; Altannir Mohamad A; Bin Abdulhak Aref A; Obeidat Mustafa A; Riaz Muhammad S; Tleyjeh Imad M
Abstract Background Antibiotics sales without medical prescriptions are increasingly recognized as sources of antimicrobial misuse that can exacerbate the global burden of antibiotic resistance. We aimed to determine the percentage of pharmacies who sell antibiotics without medical prescriptions, examining the potential associated risks of such practice in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, by simulation of different clinical scenarios. Methods A cross sectional study of a quasi-random sample of pharmacie...
ALASMARI Khaled A.
Money laundering is a silent crime. Its goal is to cover up the source of large sums of money that criminals often gather from their criminal activities. This paper will analyze the situation of money laundering in narcotics as it applies in Saudi Arabia. To achieve this end, the paper will first define important terms such as money laundering and narcotics. It will then explain the relationship between money laundering, narcotics trade, and terrorism activities. This background information w...
Mohamed Saeed Zayed AlAyed; Ahmed Morad Asaad; Abdulrab Ahmed Mahdi; Mohamed Ansar Qureshi
Objectives: Gastroenteritis is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of bacterial, viral and parasitic aetiology of gastroenteritis in children aged < 5 years in the Najran region, south-western Saudi Arabia, to determine the contribution of these enteropathogens in childhood diarrhoeal diseases and to put forward effective preventive measures for controlling the disease in the future. Design and Setting: A d...
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University This thesis is an empirical investigation into the control mechanisms of headquarters (HQ) exercised over their subsidiaries and is conducted with the help of primary data collected from 147 Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) operating in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Following on from the literature review, this study proposed that the headquarters–subsidiary mechanisms could be linked to ...
Almuslmani, Bandar; Al-Motari, Eid; Bingley, Richard M; Teferle, Felix Norman; Moore, Terry
Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through a collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying an...
Ismaila R. Abubakar; Faez S. Al-Shihri; Ahmed, Sayed M
Higher education institutions are major drivers of change in achieving environmental sustainability both within college campuses and beyond campuses in communities at large. However, achieving campus sustainability is not possible without the involvement of students as one of the major stakeholders of a university. Based on survey of 152 students of the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, this study explores students’ assessment of campus sustainability c...
Gafar Almalki; Neville Williams
Integration of ICT in education is a complex idea that requires practical interpretation to get significant outcomes. As a developing country, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (the KSA) does not have a proper technological infrastructure as developed countries. Efficient strategies are vital in improving the application of ICT in the KSA’s primary schools effectively. Improving the usage of ICT in the KSA primary schools achievement entails integrating ICT into classroom. However, some barriers th...
Bahrawi, Jarbou A.; Mohamed Elhag; Aldhebiani, Amal Y.; Hanaa K. Galal; Hegazy, Ahmad K.; Ebtisam Alghailani
Soil erosion is one of the major environmental problems in terms of soil degradation in Saudi Arabia. Soil erosion leads to significant on- and off-site impacts such as significant decrease in the productive capacity of the land and sedimentation. The key aspects influencing the quantity of soil erosion mainly rely on the vegetation cover, topography, soil type, and climate. This research studies the quantification of soil erosion under different levels of data availability in Wadi Yalamlam. ...
Tariq Alofisan; Saleh Al-Alaiyan; Moath Al-Abdulsalam; Khawar Siddiqui; Ibrahim Bin Hussain; Mohammad H Al-Qahtani
Background: Good communication skills and rapport building are considered the cardinal tools for developing a patient-doctor relationship. A positive, healthy competition among different health care organizations in Saudi Arabia underlines an ever increasing emphasis on effective patient-doctor relationship. Despite the numerous guidelines provided and programs available, there is a significant variation in the acceptance and approach to the use of this important tool among pediatric resident...
Fageeh, Wafa; Badawood, Sami; Al Thagafi, Hanin; Yasir, Muhammad; Azhar, Esam; Farraj, Suha; Alomary, Mona; Alsaeed, Moneerah; Yaghmoor, Soonham; Kumosani, Taha
Background Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the western countries; its prevalence in the conservative Muslim population of Saudi Arabia is not known, but it is generally believed to be low. This study is the first to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors for C. trachomatis infection in the high-risk group of female inmates at Briman Prison in Jeddah. Methods The inmates were interviewed using a pre-designed questionnaire, and ...
Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study
Mohamed N. Al-Arifi
In Saudi Arabia community pharmacies by law, be owned and managed by pharmacists. Although these two functions seemed to be the same but in reality, they are not. Some studies showed that in community pharmacy managerial functions account for more than 50% of total routine and critical activity for all managerial position surveyed while other study showed that only 13.6% of the pharmacist’s time spent in administrative activities. This article addressed the role of the pharmacist as manager a...
Hartvigson, Johannes; Hourani, Rayan
Saudi Arabia is increasingly becoming one of the most attractive areas in the world for foreign investors. At the same time the country has a major influence on the economy in the Middle-East. However there exist reasons for why companies previously have been reluctant to enter this market, these reasons have mainly been related to political turbulence, foreign traditions and culture. In recent years some research has been dedicated to this area however there is still more to investigate. The...
Alshehri, Saad Abdulrahman F.
Spatial data is a vital national resource necessary for a country’s efficient and sustainable economic, social and environmental development, and so must be properly developed and managed. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), there is lack of knowledge and no clear framework describing the optimal way for stakeholders, users, providers or administrators, to collaborate effectively in establishing a National Spatial Data Infrastructure (NSDI). Moreover, the complex, multi-layer and multi-juri...
Alosaimi, Fahad D.; Almufleh, Auroabah; Kazim, Sana; Aladwani, Bandar
Objectives: Maladaptive stress-coping strategies have been linked to reduced quality of life, psychiatric disorders, and reduced work performance among residents or physicians. This study aimed to examine stress-coping strategies among medical residents in Saudi Arabia and their association with stress levels and important personal characteristics. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2012. Residents of different specialties were recruited from a national ...
Ahmed Mandil; Mohammad Yamani; Abdulaziz BinSaeed; Shaffi Ahmad; Afnan Younis; Ahmad Al-Mutlaq; Omar Al-Baqmy; Abdulaziz Al-Rajhi
Aim: This study aimed at assessing prevailing patterns and risk factors of tobacco consumption among clients, food handlers and employers of food facilities, in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional approach to a representative sample of food facilities in Riyadh was used. A sample of 3000 participants included clients (75%); food handlers/hospitality workers (20 %) and employers (5 %). Participants were reached at restaurants, food courts or cafes. A modified version of the WH...
Almuslmani, B.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.; Moore, T.
Current investigations of the motions of the Arabian and its neighboring plates are primarily based on GPS measurements obtained in the surrounding areas of the Arabian plate, with few stations actually located on the Arabian plate itself in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In order to advance the knowledge of the dynamics of the Arabian plate and its intra-plate deformations, the General Directorate of Military Survey (GDMS), through collaboration with the Institute of Engineering Surveying and Space Geodesy (IESSG), densified the GPS network in Saudi Arabia, covering nearly two thirds of the tectonic plate. Since July 2002, a network of 32 GPS stations has been established at locations of the Saudi Arabia geodetic network. At all of these GPS stations a concrete pillar has been used as the monument and the locations have been selected in order to give the broadest distribution of observing sites. During 2005, 27 additional GPS stations in the Hejaz and Asser Mountains, and the Farasan Islands, all in south-western Saudi Arabia, have been established, for which the past and future campaign GPS measurements will provide valuable data for investigations of crustal deformations close to the plate boundaries between the Nubia, Somalian and Arabian plates. In this presentation we will show results in the form of velocity field and plate motion estimates based on data from at least three campaigns occupying the initial 32 GDMS GPS network stations, but also from a number of IGS stations in the region. Our reference frame is aligned to ITRF2005 and uses approximately 40 IGS reference frame stations located on all major tectonic plates, e.g. Nubia and Somalia, surrounding the Arabian plate. Furthermore, we apply absolute satellite and receiver antenna phase center models together with newly available GPS products from a recent global re-processing effort.
Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.
Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow...
Atika Khalaf; Albert Westergren; Vanja Berggren; Örjan Ekblom; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate perceived and ideal body image (BI) and associated factors among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 663 university female students. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, BMI, and BI perception (the 9-figure silhouette) were obtained. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results. An agreement between actual, perceived, and ideal BI was found in 23% ...
Yousef A Al-Turki
Conclusions: Complete (severe and partial erectile dysfunction was quite common among adult diabetic patients in a hospital-based primary care setting in Saudi Arabia. It is important for primary care physicians to diagnose erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients, and to counsel them early, as most patients are hesitant to discuss their concern during a consultation. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effect of other risk factors on erectile dysfunction in diabetic patients.
Almuneef, Maha; Al-Eissa, Majid
Although child abuse and neglect (CAN) have been recognized by medical professionals for the last 20 years, child protection services and child maltreatment prevention programs are still emerging in Saudi Arabia. This paper will review the progress made in the country in terms of recognition and implementation of child protection services. Furthermore, it will draw attention to the essential steps required to start child maltreatment prevention programs, as CAN prevention is currently viewed ...
The present status of the safety of radiation sources and the security of radioactive materials in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in details. Hazards and potential threat, material control and responsible parties, in addition to management and the technical requirements, are the main topics that are discussed. Some interest is given to the responsibilities of the regulatory authority, with special emphasis on the role of King Abdulaziz city for Science and Technology as a national competent authority. (author)
This thesis presents work conducted for a structured doctorate consisting of four main components. The first element is a case study investigating the current practice of mentorship in a clinical setting in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The qualitative case study was conducted in a government nursing college and its associated government hospital. Data were collected through individual interviews (2) with nursing coordinators; semi-structured focus groups (8) with mentees (n=3), mentors and clinical ...
Dr. Nasser Saad Al-Kahtani
In recent decades, it has been postulates that the productivity of an organization depends on lower level of employees’ burnout and stress at workplace. The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of certain demographical variables such as position in the current job, age, experience and marital status on job burnout among banking employees in Saudi Arabia. Keeping the objectives of the present study four null hypotheses was formulated. The sample consisted of 274 employees work...
Asiri, Yousif A.
The trends in the quality of biomedical education in pharmacy schools have witnessed significant changes in the 21st century. With the advent of continuous revision and standardization processes of medical curricula throughout the world, the focus has been on imparting quality education. This pedagogic paradigm has shifted to pharmacy schools. In Saudi Arabia, the concept of “medical and pharmacy education” is relatively new as mainstream pharmacy curriculum and universities were established ...
Ayoub Meo, Sultan; Fahad A Al-Kheraiji, Mohammad; Fahad AlFaraj, Ziyad; abdulaziz Alwehaibi, Nasser; Adnan Aldereihim, Ahmad
Objective: Sandstorms are metrological events and frequently occur in many regions throughout the world. Sandstorms are a main source of long-distance transport of dust, air pollution and cause various health problems. This study aimed to investigate the acute respiratory and general health complaints in subjects exposed to sandstorm at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methodology: The present descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riy...
Alwakeel, Suaad S.
Fungi causes most plant disease. When fruits are stored at suboptimal conditions, fungi grows, and some produce mycotoxin which can be dangerous for human consumption. Studies have shown that the Penicillium and Monilinia species commonly cause spoilage of fruits, especially apples. Several other genera and species were reported to grow to spoil fruits. This study was conducted to isolate and identify fruit spoilage by fungi on apples collected in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and conduct a molecular ...
Alsibiani, Sharifa A.
To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study) was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM), rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortio...
Hussein Aqeely; Eman K. El-Gayar; Darakhshan Perveen Khan; Abdullah Najmi; Ayesha Alvi; Ibrahim Bani; Mohamed Salih Mahfouz; Saif Elden Abdalla; Elhassan, Ibrahim M
Background. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of worldwide distribution. There is limited information about the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in the southern area of Saudi Arabia. The current study was carried out to determine the prevalence of T. gondii in pregnant women in Jazan province. Materials and Methods. The study was conducted between January and June 2013 and included 195 pregnant women, data on sociodemographic and predisposing factors...
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oropharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, des...
AlJohara M. AlQuaiz; Ashry Gad Mohamed; Khoja, Tawfik A.M.; Abdullah AlSharif; Shaffi Ahamed Shaikh; Hamad Al Mane; Abdallah Aldiris; Ambreen Kazi; Durdana Hammad
Objective. To determine the prevalence and risk factors for anemia in child bearing age women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design. Cross-sectional survey was conducted using two-stage cluster sampling. 25 clusters (primary health care centers (PHCC)) were identified from all over Riyadh, and 45–50 households were randomly selected from each cluster. Eligible women were invited to PHCC for questionnaire filling, anthropometric measurements, and complete blood count. Blood hemoglobin was measured w...
Alotaibi Eqab Aiyadh; Rushami Zien Yusoff; Omar Zayyan AlSharqi; Ebrahim Mohammed Al-Matari
This paper investigated Relationship between High Performance work system and patient safety in Saudi Arabia Public Hospitals. Patient safety is a critical indicator of the quality of healthcare system, and reflects the degree to which performances comply with systems and guidelines which haven’t negative impact on patient health. High performance work system which is designed to enhance employees’ commitment and skills and ultimately improve organizational performance. The aim of this study ...
Full Text Available Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner (= yemenitica auctorum: vide Engel 1999 has been used in apiculture throughout the Arabian Peninsula since at least 2000 BC. Existing literature demonstrates that these populations are well adapted for the harsh extremes of the region. Populations of A. m. jemenitica native to Saudi Arabia are far more heat tolerant than the standard races often imported from Europe. Central Saudi Arabia has the highest summer temperatures for the Arabian Peninsula, and it is in this region where only A. m. jemenitica survives, while other subspecies fail to persist. The indigenous race of Saudi Arabia differs from other subspecies in the region in some morphological, biological, and behavioral characteristics. Further taxonomic investigation, as well as molecular studies, is needed in order to confirm whether the Saudi indigenous bee populations represent a race distinct from A. m. jemenitica, or merely an ecotype of this subspecies.
Full Text Available Sinaa A Al-AqeelClinical Pharmacy Department, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: If evaluation of economic evidence is to be used increasingly in Saudi Arabia, a review of the published literature would be useful to inform policy decision-makers of the current state of research and plan future research agendas. The purpose of this paper is to provide a critical review of the state of health economic evaluation research within the Saudi context with regard to the number, characteristics, and quality of published articles.Methods: A literature search was conducted on May 8, 2011 to identify health economic articles pertaining to Saudi Arabia in the PubMed, Embase, and EconLit databases, using the following terms alone or in combination: “cost*”, “economics”, “health economics”, “cost-effectiveness”, “cost-benefit”, “cost minimization”, “cost utility analysis”, and “Saudi”. Reference lists of the articles identified were also searched for further articles. The tables of contents of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal and the Saudi Medical Journal were reviewed for the previous 5 years.Results: The search identified 535 citations. Based on a reading of abstracts and titles, 477 papers were excluded. Upon reviewing the full text of the remaining 58 papers, 43 were excluded. Fifteen papers were included. Ten were categorized as full economic evaluations and five as partial economic evaluations. These articles were published between 1997 and 2010. The majority of the studies identified did not clearly state the perspective of their evaluation. There are many concerns about the methods used to collect outcome and costs data. Only one study used some sort of sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of uncertainty on the robustness of its conclusions.Conclusion: This review highlights major flaws in the design, analysis, and reporting of the identified economic analyses. Such deficiencies mean that the
AlDughaither A; AlMutairy H; AlAteeq M
Aida AlDughaither,1 Hind AlMutairy,2 Mohammed AlAteeq11College of Medicine, King Saud Bin Abdul-Aziz University for Health Sciences, 2Department of Family Medicine and PHC, King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objectives: Menopause is associated with somatic, vasomotor, psychological, and sexual complaints that may affect quality of life. We determined the prevalence and severity of menopausal symptoms and their ...
Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.
Al Anazi, Abdullah D; Alyousif, Mohamed S
This study aimed to provide recent data on the occurrence of non-strongyle intestinal parasite infestation in horses in the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia as a basis for developing parasite control strategies. We conducted necropsy for 45 horses from September 2006 to November 2007 in the Riyadh region, Saudi Arabia. 39 out of 45 horses were infected with intestinal parasites with an infestation rate of 86.6%. Infestations with seven nematode species and two species of Gasterophilus larva were found. The most prevalent parasites were Strongyloides westeri (64.4%) and Parascaris equorum (28.8%) followed by Habronema muscae (22.2%). Trichostrongylus axei and Oxyuris equi were less common at (11.1%) and (8.8%), respectively. Habronema megastoma and Setaria equine were found in two horses only (4.4%). Gasterophilus intestinalis larvae were recovered from 39 horses (86.6%) and Gasterophilus nasalis larvae were found in 17 horses (37.7%). Season had a significant effect on the prevalence of P. equorum and G. nasalis, while age of horses had a significant effect only on the prevalence of P. equorum. The husbandry in Saudi Arabia appears to be conductive to parasites transmitted in stables or by insects rather than in pasture. PMID:23961139
Ahmed A Mahfouz
Full Text Available Background/Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate gender differences in obesity and related behavior among adolescent school boys and girls in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study on a stratified sample of 1,249 adolescent boys and 620 adolescent girls, was conducted in southwestern Saudi Arabia. They were interviewed and examined for weight and height using standardized techniques. Results: The prevalence of obesity and overweight in the present study amounted to 23.2% among boys and 29.4% among girls. The following significant risk factors were identified; being a female [adjusted odds ratio (aOR =1.372, 95% confidence interval (CI =1.099-1.753] and lack of class physical exercise (aOR =1.452, 95% CI =1.149-2.117. Conclusion: Obesity among adolescents is a public health problem in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. The problem is more prevalent among girls. Thus, there is a need for a national programme in the country to prevent and control obesity among adolescents.
Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260
Muhammad Sadiq Munfath Khan
Full Text Available Energy recovery from waste is not a new field of study, but its implementation continues to be a challenge in some Arab countries. Although there is abundance of useful waste in the urban markets, practices aiming at waste to energy conversion are still negligible. In the kingdom of Saudi Arabia, so-called green markets are abundant with renewable energy potential, but the practical implementation of this potential is missing. Therefore the objective of this paper is the evaluation of waste generation in KSA for the energy recovery purpose, and to show that the conversion of green waste into biofuel is not only environmentally friendly but also financially rewarding. Since the result illustrate that the major portion of the waste generated is organic waste, anaerobic digestion is proposed waste to energy technology because of its feasibility for biodegradation of moist organic wastes into biogas. Diversion of waste into biogas and bio-fertilizer will ensure that it is treated in such a way that it becomes a useful product instead of harmful one. Furthermore as the policy makers and planners in renewable energy sector have intended for kingdom of Saudi Arabia to be andquot;kingdom of sustainable energyandquot; as well, hence they are needed to give special attention toward the largest Saudi Arabia's green market and should invest more to implement this plan.
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidityamong medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought todetermine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of malemedical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medicalstudents at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia. The sample consisted of 304male medical students in Egypt and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia.The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items,on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospitalanxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety anddepression. There was no significant difference between two groups in numberof stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to citerelationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalenceof high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety anddepression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. Alogistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress amongboth groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income anduniversity-graduated father were independent protective factors. Theindependent risk predictors were anxiety and number stressors. Stress,anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling andpreventive metal heath services should be an integral part of the routinefacilities caring for medical students. (author)
Almajwal, Ali M.
Objectives: To investigate the association between stress, shift work, and eating behavior among non-Saudi female nurses working in Central Saudi Arabia. Methods: A sample of 395 non-Saudi female nurses from 2 major hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia participated in this cross-sectional study. The nurses completed a questionnaire from November 2013 to January 2014 that included items relating to stress and eating behavior using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ). The questionnaire also contained items pertaining to socio-demographic data, body mass index, shift work, and hours worked per week. Results: For all eating styles, stress, and shift duty influenced the amount of food nurses consumed, but was more significant under a restrained eating style. Under this eating style, a significantly higher percentage of nurses reported eating more fast food, snacks, and binging, while fruits and vegetables were the least likely to be eaten under stress. High stressed nurses were more likely to present with abnormal restrained eating (odds ratio [OR]=1.52, p=0.004), emotional (OR=1.24; p=0.001), and external (OR=1.21; p=0.001) DEBQ scores. Working nighttime shift duty was positively associated with restrained eating (OR=1.53; p=0.029) and emotional eating (OR=1.24; p=0.001), but negatively associated with external eating (OR=0.45; p=0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that stress and shift duty were associated with eating habits. PMID:26837403
In Arab countries, epidemiological data about psychological morbidity among medical undergraduate students are scarce. This study sought to determine whether there was a difference in perceived stress levels of male medical students at Mansoura University, Egypt, compared with male medical students at King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.The sample consisted of 304 male medical students in Egypt and and 284 male medical students in Saudi Arabia. The self-reported questionnaire covered four categories, including 15 items, on sources of stress (stressors). The perceived stress scale and hospital anxiety and depression scale were used to measure stress, anxiety and depression.There was no significant difference between the two groups in number of stressors. However, Egyptian students were more likely to cite relationship, academic and environmental problems than Saudis. The prevalence of high stress was nearly equal in both groups. However, anxiety and depression were significantly higher among Egyptian than Saudi students. A logistic regression analysis of independent predictors of severe stress among both groups combined revealed that a satisfactory family income and university-graduated father were independent protective factors. The independent risk predictors were anxiety and number of stressors.Stress, anxiety and depression are frequent among medical students. Counseling and preventive mental health services should be an integral part of the routine clinical facilities caring for medical students (Author).
We analyze oil export behavior by Saudi Arabia and the Rest of OPEC since 1973. In the literature there has been a wide range of estimates of their correlation: from positive, to zero, to negative. We find that the correlation has varied over time, from moderately high (0.7) in normal periods, to negative during each of five interruptions; the average correlation has been 0.19. Saudi Arabia's oil market behavior depends upon circumstances, but its primary goal is the stability of OPEC and the world oil market. It will coordinate export reductions with the Rest of OPEC when faced with declining demand, but it will increase exports when faced with interruptions elsewhere in OPEC. Allowing for such differences provides evidence of intelligent, context-dependent consistency. But ignoring context – by wrongly assuming the same Saudi response in Normal periods and Interruptions – can lead to a conclusion of Saudi “inconsistency” because the difference in the responses has been obscured
Diabetes mellitus is emerging as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia in parallel with the world wide diabetes pandemic, which is having a particular impact on upon the Middle East and the third world. This pandemic has accompanied the adoption of a modern life style and the abandonment of a traditional lifestyle, with a resultant increase in rates of obesity and other chronic non-communicable diseases. The indigenous Saudi population seems to have a special genetic predisposition to develop type 2 diabetes, which is further amplified by a rise in obesity rates, a high rate of consanguinity and the presence of other variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. We highlight the epidemiology, clinical and complication profile of diabetes in Saudi people. Diabetes is well studied in Saudi Arabia: however, there seems to be little research in the area of education and health acre delivery. This is of paramount importance to offset the perceived impact on health care delivery services, to lessen chronic diabetes complications and to reduce the expected morbidity and mortality from diabetes. (author)
The national programme for sea water desalination in Saudi Arabia is assigned to the Saline Water Conversion Corporation (SWCC), a government entity loosely affiliated with the Ministry of Agriculture. In addition to water production, SWCC generates considerable electric power in its dual purpose power/water plants, selling excess power to the national grid. SWCC also builds and maintains certain major fresh water pipelines that connect its plants to important municipal water systems. SWCC's pride is the Research, Development and Training Center (RDTC) located in Al-Jubail. The goals at RDTC include improving plant efficiency and minimizing scale formation and corrosion problems. It also trains Saudi engineers and technicians in the operation and management of SWCC plants. As a result, Saudi nationals now represent 65% of the workforce and are heavily involved with all aspects of plant specification and tender analysis
Al-Abed, Fawwaz; And Others
A questionnaire was distributed to Saudi Arabian undergraduates in order to investigate their attitudes toward Westernization, national identity, and religious commitment. Results revealed that learning English did not "Westernize" students nor weaken national identity. Implications and recommendations for establishing a rigid language policy in…
Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Almalki SS; Alghamdi MS; Alghamdi MM; El-Sheemy MA
Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Shaia S Almalki,2 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy5 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2University of Al-Baha, 3General Directorate of Health Affairs, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital, Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UK Purpose: This study...
Alzahrani, Turki A.; Abaalkhail, Bahaa A.; Ramadan, Iman K.
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among female patients, age 18-60 years, attending primary health care centers (PHCCs) and to measure its determinants, and reporting behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using validated, translated, and self-administered questionnaire among 497 Saudi female patients attending PHCCs in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from January to February 2015 was employed. A 2-stage probability sampling was adopted f...
Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA
Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized inc...
Towards the end of 1998, the Saudi Arabian electricity sector embarked upon a major restructuring program. One of the aims of the program is to achieve sustainable performance. Although progress has been made, a number of challenges remain, including high demand growth, low generation capacity reserve margins, inefficient energy use, absence of time-of-use tariffs, and the need for large capital investments to meet current and future expansion. Electrical energy consumption in Saudi Arabia increased sharply during the last two decades due to rapid economic development and the absence of energy conservation measures. Peak loads reached nearly 24GW in 2001-25 times their 1975 level-and are expected to approach 60GW by 2023. The total investment needed to meet this demand may exceed $90 billion. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop energy conservation policies for sustainable development. Current sustainable policies, particularly those pertaining to energy conservation, led to peak load savings of more than 871MW in 2001, mainly as a result of collaborations between the Ministry of Water and Electricity and the Saudi Electricity Company. In the long term, however, unless sustainable energy policies are developed at a national level, such efforts will be largely ineffective. To address this, policies and programs are being developed for public awareness, energy regulation and legislation, and energy information and programming. If energy conservation is taken into account, the forecast demand can be reduced by 5-10%. This is equivalent to 3-6GW of additional capacity, which represents a possible $1.5-3.0 billion saving over the next 20 years. Typically, investment in energy efficiency is 1% of utility sales revenues, which for a country like Saudi Arabia could be $15-60 million p.a. If only savings on air conditioning are considered, the return on investment is equivalent to 400-500MW p.a. of generating capacity-a saving of up to $0.25 billion p.a. In this
Yahia M Al-Khaldi
Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is a common health problem in Saudi Arabia. Good control depends on the quality of care, which should be supervised and monitored regularly through clinical audit. Aims: The objective of this study was to assess the quality of HTN care at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Settings and Design: This study was conductedin 2009 at Al-Manhal Family Practice, Aseer Region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Medical records of all hypertensive patients were extracted and reviewed using master sheets. Assessment of processes and outcomes of HTN care were based on the standards of quality assurance manual issuedby the Ministry of Health. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were entered and analyzed by SPPS, version 15. Relevant statistical tests were used accordingly and the P-value was considered significant when it was less than 0.05. Results: A total of 295 medical records were reviewed and assessed. Most patients were Saudi, married, and about 50% were educated. Two-hundred and thirty-one records were assessed for processes and outcomes of HTN care. Weight measurement and physical examination were carried out for 99% and 97% of the patients, respectively. For 53% of the patients, blood was checked for glucose and kidney function and a lipid profile was done. More than two-thirds of the patients were overweight and obese while 46% had diabetes. Less than one half of the patients had good control of HTN. Conclusions: By most standards, quality of HTN care in Al-Manhal Family Practice was unsatisfactory. Most of the patients had comorbidities and poor HTN control. Essential facilities should be provided to the practice to optimize HTN care and to improve the degree of control.
Al Wadaani, Fahd Abdullah; Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Ayub; Khan, Atuar Rahman
Some 12.8 million in the age group 5-15 years are visually impaired from uncorrected or inadequately corrected refractive errors. In Saudi Arabia, the size of this public health problem is not well defined especially among primary schoolchildren. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of refractive errors among primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. A total of 2246 Saudi primary school children aged 6 to 14 years of both genders were selected using multistage sampling method form 30 primary schools located in the three different areas of Al Hassa. School children were interviewed to collect demographics and vision data using a special data collection form followed by screening for refractive errors by trained optometrists within the school premises using a standardized protocol. Assessment of visual acuity and ocular motility evaluation were carried out and cover-uncover test was performed. Children detected with defective vision were referred for further examination employing subjective refraction with auto refractometer and objective refraction using streak retinoscopy after 1% cyclopentolate. Of the screened school children (N=2002), the overall prevalence of refractive errors was 13.7% (n=274), higher among females (Odds ratio, OR=1.39, P=0.012) and significantly more among students of rural residence (OR=2.40, P=0.001). The prevalence of refractive errors was disproportionately more among those aged 12-14 years (OR=9.02, P=0.001). Only 9.4% of students with poor vision were wore spectacles for correction. Myopia was the most commonly encountered refractive error among both genders (65.7% of the total errors encountered). Uncorrected refractive errors affected a sizable portion of primary school children in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. Primary schoolchildren especially females, rural and older children represents high risk group for refractive errors for which the included children were unaware. PMID:23283044
Qadri, Mohammad H.; Al-Harfi, Ridah A.; Al-Gamdi, Mohammad A.
Objectives: The main objective of this study was to determine the breastfeeding status for children under 24 months and assess the causes of breastfeeding failure among those mothers who do not breastfeed their babies. Methodology: This study was conducted on a sampled population of 1185 children under 24 months of age, using breastfeeding indicators recommended by World Health Organization, for assessing breastfeeding practices within a recall period of 24 hours, in the Dammam area of Saudi ...
Bohlega, Saeed; Monies, Dorothy M.; Abulaban, Ahmad A; Murad, Hatem N.; Alhindi, Hindi N.; Meyer, Brian F.
Objectives: Characterization of the phenotypic, pathological, radiological, and genetic findings in 2 Saudi Arabian families with anoctaminopathies, and limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L). Methods: Over a 2-year period from December 2010 to January 2013, the clinical presentations were analyzed and all genes responsible for limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) were screened in families seen at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, a tertiary care hospital in Riyad...
S. M. Saifullah
The present paper reviews critically the existing information on mangrove ecosystem of Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast and identifies problems and shortcomings that should be removed or remedied. Mangrove structure and composition seems to have been substantially studied along with salient environmental features, and these are thoroughly summarized herewith. However, the functional aspects, especially energy flow through the ecosystem, remain totally neglected. Both the flora and fauna indicate s...
