WorldWideScience

Sample records for abh-le secretor traits

  1. Lewis phenotype, secretor status, and coeliac disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, W; Wylie, J D; Collins, J S; Porter, K G; Watson, R G; McLoughlin, J C

    1994-01-01

    Patients who cannot secrete ABO and Lewis blood group antigens into body fluids, an ability controlled by a single gene on chromosome 19, are known to be at increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases associated with human leucocyte antigen (HLA) markers. This study investigated the possibility of an association with coeliac disease using red cell Lewis (Le) blood group phenotype to infer secretor status. Among 73 patients with coeliac disease who had Le a or b antigen, 48% were non-secreto...

  2. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barja, P. R.; Coelho, C. C.; Paiva, R. F.; Barboza, M. A.; Matos, L. C.; Matos, C. C. B.; Oliveira, L. V. F.

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called "secretor" and "non secretor" phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t0 (typical interaction time) and Δt (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  3. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barja, P R; Coelho, C C; Paiva, R F [Research and Development Institute, UNIVAP, Av. Shishima Hifumi 2911, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barboza, M A; Matos, L C; Matos, C C B [Faculty of Medicine of Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, L V F, E-mail: barja@univap.b [Rehabilitation Sciences Master' s Program, Nove de Julho University (UNINOVE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-03-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called 'secretor' and 'non secretor' phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t{sub 0} (typical interaction time) and {Delta}t (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  4. Photoacoustic analysis of the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from cystic fibrosis patients - secretor and non-secretor phenotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that increases viscoelasticity of pulmonary secretions. Affected patients are required to use therapeutic aerosols continuously. The expression of ABH glycoconjugates in exocrine secretions determines the nature of part of the carbohydrates present in these secretions, allowing the classification of individuals into the so-called 'secretor' and 'non secretor' phenotypes. The aim of this work was to employ photoacoustic (PA) measurements to monitor the solubilization kinetics of pulmonary secretions from CF patients, analyzing the influence of the secretor status in the solubilization kinetics of samples nebulized with different therapeutic aerosols. Sputum samples were obtained by spontaneous expectoration from positive and negative secretor CF patients. Each sample was nebulized with i) tobramycin, ii) alpha dornase, and iii) N-acetylcysteine in a PA cell; fitting of the data with the Boltzmann equation led to the determination of t0 (typical interaction time) and Δt (solubilization interval) for each curve. Differences between the secretor and non-secretor phenotypes were statistically significant in the groups for tobramycin and alpha dornase, but not for N-acetylcysteine. Results show that the secretor status influences the solubilization of pulmonary mucus of CF patients nebulized with tobramycin and alpha dornase.

  5. Isolation of bifidobacteria for blood group secretor status targeted personalised nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri Mäkivuokko

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Currently, there is a constant need to find microbial products for maintaining or even improving host microbiota balance that could be targeted to a selected consumer group. Blood group secretor status, determining the ABO status, could be used to stratify the consumer group. Objective: We have applied a validated upper intestinal tract model (TIM-1 and culturing methods to screen potential probiotic bacteria from faeces of blood secretor and non-secretor individuals. Design: Faecal samples from healthy volunteers were pooled to age- and sex-matched secretor and non-secretor pools. Faecal pools were run through separate TIM-1 simulations, and bacteria were cultivated from samples taken at different stages of simulations for characterisation. Results: Microbes in secretor pool survived the transit through TIM-1 system better than microbes of non-secretor pool, especially bifidobacteria and anaerobes were highly affected. The differences in numbers of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli isolates after plate cultivations and further the number of distinct RAPD-genotypes was clearly lower in non-secretor pool than in secretor pool. Conclusions: In the present study, we showed that microbiota of secretor and non-secretor individuals tolerate gastrointestinal conditions differently and that a combination of gastrointestinal simulations and cultivation methods proved to be a promising tool for isolating potentially probiotic bacteria.

  6. Faecal microbiota composition in adults is associated with the FUT2 gene determining the secretor status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Wacklin

    Full Text Available The human intestine is colonised with highly diverse and individually defined microbiota, which likely has an impact on the host well-being. Drivers of the individual variation in the microbiota compositions are multifactorial and include environmental, host and dietary factors. We studied the impact of the host secretor status, encoded by fucosyltransferase 2 (FUT2 -gene, on the intestinal microbiota composition. Secretor status determines the expression of the ABH and Lewis histo-blood group antigens in the intestinal mucosa. The study population was comprised of 14 non-secretor (FUT2 rs601338 genotype AA and 57 secretor (genotypes GG and AG adult individuals of western European descent. Intestinal microbiota was analyzed by PCR-DGGE and for a subset of 12 non-secretor subjects and 12 secretor subjects additionally by the 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and the HITChip phylogenetic microarray analysis. All three methods showed distinct clustering of the intestinal microbiota and significant differences in abundances of several taxa representing dominant microbiota between the non-secretors and the secretors as well as between the FUT2 genotypes. In addition, the non-secretors had lower species richness than the secretors. The soft clustering of microbiota into enterotypes (ET 1 and 3 showed that the non-secretors had a higher probability of belonging to ET1 and the secretors to ET3. Our study shows that secretor status and FUT2 polymorphism are associated with the composition of human intestinal microbiota, and appears thus to be one of the key drivers affecting the individual variation of human intestinal microbiota.

  7. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Outbreak with a Secretor-independent Susceptibility Pattern, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Nordgren, Johan; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Matussek, Andreas; Svensson, Lennart

    2010-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is recognized as the commonest cause of acute gastroenteritis among adults. Susceptibility to disease has been associated with histo-blood group antigens and secretor status; nonsecretors are almost completely resistant to disease. We report a foodborne outbreak of GI.3 NoV gastroenteritis that affected 33/83 (40%) persons. Symptomatic disease was as likely to develop in nonsecretors as in secretors (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46-4.36 vs. OR 0.71, 95%...

  8. P[8] and P[4] Rotavirus Infection Associated with Secretor Phenotypes Among Children in South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Long, Yan; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Qiong; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Wen-Fang; Li, Jian-Dong; Hu, Gui-Fang; Tang, Shixing; Dai, Ying-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Rotaviruses are known to recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as a host ligand that is believed to play an important role in rotavirus host susceptibility and host range. In this study, paired fecal and saliva samples collected from children with viral gastroenteritis, as well as paired serum and saliva samples collected from the general population in south China were studied to evaluate potential association between rotavirus infections and human HBGA phenotypes. Rotavirus was detected in 75 (28%) of 266 fecal samples and P[8] rotaviruses were found to be the predominant genotype. The HBGA phenotypes of the rotavirus-infected children were determined through their saliva samples. Secretor statuses were found to correlate with the risk of rotavirus infection and all P[8]/P[4] rotavirus infected children were secretors. Accordingly, recombinant VP8* proteins of the P[8]/P[4] rotaviruses bound saliva samples from secretor individuals. Furthermore, correlation between serum P[8]/P[4]-specific IgG and host Lewis and secretor phenotypes has been found among 206 studied serum samples. Our study supported the association between rotavirus infection and the host HBGA phenotypes, which would help further understanding of rotavirus host range and epidemiology. PMID:27708367

  9. Infection by Helicobacter pylori expressing the BabA adhesin is influenced by the secretor phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, M; Eriksson, S; Mendes, N; Serpa, J; Figueiredo, C; Resende, L P; Ruvoën-Clouet, N; Haas, R; Borén, T; Le Pendu, J; David, L

    2008-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infects half the world's population and causes diverse gastric lesions, from gastritis to gastric cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the significance of secretor and Lewis status in infection and in vitro adherence by Hp expressing BabA adhesin. We enrolled 304 Hp-infected individuals from Northern Portugal. Gastric biopsies, blood and saliva were collected. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunofluorescence were used to detect BabA+ Hp in gastric biopsies. In vitro adherence by a BabA expressing Hp strain to gastric biopsies was performed. Secretor status was identified by Ulex, a lectin that recognizes secretor-dependent glycan structures in saliva and in gastric mucosa, and by Lewis(a/b) antibodies, and indirectly by identification of an inactivating mutation in the FUT2 gene (G428A). BabA status of infecting Hp was associated with CagA and VacAs1 (p < 0.05), intercellular localization of Hp (p < 0.01) and the presence of intestinal metaplasia (p < 0.05) and degenerative alterations (p < 0.005) in the biopsies. BabA was associated (p < 0.05) with Ulex staining of gastric biopsies and, although not significantly, to absence of homozygosity for FUT2 G428A inactivating polymorphism. In vitro Hp adherence was higher in cases wild-type or heterozygous for FUT2 G428A mutation (p < 0.0001), cases staining for Ulex (p < 0.0001) and a(-)b+ and a(-)b(-) secretor phenotypes (p < 0.001). In conclusion, BabA+ Hp infection/adhesion is secretor-dependent and associated with the severity of gastric lesions. PMID:18498114

  10. Significance of Lewis Phenotyping Using Saliva and Gastric Tissue: Comparison with the Lewis Phenotype Inferred from Lewis and Secretor Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Ji Hong; Sang Mee Hwang; Taek Soo Kim; Eun Young Song; Kyoung Un Park; Junghan Song; Kyou-Sup Han

    2014-01-01

    Lewis phenotypes using various types of specimen were compared with the Lewis phenotype predicted from Lewis and Secretor genotypes. This is the first logical step in explaining the association between the Lewis expression and Helicobacter pylori. We performed a study of the followings on 209 patients who underwent routine gastroscopy: erythrocyte and saliva Lewis phenotyping, gastric Lewis phenotyping by the tissue array, and the Lewis and Secretor genes genotyping. The results of phenotypin...

  11. Significance of Lewis phenotyping using saliva and gastric tissue: comparison with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and secretor genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yun Ji; Hwang, Sang Mee; Kim, Taek Soo; Song, Eun Young; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Han, Kyou-Sup

    2014-01-01

    Lewis phenotypes using various types of specimen were compared with the Lewis phenotype predicted from Lewis and Secretor genotypes. This is the first logical step in explaining the association between the Lewis expression and Helicobacter pylori. We performed a study of the followings on 209 patients who underwent routine gastroscopy: erythrocyte and saliva Lewis phenotyping, gastric Lewis phenotyping by the tissue array, and the Lewis and Secretor genes genotyping. The results of phenotyping were as follows [Le(a-b-), Le(a+b-), Le(a-b+), and Le(a+b+), respectively, in order]: erythrocyte (12.4%, 25.8%, 61.2%, and 0.5%); saliva (2.4%, 27.3%, 70.3%, and 0.0%); gastric mucosa (8.1%, 6.7%, 45.5%, and 39.7%). The frequency of Le, le (59/508) , le (59/1067) , and le (59) alleles was 74.6%, 21.3%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, among 418 alleles. The saliva Lewis phenotype was completely consistent with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and Secretor genotypes, but that of gastric mucosa could not be predicted from genotypes. Lewis phenotyping using erythrocytes is only adequate for transfusion needs. Saliva testing for the Lewis phenotype is a more reliable method for determining the peripheral Lewis phenotype of an individual and the gastric Lewis phenotype must be used for the study on the association between Helicobacter pylori and the Lewis phenotype. PMID:24783214

  12. Higher frequency of secretor phenotype in O blood group – its benefits in prevention and/or treatment of some diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Salih Jaff

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih JaffPathology Department, Hawler Medical University (Formerly Salahaddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, IraqAbstract: ABO blood groups and secretor status are important in clinical and forensic medicine and in relation to some diseases. There are geographic and racial differences in their frequencies, but the frequency of secretor status in different ABO blood group systems has not been determined yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was mainly to determine this point. Blood and saliva from 762 randomly selected apparently healthy adult individuals (480 men and 282 women were examined to determine their ABO and Rhesus blood groups by standard conventional methods, and their secretor status by using Lewis blood grouping and/or hemagglutination inhibition test of saliva. Results showed that 76.1% of the study population were ABH blood group antigens secretors and 23.9% were nonsecretors. The frequencies of secretor status in different ABO blood groups were 70.1% in group A, 67.8% in group B, 67.9% in group AB, and 88.3% in group O. In conclusion, blood group O individuals have significantly higher frequency of secretor status than non-O blood group individuals. This finding would be beneficial to them, protecting them, at least partially, from certain malignancies or allowing them to have less aggressive disease, and this finding might be useful in enhancing further studies and research in this direction.Keywords: blood group O, ABO blood groups, secretor phenotype, frequency, malignancies, prevention and/or treatment

  13. Both Lewis and Secretor Status Mediate Susceptibility to Rotavirus Infections in a Rotavirus Genotype–Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Johan; Sharma, Sumit; Bucardo, Filemon; Nasir, Waqas; Günaydın, Gökçe; Ouermi, Djeneba; Nitiema, Leon W.; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Simpore, Jacques; Hammarström, Lennart; Larson, Göran; Svensson, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Background. The live oral rotavirus (RV) vaccines have shown a reduced efficacy in Africa. Recent in vitro studies have shown binding of the RV surface protein (VP4) to histo–blood group antigens (HBGAs) in an RV genotype–dependent manner, suggesting them to be putative receptors for RV. The diversity of HBGA phenotypes in different ethnic populations, combined with prevalence/absence of specific RV genotypes, led us to hypothesize whether the genetic variations in HBGAs in a population limit susceptibility to certain RV genotypes, plausibly leading to reduced vaccine efficacy. Methods. Association between HBGAs status and susceptibility to RV P genotypes was investigated in children in Burkina Faso and Nicaragua. In total, 242 children with diarrhea in Burkina Faso and Nicaragua were investigated, 93 of whom were RV positive. Results. In Burkina Faso, the P[8] RV strains (n = 27) infected only Lewis- and secretor-positive children (27/27; P < .0001), but no Lewis-negative children. In contrast, the P[6] strains (n = 27) infected predominantly Lewis-negative children (n = 18; P < .0001) but also Lewis-positive children, irrespective of their secretor status. The results from Nicaragua confirmed that all P[8]-infected children (n = 22) were secretor Lewis positive. Conclusions. As VP4 of genotype P[8] is a component of current RV vaccines, our finding that Lewis-negative children are resistant to P[8] strains provides a plausible explanation for the reduced vaccine efficacy in populations with a high percentage of Lewis-negative individuals, such as in Africa. Furthermore, our findings provide a plausible explanation as to why P[6] RV strains are more common in Africa. PMID:25097083

  14. Significance of Lewis Phenotyping Using Saliva and Gastric Tissue: Comparison with the Lewis Phenotype Inferred from Lewis and Secretor Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Ji Hong

    2014-01-01

    , and le59 alleles was 74.6%, 21.3%, 3.1%, and 1.0%, respectively, among 418 alleles. The saliva Lewis phenotype was completely consistent with the Lewis phenotype inferred from Lewis and Secretor genotypes, but that of gastric mucosa could not be predicted from genotypes. Lewis phenotyping using erythrocytes is only adequate for transfusion needs. Saliva testing for the Lewis phenotype is a more reliable method for determining the peripheral Lewis phenotype of an individual and the gastric Lewis phenotype must be used for the study on the association between Helicobacter pylori and the Lewis phenotype.

  15. Sazonalidade dos ductos secretores e óleo essencial de Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae Seasonality of the secretory ducts and essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sousa

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar os ductos secretores e o óleo essencial das folhas de Foeniculum vulgare em diferentes épocas do ano. Para esta finalidade, foram realizados estudos de caracterização anatômica, bem como anatomia comparada dos ductos secretores e testes histoquímicos das folhas. O óleo essencial foi obtido de folhas e frutos, por hidrodestilação em aparelho de Clevenger e analisados quantitativamente e qualitativamente por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada ao espectrômetro de massa, realizando-se análises seguidas de três réplicas para folhas coletadas durante o inverno e primavera, e frutos no verão. Os resultados encontrados para os ductos secretores de óleo corresponderam à redução do teor de óleo essencial nas folhas coletadas no final da primavera. O componente majoritário do óleo essencial de folhas e frutos foi o trans-anetol, durante todas as estações do ano. Portanto, evidenciou-se que os ductos secretores e teor de óleo essencial estão relacionados, bem como os constituintes químicos também estão sujeitos a sazonalidade, conforme o estágio fenológico da planta.This work aimed to analyze the secretory ducts and the essential oil of the leaves of Foeniculum vulgare in different periods of the year. For this purpose, the anatomic characterization, and histochemical tests of the leaves were performed as well as the comparative anatomy of the secretory ducts. The essential oil was obtained from the leaves and fruits by hidrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer, each analysis was repeated three times for leaves collected during the winter and spring, and for fruits collected in the Summer. The results obtained for the secretory ducts, corresponded to the yield reduction of essential oil in the leaves collected in the end of the spring. The major substance of the essential oil of the leaves and fruits, in all

  16. Sickle Cell Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Sickle Cell Trait Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... the trait on to their children. How Sickle Cell Trait is Inherited If both parents have SCT, ...

  17. Traits in Java

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A trait is a programming language feature which contains a collection of methods that can be reused across class hierarchies. Traits is a relatively new language feature that is beginning to be a part of some of the newest object-oriented programming languages. Traits have been implemented in some languages but it has not become a part of the Java language yet. In this thesis we apply traits to the Java 5 language by designing and implementing a traits aware preprocessor....

  18. Traits traded off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rueffler, Claus

    2006-01-01

    The course of evolution is restricted by constraints. A special type of constraint is a trade-off where different traits are negatively correlated. In this situation a mutant type that shows an improvement in one trait suffers from a decreased performance through another trait. In a fixed fitness la

  19. FishTraits Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  20. Power and Autistic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others - which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness - and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question - and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members' needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper's thesis - and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone's effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more common - which can

  1. Osteomalacia por tumor secretor de FGF-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Sánchez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de osteomalacia oncogénica en un varón de 50 años, con fuertes dolores óseos y gran debilidad muscular durante 4 años. Tenía varias deformidades vertebrales dorsales en cuña, fracturas en ambas ramas iliopubianas y en una rama isquiopubiana, y una zona de Looser en la meseta tibial derecha. Se localizó un tumor de 2 cm de diámetro en el hueco poplíteo derecho mediante centellograma con octreótido marcado con tecnecio. El tumor fue extirpado quirúrgicamente. La microscopía mostró un tumor mesenquimático fosfatúrico, de tejido conectivo mixto. La inmunotinción demostró FGF-23. Hubo rápida mejoría, con consolidación de las fracturas pelvianas y de la pseudofractura tibial y normalización de las alteraciones bioquímicas.

  2. Power and Autistic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overskeid, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Autistic traits can help people gain and sustain power, and has probably done so throughout history, says the present paper. A number of testable claims follow from this assumption. First, the powerful should have more autistic traits than others – which they do appear to have. Among other things, powerful people, and those with many autistic traits, tend to prefer solitary activities and are often aloof. Moreover, they are often rigid and socially insensitive, low on empathy and with low scores on the trait of agreeableness – and as a rule they do not have many friends. Both groups are also more self-centered than others, more honest, less submissive, more sensitive to slights, and with a stronger tendency to engage in abstract thinking. They tend to behave in bossy or dominant ways, and their moral judgment is more based on rules than on feelings. In addition to experimental evidence, I cite biographies showing that a surprising number of presidents, prime ministers and other powerful people seem to have had traits like those in question – and interestingly, in animals, leaders are often rigid and insensitive to group members’ needs and feelings, mostly acting the way they are themselves inclined to, not responding much to others. Problem solving is important in leadership, and people with many autistic traits appear often to be better thinkers than typical subjects with similar IQs. However, these and other congruities could be coincidences. Hence the question of whether traits the two groups have in common also have a common cause constitutes a strong test of the paper’s thesis – and a common cause does appear to exist, in the form of testosterone’s effects on the central nervous system. Finally, there is evidence that, other things equal, powerful men have more reproductive success than others. If men wielding power do indeed have more autistic traits than those less powerful, this will lead to, other things equal, such traits becoming more

  3. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander B Siegling; Furnham, Adrian; Petrides, K V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  4. Personality Traits and Administrators

    OpenAIRE

    Anitha V

    2008-01-01

    Administration is the art of getting tasks done by utilizing the resources and coordinating the people. Administrators give trigger to the administration by coordinating, and directing all parts of an organization by managing the tangible and intangible resources of the organization. The qualities of leadership are therefore a critical determinant of organizational success. The theories of leadership (Trait to Transformational leadership theory) have strived to look into the aspects that make...

  5. Thalassaemia trait and pregnancy.

    OpenAIRE

    White, J. M.; Richards, R; Byrne, M; T. Buchanan; White, Y S; Jelenski, G

    1985-01-01

    The haematological variables, haematinic state, and placental function of more than 2000 pregnant women, heterozygous for either alpha- or beta-thalassaemia genes, were examined during pregnancy. Four features emerged. Firstly, it was possible by discriminant function analysis of haematological variables to distinguish in pregnant patients between the anaemia caused by thalassaemia trait and that caused by iron deficiency. Secondly, patients with thalassaemia become significantly more anaemic...

  6. Multiple Trait Analysis of Genetic Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, C.; Zeng, Z B

    1995-01-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis ...

  7. Quantitative trait loci underlying udder morphology traits in dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2008-09-01

    A genome scan was conducted on the basis of the daughter design to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing udder morphology traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep. A total of 739 ewes belonging to 11 half-sib families were genotyped for 182 microsatellite markers covering 3,248.2 cM (Kosambi) of the ovine autosomal genome. Phenotypic traits included scores for 5 linear udder traits: udder depth, udder attachment, teat placement, teat size, and udder shape. Quantitative measurements for the QTL analysis were calculated for each trait from evaluation scores using within-family yield deviations corrected for fixed environmental effects. Joint analysis of all families using Haley-Knott regression identified 5 regions that exceeded the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold on chromosomes 7, 14, 15, 20, and 26. Based on the across-family results, a within-family analysis was carried out to identify families segregated according to the QTL and to estimate the QTL effect. The allelic substitution effect for individual families ranged from 0.47 to 1.7 phenotypic standard deviation units for udder shape on chromosome 15 and udder depth on chromosome 14, respectively. These QTL regions provide a starting point for further research aimed at the characterization of genetic variability involved in udder traits in Churra sheep. This paper presents the first report of a sheep genome scan for udder-related traits in a dairy sheep outbred population.

  8. Quantitative trait loci underlying milk production traits in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; El-Zarei, M F; Alvarez, L; Bayón, Y; de la Fuente, L F; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J-J

    2009-08-01

    Improvement of milk production traits in dairy sheep is required to increase the competitiveness of the industry and to maintain the production of high quality cheese in regions of Mediterranean countries with less favourable conditions. Additional improvement over classical selection could be reached if genes with significant effects on the relevant traits were specifically targeted by selection. However, so far, few studies have been undertaken to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) in dairy sheep. In this study, we present a complete genome scan performed in a commercial population of Spanish Churra sheep to identify chromosomal regions associated with phenotypic variation observed in milk production traits. Eleven half-sib families, including a total of 1213 ewes, were analysed following a daughter design. Genome-wise multi-marker regression analysis revealed a genome-wise significant QTL for milk protein percentage on chromosome 3. Eight other regions, localized on chromosomes 1, 2, 20, 23 and 25, showed suggestive significant linkage associations with some of the analysed traits. To our knowledge, this study represents the first complete genome scan for milk production traits reported in dairy sheep. The experiment described here shows that analysis of commercial dairy sheep populations has the potential to increase our understanding of the genetic determinants of complex production-related traits.

  9. Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Endosperm Traits with Molecular Marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Chen-wu; LI Tao; SUN Chang-sen; GU Shi-liang

    2002-01-01

    Based on the genetic models for triploid endosperm traits and on the methods for mapping diploid quantitative traits loci (QTLs), the genetic constitutions, components of means and genetic variances of QTL controlling endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes of different generations were presented. From these results, a multiple linear regression method for mapping QTL underlying endosperm traits in cereals was proposed, which used the means of endosperm traits under flanking marker genotypes as a dependent variable, the coefficient of additive effect ( d ) and dominance effect ( h 1 and/or h2 ) of a putative QTL in a given interval as independent variables. This method can work at any position in a genome covered by markers and increase the estimation precision of QTL location and their effects by eliminating the interference of other relative QTLs. This method can also be easily used in other uneven data such as markers and quantitative traits detected or measured in plants and tissues different either in generations or at chromosomal ploidy levels, and in endosperm traits controlled by complicated genetic models considering the effects produced by genotypes of both maternal plants and seeds on them.

  10. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively ide

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci for Fertility Traits in Finnish Ayrshire Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulman, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Lund, Mogens S;

    2008-01-01

    A whole genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire cattle. The mapping population consisted of 12 bulls and 493 sons. Estimated breeding values for days open, fertility treatments, maternal calf mortality and paternal non-return rate...... combinations, which were observed significant in the regression method. Twenty-two chromosome-wise significant QTL were detected. Several of the detected QTL areas were overlapping with milk production QTL previously identified in the same population. Multi-trait QTL analyses were carried out to test...

  12. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment.

  13. Authoritarian Personality Traits Among Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J.

    1973-01-01

    The results are reported of an investigation into the social attitudes of the total population (800) of one English university using Adorno's F scale to measure authoritarian personality traits. (Author)

  14. Forming impressions from incongruent traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casselden, P A; Hampson, S E

    1990-08-01

    The factors that affect the ease with which impressions are formed from incongruent trait pairs are investigated. In Experiments 1 and 2, trait pairs that were both descriptively and evaluatively congruent, as well as ones that were only evaluatively congruent, were found to be more imaginable and to be perceived as more frequently co-occurring than incongruent trait pairs. In Experiment 3, response latency provided a converging measure of ease of imaginability. Experiment 4 examined written descriptions of targets described by these trait pairs, and found more attempts to integrate the congruent than the incongruent pairs. These findings are discussed in terms of the relation between laypersons' impressions of personality and formal personality assessment. PMID:2213498

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P;

    2008-01-01

    QTL affecting stillbirth and calving difficulties but not calf size that could be used in selection to improve calving performance. Progeny-tested sons (2,297) were genotyped for 356 microsatellites in 34 grandsire families on all 29 autosomes. A total of 27 significant QTL on 17 chromosomes were...... detected using a between-families linear regression model. For the direct calving traits, 4 QTL significantly affected calving difficulty, 5 QTL affected stillbirth, and 7 QTL affected calf size subjectively assessed by the farmer as a categorical trait. When the maternal components of the same traits were...... tested, there were significant effects of 3 QTL on calving difficulty, 6 QTL on stillbirth, and 2 QTL on calf size. The variance component mapping approach was used to estimate the relative posterior probability of linkage and pleiotropic models. The most probable model indicated a pleiotropic QTL...

  16. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings.

  17. Personal traits, cohabitation, and marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael T; Popovici, Ioana; Robins, Philip K; Homer, Jenny F

    2014-05-01

    This study examines how personal traits affect the likelihood of entering into a cohabitating or marital relationship using a competing risk survival model with cohabitation and marriage as competing outcomes. The data are from Waves 1, 3, and 4 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a rich dataset with a large sample of young adults (N=9835). A personal traits index is constructed from interviewer-assessed scores on the respondents' physical attractiveness, personality, and grooming. Having a higher score on the personal traits index is associated with a greater hazard of entering into a marital relationship for men and women, but the score does not have a significant influence on entering into a cohabitating relationship. Numerous sensitivity tests support the core findings. PMID:24576635

  18. Genetics of reproductive traits: Antagonisms with production traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Animal breeding and reproductive physiology have been closely related throughout the history of animal production science, because artificial insemination provides the best method of increasing the influence of sires with superior genetics to improve production traits. The addition of genetic techn...

  19. Quantitative trait loci for male reproductive traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, E; Lunstra, D D; Stone, R T

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for male reproductive traits in a half-sib family from a Bos indicus (Brahman) x Bos taurus (Hereford) sire. The sire was mated with MARC III (1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Angus, 1/4 Red Poll and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows. Testicular traits were measured from 126 male offspring born in 1996 and castrated at 8.5 months. Traits analysed were concentration of follicle stimulating hormone in peripheral blood at castration (FSH), paired testicular weight (PTW) and paired testicular volume (PTV) adjusted for age of dam, calculated age at puberty (AGE), and body weight at castration (BYW). A putative QTL was observed for FSH on chromosome 5. The maximum F-statistic was detected at 70 cM from the beginning of the linkage group. Animals inheriting the Hereford allele had a 2.47-ng/ml higher concentration of FSH than those inheriting the Brahman allele. Evidence also suggests the existence of a putative QTL on chromosome 29 for PTW, PTV, AGE and BYW. The maximum F-statistic was detected at cM 44 from the beginning of the linkage group for PTW, PTV and AGE, and at cM 52 for BYW. Animals that inherited the Brahman allele at this chromosomal region had a 45-g heavier PTW, a 42-cm(3) greater PTV, a 39-day younger AGE and a 22.8-kg heavier BYW, compared with those inheriting the Hereford allele. This is the first report of QTL for male reproductive traits in cattle. PMID:15566467

  20. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  1. Plant traits determine forest flammability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylstra, Philip; Bradstock, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Carbon and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems are influenced by their inherent flammability - a property determined by the traits of the component plant species that form the fuel and influence the micro climate of a fire. In the absence of a model capable of explaining the complexity of such a system however, flammability is frequently represented by simple metrics such as surface fuel load. The implications of modelling fire - flammability feedbacks using surface fuel load were examined and compared to a biophysical, mechanistic model (Forest Flammability Model) that incorporates the influence of structural plant traits (e.g. crown shape and spacing) and leaf traits (e.g. thickness, dimensions and moisture). Fuels burn with values of combustibility modelled from leaf traits, transferring convective heat along vectors defined by flame angle and with plume temperatures that decrease with distance from the flame. Flames are re-calculated in one-second time-steps, with new leaves within the plant, neighbouring plants or higher strata ignited when the modelled time to ignition is reached, and other leaves extinguishing when their modelled flame duration is exceeded. The relative influence of surface fuels, vegetation structure and plant leaf traits were examined by comparing flame heights modelled using three treatments that successively added these components within the FFM. Validation was performed across a diverse range of eucalypt forests burnt under widely varying conditions during a forest fire in the Brindabella Ranges west of Canberra (ACT) in 2003. Flame heights ranged from 10 cm to more than 20 m, with an average of 4 m. When modelled from surface fuels alone, flame heights were on average 1.5m smaller than observed values, and were predicted within the error range 28% of the time. The addition of plant structure produced predicted flame heights that were on average 1.5m larger than observed, but were correct 53% of the time. The over-prediction in this

  2. Fear Inhibition in High Trait Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Merel Kindt; Marieke Soeter

    2014-01-01

    Trait anxiety is recognized as an individual risk factor for the development of anxiety disorders but the neurobiological mechanisms remain unknown. Here we test whether trait anxiety is associated with impaired fear inhibition utilizing the AX+/BX- conditional discrimination procedure that allows for the independent evaluation of startle fear potentiation and inhibition of fear [1]. Sixty undergraduate students participated in the study - High Trait Anxious: n = 28 and Low Trait Anxious: n =...

  3. Traits Programming with AspectJ

    OpenAIRE

    Denier, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Traits as defined by Schärli, Ducasse et al. allow for the explicit handling of a mean- ingful set of methods. This article presents an attempt to map the trait model from Smalltalk to the Java language. We use AspectJ introduction mechanism to do this. Thus we enlighten purposes of locality and reusability shared by traits and structural AOP.

  4. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble soli...

  5. Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait?

    OpenAIRE

    Dobson, Alleson; Cotter, Paul D.; Ross, R. Paul; Hill, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Bacteriocins are an abundant and diverse group of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria and archaea. Traditionally, bacteriocin production has been considered an important trait in the selection of probiotic strains, but until recently, few studies have definitively demonstrated the impact of bacteriocin production on the ability of a strain to compete within complex microbial communities and/or positively influence the health of the host. Although research in th...

  6. Multiple trait genetic evaluation of ewe traits in Icelandic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, T; Jónmundsson, J V

    2008-12-01

    The prolificacy of the ewes was measured as the number of lambs born per ewe mated (NLB) when the ewes were 1-4 years of age. The ewe productivity related to the same age interval was measured by special ewe production indices (EPI). The genetic parameters for these traits were estimated by a series of bivariate REML analyses using animal models. The material used for the genetic analysis contained records on 193,213 ewes. The heritability estimates for NLB were h(2) = 0.17, 0.13, 0.11, 0.10 for the four respective age classes. Corresponding estimates for EPI were h(2) = 0.16, 0.17, 0.17, 0.15. The genetic correlations among NLB at different ages ranged from 0.63 to 0.98 and among EPI from 0.82 to 0.99. The genetic correlations between NLB and EPI were generally low. The material used for estimating the breeding values by the MT-BLUP Animal Model consisted of 1.5 million individuals in the pedigree file. In total 815,782 ewes had records for the NLB and 763,491 ewes had production index (at least 1 year). The records were registered in the years 1990-2006. All possible missing patterns were present in the data. In the iteration process expected values for missing traits were generated and solutions were obtained on canonical transformed scale. The genetic evaluations were run independently for NLB and EPI for computational convenience given the correlations between these traits were negligible.

  7. Trait-based tests of coexistence mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Fajardo, Alex; Kleinhesselink, Andrew R; Kraft, Nathan J B

    2013-10-01

    Recent functional trait studies have shown that trait differences may favour certain species (environmental filtering) while simultaneously preventing competitive exclusion (niche partitioning). However, phenomenological trait-dispersion analyses do not identify the mechanisms that generate niche partitioning, preventing trait-based prediction of future changes in biodiversity. We argue that such predictions require linking functional traits with recognised coexistence mechanisms involving spatial or temporal environmental heterogeneity, resource partitioning and natural enemies. We first demonstrate the limitations of phenomenological approaches using simulations, and then (1) propose trait-based tests of coexistence, (2) generate hypotheses about which plant functional traits are likely to interact with particular mechanisms and (3) review the literature for evidence for these hypotheses. Theory and data suggest that all four classes of coexistence mechanisms could act on functional trait variation, but some mechanisms will be stronger and more widespread than others. The highest priority for future research is studies of interactions between environmental heterogeneity and trait variation that measure environmental variables at within-community scales and quantify species' responses to the environment in the absence of competition. Evidence that similar trait-based coexistence mechanisms operate in many ecosystems would simplify biodiversity forecasting and represent a rare victory for generality over contingency in community ecology. PMID:23910482

  8. Quantitative trait loci pyramiding for fruit quality traits in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Adriana; Di Matteo, Antonio; Lombardi, Nadia; Trotta, Nikita; Punzo, Biancavaleria; Mari, Angela; Barone, Amalia

    2013-01-01

    Fruit quality is a major focus for most conventional and innovative tomato breeding strategies, with particular attention being paid to fruit antioxidant compounds. Tomatoes represent a major contribution to dietary nutrition worldwide and a reservoir of diverse antioxidant molecules. In a previous study, we identified two Solanum pennellii introgression lines (IL7-3 and IL12-4) harbouring quantitative trait loci (QTL) that increase the content of ascorbic acid (AsA), phenols and soluble solids (degrees Brix; °Bx) in tomato fruit. The purpose of the present work was to pyramid into cultivated varieties the selected QTL for enhanced antioxidant and °Bx content. To better understand the genetic architecture of each QTL, the two ILs were crossed to the recurrent parent M82 (ILH7-3 and ILH12-4) and between them (ILH7-3+12-4). F1 hybrids (ILH7-3+12-4) were then selfed up to obtain F3 progenies in order to stabilize the favourable traits at the homozygous condition. Species-specific molecular markers were identified for each introgressed region and allowed us to select four F2 genotypes carrying both introgressions at the homozygous condition. The F3 double homozygous plants displayed AsA, total phenols and °Bx content significantly higher than M82. Therefore, they may represent suitable genetic material for breeding schemes aiming to increase antioxidant content in tomato fruit. PMID:23316114

  9. Complement activation by salivary agglutinin is secretor status dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.G. Gunput; A.J.M. Ligtenberg; B. Terlouw; M. Brouwer; E.C.I. Veerman; D. Wouters

    2015-01-01

    After mucosal damage or gingival inflammation, complement proteins leak into the oral cavity and mix with salivary proteins such as salivary agglutinin (SAG/gp-340/DMBT1). This protein is encoded by the gene Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 (DMBT1), and it aggregates bacteria, viruses and fungi,

  10. Biological and ecological traits of marine species

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, M.J.; Claus, S.; Dekeyzer, S; Vandepitte, L.; Ó Tuama, É.; Lear, D.; Tyler-Walters, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the utility and availability of biological and ecological traits for marine species so as to prioritise the development of a world database on marine species traits. In addition, the ‘status’ of species for conservation, that is, whether they are introduced or invasive, of fishery or aquaculture interest, harmful, or used as an ecological indicator, were reviewed because these attributes are of particular interest to society. Whereas traits are an enduring characteristic of...

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci in Inbred Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Quantitative traits result from the influence of multiple genes (quantitative trait loci) and environmental factors. Detecting and mapping the individual genes underlying such 'complex' traits is a difficult task. Fortunately, populations obtained from crosses between inbred lines are relatively ideal for this - at least far more ideal than livestock and human populations - and true multigenic models are now available and have been applied successfully. In this chapter we will introduce the r...

  12. Plants with useful traits and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Sally Ann; De la Rosa Santamaria, Roberto

    2016-10-25

    The present invention provides methods for obtaining plants that exhibit useful traits by transient suppression of the MSH1 gene of the plants. Methods for identifying genetic loci that provide for useful traits in plants and plants produced with those loci are also provided. In addition, plants that exhibit the useful traits, parts of the plants including seeds, and products of the plants are provided as well as methods of using the plants.

  13. Understanding rice adaptation to varying agro-ecosystems: trait interactions and quantitative trait loci

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Shalabh; Grondin, Alexandre; Lee, Cheng-Ruei; Henry, Amelia; Olds, Thomas-Mitchell; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Background Interaction and genetic control for traits influencing the adaptation of the rice crop to varying environments was studied in a mapping population derived from parents (Moroberekan and Swarna) contrasting for drought tolerance, yield potential, lodging resistance, and adaptation to dry direct seeding. A BC2F3-derived mapping population for traits related to these four trait groups was phenotyped to understand the interactions among traits and to map and align QTLs using composite i...

  14. Beware the angry leader: Trait anger and trait anxiety as predictors of petty tyranny

    OpenAIRE

    Kant, Leo; SKOGSTAD, Anders; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Einarsen, Ståle

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the general aggression model and theories of victimization and temperamental goodness-of-fit, we investigated trait anger and trait anxiety as antecedents of petty tyranny: employing a multilevel design with data from 84 sea captains and 177 crew members. Leader trait anger predicted subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Subordinate trait anxiety was associated with subordinate-reported petty tyranny. Theassociation between leader traitanger and subordinate-reported pe...

  15. Components of Young Children's Trait Understanding: Behavior-to-Trait Inferences and Trait-to-Behavior Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, David; Gelman, Susan A.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2007-01-01

    Trait attribution is central to people's naive theories of people and their actions. Previous developmental research indicates that young children are poor at predicting behaviors from past trait-relevant behaviors. We propose that the cognitive process of behavior-to-behavior predictions consists of two component processes: (1) behavior-to-trait…

  16. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.;

    2011-01-01

    trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy‐in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world's 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits...

  17. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  18. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  19. Sickle Cell Trait and the Athlete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.Randy Eichner

    2007-01-01

    @@ KEY POINTS ·Sickle cell trait is an inherited condition of the oxygencarrying protein,hemoglobin,in red blood cells.This genetic trait is generally benign,but during maximal exercise,the oxygen levels in muscles can decrease sufficiently to cause some of the red cells to change from the normal disk shape to a crescent or sickle shape.

  20. Personal traits as predictor of job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Petrushikhina Elena Borisovna

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to problem of association between job satisfaction and personal traits. The Five-Factor model is well-founded for predicting job satisfaction. Correlation analysis indicates high influence of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness on job satisfaction. NEO-PI-R is recommended for measuring of personal traits in human resource management.

  1. Personal traits as predictor of job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushikhina Elena Borisovna

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to problem of association between job satisfaction and personal traits. The Five-Factor model is well-founded for predicting job satisfaction. Correlation analysis indicates high influence of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness on job satisfaction. NEO-PI-R is recommended for measuring of personal traits in human resource management.

  2. Trait-based approaches to zooplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtman, E.; Ohman, M.D.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Zooplankton are major primary consumers and predators in most aquatic ecosystems. They exhibit tremendous diversity of traits, ecological strategies and, consequently, impacts on other trophic levels and the cycling of materials and energy. An adequate representation of this diversity in community...... and ecosystem models is necessary to generate realistic predictions on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems but remains extremely challenging. We propose that the use of trait-based approaches is a promising way to reduce complexity while retaining realism in developing novel descriptions of zooplankton...... traits, such as body size and motility, transcend several functions and are major determinants of zooplankton ecological strategies. Future developments of trait-based approaches to zooplankton should assemble a comprehensive matrix of key traits for diverse groups and explore it for general patterns...

  3. Cultural traits as units of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Michael J; Lyman, R Lee; Mesoudi, Alex; VanPool, Todd L

    2010-12-12

    Cultural traits have long been used in anthropology as units of transmission that ostensibly reflect behavioural characteristics of the individuals or groups exhibiting the traits. After they are transmitted, cultural traits serve as units of replication in that they can be modified as part of an individual's cultural repertoire through processes such as recombination, loss or partial alteration within an individual's mind. Cultural traits are analogous to genes in that organisms replicate them, but they are also replicators in their own right. No one has ever seen a unit of transmission, either behavioural or genetic, although we can observe the effects of transmission. Fortunately, such units are manifest in artefacts, features and other components of the archaeological record, and they serve as proxies for studying the transmission (and modification) of cultural traits, provided there is analytical clarity over how to define and measure the units that underlie this inheritance process.

  4. Towards an evolutionary ecology of sexual traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Uller, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    Empirical studies of sexual traits continue to generate conflicting results, leading to a growing awareness that the current understanding of this topic is limited. Here we argue that this is because studies of sexual traits fail to encompass three important features of evolution. First, sexual traits evolve via natural selection of which sexual selection is just one part. Second, selection on sexual traits fluctuates in strength, direction and form due to spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. Third, phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generates selection and responses to selection within and across generations. A move from purely gene-focused theories of sexual selection towards research that explicitly integrates development, ecology and evolution is necessary to break the stasis in research on sexual traits.

  5. Predictors of leadership: The usual suspects and the suspect traits

    OpenAIRE

    Antonakis J.; Bryman A. (ed.); Collinson D. (ed.); Grint K. (ed.); Jackson B. (ed.); Uhl-Bien M. (ed.)

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, I review literature on traits (i.e., individual differences) and their links to leader outcomes. I present an integrated model, the ascription-actuality trait theory, to explain two routes to leader outcomes that stem from traits: the route that objectively matters and the route that appears to matter but objectively may not. I discuss the history of trait research and provide criteria by which we should judge the validity of trait models. Finally, I review trait models that ...

  6. REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS SELECTION IN NELORE BEEF CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Luis Moreira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic breeding programs of beef cattle in Brazil are including new features, mainly related to reproductive efficiency.Thus, it is necessary to study the effectiveness of selection and quantify genetic gain for these traits in herds. This study estimated genetic and phenotypic parameters and genetic trends for reproductive traits used in breeding programs for Nelore beef cattle. The traits studied were the scrotal circumference (SC at 365 and 450 days of age (SC365 and SC450, age at first calving (AFC and gestation length, as a cow trait (GLcow and a calf trait (GLcalf. The (covariance components were obtained with the Restricted Maximum Likelihood Methodology in a single and double-trait analysis of the animal model. For scrotal circumference (SC365 and SC450, positive and favorable genetic gains were observed. For AFC, GLcow and GLcalf, the trends were favorable for selection, but without significant genetic gain. Selection for large SC may reduce AFC and improve female reproductive efficiency. The selection for reproductive traits (SC365, SC450, AFC and GL may improve reproductive and productive efficiency of Nelore cattle, if used as a selection criterion.

  7. Assessing the Utility of Compound Trait Estimates of Narrow Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter D; Blacksmith, Nikki; Wood, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that approximations of narrow traits can be made through linear combinations of broad traits such as the Big Five personality traits. Indeed, Hough and Ones ( 2001 ) used a qualitative analysis of scale content to arrive at a taxonomy of how Big Five traits might be combined to approximate various narrow traits. However, the utility of such compound trait approximations has yet to be established beyond specific cases such as integrity and customer service orientation. Using data from the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample (Goldberg, 2008 ), we explore the ability of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits to approximate scores on 127 narrow trait measures from 5 well-known non-Big-Five omnibus measures of personality. Our findings indicate that individuals' standing on more than 30 narrow traits can be well estimated from 3 different types of linear composites of scores on Big Five traits without a substantial sacrifice in criterion validity. We discuss theoretical accounts for why such relationships exist as well as the theoretical and practical implications of these findings for researchers and practitioners. PMID:27153207

  8. Beyond traits: personality as intersubjective themes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The author argues that research in the idiographic tradition is more conducive to effective clinical work than the uncritical adoption of specific "evidence-based therapies" for discrete symptomatic disorders. She views pressures on therapists to adopt evidence-based therapies without consideration of individual differences and personal subjectivity as the misapplication of a research paradigm to the clinical situation. Reviewing some recent empirical work on individuality and therapeutic process, she critiques efforts to formulate personality diagnosis on the basis of externally observable traits without attention to internal experience, and she contends that intrapsychic themes account for personality differences more powerfully than traits, even when traits are construed dimensionally.

