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Sample records for aberrant shoot morphology

  1. Shooting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜全红

    2005-01-01

    @@ Shooting with the rifle, pistol and shotgun2 has been practiced in many countries since the Middle Ages. During the 19th century, however,shooting also developed into a sport: associations, federations,councils, confederations, unions or organizations were formed in some countries, using different words to describe the alliance3 of shooters in clubs or the alliance clubs in local, regional or national organizations.

  2. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

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    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  3. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  4. Variation of the chemical contents and morphology of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting pistol as a potential contribution to a shooting incidence reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2011-07-15

    A study of the chemical contents and sizes of gunshot residue originating from 9×18mm PM ammunition, depositing in the vicinity of the shooting person was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Samples of the residue were collected from targets placed at various distances in the range 0-100cm as well as from hands and clothing of the shooting person. Targets were covered by fragments of white cotton fabric or black bovine leather. In the case of cotton targets microtraces were collected from circles of 5 and 10cm in radius. Results of the examinations in the form of numbers of particles, proportions of their chemical classes and dimensions revealed a dependence on the distance from the gun muzzle, both in the direction of shooting and in the opposite one, i.e., on the shooting person. The parameters describing gunshot residue differed also depending on the kind of the target substrate. The kind of obtained information gives rise to understanding the general rules of the dispersion of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting gun. Thus, it may be utilised in the reconstruction of shooting incidences, especially in establishing the mutual positions of the shooter and other participants of the incident. PMID:21354728

  5. Morphological and physiological photon flux influence under in vitro culture of apple shoots

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    Ilisandra Zanandrea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and development of apple rootstock shoots submitted to different photon flux densities (7, 14, 21 and 60 µmol m-2 s-1 and three culture media. The best photon flux for maximizing growth, number of shoots and leaves was 14 µmol m-2 s-1, which also resulted in the highest values of chloroplastic pigments. On the other hand, the highest photon flux (60 µmol m-2 s-1 decreased significantly these parameters. Medium with reduced sucrose concentration did not affect the analyzed parameters, enabling an efficient multiplication of the cultivar with only 1% of sucrose.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar características de crescimento e desenvolvimento de brotações de macieira submetidas a diferentes densidades de fluxo de fótons (7, 14, 21 e 60 µmol m-2 s-1 e três meios de cultura. O melhor fluxo de fótons para maximizar o crescimento, número de brotações e de folhas foi de 14 µmol m-2 s-1, o qual também proporcionou os maiores valores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. Por outro lado, alto fluxo de fótons (60 µmol m-2 s-1 diminuiu significativamente os parâmetros citados acima. O meio com concentração reduzida de sacarose não afetou os parâmetros analisados, possibilitando uma multiplicação eficiente desta cultivar com apenas 1% deste carboidrato.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

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    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  7. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Polguj; Łukasz Chrzanowski; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Ludomir Stefańczyk; Mirosław Topol; Agata Majos

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinical...

  8. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices.

  9. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices. PMID:17472944

  10. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  11. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria: The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Polguj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria. If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9±19.4 years for all patients but 54.0±19.6 years and 44.9±18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P=0.0061. The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%, dyspnea (18.7%, retrosternal pain (17.0%, cough (7.6%, and weight loss (5.9%. The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%, Kommerell’s diverticulum (14.9%, aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%, and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%. In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss.

  12. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  13. The aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria): the morphological and clinical aspects of one of the most important variations--a systematic study of 141 reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polguj, Michał; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  14. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumi, Masakazu [Plant Biotechnology Inst., Ibaraki Agricultural Center, Iwama, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy {center_dot} hr{sup -}1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  15. Shooting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is the object of this article; orbit gathering projects are also presented.

  16. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic; Analise morfologica de imagens e classificacao de aberracoes cromossomicas por meio de logica fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo Peres

    2011-07-01

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  18. Ambicoloration and morphological aberration in the sole Achirus declivis (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae and two other cases of color abnormalities in achirid soles from southeastern Brazil

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    Raphael Mariano Macieira

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of color abnormalities and one of morphological aberration in flatfishes of the genus Achirus are described from the Piraquê-Açú River estuary, Espírito Santo, Brazil. One specimen of A. declivis has 75% of the blind side with coloration like that of the ocular side. Another specimen of the same species is strongly hypomelanistic. A third specimen has incomplete eye rotation and a hooked dorsal fin. An ambicolored A. lineatus is also described.Três casos de anormalidades pigmentares e um caso de malformação morfológica são descritos em linguados do gênero Achirus do estuário do Rio Piraquê-Açú, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Um espécime de A. declivis tem 75 % do lado cego com coloração idêntica àquela do lado oculado. Um outro indivíduo desta mesma espécie tem hipomelanização acentuada. Um terceiro espécime tem rotação incompleta do olho e início da nadadeira dorsal em formato de gancho. Um espécime de A. lineatus ambicolorido é também descrito.