Ayman M. Sabry
Full Text Available The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus, Mousa (Solea solea, Hamor (Greasy grouper, Shour (Lethrinus lentjan, Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus, Harid (Scarus arabicus and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were considered as monomorphic bands. The RAPD OPA-06 primer revealed 100% polymorphism for 19 produced bands where band width ranged from 190 to 2100 bp. Likewise Rep- PCR ERIC1R primer exhibited 100% polymorphism for 18 bands produced bands where band width ranged from 50 to 1400bp. Data of the three types of genetic markers were combined for phylogenetic analysis. The resulted dendergram produced two large linages with around 59% genetic similarity. One linage only included Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus, and the other linage comprised the other six species. This result suggested that this six species were descended from Morgan fish. The second linage comprised two clades; the first clade contained four species (Mousa, Hamor, Shour, and Dennis, where the next clade included only Harid and Black surgeon. Generally genetic distance among native fishes was relatively low. The smallest genetic distance (0.512 was estimated between Shour fish and Black surgeon fish. To the best of our knowledge this work is breaking new ground in two directions, first, molecular characterization of Saudi fish, second employment Rep- PCR genetic marker for molecular characterization of fish species. This work could be considered as preliminary work towards an establishment of Saudi genetic conservation program.
Passive acoustic monitoring has been successfully used on many elasmobranch species, but no such study has yet been published for the whale shark (Rhincodon typus). In some ways this is surprising as the known whale shark aggregation sites would seem to be ideal targets for this method. For this dissertation, two acoustic studies were carried out in Saudi Arabia and Tanzania. Each was performed in parallel with visual surveys and the Saudi population was also studied using satellite telemetry. Sighting and acoustic data were compared at both sites, and the results were mixed. The acoustic monitoring largely confirmed the results of visual surveys for the Saudi Arabian sharks, including seasonality, residency and a degree of parity and integration between the sexes that is unique to this site. Satellite tracks of tagged Saudi sharks were used to confirm that some animals migrated away from the aggregation site before returning in subsequent seasons, confirming philopatric behavior in this species. In contrast, the acoustic results in Tanzania demonstrated year-round residency of whale sharks in the area, despite seasonal declines in visually estimated abundance. Seasonal changes in habitat selection render the sharks at this site temporarily cryptic to visual sampling. The differing results are compelling because both the philopatric behavior demonstrated in Saudi Arabia and the cryptic residency of the Tanzanian sharks could explain the seasonal patterns in whale shark abundances reported at other aggregation sites. Despite their differences, both sites in this study can be classified as secondary whale shark nurseries and each may be a vital feeding ground for its respective population.
Reem L. Al-Mutairi
Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.
Al-Mohrej, Omar A.; AlShaalan, Nouf S; Al-Bani, Waad M; Masuadi, Emad M; Almodaimegh, Hind S
Objectives Studies have shown that dentists have a higher incidence of work-related musculoskeletal (MSK) pain than those in other occupations. The risk factors contributing to MSK pain among Saudi dentists has not been fully studied so this study aims to estimate the prevalence of MSK pain and investigate its associated risk factors among dentists in Saudi Arabia. Setting and participants A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the capital city Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, using random cluster ...
Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study of Arabic and English literacy skills and practices for Saudi female university students at their homes and at their school as indicated by the students themselves using literacy questionnaires. The study did not evaluate the proficiency of the students in any aspect of the language such as phonology, vocabulary, or grammar but rather compiled students' answers to the availability of literacy resources in English and in Arabic in their homes/school and the students' practices of literacy in both languages. Data was gathered by distributing two types of questionnaires (Arabic and English to 200 students of English major at the department of linguistics and translation at the University of Tabuk, which is a government university in Saudi Arabia. Supporting data of cultural and religious influences on literacy was obtained through the researcher's own notes and observations. The purpose of the questionnaires was to investigate mainly: the students' literacy practices and frequency of using Arabic and English and the literacy infrastructure and literacy resources available to the students at their homes and at their school. The students' answers to the questionnaires indicated that most students interacted using mainly Arabic and very little English at their homes and they used some English at their school, which is related to reading their school academic books, doing homework assignments, and having rare English conversations with their classroom teachers.Keywords: Arabic literacy, English literacy, Saudi Arabia
Full Text Available Often referred as Government to Citizen (G2C e-government services, many governments around the world are developing and utilizing ICT technologies to provide information and services to their citizens. In Saudi Arabia (KSA e-government projects have been identified as one of the top government priority areas. However, the adoption of e-government is facing many challenges and barriers including technological, cultural, organizational which must be considered and treated carefully. This paper explores the key factors of user adoption of e-government services through empirical evidence gathered by survey of 460 Saudi citizens including IT department employees from different public sectors. Based on the analysis of data collected the researchers were able to identify some of the important barriers and challenges from these different perspectives. As a result, this study has generated a list of possible recommendations for the public sector and policy-makers to move towards successful adoption of e-government services in Saudi Arabia.
Pallister, John S.
The extensive harrat lava province of Arabia formed during the past 30 million years in response to Red Sea rifting and mantle upwelling. The area was regarded as seismically quiet, but between April and June 2009 a swarm of more than 30,000 earthquakes struck one of the lava fields in the province, Harrat Lunayyir, northwest Saudi Arabia. Concerned that larger damaging earthquakes might occur, the Saudi Arabian government evacuated 40,000 people from the region. Here we use geologic, geodetic and seismic data to show that the earthquake swarm resulted from magmatic dyke intrusion. We document a surface fault rupture that is 8 km long with 91 cm of offset. Surface deformation is best modelled by the shallow intrusion of a north-west trending dyke that is about 10 km long. Seismic waves generated during the earthquakes exhibit overlapping very low- and high-frequency components. We interpret the low frequencies to represent intrusion of magma and the high frequencies to represent fracturing of the crystalline basement rocks. Rather than extension being accommodated entirely by the central Red Sea rift axis, we suggest that the broad deformation observed in Harrat Lunayyir indicates that rift margins can remain as active sites of extension throughout rifting. Our analyses allowed us to forecast the likelihood of a future eruption or large earthquake in the region and informed the decisions made by the Saudi Arabian government to return the evacuees. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A.
Background and Objectives: Although the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased significantly in Saudi Arabia, parents are unable to appreciate obesity in their child. The objective of the study was to identify the percentage of parents who misclassify the status of child's weight, and determine whether there is a difference between those parents whose children are overweight and obese and those with children of normal weight. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 601 children aged 6-10 years. The children were recruited from the primary schools located in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. The body mass index of the children was assessed in the school, and their parents responded to a self-administered questionnaire which contained questions on parental perception of the children's weight/obesity status. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS. Results: Parents with overweight/obese children had significantly more misclassification than those with normal weight children. Ninety percent of parents of the 81 overweight children misclassified and reported that their child had normal weight, while 65% of parents of the 61 obese children, misclassified the child's weight status. Conclusions: The level of misclassification of children's weight status by parents is high. Saudi parents with overweight and obese children do not recognize their child's weight status. Parents’ awareness of childhood obesity and its negative health impact needs to be improved.
Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.
Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212
Full Text Available Background: Advertising is a crucial component of pharmaceutical industry promotion. Research indicates that information on advertisement materials might be inadequate, inaccurate, biased, and misleading. Objective: To analyse and critically assess the information presented in print pharmaceutical advertisements in Saudi Arabia.Methods: Pharmaceutical advertisements were collected from 280 community pharmacies in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The advertisements were evaluated using criteria derived from the Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA regulation, the World Health Organization (WHO ethical medicinal drug promotion criteria, and other principles reported in similar studies. The data were extracted independently by two of the researchers using a standardized assessment form. Results: One hundred eighty five printed advertisements were included in the final sample. Approximately half of the advertisements (n = 94, 51% were for over-the-counter (OTC medications, and 71 (38% were for prescription-only medication. Information such as the name of active ingredients was available in 168 (90.8% advertisements, therapeutic uses were mentioned in 156 (98.7% of analysed advertisements. Safety information related to side effects, precautions, and major interactions were stated in 53 (28.5%, 58 (31%, and 33 (16.5% advertisements, respectively. Only 119 advertisements (64% provided references for information presented. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that print advertisements do not convey all the information necessary for safe prescribing. These results have implications for the regulation of drug advertising and the continuing education of pharmacists.
Saudi Arabia covers a large portion of the Arabian plate, a region characterized by seismic activity, along complex divergent and convergent plate boundaries. In order to understand these plate boundaries it is essential to optimize the design of the broadband seismic station network to accurately locate earthquakes. In my study, I apply an optimization method to design the broadband station distribution in Saudi Arabia. This method is based on so called D-optimal planning criterion that optimizes the station distribution for locating the hypocenters of earthquakes. Two additional adjustments were implemented: to preferentially acquire direct and refracted wave, and to account for geometric spreading of seismic waves (and thus increases the signal to noise ratio). The method developed in this study for optimizing the geographical location of broadband stations uses the probability of earthquake occurrence and a 1-D velocity model of the region, and minimizes the ellipsoid volume of the earthquake location errors. The algorithm was applied to the current seismic network, operated by the Saudi Geologic Survey (SGS). Based on the results, I am able to make recommendations on, how to expand the existing network. Furthermore, I quantify the efficiency of our method by computing the standard error of epicenter and depth before and after adding the proposed stations.
Full Text Available Evolution of E-commerce has revolutionized the business world. As in many great discoveries and innovations, initially there was a lot of skepticism about the concept and the details of its implementation. It took a while for the masses to embrace the concept and start buying online. Of course, E-Commerce is a byproduct of internet, which became available to the public in 1991.Immidiately after the availability of internet to public; the concept of e-Commerce was mooted which was embraced by some businesses. In the beginning, the response internet usage was slow and that too was the case with e-Commerce as well. Today the number of internet users exceeds three billon and those of the e-Commerce buyers are around one and a quarter billion. Economic impact of e-Commerce on global and national economies has been tremendous. According to market, research, projected revenue from e-Commerce sales in 2015 is expected top 24 trillion dollars. About two thirds of the internet users come from developed world; and so, it is natural to expect that the bulk of e-Commerce buyers also come from developed world. The aim of this research is to study the extent of E-Commerce in Saudi Arabia and its impact to the Saudi economy. In the course of this study, we shall outline the underlying factors in the development and progress of E-commerce in Saudi Arabia.
Changing pattern of Saudi Arabia＇s oil exports Saudi Arabia （hereinafter referred to as Saudi） long time ranks No. one of world oil production and lost the title only in 2009 and 2010 due to cutting output which is slightly lower than the Russian output. It is predicted that global annual oil output in the next 10 years will be more than 4 billion tons, during which Saudi annual oil output will be up to 540-550 million tons, accounting for about 14 percent of global annual oil output. Saudi＇s 2005 oil exports of about 360 million tons accounted for 17.78 percent of the global oil exports, and 42.66% of the Middle East. Over the next 10 years, it is expected Saudi oil exports will reach 380-400 tons. Saudi plenty of spare oil production capacity and enhanced oil recovery will increase its remaining recoverable oil reserve,
Full Text Available Influenced by the success of shale gas production worldwide and to meet requirements for clean energy supply, a multidisciplinary team of petroleum specialists was established in Saudi Aramco. Meeting the growing requirement in industrial consumption and especially electricity production is a driving force for developing unconventional gas reserves. ``The initial focus is in the northwest and in the area of Ghawar, where gas infrastructure exists. The company is innovatively combining knowledge and research to maximize gas reserves and production from conventional and unconventional resources in order to meet growing domestic demand (Saudi Aramco. 2010.During years 2010 - 2011 major international petroleum industry players - Schlumberger, Halliburton and Baker Hughes - were invited to share their experience in a series of workshops held in Dhahran. Exchange of expert ideas developed into appreciation of complexity of the shale gas reservoir and helped to identify the scope of work for the first Silurian Qusaiba shale gas well. The SHALE-1 well was drilled in 2007 as a gas exploration well. Recent drilling and geophysical data obtained in the well were beneficial for detailed sidetrack and fracture stimulation design.The Multidisciplinary task group was established and positioned in Dhahran. The draft work plan was developed 8 months before actual operations commenced on the well site. Thorough examination of the draft work plan progressed to the final work plan with a number of improvements. The Frac Stimulation design was fine-tuned, involving expertise from Saudi Aramco and Halliburton. The Complete Well on Paper exercise involved over 25 specialists from both companies and helped to rectify remaining completion/stimulation design issues, and put everyone on the same page in terms of the work program. Well site operations commenced in May 2011. All targets set for the SHALE-1 well were successfully achieved and the well was suspended for
Ash Shuqayq (Saudi Red Sea coast) is approximately 28 km long and characterised by narrow rocky headlands with intermittent pocket beaches. Fifty-two sediment samples from six different environments (beach, dune, sabkha, tidal/lagoon, offshore and wadi) were analysed. Testing showed that beach and dune sands are mainly medium to fine grained, with some very coarse sand (MZ = − 0.59ø). Both beach and dune sands are moderately well to moderately sorted, although some are poorly sorted due to an influx of wadi sediments. Sediment source together with littoral reworking contributed to grain size variation. Carbonate content varied between 1.5% and 23%, whilst the organic content varied between 1.1% and 13%. Spatial analysis showed increasing southward carbonate and organic content, with both correlated (r = 0.57). Sabkha sediments had significantly higher carbonate percentages (t = 2.898; df = 18; p < 0.01) and results suggested origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. X-ray diffractions show beach and dune sediments are mainly composed of detrital quartz and plagioclase feldspar with uncommon amounts of chlorites. Analysis of sediment characteristics, composition and shoreline distribution alongside coastal processes, indicate that high chlorite levels are probably caused by desalination processes. Due to human and ecosystem health consequences and the likely increased demand for desalination plants, similar analyses should be undertaken elsewhere, e.g. the Mediterranean. - Highlights: ► New and previously unpublished Red Sea sediment information. ► Sediment chemical and spatial variations established. ► Sabkha origins are similar for both UAE Arabian Sea and Saudi Arabian Red Sea coasts. ► Desalination plant shown as cause of increased marine sediment chlorite levels.
This study describes and analyzes the process of development in Saudi Arabia in relation to oil revenues and Saudi Arabian dependence on imported foreign labor. Modern development and societal change in Saudi Arabia began with the commercial exploitation of oil in 1939, therefore Saudi economy must be viewed from a dual perspective: a highly capital-intensive oil sector and a labor-intensive non-oil sector. In one generation the Kingdom created an infrastructure suitable to a rapid transformation from Bedouin tribes to a modern state, which became a leading regional power and now occupies an important place in international society. Important advances were made in social services, health services and education at all levels. Large-scale importation of foreign labor workers during the 1970s and early 1980s was necessary for the Development Plans. By the 1990s the major infrastructure was completed and only the maintenance work and minor projects remained for foreign labor sources
Tesis Doctoral leída en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid en 2015. Directores de la Tesis: José Luis Montes Botella y Vasilica Maria Margalina Saudi woman face many typesof sexual segregation, which hinders her opportunity to reach leadership positions, even that there are misconceptions in our society that she is not suitable for leadership, so we try here to focus on this subject in the light of lack of studies which investigate this matter. This paper aims to highlight t...