  9. 腺病毒载体介导的人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶的表达降低Galα(1,3)Gal抗原表位水平%Adenovirus-mediated expression of human secretor type a(1,2)fucosyltransferase reduces level of Gala(1,3)Gal epitop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢力; 夏国宏; 费俭; 白旭芳; 郭礼和

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To test the potential of human secretor type α(1, 2) fucosyltransferase [Seα(1,2)FT] to downregulate the expression of Galα(1,3)Gal epitope (gal epitope) in cultured cell lines. METHODS: Expression of Seα(1,2) FT was mediated by human adenoviral vector. Flow cytometric analysis was used to compare the expression level of H blood group antigen or gal epitope. MTT was employed to assess the susceptibility of mouse NIH3T3 cells to human natural antibody and complement mediated lysis. RESULTS: A recombinant replication-deficient adenovims (rAdv) containing human Seα( 1,2)FT cDNA (Ad5hSeFT) was designed and successfully constructed. Flow cytometric analysis showed that after mock infection, Ad5null infection, and Ad5hSeFT infection, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) values for the binding of Ulex europaeus I (UEA-I) lectin to NIH3T3 cells were 2.3 ± 0.6, 2.1 ± 1.0, and 36.5 ± 5.9, respectively; MFI values for the binding of Griffonia simplicifolia isolectin B4 (GS-IB4) lectin to NIH3T3 cells were 167 ±23, 170 ± 19, and 100 ± 14, respectively; MFI values for the binding of human natural IgG and IgM antibodies to NIH3T3 cells were 31 ± 3, 32 ± 4, and 22 ± 4, respectively. CONCLUSION: H blood group antigen was detected on NIH3T3 cells after Ad5hSeFT infection and resulted in more than 40 % reduction in the level of gal epitope on the cell surface. This reduction increased the resistance of NIH3T3 cells to lysis by normal human serum.%目的:检测人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶降低Galα(1,3)Gal表位(gal表位)水平.方法:以人腺病毒载体表达人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶.流式细胞术比较H血型抗原和gal表位的表达水平.MTT法分析小鼠NIH3T3细胞对人天然抗体和补体介导的细胞裂解作用的敏感性.结果:设计并构建了表达人分泌型α(1,2)岩藻糖基转移酶基因的复制缺陷型重组腺病毒载体Ad5hSeFT.流式细胞分析结果表明,NIH3T3细胞及Ad5null

  10. Trait emotional intelligence and inflammatory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sebastiano; Petrides, K V; Tillmann, Taavi

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the psychological aspects of inflammatory disorders. Within this line of research, the present study compares the trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) profiles of 827 individuals with various inflammatory conditions (rheumatoid arthritis [RA], ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and RA plus one comorbidity) against 496 healthy controls. Global trait EI scores did not show significant differences between these groups, although some differences were observed when comparisons were carried out against alternative control groups. Significant differences were found on the trait EI factors of Well-being (where the healthy group scored higher than the RA group) and Sociability (where the healthy group scored higher than both the RA group and the RA plus one comorbidity group). The discussion centers on the multifarious links and interplay between emotions and inflammatory conditions. PMID:23725416

  11. Heteroscedastic Latent Trait Models for Dichotomous Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan

    2015-09-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the levels of an observed moderator variable. In the case that heteroscedasticity arises across the latent trait itself, existing models commonly distinguish between heteroscedastic residuals and a skewed trait distribution. These models have valuable applications in intelligence, personality and psychopathology research. However, existing approaches are only limited to continuous and polytomous data, while dichotomous data are common in intelligence and psychopathology research. Therefore, in present paper, a heteroscedastic latent trait model is presented for dichotomous data. The model is studied in a simulation study, and applied to data pertaining alcohol use and cognitive ability. PMID:25080866

  12. TRY - a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentices, I.C.; Leadley, P.; Bönisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westobys, M.; Reich, P.B.; Wrights, I.J.; Cornelissen, C.; Violle, C.; Harisson, S.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B.J.; Soudzilovskaia, N.A.; Ackerly, D.D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T.R.; Baldochi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C.C.; Blonders, B.; Bond, W.J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D.E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J.Q.; Chapin III, F.S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W.K.; Craine, J.M.; Dobrin, B.H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W.F.; Fang, J.; Fernadez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, T.; Fyllas, N.M.; Gallagher, R.V.; Green, W.A.; Gutierrez, A.G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S.I.; Hodgson, J.G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C.A.; Kerkhoff, A.J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J.M.H.; Kramer, K.; Kühn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T.D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lewis, S.L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M.D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B.E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A.T.; Müller, S.C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ü.; Nöllert, S.; Nüske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V.G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez Barragan, J.C.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poorter, L.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  13. TRY - a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Diaz, S.; Lavorel, S.; Prentice, C.; Leadley, P.; Boenisch, G.; Garnier, E.; Westoby, M.; Reich, P. B.; Wright, I. J.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Violle, C.; Harrison, S. P.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Reichstein, M.; Enquist, B. J.; Soudzilovskaia, N. A.; Ackerly, D. D.; Anand, M.; Atkin, O.; Bahn, M.; Baker, T. R.; Baldocchi, D.; Bekker, R.; Blanco, C. C.; Blonder, B.; Bond, W. J.; Bradstock, R.; Bunker, D. E.; Casanoves, F.; Cavender-Bares, J.; Chambers, J. Q.; Chapin, F. S.; Chave, J.; Coomes, D.; Cornwell, W. K.; Craine, J. M.; Dobrin, B. H.; Duarte, L.; Durka, W.; Elser, J.; Esser, G.; Estiarte, M.; Fagan, W. F.; Fang, J.; Fernandez-Mendez, F.; Fidelis, A.; Finegan, B.; Flores, O.; Ford, H.; Frank, D.; Freschet, G. T.; Fyllas, N. M.; Gallagher, R. V.; Green, W. A.; Gutierrez, A. G.; Hickler, T.; Higgins, S. I.; Hodgson, J. G.; Jalili, A.; Jansen, S.; Joly, C. A.; Kerkhoff, A. J.; Kirkup, D.; Kitajima, K.; Kleyer, M.; Klotz, S.; Knops, J. M. H.; Kramer, K.; Kuehn, I.; Kurokawa, H.; Laughlin, D.; Lee, T. D.; Leishman, M.; Lens, F.; Lenz, T.; Lewis, S. L.; Lloyd, J.; Llusia, J.; Louault, F.; Ma, S.; Mahecha, M. D.; Manning, P.; Massad, T.; Medlyn, B. E.; Messier, J.; Moles, A. T.; Mueller, S. C.; Nadrowski, K.; Naeem, S.; Niinemets, Ue.; Noellert, S.; Nueske, A.; Ogaya, R.; Oleksyn, J.; Onipchenko, V. G.; Onoda, Y.; Ordonez, J.; Overbeck, G.; Ozinga, W. A.; Patino, S.; Paula, S.; Pausas, J. G.; Penuelas, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Pillar, V.; Poorter, H.; Poorter, L.; Poschlod, P.; Prinzing, A.; Proulx, R.; Rammig, A.; Reinsch, S.; Reu, B.; Sack, L.; Salgado-Negre, B.; Sardans, J.; Shiodera, S.; Shipley, B.; Siefert, A.; Sosinski, E.; Soussana, J. -F.; Swaine, E.; Swenson, N.; Thompson, K.; Thornton, P.; Waldram, M.; Weiher, E.; White, M.; White, S.; Wright, S. J.; Yguel, B.; Zaehle, S.; Zanne, A. E.; Wirth, C.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits - the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs - determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  14. Flood adaptive traits and processes : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Bailey-Serres, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Unanticipated flooding challenges plant growth and fitness in natural and agricultural ecosystems. Here we describe mechanisms of developmental plasticity and metabolic modulation that underpin adaptive traits and acclimation responses to waterlogging of root systems and submergence of aerial tissue

  15. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold trait and a survival trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damgaard Lars

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many of the functional traits considered in animal breeding can be analyzed as threshold traits or survival traits with examples including disease traits, conformation scores, calving difficulty and longevity. In this paper we derive and implement a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold character and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted in which model parameters were augmented with unobserved liabilities associated with the threshold trait. The fully conditional posterior distributions associated with parameters of the threshold trait reduced to well known distributions. For the survival trait the two baseline Weibull parameters were updated jointly by a Metropolis-Hastings step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. The Gibbs sampler was tested in a simulation study and illustrated in a joint analysis of calving difficulty and longevity of dairy cattle. The simulation study showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true values used in the simulation of data. The data analysis of calving difficulty and longevity showed that genetic variation exists for both traits. The additive genetic correlation was moderately favorable with marginal posterior mean equal to 0.37 and 95% central posterior credibility interval ranging between 0.11 and 0.61. Therefore, this study suggests that selection for improving one of the two traits will be beneficial for the other trait as well.

  16. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold trait and a survival trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

    2006-01-01

    Many of the functional traits considered in animal breeding can be analyzed as threshold traits or survival traits with examples including disease traits, conformation scores, calving difficulty and longevity. In this paper we derive and implement a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a threshold character and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted in which model parameters were augmented with unobserved liabilities associated with the threshold trait. The fully conditional posterior distributions associated with parameters of the threshold trait reduced to well known distributions. For the survival trait the two baseline Weibull parameters were updated jointly by a Metropolis-Hastings step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. The Gibbs sampler was tested in a simulation study and illustrated in a joint analysis of calving difficulty and longevity of dairy cattle. The simulation study showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true values used in the simulation of data. The data analysis of calving difficulty and longevity showed that genetic variation exists for both traits. The additive genetic correlation was moderately favorable with marginal posterior mean equal to 0.37 and 95% central posterior credibility interval ranging between 0.11 and 0.61. Therefore, this study suggests that selection for improving one of the two traits will be beneficial for the other trait as well.

  17. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for flesh colour and growth traits in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    OpenAIRE

    Moen Thomas; Baranski Matthew; Våge Dag

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Flesh colour and growth related traits in salmonids are both commercially important and of great interest from a physiological and evolutionary perspective. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting flesh colour and growth related traits in an F2 population derived from an isolated, landlocked wild population in Norway (Byglands Bleke) and a commercial production population. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight informative microsatellite...

  18. Multiple Quantitative Trait Analysis Using Bayesian Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Scutari, Marco; Howell, Phil; Balding, David J.; Mackay, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Models for genome-wide prediction and association studies usually target a single phenotypic trait. However, in animal and plant genetics it is common to record information on multiple phenotypes for each individual that will be genotyped. Modeling traits individually disregards the fact that they are most likely associated due to pleiotropy and shared biological basis, thus providing only a partial, confounded view of genetic effects and phenotypic interactions. In this article we use data f...

  19. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase...

  20. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Tessa eMarzi; Antonio eRegina; Stefania eRighi

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase,...

  1. Stereotypes about sex related personality traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Avsec

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available In present research, stereotypes about sex differences in personality traits were examined. They were compared to traits, included in two masculinity and femininity questionnaires and to big five factors. Results indicate the presence of gender stereotypes and their similarity to stereotypes, discovered in other studies. The majority of attributes that comprise stereotypes about average man pertain to assertive and controlling tendency, but in stereotypes about average woman caring and nurturant qualities predominate.

  2. Traits Contributing to the Autistic Spectrum

    OpenAIRE

    Steer, Colin D; Jean Golding; Bolton, Patrick F

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC data...

  3. Trait-oriented programming in Java 8

    OpenAIRE

    Bono, Viviana; Mensa, Enrico; Naddeo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Java 8 was released recently. Along with lambda expressions, a new language construct is introduced: default methods in interfaces. The intent of this feature is to allow interfaces to be extended over time preserving backward compatibility. In this paper, we show a possible, different use of interfaces with default methods: we introduce a trait-oriented programming style based on an interface-as- trait idea, with the aim of improving code modularity. Starting from the most common operators o...

  4. Verified Subtyping with Traits and Mixins

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Asankhaya

    2014-01-01

    Traits allow decomposing programs into smaller parts and mixins are a form of composition that resemble multiple inheritance. Unfortunately, in the presence of traits, programming languages like Scala give up on subtyping relation between objects. In this paper, we present a method to check subtyping between objects based on entailment in separation logic. We implement our method as a domain specific language in Scala and apply it on the Scala standard library. We have verified that 67% of mi...

  5. Trait and state authenticity across cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Slabu, L; Lenton, A.; Sedikides, Constantine; Bruder, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We examined the role of culture in both trait and state authenticity, asking whether the search for and experience of the “true self” is a uniquely Western phenomenon or is relevant cross-culturally. We tested participants from the United States, China, India, and Singapore. U.S. participants reported higher average levels of trait authenticity than those from Eastern cultures (i.e., China, India, Singapore), but this effect was partially explained by cultural differences in self-construal an...

  6. Single nucleotide polymorphisms linked to quantitative trait loci for grain quality traits in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chunlian Li; Guihua Bai; Shiaoman Chao; Brett Carver; Zhonghua Wang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain quality traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define suitable growing areas and potential end-use products of a wheat cultivar. To dissect QTL for these traits including protein content (GPC);test weight (TW);single kernel characterization system (SKCS)-estimated kernel weight (SKW); kernel diameter (KD);kernel hardness measured by near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) hardness index (NHI); and SKCS-hardness index (SHI), a high-density genetic map with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was developed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from Ning7840 × Clark. The RILs were evaluated for these quality traits in seven Oklahoma environments from 2001 to 2003. A total of 41 QTL with additive effects on different traits were mapped on most wheat chromosomes, excluding 1A, 2A, 3D, 4D, 6D, and 7B. Seven chromosome regions showed either tightly linked QTL or QTL with pleiotropic effects on two to four traits. Ten pairs of QTL showed additive × additive effects (AA), four QTL were involved in additive × environment (AE) effects, and one was involved in AAE effects. Two to eleven QTL for each of the six traits and 139 tightly linked markers to these QTL were identified. The findings shed light on the inheritance of wheat grain quality traits and provide DNA markers for manipulating these important traits to improve quality of new wheat cultivars.

  7. Genome Scan Detects Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Female Fertility Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, Johanna Karolina; Guldbrandtsen, B; Su, G;

    2009-01-01

    microsatellite markers. Single trait breeding values were used for 12 traits relating to female fertility and female reproductive disorders. Data were analyzed by least squares regression analysis within and across families. Twenty-six QTL were detected on 17 different chromosomes. The best evidence was found......Data from the joint Nordic breeding value prediction for Danish and Swedish Holstein grandsire families were used to locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) for female fertility traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein cattle. Up to 36 Holstein grandsires with over 2,000 sons were genotyped for 416...

  8. Transdiagnostic cognitive processes in high trait anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John M

    2011-03-01

    Trait anger is a personality construct that refers to stable individual differences in the propensity to experience anger as an emotional state. The objective of this paper is to review relevant empirical studies in order to determine whether the transdiagnostic cognitive processes that have been identified across the DSM-IV Axis I disorders (specifically, selective attention, memory biases, reasoning biases and recurrent negative thinking) are also an underlying characteristic of high trait anger. On the basis of the review it is concluded that, whilst the research base is limited, there is good evidence that high trait anger is associated with selective attention to hostile social cues, the tendency to interpret the behaviour of others as indicating potential hostility and the tendency to ruminate over past anger-provoking experiences. The range of cognitive processes identified in high trait anger is consistent with those identified in the Axis I disorders. It is concluded that these findings provide support for (i) the broad applicability of the transdiagnostic approach as a theoretical framework for understanding a range of psychological conditions, not limited to the Axis I disorders, and (ii) the validity of conceptualising high trait anger as an aspect of personality functioning that is maintained, at least in part, by cognitive processes. Cognitive and motivational factors (specifically, beliefs and goals) that may underlie the hostile information-processing biases and recurrent negative thinking associated with high trait anger are discussed, and consideration is given to the clinical relevance of the findings of the review. PMID:21094569

  9. Invasive plants and enemy release: evolution of trait means and trait correlations in Ulex europaeus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Hornoy

    Full Text Available Several hypotheses that attempt to explain invasive processes are based on the fact that plants have been introduced without their natural enemies. Among them, the EICA (Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability hypothesis is the most influential. It states that, due to enemy release, exotic plants evolve a shift in resource allocation from defence to reproduction or growth. In the native range of the invasive species Ulex europaeus, traits involved in reproduction and growth have been shown to be highly variable and genetically correlated. Thus, in order to explore the joint evolution of life history traits and susceptibility to seed predation in this species, we investigated changes in both trait means and trait correlations. To do so, we compared plants from native and invaded regions grown in a common garden. According to the expectations of the EICA hypothesis, we observed an increase in seedling height. However, there was little change in other trait means. By contrast, correlations exhibited a clear pattern: the correlations between life history traits and infestation rate by seed predators were always weaker in the invaded range than in the native range. In U. europaeus, the role of enemy release in shaping life history traits thus appeared to imply trait correlations rather than trait means. In the invaded regions studied, the correlations involving infestation rates and key life history traits such as flowering phenology, growth and pod density were reduced, enabling more independent evolution of these key traits and potentially facilitating local adaptation to a wide range of environments. These results led us to hypothesise that a relaxation of genetic correlations may be implied in the expansion of invasive species.

  10. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity are not related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sophie; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Holst, Klaus;

    2013-01-01

    age 47.0±18.7, range 23-86) to determine if trait aggression and trait impulsivity were related to frontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor binding (5-HT2AR) as measured with [(18)F]-altanserin PET imaging. Trait aggression and trait impulsivity were assessed with the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ...

  11. The trait emotional intelligence of ballet dancers and musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Petrides, K. V.; Niven, L; Mouskounti, T.

    2006-01-01

    Trait emotional intelligence ('trait EI' or 'trait emotional self-efficacy') is a constellation of emotion-related self-perceptions and dispositions comprising the affective aspects of normal adult personality. The two studies in this paper investigate the construct validity of trait EI, as operationalized by the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). In Study 1 (34 ballet students; 5 ballet teachers), we found moderate to high levels of convergence between self and other rating...

  12. Sample size for morphological traits of pigeonpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Facco

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the sample size (i.e., number of plants required to accurately estimate the average of morphological traits of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L. and to check for variability in sample size between evaluation periods and seasons. Two uniformity trials (i.e., experiments without treatment were conducted for two growing seasons. In the first season (2011/2012, the seeds were sown by broadcast seeding, and in the second season (2012/2013, the seeds were sown in rows spaced 0.50 m apart. The ground area in each experiment was 1,848 m2, and 360 plants were marked in the central area, in a 2 m × 2 m grid. Three morphological traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter were evaluated 13 times during the first season and 22 times in the second season. Measurements for all three morphological traits were normally distributed and confirmed through the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Randomness was confirmed using the Run Test, and the descriptive statistics were calculated. For each trait, the sample size (n was calculated for the semiamplitudes of the confidence interval (i.e., estimation error equal to 2, 4, 6, ..., 20% of the estimated mean with a confidence coefficient (1-? of 95%. Subsequently, n was fixed at 360 plants, and the estimation error of the estimated percentage of the average for each trait was calculated. Variability of the sample size for the pigeonpea culture was observed between the morphological traits evaluated, among the evaluation periods and between seasons. Therefore, to assess with an accuracy of 6% of the estimated average, at least 136 plants must be evaluated throughout the pigeonpea crop cycle to determine the sample size for the traits (e.g., number of nodes, plant height and stem diameter in the different evaluation periods and between seasons. 

  13. Mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting quality and production traits in egg layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiskula-Haavisto, M.; Honkatukia, M.; Vilkki, J.; Koning, de D.J.; Schulman, N.F.; Maki-Tanila, A.

    2002-01-01

    A mapping population segregating for egg quality traits was created by a line cross between two egg layer lines and screened by a genome scan. The F2 generation consisted of 307 hens, which were scored for egg quality and production traits. The mapping population was genotyped for 99 microsatellite

  14. Towards a reference plant trait ontology for modeling knowledge of plant traits and phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ontology engineering and knowledge modeling for the plant sciences is expected to contribute to the understanding of the basis of plant traits that determine phenotypic expression in a given environment. Several crop- or clade-specific plant trait ontologies have been developed to describe plant tr...

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci for plant adaptation and morphology traits in wheat using single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) morphological and adaptation-related traits that are controlled by quantitative traits loci (QTL) define potential growing areas of a wheat cultivar. To dissect the QTL for heading date (HD), lodging resistance (LR), shattering resistance (SR), cold tolerance (CT), plant...

  16. Quantitative trait loci for yield and morphological traits in maize under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Ana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important factors contributing to crop yield loss. In order to develop maize varieties with drought tolerance, it is necessary to explore the genetic basis. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL that control the yield and associate agronomic traits is one way of understanding drought genetics. QTLs associated with grain yield (GY, leaf width (LW3, LW4 plant height (PH, ear height (EH, leaf number (NL, tassel branch number (TBN and tassel length (TL were studied with composite interval mapping. A total of 43 QTLs were detected, distributed on all chromosomes, except chromosome 9. Phenotypic variability determined for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 20.99 to 87.24%. Mapping analysis identified genomic regions associated with two traits in a manner that was consistent with phenotypic correlation among traits, supporting either pleiotropy or tight linkage among QTLs.

  17. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa eMarzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive and neutral, participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  18. Emotions shape memory suppression in trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Tessa; Regina, Antonio; Righi, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The question that motivated this study was to investigate the relation between trait anxiety, emotions and memory control. To this aim, memory suppression was explored in high and low trait anxiety individuals with the Think/No-think paradigm. After learning associations between neutral words and emotional scenes (negative, positive, and neutral), participants were shown a word and were requested either to think about the associated scene or to block it out from mind. Finally, in a test phase, participants were again shown each word and asked to recall the paired scene. The results show that memory control is influenced by high trait anxiety and emotions. Low trait anxiety individuals showed a memory suppression effect, whereas there was a lack of memory suppression in high trait anxious individuals, especially for emotionally negative scenes. Thus, we suggest that individuals with anxiety may have difficulty exerting cognitive control over memories with a negative valence. These findings provide evidence that memory suppression can be impaired by anxiety thus highlighting the crucial relation between cognitive control, emotions, and individual differences in regulating emotions.

  19. Can soft biometric traits assist user recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.; Nandakumar, Karthik

    2004-08-01

    Biometrics is rapidly gaining acceptance as the technology that can meet the ever increasing need for security in critical applications. Biometric systems automatically recognize individuals based on their physiological and behavioral characteristics. Hence, the fundamental requirement of any biometric recognition system is a human trait having several desirable properties like universality, distinctiveness, permanence, collectability, acceptability, and resistance to circumvention. However, a human characteristic that possesses all these properties has not yet been identified. As a result, none of the existing biometric systems provide perfect recognition and there is a scope for improving the performance of these systems. Although characteristics like gender, ethnicity, age, height, weight and eye color are not unique and reliable, they provide some information about the user. We refer to these characteristics as "soft" biometric traits and argue that these traits can complement the identity information provided by the primary biometric identifiers like fingerprint and face. This paper presents the motivation for utilizing soft biometric information and analyzes how the soft biometric traits can be automatically extracted and incorporated in the decision making process of the primary biometric system. Preliminary experiments were conducted on a fingerprint database of 160 users by synthetically generating soft biometric traits like gender, ethnicity, and height based on known statistics. The results show that the use of additional soft biometric user information significantly improves (approximately 6%) the recognition performance of the fingerprint biometric system.

  20. Functional Traits for Carbon Access in Macrophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepien, Courtney C; Pfister, Catherine A; Wootton, J Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Understanding functional trait distributions among organisms can inform impacts on and responses to environmental change. In marine systems, only 1% of dissolved inorganic carbon in seawater exists as CO2. Thus the majority of marine macrophytes not only passively access CO2 for photosynthesis, but also actively transport CO2 and the more common bicarbonate (HCO3-, 92% of seawater dissolved inorganic carbon) into their cells. Because species with these carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are non-randomly distributed in ecosystems, we ask whether there is a phylogenetic pattern to the distribution of CCMs among algal species. To determine macrophyte traits that influence carbon uptake, we assessed 40 common macrophyte species from the rocky intertidal community of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to a) query whether macrophytes have a CCM and b) determine the evolutionary history of CCMs, using ancestral state reconstructions and stochastic character mapping based on previously published data. Thirty-two species not only depleted CO2, but also concentrated and depleted HCO3-, indicative of a CCM. While analysis of CCMs as a continuous trait in 30 families within Phylum Rhodophyta showed a significant phylogenetic signal under a Brownian motion model, analysis of CCMs as a discrete trait (presence or absence) indicated that red algal families are more divergent than expected in their CCM presence or absence; CCMs are a labile trait within the Rhodophyta. In contrast, CCMs were present in each of 18 Ochrophyta families surveyed, indicating that CCMs are highly conserved in the brown algae. The trait of CCM presence or absence was largely conserved within Families. Fifteen of 23 species tested also changed the seawater buffering capacity, or Total Alkalinity (TA), shifting DIC composition towards increasing concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 for photosynthesis. Manipulating the external TA of the local environment may influence carbon availability in boundary layers and

  1. Genome Informed Trait-Based Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaoz, U.; Cheng, Y.; Bouskill, N.; Tang, J.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E.; Riley, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Trait-based approaches are powerful tools for representing microbial communities across both spatial and temporal scales within ecosystem models. Trait-based models (TBMs) represent the diversity of microbial taxa as stochastic assemblages with a distribution of traits constrained by trade-offs between these traits. Such representation with its built-in stochasticity allows the elucidation of the interactions between the microbes and their environment by reducing the complexity of microbial community diversity into a limited number of functional ';guilds' and letting them emerge across spatio-temporal scales. From the biogeochemical/ecosystem modeling perspective, the emergent properties of the microbial community could be directly translated into predictions of biogeochemical reaction rates and microbial biomass. The accuracy of TBMs depends on the identification of key traits of the microbial community members and on the parameterization of these traits. Current approaches to inform TBM parameterization are empirical (i.e., based on literature surveys). Advances in omic technologies (such as genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metaproteomics) pave the way to better-initialize models that can be constrained in a generic or site-specific fashion. Here we describe the coupling of metagenomic data to the development of a TBM representing the dynamics of metabolic guilds from an organic carbon stimulated groundwater microbial community. Illumina paired-end metagenomic data were collected from the community as it transitioned successively through electron-accepting conditions (nitrate-, sulfate-, and Fe(III)-reducing), and used to inform estimates of growth rates and the distribution of metabolic pathways (i.e., aerobic and anaerobic oxidation, fermentation) across a spatially resolved TBM. We use this model to evaluate the emergence of different metabolisms and predict rates of biogeochemical processes over time. We compare our results to observational

  2. Sickle Cell Trait Causing Splanchnic Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Saxena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell trait is considered as a benign condition as these individuals carry only one defective gene and typically have their life span similar to the normal population without any health problems related to sickle cell. Only under extreme conditions, red cells become sickled and can cause clinical complications including hematuria and splenic infarction. Although twofold increased risk of venous thrombosis has been described in African Americans, there is no data available from Indian population. We here report a case of sickle cell trait from India whose index presentation was thrombosis of unusual vascular territory.

  3. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damgaard Lars

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The twoWeibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hastingstep. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

  4. A bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Lars Holm; Korsgaard, Inge Riis

    2006-01-01

    With the increasing use of survival models in animal breeding to address the genetic aspects of mainly longevity of livestock but also disease traits, the need for methods to infer genetic correlations and to do multivariate evaluations of survival traits and other types of traits has become increasingly important. In this study we derived and implemented a bivariate quantitative genetic model for a linear Gaussian and a survival trait that are genetically and environmentally correlated. For the survival trait, we considered the Weibull log-normal animal frailty model. A Bayesian approach using Gibbs sampling was adopted. Model parameters were inferred from their marginal posterior distributions. The required fully conditional posterior distributions were derived and issues on implementation are discussed. The two Weibull baseline parameters were updated jointly using a Metropolis-Hasting step. The remaining model parameters with non-normalized fully conditional distributions were updated univariately using adaptive rejection sampling. Simulation results showed that the estimated marginal posterior distributions covered well and placed high density to the true parameter values used in the simulation of data. In conclusion, the proposed method allows inferring additive genetic and environmental correlations, and doing multivariate genetic evaluation of a linear Gaussian trait and a survival trait.

  5. Quantitative trait locus analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Takahiro; Sato, Shusei; Okumura, Kenji; Tabata, Satoshi; Akashi, Ryo; Isobe, Sachiko

    2007-07-01

    The first quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of multiple agronomic traits in the model legume Lotus japonicus was performed with a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from Miyakojima MG-20 x Gifu B-129. Thirteen agronomic traits were evaluated in 2004 and 2005: traits of vegetative parts (plant height, stem thickness, leaf length, leaf width, plant regrowth, plant shape, and stem color), flowering traits (flowering time and degree), and pod and seed traits (pod length, pod width, seeds per pod, and seed mass). A total of 40 QTLs were detected that explained 5%-69% of total variation. The QTL that explained the most variation was that for stem color, which was detected in the same region of chromosome 2 in both years. Some QTLs were colocated, especially those for pod and seed traits. Seed mass QTLs were located at 5 locations that mapped to the corresponding genomic positions of equivalent QTLs in soybean, pea, chickpea, and mung bean. This study provides fundamental information for breeding of agronomically important legume crops.

  6. Two-trait-locus linkage analysis: A powerful strategy for mapping complex genetic traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schork, N.J.; Boehnke, M. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)); Terwilliger, J.D.; Ott, J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Nearly all diseases mapped to date follow clear Mendelian, single-locus segregation patterns. In contrast, many common familial diseases such as diabetes, psoriasis, several forms of cancer, and schizophrenia are familial and appear to have a genetic component but do not exhibit simple Mendelian transmission. More complex models are required to explain the genetics of these important diseases. In this paper, the authors explore two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis in which two trait loci are mapped simultaneously to separate genetic markers. The authors compare the utility of this approach to standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis with and without allowance for heterogeneity. The authors also compare the utility of the two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus analysis to two-trait-locus, one-marker-locus linkage analysis. For common diseases, pedigrees are often bilineal, with disease genes entering via two or more unrelated pedigree members. Since such pedigrees often are avoided in linkage studies, the authors also investigate the relative information content of unilineal and bilineal pedigrees. For the dominant-or-recessive and threshold models that the authors consider, the authors find that two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus linkage analysis can provide substantially more linkage information, as measured by expected maximum lod score, than standard one-trait-locus, one-marker-locus methods, even allowing for heterogeneity, while, for a dominant-or-dominant generating model, one-locus models that allow for heterogeneity extract essentially as much information as the two-trait-locus methods. For these three models, the authors also find that bilineal pedigrees provide sufficient linkage information to warrant their inclusion in such studies. The authors discuss strategies for assessing the significance of the two linkages assumed in two-trait-locus, two-marker-locus models. 37 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Quantitative trait loci for milk production and functional traits in two Danish Cattle breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, M D; Rychtarova, J; Zink, V;

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) in Danish Jersey and Danish Red cattle were independently mapped by least squares regression analysis. For Jersey breed, five grandsire families were genotyped for 186 markers on 16 chromosomes (BTAs). Eight traits analysed were milk yield (MY), fat percentage (FP......), protein percentage (PP), clinical mastitis (CM), somatic cell score (SCS), maternal stillbirth, maternal calf size (MCS) and maternal calving difficulty. For Red breed, nine grandsire families were genotyped for 166 markers on 18 BTAs. Six traits analysed were MY, FP, PP, CM, SCS and female fertility...

  8. Beta-thalassaemia trait: haematological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thalassaemia syndromes are a group of hereditary disorders characterised by a genetic deficiency in the synthesis of --globin genes. The objective of this study was to determine the haematological features -thalassaemia trait (BTT), and to determine the sensitivity of Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH) and -thalassaemia trait. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar from May 2009 to May 2010 with 203 subjects having BTT. Blood samples were collected in EDTA anti-coagulated tubes. RBC indices were taken as part of complete blood count (CBC) by haematology analyser, and Haemoglobin (Hb) electrophoresis was done to determine the HbA2 percentage. The data was collected and analyzed on statistical software for demographic details, RBC indices and HBA2 levels. Results: Out of 203 patients, 92 (45%) were males and 111 (55%) were females. Most patients tested were in the 15-45 year age group. One-hundred-sixty (79%) patients had anaemia. MCV was lower than 76 fl in all the cases. Mean MCV was 59.1 fl. MCH was low, the mean MCH being 19.3 g/dl. MCH <26 gave sensitivity of 99% in detecting BTT. We calculated MI for these cases and found out that it was <12 in 75% of cases and <15 in 197 (97%). Conclusion: Beta-thalassaemia traits present with a microcytic hypochromic blood picture, detected on simple haematology analysers as low MCV and MCH and MI which provide a beta- thalassaemia trait. (author)

  9. Complex plant traits : time for polygenic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1996-01-01

    Currently, mapping of genes for complex traits is an area of active theoretical research at the interface of genetics and statistics. Much progress has been made over the past few years in handling statistically complex but realistic multilocus models. Here, I describe the state of the art and discu

  10. Perverse political correctness and personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neduva, Alexander; Kanevsky, Michael; Lerner, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Political correctness (PC) commonly refers to a mutual respect for the views and beliefs of others, including enemies, and while differing in opinions, the willfulness to overcome the existing disagreements, and to prevent animosity. To date however, the term PC is sometimes used in a perverted sense aimed for disintegration of solidarity in a society, thus giving birth to a new powerful conceptual tool, the perverse political correctness (PPC). PPC ideology resides in people with certain psychological types. We assume that there are basic psychological variations of personality traits and the mechanisms of their formation that promote not only insertion, but rapid distribution of modern PPC ideology. Although the dimension of their behavior is very similar, the personality traits of these persons can be divided into three groups: The subjects from the first group are characterized by general traits of one's personality, such as kindness, empathy, and humanism. This is true PC--an expression of proper humanistic personality traits, which are developed in a specific kind of environment. The subjects from second group are usually artistic, theatrical, vain and narcissistic, poseurs who need attention at any cost. Their views on life in general, as well as on questions of PC are characterized by colorfulness, picturesqueness and emotional satiety. The subjects from the third group, conjoined with the previous variety of demonstrative-theatrical PC, use mystical and religious contents as part of their propaganda of PPC activity.

  11. Biotechnological interventions to improve plant developmental traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental traits are coordinated at various levels in a plant and involve organ to organ communications via long distance signaling processes that integrate transcription, hormonal action and environmental cues. Thus, plant architecture, root-soil-microbe interactions, flowering, fruit (and seed...

  12. Birth Order Positions and Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharbe, Ida Hartini Ahmad; Harun, Lily Mastura Hj.

    The growing concern for the development of teenagers has brought up issues regarding the role of the family system in shaping the personality traits of children. Alfred Adler (1870-1937), an Austrian psychiatrist who introduced the psychological/therapeutic model, "Individual Psychology," highlighted the importance of birth order positions in…

  13. Heteroscedastic latent trait models for dichotomous data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Molenaar

    2014-01-01

    Effort has been devoted to account for heteroscedasticity with respect to observed or latent moderator variables in item or test scores. For instance, in the multi-group generalized linear latent trait model, it could be tested whether the observed (polychoric) covariance matrix differs across the l

  14. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  15. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  16. Characterizing psychopathy using DSM-5 personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Casey M; Drislane, Laura E; Lucy, Megan; Krueger, Robert F; Patrick, Christopher J

    2013-06-01

    Despite its importance historically and contemporarily, psychopathy is not recognized in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revised (DSM-IV-TR). Its closest counterpart, antisocial personality disorder, includes strong representation of behavioral deviance symptoms but weak representation of affective-interpersonal features considered central to psychopathy. The current study evaluated the extent to which psychopathy and its distinctive facets, indexed by the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, can be assessed effectively using traits from the dimensional model of personality pathology developed for DSM-5, operationalized by the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Results indicate that (a) facets of psychopathy entailing impulsive externalization and callous aggression are well-represented by traits from the PID-5 considered relevant to antisocial personality disorder, and (b) the boldness facet of psychopathy can be effectively captured using additional PID-5 traits. These findings provide evidence that the dimensional model of personality pathology embodied in the PID-5 provides effective trait-based coverage of psychopathy and its facets.

  17. Transmission-disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, D.B. [Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-03-01

    The transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) of Spielman et al. is a family-based linkage-disequilibrium test that offers a powerful way to test for linkage between alleles and phenotypes that is either causal (i.e., the marker locus is the disease/trait allele) or due to linkage disequilibrium. The TDT is equivalent to a randomized experiment and, therefore, is resistant to confounding. When the marker is extremely close to the disease locus or is the disease locus itself, tests such as the TDT can be far more powerful than conventional linkage tests. To date, the TDT and most other family-based association tests have been applied only to dichotomous traits. This paper develops five TDT-type tests for use with quantitative traits. These tests accommodate either unselected sampling or sampling based on selection of phenotypically extreme offspring. Power calculations are provided and show that, when a candidate gene is available (1) these TDT-type tests are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than two common sib-pair tests of linkage; (2) extreme sampling results in substantial increases in power; and (3) if the most extreme 20% of the phenotypic distribution is selectively sampled, across a wide variety of plausible genetic models, quantitative-trait loci explaining as little as 5% of the phenotypic variation can be detected at the .0001 a level with <300 observations. 57 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Interval Mapping of Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1993-01-01

    The interval mapping method is widely used for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. The efficiency of detecting and the accuracy of mapping multiple QTLs by using genetic markers are much increased by employing multiple Q

  19. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research. The paper…

  20. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, Lex; Duckworth, Angela Lee; Heckman, James J.; ter Weel, Bas

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  1. The Economics and Psychology of Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans Lex; Lee Duckworth Angela; Heckman James J.; Weel Bas ter

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology andeconomics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability ofpersonality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworksfor interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promisingavenues for future research.

  2. The economics and psychology of personality traits

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, L.; Angela Lee Duckworth; Heckman, James J.; Bas Ter Weel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the interface between personality psychology and economics. We examine the predictive power of personality and the stability of personality traits over the life cycle. We develop simple analytical frameworks for interpreting the evidence in personality psychology and suggest promising avenues for future research.

  3. The trait-coverage of emotional intelligence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B

    2005-01-01

    In this paper it is explored to what extent emotional intelligence can be expressed in terms of a standard trait model. Two studies were performed. In Study 1 a total of 437 items from several emotional intelligence questionnaires were used. The items were classified into the categories comprised by

  4. Multi-ethnic studies in complex traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, Jingyuan; Festen, Eleonora A. M.; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2011-01-01

    The successes of genome-wide association (GWA) studies have mainly come from studies performed in populations of European descent. Since complex traits are characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity, the findings so far may provide an incomplete picture of the genetic architecture of complex trai

  5. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir

  6. Contributions to an animal trait ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, B.; Smits, M.A.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Woelders, H.

    2012-01-01

    Improved understanding of the biology of traits of livestock species necessitates the use and combination of information that is stored in a variety of different sources such as databases and literature. The ability to effectively combine information from different sources, however, depends on a hig

  7. Trait diversity promotes stability of community dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Knudsen, Kim;

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical exploration of how diversity influences stability has traditionally been approached by species-centric methods. Here we offer an alternative approach to the diversity–stability problem by examining the stability and dynamics of size and trait distributions of individuals. The anal...

  8. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  9. Political attitudes develop independently of personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K Hatemi

    Full Text Available The primary assumption within the recent personality and political orientations literature is that personality traits cause people to develop political attitudes. In contrast, research relying on traditional psychological and developmental theories suggests the relationship between most personality dimensions and political orientations are either not significant or weak. Research from behavioral genetics suggests the covariance between personality and political preferences is not causal, but due to a common, latent genetic factor that mutually influences both. The contradictory assumptions and findings from these research streams have yet to be resolved. This is in part due to the reliance on cross-sectional data and the lack of longitudinal genetically informative data. Here, using two independent longitudinal genetically informative samples, we examine the joint development of personality traits and attitude dimensions to explore the underlying causal mechanisms that drive the relationship between these features and provide a first step in resolving the causal question. We find change in personality over a ten-year period does not predict change in political attitudes, which does not support a causal relationship between personality traits and political attitudes as is frequently assumed. Rather, political attitudes are often more stable than the key personality traits assumed to be predicting them. Finally, the results from our genetic models find that no additional variance is accounted for by the causal pathway from personality traits to political attitudes. Our findings remain consistent with the original construction of the five-factor model of personality and developmental theories on attitude formation, but challenge recent work in this area.

  10. Traits contributing to the autistic spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Steer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is increasingly recognised that traits associated with autism reflect a spectrum with no clear boundary between typical and atypical behaviour. Dimensional traits are needed to investigate the broader autism phenotype. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Ninety-three individual measures reflecting components of social, communication and repetitive behaviours characterising autistic spectrum disorder (ASD were identified between the ages of 6 months and 9 years from the ALSPAC database. Using missing value imputation, data for 13,138 children were analysed. Factor analysis suggested the existence of 7 factors explaining 85% of the variance. The factors were labelled: verbal ability, language acquisition, social understanding, semantic-pragmatic skills, repetitive-stereotyped behaviour, articulation and social inhibition. Four factors (1, 3, 5 and 7 were specific to ASD being more strongly associated with this phenotype than other co-morbid conditions while other factors were more associated with learning difficulties and specific language impairment. Nevertheless, all 7 factors contributed independently to the explanation of ASD (p<0.001. Exploration of putative genetic causal factors such as variants in the CNTNAP2 gene showed a varying pattern of associations with these traits. An alternative predictive model of ASD was derived using four individual measures: the coherence subscale of the Children's Communication Checklist (9y, the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (91 m, repetitive behaviour (69 m and the sociability subscale of the Emotionality Activity and Sociability measure (38 m. Although univarably these traits performed better than some factors, their combined explanations of ASD were similar (R(2 =  0.48. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results support the fractional nature of ASD with different aetiological origins for these components despite pleiotropic genetic effects being observed. These traits are

  11. Mapping quantitative trait loci for binary trait in the F2:3 design

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chengsong Zhu; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Zhigang Guo

    2008-12-01

    In the analysis of inheritance of quantitative traits with low heritability, an F2:3 design that genotypes plants in F2 and phenotypes plants in F2:3 progeny is often used in plant genetics. Although statistical approaches for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the F2:3 design have been well developed, those for binary traits of biological interest and economic importance are seldom addressed. In this study, an attempt was made to map binary trait loci (BTL) in the F2:3 design. The fundamental idea was: the F2 plants were genotyped, all phenotypic values of each F2:3 progeny were measured for binary trait, and these binary trait values and the marker genotype informations were used to detect BTL under the penetrance and liability models. The proposed method was verified by a series of Monte–Carlo simulation experiments. These results showed that maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and liability models provide accurate estimates for the effects and the locations of BTL with high statistical power, even under of low heritability. Moreover, the penetrance model is as efficient as the liability model, and the F2:3 design is more efficient than classical F2 design, even though only a single progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. With the maximum likelihood approaches under the penetrance and the liability models developed in this study, we can map binary traits as we can do for quantitative trait in the F2:3 design.

  12. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Seed Physical and Nutrient Traits in Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Xian-liang; ZHANG Tian-zhen

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the leading fiber crop,and an important source of the important edible oil and protein meals in the world.Complex genetics and strong environmental effects hinder much progress in seed quality trait breeding in cotton.The use of molecular markers will improve our understanding of the genetic factors conferring seed quality traits,and it is expected to assist in selection of superior genotypes.

  13. Genetic complexity and quantitative trait loci mapping of yeast morphological traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Nogami

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional genomics relies on two essential parameters: the sensitivity of phenotypic measures and the power to detect genomic perturbations that cause phenotypic variations. In model organisms, two types of perturbations are widely used. Artificial mutations can be introduced in virtually any gene and allow the systematic analysis of gene function via mutants fitness. Alternatively, natural genetic variations can be associated to particular phenotypes via genetic mapping. However, the access to genome manipulation and breeding provided by model organisms is sometimes counterbalanced by phenotyping limitations. Here we investigated the natural genetic diversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cellular morphology using a very sensitive high-throughput imaging platform. We quantified 501 morphological parameters in over 50,000 yeast cells from a cross between two wild-type divergent backgrounds. Extensive morphological differences were found between these backgrounds. The genetic architecture of the traits was complex, with evidence of both epistasis and transgressive segregation. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL for 67 traits and discovered 364 correlations between traits segregation and inheritance of gene expression levels. We validated one QTL by the replacement of a single base in the genome. This study illustrates the natural diversity and complexity of cellular traits among natural yeast strains and provides an ideal framework for a genetical genomics dissection of multiple traits. Our results did not overlap with results previously obtained from systematic deletion strains, showing that both approaches are necessary for the functional exploration of genomes.

  14. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits.

  15. Quantitative trait loci linked to PRNP gene controlling health and production traits in INRA 401 sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunel Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the potential association of PrP genotypes with health and productive traits was investigated. Data were recorded on animals of the INRA 401 breed from the Bourges-La Sapinière INRA experimental farm. The population consisted of 30 rams and 852 ewes, which produced 1310 lambs. The animals were categorized into three PrP genotype classes: ARR homozygous, ARR heterozygous, and animals without any ARR allele. Two analyses differing in the approach considered were carried out. Firstly, the potential association of the PrP genotype with disease (Salmonella resistance and production (wool and carcass traits was studied. The data used included 1042, 1043 and 1013 genotyped animals for the Salmonella resistance, wool and carcass traits, respectively. The different traits were analyzed using an animal model, where the PrP genotype effect was included as a fixed effect. Association analyses do not indicate any evidence of an effect of PrP genotypes on traits studied in this breed. Secondly, a quantitative trait loci (QTL detection approach using the PRNP gene as a marker was applied on ovine chromosome 13. Interval mapping was used. Evidence for one QTL affecting mean fiber diameter was found at 25 cM from the PRNP gene. However, a linkage between PRNP and this QTL does not imply unfavorable linkage disequilibrium for PRNP selection purposes.

  16. Leaf traits within communities: context may affect the mapping of traits to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Cornwell, William K

    2013-09-01

    The leaf economics spectrum (LES) has revolutionized the way many ecologists think about quantifying plant ecological trade-offs. In particular, the LES has connected a clear functional trade-off (long-lived leaves with slow carbon capture vs. short-lived leaves with fast carbon capture) to a handful of easily measured leaf traits. Building on this work, community ecologists are now able to quickly assess species carbon-capture strategies, which may have implications for community-level patterns such as competition or succession. However, there are a number of steps in this logic that require careful examination, and a potential danger arises when interpreting leaf-trait variation among species within communities where trait relationships are weak. Using data from 22 diverse communities, we show that relationships among three common functional traits (photosynthetic rate, leaf nitrogen concentration per mass, leaf mass per area) are weak in communities with low variation in leaf life span (LLS), especially communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous woody species. However, globally there are few LLS data sets for communities dominated by herbaceous or deciduous species, and more data are needed to confirm this pattern. The context-dependent nature of trait relationships at the community level suggests that leaf-trait variation within communities, especially those dominated by herbaceous and deciduous woody species, should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24279259

  17. A primary screen of the bovine genome for quantitative trait loci affecting carcass and growth traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, R T; Keele, J W; Shackelford, S D; Kappes, S M; Koohmaraie, M

    1999-06-01

    A primary genomic screen for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and growth traits was performed by genotyping 238 microsatellite markers on 185 out of 300 total progeny from a Bos indicus x Bos taurus sire mated to Bos taurus cows. The following traits were analyzed for QTL effects: birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WW), yearling weight (YW), hot carcass weight (HCW), dressing percentage (DP), fat thickness (FT), marbling score (MAR), longissimus muscle area (LMA), rib bone (RibB), rib fat (RibF), and rib muscle (RibM), and the predicted whole carcass traits, retail product yield (RPYD), fat trim yield (FATYD), bone yield (BOYD), retail product weight (RPWT), fat weight (FATWT), and bone weight (BOWT). Data were analyzed by generating an F-statistic profile computed at 1-cM intervals for each chromosome by the regression of phenotype on the conditional probability of receiving the Brahman allele from the sire. There was compelling evidence for a QTL allele of Brahman origin affecting an increase in RibB and a decrease in DP on chromosome 5 (BTA5). Putative QTL at or just below the threshold for genome-wide significance were as follows: an increase in RPYD and component traits on BTA2 and BTA13, an increase in LMA on BTA14, and an increase in BWT on BTA1. Results provided represent a portion of our efforts to identify and characterize QTL affecting carcass and growth traits. PMID:10375215

  18. An Investigation of Personality Traits in Relation to Career Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W.; Loveland, James M.; Sundstrom, Eric D.; Gibson, Lucy W.; Drost, Adam W.; Hamrick, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Personality traits related to career satisfaction for 5,932 individuals were measured for the group and in 14 occupations. Traits related to satisfaction across occupations were emotional resilience, optimism, and work drive. The Big Five traits of conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness were also correlated with career satisfaction.…

  19. Going underground: root traits as drivers of ecosystem processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardgett, R.D.; Mommer, L.; Vries, de F.T.