  19. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

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    McGinley John N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  20. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinley John

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  1. Arabidopsis DAYU/ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 is a key regulator of peroxisome biogenesis and plays critical roles during pollen maturation and germination in planta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin-Ran; Li, Hong-Ju; Yuan, Li; Liu, Man; Shi, Dong-Qiao; Liu, Jie; Yang, Wei-Cai

    2014-02-01

    Pollen undergo a maturation process to sustain pollen viability and prepare them for germination. Molecular mechanisms controlling these processes remain largely unknown. Here, we report an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant, dayu (dau), which impairs pollen maturation and in vivo germination. Molecular analysis indicated that DAU encodes the peroxisomal membrane protein ABERRANT PEROXISOME MORPHOLOGY9 (APEM9). DAU is transiently expressed from bicellular pollen to mature pollen during male gametogenesis. DAU interacts with peroxisomal membrane proteins PEROXIN13 (PEX13) and PEX16 in planta. Consistently, both peroxisome biogenesis and peroxisome protein import are impaired in dau pollen. In addition, the jasmonic acid (JA) level is significantly decreased in dau pollen, and the dau mutant phenotype is partially rescued by exogenous application of JA, indicating that the male sterility is mainly due to JA deficiency. In addition, the phenotypic survey of peroxin mutants indicates that the PEXs most likely play different roles in pollen germination. Taken together, these data indicate that DAU/APEM9 plays critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis and function, which is essential for JA production and pollen maturation and germination.

  2. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

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    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  3. Effect of gelling agents on shoot growth and multiple shoot formation of mangosteen

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    Sompong Te-chato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apomict seeds of mangosteen were cultured as a whole or half seed on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA. The medium was solidified with various gelling agents. After culture for 2 months, multiple shoot formation, morphological and physiological characters of the shoot were investigated. The results revealed that 1.5% agarose gave the highest seed forming shoot (98% and number of shoots per culture seed (20.7. Wounding the seed by sectioning into half promoted higher callus formation (47-88% in all gelling agents. Phytagel (0.17% resulted in the highest callus formation (100% and hyperhydric shoots (11-31%. Those shoots produced translucent, thin and brittle leaves and stems, and malformed stoma. Those leaves had the lowest content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll.

  4. Interactive effects of carbon dioxide, low temperature, and ultraviolet-B radiation on cotton seedling root and shoot morphology and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, David; Wijewardana, Chathurika; Gao, Wei; Reddy, K. Raja

    2016-09-01

    Interactive effects of multiple environmental stresses are predicted to have a negative effect on cotton growth and development and these effects will be exacerbated in the future climate. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that cotton cultivars differ in their responses to multiple environmental factors of (CO2) [400 and 750 µmol·mol-1 (+(CO2)], temperature [28/20 and 20/12°C (-T)], and UV-B radiation [0 and 10 kJ·m-2·d-1 (+ UV-B)]. A genetic and molecular standard (TM-1) and three modern cotton cultivars (DP1522B2XF, PHY496W3R, and ST4747GLB2) were grown in eight sunlit, controlled environment chambers with control treatment 400 µmol·mol-1 [CO2], 28/21°C temperature, and 0 kJ UV-B. The results showed significant differences among the cultivars for most of the shoot and root parameters. Plants grown under low temperature alone or as a combination with + UV-B treatment caused more detrimental effects on root and shoot vigor. Although the elevated CO2 treatments weakened the damaging effects of higher UV-B levels on cotton growth on all cultivars, increased CO2 could not mask the negative effects of low temperature. When comparing all cultivars, genetic standard TM-1 produced the smallest values for the majority of traits under CO2, UV-B, and low temperature either alone or in combination with other treatments. Based on principal component analysis, the four cultivars were classified as tolerant (DP1522B2XF), intermediate (PHY496W3R and ST4747GLB2) and sensitive (TM-1) to multiple environmental stresses.Low temperature was identified as the most damaging treatment to cotton early seedling vigor while elevated CO2 caused the least. Existing variability of cotton cultivars in response to multiple environmental stresses could allow for selection of cultivars with the best coping ability and higher lint yield for future climate change environments.