Full Text Available Tapinoma wilsoni sp. n. is described and illustrated from Saudi Arabia based on the worker caste collected from Al Baha, Saudi Arabia. It closely resembles Tapinoma lugubre Santschi 1917, from Zimbabwe in body measurements but can be distinguished from the latter species by the yellowish brown color; the yellowish pubescence, the two pairs of hairs present on the anterior part of the head; and the distinctly concave anterior clypeal margin. Biological and ecological notes of the new species are presented. An identification key to the workers of the Arabian species of the genus Tapinoma is given.
Al-maghrabi, T; Dennis, C.
The objective of this study is to clarify the theoretical problem and identify factors that could explain the level of continuance intention of e-shopping in context of Saudi Arabia. The study proposes a revised technology acceptance model that integrates expectation confirmation theory to measure age differences with regard to continuance online shopping intentions in Saudi Arabia. The sample (n=465) consists of 68.8% women and 31.4% men, 348 younger than 35 years old and 117 older than 3...
Bader K AlZarea Department of Prosthodontics, College of Dentistry, Al Jouf University, Al Jouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Background: The most remarkable exostoses of the human jaws are torus palatinus (TP) and torus mandibularis (TM). The aim of the present study was to actuate the prevalence of TP and TM in relation to age and sex among the edentulous patients of Saudi Arabia. Methods: The present study included 847 edentulous subjects (458 men and 389 women) ag...
Mohammed Alshehri; Hadi M Alamri; Bader Alshammari; Saad Alnazhan
Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the regulations and clinical requirements of the endodontic board certifications and master's degrees in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United States of America (USA). Materials and Methods: This study was performed in the year 2012. Documents from the American Board of Endodontics (ABE) and the Saudi Specialty Certificate in Endodontics (SSC-Dent [Endo]) were collected from their official websites. Fifty-two American and 3 S...
Saleh Rehiel A Alenazi; Abdul Jaleel Kehinde Shittu; Ebrahim Mohammed Ayedh Al-Matari; Ayed Rheal A. Alanzi
This paper aims to propose paperless office management policies for Saudi public offices. It proposes policy and implementation strategy for Ministry of Labor, as this ministry directly deals with citizens and foreign workforce. Recent statistics shows that in 2010, the Middle East alone consumed 18 million tons of paper in private and public sectors for various business correspondence and education activities. This extensive consumption of paper is causing two major problems for Saudi Arabia...
Garawi, F; Ploubidis, GB; DeVries, K.; Al-Hamdan, N.; Uauy, R
Background The prevalence of adult obesity is higher in women than men in most countries. However, the pathways that link female sex with excess obesity are still not fully understood. We examine whether socioeconomic and behavioural factors may mediate the association between sex and obesity in the Saudi Arabian setting where there is female excess in obesity. Methods We performed a mediation analysis using a cross-sectional, national household survey from Saudi Arabia with 4758 participants...
Dhaifallah A Alenizi
Full Text Available Context: Epidemiological studies have shown that vitiligo is a complex trait, involving combinations of pathogenic effects of multiple susceptibility genes as well as environmental risk factors. Aim: To observe whether consanguinity increased the incidence of vitiligo in Saudi patients from Arar. Patients and Methods: This study included 69 Saudi patients with vitiligo and their families. These patients, selected from the experience specialist dermatology center in Arar, from April 2011 to 2012, were interviewed by a dermatologist to confirm the diagnosis and complete a questionnaire. Results: A total of 69 patients, 40 males and 29 females were selected. Their mean age was 34.5 ± 11.8 years with the median age of 23 years. The mean age at onset of disease was 27.9 ± 12.9 years. The mean duration of the disease was 9.7 ± 5.3 years. The frequency of focal, vulgaris, universal, and acrofacial subtypes was 22 (31.9%, 21 (30.4%, 8 (11.6%, and 18 (26.1%, respectively. A positive family history of vitiligo was obtained in 45 (65.2% cases. A comparison of the frequency of vitiligo among siblings in relation to the general population was more in accord with the multifactorial model. Conclusion: Consanguinity in marriage increases the incidence of the disease. Therefore, genetic counseling and premarital examination would be important contributions to lower the prevalence of vitiligo.
Khaled Bani Al-Harbi
Full Text Available Abscess disease (caseous lymphadenitis and Morel disease is a worldwide contagious bacterial disease of sheep and goats and is adversely affecting the development of the sheep industry in Saudi Arabia. Fifteen sheep and 12 goat farms at Qassim region, central Saudi Arabia, were surveyed during September and October 2008 for the determination of the prevalence and the etiology of abscess disease. One hundred and twenty pus samples were collected from affected external lymph nodes of clinically-ill sheep and goats and from infected internal lymph nodes and organs condemned during meat inspection in the slaughterhouses, for the isolation and identification of pathogenic bacteria causing sheep abscess disease. The prevalence of abscess disease varied between 5%– 44.1% in sheep farms, being highest in the Najdi breed, and between 2.2 % – 6.5 % in goat farms. Males of both sheep and goats had the highest rate of infection compared to females (p <0.01. Bacterial isolates were obtained from 97 out of the 120 collected pus samples (80.83%. The remaining 23 samples were sterile. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius accounted for about 54% of isolates, with almost equal frequencies (p =0.5. Other pyogenic bacteria such as S. aureus, Streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Actinomyces pyogenes were also isolated from infected abscesses. They represented about 46% of the isolated etiological agents of sheep abscesses. This explains why available vaccines (bactrins against caseous lymphadenitis (CLA are poorly protective against abscess disease in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2011; 4(11.000: 495-499
Saudi Arabia occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula and has an area of 872,722 sq miles, or 2,260,350 sq km. The ancient Arabian Shield of igneous and metamorphic rocks comprises most of the western third of the country. The shield contains many extinct volcanoes surrounded by lava beds. Sloping eastwards are the newer sedimentary areas in which rich oil fields are found. In Saudi Arabia oil is paramount and less effort has been put into searching for mineral deposits than in other countries of similar size and geology. Pour aerial radiometric surveys have been undertaken and some of the anomalies discovered in the earlier ones were ground checked by an IAEA expert in 1963-64. Two anomalies warranted more detailed work, these were the Jabal Said anomaly in the Central Shield area and the Al Ghrayyat in Wadi Sawawin about 70 miles from the Jordan border. The Jabal Said anomaly consists of a zone of altered rocks consisting largely of pegmatite and pegmatite granite= Allanite, pyrochlore, cyrtolite, xenotime and monazite are the ore minerals,, The deposit was estimated to have 2.2 million tons of ore grading 0.2 - 0.3 percent Nb2O5 and 0.03 - 0,05% U3O8. The other occurrence at Al Ghrayyat is similar but with much lower grade uranium content. In view of the huge size of Saudi Arabia, the existence of many geologically favourable rock types and the poor coverage by sophisticated uranium exploration techniques, the Speculative Potential is placed between 10,000 and 50,000 Tonnes uranium. (author)
Full Text Available HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of national screening programs. However, the limited available studies from Saudi Arabia indicate that HPV prevalence and genotypes’ distribution in invasive cervical cancer show similar pattern as in the world. Cytology screening (Pap Smear and HPV vaccinations are the two preventive measures against cervical cancer. The two available vaccines are effective against the two most common HPV genotypes (HPV-16 and 18. Since 92% of cervical tumors in the Kingdom are infected with HPV of which 78% are HPV-16 and 18 genotypes, vaccination is expected to protect against more than two-third of cervical cancers in Saudi Arabia. Nevertheless, due to its low incidence (2.1/100,000 women, a proper cost-effectiveness analysis is required to justify the implementation of a costly vaccine bearing in mind that HPV could potentially be associated with about 3% of all cancers. However, further studies are needed to ascertain the real prevalence of HPV at the population level at large, its association with various types of cancers and also the impact of local tradition and emerging behavioral trends that could affect HPV transmission and consequently the effectiveness of applying national vaccination program.
The objective was to determine the clinical characteristics of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi Arabia in relation to human leukocyte antigen type. A group of 91 rheumatoid arthritis patients, 72 females and 19 males were studied for the various clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters along with human leukocyte antigen-DR phenotypes. Since human leukocyte antigen-DR10 was most commonly associated with rheumatoid arthritis in our population, we compared those patients with human leukocyte antigen-DR10 to those without. The comparison yielded differences in the presence of rheumatoid nodules, erosions, corticosteroid treatment, and joint involvement at presentation, hemoglobin levels, and white cell count. Only the last 3 parameters showed a statistical significance. Human leukocyte antigen type of Saudi patients with rheumatoid arthritis influenced the course of the disease but only to a limited extent. (author)
Fish are a healthy source of protein and nutrients, but contaminants in fish may provide health risks. Determining the risk from contaminants in fish requires site-specific information on consumption patterns. We examine consumption rates for resident and expatriates in the Jeddah region of Saudi Arabia, by species of fish and fishing location. For Saudis, 3.7% of males and 4.3% of females do not eat fish; for expatriates, the percent not eating fish is 6.6% and 6.1% respectively. Most people eat fish at home (over 90%), and many eat fish at restaurants (65% and 48%, respectively for Saudis and expatriates). Fish eaten at home comes from local fish markets, followed by supermarkets. Saudis included fish in their diets at an average of 1.4±1.2 meals/week at home and 0.8±0.7 meals/week at restaurants, while expats ate 2.0±1.7 meals/week at home and 1.1±1.1 meals/week in restaurants. Overall, Saudis ate 2.2 fish meals/week, while expats ate 3.1 meals/week. Grouper (Epinephelus and Cephalopholis) were eaten by 72% and 60% respectively. Plectropomus pessuliferus was the second favorite for both groups and Hipposcarus harid and Lethrinus lentjan were in 3rd and 4th place in terms of consumption. Average meal size was 68. g for Saudis and 128. g for expatriates. These data can be used by health professionals, risk assessors, and environmental regulators to examine potential risk from contaminants in fish, and to compare consumption rates with other sites. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Eisha M Gaffas,1 Reginald P Sequeira,2 Riyadh A Al Namla,1 Khalid S Al-Harbi31Al-Amal Complex for Mental Health, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 2College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 3King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: The postgraduate training program in psychiatry in Saudi Arabia, which was established in 1997, is a 4-year residency program. Written exams comprising of multiple choice questions (MCQs are used as a summative assessment of residents in order to determine their eligibility for promotion from one year to the next. Test blueprints are not used in preparing examinations.Objective: To develop test blueprints for the written examinations used in the psychiatry residency program.Methods: Based on the guidelines of four professional bodies, documentary analysis was used to develop global and detailed test blueprints for each year of the residency program. An expert panel participated during piloting and final modification of the test blueprints. Their opinion about the content, weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be sampled in each cognitive category as defined by modified Bloom's taxonomy were elicited.Results: Eight global and detailed test blueprints, two for each year of the psychiatry residency program, were developed. The global test blueprints were reviewed by experts and piloted. Six experts participated in the final modification of test blueprints. Based on expert consensus, the content, total weightage for each content domain, and proportion of test items to be included in each cognitive category were determined for each global test blueprint. Experts also suggested progressively decreasing the weightage for recall test items and increasing problem solving test items in examinations, from year 1 to year 4 of the psychiatry residence program.Conclusion: A systematic
Hafez M Ghanem
Results : From 474 patients, 20 (4.2% had a noncancer diagnosis. The main reason for the referral of noncancer patients was pain control. The most prevalent diagnoses were sickle cell disease (SCD in 6 (30% patients and peripheral arterial disease (PAD in 5 (25%. Conclusions : These findings suggest that the PC needs of noncancer patients are largely unmet in our region. Further efforts are necessary to advance noncancer PC in Saudi Arabia. The PC needs of patients with SCD and PAD need to be addressed in future research.
This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University The present dissertation provides an analytical and comparative study of the application of Islamic law (Shari’ah) and international human rights law in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It provides an analysis of the sources of Islamic law as well as the sources of international law to set the background for analysis and defines the nature of both laws. It also tackles the subject of the domes...
This paper discusses the radiological evaluation of a water purification plant in Saudi Arabia, also generally describes the purification and treatment techniques used, as well as the determination of the water content of natural radioactive isotopes and their levels, beside the mechanism of its precipitation. These evaluations implemented the framework of national regulations for the safe disposal of radioactive material. It also evaluates the removal efficiency of the treatment techniques used, followed by the assessment of radioactive waste sources in the plant and radioactive waste management. (author)
Sherif Shalaby; Bauer E Sumpio
Diabetes is increasing in epidemic proportions globally,exhibiting the most striking increase in third worldcountries with emerging economies. This phenomena isparticularly evident in the Middle East and North Africa（MENA） region, which has the highest prevalence ofdiabetes in adults. The most concerning indirect costof diabetes is the missed work by the adult populationcoupled with the economic burden of loss of productivity.The major drivers of this epidemic are the demographicchanges with increased life expectancy and lifestylechanges due to rapid urbanization and industrialization.Our focus is to compare MENA region countries,particularly Egypt and Saudi Arabia, in terms of theireconomic development, labor force diversity and theprevalence of diabetes.
Abdel-Hady El-Gilany; Sabry Hammad
Background: Extremes of maternal age adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Teenage pregnancy is a public health problem and is known to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Advanced maternal age is a risk factor for pregnancy outcome. Saudi Arabia suffers the dual burden of teenage pregnancy and older pregnancy.Objectives: To explore the effects of maternal age on pregnancy and its outcome among mothers adequately covered with maternity care. Methods: A retrospective record-bas...
Serenius, F.; Elidrissy, A T; Dandona, P
A survey to assess the vitamin D nutritional state in 119 pregnant women at term and in their newborns was undertaken in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-(OH)D) were below 4 ng/ml in 30 of 119 maternal sera, in 11 of which they were undetectable. The median concentration of 25-(OH)D was 5.7 ng/ml, which is comparable to that found in Asian vegetarian women at term in London. Fifty of 119 cord samples had undetectable 25-(OH)D, and a total of 81 samples had 25-(...
Mostafa A Abolfotouh,1 Mohammad S Al-Khowailed,1 Wijdan E Suliman,1 Deema A Al-Turaif,1 Eman Al-Bluwi,2 Hassan S Al-Kahtani21King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, King Saud Bin-Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, 2Dermatology Department, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaBackground: Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this...
Abolfotouh, Mostafa A.; Al-Khowailed, Mohammad S; Suliman, Wijdan E; Al-Turaif, Deema A; Al-Bluwi, Eman; Al-Kahtani, Hassan S
Background Previous national and international studies of quality of life (QoL) in patients with skin diseases have revealed different levels of QoL impairment. The aims of this study were to assess QoL in patients with skin diseases in central Saudi Arabia using the newly validated Skindex-16 instrument and to determine the association between QoL in patients with skin disease, sociodemographic data, and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 283 adult pati...
Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Rahim, Bahaa-eldin E. A.; Solan, Yahya M. H.; Makeen, Anwar M.; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed
The use of khat (Catha edulis) is a major public health and social problem that is believed to be growing globally. The khat chewing habit is prevalent in all areas of the Jazan region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). However, few studies have been conducted at the community level to investigate the khat chewing habits in this area. This study was conducted with the aim of assessing the prevalence and predictors of khat chewing among the Jazan community population. A cross-sectional study was ...