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists are increasingly adopting trait-based approaches to understand how community change influences ecosystem processes. However, most of this research has focussed on aboveground plant traits, whereas it is becoming clear that root traits are important drivers of many ecosystem processes, suc

  20. Cognitive Ability and Non-Ability Trait Determinants of Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Traditional approaches to understanding individual differences determinants of domain-specific expertise have focused on individual trait components, such as ability or topic interest. In contrast, trait complex approaches consider whether combinations of cognitive, affective, and conative traits are particularly facilitative or impeding of the…

  1. TOWARDS A REFINED STRUCTURE OF PERSONALITY-TRAITS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DERAAD, B; HENDRIKS, AAJ; HOFSTEE, WKB

    1992-01-01

    In this article we pursue two goals. The first is a further articulation of the dimensionality of the Dutch trait domain. The second is a detailed mapping of the factorial trait structure, one which includes intelligible and proper niches for various nuances of the trait language and for different i

  2. Trophic niche-space imaging, using resource and consumer traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Rossberg, A.G.

    2014-01-01

    The strength of trophic (feeding) links between two species depends on the traits of both the consumer and the resource. But which traits of consumer and resource have to be measured to predict link strengths, and how many? A novel theoretical framework for systematically determining trophic traits

  3. Taxonomies of situations from a trait psychological perspective. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, MA; De Raad, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article we review studies of situations and situation taxonomies from the perspective of trait psychology. Objections to trait psychology are discussed and several refutations are recapitulated The relation between traits and situations is analysed, as well as the affinity that both concepts

  4. TRAIT PROCRASTINATION AND THE BIG-5 FACTORS OF PERSONALITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOUWENBURG, HC; LAY, CH

    1995-01-01

    Trait procrastination is viewed as a summary variable linked to the predisposition to engage in dilatory behaviour. This paper sought to trace the sources of trait procrastination by locating it within the five-factor personality structure. Study 1 concerned self-ratings on trait adjectives (in Dutc

  5. Selection for production and reproduction traits in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de A.G.

    1989-01-01

    IntroductionReproduction traits are important for piglet production, whereas production traits are important for fattening. Pig breeding organizations improve both groups of traits by selection in nucleus populations. Optimization of selection in these nucleus populations is important, becaus

  6. A unified framework for diversity gradients : the adaptive trait continuum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Stefanescu, Constanti; Vila, Roger; Dinca, Vlad; Font, Xavier; Penuelas, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Aim Adaptive trait continua are axes of covariation observed in multivariate trait data for a given taxonomic group. These continua quantify and summarize life-history variation at the inter-specific level in multi-specific assemblages. Here we examine whether trait continua can provide a useful fra

  7. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  8. Urbanization causes shifts in species' trait state frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knapp, S.; Kühn, I.; Wittig, R.; Ozinga, W.A.; Poschlod, P.; Klotz, S.

    2008-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most extreme forms of land transformation. It is supposed to change the frequencies of species trait states in species assemblages.We hypothesize that the flora of urban and rural areas differs in the frequency of trait states and ask which traits enable a plant to cope wi

  9. Help! How Can I Do the Six Traits, Too?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Annie

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Six Traits of Writing and how school librarians can use storytime to teach the Six Traits, use picture books that demonstrate them, develop active participation strategies for listening comprehension, and teach group and individual composition highlighting each trait. (LRW)

  10. Try-A Global Database of Plant Traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Peter E [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from species richness to ecosystem functional diversity. Trait data thus represent the raw material for a wide range of research from evolutionary biology, community and functional ecology to biogeography. Here we present the global database initiative named TRY, which has united a wide range of the plant trait research community worldwide and gained an unprecedented buy-in of trait data: so far 93 trait databases have been contributed. The data repository currently contains almost three million trait entries for 69 000 out of the world s 300 000 plant species, with a focus on 52 groups of traits characterizing the vegetative and regeneration stages of the plant life cycle, including growth, dispersal, establishment and persistence. A first data analysis shows that most plant traits are approximately log-normally distributed, with widely differing ranges of variation across traits. Most trait variation is between species (interspecific), but significant intraspecific variation is also documented, up to 40% of the overall variation. Plant functional types (PFTs), as commonly used in vegetation models, capture a substantial fraction of the observed variation but for several traits most variation occurs within PFTs, up to 75% of the overall variation. In the context of vegetation models these traits would better be represented by state variables rather than fixed parameter values. The improved availability of plant trait data in the unified global database is expected to support a paradigm shift from species to trait-based ecology, offer new opportunities for synthetic plant trait research and enable a more realistic and empirically grounded representation of terrestrial vegetation in

  11. A genome scan for quantitative trait loci affecting body conformation traits in Spanish Churra dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Alvarez, L; de la Fuente, L F; Sanchez, J P; San Primitivo, F; Arranz, J J

    2011-08-01

    A genome scan for chromosomal regions influencing body conformation traits was conducted for a population of Spanish Churra dairy sheep following a daughter design. A total of 739 ewes from 11 half-sib sire families were included in the study. The ewes were scored for the 5 linear traits used in the breeding scheme of the Churra breed to assess body conformation: stature, rear legs-rear view, foot angle, rump width, and general appearance. All the animals, including the 11 sires, were genotyped for 181 microsatellite markers evenly distributed across the 26 sheep autosomes. Using the yield deviations of the raw scores adjusted for fixed factors as phenotypic measurements, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the basis of a multi-marker regression method. Seven suggestive QTL were identified on chromosomes Ovis aries (OAR)2, OAR5, OAR16, OAR23, and OAR26, but none reached a genome-wise significance level. Putative QTL were identified for all of the traits analyzed, except for general appearance score. The suggestive QTL showing the highest test statistic influenced rear legs-rear view and was localized on OAR16, close to the growth hormone receptor coding gene, GHR. Some of the putative linkage associations reported here are consistent with previously reported QTL in cattle for similar traits. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first report of QTL for body conformation traits in dairy sheep; further studies will be needed to confirm and redefine the linkage associations reported herein. It is expected that future genome-wide association analyses of larger families will help identify genes underlying these putative genetic effects and provide useful markers for marker-assisted selection of such functional traits.

  12. Trait Mindfulness and Cognitive Task Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emalee J. W. Quickel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness meditation (MM training has been shown to have positive effects on working memory and focused attention tasks. Clarifying the construct of mindfulness is important so that mindfulness can be studied effectively in individual differences and cognition research. The current study tested whether trait mindfulness alone explains any of the variability on task performance. Five commonly used mindfulness scales, as well as six standardized and experimental attention and working memory tasks were administered to 164 participants with no meditation experience. Confirmatory factor analysis found that the common variance denoted by measures of trait mindfulness is unrelated to the common variance among tasks requiring focused attention. These results indicate that mindfulness scales may not be capturing the attentional aspects of mindfulness. Individuals who score high on mindfulness scales do not perform better on focused attention tasks than those who score lower on mindfulness scales. These results have implications for defining and operationalizing mindfulness.

  13. Personality trait structure as a human universal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1997-05-01

    Patterns of covariation among personality traits in English-speaking populations can be summarized by the five-factor model (FFM). To assess the cross-cultural generalizability of the FFM, data from studies using 6 translations of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (P.T. Costa & R. R. McCrae, 1992) were compared with the American factor structure. German, Portuguese, Hebrew, Chinese, Korean, and Japanese samples (N = 7,134) showed similar structures after varimax rotation of 5 factors. When targeted rotations were used, the American factor structure was closely reproduced, even at the level of secondary loadings. Because the samples studied represented highly diverse cultures with languages from 5 distinct language families, these data strongly suggest that personality trait structure is universal. PMID:9145021

  14. Reinforcing loose foundation stones in trait-based plant ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Bill; De Bello, Francesco; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Laliberté, Etienne; Laughlin, Daniel C; Reich, Peter B

    2016-04-01

    The promise of "trait-based" plant ecology is one of generalized prediction across organizational and spatial scales, independent of taxonomy. This promise is a major reason for the increased popularity of this approach. Here, we argue that some important foundational assumptions of trait-based ecology have not received sufficient empirical evaluation. We identify three such assumptions and, where possible, suggest methods of improvement: (i) traits are functional to the degree that they determine individual fitness, (ii) intraspecific variation in functional traits can be largely ignored, and (iii) functional traits show general predictive relationships to measurable environmental gradients.

  15. A Genetic Epidemiological Study of Behavioral Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Najaf

    2011-01-01

    textabstractHuman behavioural genetics aims to unravel the genetic and environmental contributions to variations in human behaviour. Behaviour is a complex trait, involving multiple genes that are affected by a variety of other factors. Genetic epidemiological research of behaviour goes back to Sir Francis Galton (1822-1911), who systematically studied heredity of human behaviour and mind, introducing major statistical concepts such as correlation and regression towards the mean. After a brie...

  16. Traits and types of health data repositories

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Ted D.

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data’s institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research meth...

  17. Neural substrates of trait ruminations in depression

    OpenAIRE

    Mandell, Darcy; Siegle, Greg; Shutt, Luann; Feldmiller, Josh; Thase, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Rumination in depression is a risk factor for longer, more intense, and harder-to-treat depressions. But there appear to be multiple types of depressive rumination – whether they all share these vulnerability mechanisms, and thus would benefit from the same types of clinical attention is unclear. In the current study, we examined neural correlates of empirically-derived dimensions of trait rumination in 35 depressed participants. These individuals and 29 never-depressed controls completed 17 ...

  18. Personality traits of a music teacher

    OpenAIRE

    Bogunović Blanka D.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional ...

  19. Influence of personality traits on gingival health

    OpenAIRE

    Shanker, Rajesh Kashyap; Mohamed, Munaz; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M. S. Arun

    2013-01-01

    Background: The maintenance of good oral hygiene is considered a salient issue in dental health promotion. Personality is the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individual's distinctive character. Various personality traits have been proposed to influence the oral health. The purpose of the present study was to assess the influence of personality characteristics using questionnaire on oral hygiene performance and gingival health. Materials and Methods: In total, 155 pati...

  20. Do community-weighted mean functional traits reflect optimal strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Robert; Uriarte, María

    2016-03-30

    The notion that relationships between community-weighted mean (CWM) traits (i.e. plot-level trait values weighted by species abundances) and environmental conditions reflect selection towards locally optimal phenotypes is challenged by the large amount of interspecific trait variation typically found within ecological communities. Reconciling these contrasting patterns is a key to advancing predictive theories of functional community ecology. We combined data on geographical distributions and three traits (wood density, leaf mass per area and maximum height) of 173 tree species in Puerto Rico. We tested the hypothesis that species are more likely to occur where their trait values are more similar to the local CWM trait values (the'CWM-optimality' hypothesis) by comparing species occurrence patterns (as a proxy for fitness) with the functional composition of forest plots across a precipitation gradient. While 70% of the species supported CWM-optimality for at least one trait, nearly 25% significantly opposed it for at least one trait, thereby contributing to local functional diversity. The majority (85%) of species that opposed CWM-optimality did so only for one trait and few species opposed CWM-optimality in multivariate trait space. Our study suggests that constraints to local functional variation act more strongly on multivariate phenotypes than on univariate traits. PMID:27030412

  1. QTL Analysis of Major Agronomic Traits in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qing-shan; ZHANG Zhong-chen; LIU Chun-yan; XIN Da-wei; QIU Hong-mei; SHAN Da-peng; SHAN Cai-yun; HU Guo-hua

    2007-01-01

    Soybean is a main crop, and most agronomic traits of soybean are quantitative; therefore, there is very important studying and applying value to locating these traits. A F2:10 RIL population containing 154 lines, derived from the cross between Charleston as female and Dongnong 594 as male parent, were used in this experiment. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 SSR primers, which were screened with the two parents and amplified on the 154 lines. 12 agronomic traits different between the two parents were investigated, and QTLs of all the traits were analyzed using the software Windows QTL Cartographer V2.0. The agronomic traits included quality traits: protein content, oil content, and content of protein and oil; yield traits: pods per plant, seed weight per plant, arnd 100 seeds weight; and other agronomic traits: plant height, days to maturity, branches, nod number in main stem, average leaf length, and average leaf width. The results showed that 68 QTLs in total were found for the 12 agronomic traits. The number of QTLs per trait varied from 3 for the average leaf width to 11 for 100 seeds weight and plant height, and was 5.8 on average. Good accordance was seen in many QTLs between the results of this study and the results obtained by other similar studies; therefore, these QTLs may be valuable for molecular marker assistant selection in soybean. In this study, 68 major QTLs of 12 important traits of soybean were analyzed.

  2. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for seed quality traits in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Badigannavar; Gerald O. Myers

    2015-03-01

    Cottonseed contains 16% seed oil and 23% seed protein by weight. High levels of palmitic acid provides a degree of stability to the oil, while the presence of bound gossypol in proteins considerably changes their properties, including their biological value. This study uses genetic principles to identify genomic regions associated with seed oil, protein and fibre content in upland cotton cultivars. Cotton association mapping panel representing the US germplasm were genotyped using amplified fragment length polymorphism markers, yielding 234 polymorphic DNA fragments. Phenotypic analysis showed high genetic variability for the seed traits, seed oil range from 6.47–25.16%, protein from 1.85–28.45% and fibre content from 15.88–37.12%. There were negative correlations between seed oil and protein content. With reference to genetic diversity, the average estimate of ST was 8.852 indicating a low level of genetic differentiation among subpopulations. The AMOVA test revealed that variation was 94% within and 6% among subpopulations. Bayesian population structure identified five subpopulations and was in agreement with their geographical distribution. Among the mixed models analysed, mixed linear model (MLM) identified 21 quantitative trait loci for lint percentage and seed quality traits, such as seed protein and oil. Establishing genetic diversity, population structure and marker trait associations for the seed quality traits could be valuable in understanding the genetic relationships and their utilization in breeding programmes.

  3. Genetic association of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonussi, R L; Espigolan, R; Gordo, D G M; Magalhães, A F B; Venturini, G C; Baldi, F; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; Tonhati, H; de Albuquerque, L G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic and phenotypic associations of growth traits with carcass and meat traits in Nellore cattle. Data from male and female animals were used for weaning weight (WW; N = 241,416), yearling weight (YW, N = 126,596), weight gain from weaning to yearling (GWY, N = 78,687), and yearling hip height (YHH, N = 90,720), respectively; 877 male animals were used for hot carcass weight (HCW) and 884 for longissimus muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BT), marbling score (MS), and shear force (SF). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using three-trait animal models that included WW. The model for WW included direct and maternal additive genetic, maternal permanent environmental, and residual effects as random effects; contemporary group as fixed effects; and age of dam at calving and age of animal as covariates (linear and quadratic effects). For the other traits, maternal effects and the effect of age of dam at calving were excluded from the model. Heritability ranged from 0.10 ± 0.12 (LMA) to 0.44 ± 0.007 (YW). Genetic correlations ranged from -0.40 ± 0.38 (WW x LMA) to 0.55 ± 0.10 (HCW x YW). Growth, carcass, and meat traits have sufficient genetic variability to be included as selection criteria in animal breeding programs. PMID:26782521

  4. Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping for growth traits on bovine chromosome 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Miyata

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. We analyzed the birth weight and weight at 60 days QTL segregating on bovine chromosome BTA14 in a F2 resource population using genotypes produced from seven microsatellite markers. Phenotypes were derived from 346 F2 progeny produced from crossing Bos indicus Gyr x Holstein Bos taurus F1 parents. Interval analysis to detect QTL for birth weight revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 1 centimorgan (cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 1.210 ± 0.438 kg. Interval analysis for weight at 60 days revealed the presence of a QTL (p < 0.05 at 0 cM from the centromere with an additive effect of 2.122 ± 0.735 kg. The region to which the QTL were assigned is described in the literature as responsible for some growth traits, milk yield, milk composition, fat deposition and has also been related to reproductive traits such as daughter pregnancy rate and ovulation rate. The effects of the QTL described on other traits were not investigated.

  5. FishTraits: a database of ecological and life-history traits of freshwater fishes of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. We have compiled a database of > 100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 nonnative) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database, named Fish Traits, contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology; (2) body size, reproductive ecology, and life history; (3) habitat preferences; and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status was also compiled. The database enhances many opportunities for conducting research on fish species traits and constitutes the first step toward establishing a central repository for a continually expanding set of traits of North American fishes.

  6. Improvement in genetic evaluation of female fertility in dairy cattle using multiple-trait models including milk production traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, C; Madsen, P; Lund, M S;

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the improvement in genetic evaluation of fertility traits by using production traits as secondary traits (MILK = 305-d milk yield, FAT = 305-d fat yield, and PROT = 305-d protein yield). Data including 471,742 records from first lactations of Denmark Holstein cows, covering...... (DATAC1, which only contained the first crop daughters) for proven bulls. In addition, the superiority of the models was evaluated by expected reliability of EBV, calculated from the prediction error variance of EBV. Based on these criteria, the models combining milk production traits showed better model...... stability and predictive ability than single-trait models for all the fertility traits, except for nonreturn rate within 56 d after first service. The stability and predictive ability for the model including MILK or PROT were similar to the model including all 3 milk production traits and better than...

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs mapping for growth traits in the mouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medrano Juan F

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The attainment of a specific mature body size is one of the most fundamental differences among species of mammals. Moreover, body size seems to be the central factor underlying differences in traits such as growth rate, energy metabolism and body composition. An important proportion of this variability is of genetic origin. The goal of the genetic analysis of animal growth is to understand its "genetic architecture", that is the number and position of loci affecting the trait, the magnitude of their effects, allele frequencies and types of gene action. In this review, the different strategies developed to identify and characterize genes involved in the regulation of growth in the mouse are described, with emphasis on the methods developed to map loci contributing to the regulation of quantitative traits (QTLs.

  8. Ubiquitous polygenicity of human complex traits: genome-wide analysis of 49 traits in Koreans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    Full Text Available Recent studies in population of European ancestry have shown that 30% ~ 50% of heritability for human complex traits such as height and body mass index, and common diseases such as schizophrenia and rheumatoid arthritis, can be captured by common SNPs and that genetic variation attributed to chromosomes are in proportion to their length. Using genome-wide estimation and partitioning approaches, we analysed 49 human quantitative traits, many of which are relevant to human diseases, in 7,170 unrelated Korean individuals genotyped on 326,262 SNPs. For 43 of the 49 traits, we estimated a nominally significant (P<0.05 proportion of variance explained by all SNPs on the Affymetrix 5.0 genotyping array ([Formula: see text]. On average across 47 of the 49 traits for which the estimate of h(G(2 is non-zero, common SNPs explain approximately one-third (range of 7.8% to 76.8% of narrow sense heritability. The estimate of h(G(2 is highly correlated with the proportion of SNPs with association P<0.031 (r(2 = 0.92. Longer genomic segments tend to explain more phenotypic variation, with a correlation of 0.78 between the estimate of variance explained by individual chromosomes and their physical length, and 1% of the genome explains approximately 1% of the genetic variance. Despite the fact that there are a few SNPs with large effects for some traits, these results suggest that polygenicity is ubiquitous for most human complex traits and that a substantial proportion of the "missing heritability" is captured by common SNPs.

  9. Palm Functional Traits: which traits matter and how do we measure them?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Barfod, Anders S.;

    role of palms in tropical forest ecosystems. We review data availability for palms for four traits that are commonly used in functional plant ecology: specific leaf area (SLA), wood density, seed size, and maximum height. We suggest that palm functional ecology is impeded by some of the standard...... functional traits being difficult to measure (e.g. SLA) or interpret (e.g. wood density). We show that an SLA measure can be easily obtained from dried specimens, and discuss the problems and opportunities of this approach compared to whole-leaf SLA measurements. Measuring SLA from herbarium samples may...

  10. Hierarchical traits distances explain grassland Fabaceae species’ ecological niches distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eFort

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fabaceae species play a key role in ecosystem functioning through their capacity to fix atmospheric nitrogen via their symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. To increase benefits of using Fabaceae in agricultural systems, it is necessary to find ways to evaluate species or genotypes having potential adaptations to sub-optimal growth conditions. We evaluated the relevance of phylogenetic distance, absolute trait distance and hierarchical trait distance for comparing the adaptation of 13 grassland Fabaceae species to different habitats, i.e. ecological niches. We measured a wide range of functional traits (root traits, leaf traits and whole plant traits in these species. Species phylogenetic and ecological distances were assessed from a species-level phylogenetic tree and species’ ecological indicator values, respectively. We demonstrated that differences in ecological niches between grassland Fabaceae species were related more to their hierarchical trait distances than to their phylogenetic distances. We showed that grassland Fabaceae functional traits tend to converge among species with the same ecological requirements. Species with acquisitive root strategies (thin roots, shallow root systems are competitive species adapted to non-stressful meadows, while conservative ones (coarse roots, deep root systems are able to tolerate stressful continental climates. In contrast, acquisitive species appeared to be able to tolerate low soil-P availability, while conservative ones need high P availability. Finally we highlight that traits converge along the ecological gradient, providing the assumption that species with similar root-trait values are better able to coexist, regardless of their phylogenetic distance.

  11. Physical Attractiveness And Sex As Determinants Of Trait Attributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, B; Sherman, R C

    1980-10-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine (a) the implicational qualities of trait terms that describe stereotypic males and females, and (b) the influence of a target person's gender and physical attractiveness on the attributions of traits with specific qualities. On the basis of previous research and theory concerning sex-role and attractiveness stereotypes, it was predicted that the attribution of evaluative traits would be affected by the attractiveness of the target (the what-is-beautiful-is-good phenomenon) but not by sex. However, for traits with primarily sex-linked implicational properties, it was expected that the effect of attractiveness would be dependent upon the target's sex such that the attribution of "masculine" traits would vary only with the attractiveness of male targets and the attribution of "feminine" traits only with the attractiveness of female targets. In Study I a multidimensional scaling analysis revealed both evaluative and non-evaluative qualities underlying trait ratings of male and female stereotypes. In Study II the predicted results for evaluative traits were obtained. For "masculine" and "feminine" traits, however, the effects of attractiveness were not symmetrical for male and female targets as originally predicted. The results suggest that attractiveness of males, but not females, leads to a narrowing of the types of traits that are attributed to them. PMID:26810878

  12. Plasticity regulators modulate specific root traits in discrete nitrogen environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam L Gifford

    Full Text Available Plant development is remarkably plastic but how precisely can the plant customize its form to specific environments? When the plant adjusts its development to different environments, related traits can change in a coordinated fashion, such that two traits co-vary across many genotypes. Alternatively, traits can vary independently, such that a change in one trait has little predictive value for the change in a second trait. To characterize such "tunability" in developmental plasticity, we carried out a detailed phenotypic characterization of complex root traits among 96 accessions of the model Arabidopsis thaliana in two nitrogen environments. The results revealed a surprising level of independence in the control of traits to environment - a highly tunable form of plasticity. We mapped genetic architecture of plasticity using genome-wide association studies and further used gene expression analysis to narrow down gene candidates in mapped regions. Mutants in genes implicated by association and expression analysis showed precise defects in the predicted traits in the predicted environment, corroborating the independent control of plasticity traits. The overall results suggest that there is a pool of genetic variability in plants that controls traits in specific environments, with opportunity to tune crop plants to a given environment.

  13. Chronic Trauma Effects on Personality Traits in Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh Wills, Jennifer; Schuldberg, David

    2016-04-01

    The impact of cumulative occupational exposure to traumatic events (TEs), posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, and work environment stress on personality traits over time was examined in 38 police officers from an urban agency. California Psychological Inventory (CPI) personality trait scores from prehire evaluations were compared with follow-up CPI scores to test whether exposure to traumatic events was correlated with changes in traits from baseline to 5-10 years later. Measures of occupational TEs, PTS symptoms, and police work environment stress were administered. Mean trait scores declined on all CPI traits analyzed in the study. Trait change was evaluated using the Reliable Change Index; change in participants' scores unlikely to occur by chance ranged from 11% to 63% in the traits examined. All participants reported substantial TE exposure. PTS symptoms were correlated with steeper decline in 4 of 5 traits, with effect sizes ranging from r =  -.47 to r = -.67. Scores on measures of job-related TEs were negatively correlated with only one CPI trait (empathy) at T2 (r = -.31), and were unrelated to slope of trait change. Work environment stress was significantly related to gender, with female officers reporting higher levels of operational (r = .45) and organizational (r = .54) stress. PMID:26954662

  14. Accuracy of marker-assisted selection with auxiliary traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Narain

    2003-09-01

    Genetic information on molecular markers is increasingly being used in plant and animal improvement programmes particularly as indirect means to improve a metric trait by selection either on an individual basis or on the basis of an index incorporating such information. This paper examines the utility of an index of selection that not only combines phenotypic and molecular information on the trait under improvement but also combines similar information on one or more auxiliary traits. The accuracy of such a selection procedure has been theoretically studied for sufficiently large populations so that the effects of detected quantitative trait loci can be perfectly estimated. The theory is illustrated numerically by considering one auxiliary trait. It is shown that the use of an auxiliary trait improves the selection accuracy; and, hence, the relative efficiency of index selection compared to individual selection which is based on the same intensity of selection. This is particularly so for higher magnitudes of residual genetic correlation and environmental correlation having opposite signs, lower values of the proportion of genetic variation in the main trait associated with the markers, negligible proportion of genetic variation in the auxiliary trait associated with the markers, and lower values of the heritability of the main trait but higher values of the heritability of the auxiliary trait.

  15. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eComas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length (SRL, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less ‘leaky’ and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g. functional differences between fine and coarse roots needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria and rice (Oryza show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait

  16. Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas, Louise H; Becker, Steven R; Cruz, Von Mark V; Byrne, Patrick F; Dierig, David A

    2013-11-05

    Geneticists and breeders are positioned to breed plants with root traits that improve productivity under drought. However, a better understanding of root functional traits and how traits are related to whole plant strategies to increase crop productivity under different drought conditions is needed. Root traits associated with maintaining plant productivity under drought include small fine root diameters, long specific root length, and considerable root length density, especially at depths in soil with available water. In environments with late season water deficits, small xylem diameters in targeted seminal roots save soil water deep in the soil profile for use during crop maturation and result in improved yields. Capacity for deep root growth and large xylem diameters in deep roots may also improve root acquisition of water when ample water at depth is available. Xylem pit anatomy that makes xylem less "leaky" and prone to cavitation warrants further exploration holding promise that such traits may improve plant productivity in water-limited environments without negatively impacting yield under adequate water conditions. Rapid resumption of root growth following soil rewetting may improve plant productivity under episodic drought. Genetic control of many of these traits through breeding appears feasible. Several recent reviews have covered methods for screening root traits but an appreciation for the complexity of root systems (e.g., functional differences between fine and coarse roots) needs to be paired with these methods to successfully identify relevant traits for crop improvement. Screening of root traits at early stages in plant development can proxy traits at mature stages but verification is needed on a case by case basis that traits are linked to increased crop productivity under drought. Examples in lesquerella (Physaria) and rice (Oryza) show approaches to phenotyping of root traits and current understanding of root trait genetics for breeding.

  17. Giraffe browsing in response to plant traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahenya, Obeid; Ndjamba, Johannes Kambinda; Mathisen, Karen Marie; Skarpe, Christina

    2016-08-01

    Intake rates by large herbivores are governed by among other things plant traits. We used Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi Matschie) as study animals, testing whether they as very large browsers would follow the Jarman-Bell principle and maximize intake rate while tolerating low forage quality. We worked in Arusha National Park, Tanzania. We investigated how intake rate was determined by bite mass and bite rate, and show that bite mass and bite rate were determined by plant characteristics, governed by inherent plant traits, plant traits acquired from previous years' browsing, and season. We predicted that; (1) bite mass would be larger in trees without spines than with (2) bite mass would be larger in the wet season than in the dry, (3) bite rate would be higher in spinescent trees than in non-spinescent, (4) bite rate and/or bite mass would increase with previous years' browsing, (5) bite mass, bite rate or browsing time per tree would be highest for high trees with large, although still available canopies. Visual observations were used to collect data on tree attributes, number of bites taken and time of browsing. Sample size was 132 observed giraffe. We found that bite mass was larger in spineless than in spinescent trees and was larger in the wet season than in the dry. Bite rate, but not bite mass, increased with increasing browsing in previous years and was highest on two to three meter high trees and in spinescent trees. Intake rate followed bite mass more than bite rate and was higher in spineless than in spinescent trees, higher in the wet season than in the dry, and tended to increase with tree height. Giraffe did not prioritize the highest intake rate, but browsed much on Acacias giving a high quality diet but a low intake rate.

  18. [Major domestication traits in Asian rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Shu-Jun; Wang, Hong-Ru; Chu, Cheng-Cai

    2012-11-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an excellent model plant in elucidation of cereal domestication. Loss of seed shattering, weakened dormancy, and changes in plant architecture were thought to be three key events in the rice domestication and creating the high-yield, uniform-germinating, and densely-planting modern rice. Loss of shattering is considered to be the direct morphological evidence for identifying domesticated rice. Two major shattering QTLs, Sh4 and qSH1, have displayed different domestication histories. Weakened seed dormancy is essential for synchronous germination in agricultural production. Genes Sdr4, qSD7-1, and qSD12 impose a global and complementary adaptation strategies in controlling seed dormancy. The prostate growth habit of wild rice is an adaptation to disturbed habitats, while the erect growth habit of rice cultivars meet the needs of compact planting, and such a plant architecture is mainly controlled by PROG1. The outcrossing habit of wild rice promotes propagation of domestication genes among different populations, while the self-pollinating habit of cultivated rice facilitates fixation of domestication genes. Currently, the researches on rice domestication mainly focus on individual genes or multiple neutral markers, and much less attention has been paid to the evolution of network controlling domestication traits. With the progress in functional genomics research, the molecular mechanism of domestication traits is emerging. Rice domestication researches based on network will be more comprehensive and better reflect rice domestica-tion process. Here, we reviewed most progresses in molecular mechanisms of rice domestication traits, in order to provide the new insights for rice domestication and molecular breeding.

  19. Effects of bacteriophage traits on plaque formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannoly Sherin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The appearance of plaques on a bacterial lawn is one of the enduring imageries in modern day biology. The seeming simplicity of a plaque has invited many hypotheses and models in trying to describe and explain the details of its formation. However, until now, there has been no systematic experimental exploration on how different bacteriophage (phage traits may influence the formation of a plaque. In this study, we constructed a series of isogenic λ phages that differ in their adsorption rate, lysis timing, or morphology so that we can determine the effects if these changes on three plaque properties: size, progeny productivity, and phage concentration within plaques. Results We found that the adsorption rate has a diminishing, but negative impact on all three plaque measurements. Interestingly, there exists a concave relationship between the lysis time and plaque size, resulting in an apparent optimal lysis time that maximizes the plaque size. Although suggestive in appearance, we did not detect a significant effect of lysis time on plaque productivity. Nonetheless, the combined effects of plaque size and productivity resulted in an apparent convex relationship between the lysis time and phage concentration within plaques. Lastly, we found that virion morphology also affected plaque size. We compared our results to the available models on plaque size and productivity. For the models in their current forms, a few of them can capture the qualitative aspects of our results, but not consistently in both plaque properties. Conclusions By using a collection of isogenic phage strains, we were able to investigate the effects of individual phage traits on plaque size, plaque productivity, and average phage concentration in a plaque while holding all other traits constant. The controlled nature of our study allowed us to test several model predictions on plaque size and plaque productivity. It seems that a more realistic theoretical

  20. Borderline personality traits in hysterical neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to demonstrate the traits of the psychopathology of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) compared with hysterical neurosis. A total of 48 subjects with BPD and 40 subjects with hysterical neurosis both defined by DSM-III-R were assessed by Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines (DIB). Statistical analysis was done by quantification of the second type, a multivariate data analysis. The total scores of DIB were BPD group, 6.13 +/- 1.52; hysterical neurosis group, 4.9 +/- 2.12 (t = 3.05, P = 0.0016). The correlation ratio (index of to what extent the two groups are discriminated) was 0.2442. Among the four parameters of: (i) affect, (ii) cognition, (iii) impulse-action pattern, (iv), and interpersonal relationships, the partial coefficient correlations of (iii) and (iv) were significantly high (0.342, 0.287, P aloneness (0.3797), demanding nature (0.3768), self-mutilation (0.3609), visual hallucination (0.3395). Those with low score of independent coefficients were counterdependency (0.0533), identity disturbance (0.1010), depression (0.1551), loneliness (0.1752), hypomanic episode (0.1936). Both of BPD and hysterical neurosis groups were not so fairly well discriminated. However, these results suggested that impulse-action pattern and disorder of interpersonal relationships were traits of borderline personality disorder. We could admit manipulation, intolerance of aloneness as its symptoms. In addition, counterdependency, identity disturbance were comparatively common to both. There were some borderline personality traits symptomatically in hysterical neurosis. PMID:11285092

  1. Juvenile hormone mediates developmental integration between exaggerated traits and supportive traits in the horned flour beetle Gnatocerus cornutus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasukazu; Gotoh, Hiroki; Miura, Toru; Miyatake, Takahisa; Okada, Kensuke

    2012-07-01

    Sexually selected exaggerated traits are often coupled with modifications in other nontarget traits. In insects with weapons, enlargements of nontarget characters that functionally support the weapon often occur (i.e. supportive traits). The support of sexual traits requires developmental coordination among functionally related multiple traits-an explicit example of morphological integration. The genetic theory predicts that developmental integration among different body modules, for which development is regulated via different sets of genes, is likely to be coordinated by pleiotropic factors. However, the developmental backgrounds of morphological integrations are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the juvenile hormone (JH), as a pleiotropic factor, mediates the integration between exaggerated and supportive traits in an armed beetle Gnatocerus cornutus. During combat, males of this beetle use exaggerated mandibles to lift up their opponents with the supportive traits, that is, the head and prothoracic body parts. Application of methoprene, a JH analog (JHA), during the larval to prepupal period, induced the formation of large mandibles relative to the body sizes in males. Morphometric examination of nontarget traits elucidated an increase in the relative sizes of supportive traits, including the head and prothoracic body parts. In addition, reductions in the hind wing area and elytra length, which correspond to flight and reproductive abilities, were detected. Our findings are consistent with the genetic theory and support the idea that JH is a key pleiotropic factor that coordinates the developmental integration of exaggerated traits and supportive characters, as well as resource allocation trade-offs. PMID:22765207

  2. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Vandana; Gahlaut, Vijay; Meher, Prabina Kumar; Mir, Reyazul Rouf; Jaiswal, Jai Prakash; Rao, Atmakuri Ramakrishna; Balyan, Harindra Singh; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST) approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM), and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM). Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910-2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India). Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes) was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs) were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs) qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers) using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers) using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL) being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati). These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) or pseudo-backcrossing method.

  3. Genome Wide Single Locus Single Trait, Multi-Locus and Multi-Trait Association Mapping for Some Important Agronomic Traits in Common Wheat (T. aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Jaiswal

    Full Text Available Genome wide association study (GWAS was conducted for 14 agronomic traits in wheat following widely used single locus single trait (SLST approach, and two recent approaches viz. multi locus mixed model (MLMM, and multi-trait mixed model (MTMM. Association panel consisted of 230 diverse Indian bread wheat cultivars (released during 1910-2006 for commercial cultivation in different agro-climatic regions in India. Three years phenotypic data for 14 traits and genotyping data for 250 SSR markers (distributed across all the 21 wheat chromosomes was utilized for GWAS. Using SLST, as many as 213 MTAs (p ≤ 0.05, 129 SSRs were identified for 14 traits, however, only 10 MTAs (~9%; 10 out of 123 MTAs qualified FDR criteria; these MTAs did not show any linkage drag. Interestingly, these genomic regions were coincident with the genomic regions that were already known to harbor QTLs for same or related agronomic traits. Using MLMM and MTMM, many more QTLs and markers were identified; 22 MTAs (19 QTLs, 21 markers using MLMM, and 58 MTAs (29 QTLs, 40 markers using MTMM were identified. In addition, 63 epistatic QTLs were also identified for 13 of the 14 traits, flag leaf length (FLL being the only exception. Clearly, the power of association mapping improved due to MLMM and MTMM analyses. The epistatic interactions detected during the present study also provided better insight into genetic architecture of the 14 traits that were examined during the present study. Following eight wheat genotypes carried desirable alleles of QTLs for one or more traits, WH542, NI345, NI170, Sharbati Sonora, A90, HW1085, HYB11, and DWR39 (Pragati. These genotypes and the markers associated with important QTLs for major traits can be used in wheat improvement programs either using marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS or pseudo-backcrossing method.

  4. Neighborhood income and the expression of callous-unemotional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Anna Justine; Ryan, Rebecca M; Marsh, Abigail A

    2015-09-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits, including an uncaring nature and reduced empathy, represent a strongly heritable pattern of socio-emotional responding linked with elevated risk for severe, persistent delinquent behavior. Although evidence suggests that CU traits vary continuously across the population, research linking CU traits and delinquency is often conducted with incarcerated or clinical samples, obscuring potential heterogeneity in this relationship across the full range of high-CU individuals. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examines the role of neighborhood income in moderating the association between CU traits and delinquency in terms of both level and type of offending. Findings corroborate the link between CU traits and delinquency and suggest that the link between high-CU traits and violent delinquency may be unique to youth living in low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25534926

  5. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures. PMID:26476814

  6. Plant Thermoregulation: Energetics, Trait-Environment Interactions, and Carbon Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaletz, Sean T; Weiser, Michael D; Zhou, Jizhong; Kaspari, Michael; Helliker, Brent R; Enquist, Brian J

    2015-12-01

    Building a more predictive trait-based ecology requires mechanistic theory based on first principles. We present a general theoretical approach to link traits and climate. We use plant leaves to show how energy budgets (i) provide a foundation for understanding thermoregulation, (ii) explain mechanisms driving trait variation across environmental gradients, and (iii) guide selection on functional traits via carbon economics. Although plants are often considered to be poikilotherms, the data suggest that they are instead limited homeotherms. Leaf functional traits that promote limited homeothermy are adaptive because homeothermy maximizes instantaneous and lifetime carbon gain. This theory provides a process-based foundation for trait-climate analyses and shows that future studies should consider plant (not only air) temperatures.

  7. Trait conscientiousness and the personality meta-trait stability are associated with regional white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Cox, Simon R; Booth, Tom; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Royle, Natalie A; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J

    2016-08-01

    Establishing the neural bases of individual differences in personality has been an enduring topic of interest. However, while a growing literature has sought to characterize grey matter correlates of personality traits, little attention to date has been focused on regional white matter correlates of personality, especially for the personality traits agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness. To rectify this gap in knowledge we used a large sample (n > 550) of older adults who provided data on both personality (International Personality Item Pool) and white matter tract-specific fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor MRI. Results indicated that conscientiousness was associated with greater FA in the left uncinate fasciculus (β = 0.17, P agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism/emotional stability. We observed an association between left uncinate fasciculus FA and stability (β = 0.27, P < 0.001), which fully accounted for the link between left uncinate fasciculus FA and conscientiousness. In sum, these results provide novel evidence for links between regional white matter microstructure and key traits of human personality, specifically conscientiousness and the meta-trait, stability. Future research is recommended to replicate and address the causal directions of these associations. PMID:27013101

  8. Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for production, resistance and tolerance traits in Salix. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennberg-Waestljung, Ann Christin; Bertholdsson, Nils-Ove; Glynn, Carolyn; Weih, Martin; Aahman, Inger [SLU, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Plant Biology and Forest Genetics

    2004-05-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits, water use efficiency and tolerance/resistance against metals and herbivores have been identified. A hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados-clone (SW901290) and a S. viminalis-clone ('Jorunn') was used for the different studies in this project. The growth response was analyzed in a greenhouse experiment with two water treatments, normal and drought. In addition, three field experiments with contrasting soils and climates were established. QTL specific for each treatment or field environment but also QTL stable over the treatments or field environments were detected. Each QTL explained from 8 to 29 % of the phenotypic variation depending on trait, treatment or field environment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped indicating a common genetic base or tightly-linked QTL. Stable QTL identified for dryweight can be useful tools for early selection in Salix. In a separate greenhouse experiment, with a subset of ten genotypes from the F2 population, we show that genotype is more important than irrigation treatment for production of phenolic substances as well as for resistance to herbivory by P vulgatissima.

  9. Is trait-emotional intelligence simply or more than just a trait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, K; Wabeke, R

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined the usefulness of trait-Emotional Intelligence (EI) among a sample of 1186 top managers who filled out questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five and were evaluated by a consultant on their competencies. Three higher-order factors were found to underlie the

  10. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Live Measurement Traits in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jing-hu; XIONG Yuan-zhu; ZUO Bo; LEI Ming-gang; LI Feng-e; LI Jia-lian

    2007-01-01

    Live measurement growth traits are very important economic traits in pig production and breeding. In this research,quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected for 11 live estimated growth and carcass traits, including birth weight (BWT),average daily gain over testing periods (ADG3), live backfat thickness at last 3-4th lumbar (LBFT3), live loin eye area (LLEA), and so on, in 214 pig resource family population, including 180 F2 individual, by 39 microsatellite marker loci on SSC4, SSC6, SSC7, SSC8, and SSC13. The results indicated that 4 chromosome significant level QTL and one suggestive QTL were detected for ADG3 (at position of 50 cM on SSC8), LBFT3 (at position of 147 cM on SSC4), LLEA (one highly significant at position of 48 cM on SSC7; another significant at position of 125 cM on SSC8) and BWT (suggestive significant at position of 0 cM, at marker sw489 on SSC4). The phenotypic variance of these QTL accounted for 0.95% to 16.91%. Most of them were mentioned in previous reports; except the QTL of LLEA at position of sw1953 on SSC8 which maybe a new QTL.

  11. Genetic analysis of calving traits by the multi-trait individual animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J I; Ezra, E

    2016-01-01

    Five alternative models were applied for analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Models 1 and 2 were included only to estimate the parameters required for model 4, and models 3 and 5 are included only as comparisons to the model 4 estimates. Variance components were estimated by multi-trait REML, including cows with valid calving records for both parities. For the effects of sire of calf on first and second parities, variance components were estimated including only calvings with the same sire of calf for both parities. All heritabilities for the cow effect were quite low, but higher for dystocia than for stillbirth and higher in first parity. The sire-of-calf heritabilities were higher than the cow effect heritabilities, except for stillbirth in parity 2. Unlike the effect of cow correlations, all sire of calf correlations were >0.6, and the correlations for the same trait in parities 1 and 2 were >0.9. Thus, a multi-trait analysis should yield a significant gain in accuracy with respect to the sire of calf effects for bulls not mated to virgin heifers. A multi-trait individual animal model algorithm was developed for joint analysis of dystocia and stillbirth in first and second parities. Relationships matrices were included both for the effects of cow and sire of calf. In addition, random herd-year-season and fixed sex of calf effects were included in the model. Records were preadjusted for calving month and age. A total of 899,223 Israeli Holstein cows with first calvings since 1985 were included in the complete analysis. Approximate reliabilities were computed for both sire of cow and sire of calf effects. Correlations between these reliabilities and reliabilities obtained by direct inversion of the coefficient matrix for a sire of cow-sire of calf model were all close to 0.99. Phenotypic trends for cows born from 1983 through 2007 were economically unfavorable for dystocia and favorable for stillbirth in both parities. Genetic trends

  12. Trait emotional intelligence: Evidence from italian adolescents and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) represents an attribute of contemporary attractiveness for the scientific psychology community. Of particular interest for the present thesis are the conundrum related to the representation of this construct conceptualized as a trait (i.e., trait EI), which are in turn reflected in the current lack of agreement upon its constituent elements, posing significant challenges to research and clinical progress. Trait EI is defined as an umbrella personality-alike const...

  13. Trophic niche-space imaging, using resource and consumer traits

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold A. J. Nagelkerke; Rossberg, Axel G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The strength of trophic (feeding) links between two species depends on the traits of both the consumer and the resource. But which traits of consumer and resource have to be measured to predict link strengths, and how many? A novel theoretical framework for systematically determining trophic traits from empirical data was recently proposed. Here we demonstrate this approach for a group of 14 consumer fish species (Labeobarbus spp., Cyprinidae) and 11 aquatic resource categor...

  14. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren.

  15. Frontline employees’ personality traits: customer preferences and the homophily effect

    OpenAIRE

    Streukens, Sandra; Tor W Andreassen

    2009-01-01

    Despite the agreement among researchers that the frontline employee (FLE) is crucial in creating value in retailing and other services, no empirical work exists that examines the customer’s preferences regarding FLE personality traits. Building on leading work in personality and services research, our empirical study aims to gain insight in customer preferences for FLE personality traits. In particular, we assess whether customer preferences for FLE personality traits vary as a function of th...

  16. SIRE EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BROWN COW

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2005-01-01

    The present research aims to obtain more fundamental knowledge of genetic effect (sire effect) on carcass traits of Japanese Brown cow. This experiment was done at Kumamoto Prefecture Japan. The field data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits of 9468 head of Japanese Brown cow, which had born from January 3rd 1988 to December 25th 1993 and representing by 88 head of sires were collected. All data were included of pedigree status. Cows data of ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits wer...

  17. Phenotyping and beyond: modelling the relationships between traits

    OpenAIRE

    Granier, Christine; Vile, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenotyping technology has become more advanced with the capacity to measure many morphological and physiological traits on a given individual. With increasing automation, getting access to various traits on a high number of genotypes over time raises the need to develop systems for data storage and analyses, all congregating into plant phenotyping pipelines. In this review, we highlight several studies that illustrate the latest advances in plant multi-trait phenotyping and discuss fut...

  18. Customer Preferences for Frontline Employee Traits: Homophily and Heterophily Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Streukens, Sandra; Andreassen, Tor W.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous research has underscored the significance of the personality traits of frontline employees (FLEs) in employee service behaviors, knowledge about customer preferences for FLE personality traits is lacking. This study responds to this gap in the literature, empirically assessing customers' preferences for FLE personality traits. The main research objective is to investigate whether and how these preferences vary with the customer's own personality. The study proposes and tests...

  19. State and trait measures in the affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Svanborg, Pär

    1999-01-01

    Background: Personality 'traits' refer to stability, consistency and repeated occurrence of actions while psychiatric 'states' concern the varying part of human behaviour. States are often associated with matter and body, and with biological causes, and 'traits' and 'personality' with 'mind', and with psychological and social causes. In a semantic, conceptual meaning, the concepts of 'states' and 'traits', and 'body' and 'mind' are opposites, and mutually exclusive. Howe...

  20. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate

    OpenAIRE

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B.

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated tra...