  5. Shoot dieback in pecan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field evaluation found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining p...

  6. Anatomy of normal and hyperhydric sunflower shoots regenerated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Fauguel C.M.; Vega T.A.; Nestares G.; Zorzoli R.; Picardi L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a morphological and physiological disorder affecting plants regenerated in vitro. This malformation is associated with excessive hydration and abnormal shoot morphogenesis such as glassy water-soaked appearance of shoots. This undesirable phenomenon is a frequent problem in sunflower tissue culture systems and has been described by visual symptoms but there is no information on the anatomic structure of the affected shoots. In this paper we describe anatomic features of norm...

  7. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims. PMID:23254623

  8. Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Rabie, Gamal H; Kenawey, Saied E M; Abd El-Aal, Marwa A

    2012-10-01

    By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit's fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations in A. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek's broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method. PMID:24031964

  9. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  10. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  11. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  12. Shoot multiplication and plant regeneration in Caragana fruticosa (Pall.) Besser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xiao-jie; YANG Ling; SHEN Hai-long

    2011-01-01

    Different nutrient media can affectin vitro culturing protocols,and experimentation under varied growth conditions is valuable in plants where in vitro methods are in preliminary stages.We carried out the first in vitro propagation studies for the endangered species Caragana fruticosa (Fabaceae).We evaluated various nutrient media for their inpact on shoot elongation and axillary bud proliferation using different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).Shoot elongation was evaluated based on adventitious shoot primary culture and subculture regeneration from Caragana seedlings.Our goal was to improve both micropropagation and regeneration in C.fruticosa.MS nutrient media was superior to 1/2MS macronutrients,DKW,QL,and WPM for shoot elongation and axillary shoot proliferation.Shoots grown on 1/2MS and WPM exhibited some chlorosis,and shoots on QL produced larger leavers than plants growing on normal medium.The shoot proliferation coefficient on MS media supplemented with 2.22 μM BA and 0.44 μM BA + 2.69 μM NAA was significantly higher than that with other treatments in the primary culture.Shoots on 2.22 μM BA showed a higher proliferation coefficient (3.17) than others in the subculture.Shoots were rooted on 1/2MS medium with the addition of different concentrations of NAA.The optimal concentration for rooting was 0.27 μM NAA (74%).Roots exhibited many stout and long root hairs.Survivl of established plantlets was 82% at 30 days after transfer to soil.Plants established in the green house showed normal growth and displayed no apparent morphological differences compared to stock plants.

  13. The endodermis and shoot gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasaka, M; Kato, T; Fukaki, H

    1999-03-01

    Shoots and roots of higher plants exhibit negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. A variety of gravitropic mutants have recently been isolated from Arabidopsis, the characterization of which demonstrates that the molecular mechanisms of the gravitropic responses in roots, hypocotyls and inflorescence stems are different. The cytological and molecular analysis of two mutants, shoot gravitropism 1 (sgrl), which is allelic to scarecrow (scr), and sgr7, which is allelic to short-root(shr), indicate that the endodermis is the site of gravity perception in shoots. These data suggest a new model for shoot gravitropism.

  14. Improved recovery of cryotherapy-treated shoot tips following thermotherapy of in vitro-grown stock shoots of raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiaochun; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2009-01-01

    Raspberry bushy dwarf virus (RBDV) can be efficiently eradicated from raspberry plants (Rubus idaeus) by a procedure combining thermotherapy and cryotherapy. However, the bottleneck of this procedure is that, following thermotherapy, cryopreserved shoot tips become chlorotic during regrowth and eventually die after several subcultures. In addition, survival of heat-treated stock shoots and recovery of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy are low. The present study focused towards improving regrowth of cryopreserved raspberry shoot tips following thermotherapy. Results showed that preconditioning stock shoots with salicylic acid (SA; 0.01-0.1 mM) markedly increased survival of stock shoots after 4 weeks of thermotherapy. Regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was also significantly enhanced when SA (0.05-0.1 mM) was used for preconditioning stock shoots. Addition of either Fe-ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (Fe-EDTA, 50 mg per L) or Fe-ethylenediaminedi(o)hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA, 50 mg per L) to post-culture medium strongly promoted regrowth and totally prevented chlorosis of shoots regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy. Using the parameters optimized in the present study, about 80 percent survival of heat-treated stock shoots and about 33 percent regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy were obtained. Morphology of plants regenerated from cryopreserved shoot tips following thermotherapy was identical to that of control plants, based on observations of leaf shape and size, internode length and plant height. Optimization of the thermotherapy procedure followed by cryotherapy will facilitate the wider application of this technique to eliminate viruses which can invade meristems.