Emerging trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) released into the environment via discharge of wastewater effluents have been detected in rivers and lakes worldwide, raising concerns due to their potential persistence, toxicity and bioaccumulation. This study provides the first reconnaissance of TOrC occurrence in wastewater effluents within Saudi Arabia. Four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs 1-4) located in Western Saudi Arabia were sampled hourly over twelve-hour periods, for a total of six sampling events. All samples were analyzed for a wide range of TOrC encompassing pharmaceuticals, personal care products and household chemicals. Treatment and capacities of the plants varied from non-nitrifying to full biological nutrient removal providing a representative cross section of different types of plants operational within the country. A comparison of TOrC occurrence in effluents in Saudi Arabia with respective effluent qualities in the United States revealed similar levels for most TOrC. Overall, the occurrence of TOrC was higher at two of the plants. The higher TOrC concentrations at WWTP 1 are likely due to the non-nitrifying biological treatment process. The unique TOrC occurrence observed in the WWTP 3 effluent was unlike any other plant and was attributed to the influence of a large number of international visitors in its sewershed. The occurrence of TOrC in this plant was not expected to be representative of the occurrence elsewhere in the country. Bimodal diurnal variation expected for a range of TOrC was not observed, though some hourly variation in TOrC loading was noted for WWTP 3. Since water reclamation and reuse have received increasing interest in Saudi Arabia within the last few years, results from this study provide a good foundation in deciding whether advanced treatment is necessary to attenuate TOrC deemed to be of concern in effluents, or if natural treatment such as managed aquifer recharge provides sufficient protection to public health. © 2014
AlObaid, Abdulaziz; Al-Badawi, Ismail A.; Al-Kadri, Hanan; Gopala, Kusuma; Kandeil, Walid; Quint, Wim; Al-Aker, Murad; DeAntonio, Rodrigo
Background Cervical cancer (CC) is caused by persistent infection with high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types. In Saudi Arabia which has a population of 6.5 million women over the age of 15 years, approximately 152 new cases of CC are diagnosed and 55 women die from the disease annually. Nevertheless current epidemiological data for HPV in this population are limited. This study evaluated the prevalence and type distribution of HPV and documented the awareness of HPV infection and he...
Alrowaily Mohammed; Abolfotouh Mostafa; Ferwanah Mazen
Background/Aim : Since selective screening for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) in pregnant women has failed to identify a high proportion of HBV-infected mothers, pre-natal HBsAg testing of all pregnant women is now recommended. We aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV infection among pregnant women at the ante-natal clinic of a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia and to identify the target group for postpartum immunization. Materials and Methods : A total of 755 pregnant females who attended th...
HPV is closely associated with cervical cancer that the incidence of this tumor is regarded as a surrogate marker for HPV infection in countries lacking epidemiological studies. HPV is also implicated in subsets of anogenital and oro-pharyngeal cancers. Although cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women worldwide, its reported incidence is low in Saudi Arabia, ranking number 12 between all cancers in females and accounts only for 2.4% of all new cases, despite the lack of natio...
A systematic revision of 13 species of the genus Caralluma (Apocynaceae - Asclepiadoideae - Ceropegieae) from the flora of Saudi Arabia based on the evaluation of karyological and molecular data was carried out. Karyotype criteria and polyploid variations were discussed. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) techniques were also used in this study to distinguish these species. Karyotype features of the studied species and molecular data were used to reassess the relationships of the 13 species of Caralluma in the light of the current systems of classification. (author)
Aloufi, Abdulaziz D; Memish, Ziad A; Assiri, Abdullah M; McNabb, Scott J N
Human brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease and is especially concerning in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), where livestock importation is significant. We analyzed reported human brucellosis disease trends in KSA over time to help policymakers understand the magnitude of the disease and guide the design of prevention and control measures. By using data from the national registry from 2004 to 2012, we calculated the cumulative numbers by age group and months. Trends of incidence rates (IRs) by gender, nationality, and region were also calculated. We found that there was a greater number of cases (19,130) in the 15-44years age group than in any other age group. The IRs significantly decreased from 22.9 in 2004 [95% confidence interval (CI)=22.3, 23.5] to 12.5 in 2012 (95% CI=12.1, 13). Males had a significantly greater IR than females. Most cases were reported during spring and summer seasons. The IR of Saudi citizens was significantly greater than that of non-Saudis, but this difference reduced over time. The IRs of Al-Qassim, Aseer, and Hail were in the highest 25th percentile. Young, male Saudi citizens living in highly endemic areas were at greatest risk of acquiring brucellosis. We recommend vaccinating susceptible animals against brucellosis and increasing the public's awareness of preventive measures. PMID:26429071
Saggu, Shalini; Rehman, Hasibur; Abbas, Zahid K.; Ansari, Abid A.
Objectives: To review and analyze the pattern of breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological review of BC of all diagnosed Saudi female cases from January 1990 to December 2014 was conducted at the Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Tabuk, Tabuk, KSA. This report contains information obtained from the Saudi Cancer Registry and from King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center. Results: The number of women with BC increased steadily from 1990-2010. On the basis of the number of cases, the percentage distribution of BC appears to be increasing. There were 1152 female BC cases in 2008 in comparison with 1308 in 2009, and 1473 in 2010. Breast cancer ranked first among females accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers (5378) in the year 2010. The average age at the diagnosis of BC was 48; weighted average was 49.8, and range 43-52. Conclusion: Among Saudi patients, there was a significant increase in the number of cases of BC, which occurs at an earlier age than in Western countries. Continued vigilance, mammographic screening, and patient education are needed to establish early diagnosis and perform optimal treatment. PMID:26446327
Omar A. Al-Mohrej
Full Text Available Context: In Saudi Arabia, no studies have been conducted on the correlation between any possible cigarette′s price increase and its effects on cigarette consumption. Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Saudi Arabia and to predict the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April and May 2013. Methods: We developed an Arabic questionnaire with information on demographic and socioeconomic factors, smoking history, and personal opinion on the effect of price increase on cigarette consumption. The questionnaire was distributed in public places such as malls and posted on famous Saudi athlete media′s twitter accounts. Results: Among the 2057 included responses, 802 (39% were current smokers. The smokers′ population constituted of 746 (92% males, of which 546 (68% had a monthly income equal or greater to 800 US dollars, and 446 (55% were aged between 21 and 30 years. Multivariate analyses of the risk factors for smoking showed that male gender and older age were associated with greater risk. Despite the current low prices of 2.67 US dollars, 454 smokers (56% thought that cigarette prices are expensive. When asked about the price of cigarettes that will lead to smoking cessation, 443 smokers (55% expected that a price of 8.27 US dollars and more per pack will make them quit. Conclusions: Increasing the price of popular cigarettes pack from 2.67 US dollars to 8.27 US dollars is expected to lead to smoking cessation in a large number of smokers in the Saudi population.
Basmah Al Qudaiby (Basmah, A. Q.,
Full Text Available Businesses today consider mergers and acquisitions a new strategy for their company’s growth. Companies aim to grow through sales’ increase, assets purchase, profits’ accumulation and market share gains. The better way for achieving these targets is by getting into either a Merger or an Acquisition. As a matter of fact, growth through mergers and acquisitions has been a critical part of the success of many companies operating in the new economy. Mergers and Acquisitions are an important factor in building up market capitalization. Based on three detailed and in depth structured interviews with major Saudi Arabian banks it has been found that, Mergers motivated by economies of scale should be approached cautiously. Companies should also approach vertical mergers cautiously because it is often difficult to gain synergy through a vertical merger and firms should also seek out mergers which allow the firm to acquire specialized knowledge. It has also been found that the firms should look for mergers that increase market power and avoid unrelated or conglomerate mergers.
The Director General has received a letter dated 10 June 2005 from the Resident Representative of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In the light of the request expressed at the end of the letter, the text of the letter is attached hereto for the information of Member States
Alshehri, Mohammed Ali; Ali, Hassan Shawki
This study aimed to investigate the compatibility of developed mathematics textbooks' content (grades 6-8) in Saudi Arabia with NCTM standards in the areas of: number and operations, algebra, geometry, measurement, data analysis and probability. To achieve that goal, a list of (NCTM) standards for grades (6-8) were translated to Arabic language,…
Al-Abbad, Hani Mohammed; Al-Haidary, Hisham Mohammed
[Purpose] To explore the views of the physical therapy service leaders in Saudi Arabia regarding the integration of physical therapy service in primary health care settings. [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered questionnaire consisting of both open and closed ended questions was distributed during May–July 2013 via email to physical therapy leaders representing different regions and health care providers in Saudi Arabia. [Results] Twenty-six participants answered the questionnaire. Eighty five percent of the sample had ≥ 10 years of experience with 57.6% of them holding a post-graduate degree. Participants were from different health care providers and represented different geographical regions of Saudi Arabia. Eighty one percent of the sample reported that the adoption of physical therapy services in primary health care would be advantageous, as it would offer earlier access to health care and would be more cost-effective. The respondents also stated that such a service would contribute towards the prevention of common non-communicable health diseases. [Conclusion] The results of this survey provide generally positive recommendations for the provision of physical therapy service in Saudi Arabia primary health care centers. However, challenges and barriers identified by this study require consideration during the development of the service. PMID:26957740
Darandari, Eqbal Z.; Al-Qahtani, Saleh A.; Allen, Ian D.; Al-Yafi, Wafaa A.; Al-Sudairi, Abdulsalam A.; Catapang, Joey
The rapid growth in the number of post-secondary institutions in Saudi Arabia over the last few years necessitated the creation of a government agency for accreditation and quality assurance. The National Commission for Academic Accreditation and Assessment was established in 2004 for this purpose. Between 2005 and 2008, it developed a new…
International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).
Data relating to population and family planning in twelve foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahrain, Central African Republic, Gabon, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Libya, Saudi Arabia, Swaziland, Syria, and Yemen Arab Republic. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two…
Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad
Aptitude tests should predict student success at the university level. This study examined the predictive validity of the General Aptitude Test (GAT) in Saudi Arabia. Data for 27420 students enrolled at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University were analyzed. Of these students, 17565 were male students, and 9855 were female students. Multiple…
Saqlain, Nadeem; Mahmood, Zahir
This study used qualitative research methods to explore English language teachers' perceptions about the use of technology for language learning at Northern Border University (NBU) in Saudi Arabia. Data collection relied on interviews. Stream of behaviour chronicles was also used as a strategy of non interactive data collection.14 non native…
Bahatheg, Raja Omar
This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…
Mehmood, Syed Imran; Norcini, John J.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.
Background: Career advice is an important instrument to help students with the proper specialty selection. The study aims (1) to explore the views of newly graduated doctors in Saudi Arabia about their experience with the current status of career support system during medical training and (2) to ide
... more are going toward ultra-modern mega-commerce and tourism projects, and the country's strongly..., engineering, design and construction firms. Saudi Arabia's transport sector--including road infrastructure...) and, with its holy sites, is the focus of a vast market for pilgrimage and tourism that...
Reflecting effective and psychomotor skills to teaching environment are as important as cognitive skills in learning process. In this context, values are important to develop skills in affective domain. In this study, the opinions of the students who have been studying in three different countries (Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Turkey) were aimed to be…
Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain AK1 was isolated from Al-Ain Alhara, a thermal hot spring located 50 km southeast of the city of Gazan, Saudi Arabia (16°56ʹN, 43°15ʹE). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,630,664 bp and encodes 2,799 genes.
The Al-Qatif region in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia has thehighest prevalence of alpha-thalassemia genes in the Kingdom. Hemoglobin H(Hb H) disease, however, has been rarely reported. We decided therefore toverify the rarity of disease and characterize the presenting features incases identified. All patients seen in Qatif Central Hospital betweenSeptember 1988 and November 1990 with low red cell indices were screened forHb H disease and those found positive had clinical data compiled from theirhospital records and analyzed. Thirty-nine cases of Hb H were diagnosed. Themean age of patients was 18 years. The mean hemoglobin was 13.5 g/dL forneonates and 7.6 g/dL for others. The mean Hb Bart's level was 27.5% inneonates and the mean Hb H level in others was 11.1%. In addition to low redcell indices, all patients had a high red cell distribution width (RDW) meanof 25.6%. The main clinical signs were jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly.Concurrent glucose-6-phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency was seen in28.2% of patients. Hemoglobin H disease is not uncommon in the Al-Qatifregion of Saudi Arabia. The red cell indices may mimic iron deficiency, whichshould be excluded by the presence of jaundice and organomegaly. Thecondition often co-exists with G6PD deficiency. (author)
Ahmed M. Tolah
Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the sensitivity of circulating influenza viruses in Western Saudi Arabia to neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs; mainly, zanamivir and oseltamivir. Methods: Respiratory samples were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms to King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA between September 2013 and October 2014. All samples were tested prospectively by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for influenza A and B viruses. Positive samples were then inoculated on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK cells and isolated viruses were examined for their sensitivity to NAIs using fluorescent neuraminidase inhibition assay. Results: Out of 406 tested samples, 25 samples (6.2% were positive for influenza A/pdmH1N1 virus, one sample (0.25% was positive for influenza A/H3N2 virus, and 7 samples (1.7% were positive for influenza B Yamagata-like virus. Screening of isolated influenza A and B viruses (9 out of 33 for their sensitivity to NAIs showed no significant resistance to available NAIs. Conclusion: Our results show that circulating influenza viruses in Jeddah are still sensitive to NAIs.
Alam, Prawez; Saleh, Mahmoud Fayez; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad
Our TLC study of the volatile oil isolated from Mentha longifolia showed a major UV active spot with higher Rf value than menthol. Based on the fact that the components of the oil from same plant differ quantitatively due to environmental conditions, the major spot was isolated using different chromatographic techniques and identified by spectroscopic means as pulegone. The presence of pulegone in M. longifolia, a plant widely used in Saudi Arabia, raised a hot debate due to its known toxicity. The Scientific Committee on Food, Health & Consumer Protection Directorate General, European Commission set a limit for the presence of pulegone in foodstuffs and beverages. In this paper we attempted to determine the exact amount of pulegone in different extracts, volatile oil as well as tea flavoured with M. longifolia (Habak) by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using normal phase (Method I) and reverse phase (Method II) TLC plates. The study indicated that the style of use of Habak in Saudi Arabia resulted in much less amount of pulegone than the allowed limit. PMID:27087088
Full Text Available Stochastic techniques are essential in planning and management of water resources systems especially in arid and semi-arid areas where water is scarce. The forecasting of future events requires identifying proper stochastic models to be used in this process. For this purpose, a Periodic ARMA (PARMA model and a temporal disaggregation models were used in this study to investigate weather they are appropriate for modeling the monthly rainfall data in Saudi Arabia. Results showed PARMA and temporal disaggregation models performed well in modeling the monthly rainfalls in Saudi Arabia. These models were able to preserve the basic seasonal statistics of the observed data well as preserving the seasonal correlation structure observed in the historical data. However, the PARMA model did not perform well at the annual level. In contrast, the disaggregation model performed well in preserving the correlation structure of the historical data at the annual level. Thus, these models can be used in modeling and forecasting of monthly rainfall in Arid and semi-arid areas.