  1. Do girls with anorexia nervosa have elevated autistic traits?

    OpenAIRE

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jaffa, Tony; Davies, Sarah; Auyeung, Bonnie; Allison, Carrie; Wheelwright, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with anorexia may have elevated autistic traits. In this study, we tested test whether patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) have an elevated score on a dimensional measure of autistic traits, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), as well as on trait measures relevant to the autism spectrum: the Empathy Quotient (EQ), and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Methods Two groups were tested: (1) female adolescents with anorexia: n = 66, aged 12 to 18 years; and (2) female adolesc...

  2. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment.

  3. [Traits of personality in hypochondriacal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vanna, M; Cauzer, M; Spreafichi, A

    1995-06-01

    Among the several mental originated clinical syndromes, hypochondria is not still well understood and listed. Indeed, hypochondria is often a complicating element in other psychopathological pictures; a slight form of hypochondria can appear in phobic-obsessing neurosis, and a worse one at the beginning of psychosis. The Authors, trying to explain the complex questions about diagnosis and prognosis of hypochondria, look for common personality traits in these patients. The research instrument was the Adjective Check List (ACL), a psychological test highly standardized and diffused, composed of 300 adjectives, or adjectival sentences, used to describe a person's attributes. The ACL was given to 65 subjects divided into two groups. The first group was made of 15 subjects, 10 women and 5 men, ambulatory treated at the Psychiatric Clinic in Trieste for the following diagnosis: psychosis (4 persons), depressing syndrome (3 persons), hypochondria (6 persons), obsessive neurosis (1 persons), anxiety syndrome (1 person). The second group was made of 50 subjects, 28 women and 22 men, diagnosed as hypochondriac by their medical officers. The results point out that some personality traits rising above the others are suggesting for an apathetical patient, not ready to accept himself, easily overcome by everyday life problems. These subjects are introverted, intolerant to frustrations, and inclined to take refuge in their own imaginary world, not able to self-governing. In the considered group the Authors find a moderate tendency to change, and it could be interpreted like a good prognostic element for a psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:7643735

  4. Neural substrates of trait ruminations in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Darcy; Siegle, Greg J; Shutt, Luann; Feldmiller, Josh; Thase, Michael E

    2014-02-01

    Rumination in depression is a risk factor for longer, more intense, and harder-to-treat depressions. But there appear to be multiple types of depressive rumination-whether they all share these vulnerability mechanisms, and thus would benefit from the same types of clinical attention is unclear. In the current study, we examined neural correlates of empirically derived dimensions of trait rumination in 35 depressed participants. These individuals and 29 never-depressed controls completed 17 self-report measures of rumination and an alternating emotion-processing/executive-control task during functional MRI (fMRI) assessment. We examined associations of regions of interest--the amygdala and other cortical regions subserving a potential role in deficient cognitive control and elaborative emotion-processing--with trait rumination. Rumination of all types was generally associated with increased sustained amygdala reactivity. When controlling for amygdala reactivity, distinct activity patterns in hippocampus were also associated with specific dimensions of rumination. We discuss the possibly utility of targeting more basic biological substrates of emotional reactivity in depressed patients who frequently ruminate. PMID:24661157

  5. Joint association analysis of bivariate quantitative and qualitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Mengdie; Diao, Guoqing

    2011-01-01

    Univariate genome-wide association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits has been investigated extensively in the literature. In the presence of correlated phenotypes, it is more intuitive to analyze all phenotypes simultaneously. We describe an efficient likelihood-based approach for the joint association analysis of quantitative and qualitative traits in unrelated individuals. We assume a probit model for the qualitative trait, under which an unobserved latent variable and a prespecified threshold determine the value of the qualitative trait. To jointly model the quantitative and qualitative traits, we assume that the quantitative trait and the latent variable follow a bivariate normal distribution. The latent variable is allowed to be correlated with the quantitative phenotype. Simultaneous modeling of the quantitative and qualitative traits allows us to make more precise inference on the pleiotropic genetic effects. We derive likelihood ratio tests for the testing of genetic effects. An application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 data is provided. The new method yields reasonable power and meaningful results for the joint association analysis of the quantitative trait Q1 and the qualitative trait disease status at SNPs with not too small MAF. PMID:22373162

  6. Breeding for improvement of functional traits in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Boettcher

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection programs for increasing milk production per cow have been very successful over time. This success has been partially due to the consideration of few other traits. Unfortunately, many traits related to costs of production and cattle functionality (i.e., “functional traits”, such as fertility and health, are antagonistically correlated with milk yield. Therefore, the average merit for these traits has decreased over time. The decline in functionality, along with increased awareness of the costs of production and animal well-being, has spurred interest in breeding for improvement in functional traits. Unfortunately, factors such as low heritability and lack of data make the selection for functionality more difficult than for production. Research has been able to overcome some of these limitations, at least to some extent, through the development and application of advanced statistical analyses and through indirect selection on genetically correlated traits. Possibilities exist in the future for additional refinement of selection procedures for improvement of functional traits. Computing capacities are continually increasing and more complex but statistically appropriate analysis methods are being developed. Furthermore, genome scans have identified chromosomal regions that have putative associations with functional traits. The bovine genome has been recently sequenced, so the possibility to identify the genes affecting functional traits exists, at least in theory. With low heritabilities and difficulties in measurement, functional traits are the ideal candidates for the application of marker-assisted selection.

  7. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder. PMID:27392230

  8. Towards a multidimensional root trait framework: a tree root review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weemstra, Monique; Mommer, Liesje; Visser, Eric J W; van Ruijven, Jasper; Kuyper, Thomas W; Mohren, Godefridus M J; Sterck, Frank J

    2016-09-01

    Contents 1159 I. 1159 II. 1161 III. 1164 IV. 1166 1167 References 1167 SUMMARY: The search for a root economics spectrum (RES) has been sparked by recent interest in trait-based plant ecology. By analogy with the one-dimensional leaf economics spectrum (LES), fine-root traits are hypothesised to match leaf traits which are coordinated along one axis from resource acquisitive to conservative traits. However, our literature review and meta-level analysis reveal no consistent evidence of an RES mirroring an LES. Instead the RES appears to be multidimensional. We discuss three fundamental differences contributing to the discrepancy between these spectra. First, root traits are simultaneously constrained by various environmental drivers not necessarily related to resource uptake. Second, above- and belowground traits cannot be considered analogues, because they function differently and might not be related to resource uptake in a similar manner. Third, mycorrhizal interactions may offset selection for an RES. Understanding and explaining the belowground mechanisms and trade-offs that drive variation in root traits, resource acquisition and plant performance across species, thus requires a fundamentally different approach than applied aboveground. We therefore call for studies that can functionally incorporate the root traits involved in resource uptake, the complex soil environment and the various soil resource uptake mechanisms - particularly the mycorrhizal pathway - in a multidimensional root trait framework. PMID:27174359

  9. Environmental sensitivity in dairy cattle with focus on fertility traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ismael, Ahmed; Løvendahl, Peter; Strandberg, Erling

    2012-01-01

    Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait and the heritabi......Dairy cattle differ in production, fertility, health, and other important traits in the different environment as both the phenopypic and genetic level (Winding et la., 2005 and Calus et al., 2005). Fertility of Nordic dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Red, Jersey) is a complex trait...

  10. Neurological soft signs in Chinese adolescents with antisocial personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cai, Lin; Li, Lingyan; Yang, Yanjie; Yao, Shuqiao; Zhu, Xiongzhao

    2016-09-30

    The current study was designed to explore the specific relationship between neurologic soft signs (NSSs) and characteristics of antisocial personality traits in adolescents, and to investigate particular NSSs linked to certain brain regions in adolescents with antisocial personality traits. The research was conducted on 96 adolescents diagnosed with ASP traits (ASP trait group) using the ASPD subscale of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for the DSM-IV (PDQ-4+) and 96 adolescents without traits of any personality disorder (control group). NSSs were assessed using the soft sign subscales of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory. Adolescents with ASP traits showed more motor coordination, sensory integration, disinhibition, and total NSSs than the control group. Seven NSSs, including stereognosia in right hand, finger agnosia and graphesthesia in both hands, left-right orientation, and go/no go stimulus, were significantly more frequent in teenagers with ASP traits. Sensory integration was positively associated with ASP traits. Adolescents with antisocial personality traits might have abnormalities in the central nervous system, and sensory integration might be the particular indicator of antisocial personality disorder.

  11. PREDICTION OF CARCASS TRAITS OF JAPANESE BLACK BULLS AT SEVERAL AGES USING BODY MEASUREMENTS AND ULTRASONIC ESTIMATE OF CARCASS TRAITS

    OpenAIRE

    Sri Rachma, Aprilita Bugiwati

    2008-01-01

    The present research aims to estimate the mathematical equations for predicting ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at ten months after performance test (about 20 months of age) using body measurements and ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits at earlier stages of performance test of Japanese Black bulls. This research was done at Kagoshima and Miyazaki prefecture Livestock Experimental Stations Japan to collect the ultrasonic estimates of carcass traits and body measurements data of Jap...

  12. The Coral Trait Database, a curated database of trait information for coral species from the global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madin, Joshua S; Anderson, Kristen D; Andreasen, Magnus Heide; Bridge, Tom C L; Cairns, Stephen D; Connolly, Sean R; Darling, Emily S; Diaz, Marcela; Falster, Daniel S; Franklin, Erik C; Gates, Ruth D; Hoogenboom, Mia O; Huang, Danwei; Keith, Sally A; Kosnik, Matthew A; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Lough, Janice M; Lovelock, Catherine E; Luiz, Osmar; Martinelli, Julieta; Mizerek, Toni; Pandolfi, John M; Pochon, Xavier; Pratchett, Morgan S; Putnam, Hollie M; Roberts, T Edward; Stat, Michael; Wallace, Carden C; Widman, Elizabeth; Baird, Andrew H

    2016-01-01

    Trait-based approaches advance ecological and evolutionary research because traits provide a strong link to an organism's function and fitness. Trait-based research might lead to a deeper understanding of the functions of, and services provided by, ecosystems, thereby improving management, which is vital in the current era of rapid environmental change. Coral reef scientists have long collected trait data for corals; however, these are difficult to access and often under-utilized in addressing large-scale questions. We present the Coral Trait Database initiative that aims to bring together physiological, morphological, ecological, phylogenetic and biogeographic trait information into a single repository. The database houses species- and individual-level data from published field and experimental studies alongside contextual data that provide important framing for analyses. In this data descriptor, we release data for 56 traits for 1547 species, and present a collaborative platform on which other trait data are being actively federated. Our overall goal is for the Coral Trait Database to become an open-source, community-led data clearinghouse that accelerates coral reef research. PMID:27023900

  13. Autonomy and authenticity of enhanced personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Jan Christoph; Merkel, Reinhard

    2009-07-01

    There is concern that the use of neuroenhancements to alter character traits undermines consumer's authenticity. But the meaning, scope and value of authenticity remain vague. However, the majority of contemporary autonomy accounts ground individual autonomy on a notion of authenticity. So if neuroenhancements diminish an agent's authenticity, they may undermine his autonomy. This paper clarifies the relation between autonomy, authenticity and possible threats by neuroenhancements. We present six neuroenhancement scenarios and analyse how autonomy accounts evaluate them. Some cases are considered differently by criminal courts; we demonstrate where academic autonomy theories and legal reasoning diverge and ascertain whether courts should reconsider their concept of autonomy. We argue that authenticity is not an appropriate condition for autonomy and that new enhancement technologies pose no unique threats to personal autonomy.

  14. Genetic Control of Meat Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John L.

    Meat was originally produced from non-specialized animals that were used for a variety of purposes, in addition to being a source of food. However, selective breeding has resulted in “improved” breeds of cattle that are now used to produce either milk or beef, and specialized chicken lines that produce eggs or meat. These improved breeds are very productive under appropriate management systems. The selection methods used to create these specialized breeds were based on easily measured phenotypic variations, such as growth rate or physical size. Improvement in the desired trait was achieved by breeding directly from animals displaying the desired phenotype. However, more recently sophisticated genetic models have been developed using statistical approaches that consider phenotypic information collected, not only from individual animals but also from their parents, sibs, and progeny.

  15. Sexual selection and magic traits in speciation with gene flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria R.SERVEDIO; Michael KOPP

    2012-01-01

    The extent to which sexual selection is involved in speciation with gene flow remains an open question and the subject of much research.Here,we propose that some insight can be gained from considering the concept of magic traits (i.e.,traits involved in both reproductive isolation and ecological divergence).Both magic traits and other,“non-magic”,traits can contribute to speciation via a number of specific mechanisms.We argue that many of these mechanisms are likely to differ widely in the extent to which they involve sexual selection.Furthermore,in some cases where sexual selection is present,it may be prone to inhibit rather than drive speciation.Finally,there are a priori reasons to believe that certain categories of traits are much more effective than others in driving speciation.The combination of these points suggests a classification of traits that may shed light on the broader role of sexual selection in speciation with gene flow.In particular,we suggest that sexual selection can act as a driver of speciation in some scenarios,but may play a negligible role in potentially common categories of magic traits,and may be likely to inhibit speeiation in common categories of non-magic traits.

  16. Maccoby's Head/Heart Traits: Marketing versus Accounting Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunny, C. M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Nineteen head/heart traits derived from Maccoby's business ethics work were rated on importance to future careers by 148 marketing and 178 accounting students. Both groups rated head traits as most important. Marketing majors are not as "games" oriented as social stereotypes would indicate. The apparent imbalance between head and heart traits…

  17. Traits and emotions : A review of their structure and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Kokkonen, M

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on traits and emotions focusing on both structure and management, or 'having' and 'doing'. The cognitive perspective of this paper implies that traits and emotions are viewed as provisions to frame people and their behaviours in situations in meaningful ways. The focus

  18. Statistics Anxiety, Trait Anxiety, Learning Behavior, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macher, Daniel; Paechter, Manuela; Papousek, Ilona; Ruggeri, Kai

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between statistics anxiety, individual characteristics (e.g., trait anxiety and learning strategies), and academic performance. Students enrolled in a statistics course in psychology (N = 147) filled in a questionnaire on statistics anxiety, trait anxiety, interest in statistics, mathematical…

  19. Phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits in Helianthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, L.A.; Ludwig, F.; Rosenthal, D.R.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Dudley, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Habitats that differ in soil resource availability are expected to differ for selection on resource-related plant traits. Here, we examined spatial and temporal variation in phenotypic selection on leaf ecophysiological traits for 10 Helianthus populations, including two species of hybrid origin, He

  20. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; J.H. Kamphuis; M. Kindt

    2012-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current stud

  1. Plant traits in forest understory herbs : a modellling study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elemans, Mariët

    2005-01-01

    Although many ideas exist about the traits that characterize shade-tolerant species from the forest understory, so far no clear and comprehensive can be given. This thesis evaluates the role (plasticity in) shoot-to-plant ratio and an interdependent suite of leaf functional traits play in the tolera

  2. Factor Structure of Autistic Traits in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joanna; Hamshere, Marian L.; O'Donovan, Michael C.; Rutter, Michael; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur. Factor analyses of ASD traits in children with and without ASD indicate the presence of social and restrictive-repetitive behaviour (RRB) factors. This study used exploratory factor analyses to determine the structure of ASD traits (assessed using…

  3. Bridging traits, story, and self: Prospects and problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In his target article, McAdams brings together three domains in the field of psychology in which challenging developments have been observed over the past decades: trait psychology, narrative psychology, and culture. Trait psychology has been rejuvenated by crossnational and cross-cultural research

  4. A new statistical method for mapping QTLs underlying endosperm traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zhiqiu; XU Chenwu

    2005-01-01

    Genetic expression for an endosperm trait in seeds of cereal crops may be controlled simultaneously by the triploid endosperm genotypes and the diploid maternal genotypes. However, current statistical methods for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying endosperm traits have not been effective in dealing with the putative maternal genetic effects. Combining the quantitative genetic model for diploid maternal traits with triploid endosperm traits, here we propose a new statistical method for mapping QTLs controlling endosperm traits with maternal genetic effects. This method applies the data set of both DNA molecular marker genotypes of each plant in segregation population and the quantitative observations of single endosperms in each plant to map QTL. The maximum likelihood method implemented via the expectation-maximization algorithm was used to the estimate parameters of a putative QTL. Since this method involves the maternal effect that may contribute to endosperm traits, it might be more congruent with the genetics of endosperm traits and more helpful to increasing the precision of QTL mapping. The simulation results show the proposed method provides accurate estimates of the QTL effects and locations with high statistical power.

  5. Psychopathic Traits, Victim Distress and Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Baardewijk, Yoast; Stegge, Hedy; Bushman, Brad J.; Vermeiren, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Background: The relationship between psychopathic traits and aggression in children may be explained by their reduced sensitivity to signs of distress in others. Emotional cues such as fear and sadness function to make the perpetrator aware of the victim's distress and supposedly inhibit aggression. As children high in psychopathic traits show a…

  6. Do Gender and Personality Traits Influence Use of Deal Sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Deal sites became widespread, there are numerous both international and local players in the market. The research presented in the paper investigates if gender and personality traits influence use (versus non-use) of deal sites. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits...

  7. Event-time analysis of reproductive traits in dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Lende, van der T.; Baaijen, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Data on the reproductive traits of dairy heifers were analyzed using event-time techniques. Traits analyzed were age at first calving (n = 4631), days to first breeding, and days open (n = 1992) during the first lactation. A proportional hazard model was used that included fixed effects of herd-year

  8. Neural basis of interpersonal traits in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollberger, Marc; Stanley, Christine M; Wilson, Stephen M; Gyurak, Anett; Beckman, Victoria; Growdon, Matthew; Jang, Jung; Weiner, Michael W; Miller, Bruce L; Rankin, Katherine P

    2009-11-01

    Several functional and structural imaging studies have investigated the neural basis of personality in healthy adults, but human lesions studies are scarce. Personality changes are a common symptom in patients with neurodegenerative diseases like frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and semantic dementia (SD), allowing a unique window into the neural basis of personality. In this study, we used the Interpersonal Adjective Scales to investigate the structural basis of eight interpersonal traits (dominance, arrogance, coldness, introversion, submissiveness, ingenuousness, warmth, and extraversion) in 257 subjects: 214 patients with neurodegenerative diseases such as FTD, SD, progressive nonfluent aphasia, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy and 43 healthy elderly people. Measures of interpersonal traits were correlated with regional atrophy pattern using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of structural MR images. Interpersonal traits mapped onto distinct brain regions depending on the degree to which they involved agency and affiliation. Interpersonal traits high in agency related to left dorsolateral prefrontal and left lateral frontopolar regions, whereas interpersonal traits high in affiliation related to right ventromedial prefrontal and right anteromedial temporal regions. Consistent with the existing literature on neural networks underlying social cognition, these results indicate that brain regions related to externally focused, executive control-related processes underlie agentic interpersonal traits such as dominance, whereas brain regions related to internally focused, emotion- and reward-related processes underlie affiliative interpersonal traits such as warmth. In addition, these findings indicate that interpersonal traits are subserved by complex neural networks rather than discrete anatomic areas.

  9. The Relations of Motivational Traits with Workplace Deviance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorff, James M.; Mehta, Kajal

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed and tested new theoretical relations between approach and avoidance motivational traits and deviant work behaviors. Approach motivation was divided into 3 traits: personal mastery (i.e., desire to achieve), competitive excellence (i.e., desire to perform better than others), and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity…

  10. Competencies and Traits of Successful Agricultural Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. Grady; Dooley, Kim E.; Harlin, Julie F.; Murphrey, Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify the required competencies and traits of successful agricultural science teachers. Data was collected from focus groups of agricultural science teachers and a content analysis of existing research. Results identified 47 unique traits or competencies that were divided into the categories of…

  11. Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Leaf Morphological Traits and Chlorophyll Content in Cultivated Tetraploid Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Liang SONG; Wang-Zhen GUO; Zhi-Guo HAN; Tian-Zhen ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Genetic mapping provides a powerful tool for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis at the molecular level. A simple sequence repeat (SSR) genetic map containing 590 markers and a BC1 population from two cultivated tetraploid cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars, namely TM-1 and Hai 7124 (G.barbadense L.), were used to map and analyze QTL using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method.Thirty one QTLs, 10 for lobe length, 13 for lobe width, six for lobe angle, and two for leaf chlorophyll content,were detected on 15 chromosomes or linkage groups at logarithm of odds (LOD) ≥ 2.0, of which 15 were found for leaf morphology at LOD ≥.3.0. The genetic effects of the QTL were estimated. These results are fundamental for marker-assisted selection (MAS) of these traits in tetraploid cotton breeding.

  12. Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C)-A New Measure of Children's Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maćkiewicz, Marta; Cieciuch, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In order to adjust personality measurements to children's developmental level, we constructed the Pictorial Personality Traits Questionnaire for Children (PPTQ-C). To validate the measure, we conducted a study with a total group of 1028 children aged between 7 and 13 years old. Structural validity was established through Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM). Criterion validity was confirmed with a multitrait-multimethod analysis for which we introduced the children's self-assessment scores from the Big Five Questionnaire for Children. Despite some problems with reliability, one can conclude that the PPTQ-C can be a valid instrument for measuring personality traits, particularly in a group of young children (aged ~7-10 years). PMID:27252661

  13. Male reproductive traits and their relationship to reproductive traits in their female progeny: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, B M; Gazzola, C; Holroyd, R G; Crisp, J; McGowan, M R

    2011-06-01

    The overall objective of one of the major research programs in the Co-operative Research Centre (CRC) for Beef Genetic Technologies is to 'Improve female reproductive performance' in tropical, northern Australian beef cattle herds. To address this overall objective, a quantitative genetics project focused on investigation of male reproductive traits was designed and linked to three female reproduction-focussed projects, (i) discovery of genes associated with post-partum re-conception and age at puberty; (ii) expression of genes associated with post-partum re-conception; and (iii) early predictors of lifetime female reproductive performance. During the initial planning of this male reproductive traits project, the CRC Scientific Review Committee recommended that the research team investigate and evaluate potentially new, early-life (i.e able to be measured before 2 years of age) predictors of both male and female reproductive performance. To address this recommendation, the following was carried out: (i) criteria for selection of traditional and candidate traits were established; (ii) methodology for tabulation of potential traits/phenotypes that define male and female reproductive function was developed; and (iii) a systematic scientific review of early-life predictors of male and female fertility was prepared. This review concluded that although factors that might be useful in predicting male reproductive performance have been studied for many years, there was relatively little useful information available to meet the objectives of this review. It was also concluded that the direction of future research should be guided not only by previous research which was scarce, but also by speculative hypotheses arising from an understanding of the physiological, endocrinological and genetic processes active in reproduction. A small number of new traits were recommended in addition to traditional sperm morphology, sexual behaviour, anatomical structure and growth traits

  14. Predicting plants -modeling traits as a function of environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Oskar

    2016-04-01

    A central problem in understanding and modeling vegetation dynamics is how to represent the variation in plant properties and function across different environments. Addressing this problem there is a strong trend towards trait-based approaches, where vegetation properties are functions of the distributions of functional traits rather than of species. Recently there has been enormous progress in in quantifying trait variability and its drivers and effects (Van Bodegom et al. 2012; Adier et al. 2014; Kunstler et al. 2015) based on wide ranging datasets on a small number of easily measured traits, such as specific leaf area (SLA), wood density and maximum plant height. However, plant function depends on many other traits and while the commonly measured trait data are valuable, they are not sufficient for driving predictive and mechanistic models of vegetation dynamics -especially under novel climate or management conditions. For this purpose we need a model to predict functional traits, also those not easily measured, and how they depend on the plants' environment. Here I present such a mechanistic model based on fitness concepts and focused on traits related to water and light limitation of trees, including: wood density, drought response, allocation to defense, and leaf traits. The model is able to predict observed patterns of variability in these traits in relation to growth and mortality, and their responses to a gradient of water limitation. The results demonstrate that it is possible to mechanistically predict plant traits as a function of the environment based on an eco-physiological model of plant fitness. References Adier, P.B., Salguero-Gómez, R., Compagnoni, A., Hsu, J.S., Ray-Mukherjee, J., Mbeau-Ache, C. et al. (2014). Functional traits explain variation in plant lifehistory strategies. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 111, 740-745. Kunstler, G., Falster, D., Coomes, D.A., Hui, F., Kooyman, R.M., Laughlin, D.C. et al. (2015). Plant functional traits

  15. Detection of quantitative trait loci for meat quality traits in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Gil, B; Wiener, P; Nute, G R; Burton, D; Gill, J L; Wood, J D; Williams, J L

    2008-02-01

    A whole-genome scan was carried out to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting sensory, organoleptic, physical and chemical properties of meat. The study used phenotypic data from 235 second-generation cross-bred bull calves of a Charolais x Holstein experimental population. Loin muscle samples were evaluated for yield force, intramuscular fat and nitrogen contents, myofibrillar fragmentation index, haem pigment concentration, moisture content and pH at 24 h postmortem. A sensory assessment was performed on grilled loin and roasted silverside joints by trained panellists. A linear regression analysis based on 165 markers revealed 35 QTL at the 5% chromosome-wide significance level (20 for sensory traits and 15 for physical and chemical traits), five of which were highly significant (F-value: > or =9). The most significant QTL was located on chromosome 6 (with the best likely position at 39 cM) and affected haem pigment concentration. The Holstein allele for this QTL was associated with an increase of 0.53 SD in the haem scores. A QTL for pH(24h) was identified on chromosome 14 (at 40 cM) and a QTL for moisture content was identified on chromosome 22 (at 21 cM). Two highly significant QTL were identified for sensory panel-assessed traits: beef odour intensity (grilled sample) on chromosome 10 (at 119 cM), and juiciness (roast sample) on chromosome 16 (at 70 cM). The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by the significant QTL ranged from 3.6% (for nitrogen content on chromosome 10) to 9.5% (for juiciness, roast sample on chromosome 16). PMID:18254735

  16. Detection of quantitative trait loci for carcass composition traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renard Christine

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis of carcass composition data from a three-generation experimental cross between Meishan (MS and Large White (LW pig breeds is presented. A total of 488 F2 males issued from six F1 boars and 23 F1 sows, the progeny of six LW boars and six MS sows, were slaughtered at approximately 80 kg live weight and were submitted to a standardised cutting of the carcass. Fifteen traits, i.e. dressing percentage, loin, ham, shoulder, belly, backfat, leaf fat, feet and head weights, two backfat thickness and one muscle depth measurements, ham + loin and back + leaf fat percentages and estimated carcass lean content were analysed. Animals were typed for a total of 137 markers covering the entire porcine genome. Analyses were performed using a line-cross (LC regression method where founder lines were assumed to be fixed for different QTL alleles and a half/full sib (HFS maximum likelihood method where allele substitution effects were estimated within each half-/full-sib family. Additional analyses were performed to search for multiple linked QTL and imprinting effects. Significant gene effects were evidenced for both leanness and fatness traits in the telomeric regions of SSC 1q and SSC 2p, on SSC 4, SSC 7 and SSC X. Additional significant QTL were identified for ham weight on SSC 5, for head weight on SSC 1 and SSC 7, for feet weight on SSC 7 and for dressing percentage on SSC X. LW alleles were associated with a higher lean content and a lower fat content of the carcass, except for the fatness trait on SSC 7. Suggestive evidence of linked QTL on SSC 7 and of imprinting effects on SSC 6, SSC 7, SSC 9 and SSC 17 were also obtained.

  17. DSM-5 personality traits and DSM-IV personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Thomas, Katherine M; Markon, Kristian E; Wright, Aidan G C; Krueger, Robert F

    2012-05-01

    Two issues pertinent to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5) proposal for personality pathology, the recovery of DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) by proposed DSM-5 traits and the validity of the proposed DSM-5 hybrid model, which incorporates both personality pathology symptoms and maladaptive traits, were evaluated in a large undergraduate sample (N = 808). Proposed DSM-5 traits as assessed with the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 explained a substantial proportion of variance in DSM-IV PDs as assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4+, and trait indicators of the 6 proposed DSM-5 PDs were mostly specific to those disorders with some exceptions. Regression analyses support the DSM-5 hybrid model in that pathological traits, and an indicator of general personality pathology severity provided incremental information about PDs. Findings are discussed in the context of broader issues around the proposed DSM-5 model of personality disorders.

  18. The reciprocal relationship between competition and intraspecific trait variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Bennett, Jonathan; Riibak, Kersti; Tamme, Riin;

    2016-01-01

    with larger leaves and lower specific leaf area than their neighbours. Switching to more stress tolerant strategies by increasing root diameter and leaf tissue density also reduced competition. However, dissimilarity in root tissue density also minimized competition, consistent with limiting similarity......1.Trait differences among plants are expected to influence the outcome of competition; competition should be strongest between similar species (or individuals) under limiting similarity, and between dissimilar species within competitive hierarchies. These hypotheses are often used to infer...... competitive dynamics from trait patterns within communities. However, plant traits are frequently plastic in response to competition. This variation is poorly accounted for in trait based studies of competition and community assembly. 2.To explore the relationship between trait responses and competitive...

  19. Plant functional traits predict green roof ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Tran, Stephanie; Gebert, Luke

    2015-02-17

    Plants make important contributions to the services provided by engineered ecosystems such as green roofs. Ecologists use plant species traits as generic predictors of geographical distribution, interactions with other species, and ecosystem functioning, but this approach has been little used to optimize engineered ecosystems. Four plant species traits (height, individual leaf area, specific leaf area, and leaf dry matter content) were evaluated as predictors of ecosystem properties and services in a modular green roof system planted with 21 species. Six indicators of ecosystem services, incorporating thermal, hydrological, water quality, and carbon sequestration functions, were predicted by the four plant traits directly or indirectly via their effects on aggregate ecosystem properties, including canopy density and albedo. Species average height and specific leaf area were the most useful traits, predicting several services via effects on canopy density or growth rate. This study demonstrates that easily measured plant traits can be used to select species to optimize green roof performance across multiple key services.

  20. Functional traits in agriculture: agrobiodiversity and ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stephen A; Karp, Daniel S; DeClerck, Fabrice; Kremen, Claire; Naeem, Shahid; Palm, Cheryl A

    2015-09-01

    Functional trait research has led to greater understanding of the impacts of biodiversity in ecosystems. Yet, functional trait approaches have not been widely applied to agroecosystems and understanding of the importance of agrobiodiversity remains limited to a few ecosystem processes and services. To improve this understanding, we argue here for a functional trait approach to agroecology that adopts recent advances in trait research for multitrophic and spatially heterogeneous ecosystems. We suggest that trait values should be measured across environmental conditions and agricultural management regimes to predict how ecosystem services vary with farm practices and environment. This knowledge should be used to develop management strategies that can be easily implemented by farmers to manage agriculture to provide multiple ecosystem services.

  1. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Marie J; Simm, Geoff; Turner, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  2. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avit Kumar Bhowmik

    Full Text Available Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera, evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent. We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect

  3. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  4. Genetic selection for temperament traits in dairy and beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Haskell

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Animal temperament can be defined as a response to environmental or social stimuli. There are a number of temperament traits in cattle that contribute to their welfare, including their response to handling or milking, response to challenge such as human approach or intervention at calving, and response to conspecifics. In a number of these areas, the genetic basis of the trait has been studied. Heritabilities have been estimated and in some cases quantitative trait loci (QTL have been identified. The variation is sometimes considerable and moderate heritabilities have been found for the major handling temperament traits, making them amenable to selection. Studies have also investigated the correlations between temperament and other traits, such as productivity and meat quality. Despite this, there are relatively few examples of temperament traits being used in selection programmes. Most often, animals are screened for aggression or excessive fear during handling or milking, with extreme animals being culled, or EBVs for temperament are estimated, but these traits are not commonly included routinely in selection indices, despite there being economic, welfare and human safety drivers for their. There may be a number of constraints and barriers. For some traits and breeds, there may be difficulties in collecting behavioral data on sufficiently large populations of animals to estimate genetic parameters. Most selection indices require estimates of economic values, and it is often difficult to assign an economic value to a temperament trait. The effects of selection primarily for productivity traits on temperament and welfare are discussed. Future opportunities include automated data collection methods and the wider use of genomic information in selection.

  5. Large Scale Relationship between Aquatic Insect Traits and Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2015-01-01

    Climate is the predominant environmental driver of freshwater assemblage pattern on large spatial scales, and traits of freshwater organisms have shown considerable potential to identify impacts of climate change. Although several studies suggest traits that may indicate vulnerability to climate change, the empirical relationship between freshwater assemblage trait composition and climate has been rarely examined on large scales. We compared the responses of the assumed climate-associated traits from six grouping features to 35 bioclimatic indices (~18 km resolution) for five insect orders (Diptera, Ephemeroptera, Odonata, Plecoptera and Trichoptera), evaluated their potential for changing distribution pattern under future climate change and identified the most influential bioclimatic indices. The data comprised 782 species and 395 genera sampled in 4,752 stream sites during 2006 and 2007 in Germany (~357,000 km² spatial extent). We quantified the variability and spatial autocorrelation in the traits and orders that are associated with the combined and individual bioclimatic indices. Traits of temperature preference grouping feature that are the products of several other underlying climate-associated traits, and the insect order Ephemeroptera exhibited the strongest response to the bioclimatic indices as well as the highest potential for changing distribution pattern. Regarding individual traits, insects in general and ephemeropterans preferring very cold temperature showed the highest response, and the insects preferring cold and trichopterans preferring moderate temperature showed the highest potential for changing distribution. We showed that the seasonal radiation and moisture are the most influential bioclimatic aspects, and thus changes in these aspects may affect the most responsive traits and orders and drive a change in their spatial distribution pattern. Our findings support the development of trait-based metrics to predict and detect climate

  6. Analysing leadership traits in establishing effective leadership at Eskom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lekganyane

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Leadership is one of the crucial modern topics in the field of management. A leadership trait is one of the three components to be considered in establishing leadership success. The other two components not assessed in this research are ideal leadership behaviour and situational factors. Managers must act as leaders as they have a critical role to play to ensure effective change. This paper explores the leadership traits relevant to middle managers acting as leaders at Eskom. Design/Methodology/Approach: A theoretical analysis of literature in the field of leadership is conducted with a further focus on leadership traits. Quantitative research is done within Eskom by means of an e-mail survey to a random sample of employees on middle management level. Areas of possible improvement and leadership traits excellence are identified. Recommendations are made regarding leadership traits. Findings: The broad leadership trait categories tested include: intelligence; flexibility; sensitivity to others; stability; dominance; high energy; integrity (honesty and ethics; and finally locus of control. The most dominant traits based on the perception of the respondents are that they possess integrity, intelligence, high energy and the ability to act as leaders. Leadership traits that require great attention and are not as dominant are sensitivity to others, flexibility and to some extent stability. Implications: Managers must have the leadership ability and trait to influence employees in order to communicate, direct, negotiate and motivate with success. Teamwork and a relationship of trust are required in the modern and changing organisation in order to be successful in achieving organisational goals. Originality / Value: South Africa as well as Southern Africa could face an energy crisis in the near future. As Eskom is currently facing growing demand for services and is experiencing limitations to provide this continuous increase in demand, managers

  7. Genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Kourosh; Beigi Nassiri, Mohammad Taghi; Rahmatnejad, Enayat; Abdollahi-Arpanahi, Rostam; Hossaini, Seyed Mohammad Reza; Hagh Nadar, Saman

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, the current study reports the genetic and phenotypic correlations between growth and reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. The data were comprised of 4,309 records of lamb growth traits from 1,378 dams and 273 sires plus 2,588 records of reproductive traits from 577 ewes. These data were extracted from available performance records at Khojir Breeding Station of Zandi sheep in Tehran, Iran, from 1993 to 2008. Correlations were estimated from two animal models in a bivariate analysis using restricted maximum likelihood procedure between lamb growth traits [birth weight (BW), weaning weight at 3 months of age (WW), as well as six-month weight (6 MW)] and ewe reproductive traits [litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW)]. The genetic correlations between BW and reproductive traits varied from low to high ranges from 0.10 for BW-LSB to 0.86 for BW-TLWB. WW was moderately (0.37) to highly (0.96) correlated with all the reproductive traits. Moreover, the genetic correlations were observed between 6 MW and reproductive traits, varied from 0.19 to 0.95. Relationships between growth and reproductive traits ranged from 0.01 for BW-LSW to 0.28 for BW-TLWB in phenotypic effects. Results indicated that selection to improve WW would have high effect on genetic response in TLWW, and also, these results could be effective for all of the reproductive traits in Zandi sheep. PMID:24705699

  8. Identification of quantitative trait transcripts for growth traits in the large scales of liver and muscle samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xinwei; Yang, Hui; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng

    2015-07-01

    Growth-related traits are economically important traits to the pig industry. Identification of causative gene and mutation responsible for growth-related QTL will facilitate the improvement of pig growth through marker-assisted selection. In this study, we applied whole genome gene expression and quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analyses in 497 liver and 586 longissimus dorsi muscle samples to identify candidate genes and dissect the genetic basis of pig growth in a white Duroc × Erhualian F2 resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts in liver and 23,728 transcripts in muscle with expression values were used for association analysis between gene expression level and phenotypic value. At the significance threshold of P growth-related traits in liver and muscle, respectively. We also found that some QTTs were correlated to more than one trait. The QTTs identified here showed high tissue specificity. We did not identify any QTTs that were associated with one trait in both liver and muscle. Through an integrative genomic approach, we identified SDR16C5 as the important candidate gene in pig growth trait. These findings contribute to further identification of the causative genes for porcine growth traits and facilitate improvement of pig breeding.

  9. Bimodal Signaling of a Sexually Selected Trait: Gular Pouch Drumming in the Magnificent Frigatebird

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, V.; Balsby, T. J. S.; Dabelsteen, Torben;

    2004-01-01

    courtship display, Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird, secondary sexual trait, visual and acoustic signaling......courtship display, Fregata magnificens, Magnificent Frigatebird, secondary sexual trait, visual and acoustic signaling...

  10. Breeding common bean populations for traits using selection index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Cristina Lima

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A common bean (Phaseolus vulgarisL. cultivar must combine desirable genotypes for several traits in order to be accepted by producers and consumers. This study aimed to evaluate selection efficiency when segregating bean populations for traits, by means of a selection index, in order to obtain superior progenies for traits considered. A total of 16 populations from the F4 and F5generations were evaluated in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, plant disease, grain type and yield. Using standard scores (Z, the sum of the four traits (∑Z was obtained and, based on this information, the best populations were identified. The evaluation of selection effectiveness was performed on 31 progenies from each population. The 496 progenies plus eight controls were evaluated in the F5:6and F5:7 generations for the same traits in July and November 2012, respectively. The selection, using the index based on the sum of standardized variables (∑Z, was efficient for identifying populations with superior progenies for all the traits considered.

  11. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Deyn, Gerlinde B; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Bardgett, Richard D

    2008-05-01

    Plant functional traits control a variety of terrestrial ecosystem processes, including soil carbon storage which is a key component of the global carbon cycle. Plant traits regulate net soil carbon storage by controlling carbon assimilation, its transfer and storage in belowground biomass, and its release from soil through respiration, fire and leaching. However, our mechanistic understanding of these processes is incomplete. Here, we present a mechanistic framework, based on the plant traits that drive soil carbon inputs and outputs, for understanding how alteration of vegetation composition will affect soil carbon sequestration under global changes. First, we show direct and indirect plant trait effects on soil carbon input and output through autotrophs and heterotrophs, and through modification of abiotic conditions, which need to be considered to determine the local carbon sequestration potential. Second, we explore how the composition of key plant traits and soil biota related to carbon input, release and storage prevail in different biomes across the globe, and address the biome-specific mechanisms by which plant trait composition may impact on soil carbon sequestration. We propose that a trait-based approach will help to develop strategies to preserve and promote carbon sequestration.

  12. Predicting personality traits related to consumer behavior using SNS analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Jongbum; Lee, Kangbok; Lee, Soowon; Kim, Yongbum; Choi, Jayoung

    2016-07-01

    Modeling a user profile is one of the important factors for devising a personalized recommendation. The traditional approach for modeling a user profile in computer science is to collect and generalize the user's buying behavior or preference history, generated from the user's interactions with recommender systems. According to consumer behavior research, however, internal factors such as personality traits influence a consumer's buying behavior. Existing studies have tried to adapt the Big 5 personality traits to personalized recommendations. However, although studies have shown that these traits can be useful to some extent for personalized recommendation, the causal relationship between the Big 5 personality traits and the buying behaviors of actual consumers has not been validated. In this paper, we propose a novel method for predicting the four personality traits-Extroversion, Public Self-consciousness, Desire for Uniqueness, and Self-esteem-that correlate with buying behaviors. The proposed method automatically constructs a user-personality-traits prediction model for each user by analyzing the user behavior on a social networking service. The experimental results from an analysis of the collected Facebook data show that the proposed method can predict user-personality traits with greater precision than methods that use the variables proposed in previous studies.

  13. Callous-unemotional traits and adolescents' role in group crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Laura C; Frick, Paul J; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Ray, James V; Steinberg, Laurence; Cauffman, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the association of callous-unemotional (CU) traits with group offending (i.e., committing a crime with others; gang involvement) and with the role that the offender may play in a group offense (e.g., being the leader). This analysis was conducted in an ethnically and racially diverse sample (N = 1,216) of justice-involved adolescents (ages 13 to 17) from 3 different sites. CU traits were associated with a greater likelihood of the adolescent offending in groups and being in a gang. Importantly, both associations remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's age, level of intelligence, race and ethnicity, and level of impulse control. The association of CU traits with gang membership also remained significant after controlling for the adolescent's history of delinquent behavior. Further, CU traits were associated with several measures of taking a leadership role in group crimes. CU traits were also associated with greater levels of planning in the group offense for which the adolescent was arrested, although this was moderated by the adolescent's race and was not found in Black youth. These results highlight the importance of CU traits for understanding the group process involved in delinquent acts committed by adolescents. They also underscore the importance of enhancing the effectiveness of treatments for these traits in order to reduce juvenile delinquency. PMID:25689410

  14. Morphological and Geographical Traits of the British Odonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Powney

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trait data are fundamental for many aspects of ecological research, particularly for modeling species response to environmental change. We synthesised information from the literature (mainly field guides and direct measurements from museum specimens, providing a comprehensive dataset of 26 attributes, covering the 43 resident species of Odonata in Britain. Traits included in this database range from morphological traits (e.g. body length to attributes based on the distribution of the species (e.g. climatic restriction. We measured 11 morphometric traits from five adult males and five adult females per species. Using digital callipers, these measurements were taken from dry museum specimens, all of which were wild caught individuals. Repeated measures were also taken to estimate measurement error. The trait data are stored in an online repository (https://github.com/BiologicalRecordsCentre/Odonata_traits, alongside R code designed to give an overview of the morphometric data, and to combine the morphometric data to the single value per trait per species data.

  15. Polytraits: A database on biological traits of marine polychaetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Faulwetter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of ecosystem functioning – the role which organisms play in an ecosystem – is becoming increasingly important in marine ecological research. The functional structure of a community can be represented by a set of functional traits assigned to behavioural, reproductive and morphological characteristics. The collection of these traits from the literature is however a laborious and time-consuming process, and gaps of knowledge and restricted availability of literature are a common problem. Trait data are not yet readily being shared by research communities, and even if they are, a lack of trait data repositories and standards for data formats leads to the publication of trait information in forms which cannot be processed by computers. This paper describes Polytraits (http://polytraits.lifewatchgreece.eu, a database on biological traits of marine polychaetes (bristle worms, Polychaeta: Annelida. At present, the database contains almost 20,000 records on morphological, behavioural and reproductive characteristics of more than 1,000 marine polychaete species, all referenced by literature sources. All data can be freely accessed through the project website in different ways and formats, both human-readable and machine-readable, and have been submitted to the Encyclopedia of Life for archival and integration with trait information from other sources.

  16. Predicting species' maximum dispersal distances from simple plant traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamme, Riin; Götzenberger, Lars; Zobel, Martin; Bullock, James M; Hooftman, Danny A P; Kaasik, Ants; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-02-01

    Many studies have shown plant species' dispersal distances to be strongly related to life-history traits, but how well different traits can predict dispersal distances is not yet known. We used cross-validation techniques and a global data set (576 plant species) to measure the predictive power of simple plant traits to estimate species' maximum dispersal distances. Including dispersal syndrome (wind, animal, ant, ballistic, and no special syndrome), growth form (tree, shrub, herb), seed mass, seed release height, and terminal velocity in different combinations as explanatory variables we constructed models to explain variation in measured maximum dispersal distances and evaluated their power to predict maximum dispersal distances. Predictions are more accurate, but also limited to a particular set of species, if data on more specific traits, such as terminal velocity, are available. The best model (R2 = 0.60) included dispersal syndrome, growth form, and terminal velocity as fixed effects. Reasonable predictions of maximum dispersal distance (R2 = 0.53) are also possible when using only the simplest and most commonly measured traits; dispersal syndrome and growth form together with species taxonomy data. We provide a function (dispeRsal) to be run in the software package R. This enables researchers to estimate maximum dispersal distances with confidence intervals for plant species using measured traits as predictors. Easily obtainable trait data, such as dispersal syndrome (inferred from seed morphology) and growth form, enable predictions to be made for a large number of species.

  17. Differences between traits: properties associated with interjudge agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C; Dobroth, K M

    1987-02-01

    The present study concerns the relation between properties of personality traits and the agreement with which they are applied to real individuals. Subjects rated the 100 personality items of the California Q-Set on nine subjective dimensions, six of which loaded highly on a first principal component. This factor was interpreted as reflecting each trait's "easy visibility" to an outside observer. Actual interjudge agreement in applying each trait to real individuals was assessed in two ways: Self-other agreement was assessed in two independent samples, and interpeer agreement was assessed in three samples. Impressive and stable agreement was found for most Q items. The traits that were applied to individuals with the greatest interjudge agreement were the same ones that seemed most easily visible and tended to be positively relevant to extraversion and negatively relevant to neuroticism (identified through a factor analysis by McCrae, Costa, & Busch, 1986). The results suggest that traits defining extraversion are revealed relatively directly in social behavior and, therefore, are easy to judge, that traits defining neuroticism are less visible and, so, are judged less accurately, and that lay perceivers of personality are generally sensitive to this difference between traits. PMID:3559898

  18. Sex differences in the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficks, Courtney A; Dong, Lu; Waldman, Irwin D

    2014-05-01

    Few studies have examined the etiology of psychopathic traits in youth, and even fewer have tested whether the genetic and environmental influences underlying these traits differ for boys and girls. We tested for sex differences in the etiology of 3 trait dimensions-impulsivity, narcissism, and callous-unemotionality (CU)-previously found to underlie youth psychopathy in our sample. Using biometric modeling we tested whether constraining the genetic and environmental influences for each dimension across sex reduced model fit. We also tested for qualitative sex differences in the influences underlying these dimensions by allowing the genetic and environmental correlations between opposite sex dizygotic twins to be less than their respective values in same-sex dizygotic twins. Although the magnitudes of the genetic and environmental influences underlying the CU and narcissistic trait dimensions did not differ for boys and girls, nonshared environmental influences contributed significantly greater variance to impulsive traits in boys. No qualitative sex differences were found in the influences underlying any of the 3 trait dimensions, suggesting that the same genes and environments contribute to these psychopathic traits in males and females. PMID:24886014

  19. Genetic Architecture of clinical mastitis traits in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2012-01-01

    investigate the genetic architecture of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score traits in dairy cattle using a high density (HD) SNP panel. Mastitis, an inflammation of the mammary gland most commonly caused by bacterial infection, is a frequent disease in dairy cattle. Clinical mastitis and somatic cell...... mixed model analysis. After Bonferroni correction 12, 372 SNP exhibited genome-wide significant associations with mastitis related traits. A total 61 QTL regions on 22 chromosomes associated with mastitis related traits were identified. The SNP with highest effect explained 5.6% of the variance...... of the predicted breeding values for the first lactation clinical mastitis...