Amaranthus pollen grains are known to have highly allergenic and potential cause of respiratory allergic diseases. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of Amaranthus pollen in the environment is limited and almost non-existent for Saudi Arabia. We conducted an investigation to record the airborne incidence of A.viridis and other allergenic pollen in Al-Khobar, Dammam, Hail, Jeddah, Jizan, Qassim and Taif, using Burkard Volumetric Samplers. The samples were operated continuously for one year at each location. The data revealed A.viridis as one of the major components of outdoor airspora, constituting a maximum of 96% of total pollen counts in Hail, followed by Al-Khobar (89%), Jeddah (87%), Qassim (85%), Taif (84%), Dammam (83%) and Jizan (61%). These higher percentages contributed largely to the total weed pollen catch during August to November in all seven regions. In addition, the data also showed that A. virdis pollen were present throughout the year with distinct seasonal variations. The diel periodicities for at least five sites averaged over a year showed mid-day to early evening maxima. The maximum concentration approached 3000 mt. cube of air in October and 1827 mt. cube of air in September. The data also exhibited, a seasonal pattern, in their maximum appearance. Further studies related to biochemical and allergological aspects are needed to confirm the allergenic impact of Amaranthus pollen and sensitization in allergic individuals in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (author)
Mustafa S Saeed
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess self-medication practice among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted by distributing a self-administered 18-item questionnaire among university students in the Al-Qassim Province of Saudi Arabia in the period between October and December 2012. The participants were selected using a convenience sampling technique. Data were collected from the questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 19. A total of 354 male students with an average age of 21.95 (SD ± 3.43 participated in this study. Our study showed that self-medication among male students was high (86.6% compared to results shown in other studies in the same region. Headache (59.9%, cough/cold (41% and fever (24.6% were the most common symptoms associated with self-medication. Congruent with the medical conditions reported, the most widely used medications without prescriptions were paracetamol (34.7%, followed by antibiotics (31.4% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (28.7%. Our study shows that antibiotics were sometimes irrationally used for self-treatment of cough and fever. Self-medication was highly frequent among the students. Influence of TV advertisements, high accessibility of pharmacies and convenience stores, as well as good buying power were found to be leading factors for self-medication among male university students.
Waleed H. BuAli
Full Text Available Purpose: No study had been conducted to assess the hospitals’ environment for learning purposes in multicenter sites in Saudi Arabia. It aims to evaluate the environment of hospitals for learning purposes of pediatric residents. Methods: We applied Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure (PHEEM to measure the learning environment at six teaching hospitals in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia from September to December 2013. Results: The number of respondents was 104 (86.7% out of 120 residents and 37 females and 67 male residents have responded. The residents’ response scored 100 out of 160 maximum score in rating of PHEEM that showed overall learning environment is favorable for training. There were some items in the social support domain suggesting improvements. There was no significant difference between male and female residents. There was a difference among the participant teaching hospitals (p<0.05. Conclusion: The result pointed an overall positive rating. Individual item scores suggested that their social life during residency could be uninspiring. They have the low satisfactory level and they feel racism, and sexual discrimination. Therefore, there is still a room for improvement.
Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important optimisation tool, which aid in identifying abnormally high dose levels. These are currently not available in Saudi Arabia, and this research aims to remedy this. CT dose data (DLP and CTDIvol) were collected for a minimum number of 10 adult patients of average size (60-80 kg) presenting for a range of CT examinations from public hospitals in the western region of Saudi Arabia. These include routine chest, high-resolution chest (HRCT), pulmonary angiography (CTPA), abdomen and pelvis (AP) and the combined chest, abdomen and pelvis (CAP) CT examinations. Mean values for each site were calculated, and the 75. percentile of DLP and CTDIvol was used as a basis for DRLs. Data for 550 patients were collected from 14 hospitals over a 7-month period. The rounded third-quartile CTDIvol and DLP were 18 mGy and 630 mGy cm-1 for chest CT, 20 mGy and 600 mGy cm-1 for HRCT, 18 mGy and 480 mGy cm-1 for CTPA, 15 mGy and 800 mGy cm-1 for AP, and 16 mGy and 1040 mGy cm-1 for CAP, respectively. Regional DRLs have been proposed from this study. Dose variations across CT departments have identified an urgent need for optimisation to improve distribution of observed doses for CT examinations. (authors)
A. A. Al-Haidary, R. S. Aljumaah, M. A. Alshaikh, K. A. Abdoun*, E. M. Samara, A. B. Okab and M. M. Alfuraiji
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the thermoregulatory and physiological responses of Najdi rams raised under hot summer conditions prevailing in Kingdom Saudi Arabia. The core temperature (Tcore showed circadian rhythm characterized by biphasic achrophases, which were associated with the feeding times during both seasons. Average daily Tcore was significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. However, the amplitudes of the rhythmic oscillation during winter and summer seasons were 0.85 and 0.56C, respectively. Rectal (Tre and skin temperatures (Tsk were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions and exhibited similar patterns during both seasons concurrent with the pattern of temperature humidity index (THI, reaching the maximum values late in the afternoon and the minimum values early in the morning. Respiratory rate (RR and heart rate (HR showed the same pattern of the thermal parameters and were significantly (P<0.05 higher under hot summer conditions. Serum concentrations of total protein, globulin, glucose, sodium and chloride were significantly (P<0.05 increased while those of albumin and calcium were decreased under hot summer conditions. The results obtained from this study indicate that hot summer conditions of Saudi Arabia is thermally stressful to Najdi rams. Therefore, Najdi sheep production under such conditions would require environmental and/or nutritional modification to alleviate the impact of heat stress.
Full Text Available Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9% originated from King Saud University (KSU. About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (≥1. Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia.
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).
Tang, Zheng; Julià, Jordi; Zahran, Hani; Mai, P. Martin
We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.
Full Text Available The community of practice is an internet application that nourishes knowledge management and innovation. Implementing the community of practice in education can enhance the learning process and make it an enjoyable, exiting and lifelong experience. In this paper, the researchers intend to create a conceptual model for the successful implementation of community of practice in Education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia through evaluate the literature review about the educational community of practice. Then, a prototype is developed followed by a survey to collect feed-backs about the experiment. Using the Chi-Square statistical method of qualitative analysis associated with the Design Science Methodology of research, the research is fulfilled. The results illustrated the conceptual model of the effective implementation of the community of practice in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, that define the seven factors to be considered which are network density, culture perceptions, distributed production, knowledge complexity and richness, government enforcement, IT specialist role, and senior members role.
Sharifa A. Alsibiani
Full Text Available To determine the presence of rubella immunity among pregnant women attending their first prenatal visit in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional, hospital-based study (prevalence study was undertaken. A total of 10276 women attending prenatal clinics between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011 were included. Rubella screening tests (immunoglobulins: IgG and IgM, rubella antibody titer levels, patient age, gravidity, parity, and the number of previous abortions were analyzed. No patients tested IgM positive, and 9410 (91.6% were immune (IgG positive; the remaining 866 (8.4% were susceptible. There were no significant differences in gravidity, parity, or the number of previous abortions between immune and nonimmune groups. In contrast, the immunity rate decreased with increasing age, with a significant difference between the youngest age group (15–19 years and the oldest age group (40–49 years (P=0.0005; odds ratio, 2.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.7–4.7. Rubella immunity among pregnant women was high (91.6% but decreased significantly with increasing age. A possible explanation for this is the change in the rubella vaccination policy in Saudi Arabia in 2002, from 1 dose to 2 doses. In addition, antibody levels begin to decline after vaccination and natural infection.
AHMED MOHAMED ALZAIDI
Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the factors which might affect secondary school head teachers’ job satisfaction in the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. This study adopts a sequential exploratory strategy based on a mixed methods approach. The qualitative data generated identified the factors leading to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction. The factors fall into eight major themes: relationship with the educational administration, head teachers’ practices, the school environment, relationships with students and parents, head teachers’ authority, relationship with educational supervision and relationships with teachers. The quantitative data reveal that factors causing dissatisfaction are: lack of authority to transfer underperforming teachers, lack of finance and manpower for the cleaning of school buildings, lack of financial resources to improve school buildings, salary, poor revenue from school meals as a financial resource, and lack of financial reward. To explore the relationship between job satisfaction and the selected variables, a Kruskal-Wills (non parametric statistical test revealed significant differences between job satisfaction in terms of morale, relationship with the educational administration, the school environment, head teachers’ authority and overall job satisfaction according to educational supervision centers. In addition, a kruskal-Wills test revealed significant differences between job satisfactions in head teachers’ practices according to completion of the head teachers’ training programme. However, there were no significant differences between job satisfaction related to experience, student numbers, head teachers’ qualification, age and school building type. The paper identifies that the highly centralised educational system in Saudi Arabia and the lack of autonomy are factors that affect job satisfaction.
Osman, Jorge R.
Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities
Ismaila R. Abubakar
Full Text Available Higher education institutions are major drivers of change in achieving environmental sustainability both within college campuses and beyond campuses in communities at large. However, achieving campus sustainability is not possible without the involvement of students as one of the major stakeholders of a university. Based on survey of 152 students of the College of Architecture and Planning, University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia, this study explores students’ assessment of campus sustainability components: curriculum and research; campus operations; and community involvement. The results show that even though the students indicate a great deal of awareness and concern about campus environmental sustainability, they lack interest and willingness to participate in initiatives towards achieving sustainability. Apart from some sustainable landscaping and waste recycling practices, there are few sustainability initiatives in transportation and energy and water conservation on the campus. Offered courses and student projects have also been reported to have modest focus on sustainability. The article concludes by highlighting the roles of incorporating sustainability into campus operations, and training university students in promoting environmental sustainability in Saudi Arabia and the Middle East.
The purpose of this study is to use geophysical imaging methods to identify the conjectured location of the ‘Qadimah fault’ near the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’, Saudi Arabia. Towards this goal, 2-D resistivity and seismic surveys were conducted at two different locations, site 1 and site 2, along the proposed trace of the ‘Qadimah fault’. Three processing techniques were used to validate the fault (i) 2-D travel time tomography, (ii) resistivity imaging, and (iii) reflection trim stacking. The refraction traveltime tomograms at site 1 and site 2 both show low-velocity zones (LVZ’s) next to the conjectured fault trace. These LVZ’s are interpreted as colluvial wedges that are often observed on the downthrown side of normal faults. The resistivity tomograms are consistent with this interpretation in that there is a significant change in resistivity values along the conjectured fault trace. Processing the reflection data did not clearly reveal the existence of a fault, and is partly due to the sub-optimal design of the reflection experiment. Overall, the results of this study strongly, but not definitively, suggest the existence of the Qadimah fault in the ‘King Abdullah Economic City’ region of Saudi Arabia.
Nabil Y.Abdel-Shafi; Ramzy R.Obaid; Ibrahim M.Jomoah
This paper involves the investigations of the chilled water and ice cold thermal storage technologies along with the associated operating strategies for the air conditioning (AC) systems of the typical office buildings in Saudi Arabia, so as to reduce the electricity energy consumption during the peak load periods. In Saudi Arabia, the extensive use of AC for indoor cooling in offices composes a large proportion of the annual peak electricity demand. The very high temperatures over long summer periods, extending from May to October, and the low cost of energy are the key factors in the wide and extensive use of air conditioners in the kingdom. This intense cooling load adds up to the requirement increase in the capacity of power plants, which makes them under utilized during the off-peak periods. Thermal energy storage techniques are one of the effective demand-side energy management methods. Systems with cold storage shifts all or part of the electricity requirement from peak hours to off-peak hours to reduce demand charges and/or take advantage of off-peak rates. The investigations reveal that the cold thermal energy storage techniques are effective from both technical and economic perspectives in the reduction of energy consumption in the buildings during peak periods.
Full Text Available Accurate forecast of municipal water production is critically important for arid and oil rich countries such as Saudi Arabia which depend on costly desalination plants to satisfy the growing water demand. Achieving the desired prediction accuracy is a challenging task since the forecast model should take into consideration a variety of factors such as economic development, climate conditions and population growth. The task is further complicated given that Mecca city is visited regularly by large numbers during specific months in the year due to religious reasons. This study develops a neural network model for forecasting the monthly and annual water demand for Mecca city, Saudi Arabia. The proposed model used historic records of water production and estimated visitors’ distribution to calibrate a neural network model for water demand forecast. The explanatory variables included annually-varying variables such as household income, persons per household, and city population, along with monthly-varying variables such as expected number of visitors each month and maximum monthly temperature. The NN prediction outperforms that of a regular econometric model. The latter is adjusted such that it can provide monthly and annual predictions.
Mohamed Abd El Fatah Mahmoud
Full Text Available Aim: Four viral pathogens, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, and bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1, bovine parainfluenza type 3 virus (PI-3V, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV are mainly associated with bovine respiratory diseases that cause major economic losses in the dairy cattle industry. This study aimed to document exposure of cattle in Saudi Arabia to infectious BVDV, BHV-1, PI-3V and BRSV viruses in non vaccinated cattle in order to obtain epidemiological and immunological information. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 460 random serum samples obtained from non vaccinated cattle in five districts (Riyadh, Eastern Province, Jizan, Najran, Asir of Saudi Arabia between January to March 2011. These samples were tested for presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, BRSV and PIV-3 by commercial indirect ELISA kits. Results: Our findings displayed that Seropositivity rates were 26 % for BVD, 17.4 % for BHV-1, 69.1 % for PI-3V and 75.6 % for BRSV in the sampled population. In addition, coinfections with more than one virus were considerably common among non-vaccinated dairy cattle. Conclusion: These results indicate that exposure to these agents is common within the study areas. Preventive and control measures against these infectious agents should therefore be adopted. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 1-4
Full Text Available Residential buildings are vital in the energy scenario of Saudi Arabia as they account for 52% of the total electricity consumption. The Eastern Province, due to its harsh weather conditions, is one of the most challenging areas in Saudi Arabia in terms of residential energy consumption. The province is vital also because of its large land area, accounting for almost one third of the entire country. This article investigates some of the important factors related to the residential energy consumption i.e. weather conditions, types of dwellings, building envelops, air-conditioning (A/C systems and domestic appliances especially cooking ovens. The work is based upon an analysis of the actual monthly electricity consumption for 115 dwellings in Dhahran for the year 2012. The investigated buildings include 62 apartments, 28 villas, and 25 traditional houses. The annual average electricity consumption for the surveyed dwellings was found to be 176.5 kWh/m2, a value higher than international energy-efficiency benchmarks. It is found that the use of mini-split A/C systems, thermal insulation and double-glazed windows can help reduce the electricity consumption by over 30%.