  20. Milking Efficiency – A Milkability Trait for Automatically Milked Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Lassen, Jan; Chagunda, M G G

    Data from an experimental herd with automatic milkings from 486 first lactation cows were used to study alternative measures of milkability. One trait was milking efficiency, (kg milk per minute used in robot) the other “residual milking box time” using a linear regression to adjust daily time fo...... efficiency which showed only intermediate correlation. Both traits had weak correlations to somatic cell counts. It is concluded that either trait will be effective in selecting for cows giving more milk per minute occupying the milking robot, without increasing risk of mastitis...

  1. Personality traits, personality disorders, and migraine: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel E; Smitherman, Todd A; Baskin, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism has been associated with migraine, although research is needed to clarify potential moderators of this relationship and the extent to which neuroticism reflects a stable disposition or instead is a function of general somatic distress or situational influences. With the possible exception of harm avoidance, research has not consistently identified any other personality trait unique among migraineurs. Personality disorders have been researched less extensively, but existing data suggests that borderline personality disorder, in particular, is associated with increased negative impact of migraine, risk for medication overuse, and poor response to treatment that is likely of greater clinical importance than any personality trait per se.

  2. Do Gender and Personality Traits Influence Awareness of Deal Sites?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Deal sites exist for a decade now but there are still some people who have not heard about them. The research pre-sented in the paper investigates if gender and personality traits influence awareness of deal sites. Big Five Inventory-10 is used to measure personality traits. The findings...... are that gender does not influence awareness, and neuroticism is the most significant personality trait influencing awareness of deal sites - the more neurotic the person is, the higher is the probability that he or she has never heard of deal sites....

  3. Is bacterial persistence a social trait?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Gardner

    Full Text Available The ability of bacteria to evolve resistance to antibiotics has been much reported in recent years. It is less well-known that within populations of bacteria there are cells which are resistant due to a non-inherited phenotypic switch to a slow-growing state. Although such 'persister' cells are receiving increasing attention, the evolutionary forces involved have been relatively ignored. Persistence has a direct benefit to cells because it allows survival during catastrophes-a form of bet-hedging. However, persistence can also provide an indirect benefit to other individuals, because the reduced growth rate can reduce competition for limiting resources. This raises the possibility that persistence is a social trait, which can be influenced by kin selection. We develop a theoretical model to investigate the social consequences of persistence. We predict that selection for persistence is increased when: (a cells are related (e.g. a single, clonal lineage; and (b resources are scarce. Our model allows us to predict how the level of persistence should vary with time, across populations, in response to intervention strategies and the level of competition. More generally, our results clarify the links between persistence and other bet-hedging or social behaviours.

  4. Human handedness: an inherited evolutionary trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrester, Gillian S; Quaresmini, Caterina; Leavens, David A; Mareschal, Denis; Thomas, Michael S C

    2013-01-15

    Our objective was to demonstrate that human population-level, right-handedness, is not species specific, precipitated from language areas in the brain, but rather is context specific and inherited from a behavior common to both humans and great apes. In general, previous methods of assessing human handedness have neglected to consider the context of action, or employ methods suitable for direct comparison across species. We employed a bottom-up, context-sensitive method to quantitatively assess manual actions in right-handed, typically developing children during naturalistic behavior. By classifying the target to which participants directed a manual action, as animate (social partner, self) or inanimate (non-living functional objects), we found that children demonstrated a significant right-hand bias for manual actions directed toward inanimate targets, but not for manual actions directed toward animate targets. This pattern was revealed at both the group and individual levels. We used a focal video sampling, corpus data-mining approach to allow for direct comparisons with captive gorillas (Forrester et al. Animal Cognition 2011;14(6):903-7) and chimpanzees (Forrester et al. Animal Cognition, in press). Comparisons of handedness patters support the view that population-level, human handedness, and its origin in cerebral lateralization is not a new or human-unique characteristic. These data are consistent with the theory that human right-handedness is a trait developed through tool use that was inherited from an ancestor common to both humans and great apes. PMID:23022751

  5. Traits and types of health data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Ted D

    2014-01-01

    We review traits of reusable clinical data and offer a typology of clinical repositories with a range of known examples. Sources of clinical data suitable for research can be classified into types reflecting the data's institutional origin, original purpose, level of integration and governance. Primary data nearly always come from research studies and electronic medical records. Registries collect data on focused populations primarily to track outcomes, often using observational research methods. Warehouses are institutional information utilities repackaging clinical care data. Collections organize data from more organizations than a data warehouse, and more original data sources than a registry. Therefore even if they are heavily curated, their level of internal integration, and thus ease of use, can be less than other types. Federations are like collections except that physical control over data is distributed among donor organizations. Federations sometimes federate, giving a second level of organization. While the size, in number of patients, varies widely within each type of data source, populations over 10 K are relatively numerous, and much larger populations can be seen in warehouses and federations. One imagined ideal structure for research progress has been called an "Information Commons". It would have longitudinal, multi-leveled (environmental through molecular) data on a large population of identified, consenting individuals. These are qualities whose achievement would require long term commitment on the part of many data donors, including a willingness to make their data public.

  6. Personality traits of a music teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Blanka D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of individual musical instrument teaching, pedagogical abilities of a music teacher and the atmosphere he creates, result from his personality traits and can be of crucial importance for the initial and further progress of his students. The paper seeks to: describe the personality of a music instrument teacher, determine the differences in comparison to a group of non-musicians, and determine the position of personal characteristics in the structure of general and professional teacher profile. The sample comprised 60 individuals, teaching various musical instruments in five primary music schools. The research method is explorative and based on the use of the five-factor personality model (NEO PI-R was administered. The findings show that music teachers display a higher level of: openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. The degree of congruence with the findings of other research is discussed and certain similarities were found, as well as differences stemming from professional and cultural specificities. Differences are proved to exist in relation to gender, musical instrument, working experience, degree of musical education and active public performance. Compared to non-musical population, it is confirmed that teachers of instrument in musical education represent a distinctive group. There are also differences between teachers who are oriented to pedagogic work only and those who, in addition, actively perform in public. Selection of teachers, according to characteristics which may be connected to students’ accomplishment, is a practical implication relevant for the music education.

  7. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification. PMID:25811086

  8. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification.

  9. Linking Tropical Forest Function to Hydraulic Traits in a Size-Structured and Trait-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christoffersen, B. O.; Gloor, M.; Fauset, S.; Fyllas, N.; Galbraith, D.; Baker, T. R.; Rowland, L.; Fisher, R.; Binks, O.; Sevanto, S.; Xu, C.; Jansen, S.; Choat, B.; Mencuccini, M.; McDowell, N. G.; Meir, P.

    2015-12-01

    A major weakness of forest ecosystem models is their inability to capture the diversity of responses to changes in water availability, severely hampering efforts to predict the fate of tropical forests under climate change. Such models often prescribe moisture sensitivity using heuristic response functions that are uniform across all individuals and lack important knowledge about trade-offs in hydraulic traits. We address this weakness by implementing a process representation of plant hydraulics into an individual- and trait-based model (Trait Forest Simulator; TFS) intended for application at discrete sites where community-level distributions of stem and leaf trait spectra (wood density, leaf mass per area, leaf nitrogen and phosphorus content) are known. The model represents a trade-off in the safety and efficiency of water conduction in xylem tissue through hydraulic traits, while accounting for the counteracting effects of increasing hydraulic path length and xylem conduit taper on whole-plant hydraulic resistance with increasing tree size. Using existing trait databases and additional meta-analyses from the rich literature on tropical tree ecophysiology, we obtained all necessary hydraulic parameters associated with xylem conductivity, vulnerability curves, pressure-volume curves, and hydraulic architecture (e.g., leaf-to-sapwood area ratios) as a function of the aforementioned traits and tree size. Incorporating these relationships in the model greatly improved the diversity of tree response to seasonal changes in water availability as well as in response to drought, as determined by comparison with field observations and experiments. Importantly, this individual- and trait-based framework provides a testbed for identifying both critical processes and functional traits needed for inclusion in coarse-scale Dynamic Global Vegetation Models, which will lead to reduced uncertainty in the future state of tropical forests.

  10. Is cyberbullying related to trait or state anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Antonia; Schneider, Barry H; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Brunner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Anger is a powerful emotion shared by victims and bullies in both physical and electronic forms of bullying. However, little is known about the specific roles of trait anger and state anger in involvement in bullying episodes. The purpose of this study was to verify which component of anger, trait or state, is more strongly related to physical and cyberbullying and victimization. Students between the ages 11-19 (N = 716, 392 female, 324 male) completed the state trait anger expression inventory-2 child and adolescent and a measure of victimization and bullying. Results for cyberbullying suggested a major vulnerability among bullies and victims to experience anger as a personality trait as well some links between state anger, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Moreover, the outward, explosive expression of anger appears to be common among cyber and physical bullies. Implications for intervention programs are discussed.

  11. EM Algorithm for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in Multivalent Tetraploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multivalent tetraploids that include many plant species, such as potato, sugarcane and rose, are of paramount importance to agricultural production and biological research. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in multivalent tetraploids is challenged by their unique cytogenetic properties, such ...

  12. TRY – a global database of plant traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattge, J.; Lens, F.

    2011-01-01

    Plant traits – the morphological, anatomical, physiological, biochemical and phenological characteristics of plants and their organs – determine how primary producers respond to environmental factors, affect other trophic levels, influence ecosystem processes and services and provide a link from spe

  13. Is cyberbullying related to trait or state anger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigro, Antonia; Schneider, Barry H; Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; Pallini, Susanna; Brunner, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Anger is a powerful emotion shared by victims and bullies in both physical and electronic forms of bullying. However, little is known about the specific roles of trait anger and state anger in involvement in bullying episodes. The purpose of this study was to verify which component of anger, trait or state, is more strongly related to physical and cyberbullying and victimization. Students between the ages 11-19 (N = 716, 392 female, 324 male) completed the state trait anger expression inventory-2 child and adolescent and a measure of victimization and bullying. Results for cyberbullying suggested a major vulnerability among bullies and victims to experience anger as a personality trait as well some links between state anger, cyberbullying and cybervictimization. Moreover, the outward, explosive expression of anger appears to be common among cyber and physical bullies. Implications for intervention programs are discussed. PMID:25081097

  14. Personality Traits and Family Styles of Combat Medics in Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolas, Hollie D; Ray, Lashawnna N; Escolas, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    This descriptive study examines the relationship between four family types and five personality traits. The four family types are balanced, moderately balanced, midrange, and extreme. The five personality traits are extraversion, openness to experiences, agreeableness, emotional stability, and conscientiousness. Data were collected through anonymous questionnaires distributed to combat-naïve Soldiers at the beginning of their advanced individual training. This study utilized the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale1 and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory2 as measures. Overall the analyses found that participants classified as a balanced family type scored significantly higher on the personality traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience than those classified in the family types of extreme, midrange, and moderately balanced. It appears that family types are associated with personality traits. This study opens doors to future research including looking at how family and personality types relate to each other in military units and personnel. PMID:27244064

  15. The scope of clinical morbidity in sickle cell trait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A.G. Tantawy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell trait (SCT, the heterozygous state of the sickle hemoglobin beta globin gene (HbAS is carried by as many as 100 million individuals including up to 25% of the population in some regions of the World. Sickle cell trait is the best-characterized genetic polymorphism known to protect against falciparum malaria. Although SCT was initially considered as a benign condition, data are accumulating of serious morbidities in SCT individuals including increased incidence of hematuria, renal papillary necrosis, renal failure and malignancy, thromboembolic disorders, splenic infarction as a high altitude complication, and exercise-related rhabdomyolysis and sudden death. Despite these associations, the average life span of individuals with sickle cell trait is similar to that of the general population. Nonetheless, given the large number of people with sickle cell trait, it is important that physicians be aware of these associations. The aim of this article is to review publications reporting and discussing morbidities in SCT individuals.

  16. Exploring trait assessment of samples, persons, and cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Robert R

    2013-01-01

    I present a very broad overview of what I have learned about personality trait assessment at different levels and offer some views on future directions for research and clinical practice. I review some basic principles of scale development and argue that internal consistency has been overemphasized; more attention to retest reliability is needed. Because protocol validity is crucial for individual assessment and because validity scales have limited utility, I urge combining assessments from multiple informants, and I present some statistical tools for that purpose. As culture-level traits, I discuss ethos, national character stereotypes, and aggregated personality traits, and summarize evidence for the validity of the latter. Our understanding of trait profiles of cultures is limited, but it can guide future exploration. PMID:23924211

  17. Effectiveness of Persona with Personality Traits on Conceptual Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari, Farshid; Richards, Deborah; Hitchens, Michael;

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual design is an important skill in Software Engineering. Teaching conceptual design that can deliver a useful product is challenging, particularly when access to real users is limited. This study explores the effects of the use of Holistic Personas (i.e. a persona enriched with personality...... traits) on students’ performance in creating conceptual designs. Our results indicate that the students were able to identify the personality traits of personas and their ratings of the personalities match closely with the intended personalities. A majority of the participants stated that their designs...... were tailored to meet the needs of the given personas’ personality traits. Results suggest that the Holistic Personas can help students to take into account personality traits in the conceptual design process. Further studies are warranted to assess the value of incorporating Holistic Personas...

  18. Uncovering the genetic landscape for multiple sleep-wake traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Winrow

    Full Text Available Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining detailed quantitative data have made sleep seemingly intractable to similar large-scale genomic approaches. Here we describe analysis of 20 sleep-wake traits from 269 mice from a genetically segregating population that reveals 52 significant QTL representing a minimum of 20 genomic loci. While many (28 QTL affected a particular sleep-wake trait (e.g., amount of wake across the full 24-hr day, other loci only affected a trait in the light or dark period while some loci had opposite effects on the trait during the light vs. dark. Analysis of a dataset for multiple sleep-wake traits led to previously undetected interactions (including the differential genetic control of number and duration of REM bouts, as well as possible shared genetic regulatory mechanisms for seemingly different unrelated sleep-wake traits (e.g., number of arousals and REM latency. Construction of a Bayesian network for sleep-wake traits and loci led to the identification of sub-networks of linkage not detectable in smaller data sets or limited single-trait analyses. For example, the network analyses revealed a novel chain of causal relationships between the chromosome 17@29cM QTL, total amount of wake, and duration of wake bouts in both light and dark periods that implies a mechanism whereby overall sleep need, mediated by this locus, in turn determines the length of each wake bout. Taken together, the present results reveal a complex genetic landscape underlying multiple sleep-wake traits

  19. Inheritance of some traits in honesty (Lunaria L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Boika Olena; Lyakh Viktor

    2015-01-01

    Inheritance character of the some morphological and physiological traits such as white color of corolla, chlorophyll mutation of “albina” type and plant development type was investigated in honesty. Hybridological analysis demonstrated that white corolla color was inherited as monogenic and recessive trait, showing a characteristic 3:1 phenotypical ratio in the second generation of hybrids. It was established that the chlorophyll mutation of “albina” type, which was revealed in th...

  20. Genetic Analysis of Chemosensory Traits in Human Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapila, Antti; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Lysenko, Anna; Duke, Fujiko F.; Fesi, Brad; Khoshnevisan, Amin; James, Rebecca S.; Wysocki, Charles J.; Rhyu, MeeRa; Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime; Danielle R Reed

    2012-01-01

    We explored genetic influences on the perception of taste and smell stimuli. Adult twins rated the chemosensory aspects of water, sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, ethanol, quinine hydrochloride, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), potassium chloride, calcium chloride, cinnamon, androstenone, Galaxolide™, cilantro, and basil. For most traits, individual differences were stable over time and some traits were heritable (h2 from 0.41 to 0.71). Subjects were genotyped for 44 single nucleotide polymor...

  1. Uncovering the Genetic Landscape for Multiple Sleep-Wake Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Winrow, Christopher J.; Deanna L Williams; Andrew Kasarskis; Joshua Millstein; Laposky, Aaron D.; Yang, He S.; Karrie Mrazek; Lili Zhou; Owens, Joseph R.; Daniel Radzicki; Fabian Preuss; Schadt, Eric E.; Kazuhiro Shimomura; Martha H Vitaterna; Chunsheng Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Despite decades of research in defining sleep-wake properties in mammals, little is known about the nature or identity of genes that regulate sleep, a fundamental behaviour that in humans occupies about one-third of the entire lifespan. While genome-wide association studies in humans and quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses in mice have identified candidate genes for an increasing number of complex traits and genetic diseases, the resources and time-consuming process necessary for obtaining...

  2. Influence of professional drivers' personality traits on road traffic safety

    OpenAIRE

    Živković, Snežana B.; MARKIČ, Mirko; Nikolić, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present basic elements of the research directed at identifying and determining the personality traits of professional drivers that affect safe, secure and enjoyable ride on the public roads. A quantitative method has been used here, whereas data were acquired from a questionnaire based on a sample of 59 professional drivers. Determining personality traits of professional drivers that are in correlation with safe and pleasant ride on the roads has been enabled b...

  3. EFFECT OF SELF ESTEEM ON PERSONALITY TRAITS AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vishal Subhash Bindwal

    2015-01-01

    Objective of the Study: To investigate the self esteem and personality traits among college students. Hypothesis: There will be no significant difference between high self esteem college students and low self esteem college students on dimension personality traits (decisiveness, responsibility, emotional stability, masculinity, friendliness, heterosexuality, ego strength, curiosity, dominance, and self concept). Participant: A total of 80 students (40 Boys and 40 Girls) were se...

  4. Search for Genetic Variants Underlying Musical Aptitude and Related Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ukkola-Vuoti, Liisa

    2013-01-01

    Music perception and practice represents complex cognitive functions of the brain. There is an abundance of data about the neurophysiological effects of music on the human brain, but heritability and especially molecular studies have been lacking. The development of genome technologies and bioinformatics has enabled the identification of genetic variants underlying complex human traits. These methods can be applied to normal human traits like music perception and performance. Prior to th...

  5. Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits

    OpenAIRE

    Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported ...

  6. Traits, skills and leadership styles of managers in Croatian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Juras, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the preferences of Croatian managers regarding the traits, skills, and leadership styles. Results on the sample of 207 Croatian managers indicate the existence of presumed traits and skills, as well as preferences of appropriate leadership styles in the everyday managerial activities. Also, an interdependence of all these factors has been observed, regardless of the demographic characteristics of the surveyed managers.

  7. Using Plant Functional Traits to Explain Diversity–Productivity Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Roscher; Jens Schumacher; Marlén Gubsch; Annett Lipowsky; Alexandra Weigelt; Nina Buchmann; Bernhard Schmid; Ernst-Detlef Schulze

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The different hypotheses proposed to explain positive species richness-productivity relationships, i.e. selection effect and complementarity effect, imply that plant functional characteristics are at the core of a mechanistic understanding of biodiversity effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used two community-wide measures of plant functional composition, (1) community-weighted means of trait values (CWM) and (2) functional trait diversity based on Rao's quadratic diversit...

  8. Fast demographic traits promote high diversification rates of Amazonian trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Timothy R.; Pennington, R. Toby; Magallon, Susana; Gloor, Emanuel; Laurance, William F.; Alexiades, Miguel; Alvarez, Esteban; Araujo, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard, Gerardo; de Oliveira, Atila Alves; Amaral, Iêda; Arroyo, Luzmila; Bonal, Damien; Roel J.W. Brienen

    2014-01-01

    The Amazon rain forest sustains the world's highest tree diversity, but it remains unclear why some clades of trees are hyperdiverse, whereas others are not. Using dated phylogenies, estimates of current species richness and trait and demographic data from a large network of forest plots, we show that fast demographic traits - short turnover times - are associated with high diversification rates across 51 clades of canopy trees. This relationship is robust to assuming that diversification rat...

  9. Bridging traits, story, and self: Prospects and problems

    OpenAIRE

    Hermans, H.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In his target article, McAdams brings together three domains in the field of psychology in which challenging developments have been observed over the past decades: trait psychology, narrative psychology, and culture. Trait psychology has been rejuvenated by crossnational and cross-cultural research projects on the "Big Five". The narrative approach has cropped up in a great diversity of psychological subdisciplines, including personality psychology, and is on its way to being accepted as a re...

  10. Automatic prediction of facial trait judgments: appearance vs. structural models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rojas

    Full Text Available Evaluating other individuals with respect to personality characteristics plays a crucial role in human relations and it is the focus of attention for research in diverse fields such as psychology and interactive computer systems. In psychology, face perception has been recognized as a key component of this evaluation system. Multiple studies suggest that observers use face information to infer personality characteristics. Interactive computer systems are trying to take advantage of these findings and apply them to increase the natural aspect of interaction and to improve the performance of interactive computer systems. Here, we experimentally test whether the automatic prediction of facial trait judgments (e.g. dominance can be made by using the full appearance information of the face and whether a reduced representation of its structure is sufficient. We evaluate two separate approaches: a holistic representation model using the facial appearance information and a structural model constructed from the relations among facial salient points. State of the art machine learning methods are applied to a derive a facial trait judgment model from training data and b predict a facial trait value for any face. Furthermore, we address the issue of whether there are specific structural relations among facial points that predict perception of facial traits. Experimental results over a set of labeled data (9 different trait evaluations and classification rules (4 rules suggest that a prediction of perception of facial traits is learnable by both holistic and structural approaches; b the most reliable prediction of facial trait judgments is obtained by certain type of holistic descriptions of the face appearance; and c for some traits such as attractiveness and extroversion, there are relationships between specific structural features and social perceptions.

  11. Heritability of autistic traits in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekstra, R A; Bartels, M.; Verweij, C.J.H.; Boomsma, D I

    2007-01-01

    Background Recent research has indicated that autism is not a discrete disorder and that family members of autistic probands have an increased likelihood of exhibiting autistic symptoms with a wide range of severity, often below the threshold for a diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder. Objective To examine the distribution and genetic structure of autistic traits in the general population using a newly established quantitative measure of autistic traits, the Social Responsiveness S...

  12. Prevalence of Orthodontic Treatment Need and Occlusal Traits in Schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Damani, Elnaz; Talaeipour, Maziar; Kamali, Zinat

    2014-01-01

    Background. Widespread use of the IOTN along with detailed study of occlusal traits is suitable for planning community dental health resources. Objectives. The aim of current study was to assess the need for orthodontic treatment among school children of Tehran by means of the Dental Health Component (DHC) of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) and also to evaluate the occlusal traits of the subjects. Methods. 684 (343 boys and 341 girls) school children, 15 to 17 years of age, wer...

  13. Trait anxiety, HPA-axis activity and cell adhesion molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Jakovcevski, Mira

    2008-01-01

    Stress alters physiology and behavior of some individuals, while others are little or not affected. Aim of this thesis was to test whether epigenetically induced levels of trait anxiety predict the stress response of mice in a genetically homogeneous population. Inbred C57BL/6J mice display a remarkably high interindividual variability in their trait anxiety, which predicts the behavioral and neuroendocrine response to acute stress, indicating that extremely different coping strategies can de...

  14. PENGARUH PERSONALITY TRAITS TERHADAP PERENCANAAN KEUANGAN KELUARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiaktono -

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji dan menganalisis pengaruh ciri-ciri kepribadian yang terdiri dari agreeableness, conscientiousness, body focus, materialism and need for arousal pada perencanaan keuangan keluarga. Sampel dari penelitian ini adalah pegawai Bank BTN Cabang Semarang dengan alat analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa variabel-variabel independen (Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Body Focus, Materialism, dan Need for arrousal mempunyai pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap perencanaan  keuangan  keluarga. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa kurangnya kemampuan karyawan dalam mengelola keuangan karena faktor pengetahuan yang dimiliki dan kuatnya pengaruh psikologis pada diri mereka. Faktor psikologis seringkali dianggap sebagai faktor kunci dalam proses pembuatan keputusan manajemen keuangan keluarga. Semakin kuat aspek kepribadian suami dan istri sebagai manajer keuangan, semakin besar pengaruh keputusan psikologis terhadap keputusan keuangan. Gaya hidup, pola belanja yang tidak terencana, biaya sosial yang tidak dianggarkan, lingkungan, dan literasi manajemen keuangan menjadi faktor pendukung timbulnya manajemen yang buruk atau bahkan kegagalan The aim of this research is to examine and analyze the effect of personality traits that consists of agreeableness, conscientiousness, body focus, materialism and need for arousal on the family financial planning. The sample of this research is a group of people who are employees of the BTN Bank Semarang branch with qualitative and quantitative analysis tools. The result shows that independent variables (agreeableness, conscientiousness, body focus, materialism and need for arousal have significant effects on the family financial planning.It could be concluded that the lack of employee ability in how to manage family finance is caused by their own knowledge and their psychological factor. Psychological factor is often considered as a key factor in family

  15. Risk factors associated with lambing traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, N; Berry, D P; Pabiou, T

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the risk factors associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality in the Irish sheep multibreed population. A total of 135 470 lambing events from 42 675 ewes in 839 Irish crossbred and purebred flocks were available. Risk factors associated with producer-scored ewe lambing difficulty score (scale of one (no difficulty) to four (severe difficulty)) were determined using linear mixed models. Risk factors associated with the logit of the probability of lamb mortality at birth (i.e. binary trait) were determined using generalised estimating equations. For each dependent variable, a series of simple regression models were developed as well as a multiple regression model. In the simple regression models, greater lambing difficulty was associated with quadruplet bearing, younger ewes, of terminal breed origin, lambing in February; for example, first parity ewes experienced greater (P7.0 kg) birth weights, quadruplet born lambs and lambs that experienced a more difficult lambing (predicted probability of death for lambs that required severe and veterinary assistance of 0.15 and 0.32, respectively); lambs from dual-purpose breeds and born to younger ewes were also at greater risk of mortality. In the multiple regression model, the association between ewe parity, age at first lambing, year of lambing and lamb mortality no longer persisted. The trend in solutions of the levels of each fixed effect that remained associated with lamb mortality in the multiple regression model, did not differ from the trends observed in the simple regression models although the differential in relative risk between the different lambing difficulty scores was greater in the multiple regression model. Results from this study show that many common flock- and animal-level factors are associated with both lambing difficulty and lamb mortality and management of different risk category groups (e.g. scanned litter sizes, ewe age groups) can be used

  16. The effect of forage type on lamb carcass traits, meat quality and sensory traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Brito, Gerlane F; McGrath, Shawn R; Holman, Benjamin W B; Friend, Michael A; Fowler, Stephanie M; van de Ven, Remy J; Hopkins, David L

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different forage-types on lamb carcass, meat quality and sensory attributes. Sixty-two, White Dorper lambs finished on bladder clover, brassica, chicory+arrowleaf clover, lucerne+phalaris or lucerne, were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir. At 24h post-mortem, the m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LL) was removed from the left side and sliced into three equal sub-samples, vacuum packaged and randomly assigned to ageing periods (5, 12 or 40days) and the right side was aged for 5days. The m. semimembranosus and m. adductor femoris were removed and, the former was then aged for 40days. Lambs fed chicory+arrowleaf clover or lucerne had a higher dressing percentage and fat depth. Bladder clover gave the highest level of glycogen in the LL. No sensory or other meat quality trait differences were found between the treatments. In general, no treatments showed any unfavourable effect on the traits examined. PMID:27155319

  17. Consensus Genome-Wide Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Their Relationship with Human Complex Trait Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chen-Hsin; Pal, Lipika R; Moult, John

    2016-07-01

    Most of the risk loci identified from genome-wide association (GWA) studies do not provide direct information on the biological basis of a disease or on the underlying mechanisms. Recent expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) association studies have provided information on genetic factors associated with gene expression variation. These eQTLs might contribute to phenotype diversity and disease susceptibility, but interpretation is handicapped by low reproducibility of the expression results. To address this issue, we have generated a set of consensus eQTLs by integrating publicly available data for specific human populations and cell types. Overall, we find over 4000 genes that are involved in high-confidence eQTL relationships. To elucidate the role that eQTLs play in human common diseases, we matched the high-confidence eQTLs to a set of 335 disease risk loci identified from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium GWA study and follow-up studies for 7 human complex trait diseases-bipolar disorder (BD), coronary artery disease (CAD), Crohn's disease (CD), hypertension (HT), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The results show that the data are consistent with ∼50% of these disease loci arising from an underlying expression change mechanism. PMID:27428252

  18. QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

  19. Composite interval mapping of QTL for dynamic traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Huijiang; YANG Runqing

    2006-01-01

    Many economically important quantitative traits in animals and plants are measured repeatedly over time. These traits are called dynamic traits. Mapping QTL controlling the phenotypic profiles of dynamic traits has become an interesting topic for animal and plant breeders. However, statistical methods of QTL mapping for dynamic traits have not been well developed. We develop a composite interval mapping approach to detecting QTL for dynamic traits. We fit the profile of each QTL effect with Legendre polynomials. Parameter estimation and statistical test are performed on the regression coefficients of the polynomials under the maximum likelihood framework. Maximum likelihood estimates of QTL parameters are obtained via the EM algorithm. Results of simulation study showed that composite interval mapping can improve both the statistcial power of QTL detecting and the accuracy of parameter estimation relative to the simply interval mapping procedure where only one QTL is fit to each model. The method is developed in the context of an F2 mapping population, but extension to other types of mapping populations is straightforward.

  20. Heterospecific interactions and the proliferation of sexually dimorphic traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karin S.PFENNIG; Allen H.HURLBERT

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is expected to promote speciation by fostering the evolution of sexual traits that minimize reproductive interactions among existing or incipient species.In species that compete for access to,or attention of,females,sexual selection fosters more elaborate traits in males compared to females.If these traits also minimize reproductive interactions with heterospecifics,then species with enhanced risk of interactions between species might display greater numbers of these sexually dimorphic characters.We tested this prediction in eight families of North American birds.In particular,we evaluated whether the number of sexually dimorphic traits was positively associated with species richness at a given site or with degree of sympatry with congeners.We found no strong evidence of enhanced sexual dimorphism with increasing confamilial species richness at a given site.We also found no overatl relationship between the number of sexually dimorphic traits and overlap with congeners across these eight families.However,we found patterns consistent with our prediction within Anatidae (ducks,geese and swans) and,to a lesser degree,Parulidae (New World warblers).Our results suggest that sexually selected plumage traits in these groups potentially play a role in reproductive isolation.

  1. Phylogenetic Structure of Foliar Spectral Traits in Tropical Forest Canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. McManus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Spectranomics approach to tropical forest remote sensing has established a link between foliar reflectance spectra and the phylogenetic composition of tropical canopy tree communities vis-à-vis the taxonomic organization of biochemical trait variation. However, a direct relationship between phylogenetic affiliation and foliar reflectance spectra of species has not been established. We sought to develop this relationship by quantifying the extent to which underlying patterns of phylogenetic structure drive interspecific variation among foliar reflectance spectra within three Neotropical canopy tree communities with varying levels of soil fertility. We interpreted the resulting spectral patterns of phylogenetic signal in the context of foliar biochemical traits that may contribute to the spectral-phylogenetic link. We utilized a multi-model ensemble to elucidate trait-spectral relationships, and quantified phylogenetic signal for spectral wavelengths and traits using Pagel’s lambda statistic. Foliar reflectance spectra showed evidence of phylogenetic influence primarily within the visible and shortwave infrared spectral regions. These regions were also selected by the multi-model ensemble as those most important to the quantitative prediction of several foliar biochemical traits. Patterns of phylogenetic organization of spectra and traits varied across sites and with soil fertility, indicative of the complex interactions between the environmental and phylogenetic controls underlying patterns of biodiversity.

  2. Functional trait space and the latitudinal diversity gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Christine; Blonder, Benjamin; Violle, Cyrille; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Sandel, Brody; Šímová, Irena; Donoghue, John C.; Svenning, Jens-Christian; McGill, Brian J.; Boyle, Brad; Buzzard, Vanessa; Dolins, Steven; Jørgensen, Peter M.; Marcuse-Kubitza, Aaron; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K.; Piel, William H.; Regetz, James; Schildhauer, Mark; Spencer, Nick; Thiers, Barbara; Wiser, Susan K.; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The processes causing the latitudinal gradient in species richness remain elusive. Ecological theories for the origin of biodiversity gradients, such as competitive exclusion, neutral dynamics, and environmental filtering, make predictions for how functional diversity should vary at the alpha (within local assemblages), beta (among assemblages), and gamma (regional pool) scales. We test these predictions by quantifying hypervolumes constructed from functional traits representing major axes of plant strategy variation (specific leaf area, plant height, and seed mass) in tree assemblages spanning the temperate and tropical New World. Alpha-scale trait volume decreases with absolute latitude and is often lower than sampling expectation, consistent with environmental filtering theory. Beta-scale overlap decays with geographic distance fastest in the temperate zone, again consistent with environmental filtering theory. In contrast, gamma-scale trait space shows a hump-shaped relationship with absolute latitude, consistent with no theory. Furthermore, the overall temperate trait hypervolume was larger than the overall tropical hypervolume, indicating that the temperate zone permits a wider range of trait combinations or that niche packing is stronger in the tropical zone. Although there are limitations in the data, our analyses suggest that multiple processes have shaped trait diversity in trees, reflecting no consistent support for any one theory. PMID:25225365

  3. Heterospecific interactions and the proliferation of sexually dimorphic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin S. PFENNIG, Allen H. HURLBERT

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is expected to promote speciation by fostering the evolution of sexual traits that minimize reproductive interactions among existing or incipient species. In species that compete for access to, or attention of, females, sexual selection fosters more elaborate traits in males compared to females. If these traits also minimize reproductive interactions with heterospecifics, then species with enhanced risk of interactions between species might display greater numbers of these sexually dimorphic characters. We tested this prediction in eight families of North American birds. In particular, we evaluated whether the number of sexually dimorphic traits was positively associated with species richness at a given site or with degree of sympatry with congeners. We found no strong evidence of enhanced sexual dimorphism with increasing confamilial species richness at a given site. We also found no overall relationship between the number of sexually dimorphic traits and overlap with congeners across these eight families. However, we found patterns consistent with our prediction within Anatidae (ducks, geese and swans and, to a lesser degree, Parulidae (New World warblers. Our results suggest that sexually selected plumage traits in these groups potentially play a role in reproductive isolation [Current Zoology 58 (3: 453-462, 2012].

  4. Joint Analysis of Multiple Traits in Rare Variant Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchuan; Wang, Xuexia; Sha, Qiuying; Zhang, Shuanglin

    2016-05-01

    The joint analysis of multiple traits has recently become popular since it can increase statistical power to detect genetic variants and there is increasing evidence showing that pleiotropy is a widespread phenomenon in complex diseases. Currently, the majority of existing methods for the joint analysis of multiple traits test association between one common variant and multiple traits. However, the variant-by-variant methods for common variant association studies may not be optimal for rare variant association studies due to the allelic heterogeneity as well as the extreme rarity of individual variants. Current statistical methods for rare variant association studies are for one single trait only. In this paper, we propose an adaptive weighting reverse regression (AWRR) method to test association between multiple traits and rare variants in a genomic region. AWRR is robust to the directions of effects of causal variants and is also robust to the directions of association of traits. Using extensive simulation studies, we compare the performance of AWRR with canonical correlation analysis (CCA), Single-TOW, and the weighted sum reverse regression (WSRR). Our results show that, in all of the simulation scenarios, AWRR is consistently more powerful than CCA. In most scenarios, AWRR is more powerful than Single-TOW and WSRR. PMID:26990300

  5. Secular Change in Morphological Pelvic Traits used for Sex Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klales, Alexandra R

    2016-03-01

    This research evaluates secular change in Phenice's (Am J Phys Anthropol, 30, 1969 and 297) three morphological traits of the pubis, as described by Klales et al. (Am J Phys Anthropol, 149, 2012 and 104): medial aspect of the ischio-pubic ramus, subpubic contour, and ventral arc. Ordinal scores were collected for these traits and compared between a sample of innominates from the historical Hamann-Todd Collection (n = 170) and modern Bass Donated Collection (n = 129). Using the Freeman-Halton test, significant differences between temporal sample score frequencies were found for all traits in females and for the subpubic contour and ventral arc in males. Despite these findings, classification accuracy using logistic regression between the temporal periods remained low (68.7%). These results suggest that secular changes in trait expression are occurring; however, sex estimation methods using these traits and created with historical samples are still applicable to modern forensic cases. In fact, the secular changes occurring in these traits contribute to better classification accuracy between sexes in modern populations. PMID:27404602

  6. Inheritance of Ear Tip-Barrenness Trait in Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Zhao-dong; ZHANG Fa-jun; DING Zhao-hua; SUN Qi; WANG Li-ming; GUO Qing-fa; WANG Hong-gang

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the inheritance pattern of ear tip-barrenness trait in maize (Zea mays L.). Ear tipbarrenness trait in maize can be classified into two types, tip-barren and tip-barrenless. Two inbred lines, Ix01-3 (tipbarrenless type), wx04-1 (tip-barren type), and their F1, F2, BC1, BC2 generations were analyzed on their ear tip-barrenness types. Results showed that F1 was tip-barren type; the ratio of tip-barren type versus tip-barrenless type followed a 12.78∶1 ratio in F2 segregation population and a 2.75∶1 ratio in BC1. χ2 test indicated that the trait of ear tip-barrenness type followed an inheritance pattern of 2 duplicate dominant genes. SPSS analysis indicated that the trait of ear tip-barrenness length is of abnormal distribution. Above results mean that: (1) The trait of maize ear tip-barrenness type is controlled by2 duplicate dominant genes; tip-barren type is dominant over tip-barrenless type; (2) the trait of tip-barrenness length is a quantitative character controlled by polygene with major genes expected.

  7. Assessing callous-unemotional traits in adolescent offenders: validation of the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Frick, Paul J; Skeem, Jennifer L; Marsee, Monica A; Cruise, Keith; Munoz, Luna C; Aucoin, Katherine J; Morris, Amanda S

    2008-01-01

    The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits designates an important subgroup of antisocial youth. To improve upon existing measures, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) was developed to provide an efficient, reliable, and valid assessment of CU traits in samples of youth. The current study tests the factor structure and correlates of the ICU scale in a sample (n=248) of juvenile offenders (188 boys, 60 girls) between the ages of 12 and 20 (M=15.47, SD=1.37). Confirmatory factor analyses are consistent with the presence of three independent factors (i.e., Uncaring, Callousness, and Unemotional) that relate to a higher-order callous-unemotional dimension. Also, CU traits overall showed associations with aggression, delinquency, and both psychophysiological and self-report indices of emotional reactivity. There were some important differences across the three facets of the ICU in their associations with these key external criteria. PMID:18514315

  8. Two-part zero-inflated negative binomial regression model for quantitative trait loci mapping with count trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-05-01

    Poisson regression models provide a standard framework for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of count traits. In practice, however, count traits are often over-dispersed relative to the Poisson distribution. In these situations, the zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), zero-inflated generalized Poisson (ZIGP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression may be useful for QTL mapping of count traits. Added genetic variables to the negative binomial part equation, may also affect extra zero data. In this study, to overcome these challenges, I apply two-part ZINB model. The EM algorithm with Newton-Raphson method in the M-step uses for estimating parameters. An application of the two-part ZINB model for QTL mapping is considered to detect associations between the formation of gallstone and the genotype of markers. PMID:25728790

  9. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location.

  10. From a state to a trait: Trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during intervention predict changes in trait mindfulness

    OpenAIRE

    Kiken, Laura G.; Garland, Eric L.; Bluth, Karen; Palsson, Olafur S.; Gaylord, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that heightening state mindfulness in meditation practice over time increases trait mindfulness, which benefits psychological health. We prospectively examined individual trajectories of state mindfulness in meditation during a mindfulness-based intervention in relation to changes in trait mindfulness and psychological distress. Each week during the eight-week intervention, participants reported their state mindfulness in meditation after a brief mindfulness meditation. Partic...

  11. Invited review: overview of new traits and phenotyping strategies in dairy cattle with a focus on functional traits

    OpenAIRE

    Egger-Danner, C.; Cole, J B; Pryce, J.E.; Gengler, Nicolas; Heringstad, B.; Bradley, A.; Stock, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT For several decades, breeding goals in dairy cattle focussed on increased milk production. However, many functional traits have negative genetic correlations with milk yield, and reductions in genetic merit for health and fitness have been observed. Herd management has been challenged to compensate for these effects and to balance fertility, udder health and metabolic diseases against increased production to maximize profit without compromising welfare. Functional traits, such as dir...

  12. Identification of quantitative trait loci for wool traits in Iranian Baluchi sheep. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashab, G R; Aslaminejad, A; Nassiri, M R;

    2012-01-01

    on OAR1 for fibre type traits (hetero-type and Kemp fibres type per cent in fleece), coefficient of variation of fibre diameter and greasy fleece weight, one QTL on OAR5 for clean fleece weight and 7 QTL on OAR25 for fibre type traits (Hetro-type, Kemp and True wool fibres per cent), greasy and clean...... fleece weight, coefficient of variation of average fibre diameter and the per cent of fibre diameter between 40 and 50 μm....

  13. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helen Hansen; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian;

    2015-01-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space...... for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €−83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (No...

  14. Economic weights for maternal traits of sows, including sow longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, P R; Ludemann, C I; Hermesch, S

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a transparent, comprehensive, and flexible model for each trait for the formulation of breeding objectives for sow traits in swine breeding programs. Economic values were derived from submodels considering a typical Australian pig production system. Differences in timing and expressions of traits were accounted for to derive economic weights that were compared on the basis of their relative size after multiplication by their corresponding genetic standard deviation to account for differences in scale and genetic variability present for each trait. The number of piglets born alive had the greatest contribution (27.1%) to a subindex containing only maternal traits, followed by daily gain (maternal; 22.0%) and sow mature weight (15.0%). Other traits considered in the maternal breeding objective were preweaning survival (11.8%), sow longevity (12.5%), gilt age at puberty (8.7%), and piglet survival at birth (3.1%). The economic weights for number of piglets born alive and preweaning piglet survival were found to be highly dependent on the definition of scale of enterprise, with each economic value increasing by approximately 100% when it was assumed that the value of extra output per sow could be captured, rather than assuming a consequent reduction in the number of sows to maintain a constant level of output from a farm enterprise. In the context of a full maternal line index that must account also for the expression of direct genetic traits by the growing piglet progeny of sows, the maternal traits contributed approximately half of the variation in the overall breeding objective. Deployment of more comprehensive maternal line indexes incorporating the new maternal traits described would lead to more balanced selection outcomes and improved survival of pigs. Future work could facilitate evaluation of the economic impacts of desired-gains indexes, which could further improve animal welfare through improved sow and piglet

  15. Framework for traits-based assessment in ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubach, Mascha N; Ashauer, Roman; Buchwalter, David B; De Lange, Hj; Hamer, Mick; Preuss, Thomas G; Töpke, Katrien; Maund, Stephen J

    2011-04-01

    A key challenge in ecotoxicology is to assess the potential risks of chemicals to the wide range of species in the environment on the basis of laboratory toxicity data derived from a limited number of species. These species are then assumed to be suitable surrogates for a wider class of related taxa. For example, Daphnia spp. are used as the indicator species for freshwater aquatic invertebrates. Extrapolation from these datasets to natural communities poses a challenge because the extent to which test species are representative of their various taxonomic groups is often largely unknown, and different taxonomic groups and chemicals are variously represented in the available datasets. Moreover, it has been recognized that physiological and ecological factors can each be powerful determinants of vulnerability to chemical stress, thus differentially influencing toxicant effects at the population and community level. Recently it was proposed that detailed study of species traits might eventually permit better understanding, and thus prediction, of the potential for adverse effects of chemicals to a wider range of organisms than those amenable for study in the laboratory. This line of inquiry stems in part from the ecology literature, in which species traits are being used for improved understanding of how communities are constructed, as well as how communities might respond to, and recover from, disturbance (see other articles in this issue). In the present work, we develop a framework for the application of traits-based assessment. The framework is based on the population vulnerability conceptual model of Van Straalen in which vulnerability is determined by traits that can be grouped into 3 major categories, i.e., external exposure, intrinsic sensitivity, and population sustainability. Within each of these major categories, we evaluate specific traits as well as how they could contribute to the assessment of the potential effects of a toxicant on an organism. We then

  16. Identification of quantitative trait loci for four morphologic traits under water stress in rice(Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Late season drought coinciding with the rice booting to heading stage affects the development of plant height,panicle exsertion,and flag leaf size,and causes significant yield loss.In this study,a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between paddy and upland cultivars was used for data collection of the morphologic traits under well water and drought stress conditions.bought stress was applied at the stage of panicle initiation in the field in 2002 and at the booting stage in PVC pipes in 2003.The data from stress con ditions and their ratios(tait measured under stress condition/trait measured under well water condition)or differences(trait measured under stress condition minus trait measured under well water condition)were used for OTL analysis.Totally,17 and 36 QTLs for these traits were identified in 2002 and 2003,respectively,which explained a range of 2.58%-29.82%Of the phenotypic variation.Among them,six QTLs were commonly identified in the two years,suggesting that the drought stress in the two years was different.The genetic basis of these traits will provide useful information for improving rice late season drought resistance,and their application as indirect indices in rice late season drought resistance screening was also discussed.

  17. Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are decoupled in five species-rich tropical-subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; McCormack, M Luke; Ma, Chengen; Kong, Deliang; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiaoyong; Zeng, Hui; Niinemets, Ülo; Guo, Dali

    2015-09-01

    Leaf economics and hydraulic traits are critical to leaf photosynthesis, yet it is debated whether these two sets of traits vary in a fully coordinated manner or there is room for independent variation. Here, we tested the relationship between leaf economics traits, including leaf nitrogen concentration and leaf dry mass per area, and leaf hydraulic traits including stomatal density and vein density in five tropical-subtropical forests. Surprisingly, these two suites of traits were statistically decoupled. This decoupling suggests that independent trait dimensions exist within a leaf, with leaf economics dimension corresponding to light capture and tissue longevity, and the hydraulic dimension to water-use and leaf temperature maintenance. Clearly, leaf economics and hydraulic traits can vary independently, thus allowing for more possible plant trait combinations. Compared with a single trait dimension, multiple trait dimensions may better enable species adaptations to multifarious niche dimensions, promote diverse plant strategies and facilitate species coexistence.