Full Text Available Hasan A Alzahrani,1 Owiss H Alzahrani21Department of Surgery, 2Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: To identify medical students' perceptions of their learning strategies including, learning habits, resources, and preferred teaching methods, in the Department of Surgery (DOS of the King Abdulaziz University-Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FoM, in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study which was designed to identify students' perceptions of their learning in the DOS of the KAU-FoM. A questionnaire was administered to a random group of 549 medical students, to explore student perceptions of their learning strategies including methods of learning and learning resources.Results: The majority believed that clinical session attendance is always important compared with lectures (88.9% vs 21.9%. Nevertheless, clinical sessions were selected as the third source of learning after learning from assigned textbooks and previous examination model answers. The majority (74.1% believed that self-instruction at home is the preferred method of learning.Conclusion: Student perspectives should be taken into consideration prior to any future reforms of curriculum. Reforms should adopt a “think globally; act locally” educational strategy based on learner needs.Keywords: education, medical, learning, surgery, developing countries
We investigate the lithospheric shear-wave velocity structure of Saudi Arabia by conducting H-κ stacking analysis and jointly inverting teleseismic P-receiver functions and fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave group velocities at 56 broadband stations deployed by the Saudi Geological Survey (SGS). The study region, the Arabian plate, is traditionally divided into the western Arabian shield and the eastern Arabian platform: The Arabian shield itself is a complicated mélange of crustal material, composed of several Proterozoic terrains separated by ophiolite-bearing suture zones and dotted by outcropping Cenozoic volcanic rocks (locally known as harrats). The Arabian platform is primarily covered by 8 to 10 km of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks. Our results reveal high Vp/Vs ratios in the region of Harrat Lunayyir, which are interpreted as solidified magma intrusions from old magmatic episodes in the shield. Our results also indicate slow velocities and large upper mantle lid temperatures below the southern and northern tips of the Arabian shield, when compared with the values obtained for the central shield. We argue that our inferred patterns of lid velocity and temperature are due to heating by thermal conduction from the Afar plume (and, possibly, the Jordan plume), and that volcanism in western Arabia may result from small-scale adiabatic ascent of magma diapirs.
Fahdel M. Housawi
Full Text Available The epidemiology of orf virus infection in Saudi Arabia (SA has been researched since 1990. The results obtained during this period indicate that the disease is widespread, has great economic impact and that no vaccine has been used against it. The present study compares the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of three locally developed live orf virus vaccines. Two of them differ in their passage history in Vero cell culture and the third was used as a virulent virus in glycerine buffer. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no similar comparative study has been conducted in the Middle East utilising three types of vaccines prepared from the same virus strain. Selection of the candidate seed orf virus and performance of the quality control tests were as laid out by the OIE for veterinary vaccine production. The vaccine seed virus was a field orf virus isolated from a previous orf outbreak in Saudi Arabia. A simple novel formula was developed to calculate the rate of reduction in the healing time (RHT % in the challenged sheep. This allowed direct comparison of the efficacy of the three types of vaccines employed in the present study. The efficacy of each vaccine was tested on a cohort of local Noemi sheep.
Full Text Available Despite the recognition of Task-Based Language Teaching (TBLT in English language learning classes in different contexts, its successful implementation in EFL contexts has attracted insufficient attention. As an offshoot of communicative language teaching, TBLT can provide EFL language learners with ample opportunities to embark on using language for more communicative purposes through interaction and engaging in collaborative tasks. The present study adopts an action research approach to implementing TBLT in a traditional language learning context at a major international university in Saudi Arabia. In particular, it intends to determine the students’ (N = 25 learning styles using Felder-Silverman Learning Style Model (FSLSM and to use varying tasks to tackle the common learning problems such as lack of participation in learning activities and low motivation. The analysis of data from different data collection instruments revealed that applying TBLT approach in this context helped students enhance their interaction with their classmates and teacher and used English for more authentic purposes while performing a series of learning tasks. In addition, the implementation of TBLT in this context motivated students to engage in different learning activities. At the end, implications of the findings for further research are discussed.Keywords: TBLT; FSLSM; action research; EFL; Saudi Arabia
Alqaisi, Othman; Ndambi, O Assah; Uddin, Mohammad Mohi; Hemme, Torsten
The development of the dairy industry plays an important role in the economy of Middle Eastern countries. Judged by its growth rate, the dairy industry is viewed as one of the most progressive food industries in the Middle East. During the early 1970s, countries established executive programs to promote dairy farming; the major objective was to attain self-sufficiency in milk production. A massive investment was set up for importing top class cattle, complying with top industry operating standards, and a simultaneous introduction of the latest technology in processing, packaging, and distributing. Milk production has grown tremendously at rates of 6.6% and 4.9% in Syria and Saudi Arabia, respectively, between 2002 and 2007, which resulted in these nations being almost self-sufficient. Regarding Jordan, milk production has not yet met this target. An excessive growth in the dairy industry is quite noticeable in this region with an expanding capacity for exports. The aim of this study is to show the most recent trends and future prospects of the dairy industries in Syria, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan. It also attempts to investigate the drivers for the development of milk production, consumption, and trade in the region. PMID:20352329
Abouelmagd, A.; McCabe, M. F.; Castro, M. C.; Sultan, M.; Jana, R. B.; Al-Mashharawi, S.
One of the most valuable groundwater reserves in Saudi Arabia is the Saq aquifer system (SAS), a thick (400-1200 meters) sandstone unit that extends across 300,000 km2 in Saudi Arabia and neighboring Jordan. Due to its high productivity and high water quality, current pumping and overexploitation of the aquifer has significantly lowered the groundwater level over the years. Understanding the recharge regimes of the SAS is critical for the development of sustainable exploitation of water resources in the region and for the establishment of appropriate management practices. In this study, we investigate the hydrologic setting of the SAS and seek to differentiate the degree of paleo versus modern contributions using a range of geochemical approaches. Multiple groundwater samples were collected from deep production wells tapping the SAS at depths between 375-1800 m and across a range of locations. Samples were analyzed for their chemical concentrations, stable isotopic compositions (δ18O and δ2H), and dissolved noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios. Examining these data identifies unmixed pools of fossil groundwater at deeper depths as well as mixed shallower systems that indicate contributions from modern precipitation. Through isotopic and noble gas analyses, the relative age and timing of these recharge events was examined and show contributions from both glacial and inter-glacial periods, with some modest contributions from modern meteoric sources.
Omima; M.Eida; Amany; M.Eida
Objective: To establish molecular characterization of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates in Jazan Area of Saudi Arabia measured with highly polymorphic genetic marker, i.e. the merozoite surface protein 2(MSP 2).Methods: Blood samples were collected from 128 clinically suspected patients attending both Jazan and Sabia hospitals, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Both hospitals reflected urban and rural settings respectively. Analysis of central polymorphic region of MSP 2(3D7 and FC27 allelic families) was performed using nested PCR for malaria patients.Results: For MSP 2 allelic families of Plasmodium falciparum, 16 cases(53.3%) carried FC27 type and 14 cases(46.7%) carried 3D7 type, whereas no malaria cases harbored both allelic types. The present study showed that in urban area, 80% of FC27 fragments were 500 bp while in rural area it was 45.5%(P = 0.08). The FC27 400 bp allele was more prevalent in patients from rural than those from the urban area(P = 0.08). The most prevalent infecting 3D7 allele was the 3D7 300 bp in both areas. In the present study, there were no multiple infections.Conclusions: The limited genetic diversity which was observed in Jazan(considered as an endemic area) may be attributed to the small sample size or sustained malaria control program.
Farahat, Ashraf; El-Askary, Hesham; Al-Shaibani, Abdulaziz; Hariri, Mustafa M.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a major source of atmospheric dust. Frequent dust storms blow up and significantly affect human activities, airports and citizens' health. Aerosols optical and physical characteristics are influenced by major dust storms outbreaks. In this, paper, ground based AERONET measurements are integrated with space-borne sensors, namely MODIS and CALIPSO to analyze aerosols' characteristics during March - May of 2009 where a massive dust storm blew up and caused a widespread heavy atmospheric dust load over Saudi Arabia and the same period during 2010, where less dust activities were reported. The MODIS Deep Blue AOD analysis showed similar aerosols pattern over the land, however a substantial variance in aerosol loading during March - May 2009 compared with the same period in 2010 was observed. The angstrom exponent analysis showed that the majority of aerosol measurements in 2009 and 2010 are dominated by coarse-mode particles with angstrom exponent VDR) derived from CALIPSO backscattering measurements is used to find latitudinal profile of mean aerosol optical depth to indicate the type of particles and to discriminate spherical aerosols with non-spherical particles. Acknowledgement The authors would like to acknowledge the support provided by the King Abdel Aziz City for Science & Technology (KACST) for funding this work under grant No. (MT-32-76). The support provided by the Deanship of Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM) is gratefully acknowledged.
Full Text Available Ahmed R Afify,1 Khalid H Zawawi,1 Hisham I Othman,2 Ayman A Al-Dharrab31Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, 2Department of Basic Oral and Clinical Sciences, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaObjectives: The objective of this study is to investigate the correlation between the psychomotor skills and the academic performance of dental students.Methods: Didactic and preclinical scores were collected for students who graduated from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in 2011. Three courses (Dental Anatomy, Removable Prosthodontic Denture, and Orthodontics were selected. Correlations comparing didactic and practical scores were done for the total samples, then for the males and females separately.Results: There was no significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for the three courses for the total sample. There was a significant correlation between all three subjects in the didactic scores. For females, the results showed that there was only a significant correlation between the practical and didactic scores for Dental Anatomy. For males, no correlation was observed between the practical and didactic scores for all subjects.Conclusion: In the present sample, didactic performance did not correlate well with the students' psychomotor performance.Keywords: psychomotor performance, didactic performance, dental students, correlation study, dental education, practical performance
Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa
A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected. PMID:26990176
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1,2 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,3 Mansour M Alghamdi,4 Ahlam A Dohal,4 Mohammed A El-Sheemy51School of Life Sciences, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Al-Baha University, Kingdom of Saudia Arabia; 3Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 4King Fahad Specialist Hospital–Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Department of Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, UKPurpose: This study provides descriptive epidemiological data, such as the percentage of cases diagnosed, crude incidence rate (CIR, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR of ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia from 2001–2008. Patients and methods: A retrospective descriptive epidemiological analysis of all ovarian cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR from January 2001–December 2008 was performed. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance tests, Poisson regression, and simple linear modeling.Results: A total of 991 ovarian cancer cases were recorded in the SCR from January 2001–December 2008. The region of Riyadh had the highest overall ASIR at 3.3 cases per 100,000 women, followed by the Jouf and Asir regions at 3.13 and 2.96 cases per 100,000 women. However, Hail and Jazan had the lowest rates at 1.4 and 0.6 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. Compared to Jazan, the incidence rate ratio for the number of ovarian cancer cases was significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Makkah region at 6.4 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.13–9.83, followed by Riyadh at 6.3 (95% CI: 4.10–9.82, and the eastern region of Saudi Arabia at 4.52 (95% CI: 2.93–6.98. The predicted annual CIR and ASIR for ovarian cancer in Saudi Arabia could be defined by the equations 0.9 + (0.07× years and 1.71 + (0.09× years, respectively.Conclusion: We observed a slight increase in the CIRs and
Full Text Available Background: Respiratory care (RC is an allied health profession that involves assessing and treating patients who have pulmonary diseases. Research indicates that respiratory therapists′ (RT′s involvement in caring for patients with respiratory disorders improves important outcome measures. In Kingdome of Saudi Arabia (KSA, RC has been practiced by RTs for more than 30 years. Objective: We sought to investigate the status of the RC workforce in Saudi Arabia in terms of demographic distribution, number, education, and RC service coverage. Methods: We used a specially designed survey to collect data. A list of 411 working hospitals in KSA was obtained. All hospitals were contacted to inquire if RC is practiced by RTs. Data were collected from hospitals that employ RTs. Results: Only 88 hospitals, 21.4% of total hospitals in the country, have RTs. Out of the 244 Ministry of Health (MOH hospitals, only 31 hospitals (12.7% employ RTs. There are 1,477 active RTs in KSA. Twenty-five percent of them, or 371, are Saudis. The majority of the RT workforce (60% work for non-MOH government hospitals, and almost half the total RTs work in Riyadh province. About 60% of RTs work in critical care settings. RC coverage of critical care was 44.5% of ideal. The overall RT-to-ICU bed ratio was 1:11. The ratio was 1:9 for non-MOH government hospitals, and 1:20 for MOH hospitals. Conclusions: We report the first insightful data on RC workforce in KSA. These data should be used by educational institutions and health policy makers to plan better RC coverage in the country.
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Abahussain, Nada A
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes and use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among Saudi Arabian adolescents. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 736 adolescents (358 males, 378 females) aged 15-19 years from secondary schools. The study was carried out in Al-Khobar city, Eastern region of Saudi Arabia. The findings revealed that the use of CAM by adolescents in their lifetime ranged from 1.6% for acupuncture to 58.6% for honey treatment, with significant differences between genders, except in the use of dietary supplements, black cumin, and acupuncture therapies. Females were more likely to use CAM for treating abdominal pains, cold and flu, and cough than males (P < 0.000). Family members and friends (67.7%) were the main source of CAM usage, followed by television (10%), and Internet (8%). Religious and medicinal herb healers were the CAM healers most commonly visited by adolescents. Nearly 21-43% of adolescents had positive attitudes toward CAM, with some significant differences between males and females. It can be concluded that CAM is widely used by Saudi adolescents, but caution should be exercised for the safe usage of some CAM treatments. CAM should not be ignored; however there is an urgent need to establish regulations for CAM usage. PMID:25560362
The aim of the study was to characterize the pattern of radiographic changes in the hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis in Saudi patients. The radiographs of hands and feet of rheumatoid arthritis patients attending rheumatology outpatient clinics of King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, over the period extending from March to June 2001, were examined and reported for the presence of osteopenia, joint space narrowing, and erosions. Fifty-six rheumatoid arthritis patients were studied. Their mean age was 50 + 1.9 years, and mean disease duration was 9.07 + 0.84 years. Generalized osteopenia was seen in 16/56 (29%) and periarticular osteopenia in 38/56 (68%). Joint space narrowing was present in 9/56 (16%) of feet and 35/56 (63%) of hand x-rays. Erosions were seen in 3/56 (6%) of feet and in 22/56 (39%) of hand x-rays. Significant correlation was seen between joints space narrowing, joint erosions, and disease duration. Radiographic changes in hands and feet of Saudi rheumatoid arthritis patients are less severe than those reported from the West, and the pattern is also different with less affection of the feet. (author)
Herbig, U.; Jäger-Klein, C.; Mayer, I.; Mortada, H.; Styhler-Aydın, G.
Saudi Arabia has a rich architectural heritage that can be found in all regions of the vast country. Except for a small number of publications the recording and documentation of the traditional built environment was not content of detailed scientific investigations so far. But with the increasing decay of the architectural heritage the interest for this kind of research is rising. A mirror of this efforts is the National Built Heritage Forum, annual conference, launched in 2010 by his excellency Prince Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud and the Saudi Commission for Tourism and Antiquities (SCTA). In that frame Saudi universities are intensifying research and educational programs for the research of traditional architecture. In 2008 the Department of Architecture of the College of Environmental Design at the King Abdulaziz University established a cooperation with the Department of History of Architecture and Building Archaeology of the Vienna University of Technology with the aim to start an exchange of knowledge and experience in building archaeology and building survey. An important part of this cooperation was a workshop for staff and students in the historic centre of Jeddah. The aim was to train methods and techniques on typical examples in the old town of Jeddah, Al Balad. This paper is describing the layout of the workshop, the process of the work and examples of the results.