  18. Genotype by housing interaction for conformation and workability traits in Danish Holsteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, J.; Mark, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A total of 30,190 first-parity Danish Holstein cows housed in free stalls or tie stalls were analyzed to quantify to what degree genotype by housing interaction existed for 21 conformation and 2 workability traits. Each trait measured in different housing systems was treated as 2 separate traits in.......87 +/- 0.06). Genetic variance was greater (22% on average) for all traits except 2, whereas residual variance was greater for feet and leg traits and lower for body and udder traits when measured in tie-stall environments for nearly all traits. In total, this led to a greater heritability for traits...... measured in tie-stall barns. Conformation and workability traits measured in free stalls and tie stalls should not be considered as different traits when predicting breeding values, but heterogeneous variance could be accounted for....

  19. Reproduction traits, growth traits and age at first calving in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silva Marestone

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the reproductive efficiency expressed by traits, interval from first to second calving (IDP, number of services per conception to the first calving (NSC1, number of services per conception for the second calving (NSC2, service period from the first to the second calving (PS and gestation lenght (PG of Holstein heifers. Data from 377 heifers from two herds, one in Santa Cruz do Rio Pardo, São Paulo and another in Rolândia, Paraná were analysed. The statistical model to analyze IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG included the fixed effect of Contemporary Group (CG. To analyze PG, it was also considered the effect of calf sex. To evaluate the growth performance and age at first calving (AFC, data from 360 Holstein heifers belonging to property in Rolândia were analysed. The model included the fixed effects of contemporary groups (CG and average daily gain from birth to 15 months (ADG. A similar model was used to analyze weigth at 458 dias (W458 and ADG, therefore considering only CG. The overall means of IDP, NSC1, NSC2, PS and PG, were 14.96 ± 3.94 months; 1.35 ± 0.71 services, 2.86 ± 2.37 services, 178.83 ± 118.73 days; 276.67± 5.65 days, respectively. Correlations were observed between the traits IDP and NSC2 of 72% (P<0.0001, between IDP and PS of 98% (P<0.0001 and between NCS2 and PS of 72% (P<0.0001. The gestation length of males and females showed estimated average of 277.53 ± 0.46 days and 276.33 ± 0.40 days, respectively, and the calf sex was source of variation on PG (P<0.05. Average daily gain was a significant source of variation on AFC and CG affected all traits studied. The estimated average for AFC was 24.18 ± 1.59 months, for W458 was 362.33 ± 36.24 kg and ADG was 0.704 ± 0.08 kg.

  20. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    these lines is in progress. Objective 2 The experiments from this objective have been completed and the data were published in the journal Crop Science by Felderhoff et al. (2012). A second publication by Felderhoff et al. is in progress (see publication list for full details). The experiments were based on a mapping population derived from the sweet sorghum 'Rio' and the dry-stalk grain sorghum BTx3197. The main findings were: 1) The apparent juiciness of the sorghum stalk, based on the appearance of a cut stem surface (moist vs. pithy), is not representative of the moisture content of the stalk. This was surprising, as pithy stalks have been associated with low moisture content. This means that in order to assess 'juiciness', a different evaluation needs to be used, for example by removing juice with a roller press or by measuring the difference in mass between a fresh and dried stalk segment. 2) A total of five QTLs associated with juice volume (corrected for height) or moisture content were identified, but not all QTLs were detected in all environments, providing evidence for genotype x environment interactions. This finding complicates breeding for juice volume using marker-assisted selection. 3) The QTL for sugar concentration identified on chromosome 3, and the subject of Objective 1, was confirmed in this mapping population, but unlike in previous studies (Murray et al., 2008), the presence of this QTL was associated with negative impacts on agronomic performance (fresh and dry biomass yield, juice yield). Consequently, introgression of the Brix QTL from Rio as part of a commercial breeding program will require monitoring of the precise impacts of this QTL on agronomic performance. 4) The absence of dominance effects for the Brix trait (= sugar concentration) indicated that Brix must be high in both parents to produce high Brix in hybrids. This means an extra constraint on the development of hybrid parents. With the results from Objective 1

  1. Novel applications of multitask learning and multiple output regression to multiple genetic trait prediction

    OpenAIRE

    He, Dan; Kuhn, David; Parida, Laxmi

    2016-01-01

    Given a set of biallelic molecular markers, such as SNPs, with genotype values encoded numerically on a collection of plant, animal or human samples, the goal of genetic trait prediction is to predict the quantitative trait values by simultaneously modeling all marker effects. Genetic trait prediction is usually represented as linear regression models. In many cases, for the same set of samples and markers, multiple traits are observed. Some of these traits might be correlated with each other...

  2. Genetic Architecture of Domestication-Related Traits in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shang; Bradbury, Peter J; Casstevens, Terry; Holland, James B

    2016-09-01

    Strong directional selection occurred during the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor teosinte, reducing its genetic diversity, particularly at genes controlling domestication-related traits. Nevertheless, variability for some domestication-related traits is maintained in maize. The genetic basis of this could be sequence variation at the same key genes controlling maize-teosinte differentiation (due to lack of fixation or arising as new mutations after domestication), distinct loci with large effects, or polygenic background variation. Previous studies permit annotation of maize genome regions associated with the major differences between maize and teosinte or that exhibit population genetic signals of selection during either domestication or postdomestication improvement. Genome-wide association studies and genetic variance partitioning analyses were performed in two diverse maize inbred line panels to compare the phenotypic effects and variances of sequence polymorphisms in regions involved in domestication and improvement to the rest of the genome. Additive polygenic models explained most of the genotypic variation for domestication-related traits; no large-effect loci were detected for any trait. Most trait variance was associated with background genomic regions lacking previous evidence for involvement in domestication. Improvement sweep regions were associated with more trait variation than expected based on the proportion of the genome they represent. Selection during domestication eliminated large-effect genetic variants that would revert maize toward a teosinte type. Small-effect polygenic variants (enriched in the improvement sweep regions of the genome) are responsible for most of the standing variation for domestication-related traits in maize.

  3. Pedigree transmission disequilibrium test for QTL mapping of threshold trait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Xiangdong; ZHANG Qin; XU Ruhai; WANG Yachun

    2004-01-01

    With biological and economic importance,threshold traits are discrete in phenotype but have the same polygenic genetic basis as quantitative traits. The traditional linkage analysis for quantitative traits is invalid for threshold traits due to their special characters. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) has received great attention recently in localizing human disease genes due to its simplicity and powerfulness. But TDT only deals with data from independent nuclear families and it will lose information about extended pedigree that incorporates information not only from parents and siblings but also from other relatives. The pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT) proposed by Martin in 2001 can be used to analyze the extended pedigree in human.In this study, PDT was introduced into the QTL mapping of threshold traits for farm animals, and was modified in order to accommodate the pedigree structures of farm animals.The modified PDT was renamed pedigree transmission disequilibrium test (PTDT) and its power and type I error were investigated and compared with that of PDT by Monte Carlo simulation. It was shown that PTDT is a robust and valid approach to mapping QTL of threshold trait. When the parental information is complete, PTDT and PDT are almost the same in terms of power and type I error. However, if the parental information is missing to a certain extent, PTDT is higher in power and lower in type I error than PDT. These results imply that PTDT can be a novel approach to QTL fine mapping of threshold traits based on the existing coarse mapping information.

  4. Dark triad traits and health outcomes: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Hudek-Knežević

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the sample of 637 participants (358 women and 279 men we explored the relationshipbetween Dark Triad traits (psychopathy, Machiavellianism and Narcissism and various healthindicators including subjective (positive and negative mood and perceived physical symptoms,protective health behaviors as well as some more objective health indicators (number ofhospitalizations, number of diseases, having specific chronic diseases, injuries and addictions.Because of the moderate relations between Dark Triad and broad personality traits that also exerttheir influence on various health-related indices, we examined the unique effects of Dark Triad traitson health indicators above and beyond five-factor personality traits as well as sociodemographicvariables related to health (gender, age and education.When sociodemographic variables, as well as five-factor personality traits were controlled inhierarchical regression analyses, Dark Triad traits significantly improved the prediction of almostall subjective health indicators, protective health behaviors, number of hospitalizations and numberof diseases. The effect sizes obtained were relatively low, and psychopathy was the most consistentpredictor.Regarding chronic diseases, injuries and addictions, the results of hierarchical binary logisticregressions showed that when sociodemographic variables were controlled, psychopathy was apositive predictor of the risk of digestive diseases, tobacco use and injuries, Machiavellianismnegatively predicted the risk of injuries, while Narcissism negatively predicted the risk of skindiseases and tobacco use. When five-factor personality traits were controlled, psychopathy was alsoa positive predictor of digestive diseases, tobacco use and injuries. Machiavellianism was a positivepredictor of high blood pressure, and negative predictor of cancer, spine and back diseases andinjuries, while Narcissism was a negative predictor of skin diseases.The results obtained are discussed

  5. A whole-genome association study for pig reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, S K; Fan, B; Du, Z-Q; Garrick, D J; Stalder, K J; Rothschild, M F

    2012-02-01

    A whole-genome association study was performed for reproductive traits in commercial sows using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and Bayesian statistical methods. The traits included total number born (TNB), number born alive (NBA), number of stillborn (SB), number of mummified foetuses at birth (MUM) and gestation length (GL) in each of the first three parities. We report the associations of informative QTL and the genes within the QTL for each reproductive trait in different parities. These results provide evidence of gene effects having temporal impacts on reproductive traits in different parities. Many QTL identified in this study are new for pig reproductive traits. Around 48% of total genes located in the identified QTL regions were predicted to be involved in placental functions. The genomic regions containing genes important for foetal developmental (e.g. MEF2C) and uterine functions (e.g. PLSCR4) were associated with TNB and NBA in the first two parities. Similarly, QTL in other foetal developmental (e.g. HNRNPD and AHR) and placental (e.g. RELL1 and CD96) genes were associated with SB and MUM in different parities. The QTL with genes related to utero-placental blood flow (e.g. VEGFA) and hematopoiesis (e.g. MAFB) were associated with GL differences among sows in this population. Pathway analyses using genes within QTL identified some modest underlying biological pathways, which are interesting candidates (e.g. the nucleotide metabolism pathway for SB) for pig reproductive traits in different parities. Further validation studies on large populations are warranted to improve our understanding of the complex genetic architecture for pig reproductive traits.

  6. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M.; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A.; Grueter, Cyril C.; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L.; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S.; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the ‘method of exclusion’ to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture. PMID:27603668

  7. Meaningful traits for grouping plant species across arid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär Lamas, Marlene Ivonne; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2016-05-01

    Grouping species may provide some degree of simplification to understand the ecological function of plants on key ecosystem processes. We asked whether groups of plant species based on morpho-chemical traits associated with plant persistence and stress/disturbance resistance reflect dominant plant growth forms in arid ecosystems. We selected twelve sites across an aridity gradient in northern Patagonia. At each site, we identified modal size plants of each dominant species and assessed specific leaf area (SLA), plant height, seed mass, N and soluble phenol concentration in green and senesced leaves at each plant. Plant species were grouped according with plant growth forms (perennial grasses, evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs) and plant morphological and/or chemical traits using cluster analysis. We calculated mean values of each plant trait for each species group and plant growth form. Plant growth forms significantly differed among them in most of the morpho-chemical traits. Evergreen shrubs were tall plants with the highest seed mass and soluble phenols in leaves, deciduous shrubs were also tall plants with high SLA and the highest N in leaves, and perennial grasses were short plants with high SLA and low concentration of N and soluble phenols in leaves. Grouping species by the combination of morpho-chemical traits yielded 4 groups in which species from one growth form prevailed. These species groups differed in soluble phenol concentration in senesced leaves and plant height. These traits were highly correlated. We concluded that (1) plant height is a relevant synthetic variable, (2) growth forms adequately summarize ecological strategies of species in arid ecosystems, and (3) the inclusion of plant morphological and chemical traits related to defenses against environmental stresses and herbivory enhanced the potential of species grouping, particularly within shrubby growth forms. PMID:26897637

  8. Behavioral Variation in Gorillas: Evidence of Potential Cultural Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Martha M; Ando, Chieko; Fawcett, Katherine A; Grueter, Cyril C; Hedwig, Daniela; Iwata, Yuji; Lodwick, Jessica L; Masi, Shelly; Salmi, Roberta; Stoinski, Tara S; Todd, Angelique; Vercellio, Veronica; Yamagiwa, Juichi

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether any species except humans exhibits culture has generated much debate, partially due to the difficulty of providing conclusive evidence from observational studies in the wild. A starting point for demonstrating the existence of culture that has been used for many species including chimpanzees and orangutans is to show that there is geographic variation in the occurrence of particular behavioral traits inferred to be a result of social learning and not ecological or genetic influences. Gorillas live in a wide variety of habitats across Africa and they exhibit flexibility in diet, behavior, and social structure. Here we apply the 'method of exclusion' to look for the presence/absence of behaviors that could be considered potential cultural traits in well-habituated groups from five study sites of the two species of gorillas. Of the 41 behaviors considered, 23 met the criteria of potential cultural traits, of which one was foraging related, nine were environment related, seven involved social interactions, five were gestures, and one was communication related. There was a strong positive correlation between behavioral dissimilarity and geographic distance among gorilla study sites. Roughly half of all variation in potential cultural traits was intraspecific differences (i.e. variability among sites within a species) and the other 50% of potential cultural traits were differences between western and eastern gorillas. Further research is needed to investigate if the occurrence of these traits is influenced by social learning. These findings emphasize the importance of investigating cultural traits in African apes and other species to shed light on the origin of human culture. PMID:27603668

  9. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J.; Rogers, S. I.; Frid, C. L. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of variability in environmental conditions on species composition in benthic ecosystems are well established, but relatively little is known about how environmental variability relates to ecosystem functioning. Benthic invertebrate assemblages are heavily involved in the maintenance of ecological processes and investigation of the biological characteristics (traits) expressed in these assemblages can provide information about some aspects of functioning. The aim of this study was to establish and explore relationships between environmental variability and biological traits expressed in megafauna assemblages in two UK regions. Patterns of trait composition were matched to environmental conditions and subsets of variables best describing these patterns determined. The nature of the relationships were subsequently examined at two separate scales, both between and within the regions studied. Over the whole area, some traits related to size, longevity, reproduction, mobility, flexibility, feeding method, sociability and living habit were negatively correlated with salinity, sea surface temperature, annual temperature range and the level of fishing effort, and positively associated with fish taxon richness and shell content of the substratum. Between the two regions, reductions in temperature range and shell content were associated with infrequent relative occurrences of short-lived, moderately mobile, flexible, solitary, opportunistic, permanent-burrow dwelling fauna and those exhibiting reproductive strategies based on benthic development. Relationships between some traits and environmental conditions diverged within the two regions, with increases in fishing effort and shell content of the substratum being associated with low frequencies of occurrence of moderately mobile and moderately to highly flexible fauna within one region, but high frequencies in the other. These changes in trait composition have implications for ecosystem processes, with, for

  10. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide. PMID:26202623

  11. Relation between parenting stress and psychopathic traits among children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Parenting stress was examined as a correlate of psychopathic traits, specifically narcissism, callous/unemotional traits, and impulsivity, among school-aged children while controlling for the variance explained by aggressive behavior. Participants included 212 children ranging from 6 to 12 years of age (M = 8.3 years) who were admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit for treatment. Parents completed standardized measures of aggression (Child Behavior Checklist; CBCL), psychopathic traits (Antisocial Process Screening Device; APSD), and parenting stress (Parenting Stress Index; PSI) at the time of the child's admission. Multiple regression analyses revealed that high levels of the PSI dimension attachment difficulties were associated with high levels of narcissism and callous/unemotional traits among the children while statistically controlling for aggression. The PSI dimension role restriction was also found to be negatively related to narcissism. These findings suggest that specific aspects of parenting stress may be related to child psychopathic traits and might aid with conceptualizing and developing treatment approaches for childhood behavior problems.

  12. Pedigree models for complex human traits involving the mitochrondrial genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schork, N.J.; Guo, S.W. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Recent biochemical and molecular-genetic discoveries concerning variations in human mtDNA have suggested a role for mtDNA mutations in a number of human traits and disorders. Although the importance of these discoveries cannot be emphasized enough, the complex natures of mitochondrial biogenesis, mutant mtDNA phenotype expression, and the maternal inheritance pattern exhibited by mtDNA transmission make it difficult to develop models that can be used routinely in pedigree analyses to quantify and test hypotheses about the role of mtDNA in the expression of a trait. In the present paper, the authors describe complexities inherent in mitochondrial biogenesis and genetic transmission and show how these complexities can be incorporated into appropriate mathematical models. The authors offer a variety of likelihood-based models which account for the complexities discussed. The derivation of the models is meant to stimulate the construction of statistical tests for putative mtDNA contribution to a trait. Results of simulation studies which make use of the proposed models are described. The results of the simulation studies suggest that, although pedigree models of mtDNA effects can be reliable, success in mapping chromosomal determinants of a trait does not preclude the possibility that mtDNA determinants exist for the trait as well. Shortcomings inherent in the proposed models are described in an effort to expose areas in need of additional research. 58 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Plant functional traits have globally consistent effects on competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstler, Georges; Falster, Daniel; Coomes, David A; Hui, Francis; Kooyman, Robert M; Laughlin, Daniel C; Poorter, Lourens; Vanderwel, Mark; Vieilledent, Ghislain; Wright, S Joseph; Aiba, Masahiro; Baraloto, Christopher; Caspersen, John; Cornelissen, J Hans C; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Hanewinkel, Marc; Herault, Bruno; Kattge, Jens; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Peñuelas, Josep; Poorter, Hendrik; Uriarte, Maria; Richardson, Sarah; Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Sun, I-Fang; Ståhl, Göran; Swenson, Nathan G; Thompson, Jill; Westerlund, Bertil; Wirth, Christian; Zavala, Miguel A; Zeng, Hongcheng; Zimmerman, Jess K; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Westoby, Mark

    2016-01-14

    Phenotypic traits and their associated trade-offs have been shown to have globally consistent effects on individual plant physiological functions, but how these effects scale up to influence competition, a key driver of community assembly in terrestrial vegetation, has remained unclear. Here we use growth data from more than 3 million trees in over 140,000 plots across the world to show how three key functional traits--wood density, specific leaf area and maximum height--consistently influence competitive interactions. Fast maximum growth of a species was correlated negatively with its wood density in all biomes, and positively with its specific leaf area in most biomes. Low wood density was also correlated with a low ability to tolerate competition and a low competitive effect on neighbours, while high specific leaf area was correlated with a low competitive effect. Thus, traits generate trade-offs between performance with competition versus performance without competition, a fundamental ingredient in the classical hypothesis that the coexistence of plant species is enabled via differentiation in their successional strategies. Competition within species was stronger than between species, but an increase in trait dissimilarity between species had little influence in weakening competition. No benefit of dissimilarity was detected for specific leaf area or wood density, and only a weak benefit for maximum height. Our trait-based approach to modelling competition makes generalization possible across the forest ecosystems of the world and their highly diverse species composition.

  14. Default network deactivations are correlated with psychopathic personality traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Sheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The posteromedial cortex (PMC and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC are part of a network of brain regions that has been found to exhibit decreased activity during goal-oriented tasks. This network is thought to support a baseline of brain activity, and is commonly referred to as the "default network". Although recent reports suggest that the PMC and mPFC are associated with affective, social, and self-referential processes, the relationship between these default network components and personality traits, especially those pertaining to social context, is poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the current investigation, we assessed the relationship between PMC and mPFC deactivations and psychopathic personality traits using fMRI and a self-report measure. We found that PMC deactivations predicted traits related to egocentricity and mPFC deactivations predicted traits related to decision-making. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the PMC and mPFC are associated with processes involving self-relevancy and affective decision-making, consistent with previous reports. More generally, these findings suggest a link between default network activity and personality traits.

  15. Traits, trees and taxa: global dimensions of biodiversity in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Stephens, Patrick R; Gittleman, John L

    2012-12-22

    Measures of biodiversity encompass variation along several dimensions such as species richness (SR), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and functional/trait diversity (TD). At the global scale, it is widely recognized that SR and PD are strongly correlated, but the extent to which either tends to capture variation in TD is unclear. Here, we assess relationships among PD, SR and TD for a number of traits both across clades and regional assemblages of mammals. We also contrast results using two different measures of TD, trait variance and a new measure we refer to as trait bin filling (the number of orders of magnitude of variation that contain at least one species). When TD is defined as trait variance, PD is a much stronger correlate of TD than SR across clades, consistent with hypotheses about the conservation value of PD. However, when TD is defined as bin filling, PD and SR show similar correlations with TD across clades and space. We also investigate potential losses of SR, PD and TD if species that are currently threatened were to go extinct, and find that threatened PD is often a similar predictor of threatened TD as SR.

  16. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Femke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Kindt, Merel

    2013-02-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current study therefore assessed fear learning across multiple response domains and multiple test phases in a two-day discriminative fear-conditioning paradigm. We tested whether trait anxiety is associated with deficient safety learning, by comparing HTA individuals (N=20) and healthy Controls (N=22). HTA participants showed stronger fear on the startle response and distress ratings to the safety (CS(-)) but not to the threat stimulus (CS(+)) during acquisition, along with impaired extinction and re-extinction. Trait anxiety did not affect skin conductance responses and effects on UCS-expectancy were limited. We conclude that high trait anxiety may be characterized by deficient safety learning which in turn may promote persistent and generalized fear responses.

  17. Brain monoamine oxidase A activity predicts trait aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z; Kriplani, Aarti; Logan, Jean; Tomasi, Dardo; Williams, Benjamin; Telang, Frank; Shumay, Elena; Biegon, Anat; Craig, Ian W; Henn, Fritz; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Fowler, Joanna S

    2008-05-01

    The genetic deletion of monoamine oxidase A (MAO A), an enzyme that breaks down the monoamine neurotransmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, produces aggressive phenotypes across species. Therefore, a common polymorphism in the MAO A gene (MAOA, Mendelian Inheritance in Men database number 309850, referred to as high or low based on transcription in non-neuronal cells) has been investigated in a number of externalizing behavioral and clinical phenotypes. These studies provide evidence linking the low MAOA genotype and violent behavior but only through interaction with severe environmental stressors during childhood. Here, we hypothesized that in healthy adult males the gene product of MAO A in the brain, rather than the gene per se, would be associated with regulating the concentration of brain amines involved in trait aggression. Brain MAO A activity was measured in vivo in healthy nonsmoking men with positron emission tomography using a radioligand specific for MAO A (clorgyline labeled with carbon 11). Trait aggression was measured with the multidimensional personality questionnaire (MPQ). Here we report for the first time that brain MAO A correlates inversely with the MPQ trait measure of aggression (but not with other personality traits) such that the lower the MAO A activity in cortical and subcortical brain regions, the higher the self-reported aggression (in both MAOA genotype groups) contributing to more than one-third of the variability. Because trait aggression is a measure used to predict antisocial behavior, these results underscore the relevance of MAO A as a neurochemical substrate of aberrant aggression. PMID:18463263

  18. Functional traits, convergent evolution, and periodic tables of niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winemiller, Kirk O; Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Bower, Luke M; Pianka, Eric R

    2015-08-01

    Ecology is often said to lack general theories sufficiently predictive for applications. Here, we examine the concept of a periodic table of niches and feasibility of niche classification schemes from functional trait and performance data. Niche differences and their influence on ecological patterns and processes could be revealed effectively by first performing data reduction/ordination analyses separately on matrices of trait and performance data compiled according to logical associations with five basic niche 'dimensions', or aspects: habitat, life history, trophic, defence and metabolic. Resultant patterns then are integrated to produce interpretable niche gradients, ordinations and classifications. Degree of scheme periodicity would depend on degrees of niche conservatism and convergence causing species clustering across multiple niche dimensions. We analysed a sample data set containing trait and performance data to contrast two approaches for producing niche schemes: species ordination within niche gradient space, and niche categorisation according to trait-value thresholds. Creation of niche schemes useful for advancing ecological knowledge and its applications will depend on research that produces functional trait and performance datasets directly related to niche dimensions along with criteria for data standardisation and quality. As larger databases are compiled, opportunities will emerge to explore new methods for data reduction, ordination and classification. PMID:26096695

  19. Genomic imprinting and genetic effects on muscle traits in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärst Stefan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting refers to parent-of-origin dependent gene expression caused by differential DNA methylation of the paternally and maternally derived alleles. Imprinting is increasingly recognized as an important source of variation in complex traits, however, its role in explaining variation in muscle and physiological traits, especially those of commercial value, is largely unknown compared with genetic effects. Results We investigated both genetic and genomic imprinting effects on key muscle traits in mice from the Berlin Muscle Mouse population, a key model system to study muscle traits. Using a genome scan, we first identified loci with either imprinting or genetic effects on phenotypic variation. Next, we established the proportion of phenotypic variation explained by additive, dominance and imprinted QTL and characterized the patterns of effects. In total, we identified nine QTL, two of which show large imprinting effects on glycogen content and potential, and body weight. Surprisingly, all imprinting patterns were of the bipolar type, in which the two heterozygotes are different from each other but the homozygotes are not. Most QTL had pleiotropic effects and explained up to 40% of phenotypic variance, with individual imprinted loci accounting for 4-5% of variation alone. Conclusion Surprisingly, variation in glycogen content and potential was only modulated by imprinting effects. Further, in contrast to general assumptions, our results show that genomic imprinting can impact physiological traits measured at adult stages and that the expression does not have to follow the patterns of paternal or maternal expression commonly ascribed to imprinting effects.

  20. Can Callous-Unemotional Traits be Reliably Measured in Preschoolers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimonis, Eva R; Fanti, Kostas A; Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous, Xenia; Mertan, Biran; Goulter, Natalie; Katsimicha, Evita

    2016-05-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits designate an important subgroup of antisocial individuals at risk for early-starting, severe, and persistent conduct problems, but this construct has received limited attention among young children. The current study evaluated the factor structure, psychometric properties, and validity of scores on a comprehensive measure of CU traits, the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU), in relation to measures of antisocial/prosocial behavior and emotional processing, administered to preschool children. The sample included 214 boys (52 %) and girls (48 %, M age = 4.7, SD = 0.69) recruited from mainstream and high-risk preschools. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a two-factor structure including callous and uncaring dimensions from 12 of the 24 original ICU items. Scores on the parent- and teacher-reported ICU were internally consistent and combined CU scores showed expected associations with an alternate measure of CU traits and measures of empathy, prosocial behavior, conduct problems, and aggression. Preschool children high on CU traits were less accurate, relative to children scoring low, in recognizing facial expressions. They were also less attentionally engaged by images of others in distress when co-occurring conduct problems presented. Findings extend the literature by supporting the psychometric properties of the ICU among young children, and open several avenues for studying early precursors to this severe personality disturbance. PMID:26344015

  1. Interrelationships among life-history traits in three California oaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, Brian C; Koenig, Walter D; Knops, Johannes M H

    2013-01-01

    Life-history traits interact in important ways. Relatively few studies, however, have explored the relationships between life-history traits in long-lived taxa such as trees. We examined patterns of energy allocation to components of reproduction and growth in three species of California oaks (Quercus spp.) using a combination of annual acorn censuses, dendrometer bands to measure radial increment, and litterfall traps. Our results are generally consistent with the hypothesis that energy invested in reproduction detracts from the amount of energy available for growth in these long-lived taxa; i.e., there are trade-offs between these traits. The relationships between reproduction and growth varied substantially among specific trait combinations and tree species, however, and in some cases were in the direction opposite that expected based on the assumption of trade-offs between them. This latter finding appears to be a consequence of the pattern of resource use across years in these long-lived trees contrasting with the expected partitioning of resource use within years in short-lived taxa. Thus, the existence and magnitude of putative trade-offs varied depending on whether the time scale considered was within or across years. Collectively, our results indicate that negative relationships between fundamental life-history traits can be important at multiple levels of modular organization and that energy invested in reproduction can have measurable consequences in terms of the amount of energy available for future reproduction and both current and future growth. PMID:22707038

  2. [Trait-aggression and suicide of Vincent van Gogh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezenhoffer, Ibolya; Gerevich, József

    2015-01-01

    Although in recent decades the literature has paid special attention to Vincent van Gogh's life, work and illness, there has still not been an examination of the connections between his trait aggression and his suicide. The present study traces, in the light of this trait aggression, the predictive factors that can be observed on the path leading to the artist's suicide. Biographical documents, case history data, as well as letters and the findings of earlier research have been used in the course of the analysis. Among the distal suicide risk factors we find a positive family anamnesis, childhood traumas (emotional deprivation, identity problems associated with the name Vincent), a vagrant, homeless way of life, failures in relationships with women, and psychotic episodes appearing in rushes. The proximal factors include the tragic friendship with Gauguin (frustrated love), his brother Theo's marriage (experienced as a loss), and a tendency to self-destruction. Both factor groups on the one hand determined the course of development of the trait aggression and on the other can also be regarded as a manifestation of that trait aggression. It can be said that the trait aggression played an important role in Van Gogh's suicide.

  3. Reproductive traits associated with invasiveness in Conyza sumatrensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua HAO; Sheng QIANG; Qian-Qian LIU; Fei CAO

    2009-01-01

    Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E. Walker, a member of Asteraceae, is a highly invasive species. However, its reproduction biology remains poorly known. To understand the role of reproductive traits in successful invasion of the species, we studied several traits of its reproductive system: the miniature capitulum and gynomonoecious sexual system, the biology and phenology of capitula and florets, pollen/ovule ratio, the mating system (selfcompatibility), flower visitors, physical traits and dispersal potential of achenes, germination potential of achenes from manually pollinated capitula, and the association of these traits with invasiveness. Our study showed that the reproductive traits of autonomous seed production, versatile mating system of self- and cross-pollination, and generalized pollination system might contribute to the species' successful invasive capability. The invasiveness was further enhanced by the high and rapid production of achenes, as well as the high percentage, rapid germination rate and high dispersal capability of achenes. It was concluded that in annual or winter-annual weeds, autonomous seed production contributed significantly to the invasiveness of the species.

  4. Inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cruz Reis Filho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters and to evaluate the effects of inbreeding on productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Single-trait animal models were used to estimate genetic parameters and solutions for inbreeding coefficients for milk (milk 305-d, fat (fat 305-d, protein (protein 305-d, lactose (lactose 305-d, and total solids (TS 305-d yield up to 305 days of lactation, days in milk (DIM, age at first calving (AFC and calving intervals (CI. The mean inbreeding coefficient was 2.82%. The models with linear and quadratic effects of inbreeding coefficients fitted the data better than the models without or with only linear effect of inbreeding coefficient for all traits. The increase in inbreeding coefficient caused several losses in productive and reproductive traits of dairy Gyr cattle. Estimates of heritability for milk 305-d, fat 305-d, protein 305-d, lactose 305-d, TS 305-d, DIM, AFC, and CI were 0.28, 0.27, 0.22, 0.21, 0.22, 0.17, 0.20, and 0.10, respectively. It is possible to achieve genetic progress in productive traits (especially in milk 305-d and fat 305-d and age at first calving in dairy Gyr cattle through selection.

  5. Leadership Adaptation and Traits in Nepalese Police Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Mohan Shrestha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the role of leadership has been considered as one of the crucial factors for the success of any organization. However, what constitutes the effective leaders and what is the status of leaderships is still a subject of study. Hence, this research article is carried out with a mixed method. Based on the evaluation of 7 leadership styles, Bass and Avolio (1994's "5Is" behaviors, 49 traits, and 28 affecting elements for the development of police officers in Nepal, this study has used a survey questionnaire from 1111(N and in-depth interview from 21(N respondents from all the districts of Nepal. The findings of the study display that people are expecting a lot from police administration for adaptation of transformational leadership followed by participative/democratic, authentic and strategic models which were rated with highest ratings respectively. The trait status does not seem sound since the negative traits seem dominant with highest rating-' moderately to mostly', whereas the majority of positive traits are rated with 'a little to moderately'. Moreover, the transformational leadership behaviour is dealt with 'a little to moderately', which needs to be improved.Keywords: Leadership Styles, Leadership Traits, Transformational Behavior, Security Concern Functions of the country

  6. Eating disorder symptoms: association with perfectionism traits in male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEONARDO DE SOUSA FORTES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Evidence indicates a relationship between perfectionism and eating disorder symptoms (EDS. However, there is no such empirical evidence in Brazilian scientific literature. Moreover, studies of EDS in the male sex are scarce. Objective To analyze a possible association between EDS and perfectionism traits in adolescent males. Methods Participants were 368 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. We used the subscales of the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26 and the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale to assess EDS and perfectionism traits, respectively. Results The results indicated a statistically significant association between the high perfectionism trait and EDS (X2 = 16.40; Wald = 15.92; p = 0.001. Moreover, the findings showed no difference in the scores of the Diet (F(1, 367 = 2.14; p = 0.23 or Concern for Food and Bulimia (F(1, 367 = 2.44; p = 0.19 subscales according to groups of perfectionism. However, we identified a higher score on the Oral Self-Control subscale of the EAT-26 in the group with high perfectionism trait than adolescents with a low perfectionism trait (F(1, 367 = 13.88; p = 0.02. Discussion: EDS were associated with perfectionism in adolescent males.

  7. Genome scan for meat quality traits in Nelore beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, P C; Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Schnabel, R D; Mudadu, M A; Silva, F L; Mourão, G B; Coutinho, L L; Tholon, P; Sonstegard, T S; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Tullio, R R; Medeiros, S R; Nassu, R T; Feijó, G L D; Silva, L O C; Torres, R A; Siqueira, F; Higa, R H; Regitano, L C A

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality traits are economically important because they affect consumers' acceptance, which, in turn, influences the demand for beef. However, selection to improve meat quality is limited by the small numbers of animals on which meat tenderness can be evaluated due to the cost of performing shear force analysis and the resultant damage to the carcass. Genome wide-association studies for Warner-Bratzler shear force measured at different times of meat aging, backfat thickness, ribeye muscle area, scanning parameters [lightness, redness (a*), and yellowness] to ascertain color characteristics of meat and fat, water-holding capacity, cooking loss (CL), and muscle pH were conducted using genotype data from the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip array to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in all phenotyped Nelore cattle. Phenotype count for these animals ranged from 430 to 536 across traits. Meat quality traits in Nelore are controlled by numerous QTL of small effect, except for a small number of large-effect QTL identified for a*fat, CL, and pH. Genomic regions harboring these QTL and the pathways in which the genes from these regions act appear to differ from those identified in taurine cattle for meat quality traits. These results will guide future QTL mapping studies and the development of models for the prediction of genetic merit to implement genomic selection for meat quality in Nelore cattle.

  8. Multiparent intercross populations in analysis of quantitative traits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sujay Rakshit; Arunita Rakshit; J. V. Patil

    2011-04-01

    Most traits of interest to medical, agricultural and animal scientists show continuous variation and complex mode of inheritance. DNA-based markers are being deployed to analyse such complex traits, that are known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). In conventional QTL analysis, F2, backcross populations, recombinant inbred lines, backcross inbred lines and double haploids from biparental crosses are commonly used. Introgression lines and near isogenic lines are also being used for QTL analysis. However, such populations have major limitations like predominantly relying on the recombination events taking place in the F1 generation and mapping of only the allelic pairs present in the two parents. The second generation mapping resources like association mapping, nested association mapping and multiparent intercross populations potentially address the major limitations of available mapping resources. The potential of multiparent intercross populations in gene mapping has been discussed here. In such populations both linkage and association analysis can be conductted without encountering the limitations of structured populations. In such populations, larger genetic variation in the germplasm is accessed and various allelic and cytoplasmic interactions are assessed. For all practical purposes, across crop species, use of eight founders and a fixed population of 1000 individuals are most appropriate. Limitations with multiparent intercross populations are that they require longer time and more resource to be generated and they are likely to show extensive segregation for developmental traits, limiting their use in the analysis of complex traits. However, multiparent intercross population resources are likely to bring a paradigm shift towards QTL analysis in plant species.

  9. A trait-based approach to bacterial biofilms in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Jay T; Lehmkuhl, Brent K

    2016-09-01

    A trait-based approach focuses on attributes of taxa that influence the structure and function of communities. Biofilm production is a common trait among microorganisms in a wide range of environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. Here, we used Pseudomonas aeruginosa to link biofilm production to moisture availability, a common stressor for microorganisms in soil. First, we demonstrate that biofilm production is a response trait that influences the desiccation phenotype by increasing survivorship, shifting the niche space, and reducing the minimum water potential needed to sustain a net-positive growth rate (Ψ*). Although the allocation of resources to biofilms is thought to be costly, we found no evidence for a trade-off between fitness and biofilm production along a soil moisture gradient. Second, we demonstrated that biofilm production is an effect trait. Specifically, biofilm production increased water retention in soils that were exposed to a series of drying and rewetting cycles. Although this form of niche construction should affect species interactions, we found no evidence that the benefits of biofilm production were extended to another co-occurring soil bacterium. Together, our results support the view that biofilm production is an important trait that may contribute to the distribution, abundance, and functioning of microorganisms in soils. PMID:27104876

  10. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely Dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  11. Role of ABO Secretor Status in Mucosal Innate Immunity and H. pylori Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Lindén; Jafar Mahdavi; Cristina Semino-Mora; Cara Olsen; Ingemar Carlstedt; Thomas Borén; Andre Dubois

    2008-01-01

    Author Summary The common ABO blood group antigen system was described in the early 20th century. In addition, it has been known for 60 years that the majority of individuals also express the corresponding ABO antigens (carbohydrate identity tags) in their saliva, tears, milk, and mucus secretions in the digestive tract. To this date, however, the biological function of the ABO blood group antigens has remained an enigma. Here, we show that the great majority of Rhesus monkeys are of blood gr...

  12. Osteomalacia por tumor secretor de FGF-23 Ostemalacia due to a tumor secreting FGF-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Sánchez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de osteomalacia oncogénica en un varón de 50 años, con fuertes dolores óseos y gran debilidad muscular durante 4 años. Tenía varias deformidades vertebrales dorsales en cuña, fracturas en ambas ramas iliopubianas y en una rama isquiopubiana, y una zona de Looser en la meseta tibial derecha. Se localizó un tumor de 2 cm de diámetro en el hueco poplíteo derecho mediante centellograma con octreótido marcado con tecnecio. El tumor fue extirpado quirúrgicamente. La microscopía mostró un tumor mesenquimático fosfatúrico, de tejido conectivo mixto. La inmunotinción demostró FGF-23. Hubo rápida mejoría, con consolidación de las fracturas pelvianas y de la pseudofractura tibial y normalización de las alteraciones bioquímicas.A case of oncogenic osteomalacia in a 50-year-old male is here presented. He suffered severe bone pain and marked muscular weakness of 4 years' duration. There were several vertebral deformities in the thoracic spine, bilateral fractures of the iliopubic branches, another fracture in the left ischiopubic branch, and a Looser's zone in the right proximal tibia. An octreotide-Tc scan allowed to identify a small tumor in the posterior aspect of the right knee. It was surgically removed. Microscopically, it was a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor-mixed connective tissue (PMT-MCT. Expression of FGF-23 was documented by immune-peroxidase staining. There was rapid improvement, with consolidation of the pelvic fractures and the tibial pseudo-fracture. The laboratory values returned to normal.

  13. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction–diffusion–mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity. (paper)

  14. Travelling waves for the cane toads equation with bounded traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouin, Emeric; Calvez, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study propagation in a non-local reaction-diffusion-mutation model describing the invasion of cane toads in Australia (Phillips et al 2006 Nature 439 803). The population of toads is structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait and the space diffusivity depends on the trait. We use a Schauder topological degree argument for the construction of some travelling wave solutions of the model. The speed c* of the wave is obtained after solving a suitable spectral problem in the trait variable. An eigenvector arising from this eigenvalue problem gives the flavour of the profile at the edge of the front. The major difficulty is to obtain uniform L∞ bounds despite the combination of non-local terms and a heterogeneous diffusivity.

  15. Perceived importance of employees' traits in the service industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense; Houran, James

    2009-04-01

    Selection assessments are common practice to help reduce employee turnover in the service industry, but as too little is known about employees' characteristics, which are valued most highly by human resources professionals, a sample of 108 managers and human resources professionals rated the perceived importance of 31 performance traits for Line, Middle, and Senior employees. Rasch scaling analyses indicated strong consensus among the respondents. Nonsocial skills, abilities, and traits such as Ethical Awareness, Self-motivation, Writing Skills, Verbal Ability, Creativity, and Problem Solving were rated as more important for higher level employees. By contrast, traits which directly affect the interaction with customers and coworkers (Service Orientation, Communication Style, Agreeableness, Sense of Humor, Sensitivity to Diversity, Group Process, and Team Building) were rated as more important for lower level employees. Respondents' age and sex did not substantially alter these findings. Results are discussed in terms of improving industry professionals' perceived ecological and external validities of generic and customized assessments of employee. PMID:19610487

  16. Differential effects of trait anger on optimism and risk behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietruska, Karin; Armony, Jorge L

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that angry people exhibit optimistic risk estimates about future events and, consequently, are biased towards making risk-seeking choices. The goal of this study was to directly test the hypothesised effect of trait anger on optimism and risk-taking behaviour. One hundred healthy volunteers completed questionnaires about personality traits, optimism and risk behaviour. In addition their risk tendency was assessed with the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), which provides an online measure of risk behaviour. Our results partly confirmed the relation between trait anger and outcome expectations of future life events, but suggest that this optimism does not necessarily translate into actual risk-seeking behaviour. PMID:22780446

  17. The Impact of Personality Traits on Conflict Management Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Tuna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that the personality traits influence the occurrence of conflicts and that the managers have important responsibilities to deal with these conflicts. The subject of this work is to find the relationship between the personal traits of the managers and the conflict management methods that they use. Within this context, a survey was conducted on A group travel agencies and three, four and five star hotels operating in the seven regions of Turkey. Reliability and validity of the scale used to measure the opinions of the 1098 managers has been analyzed and correlation and regression analysis have been conducted. The findings suggest that the managers with dominant, revengeful and cold personal traits employ the management method of domination, that the introvert managers and the managers that can be exploited use the avoidance method and that the altruistic and the extrovert managers employ the accomodation method of conflict management.

  18. Analysis of quantitative trait loci underlying the traits related to chlorophyll content of the flag leaf in rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohua YANG; Sansi TU; Shaoqing LI; Lingling FENG; Jin KONG; Hui LI; Yangsheng LI

    2008-01-01

    A population of 117 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from the cross of Zhaiyeqing 8 (indica) x Jingxi 17 (japonica) was employed to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying four physiological traits related to chlorophyll contents of the flag leaf. There were significantly positive correlations among chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and chlorophyll a+ b content. Chlorophyll a/b ratio was significantly negatively correlated with chlorophyll b content. These four traits were normally distributed with transgressive segregation, suggesting that they were controlled by multiple minor genes. A total of 11 QTLs were detected for the four traits and they lay on six chromosomes. Each of them explained 9.2%-19.6% of the phenotypic variations, respectively. Of these, two QTLs controlling chlorophyll a content were mapped on chromosomes 2 and 5; four QTLs underlying chlorophyll b content were mapped on chromosomes 2, 3, 5 and 9; three QTLs underlying chlorophyll a+b amount were mapped on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9; two QTLs under-lying chlorophyll a/b ratio were mapped on chromosomes 6 and 1 1. The intrinsic relationship among the four traits and the practical implication in rice breeding are discussed.

  19. Homophily and the Speed of Social Mobilization: The Effect of Acquired and Ascribed Traits

    CERN Document Server

    Alstott, Jeff; Velu, Chander

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale mobilization of individuals across social networks is becoming increasingly prevalent in society. However, little is known about what affects the speed of social mobilization. Here we use a framed field experiment to identify and measure properties of individuals and their relationships that predict mobilization speed. We ran a global social mobilization contest and recorded personal traits of the participants and those they recruited. We studied the effects of ascribed traits (gender, age) and acquired traits (geography, and information source) on the speed of mobilization. We found that homophily, a preference for interacting with other individuals with similar traits, had a mixed role in social mobilization. Homophily was present for acquired traits, in which mobilization speed was faster when the recuiter and recruit had the same trait compared to different traits. In contrast, we did not find support for homophily for the ascribed traits. Instead, those traits had other, non-homophily effects...

  20. Advances in the Research of Strategies and Methods for Analyzing Complex Traits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zai-xiang; XU Chen-wu

    2008-01-01

    Complex traits are the features whose properties are determined by both genetic and environmental factors. Generally, complex traits include the classical quantitative traits with continuous distribution, the binary or categorical traits with discrete distribution controlled by polygene and other traits that cannot be measured exactly, such as behavior and psychology. Most human complex diseases and most economically important traits in plants and animals belong to the category. Understanding the molecular basis of complex traits plays a vital role in the genetic improvement of plant and animal breeding. In this article, the conception and research background of complex traits were summarized, and the strategies, methods and the great progress that had been made in dissecting genetic basis of complex traits were reviewed. The challenges and possible developments in future researches were also discussed.

  1. Multivariate identification of plant functional response and effect traits in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2011-06-01

    Plant functional traits have been proposed as a linkage between the environmental control of vegetation and ecosystem function. Identification of traits that mediate the response of plant species to the environment is well established, but the identification of effect traits and the linkage between the two sets is less developed. This was attempted for a study of eight contrasting land uses in a marginal agricultural landscape where data on vegetation, management controls of the disturbance regime, and soil characteristics, including nitrogen release, were measured simultaneously with measures of ecosystem function such as litter decomposition rates and primary productivity on 30 sites. Trait data were assembled from databases, and an iterative multivariate approach using the three table (species, trait, environment) method RLQ was employed to identify a parsimonious set of traits that predict plant species responses to the environment and a parsimonious set of traits that link vegetation to ecosystem function. The lists of response and effect traits were similar, and where differences were observed, traits were usually highly correlated with at least one trait in the other list. This approach identified a small number of traits (canopy height, leaf dry matter content, leaf size, and specific leaf area) that provide a means of linking vegetation responses to environmental change with changes in ecosystem function. Other response traits included vegetative spread strategy, start of flowering, and seed terminal velocity, but within the system studied these traits were all significantly correlated to the traits shared between the response and effect lists.

  2. Causal trait theories: a new form of person knowledge that explains egocentric pattern projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Rom, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Representations of the self and others include not only piecemeal traits but also causal trait theories-explanations for why a person's standing on 1 trait causes or is caused by standings on other traits (Studies 1a-1c). These causal theories help resolve the puzzle of egocentric pattern projection-the tendency for people to assume that traits correlate in the population in the same way they align in the self. Causal trait theories-created to explain trait co-occurrence in a single person-are exported to guide one's implicit personality theories about people in general (Study 2). Pattern projection was found to be largely egocentric (i.e., more strong guided by self- than by social perceptions) for 2 reasons. First, causal trait theories are more numerous for the self. When participants were prompted to generate causal trait theories about someone else, they pattern projected more from that person (Study 3). Second, causal trait theories about the self are more likely to draw on behavioral information from multiple contexts instead of merely seeking to explain why 2 traits co-occur in a single context. Causal trait theories based on trait-relevant behaviors from different contexts, instead of trait co-occurrence within a single context, produce more pattern projection (Study 4). Implications for self and social cognition are discussed. PMID:25643223

  3. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vereijken Addie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species.