Ebad, Shouki A; Jaha, Emad S; Al-Qadhi, Mohammed A
Developing legally compliant systems is a challenging software engineering problem, especially in systems that are governed by law, such as healthcare information systems. This challenge comes from the ambiguities and domain-specific definitions that are found in governmental rules. Therefore, there is a significant business need to automatically analyze privacy texts, extract rules and subsequently enforce them throughout the supply chain. The existing works that analyze health regulations use the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act as a case study. In this article, we applied the Breaux and Antón approach to the text of the Saudi Arabian healthcare privacy regulations; in Saudi Arabia, privacy is among the top dilemmas for public and private healthcare practitioners. As a result, we extracted and analyzed 2 rights, 4 obligations, 22 constraints, and 6 rules. Our analysis can assist requirements engineers, standards organizations, compliance officers and stakeholders by ensuring that their systems conform to Saudi policy. In addition, this article discusses the threats to the study validity and suggests open problems for future research. PMID:25325796
To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and practice of health care professionals on the early detection of breast cancer. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah and Abha regions of Saudi Arabia from May to November 2009. A detailed questionnaire was distributed to 500 doctors from different hospitals. The questionnaire contained items on the practice of clinical breast examination and mammogram examination, and the doctor's perception of their roles in education. The results of 337 questionnaires analyzed indicated that most health care professionals do not practice clinical breast examination and mammography, and the perception of their roles in education is not as expected. Health care providers are one of the main barriers in improving early detection of breast cancer in Saudi Arabia. There is a need to increase awareness among health care providers of their role in the fight against breast cancer through focused education and training programs (Author).
The document reproduces the text of the Director General's reply to the communication of 24 April 1996 from the Resident Representative of Saudi Arabia to the IAEA concerning the Israeli Dimona Reactor
We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, a nine-fold increase in 40 years, to nearly 3 million barrels per day, about one-fourth of production. Such rapid growth in consumption – 5.7% annually, which is 37% faster than its income growth of 4.2% – will challenge Saudi Arabia's ability to increase its oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in Saudi oil consumption – from 5.7% annual growth historically to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in Saudi oil exports. Using 1971–2010 data, we estimate that the income responsiveness (elasticity) of oil consumption is at least 1.5—using both Ordinary Least Squares regression and Cointegration methods. We believe that continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the dramatic slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE and BP. This will have major implications for Saudi production and export levels. - Highlights: ► We analyze the rapid growth of Saudi Arabia's domestic oil consumption, now one-fourth of production. ► Estimated income elasticity of oil demand at least 1.5, using OLS and Co-integration. ► Yet IEA, DOE and BP project unprecedented slowdowns, from 5.7% historically to below 2%, half the rate of income growth. ► Continued high growth rates are more likely, with major implications for Saudi production and export levels.
Alolah, Turki; Stewart, Rodney A; Panuwatwanich, Kriengsak; Mohamed, Sherif
In the public schools of many developing countries, numerous accidents and incidents occur because of poor safety regulations and management systems. To improve the educational environment in Saudi Arabia, the Ministry of Education seeks novel approaches to measure school safety performance in order to decrease incidents and accidents. The main objective of this research was to develop a systematic approach for measuring Saudi school safety performance using the balanced scorecard framework philosophy. The evolved third generation balanced scorecard framework is considered to be a suitable and robust framework that captures the system-wide leading and lagging indicators of business performance. The balanced scorecard architecture is ideal for adaptation to complex areas such as safety management where a holistic system evaluation is more effective than traditional compartmentalised approaches. In developing the safety performance balanced scorecard for Saudi schools, the conceptual framework was first developed and peer-reviewed by eighteen Saudi education experts. Next, 200 participants, including teachers, school executives, and Ministry of Education officers, were recruited to rate both the importance and the performance of 79 measurement items used in the framework. Exploratory factor analysis, followed by the confirmatory partial least squares method, was then conducted in order to operationalise the safety performance balanced scorecard, which encapsulates the following five salient perspectives: safety management and leadership; safety learning and training; safety policy, procedures and processes; workforce safety culture; and safety performance. Partial least squares based structural equation modelling was then conducted to reveal five significant relationships between perspectives, namely, safety management and leadership had a significant effect on safety learning and training and safety policy, procedures and processes, both safety learning and training
Full Text Available Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, UK; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs, Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Research and Development, Lincoln Hospital, Lincolnshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Lincoln, UK Background: The present study reviews the epidemiological data on corpus uteri cancer among Saudi women, including its frequency, crude incidence rate, and age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR, adjusted by region and year of diagnosis. Methods: A retrospective, descriptive epidemiological analysis was conducted of all the corpus uteri cancer cases recorded in the Saudi Cancer Registry between January 2001 and December 2008. The statistical analyses were performed using descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Poisson regression, and a simple linear model. Results: A total of 1,060 corpus uteri cancer cases were included. Women aged 60–74 years of age were most affected by the disease. The region of Riyadh in Saudi Arabia had the highest overall ASIR, at 4.4 cases per 100,000 female patients, followed by the eastern region, at 4.2, and Makkah, at 3.7. Jazan, Najran, and Qassim had the lowest average ASIRs, ranging from 0.8 to 1.4. A Poisson regression model using Jazan as the reference revealed that the corpus uteri cancer incidence rate ratio was significantly higher for the regions of Makkah, at 16.5 times (95% confidence interval [CI]: 8.0–23.0, followed by Riyadh, at 16.0 times (95% CI: 9.0–22.0, and the eastern region, at 9.9 times (95% CI: 5.6–17.6. The northern region experienced the highest changes in ASIRs of corpus uteri cancer among female Saudi patients between 2001 and 2008. Conclusion: There was a slight increase in the crude incidence rates and ASIRs for corpus uteri cancer in Saudi Arabia between 2001 and 2008. Older Saudi women were most affected by the disease. Riyadh, the eastern region, and Makkah
Taha, Attia Z.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine self-reported knowledge and practice of physical activity among male school students and their teachers in Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Al Khobar area, Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The target population consisted of third grade intermediate and all three grades of male secondary school students. A multistage stratified self-weighting sampling design was adopted. All students, a total ...
Abanmy, Norah O; Al-Quait, Nouf A; Alami, Amani H; Al-Juhani, Meshaal H; Al-Aqeel, Sinaa
In Saudi Arabia, the utilization of the world wide web has become increasingly popular. However, the exact figure of such use is unknown. This study aimed to determine the percentage of, and experience with, online Arabic drug information by Arabic-speaking adults in Saudi Arabia. A web based questionnaire was used. The questionnaire language was Arabic. Public were invited to participate in the survey through e-mails, Twitter, WhatsApp and Facebook in March 2012. The survey included 17 items examining the types of accessed Arabic drug information, the respondent's demographics, their ability to easily find and understand Arabic drug-related information, and their trustfulness and dependency on such information websites. Of the 422 Arabic speaking adults who answered the questionnaire, 88% stated that they used Arabic websites to answer drug-related questions. Of the respondents, 50% had a bachelor's degree, 44% were young adults, over half were female (60%), and 72% of them have a chronic disease. The ease of retrieving online information was the most common reason (69%) for consulting such websites. Google as a search engine was the most frequently (86%) accessible website. Although respondents reported different drug-related topics in their online searching, the search for adverse effects was the most common (68%). Respondents claimed that they could easily find (65%) and understand (49%) the drug-related information. Although a good number of respondents qualified this type of information as good, double-checking of information on other websites was highly recommended. Trustfulness was one of the important parameters to measure and 205 respondents (55%) claimed that they only trusted half of the information cited. Moreover, around 48% of respondents considered that finding the same information on more than one website increased its trustfulness. Surprisingly, 54% of respondents did not depend on Arabic information websites when making decisions on drug use
Full Text Available Background : Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is rare and can be challenging to diagnose. Limited data is available from the Middle Eastern region, especially Saudi Arabia. Methods: This was a retrospective study that looked at all the patients diagnosed with IPF between 2007 and 2012 at two tertiary care hospitals in Saudi Arabia. We collected the demographical, clinical, laboratory and radiological data from the patients′ medical records. Medications administered and 1 year survival was also assessed. Results : Between 2007and 2012, 134 IPF patients were identified. Their baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD included: age 64 ± 13 years, body mass index 29 ± 8 kg/m 2 , FEV 1 56 ± 15 percent of predicted, FVC 53 ± 13 percent of predicted, FEV 1 /FVC 0.81 ± 0.09, total lung capacity 75 ± 13 percent of predicted, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide 57 ± 15 percent of predicted, on home oxygen at presentation 71 (53%, mean ejection fraction 0.50 ± 0.07, mean pulmonary artery systolic pressure (via echocardiogram 40 + 22 mmHg, presentation mean S pO2 92 ± 7%, presentation 6-min walk distance 338 ± 64 m and lowest S pO2 during 6-min walk test 88 ± 5%. Patients were predominantly female (56%, and 42% of patients had diabetes and were active smokers. The IPF patients′ frequency of hospital admission (n = 99 was 2.4 ± 1.7 per year and duration of hospital stay (n = 99 was 17.4 ± 23.8 days. Overall 1 year survival in all IPF patients was good, 93% (124 patients remained alive after 1 year. Conclusions : In Saudi Arabia, IPF patients tended to be slightly older and the disease progression was somewhat slower than reported IPF cohorts in other populations. They had frequent hospital admissions and a long hospital length of stay. The influence of genetics and co-morbid diseases on the incidence and outcome of IPF should be explored further.
Full Text Available Background: Occupational exposure to percutaneous injuries is a substantial source of infections with blood-borne pathogens among health-care workers. Few studies evaluated injection safety practices in Saudi Arabia.Objective: To examine the structure and process of injection safety at primary health care level in Jazan health district, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices of primary health care physicians and nurses towards injection safety, and to determine the incidence of needle stick injuries among health care workers in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jazan primary health care centers (PHCCs, Saudi Arabia from September 2011 to March 2012. Data were collected using an observational checklist and data collection sheet. Jazan city health district was chosen at random from the 14 health sectors in Jazan region. All the 33 (10 urban, and 23 rural PHCCs of Jazan city were included in this study to get the predetermined sample size of health care workers. 200 health care workers (HCWs were recruited (29% physicians, and 71% nurses.Results: Syringes in the PHCCs were disposable (100%, individually packed (92%, and available at all volumes (98%. Methods of safe disposal of needles and sharps were also operated through contracting with professional companies in 84.8% of instances. Urban PHCCs had more posts for injection safety promotion than rural centers (p=0.02. Continuous Medical Education (CME programs on infection control were present in only 60% of PHCCs. At least 95% of HCWs in Jazan believed that sharp objects should be kept in a puncture-proof container, kept in a closed container, or disposed by a professional company. More than 80% of HCWs washed their hands by soap and water and cleaned them by alcohol before giving injection, and also got the three doses of hepatitis B vaccine.The rate of needle stick injury in the past year was 14%, without a significant difference between
Omar, Nazri; Chacra, Charbel T Bou; Tabbara, Khalid F
Background The aim of this work was to describe the indications, complications, and outcomes of penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in Saudi Arabia. Methods In a retrospective, noncomparative interventional case series, the medical records of patients who underwent PKP from January 2000 to December 2008 and had a minimum follow-up of 6 months were reviewed. All corneas were obtained from eye banks in the US. Indications, complications, and outcomes of surgery were recorded. This study was approved by the institutional review board. Results Eighty-five consecutive eyes were included in this study. There were 52 (61.2%) males and 33 (38.8%) females. The median age was 35.0 years (range 3–85 years), and the median follow-up period was 24 months (range 6–108 months). The indications for PKP were keratoconus, bullous keratopathy, corneal scars, corneal dystrophy, and corneal regraft. The overall graft survival time was 88.9 months ± 4.9 months (mean ± standard error of mean, 95% confidence interval [CI] 79.4 months –98.4 months) while the 3-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates were 90.7% and 84.3%, respectively. Surgical indication (P = 0.038), immune rejection (P < 0.001), preoperative corneal vascularization (P = 0.022), and perioperative high intraocular pressure (P = 0.032) were associated significantly with corneal graft failure in univariate analysis. Multivariate analysis reduced these significant associations to rejection (P < 0.001) and vascularization (P = 0.009). Relative risk for failure in rejected cornea was 16.22 (95% CI 4.99–52.69) and in vascularized cornea was 3.89 (95% CI 1.36–11.09). At last visit following PKP, 34 (40%) eyes had best spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better, and 51 (60.0%) eyes had 20/80 or better. Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity was worse than 20/400 in 15 (17.6%) eyes. Conclusion The overall corneal graft survival in a private setting in Saudi Arabia can be excellent. Thorough preoperative evaluation
Alghamdi IG; Hussain II; Alghamdi MS; El-Sheemy MA
Ibrahim G Alghamdi,1 Issam I Hussain,1 Mohamed S Alghamdi,2 Mohamed A El-Sheemy1,3 1University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln, United Kingdom; 2Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Health Affairs Al-Baha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 3Lincoln Hospital, Research and Development, United Lincolnshire Hospitals, National Health Service Trust, Lincoln, United Kingdom Background: This study presents descriptive epidemiological data related to breast cancer cases diagnosed from 2001 to 2008 a...
Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been correlated with several diseases and injuries including diabetes, osteoporosis, fractures, and falls. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, current data on vitamin D status are lacking. Aims: To inform Saudi public health authorities on the current status of blood levels vitamin D deficiency, we analyzed data from the Saudi Health Interview Survey. Materials and Methods: The Saudi Health Interview Survey (SHIS is a cross-sectional national multistage survey of individuals aged 15 years and above on sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco consumption, diet, physical activity, health care utilization, different health-related behaviors, and self-reported chronic conditions. A total of 10,735 participants completed a health questionnaire and were invited to the local health clinics for biomedical exams. Results: 62.65% of female Saudis and 40.6% of male Saudis aged 15 years and above are deficient in vitamin D. Out of them, less than 1% males and less than 2% females consume vitamin D supplements. Women who have never married and obese individuals are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D, compared to men who were currently married and nonobese individuals. Those consuming vitamin D supplements are less likely to be deficient in vitamin D. Conclusions: Our study showed a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among Saudi men and women, and the results call for an increased awareness to ensure adequate levels of vitamin D for better health in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, our findings are certainly relevant for other countries in the Gulf region or countries with similar cultures, clothing, and religions.
Waleed Al Taweel
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the current trends in the management and surveillance of the NB population secondary to spinal cord injury (SCI or myelomeningocele by certified urologist working in Saudi Arabia and to compare it to the current guidelines. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 12-points questionnaire distributed to urologists working in Saudi Arabia and registered at the Saudi medical association. The assessment and follow-up of upper and lower urinary tract function in neurogenic bladder patients, their optimal frequency and management of related infections were the topics of inquiry. Results: Of the 272 urologists surveyed, 105 responded, yielding a response rate of 38%. Eighty-nine percent of respondents said that ultrasound was their diagnostic tool of choice for upper tract evaluation. Sixty-one percent of respondents said that they would follow their patients with a multichannel urodynamic study. Forty percent of urologists stated that they would treat asymptomatic bacteriuria. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC was the most common modality chosen for the management of neurogenic bladder in patients with emptying difficulties. Conclusion: This study confirms that most urologists in Saudi Arabia involved with neurogenic bladder management. However, more than one third of the urologists do not have urodynamic machine and only two of the reporting practitioners has a videourodynamic machine. The results emphasize the need for clear guidelines in this field of urology in Saudi Arabia. Highly specialized rehabilitation centers for neurogenic bladder secondary to SCI are required for optimal care and urologist teaching.