  4. Causal trait theories: a new form of person knowledge that explains egocentric pattern projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Dunning, David; Rom, Sarah C

    2015-03-01

    Representations of the self and others include not only piecemeal traits but also causal trait theories-explanations for why a person's standing on 1 trait causes or is caused by standings on other traits (Studies 1a-1c). These causal theories help resolve the puzzle of egocentric pattern projection-the tendency for people to assume that traits correlate in the population in the same way they align in the self. Causal trait theories-created to explain trait co-occurrence in a single person-are exported to guide one's implicit personality theories about people in general (Study 2). Pattern projection was found to be largely egocentric (i.e., more strong guided by self- than by social perceptions) for 2 reasons. First, causal trait theories are more numerous for the self. When participants were prompted to generate causal trait theories about someone else, they pattern projected more from that person (Study 3). Second, causal trait theories about the self are more likely to draw on behavioral information from multiple contexts instead of merely seeking to explain why 2 traits co-occur in a single context. Causal trait theories based on trait-relevant behaviors from different contexts, instead of trait co-occurrence within a single context, produce more pattern projection (Study 4). Implications for self and social cognition are discussed.

  5. Multi-trait QTL analysis for agronomic and quality characters of Agaricus bisporus (button mushrooms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Baars, Johan J P; Maliepaard, Chris; Visser, Richard G F; Zhang, Jinxia; Sonnenberg, Anton S M

    2016-12-01

    The demand for button mushrooms of high quality is increasing. Superior button mushroom varieties require the combination of multiple traits to maximize productivity and quality. Very often these traits are correlated and should, therefore, be evaluated together rather than as single traits. In order to unravel the genetic architecture of multiple traits of Agaricus bisporus and the genetic correlations among traits, we have investigated a total of six agronomic and quality traits through multi-trait QTL analyses in a mixed-model. Traits were evaluated in three heterokaryon sets. Significant phenotypic correlations were observed among traits. For instance, earliness (ER) correlated to firmness (FM), cap color, and compost colonization, and FM correlated to scales (SC). QTLs of different traits located on the same chromosomes genetically explains the phenotypic correlations. QTL detected on chromosome 10 mainly affects three traits, i.e., ER, FM and SC. It explained 31.4 % phenotypic variation of SC on mushroom cap (heterokaryon Set 1), 14.9 % that of the FM (heterokaryon Set 3), and 14.2 % that of ER (heterokaryon Set 3). High value alleles from the wild parental line showed beneficial effects for several traits, suggesting that the wild germplasm is a valuable donor in terms of those traits. Due to the limitations of recombination pattern, we only made a start at understanding the genetic base for several agronomic and quality traits in button mushrooms. PMID:27620731

  6. Genetic Factors Affecting Performance Traits of Sahiwal Cattle in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Rehman*§ and M. S. Khan1

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on 23925 lactations of 5897 Sahiwal cows in five Government herds of Punjab province were collected to estimate the genetic control and genetic correlations among performance traits. A repeatability animal model having herd-year-season and parity was used for this purpose. The repeatability estimates for 305-d milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period were 0.40±0.015, 0.40±0.016, 0.33±0.013, 0.14±0.005, 0.15±0.004, and 0.14±0.005 respectively. The heritability estimates for these traits were 0.10±0.016, 0.09±0.016, 0.06±0.013, 0.14±0.009, 0.15±0.010, and 0.14±0.010, respectively. The phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlation of 305-d milk yield with lactation length was 0.71, 0.48 and 0.70, respectively, with dry period was -0.31, -0.43 and -0.22, respectively while with calving interval and service period exhibited similar pattern (0.08, 0.25 and 0.08, respectively. The estimated breeding values ranged from -447 to 1254 kg, -442 to 1265 kg, -24 to 38, -78 to 116, -84 to 107 and -81 to 91, days for 305-day milk yield, total milk yield, lactation length, dry period, calving interval and service period, respectively. No specific genetic trend was observed for performance traits during the period under study. Cows have not improved in their ability to perform in various economic traits. Accurate recording of pedigree and performance is necessary for improving the performance traits of Sahiwal. Due to high repeatability estimates of yield traits selection or culling may be practised from first few records.

  7. Five-factor model personality traits in opioid dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordvik Hilmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality traits may form a part of the aetiology of opioid dependence. For instance, opioid dependence may result from self-medication in emotionally unstable individuals, or from experimenting with drugs in sensation seekers. The five factor model (FFM has obtained a central position in contemporary personality trait theory. The five factors are: Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Few studies have examined whether there is a distinct personality pattern associated with opioid dependence. Methods We compared FFM personality traits in 65 opioid dependent persons (mean age 27 years, 34% females in outpatient counselling after a minimum of 5 weeks in buprenorphine replacement therapy, with those in a non-clinical, age- and sex-matched sample selected from a national database. Personality traits were assessed by a Norwegian version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R, a 240-item self-report questionnaire. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for the differences in personality trait scores. Results The opioid-dependent sample scored higher on Neuroticism, lower on Extraversion and lower on Conscientiousness (d = -1.7, 1.2 and 1.7, respectively than the controls. Effects sizes were small for the difference between the groups in Openness to experience scores and Agreeableness scores. Conclusion We found differences of medium and large effect sizes between the opioid dependent group and the matched comparison group, suggesting that the personality traits of people with opioid dependence are in fact different from those of non-clinical peers.

  8. Applications of spectral inversion to understanding vegetation functional trait relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiklomanov, A. N.; Dietze, M.; Viskari, T.; Townsend, P. A.; Serbin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral data from both field observations and remote sensing platforms are a rich source of information for studying plant traits. Traditional approaches to using spectral data for studying vegetation have proven effective in sensor-, site-, or plant type-specific settings, but differences in model assumptions and failure to account for uncertainties have hindered efforts to synthesize observations from different sources and use spectral data in a predictive capacity. Here we present a novel approach that uses Bayesian inversion of the PROSPECT 5 leaf radiative transfer model (RTM) to investigate the ability of spectral data to inform our understanding of plant functional traits. First, we validated our method by comparing inversion results to independent measurements of relevant leaf structural and biochemical parameters. Second, we tested the accuracy and precision of RTM parameter retrieval as a function of spectral resolution and quality by performing inversions on simulated observations for a variety of common remote sensing platforms. We observed predictable increases in parameter uncertainty and covariance with declining spectral resolution, but we also found that the measurement characteristics of all sensors are capable of providing information about at least some of the parameters of interest. Finally, we applied our inversion to a large database of field spectra and plant traits spanning tropical, temperate, and boreal forests, agricultural plots, arid shrublands, and tundra to identify dominant sources of variability and characterize trade-offs in plant functional traits. We found substantial intraspecific variability in traits and explored the extent to which this variability falls along the same axes as the interspecific leaf economics spectrum. Ultimately, our results show that Bayesian RTM inversion provides a powerful framework for using spectral data to inform our understanding of plant functional traits and how they are linked with ecosystem

  9. Functional mapping imprinted quantitative trait loci underlying developmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gengxin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic imprinting, a phenomenon referring to nonequivalent expression of alleles depending on their parental origins, has been widely observed in nature. It has been shown recently that the epigenetic modification of an imprinted gene can be detected through a genetic mapping approach. Such an approach is developed based on traditional quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping focusing on single trait analysis. Recent studies have shown that most imprinted genes in mammals play an important role in controlling embryonic growth and post-natal development. For a developmental character such as growth, current approach is less efficient in dissecting the dynamic genetic effect of imprinted genes during individual ontology. Results Functional mapping has been emerging as a powerful framework for mapping quantitative trait loci underlying complex traits showing developmental characteristics. To understand the genetic architecture of dynamic imprinted traits, we propose a mapping strategy by integrating the functional mapping approach with genomic imprinting. We demonstrate the approach through mapping imprinted QTL controlling growth trajectories in an inbred F2 population. The statistical behavior of the approach is shown through simulation studies, in which the parameters can be estimated with reasonable precision under different simulation scenarios. The utility of the approach is illustrated through real data analysis in an F2 family derived from LG/J and SM/J mouse stains. Three maternally imprinted QTLs are identified as regulating the growth trajectory of mouse body weight. Conclusion The functional iQTL mapping approach developed here provides a quantitative and testable framework for assessing the interplay between imprinted genes and a developmental process, and will have important implications for elucidating the genetic architecture of imprinted traits.

  10. Trait variation in yeast is defined by population history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Warringer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental goal in biology is to achieve a mechanistic understanding of how and to what extent ecological variation imposes selection for distinct traits and favors the fixation of specific genetic variants. Key to such an understanding is the detailed mapping of the natural genomic and phenomic space and a bridging of the gap that separates these worlds. Here we chart a high-resolution map of natural trait variation in one of the most important genetic model organisms, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its closest wild relatives and trace the genetic basis and timing of major phenotype changing events in its recent history. We show that natural trait variation in S. cerevisiae exceeds that of its relatives, despite limited genetic variation, and follows the population history rather than the source environment. In particular, the West African population is phenotypically unique, with an extreme abundance of low-performance alleles, notably a premature translational termination signal in GAL3 that cause inability to utilize galactose. Our observations suggest that many S. cerevisiae traits may be the consequence of genetic drift rather than selection, in line with the assumption that natural yeast lineages are remnants of recent population bottlenecks. Disconcertingly, the universal type strain S288C was found to be highly atypical, highlighting the danger of extrapolating gene-trait connections obtained in mosaic, lab-domesticated lineages to the species as a whole. Overall, this study represents a step towards an in-depth understanding of the causal relationship between co-variation in ecology, selection pressure, natural traits, molecular mechanism, and alleles in a key model organism.

  11. Selection for nitrogen fixation associative traits in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes investigations carried out to develop screening procedures to select for plant characteristics associated with symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The procedures described are to select for early nodulation, effectiveness in nitrogen fixation, and uniform nodulation by an effective strain of Rhizobium. The use of the acetylene reduction technique to select for nitrogenase activity and its correlation with other plant traits is discussed. The use of nuclear techniques to increase genetic variability in legumes and to evaluate legume germ plasms bred for nitrogen fixation associative traits is also discussed in the context of crop improvement. (author)

  12. Short communication: Genetic variation in estrus activity traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, P; Chagunda, M G G

    2009-01-01

    Genetic variation in estrus traits derived from hourly measurements by electronic activity tags was studied in an experimental herd of Holstein (n = 211), Jersey (n = 126), and Red Dane (n = 178) cows. Both virgin heifers (n = 132) and lactating cows in the first 4 parities (n = 895 cow parities......) were used, giving a total of 3,284 high-activity episodes indicating estrus. The first estrus after calving was predicted to occur on average, at 39, 44, and 45 d in milk for Red Danes, Holsteins, and Jerseys, respectively. Genetic variance was detected for the trait days to first high activity...

  13. An atlas of genetic correlations across human diseases and traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Finucane, Hilary K; Anttila, Verneri;

    2015-01-01

    Identifying genetic correlations between complex traits and diseases can provide useful etiological insights and help prioritize likely causal relationships. The major challenges preventing estimation of genetic correlation from genome-wide association study (GWAS) data with current methods...... overlap. We use this method to estimate 276 genetic correlations among 24 traits. The results include genetic correlations between anorexia nervosa and schizophrenia, anorexia and obesity, and educational attainment and several diseases. These results highlight the power of genome-wide analyses......, as there currently are no significantly associated SNPs for anorexia nervosa and only three for educational attainment....

  14. QTL mapping for production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejickova, J; Stipkova, M; Sahana, Goutam;

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find QTL for milk production traits in Czech Fleckvieh cattle on chromosomes 6, 7, 11, 14, and 23 where QTL were previously identified in other dairy cattle populations. Sixteen grandsire families were genotyped for 38 microsatellite markers on the selected...... of milk production in the Czech Fleckvieh cattle....... associated with milk production traits appeared on other studied chromosomes (BTA6, BTA7, BTA11, and BTA23). This first QTL search on five chromosomes in Czech Fleckvieh population showed several suggestive QTL that can be promising for further studies and contribute to better understanding of genetics...

  15. Efficiency of genomic selection using Bayesian multimarker models for traits selected to reflect a wide range of heritabilities and frequencies of detected quantitative traits loci in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapell, Dagmar NRG; Sorensen, Daniel; Su, Guosheng;

    2012-01-01

    , behavioural and physiological traits were selected for the analysis to reflect a wide range of heritabilities (0.10 to 0.74) and numbers of detected quantitative traits loci (QTL) (1 to 20) affecting those traits. The analysis included estimation of variance components and cross-validation within and between...... families. Results Genomic selection showed a high predictive ability (PA) in comparison to traditional polygenic selection, especially for traits of moderate heritability and when cross-validation was between families. This occurred although the proportion of genomic variance of traits using genomic models...... generally performed better than traditional polygenic selection, especially in the context of between family cross-validation. Reducing the number of markers considered to affect the trait did not significantly change PA for most traits, particularly in the case of within family cross...

  16. Genetic dissection of bioenerrgy traits in sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermerris, Wilfred; Kresovich, Stephen; Murray, Seth; Pedersen, Jeffery; Rooney, William; Sattler, Scott.

    2012-06-15

    these lines is in progress. Objective 2 The experiments from this objective have been completed and the data were published in the journal Crop Science by Felderhoff et al. (2012). A second publication by Felderhoff et al. is in progress (see publication list for full details). The experiments were based on a mapping population derived from the sweet sorghum 'Rio' and the dry-stalk grain sorghum BTx3197. The main findings were: 1) The apparent juiciness of the sorghum stalk, based on the appearance of a cut stem surface (moist vs. pithy), is not representative of the moisture content of the stalk. This was surprising, as pithy stalks have been associated with low moisture content. This means that in order to assess 'juiciness', a different evaluation needs to be used, for example by removing juice with a roller press or by measuring the difference in mass between a fresh and dried stalk segment. 2) A total of five QTLs associated with juice volume (corrected for height) or moisture content were identified, but not all QTLs were detected in all environments, providing evidence for genotype x environment interactions. This finding complicates breeding for juice volume using marker-assisted selection. 3) The QTL for sugar concentration identified on chromosome 3, and the subject of Objective 1, was confirmed in this mapping population, but unlike in previous studies (Murray et al., 2008), the presence of this QTL was associated with negative impacts on agronomic performance (fresh and dry biomass yield, juice yield). Consequently, introgression of the Brix QTL from Rio as part of a commercial breeding program will require monitoring of the precise impacts of this QTL on agronomic performance. 4) The absence of dominance effects for the Brix trait (= sugar concentration) indicated that Brix must be high in both parents to produce high Brix in hybrids. This means an extra constraint on the development of hybrid parents. With the results from Objective 1

  17. Factors affecting the reproductive traits of Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Flavia Vilas Boas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For dairy cattle breeds, mainly the taurine ones, the selection emphasized for many years the increase in milk yields and, as a consequence, the adaptive and reproductive traits were negatively affected. The aim of this study was to verify the influence of genetic and environmental effects on the reproductive traits in a dairy herd selected for high milk production levels. The data set comprised 1,737 first lactations Holsteins cows of Agrindus Farm, located at Southeastern region of Brazil. The records of the following reproductive traits: calving to first heat interval (CFHI, calving to conception interval (CCI and first to second calving interval (FCI were analyzed as dependent variables by least squares method using GLM procedure (SAS. Linear models were considered including two production levels (1= less than 9,500 kg and 2= more than 9,501 kg of total milk yield, contemporary group (year and months calving, management group, sire of cow, and the sire used to breeding cows, as classificatory variables. As covariates were included for all traits the peak milk yield in lactation (linear effect, age at calving only for CFHI (linear and quadratic effects since this effect was not significant for other traits, and CFHI (linear effect only for FCI. The coefficients of determination represented 24%, 74% and 75%, respectively for CFHI, FCI and CCI models. Production level, peak milk yield and sire effects were significant (P<0.05 for all traits. The average estimated for high and low milk production level were 73 and 79 days, 500 and 601 days, 227 and 330 days for CFHI, FCI and CCI, respectively, suggesting that cows with higher genetic potential for milk had worse reproductive performance. Similarly, lactation peak showed significant effect (P<0.05 for all traits, suggesting higher peaks cows showed also poorer reproductive rates. Sire effect also was a variable that showed significant effect (P<0.01 for all traits, which means that there was

  18. Scaling up functional traits for ecosystem services with remote sensing: concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelleira Martínez, Oscar J; Fremier, Alexander K; Günter, Sven; Ramos Bendaña, Zayra; Vierling, Lee; Galbraith, Sara M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Ordoñez, Jenny C

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem service-based management requires an accurate understanding of how human modification influences ecosystem processes and these relationships are most accurate when based on functional traits. Although trait variation is typically sampled at local scales, remote sensing methods can facilitate scaling up trait variation to regional scales needed for ecosystem service management. We review concepts and methods for scaling up plant and animal functional traits from local to regional spatial scales with the goal of assessing impacts of human modification on ecosystem processes and services. We focus our objectives on considerations and approaches for (1) conducting local plot-level sampling of trait variation and (2) scaling up trait variation to regional spatial scales using remotely sensed data. We show that sampling methods for scaling up traits need to account for the modification of trait variation due to land cover change and species introductions. Sampling intraspecific variation, stratification by land cover type or landscape context, or inference of traits from published sources may be necessary depending on the traits of interest. Passive and active remote sensing are useful for mapping plant phenological, chemical, and structural traits. Combining these methods can significantly improve their capacity for mapping plant trait variation. These methods can also be used to map landscape and vegetation structure in order to infer animal trait variation. Due to high context dependency, relationships between trait variation and remotely sensed data are not directly transferable across regions. We end our review with a brief synthesis of issues to consider and outlook for the development of these approaches. Research that relates typical functional trait metrics, such as the community-weighted mean, with remote sensing data and that relates variation in traits that cannot be remotely sensed to other proxies is needed. Our review narrows the gap between

  19. Scaling up functional traits for ecosystem services with remote sensing: concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelleira Martínez, Oscar J; Fremier, Alexander K; Günter, Sven; Ramos Bendaña, Zayra; Vierling, Lee; Galbraith, Sara M; Bosque-Pérez, Nilsa A; Ordoñez, Jenny C

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem service-based management requires an accurate understanding of how human modification influences ecosystem processes and these relationships are most accurate when based on functional traits. Although trait variation is typically sampled at local scales, remote sensing methods can facilitate scaling up trait variation to regional scales needed for ecosystem service management. We review concepts and methods for scaling up plant and animal functional traits from local to regional spatial scales with the goal of assessing impacts of human modification on ecosystem processes and services. We focus our objectives on considerations and approaches for (1) conducting local plot-level sampling of trait variation and (2) scaling up trait variation to regional spatial scales using remotely sensed data. We show that sampling methods for scaling up traits need to account for the modification of trait variation due to land cover change and species introductions. Sampling intraspecific variation, stratification by land cover type or landscape context, or inference of traits from published sources may be necessary depending on the traits of interest. Passive and active remote sensing are useful for mapping plant phenological, chemical, and structural traits. Combining these methods can significantly improve their capacity for mapping plant trait variation. These methods can also be used to map landscape and vegetation structure in order to infer animal trait variation. Due to high context dependency, relationships between trait variation and remotely sensed data are not directly transferable across regions. We end our review with a brief synthesis of issues to consider and outlook for the development of these approaches. Research that relates typical functional trait metrics, such as the community-weighted mean, with remote sensing data and that relates variation in traits that cannot be remotely sensed to other proxies is needed. Our review narrows the gap between

  20. Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-East China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Kröber

    Full Text Available Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics

  1. Leaf trait-environment relationships in a subtropical broadleaved forest in South-East China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröber, Wenzel; Böhnke, Martin; Welk, Erik; Wirth, Christian; Bruelheide, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Although trait analyses have become more important in community ecology, trait-environment correlations have rarely been studied along successional gradients. We asked which environmental variables had the strongest impact on intraspecific and interspecific trait variation in the community and which traits were most responsive to the environment. We established a series of plots in a secondary forest in the Chinese subtropics, stratified by successional stages that were defined by the time elapsed since the last logging activities. On a total of 27 plots all woody plants were recorded and a set of individuals of every species was analysed for leaf traits, resulting in a trait matrix of 26 leaf traits for 122 species. A Fourth Corner Analysis revealed that the mean values of many leaf traits were tightly related to the successional gradient. Most shifts in traits followed the leaf economics spectrum with decreasing specific leaf area and leaf nutrient contents with successional time. Beside succession, few additional environmental variables resulted in significant trait relationships, such as soil moisture and soil C and N content as well as topographical variables. Not all traits were related to the leaf economics spectrum, and thus, to the successional gradient, such as stomata size and density. By comparing different permutation models in the Fourth Corner Analysis, we found that the trait-environment link was based more on the association of species with the environment than of the communities with species traits. The strong species-environment association was brought about by a clear gradient in species composition along the succession series, while communities were not well differentiated in mean trait composition. In contrast, intraspecific trait variation did not show close environmental relationships. The study confirmed the role of environmental trait filtering in subtropical forests, with traits associated with the leaf economics spectrum being the most

  2. A test of biological trait analysis with nematodes and an anthropogenic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitwally, Hanan M; Fleeger, John W

    2016-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are fundamentally altered by nutrient enrichment, and effective monitoring tools are needed to detect biological responses especially in the early stages of eutrophication. We tested the utility of biological trait analysis (BTA) to quantify the temporal responses of nematodes inhabiting salt marsh creeks that were experimentally enriched with nutrients for 6 years. Feeding, body shape, and tail shape traits were characterized on >6000 nematodes from annual samples from enriched and non-enriched sites. Here, we ask if trait combinations are more effective than single traits in detecting the magnitude and rate of change. We also sought to identify combinations of traits that best distinguish natural from nutrient-induced variation. BTA revealed that feeding, body shape, and all traits combined equally detected the response to nutrient enrichment. Compared to single traits however, BTAs were more sensitive to temporal trends and better distinguished natural variation from the response to nutrient enrichment. Tail shape traits (that might respond to altered sediment texture or geochemistry) were not affected by enrichment, and feeding traits yielded the greatest difference between enriched and reference communities indicating that changes in food resources drove responses. Feeding traits provided the highest quality information content in our study, and the use of feeding traits alone may adequately identify anthropogenic effects in many studies. However, we caution that body shape, tail shape, and feeding traits were strongly interrelated at our study site, and a diversity of trait groups may increase the information content of BTAs in more diverse habitats.

  3. Evolutionary changes in correlations among functional traits in Ceanothus in response to Mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Hardig

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ceanothus is a widely speciated genus with two sections that differ markedly in size, patterns of biomass allocation and reproductive strategies. On greenhouse-grown seedlings we tested whether divergence occurred in single traits or in suites of traits, and whether taxonomic affinity or the ability to fix nitrogen (N influenced the relationships among functional traits. Species of the subgenus Cerastes differed from species in the subgenus Ceanothus in the following characteristics: reproduction by seed rather than primarily resprouting, high rates of photosynthesis and high stomatal conductance, thick leaves, low root allocation, and high leaf allocation. Correlations of traits across the entire genus showed positive correlations among traits that maximize photosynthesis and tradeoffs between root allocation and carbon gain patterns frequently observed in other broad taxonomic comparisons. Trait correlations differed between the two subgenera (divergence in allocation-photosynthesis tradeoffs in Ceanothus and divergence of growth-related traits in Cerastes. Similarly, N-fixers, which were distributed broadly between the two subgenera, differed in trait correlations (primarily among traits related to photosynthesis from non-fixers (primarily among traits related to growth and allocation. These results indicate that 1 divergence in genus Ceanothus was associated with changes in entire suite of traits, rather than independent changes in individual traits and 2 evolution occurring under different environmental or nutritional circumstances alters the suites of traits exhibited by plants.

  4. Incorporating traits in aquatic biomonitoring to enhance causal diagnosis and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Joseph M; Armanini, David G; Dunbar, Michael J; Orlofske, Jessica M; Poff, N LeRoy; Pollard, Amina I; Yates, Adam G; Hose, Grant C

    2011-04-01

    The linkage of trait responses to stressor gradients has potential to expand biomonitoring approaches beyond traditional taxonomically based assessments that identify ecological effect to provide a causal diagnosis. Traits-based information may have several advantages over taxonomically based methods. These include providing mechanistic linkages of biotic responses to environmental conditions, consistent descriptors or metrics across broad spatial scales, more seasonal stability compared with taxonomic measures, and seamless integration of traits-based analysis into assessment programs. A traits-based biomonitoring approach does not require a new biomonitoring framework, because contemporary biomonitoring programs gather the basic site-by-species composition matrices required to link community data to the traits database. Impediments to the adoption of traits-based biomonitoring relate to the availability, consistency, and applicability of existing trait data. For example, traits generalizations among taxa across biogeographical regions are rare, and no consensus exists relative to the required taxonomic resolution and methodology for traits assessment. Similarly, we must determine if traits form suites that are related to particular stressor effects, and whether significant variation of traits occurs among allopatric populations. Finally, to realize the potential of traits-based approaches in biomonitoring, a concerted effort to standardize terminology is required, along with the establishment of protocols to ease the sharing and merging of broad, geographical trait information. PMID:21442732

  5. A test of biological trait analysis with nematodes and an anthropogenic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitwally, Hanan M; Fleeger, John W

    2016-03-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are fundamentally altered by nutrient enrichment, and effective monitoring tools are needed to detect biological responses especially in the early stages of eutrophication. We tested the utility of biological trait analysis (BTA) to quantify the temporal responses of nematodes inhabiting salt marsh creeks that were experimentally enriched with nutrients for 6 years. Feeding, body shape, and tail shape traits were characterized on >6000 nematodes from annual samples from enriched and non-enriched sites. Here, we ask if trait combinations are more effective than single traits in detecting the magnitude and rate of change. We also sought to identify combinations of traits that best distinguish natural from nutrient-induced variation. BTA revealed that feeding, body shape, and all traits combined equally detected the response to nutrient enrichment. Compared to single traits however, BTAs were more sensitive to temporal trends and better distinguished natural variation from the response to nutrient enrichment. Tail shape traits (that might respond to altered sediment texture or geochemistry) were not affected by enrichment, and feeding traits yielded the greatest difference between enriched and reference communities indicating that changes in food resources drove responses. Feeding traits provided the highest quality information content in our study, and the use of feeding traits alone may adequately identify anthropogenic effects in many studies. However, we caution that body shape, tail shape, and feeding traits were strongly interrelated at our study site, and a diversity of trait groups may increase the information content of BTAs in more diverse habitats. PMID:26846290

  6. Why do personality traits predict divorce? Multiple pathways through satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Brittany C; Jackson, Joshua J

    2014-06-01

    While previous studies indicate that personality traits influence the likelihood of divorce, the processes that drive this relationship have yet to be examined. Accordingly, the current study utilized a nationally representative, longitudinal sample (N = 8,206) to test whether relationship satisfaction is a pathway by which personality traits influence relationship dissolution. Specifically, we examined 2 different pathways: the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways. The enduring dynamics pathway specifies that the association between personality and relationship satisfaction reflects ongoing relationship dynamics, which are presumed to be stable across a relationship. In contrast, the emergent distress pathway proposes that personality leads to worsening dynamics across the course of a relationship, which is indicated by changes in satisfaction. For each pathway, we assessed actor, partner, and combined effects for the Big Five. Results replicate previous research in that personality traits prospectively predict relationship dissolution. Both the enduring dynamics and emergent distress pathways served to explain this relationship, though the enduring dynamics model evidenced the largest effects. The emergent distress pathway was stronger for couples who experienced certain life events, suggesting that personality plays a role in adapting to changing life circumstances. Moreover, results suggest that the personality of the dyad is important in this process: Above and beyond actor effects, partner effects influenced relationship functioning (although the influence of combined effects was less clear). In sum, the current study demonstrates that personality traits shape the overall quality of one's relationship, which in turn influences the likelihood of relationship dissolution.

  7. Environmentally sensitive life-cycle traits have low elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forbes, Valery E.; Olsen, Mette; Palmqvist, Annemette;

    2010-01-01

    . In particular, we found that fecundity was generally more sensitive to chemical stress than was juvenile or adult survival or time to first reproduction, whereas fecundity typically had a lower elasticity than the other life-cycle traits. Similar relationships have been recorded in field populations for a wide...

  8. On Flexible finite polygenic models for multiple-trait evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bink, M.C.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Finite polygenic models (FPM) might be an alternative to the infinitesimal model (TIM) for the genetic evaluation of pedigreed multiple-generation populations for multiple quantitative traits. I present a general flexible Bayesian method that includes the number of genes in the FPM as an additional

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci Analysis of Allelopathy in Rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Courtois, B; Olofsdotter, M

    2008-01-01

    the population phenotype was normally distributed. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were located on chromosomes 4 and 7, explaining 20% of the phenotypic variation. A second relay seeding experiment was set up, this time including charcoal in the perlite. This screening showed that the allelopathic rice...

  10. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention. PMID:26224584

  11. Adolescent Suicide: Character Traits of High-Risk Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiger, Brad L.; Hopkins, Rodney W.

    1988-01-01

    Examines personality traits and life circumstances which place adolescents at higher risk for suicide. Discusses depression, acute suicidal behavior, poor family relationships, alcohol and drug use, recent loss, failure in school, and other characteristics. Urges parents and professionals to know suicide signs and be active in prevention and…

  12. Distinct ADHD Symptom Clusters Differentially Associated with Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Ashley A.; Canu, Will H.; Schneider, H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: ADHD has been linked to various constructs, yet there is a lack of focus on how its symptom clusters differentially associate with personality, which this study addresses. Method: The current study examines the relationship between impulsive and inattentive ADHD traits and personality, indexed by the Revised NEO Personality Inventory…

  13. Autism spectrum traits in children with anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.A. van Steensel; S.M. Bögels; J.J. Wood

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic

  14. Validation of Commercial DNA Tests for Beef Quality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Associations between three commercially-available genetic marker panels (GeneSTAR® Quality Grade, GeneSTAR® Tenderness, and Igenity TenderGENE™) and quantitative beef traits were validated by the National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC). Validation was interpreted to be the independent ver...

  15. Examining Teachers' Trait, State and Cursive Handwriting Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Zeynep; Arslan, Derya; Karatas, Mustafa Erdal

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the trait and state anxiety and cursive handwriting anxiety of teachers differs according to assorted variables. The study group for this research project is composed of 381 teachers from the city of Burdur and the district centre of Bucak, Turkey. Of these participants, 44% were female and 56% were male. As for the…

  16. The term risk: etymology, legal definition and various traits

    OpenAIRE

    Gaetano Liuzzo; Stefano Bentley; Federica Giacometti; Elena Bonfante; Andrea Serraino

    2014-01-01

    The etymology of the term risk and its legal qualification and definitions are reported in this article; decription of the various traits of the term risk used in food safety management (acceptable risk, current risk, emerging risk, crude risk, unrestricted risk, perceived risk, real risk, residual risk, reduced risk, baseline risk, serious risk, major technological risk, etc.) are presented and discussed.

  17. Seedling traits determine drought tolerance of tropical tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Markesteijn, L.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability is the most important factor determining tree species distribution in the tropics, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. In this study, we compared functional traits of 38 tropical tree species from dry and moist forest, and quantified their ability to survive drought

  18. Personality Traits and Occupational Stress among Chinese Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the predictive power of personality traits for occupational stress among Chinese university academics. Two hundred and forty-six participants responded to the NEO Five-Factor Inventory and the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised. Results indicated that the strongest predictor for occupational…

  19. Approaches to Dissect the Complex Genetic Architecture of Common Traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.V. Struchalin (Maksim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractGenome-wide association studies (GWAS) have substantially improved our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of many common traits. For the last decade, more than a thousand genetic variants were discovered using GWAS. The fast development of the field necessitated the improv

  20. The construction of a joint taxonomy of traits and situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berge, Maarten; De Raad, B.

    2001-01-01

    This study implements the first steps to be taken in the Construction of a taxonomy of situations front a trait psychological perspective. Taking the AB(5)C model of personality characteristics (De Raad et al., 1992) as a point of departure, a collection of situations that is linked to the personali

  1. Educational Software for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, T. C.; Doetkott, C.

    2007-01-01

    This educational software was developed to aid teachers and students in their understanding of how the process of identifying the most likely quantitative trait loci (QTL) position is determined between two flanking DNA markers. The objective of the software that we developed was to: (1) show how a QTL is mapped to a position on a chromosome using…

  2. Associations between milk protein polymorphisms and milk production traits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenhuis, H.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Korver, S.

    1992-01-01

    Associations between milk protein genotypes and milk production traits were estimated from 6803 first lactation records. Exact tests of associated hypotheses and unbiased estimates of genotype effects were from an animal model. Milk protein genotype effects were estimated using a model in which each

  3. Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking between 30 sibling pairs of stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological brothers/sisters who did not have a significant drug-taking history and 30 unrelated, nondrug-taking control volunteers. Results Siblings of chronic stimulant users reported significantly higher levels of trait-impulsivity than control volunteers but did not differ from control volunteers with regard to sensation-seeking traits. Stimulant-dependent individuals reported significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking compared with both their siblings and control volunteers. Conclusions These data indicate that impulsivity is a behavioral endophenotype mediating risk for stimulant dependence that may be exacerbated by chronic drug exposure, whereas abnormal sensation-seeking is more likely to be an effect of stimulant drug abuse. PMID:20678754

  4. Singing Activity Reveals Personality Traits in Great Tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naguib, Marc; Kazek, Agnieszka; Schaper, Sonja V.; van Oers, Kees; Visser, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    In animal communication, sexually selected signals have been shown to often signal individual attributes such as motivation or quality. Birdsong is among the best studied signalling systems, and song traits vary substantially among individuals. The question remains if variation in signalling also re

  5. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  6. Personality Traits as a Function of Beliefs and Childhood Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, George

    The origins of personality traits and emotions have long been a subject of investigation and controversy. Beginning with Freud, an argument has been made from a wide variety of perspectives that early childhood relationships to parents are a primary factor in shaping personality. Within a cognitive paradigm, people's beliefs about themselves and…

  7. Morphological traits and inbreeding depression in Bracco Italiano dog breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cecchi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first results of a survey on morphological traits in Bracco Italiano dog breed, and analyzes the effects of various levels of inbreeding on these measures. Traits were taken from 155 adult (mean age 4.18±2.60 years dogs (79 males and 76 females belonging to 57 different farms. For each animal, the following biometrical measurements were considered: height at withers (WH, height of chest (ChH, body length (BL, length at rump (RL, height at rump (RH, iliac width of rump (RIlW, ischiatic width of rump (RIsW, circumference of chest (ChC, circumference of cannon (CaC, length of ear (EL, and length of head (HL. The ratio of rump length/withers height (RL/WH, cannon circumference/chest circumference (CaC/ChC and head length/withers height (HL/WH were also calculated. ANOVA was used to test the differences between males and females and among farms in terms of morphological measurements and ratios. Significant differences between males and females were observed for many morphological traits. The measures coincided with what reported in the current breed standard, apart from the length of the rump, which was around ¼ of the withers height rather than the 1/3 required in the standard. No significant effect of inbreeding on conformation traits was observed.

  8. A Commentary on Pitfalls of Predicting Complex Traits From SNP's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de los Campos, Gustavo; Sorensen, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    As stated by Wray and co-authors1, knowing the proportion of variance of a trait that is explained by regression on markers in the population (h2M) is relevant because, in principle, h2M represents the maximum prediction accuracy (R2TST) that is achievable in testing (TST) data if marker effects ...

  9. Personality Traits of Police Cadets: Relationship to Academy Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Bruce W.; Kardash, Carol Anne

    A study examined the relationship of the personality traits of 94 police cadets to their performance at a southwestern state law enforcement academy. The overall training success (percentage of total points earned) of recruits enrolled in 11 weeks of on-site training classes was the primary criterion of the study, and raw personality factor scores…

  10. Autism Spectrum Traits in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Francisca J. A.; Bogels, Susan M.; Wood, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine ASD traits in children with clinical anxiety in early development, as well as current manifestations. Parents of 42 children with an anxiety disorder (but no known diagnosis of ASD) and 42 typically developing children were interviewed using the Autism Diagnostic Interview (ADI-R). They also completed…

  11. Forgiveness as a Leadership Trait for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryder, Theodore D.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate forgiveness as a leadership trait. The methodology for this quantitative and qualitative study consisted of electronic surveys and in-depth interviews with elementary and middle school principals. This research explored the effects of revenge and avoidance on school leadership and the possible positive…

  12. Perceived Personality Traits of Individuals with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Jessica E.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prior research has found evidence of a general negative personality stereotype for individuals who have anorexia nervosa (AN). Methods: This study examined the expected personality characteristics of individuals with AN using the Five-Factor Model of personality to allow identification of specific personality traits that are part of…

  13. Personality Traits across Cultures and Research on Obedience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by Twenge on the issue of psychological traits that may differ with culture and ethnicity in discussing the partial replication of Milgram's obedience research (Burger, January 2009). But since a major stimulus for Milgram's research was the destruction of European Jewry (Benjamin & Simpson, January 2009; Blass, 2009), what…

  14. Longitudinal Study on Reciprocity between Personality Traits and Parenting Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Tillemann, Kati; Metsäpelto, Riitta-Leena; Kokko, Katja; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal associations between the Big Five personality traits and parenting stress--including both parents' feelings of their distress and perception of their incompetence as parents--were studied with 248 participants (49% of which were males). Longitudinal data, collected at ages 33/36, 42 and 50 years, were used. Cross-lagged path…

  15. The Relationship among Leisure Interests, Personality Traits, Affect, and Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Todd J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between leisure interests and the Big Five personality traits, positive and negative affect, and moods. Regression analysis identified particular personality but not mood or affect variables as significant predictors of leisure factor scores. Further exploration through factor analysis revealed factor…

  16. Relationship between team identification and trait aggression: a replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wann, Daniel L; Shelton, Sarah; Smith, Tony; Walker, Rhonda

    2002-04-01

    Research yielded no significant relationship between sport fandom and trait aggression. The current study replicated previous efforts using the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, an updated version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory. In contrast to past work, the current study did yield a significant relationship between fandom and aggression for men. PMID:12027356

  17. Combining Abilities of Agronomic and Morphological Traits in Burley Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasminka Butorac

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Two-year investigations (1998-1999 of diallel crosses with four parent cultivars of burley tobacco (TN 86, Saturn, Bs 92, Bols 100 and their six F1 hybrids were carried out at the experimental field of Tobacco Institute Zagreb in Pitomača. The trial was set up according to the RCBD in four replications. Standard agrotehnics for this tobacco type were applied in tobacco growing. The goal of these investigation was to estimate on specific genetic materials the values of parent genotypes as combiners and the best specific cross combinations for agronomic (yield, price and income and morphological traits (topping height, leaf number, days to flowering, leaf length, leaf width and leaf area and internode length. Significant differences between parents and F1 hybrids were found for all investigation traits and years according to analysis of variance. Significant general and specific combining ability were also estimated for all investigation traits, except of specific combining ability for price in both investigation years. According to the GCA/SCA ratio, a higher GCA values were estimated for most traits. The cultivars TN 86 and Bs 92 were the best general combiners, while TN 86 x Bs 92, TN 86 x Bols 100 i Bs 92 x Bols 100 were the best specific combinations in both investigation years.

  18. Sickle Cell Trait Not Linked to Early Death in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- New research challenges the long-held belief that people with sickle cell trait, who are born with ... span and causes sudden episodes of severe pain. People with the disease carry ... on active duty in the U.S. Army over a four-year period. All had undergone ...

  19. First Impressions: Gait Cues Drive Reliable Trait Judgements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, John C.; Vuong, Quoc C.; Atkinson, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    Personality trait attribution can underpin important social decisions and yet requires little effort; even a brief exposure to a photograph can generate lasting impressions. Body movement is a channel readily available to observers and allows judgements to be made when facial and body appearances are less visible; e.g., from great distances.…

  20. Animal models of eating disorder traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas, Martien J H; Adan, Roger A H

    2011-01-01

    Eating disorders, such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa, are psychiatric disorders that are likely determined by a complex interaction between genetic variations, developmental processes, and certain life events. Cross-species analysis of traits related to eating disorders may provide a way to functi

  1. Overdominant quantitative trait loci for yield and fitness in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semel, Yaniv; Nissenbaum, Jonathan; Menda, Naama; Zinder, Michael; Krieger, Uri; Issman, Noa; Pleban, Tzili; Lippman, Zachary; Gur, Amit; Zamir, Dani

    2006-08-29

    Heterosis, or hybrid vigor, is a major genetic force that contributes to world food production. The genetic basis of heterosis is not clear, and the importance of loci with overdominant (ODO) effects is debated. One problem has been the use of whole-genome segregating populations, where interactions often mask the effects of individual loci. To assess the contribution of ODO to heterosis in the absence of epistasis, we carried out quantitative genetic and phenotypic analyses on a population of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) introgression lines (ILs), which carry single marker-defined chromosome segments from the distantly related wild species Solanum pennellii. The ILs revealed 841 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 35 diverse traits measured in the field on homozygous and heterozygous plants. ILs showing greater reproductive fitness were characterized by the prevalence of ODO QTL, which were virtually absent for the nonreproductive traits. ODO can result from true ODO due to allelic interactions of a single gene or from pseudoODO that involves linked loci with dominant alleles in repulsion. The fact that we detected dominant and recessive QTL for all phenotypic categories but ODO only for the reproductive traits indicates that pseudoODO due to random linkage is unlikely to explain heterosis in the ILs. Thus, we favor the true ODO model involving a single functional Mendelian locus. We propose that the alliance of ODO QTL with higher reproductive fitness was selected for in evolution and was domesticated by man to improve yields of crop plants.

  2. Statistical mechanics and the evolution of polygenic quantitative traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barton, N.H.; De Vladar, H.P.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of quantitative characters depends on the frequencies of the alleles involved, yet these frequencies cannot usually be measured. Previous groups have proposed an approximation to the dynamics of quantitative traits, based on an analogy with statistical mechanics. We present a modified

  3. Virtues in action - the new look of character traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Denissen, Jaap J A

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to take fresh look at the nature and psychological meaning of consistency in character traits and virtuous behaviour as manifested in everyday life. To this end, a 10-day experience-sampling study was conducted. Using smartphone technology, a sample of 83 working mothers and fathers provided a total of 4,342 momentary behavioural reports while being in the role of the parent versus being in the job role. Consistent with recent research on personality traits, the findings of the present study showed that people express a wide range of virtue states in their everyday lives. Within-person changes in virtue states were not random but were contingent on people's current role context and also meaningfully related to their momentary affective experiences. At the same time, people's average level of virtue states, their degree of variation in virtue states, and their signature ways of reacting to role contexts turned out to be stable, trait-like individual difference characteristics. Discussion focuses on the implications for the conception of character traits in scientific psychology and beyond. PMID:25641361

  4. Study motivation under social temptation; effects of trait procrastination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouwenburg, HC; Groenewoud, J

    2001-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the view that procrastination can be explained as a result of the joint effect of a general discounting mechanism and a personality trait. To demonstrate the discounting mechanism, the process of study motivation prior to an examination was mentally simulated by 3

  5. An optimal strategy for functional mapping of dynamic trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Tianbo; Li, Jiahan; Guo, Ying; Zhou, Xiaojing; Yang, Runqing; Wu, Rongling

    2010-02-01

    As an emerging powerful approach for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for dynamic traits, functional mapping models the time-dependent mean vector with biologically meaningful equations and are likely to generate biologically relevant and interpretable results. Given the autocorrelation nature of a dynamic trait, functional mapping needs the implementation of the models for the structure of the covariance matrix. In this article, we have provided a comprehensive set of approaches for modelling the covariance structure and incorporated each of these approaches into the framework of functional mapping. The Bayesian information criterion (BIC) values are used as a model selection criterion to choose the optimal combination of the submodels for the mean vector and covariance structure. In an example for leaf age growth from a rice molecular genetic project, the best submodel combination was found between the Gaussian model for the correlation structure, power equation of order 1 for the variance and the power curve for the mean vector. Under this combination, several significant QTLs for leaf age growth trajectories were detected on different chromosomes. Our model can be well used to study the genetic architecture of dynamic traits of agricultural values. PMID:20196894

  6. Variants affecting exon skipping contribute to complex traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younghee Lee

    Full Text Available DNA variants that affect alternative splicing and the relative quantities of different gene transcripts have been shown to be risk alleles for some Mendelian diseases. However, for complex traits characterized by a low odds ratio for any single contributing variant, very few studies have investigated the contribution of splicing variants. The overarching goal of this study is to discover and characterize the role that variants affecting alternative splicing may play in the genetic etiology of complex traits, which include a significant number of the common human diseases. Specifically, we hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in splicing regulatory elements can be characterized in silico to identify variants affecting splicing, and that these variants may contribute to the etiology of complex diseases as well as the inter-individual variability in the ratios of alternative transcripts. We leverage high-throughput expression profiling to 1 experimentally validate our in silico predictions of skipped exons and 2 characterize the molecular role of intronic genetic variations in alternative splicing events in the context of complex human traits and diseases. We propose that intronic SNPs play a role as genetic regulators within splicing regulatory elements and show that their associated exon skipping events can affect protein domains and structure. We find that SNPs we would predict to affect exon skipping are enriched among the set of SNPs reported to be associated with complex human traits.

  7. The Key to a Librarian's Success: Developing Entrepreneurial Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toftoy, Charles N.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for librarians to develop effective strategic plans and to regard the library operation as a business operation. Explains 12 entrepreneurial traits that are needed for success in librarianship and information services, including passion, enthusiasm, trustworthiness, creativity, persistence, responsibility, flexibility,…

  8. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention.

  9. An Exploration of Personality Traits in Older Adult Amateur Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffman, Don D.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question for the study was, "Will older adult amateur musicians' personality profiles reflect the traits found in professional musicians?" Participants (N = 58, ages 52 to 79) recruited from a New Horizons Institute "band camp" for older adult amateur musicians completed a musical background questionnaire and the Cattell…

  10. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  11. Dactylitis in a child with sickle cell trait

    OpenAIRE

    Jadavji, Taj; Prober, Charles G

    1985-01-01

    Dactylitis commonly occurs in patients with homozygous hemoglobin S disease (sickle cell anemia), sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease or sickle cell-β-thalassemia. A case is reported of dactylitis associated with sickle cell trait, a very rare occurrence. It may be that in this patient the disorder was secondary to severe diarrhea and dehydration.

  12. Reproductive Behavior and Personality Traits of the Five Factor Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokela, Markus; Alvergne, Alexandra; Pollet, Thomas V.; Lummaa, Virpi

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations between Five Factor Model personality traits and various outcomes of reproductive behavior in a sample of 15 729 women and men from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) and Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) survey. Personality and reproductive history was se

  13. Epistasis: Obstacle or Advantage for Mapping Complex Traits?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Casella, G.; McIntyre, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of genetic loci in complex traits has focused largely on one-dimensional genome scans to search for associations between single markers and the phenotype. There is mounting evidence that locus interactions, or epistasis, are a crucial component of the genetic architecture of biologica

  14. Mutual Mate Choice for Colorful Traits in King Penguins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nolan, Paul M.; Dobson, F. Stephen; Nicolaus, Marion; Karels, Tim J.; McGraw, Kevin J.; Jouventin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    While studies of mate choice based on male color pattern are ubiquitous, studies of mate choice based on ornamental color traits in sexually monomorphic species are less common. We conducted manipulative field experiments on two color ornaments of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), the size of

  15. Genetic analysis of growth traits in Iranian Makuie sheep breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Farhadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Makuie sheep is a fat-tailed sheep breed which can be found in the Azerbaijan province of Iran. In 1986, a Makuie sheep breeding station was established in the city of Maku in order to breed, protect and purify this breed. The genetic parameters for birth weight, weaning weight (3 months, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weight, and average daily gain from birth to weaning traits were estimated based on 25 years of data using DFREML software. Six different models were applied and a likelihood ratio test (LRT was used to select the appropriate model. Bivariate analysis was used to define the genetic correlation between studied traits. Based on the LRT, model II was selected as an appropriate model for all studied traits. Direct heritability estimates of birth, weaning, 6-month, 9-month and yearling weights and average daily gain from birth to weaning were 0.36, 0.41, 0.48, 0.42, 0.36 and 0.37, respectively. Estimates of direct genetic correlation between birth and weaning weights, birth and 6-month weights, birth and 9-month weights, as well as between birth and yearling weights were 0.57, 0.49, 0.46 and 0.32, respectively. The results suggest there is a substantial additive genetic variability for studied traits in the Makuie sheep breed population, and the direct additive effect and maternal permanent environment variance are the main source of phenotypic variance.

  16. The Development of the Meta-Affective Trait Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzuntiryaki-Kondakci, Esen; Kirbulut, Zubeyde Demet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a Meta-Affective Trait Scale (MATS) to measure the meta-affective inclinations related to emotions that students have while they are studying for their classes. First, a pilot study was performed with 380 10th-grade students. Results of the exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure of the…

  17. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients. PMID:27605876

  18. Haplotype hitchhiking promotes trait coselection in Brassica napus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lunwen; Qian, Wei; Snowdon, Rod J

    2016-07-01

    Local haplotype patterns surrounding densely spaced DNA markers with significant trait associations can reveal information on selective sweeps and genome diversity associated with important crop traits. Relationships between haplotype and phenotype diversity, coupled with analysis of gene content in conserved haplotype blocks, can provide insight into coselection for nonrelated traits. We performed genome-wide analysis of haplotypes associated with the important physiological and agronomic traits leaf chlorophyll and seed glucosinolate content, respectively, in the major oilseed crop species Brassica napus. A locus on chromosome A01 showed opposite effects on leaf chlorophyll content and seed glucosinolate content, attributed to strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) between orthologues of the chlorophyll biosynthesis genes EARLY LIGHT-INDUCED PROTEIN and CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE, and the glucosinolate synthesis gene ATP SULFURYLASE 1. Another conserved haplotype block, on chromosome A02, contained a number of chlorophyll-related genes in LD with orthologues of the key glucosinolate biosynthesis genes METHYLTHIOALKYMALATE SYNTHASE-LIKE 1 and 3. Multigene haplogroups were found to have a significantly greater contribution to variation for chlorophyll content than haplotypes for any single gene, suggesting positive effects of additive locus accumulation. Detailed reanalysis of population substructure revealed a clade of ten related accessions exhibiting high leaf chlorophyll and low seed glucosinolate content. These accessions each carried one of the above-mentioned haplotypes from A01 or A02, generally in combination with further chlorophyll-associated haplotypes from chromosomes A05 and/or C05. The phenotypic rather than pleiotropic correlations between leaf chlorophyll content index and seed GSL suggest that LD may have led to inadvertent coselection for these two traits. PMID:26800855

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amou Posht-e-Masari, Hesam; Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Hadi Tavatori, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep. Data included 1,316 records on reproductive performances of 395 Shall ewes from 41 sires and 136 dams which were collected from 2001 to 2007 in Shall breeding station in Qazvin province at the Northwest of Iran. Studied traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW). Test of significance to include fixed effects in the statistical model was performed using the general linear model procedure of SAS. The effects of lambing year and ewe age at lambing were significant (PLSB, LSW, LMWLB, LMWLW, TLWB, and TLWW, respectively, and corresponding repeatabilities were 0.02, 0.01, 0.73, 0.41, 0.27, and 0.03. Genetic correlation estimates between traits ranged from -0.99 for LSW-LMWLW to 0.99 for LSB-TLWB, LSW-TLWB, and LSW-TLWW. Phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.71 for LSB-LMWLW to 0.98 for LSB-TLWW and environmental correlations ranged from -0.89 for LSB-LMWLW to 0.99 for LSB-TLWW. Results showed that the highest heritability estimates were for LMWLB and LMWLW suggesting that direct selection based on these traits could be effective. Also, strong positive genetic correlations of LMWLB and LMWLW with other traits may improve meat production efficiency in Shall sheep.

  20. Untangling the fungal niche: the trait-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Thomas W; Maynard, Daniel S; Crowther, Terence R; Peccia, Jordan; Smith, Jeffrey R; Bradford, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy toward functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology. PMID:25400630

  1. UNTANGLING THE FUNGAL NICHE: A TRAIT-BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Crowther

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are prominent components of most terrestrial ecosystems, both in terms of biomass and ecosystem functioning, but the hyper-diverse nature of most communities has obscured the search for unifying principles governing community organization. In particular, unlike plants and animals, observational studies provide little evidence for the existence of niche processes in structuring fungal communities at broad spatial scales. This limits our capacity to predict how communities, and their functioning, vary across landscapes. We outline how a shift in focus, from taxonomy towards functional traits, might prove to be valuable in the search for general patterns in fungal ecology. We build on theoretical advances in plant and animal ecology to provide an empirical framework for a trait-based approach in fungal community ecology. Drawing upon specific characteristics of the fungal system, we highlight the significance of drought stress and combat in structuring free-living fungal communities. We propose a conceptual model to formalize how trade-offs between stress-tolerance and combative dominance are likely to organize communities across environmental gradients. Given that the survival of a fungus in a given environment is contingent on its ability to tolerate antagonistic competitors, measuring variation in combat trait expression along environmental gradients provides a means of elucidating realized, from fundamental niche spaces. We conclude that, using a trait-based understanding of how niche processes structure fungal communities across time and space, we can ultimately link communities with ecosystem functioning. Our trait-based framework highlights fundamental uncertainties that require testing in the fungal system, given their potential to uncover general mechanisms in fungal ecology.

  2. Dissection of complex adult traits in a mouse synthetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Chen, Shu; West, Joshua L; Wilkowski, Jodi M; Goldstein, Steven A; Miller, Richard A; Galecki, Andrzej T

    2012-08-01

    Finding the causative genetic variations that underlie complex adult traits is a significant experimental challenge. The unbiased search strategy of genome-wide association (GWAS) has been used extensively in recent human population studies. These efforts, however, typically find only a minor fraction of the genetic loci that are predicted to affect variation. As an experimental model for the analysis of adult polygenic traits, we measured a mouse population for multiple phenotypes and conducted a genome-wide search for effector loci. Complex adult phenotypes, related to body size and bone structure, were measured as component phenotypes, and each subphenotype was associated with a genomic spectrum of candidate effector loci. The strategy successfully detected several loci for the phenotypes, at genome-wide significance, using a single, modest-sized population (N = 505). The effector loci each explain 2%-10% of the measured trait variation and, taken together, the loci can account for over 25% of a trait's total population variation. A replicate population (N = 378) was used to confirm initially observed loci for one trait (femur length), and, when the two groups were merged, the combined population demonstrated increased power to detect loci. In contrast to human population studies, our mouse genome-wide searches find loci that individually explain a larger fraction of the observed variation. Also, the additive effects of our detected mouse loci more closely match the predicted genetic component of variation. The genetic loci discovered are logical candidates for components of the genetic networks having evolutionary conservation with human biology. PMID:22588897

  3. Traits underpinning desiccation resistance explain distribution patterns of terrestrial isopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, André T C; Krab, Eveline J; Mariën, Janine; Zimmer, Martin; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Ellers, Jacintha; Wardle, David A; Berg, Matty P

    2013-07-01

    Predicted changes in soil water availability regimes with climate and land-use change will impact the community of functionally important soil organisms, such as macro-detritivores. Identifying and quantifying the functional traits that underlie interspecific differences in desiccation resistance will enhance our ability to predict both macro-detritivore community responses to changing water regimes and the consequences of the associated species shifts for organic matter turnover. Using path analysis, we tested (1) how interspecific differences in desiccation resistance among 22 northwestern European terrestrial isopod species could be explained by three underlying traits measured under standard laboratory conditions, namely, body ventral surface area, water loss rate and fatal water loss; (2) whether these relationships were robust to contrasting experimental conditions and to the phylogenetic relatedness effects being excluded; (3) whether desiccation resistance and hypothesized underlying traits could explain species distribution patterns in relation to site water availability. Water loss rate and (secondarily) fatal water loss together explained 90% of the interspecific variation in desiccation resistance. Our path model indicated that body surface area affects desiccation resistance only indirectly via changes in water loss rate. Our results also show that soil moisture determines isopod species distributions by filtering them according to traits underpinning desiccation resistance. These findings reveal that it is possible to use functional traits measured under standard conditions to predict soil biota responses to water availability in the field over broad spatial scales. Taken together, our results demonstrate an increasing need to generate mechanistic models to predict the effect of global changes on functionally important organisms. PMID:23224790

  4. Consequences of selection for yield traits on calving ease performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Maturana, E; Ugarte, E; Komen, J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2007-05-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the categorical nature of CE. The economic value for CE was -18.03 euros/cow per calving interval per liability unit. This value was relatively insensitive to changes in the market price of animals but was more sensitive to changes in the incidence of dystocia. Records from parities between 1995 and 2002 were used for the estimation of genetic parameters for yield (actual milk, fat, and protein yield) and CE using a multivariate model. Linear sire models for yield traits and a threshold sire-maternal grandsire model for CE were used. A Holstein population was simulated to determine the consequences of including CE in the breeding goal. Three selection strategies were considered: 1) selection only on yield traits, 2) selection on yield and direct CE (DCE), and 3) selection on yield, DCE, and maternal CE (MCE). Selection on yield traits only resulted in a slight reduction of dystocia. Selection strategies in which DCE or DCE and MCE were included in the breeding goal did not improve the genetic response for DCE and MCE obtained with the first selection strategy. Genetic responses were also calculated using the 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th percentiles of posterior densities of genetic correlations between DCE and MCE and yield traits. Because responses in CE were sensitive to deviations in estimates of genetic parameters, the inclusion of CE in the monitoring scheme is recommended. Genetic evaluation of bulls for CE is of considerable value because it provides farmers with the opportunity to use assortative matings of sires with favorable estimated breeding values for DCE to primiparous cows. PMID:17430954

  5. Poly-omic prediction of complex traits: OmicKriging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Heather E; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Gamazon, Eric R; Trubetskoy, Vassily V; Dolan, M Eileen; Huang, R Stephanie; Cox, Nancy J; Im, Hae Kyung

    2014-07-01

    High-confidence prediction of complex traits such as disease risk or drug response is an ultimate goal of personalized medicine. Although genome-wide association studies have discovered thousands of well-replicated polymorphisms associated with a broad spectrum of complex traits, the combined predictive power of these associations for any given trait is generally too low to be of clinical relevance. We propose a novel systems approach to complex trait prediction, which leverages and integrates similarity in genetic, transcriptomic, or other omics-level data. We translate the omic similarity into phenotypic similarity using a method called Kriging, commonly used in geostatistics and machine learning. Our method called OmicKriging emphasizes the use of a wide variety of systems-level data, such as those increasingly made available by comprehensive surveys of the genome, transcriptome, and epigenome, for complex trait prediction. Furthermore, our OmicKriging framework allows easy integration of prior information on the function of subsets of omics-level data from heterogeneous sources without the sometimes heavy computational burden of Bayesian approaches. Using seven disease datasets from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC), we show that OmicKriging allows simple integration of sparse and highly polygenic components yielding comparable performance at a fraction of the computing time of a recently published Bayesian sparse linear mixed model method. Using a cellular growth phenotype, we show that integrating mRNA and microRNA expression data substantially increases performance over either dataset alone. Using clinical statin response, we show improved prediction over existing methods. We provide an R package to implement OmicKriging (http://www.scandb.org/newinterface/tools/OmicKriging.html).

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of labile traits in the wild

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon E. BROMMER

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual-based studies allow quantification of phenotypic plasticity in behavioural, life-history and other labile traits. The study of phenotypic plasticity in the wild can shed new light on the ultimate objectives (1 whether plasticity itself can evolve or is constrained by its genetic architecture, and (2 whether plasticity is associated to other traits, including fitness (selection. I describe the main statistical approach for how repeated records of individuals and a description of the environment (E allow quantification of variation in plasticity across individuals (IxE and genotypes (GxE in wild populations. Based on a literature review of life-history and behavioural studies on plasticity in the wild, I discuss the present state of the two objectives listed above. Few studies have quantified GxE of labile traits in wild populations, and it is likely that power to detect statistically significant GxE is lacking. Apart from the issue of whether it is heritable, plasticity tends to correlate with average trait expression (not fully supported by the few genetic estimates available and may thus be evolutionary constrained in this way. Individual-specific estimates of plasticity tend to be related to other traits of the individual (including fitness, but these analyses may be anti-conservative because they predominantly concern stats-on-stats. Despite the increased interest in plasticity in wild populations, the putative lack of power to detect GxE in such populations hinders achieving general insights. I discuss possible steps to invigorate the field by moving away from simply testing for presence of GxE to analyses that ‘scale up’ to population level proce­sses and by the development of new behavioural theory to identify quantitative genetic parameters which can be estimated [Current Zoology 58 (4: 485–505, 2013].

  7. Estimation of genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amou Posht-e-Masari, Hesam; Shadparvar, Abdol Ahad; Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, Navid; Hadi Tavatori, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits in Shall sheep. Data included 1,316 records on reproductive performances of 395 Shall ewes from 41 sires and 136 dams which were collected from 2001 to 2007 in Shall breeding station in Qazvin province at the Northwest of Iran. Studied traits were litter size at birth (LSB), litter size at weaning (LSW), litter mean weight per lamb born (LMWLB), litter mean weight per lamb weaned (LMWLW), total litter weight at birth (TLWB), and total litter weight at weaning (TLWW). Test of significance to include fixed effects in the statistical model was performed using the general linear model procedure of SAS. The effects of lambing year and ewe age at lambing were significant (PLSB, LSW, LMWLB, LMWLW, TLWB, and TLWW, respectively, and corresponding repeatabilities were 0.02, 0.01, 0.73, 0.41, 0.27, and 0.03. Genetic correlation estimates between traits ranged from -0.99 for LSW-LMWLW to 0.99 for LSB-TLWB, LSW-TLWB, and LSW-TLWW. Phenotypic correlations ranged from -0.71 for LSB-LMWLW to 0.98 for LSB-TLWW and environmental correlations ranged from -0.89 for LSB-LMWLW to 0.99 for LSB-TLWW. Results showed that the highest heritability estimates were for LMWLB and LMWLW suggesting that direct selection based on these traits could be effective. Also, strong positive genetic correlations of LMWLB and LMWLW with other traits may improve meat production efficiency in Shall sheep. PMID:23334381

  8. An international collaborative family-based whole genome quantitative trait linkage scan for myopic refractive error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Diana; Li, Yi-Ju; Guggenheim, Jeremy A;

    2012-01-01

    To investigate quantitative trait loci linked to refractive error, we performed a genome-wide quantitative trait linkage analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism markers and family data from five international sites....

  9. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use. PMID:27149691

  10. Relationships between carcass traits and offal components in local poultry populations (gallus gallus) of Benin

    OpenAIRE

    P.U. Tougan; M. Dahouda; C.F.A. Salifou; G.S. Ahounou; Kpodekon, M. T.; G.A. Mensah; Kossou, D.N.F.; Kogbeto, C.E.; Lognay, Georges; Thewis, André; Youssao, I.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives : The current work was carried out to determine the relationships between live weight, carcass traits and the offal components traits in Holli, Fulani, Sahoue, North and Southe indigenous chicken ectoypes of Benin. Peer reviewed

  11. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use.

  12. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness. PMID:8655435

  13. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C

    1995-12-01

    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  14. Study on mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for animal complex binary traits using Bayesian-Markov chain Monte Carlo approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jianfeng; ZHANG; Yuan; ZHANG; Qin; WANG; Lixian; ZHANG; Jigang

    2006-01-01

    It is a challenging issue to map Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) underlying complex discrete traits, which usually show discontinuous distribution and less information, using conventional statistical methods. Bayesian-Markov chain Monte Carlo (Bayesian-MCMC) approach is the key procedure in mapping QTL for complex binary traits, which provides a complete posterior distribution for QTL parameters using all prior information. As a consequence, Bayesian estimates of all interested variables can be obtained straightforwardly basing on their posterior samples simulated by the MCMC algorithm. In our study, utilities of Bayesian-MCMC are demonstrated using simulated several animal outbred full-sib families with different family structures for a complex binary trait underlied by both a QTL and polygene. Under the Identity-by-Descent-Based variance component random model, three samplers basing on MCMC, including Gibbs sampling, Metropolis algorithm and reversible jump MCMC, were implemented to generate the joint posterior distribution of all unknowns so that the QTL parameters were obtained by Bayesian statistical inferring. The results showed that Bayesian-MCMC approach could work well and robust under different family structures and QTL effects. As family size increases and the number of family decreases, the accuracy of the parameter estimates will be improved. When the true QTL has a small effect, using outbred population experiment design with large family size is the optimal mapping strategy.

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL in sheep. IV. Analysis of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Mary K

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In sheep dairy production, total lactation performance, and length of lactation of lactation are of economic significance. A more persistent lactation has been associated with improved udder health. An extended lactation is defined by a longer period of milkability. This study is the first investigation to examine the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL for extended lactation and lactation persistency in sheep. Methods An (Awassi × Merino × Merino single-sire backcross family with 172 ewes was used to map QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation traits on a framework map of 189 loci across all autosomes. The Wood model was fitted to data from multiple lactations to estimate parameters of ovine lactation curves, and these estimates were used to derive measures of lactation persistency and extended lactation traits of milk, protein, fat, lactose, useful yield, and somatic cell score. These derived traits were subjected to QTL analyses using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. Results Overall, one highly significant (LOD > 3.0, four significant (2.0 Conclusion This study identified ten novel QTL for lactation persistency and extended lactation in sheep, but results suggest that lactation persistency and extended lactation do not have a major gene in common. These results provide a basis for further validation in extended families and other breeds as well as targeting regions for genome-wide association mapping using high-density SNP arrays.

  16. Trait level estimation for non-fitting response vectorsTrait level estimation for non-fitting response vectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Rob R.

    1997-01-01

    Item responses that do not fit an item response theory model may cause the latent trait value, 0, to be inaccurately estimated. Although in many studies the proportion of nonmodel-fitting response vectors (NRvs) identified (i.e., the detection rate) has been investigated, less is known about the sev

  17. Quantitative trait loci affecting growth-related traits in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) grown under different levels of nutrient supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elberse, I.A.M.; Vanhala, T.K.; Turin, J.H.B.; Stam, P.; Van Damme, J.M.M.; van Tienderen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity of relative growth rate (RGR), its components and associated morphological traits was studied in relation to nutrient limitation. In all, 140 F3 lines from a cross, made between two Hordeum spontaneum (wild barley) accessions sampled in Israel, were subject

  18. Mapping of fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire by genome-wide association analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulmann, Nina F; Sahana, Goutam; Iso-Touru, T;

    2011-01-01

    A whole-genome scan using single marker association was used to detect chromosome regions associated with seven female fertility traits in Finnish Ayrshire dairy cattle. The phenotypic data consisted of de-regressed estimated breeding values for 340 bulls which were estimated using a single trait...... trait loci on three chromosomes (1, 2 and 20) for fertility traits previously reported for the same breed and one on chromosome four previously detected in Holstein cattle....

  19. Trait Emotional Intelligence and Personality: Gender-Invariant Linkages Across Different Measures of the Big Five.

    OpenAIRE

    Siegling, A. B.; A. Furnham; Petrides, K V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if the linkages between trait emotional intelligence (trait EI) and the Five-Factor Model of personality were invariant between men and women. Five English-speaking samples (N = 307-685) of mostly undergraduate students each completed a different measure of the Big Five personality traits and either the full form or short form of the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue). Across samples, models predicting global TEIQue scores from the Big Five were invari...

  20. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and related traits in childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Hoed, Marcel; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents.......Large-scale genome-wide association (GWA) studies have thus far identified 16 loci incontrovertibly associated with obesity-related traits in adults. We examined associations of variants in these loci with anthropometric traits in children and adolescents....

  1. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    OpenAIRE

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice Mariafe N. Calingacion Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour and aroma, especially of non-fragrant rices, has not been given high priority. In this study, we utilised a multi-disciplinary approach to understand better quality traits of aroma and flavour in rice grains, and to ...

  2. Linkages between leaf traits and productivity in two resource-limited ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Chinchilla Soto, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Leaf traits have long been used to classify and characterise species in natural ecosystems. In addition, leaf traits provide important information about plants’ strategies for the use of resources and can be used to improve our understanding of ecosystem level processes such as nutrient cycling and carbon allocation. To explore the linkages between leaf traits and productivity, we worked in two resource-limited ecosystems (a grassland and a forest), and used leaf traits to understand how spec...

  3. Modern Physiognomy: An Investigation on Predicting Personality Traits and Intelligence from the Human Face

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Rizhen; Gao, Wei; Xu, Huarong; Hu, Zhanyi

    2016-01-01

    The human behavior of evaluating other individuals with respect to their personality traits and intelligence by evaluating their faces plays a crucial role in human relations. These trait judgments might influence important social outcomes in our lives such as elections and court sentences. Previous studies have reported that human can make valid inferences for at least four personality traits. In addition, some studies have demonstrated that facial trait evaluation can be learned using machi...

  4. Differential effects of plant diversity on functional trait variation of grass species

    OpenAIRE

    Gubsch, M.; Buchmann, N.; Schmid, B.; Schulze, E.; Lipowsky, A.; Roscher, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Functional trait differences and trait adjustment in response to influences of the biotic environment could reflect niche partitioning among species. In this study, we tested how variation in above-ground plant traits, chosen as indicators for light and nitrogen acquisition and use, differs among taxonomically closely related species (Poaceae) to assess their potential for niche segregation at increasing plant diversity.Methods Traits of 12 grass species were measured in e...

  5. COMT but not serotonin-related genes modulates the influence of childhood abuse on anger traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, Nader; Jaussent, Isabelle; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Baud, Patrick; Jollant, Fabrice; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Cathryn,; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience Anger-related traits are regulated by genes as well as early environmental factors. Both childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviors, possibly by affecting the constitution of intermediate phenotypes such as anger traits. The aim of this study was to test the interaction between nine candidate genes and childhood maltreatment in modulating anger-related traits in 875 adult suicide attempters. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventor...

  6. An Efficient Hierarchical Generalized Linear Mixed Model for Mapping QTL of Ordinal Traits in Crop Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Wang, Shi-Bo; Han, Shi-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many important phenotypic traits in plants are ordinal. However, relatively little is known about the methodologies for ordinal trait association studies. In this study, we proposed a hierarchical generalized linear mixed model for mapping quantitative trait locus (QTL) of ordinal traits in crop cultivars. In this model, all the main-effect QTL and QTL-by-environment interaction were treated as random, while population mean, environmental effect and population structure were fixed. In the est...

  7. Major Gene Identiifcation and Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping for Yield-Related Traits in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhe; ZHANG Xin; LIU Yang-yang; JIA Zi-fang; ZHAO Hai-hong; LI Cheng-qi; WANG Qing-lian

    2014-01-01

    Segregation analysis of the mixed genetic model of major gene plus polygene was used to identify the major genesfor cotton yield-related traits using six generations P1, P2, F1, B1, B2, and F2 generated from the cross of Baimian 1×TM-1. In addition to boll size and seed index, the major genes for the other ifve traits were detected:one each for seed yield, lint percentage, boll number, lint index; and two for lint yield. Quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) mapping was performed in the F2 and F2:3 populations of above cross through molecular marker technology, and a total of 50 QTL (26 suggestive and 24 signiifcant) for yield-related traits were detected. Four common QTL were discovered: qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3)andqLP-19b (F2)/qLP-19(F2:3) for lint percentage, qBN-17(F2)/qBN-17(F2:3)for boll number, and qBS-26b(F2)/qBS-26(F2:3) for boll size. Especially, qLP-3b(F2)/qLP-3(F2:3), not only had LOD scores>3 but also exceeded the permutation threshold (5.13 and 5.29, respectively), correspondingly explaining 23.47 and 29.55% of phenotypic variation. This QTL should be considered preferentially in marker assisted selection (MAS). Segregation analysis and QTL mapping could mutually complement and verify, which provides a theoretical basis for genetic improvement of cotton yield-related traits by using major genes (QTL).

  8. Potential for selection of beneficial traits in swine with site-specific sucleases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selective breeding in agricultural species has enabled the derivation of stronger and fitter animals with improved production traits. However, along with beneficial traits there is often the co-segregation of less desirable traits. With the plethora of genome data and annotation, and greater under...

  9. Interpersonal Problems Associated with Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Traits in Women during the Transition to Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J.; Burt, S. Alexandra; Keel, Pamela K.; Neale, Michael C.; Boker, Steven M.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits are known to be associated with a host of important life outcomes, including interpersonal dysfunction. The interpersonal circumplex offers a comprehensive system for articulating the kinds of interpersonal problems associated with personality traits. In the current study, traits as measured by the Multidimensional Personality…

  10. Assessing the Basic Traits Associated with Psychopathy: Development and Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Donald R.; Gaughan, Eric T.; Miller, Joshua D.; Miller, Drew J.; Mullins-Sweatt, Stephanie; Widiger, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    A new self-report assessment of the basic traits of psychopathy was developed with a general trait model of personality (five-factor model [FFM]) as a framework. Scales were written to assess maladaptive variants of the 18 FFM traits that are robustly related to psychopathy across a variety of perspectives including empirical correlations, expert…

  11. Note on the relationship between trait anxiety and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, R

    1979-01-01

    Administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory A-Trait scale and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire to 97 females and 105 males under neutral conditions. The interrelationships gave limited support to Eysenck's hypothesis that anxiety is a dimension oblique to extraversion and neuroticism such that high anxiety is associated with high introversion and neuroticism. Trait anxiety was independent of the psychoticism and lie dimensions.

  12. Psychopathic Traits in a Large Community Sample: Links to Violence, Alcohol Use, and Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Craig S.; Hare, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies conducted with offender or forensic psychiatric samples have revealed that individuals with psychopathic traits are at risk for violence and other externalizing psychopathology. These traits appear to be continuously distributed in these samples, leading investigators to speculate on the presence of such traits in the general…

  13. The nature and identification of quantitative trait loci : a community's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abiola, O; Angel, JM; Avner, P; Bachmanov, AA; Belknap, JK; Bennett, B; Blankenhorn, EP; Blizard, DA; Bolivar, [No Value; Brockmann, GA; Buck, KJ; Bureau, JF; Casley, WL; Chesler, EJ; Cheverud, JM; Churchill, GA; Cook, M; Crabbe, JC; Crusio, WE; Darvasi, A; de Haan, G; Demant, P; Doerge, RW; Elliott, RW; Farber, CR; Flaherty, L; Flint, J; Gershenfeld, H; Gu, JPGJ; Gu, WK; Himmelbauer, H; Hitzemann, R; Hsu, HC; Hunter, K; Iraqi, FA; Jansen, RC; Johnson, TE; Jones, BC; Kempermann, G; Lammert, F; Lu, L; Manly, KF; Matthews, DB; Medrano, JF; Mehrabian, M; Mittleman, G; Mock, BA; Mogil, JS; Montagutelli, [No Value; Morahan, G; Mountz, JD; Nagase, H; Nowakowski, RS; O'Hara, BR; Osadchuk, AV; Paigen, B; Palmer, Abraham A.; Peirce, JL; Pomp, D; Rosemann, M; Rosen, GD; Schalkwyk, LC; Seltzer, Z; Settle, S; Shimomura, K; Shou, SM; Sikela, JM; Siracusa, LD; Spearow, JL; Teuscher, C; Threadgill, DW; Toth, LA; Toye, AA; Vadasz, C; Van Zant, G; Wakeland, E; Zhang, HG; Zou, F; Angel, Joe M.; Belknap, John K.; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Bolivar, Valerie; Brockmann, Gudrun A.; Buck, Kari J.; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Casley, William L.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Cheverud, James M.; Crabbe, John C.; Crusio, Wim E.; Elliott, Rosemary W.; Farber, Charles R.; Gibson, John P.; Gu, Jing; Gu, Weikuan; Hsu, Hui-Chen; Iraqi, Fuad A.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Jones, Byron C.; Manly, Kenneth F.; Matthews, Douglas B.; Medrano, Juan F.; Mock, Beverly A.; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Montagutelli, Xavier; Mountz, John D.; Nowakowski, Richard S.; O’Hara, Bruce F.; Osadchuk, Alexander V.; Peirce, Jeremy L.; Rosen, Glenn D.; Shou, Siming; Siracusa, Linda D.; Spearow, Jimmy L.; Threadgill, David W.; Toth, Linda A.; Williams, Robert W.; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Williams, O.

    2003-01-01

    This white paper by eighty members of the Complex Trait Consortium presents a community’s view on the approaches and statistical analyses that are needed for the identification of genetic loci that determine quantitative traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) can be identified in several ways, but i

  14. Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calingacion, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Empowering breeding programs with new approaches to overcome constraints for selecting superior quality traits of rice Mariafe N. Calingacion Most rice breeding programs have focused on improving agronomic traits such as yield, while enhancing grain quality traits such as flavour an

  15. Genetic parameters for reproductive traits in female Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): II. Fecundity and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trong, T.Q.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Komen, J.

    2013-01-01

    Harvest weight is the main trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) breeding programmes. The effects of selection for harvest weight on female reproductive traits are unknown. In this paper we estimate genetic parameters for reproductive traits and their correlation with harvest weight using fe

  16. The "Dark Traits" of Sociopathic Leaders: Could They Be a Threat to Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Chad

    2015-01-01

    Some sociopathic personality traits in managers can derail business organisations even though the leaders have been carefully selected and considered "high flyers". Three of those traits are narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism. These traits are "socially-aversive" because the sociopaths have an ingrained disregard for…

  17. Broad and Narrow Personality Traits of Women's College Students in Relation to Early Departure from College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah E.; Scepansky, James A.; Lounsbury, John W.; Gibson, Lucy W.

    2010-01-01

    Personality traits of coeducational students have been shown to correlate with early withdrawal intention from college (Lounsbury, Saudargas, & Gibson, 2004). The current study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality traits as well as seven narrow personality traits in relation to withdrawal intention among 103 female…

  18. Do key dimensions of seed and seedling functional trait variation capture variation in recruitment probability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. Plant functional traits provide a mechanistic basis for understanding ecological variation among plant species and the implications of this variation for species distribution, community assembly and restoration. 2. The bulk of our functional trait understanding, however, is centered on traits rel...

  19. Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkey, Jonathan; Holst, Niels; Bøjer, Ole Mission;

    2015-01-01

    , populated and analysed, initially using data for 19 common European weeds, to begin to consolidate trait data in a single repository. The initial choice of traits was driven by the requirements of empirical models of weed population dynamics to identify correlations between traits and model parameters...

  20. Genetic traits in the bivalve Mytilus from Europe, with an emphasis on Arctic populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Colucci, P.; Bogaards, R.H.; Strelkov, P.P.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic and some ecophysiological traits of mussels collected in the European Arctic, up to their northeastern distribution limit in the Barents Sea, were studied and compared with traits of mussels from the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Baltic. The genetic traits of these populations we-re analysed b

  1. The Contribution of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Conduct Problems to Bullying in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viding, Essi; Simmonds, Elizabeth; Petrides, K. V.; Frederickson, Norah

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although a lot is known about the association of conduct problems with bullying, less attention has been paid to co-occurring traits, such as callous-unemotional (CU) traits that might additionally contribute to the risk of engaging in bullying. This study investigated the contribution of CU traits to direct and indirect bullying,…

  2. Child Psychopathic Traits Moderate Relationships between Parental Affect and Child Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michelle T.; Chen, Pan; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies show that children with psychopathic traits may be less responsive to parenting. Although harsh/inconsistent parenting is associated with increased problem behaviors in children low on psychopathic traits, children high on psychopathic traits show consistently high levels of problem behavior regardless of negative…

  3. Combining a weed traits database with a population dynamics model predicts shifts in weed communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storkey, J.; Holst, N.; Bøjer, Q.; Bigongiali, F.; Bocci, G.; Colbach, N.; Dorner, Z.; Riemens, M.M.; Sartorato, I.; Sønderskov, M.; Verschwele, A.

    2015-01-01

    A functional approach to predicting shifts in weed floras in response to management or environmental change requires the combination of data on weed traits with analytical frameworks that capture the filtering effect of selection pressures on traits. A weed traits database (WTDB) was designed, popul

  4. Perfectionism and the Five-factor Personality Traits as Predictors of Mortality in Older Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fry, Prem S.; Debats, Dominique L.

    2009-01-01

    The major hypothesis of the study was that perfectionism as a personality trait, along with the five-factor personality traits and dispositional optimism, is strongly associated with mortality in late life. After baseline assessment of health and personality traits as predictors of mortality, 450 pa

  5. A new taxonomy of Dutch personality traits based on a comprehensive and unrestricted list of descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.; Barelds, D.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A list of 2,365 personality descriptive items was selected from a computerized database of the Dutch language. The list included terms from various word classes, such as trait adjectives, trait nouns, and trait verbs, and from expressions in which the meaning was drawn from a combination of words. T

  6. Mothers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness as a Predictor of Maternal and Child Behavior during Playtime Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Steven R.; Roberts, Felicia; Rack, Jessica J.; Delaney, Julie E.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores associations between mothers' trait verbal aggressiveness (VA) and maternal and child behavior during playtime interactions. Forty mothers completed a 10-minute play period with one of their children (range = 3-8 years) and then responded to D. A. Infante and C. J. Wigley's (1986) trait VA scale. Mothers' trait VA was…

  7. Novel Applications of Multi-task Learning and Multiple Output Regression to Multiple Genetic Trait Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given a set of biallelic molecular markers, such as SNPs, with genotype values encoded numerically on a collection of plant, animal or human samples, the goal of genetic trait prediction is to predict the quantitative trait values by simultaneously modeling all marker effects. Genetic trait predicti...

  8. Life-history traits of the northwest European flora : The LEDA database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knevel, IC; Bekker, RM; Bakker, JP; Kleyer, M

    2003-01-01

    An international group of scientists is building a 'trait base', an open internet database of life-history traits of the Northwest European flora (LEDA) that can be used as a tool in planning, in nature conservation and restoration, and in other applied research. The species-trait matrix will compri

  9. Finding Quantitative Trait Loci Genes with Collaborative Targeted Maximum Likelihood Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Rose, Sherri; van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative trait loci mapping is focused on identifying the positions and effect of genes underlying an an observed trait. We present a collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimator in a semi-parametric model using a newly proposed 2-part super learning algorithm to find quantitative trait loci genes in listeria data. Results are compared to the parametric composite interval mapping approach.

  10. Maternal and pregnancy related predictors of cardiometabolic traits in newborns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine M Morrison

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The influence of multiple maternal and pregnancy characteristics on offspring cardiometabolic traits at birth is not well understood and was evaluated in this study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life (FAMILY Study prospectively evaluated 11 cardiometabolic traits in 901 babies born to 857 mothers. The influence of maternal age, health (pre-pregnancy weight, blood pressure, glycemic status, lipids, health behaviors (diet, activity, smoking and pregnancy characteristics (gestational age at birth, gestational weight gain and placental-fetal ratio were examined. Greater gestational age influenced multiple newborn cardiometabolic traits including cord blood lipids, glucose and insulin, body fat and blood pressure. In a subset of 442 singleton mother/infant pairs, principal component analysis grouped 11 newborn cardiometabolic traits into 5 components (anthropometry/insulin, 2 lipid components, blood pressure and glycemia, accounting for 74% of the variance of the 11 outcome variables. Determinants of these components, corrected for sex and gestational age, were examined. Baby anthropometry/insulin was independently predicted by higher maternal pre-pregnancy weight (standardized estimate 0.30 and gestational weight gain (0.30; both p<0.0001 and was inversely related to smoking during pregnancy (-0.144; p = 0.01 and maternal polyunsaturated to saturated fat intake (-0.135;p = 0.01. Component 2 (HDL-C/Apo Apolipoprotein1 was inversely associated with maternal age. Component 3 (blood pressure was not clustered with any other newborn cardiometabolic trait and no associations with maternal pregnancy characteristics were identified. Component 4 (triglycerides was positively associated with maternal hypertension and triglycerides, and inversely associated with maternal HDL and age. Component 5 (glycemia was inversely associated with placental/fetal ratio (-0.141; p = 0.005. LDL-C was a bridging

  11. Relationships between milk coagulation property traits analyzed with different methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, D; Kaart, T; Vallas, M; Jõudu, I; Henno, M; Ancilotto, L; Cassandro, M; Pärna, E

    2011-09-01

    Milk coagulation properties (MCP) analysis is performed using a wide range of methodologies in different countries and laboratories, using different instruments, coagulant activity in the milk, and type of coagulant. This makes it difficult to compare results and data from different research. The aims of this study were to propose a method for the transformation of values of rennet coagulation time (RCT) and curd firmness (a(30)) and to predict the noncoagulation (NC) probability of milk samples analyzed using different methodologies. Individual milk samples were collected during the morning milking in October 2010 from each of 165 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in 2 freestall barns in Italy, and sent to 3 laboratories for MCP analysis. For each laboratory, MCP analysis was performed using a different methodology: A, with a computerized renneting meter instrument using 0.051 international milk clotting units (IMCU)/mL of coagulant activity; B, with a Lattodinamografo (Foss-Italia, Padova, Italy) using 0.051 IMCU/mL of coagulant activity; and C, with an Optigraph (Ysebaert, Frépillon, France) using 0.120 IMCU/mL of coagulant activity. The relationships between MCP traits were analyzed with correlation and regression analyses for each pair of methodologies. For each MCP trait, 2 regression models were applied: model 1 was a single regression model, where the dependent and independent variables were the same MCP trait determined by 2 different methodologies; in model 2, both a(30) and RCT were included as independent variables. The NC probabilities for laboratories with the highest number of NC samples were predicted based on the RCT and a(30) values measured in the laboratories with lower number of NC samples using logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic analysis. The percentages of NC samples were 4.2, 11.5, and 0.6% for A, B, and C, respectively. The transformation of MCP traits was more precise with model 1 for RCT (R(2): 0.77-0.82) than for a(30

  12. Intraspecific variation in root and leaf traits and leaf-root trait linkages in eight aspen demes (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides)

    OpenAIRE

    Hajek, Peter; Hertel, Dietrich; Leuschner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Leaf and fine root morphology and physiology have been found to vary considerably among tree species, but not much is known about intraspecific variation in root traits and their relatedness to leaf traits. Various aspen progenies (Populus tremula and P. tremuloides) with different growth performance are used in short-rotation forestry. Hence, a better understanding of the link between root trait syndromes and the adaptation of a deme to a particular environment is essential in order to impro...

  13. Clinical and personality traits in emotional disorders: Evidence of a common framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Brittain L; Watson, David; Clark, Lee Anna; Kotov, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Certain clinical traits (e.g., ruminative response style, self-criticism, perfectionism, anxiety sensitivity, fear of negative evaluation, and thought suppression) increase the risk for and chronicity of emotional disorders. Similar to traditional personality traits, they are considered dispositional and typically show high temporal stability. Because the personality and clinical-traits literatures evolved largely independently, connections between them are not fully understood. We sought to map the interface between a widely studied set of clinical and personality traits. Two samples (N = 385 undergraduates; N = 188 psychiatric outpatients) completed measures of personality traits, clinical traits, and an interview-based assessment of emotional-disorder symptoms. First, the joint factor structure of these traits was examined in each sample. Second, structural equation modeling was used to clarify the effects of clinical traits in the prediction of clinical symptoms beyond negative temperament. Third, the incremental validity of clinical traits beyond a more comprehensive set of higher-order and lower-order personality traits was examined using hierarchical regression. Clinical and personality traits were highly correlated and jointly defined a 3-factor structure-Negative Temperament, Positive Temperament, and Disinhibition-in both samples, with all clinical traits loading on the Negative Temperament factor. Clinical traits showed modest but significant incremental validity in explaining symptoms after accounting for personality traits. These data indicate that clinical traits relevant to emotional disorders fit well within the traditional personality framework and offer some unique contributions to the prediction of psychopathology, but it is important to distinguish their effects from negative temperament/neuroticism. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505406

  14. Impacts of trait variation through observed trait-climate relationships on performance of a representative Earth System model: a conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Verheijen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In current dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs, including those incorporated into Earth System Models (ESMs, terrestrial vegetation is represented by a small number of plant functional types (PFTs, each with fixed properties irrespective of their predicted occurrence. This contrasts with natural vegetation, in which many plant traits vary systematically along geographic and environmental gradients. In the JSBACH DGVM, which is part of the MPI-ESM, we allowed three traits (specific leaf area (SLA, maximum carboxylation rate at 25 °C (Vcmax25 and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax25 to vary within PFTs via trait-climate relationships based on a large trait database. For all three traits, the means of observed natural trait values strongly deviated from values used in the default model, with mean differences of 32.3% for Vcmax25, 26.8% for Jmax25 and 17.3% for SLA. Compared to the default simulation, allowing trait variation within PFTs resulted in GPP differences up to 50% in the tropics, in > 35% different dominant vegetation cover, and a closer match with a natural vegetation map. The discrepancy between default trait values and natural trait variation, combined with the substantial changes in simulated vegetation properties, together emphasize that incorporating observational data based on the ecological concepts of environmental filtering will improve the modeling of vegetation behavior in DGVMs and as such will enable more reliable projections in unknown climates.

  15. Migration costs drive convergence of threshold traits for migratory tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahashi, Genki; Morita, Kentaro

    2013-12-22

    Partial migration of some, but not all, members of a population is a common form of migration. We evaluated how migration costs influence which members migrate in 10 populations of two salmonid species. The migratory patterns of both species were evaluated based on the size at maturity for resident males, which is the threshold trait that determines the migratory tactics used within a population. In both species, this size was smaller in males located further from the sea, where migration costs are presumably higher. Moreover, the threshold sizes at maturity in males were correlated between both species. Our results suggest that migration costs are a significant convergent selective force on migratory tactics and life-history traits in nature. PMID:24197418

  16. Stochastic search variable selection for identifying multiple quantitative trait loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Nengjun; George, Varghese; Allison, David B

    2003-07-01

    In this article, we utilize stochastic search variable selection methodology to develop a Bayesian method for identifying multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) for complex traits in experimental designs. The proposed procedure entails embedding multiple regression in a hierarchical normal mixture model, where latent indicators for all markers are used to identify the multiple markers. The markers with significant effects can be identified as those with higher posterior probability included in the model. A simple and easy-to-use Gibbs sampler is employed to generate samples from the joint posterior distribution of all unknowns including the latent indicators, genetic effects for all markers, and other model parameters. The proposed method was evaluated using simulated data and illustrated using a real data set. The results demonstrate that the proposed method works well under typical situations of most QTL studies in terms of number of markers and marker density. PMID:12871920

  17. Detection of Quantitative Trait Loci in Presence of Phenotypic Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nurul Haque Mollah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes controlling a certain trait of organism is known as quantitative trait loci(QTL. The standard Interval mapping [8] is a popular way to scan the wholegenome for the evidence of QTLs. It searches a QTL within each intervalbetween two adjacent markers by performing likelihood ratio test (LRT.However, the standard Interval mapping (SIM approach is not robust againstoutliers. An attempt is made to robustify SIM for QTL analysis by maximizing β-likelihood function using the EM like algorithm. We investigate the robustnessperformance of the proposed method in a comparison of SIM algorithm usingsynthetic datasets. Experimental results show that the proposed methodsignificantly improves the performance over the SIM approach for QTL mappingin presence of outliers; otherwise, it keeps equal performance.

  18. Lower trait frontal theta activity in mindfulness meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guaraci Ken Tanaka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of mindfulness meditation on theta-band activity are not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal theta differences between long- and short-term mindfulness practitioners before, during, and after mindfulness meditation. Twenty participants were recruited, of which 10 were experienced Buddhist meditators. Despite an acute increase in the theta activity during meditation in both the groups, the meditators showed lower trait frontal theta activity. Therefore, we suggested that this finding is a neural correlate of the expert practitioners’ ability to limit the processing of unnecessary information (e.g., discursive thought and increase the awareness of the essential content of the present experience. In conclusion, acute changes in the theta band throughout meditation did not appear to be a specific correlate of mindfulness but were rather related to the concentration properties of the meditation. Notwithstanding, lower frontal theta activity appeared to be a trait of mindfulness practices.

  19. Correlations between insect resistance and horticultural traits in potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velci Queiroz de Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine relationships between insect resistance and some horticulturaltraits and the implications on selection. A potato population of 11 clonal families derived from crosses between insect resistantand genotypes adapted to the southern region of Brazil was used. The following traits were evaluated: plant size and vigor,incidence of insect attacks on leaves and tubers, tuber yield and appearance components. Phenotypic and genotypic correlationsbetween leaf and tuber resistance were not significant for the population, while phenotypic correlations between the tworesistance types were significant for individual families, with exception of the family originated from the cross involving‘ND263-32’. The incidence of insect attacks on tubers was significantly correlated with tuber yield and appearance in familiesderived from crosses of ‘NYL235-4’. The manifold correlations of leaf resistance with horticultural traits for all families weresignificant and unfavorable.

  20. Dental anthropology of a Brazilian sample: Frequency of nonmetric traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Rachel Lima Ribeiro; Lima, Laíse Nascimento Correia; Delwing, Fábio; Francesquini, Luiz; Daruge, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Dental elements are valuable tools in a study of ancient populations and species, and key-features for human identification; among the dental anthropology field, nonmetric traits, standardized by ASUDAS, are closely related to ancestry. This study aimed to analyze the frequency of six nonmetric traits in a sample from Southeast Brazil, composed by 130 dental casts from individuals aged between 18 and 30, without foreign parents or grandparents. A single examiner observed the presence or absence of shoveling, Carabelli's cusp, fifth cusp, 3-cusped UM2, sixth cusp, and 4-cusped LM2. The frequencies obtained were different from the ones shown by other researches to Amerindian and South American samples, and related to European and sub-Saharan frequencies, showing the influence of this groups in the current Brazilian population. Sexual dimorphism was found in the frequencies of Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped UM2, and sixth cusp.