  15. Comparison of Morphological Microstructure of Vitrified and Normal Shoots of Aronia melanocarpa Elloit%黑果腺肋花楸正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶显微结构的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晔华; 利爽; 吕天舒; 胡婷婷; 吴荣哲

    2014-01-01

    The Aronia melanocarpa El oit was used as test material. The microstruc-ture of normal and vitrified shoots and the characteristics of their stomas on leaf surface were compared by paraffin section and leaf epidermis-tearing method. The results showed the palisade tissue of Aronia melanocarpa El oit consists of 2-3 lay-ers of cells. The stomas on lower epidermis cave in, and are smal and dense. There are abundant vessels and sieve tubes in stems. ln contrast, the main veins of vitrified shoots are unobvious, messy and irregular. The boundary between pal-isade tissue and spongy tissue is not obvious. The stomas open circularly and bigly. The stems are swel ing and thick, but the pith parenchyma cells are broken.%以黑果花楸组培苗为试材,采用石蜡切片和叶表皮撕取法,比较正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶横切面显微结构以及叶表面气孔特征。结果表明,黑果腺肋花楸栅栏组织由2~3层细胞构成,下表皮气孔下陷,小而密集,茎内分布大量导管、筛管。玻璃化苗主脉不明显,细胞排列凌乱不规则,栅栏组织与海绵组织的区别不明显,气孔开口大近圆形,茎肿胀粗大髓腔内薄壁细胞较多、已破裂。

  16. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  17. Induced mutations in citrus shoot tip culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of using induced mutation of the callus of citrus clones as a method in citrus breeding. It was observed that the nuclear clones had a higher ratio of callus cell differentiation than the old clones. The callus cells were exposed to gamma irradiation of 7,000 roentgen at 127 R/min. Callus cells derived from the shoot tip proved to be more appropriate for cytological examination by the smearing technique than the root tip cells. Gamma irradiation of callus cells is quite effective for inducing chromosome aberration and micronucleus inspection

  18. Support application for shooting clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Lenič, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    The process of logging shooting results, especially without proper electronic support, can be a very tedious task, for which no practical solution exists. The web application, in addition to logging results, offers many other useful functionalities to shooters and to shooting clubs. In addition to the web application, we also developed an Android mobile application, which enables shooters to take photos of their targets and upload them to a server so they can review them later. The first p...

  19. A Real Shooting Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of A Real Shooting Star This artist's animation illustrates a star flying through our galaxy at supersonic speeds, leaving a 13-light-year-long trail of glowing material in its wake. The star, named Mira (pronounced my-rah) after the latin word for 'wonderful,' sheds material that will be recycled into new stars, planets and possibly even life. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer discovered the long trail of material behind Mira during its survey of the entire sky in ultraviolet light. The animation begins by showing a close-up of Mira -- a red-giant star near the end of its life. Red giants are red in color and extremely bloated; for example, if a red giant were to replace our sun, it would engulf everything out to the orbit of Mars. They constantly blow off gas and dust in the form of stellar winds, supplying the galaxy with molecules, such as oxygen and carbon, that will make their way into new solar systems. Our sun will mature into a red giant in about 5 billion years. As the animation pulls out, we can see the enormous trail of material deposited behind Mira as it hurls along between the stars. Like a boat traveling through water, a bow shock, or build up of gas, forms ahead of the star in the direction of its motion. Gas in the bow shock is heated and then mixes with the cool hydrogen gas in the wind that is blowing off Mira. This heated hydrogen gas then flows around behind the star, forming a turbulent wake. Why does the trailing hydrogen gas glow in ultraviolet light? When it is heated, it transitions into a higher-energy state, which then loses energy by emitting ultraviolet light - a process known as fluorescence. Finally, the artist's rendering gives way to the actual ultraviolet image taken by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer Mira is located 350 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cetus, otherwise known as the whale. Coincidentally, Mira and its 'whale of a tail' can be

  20. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  1. SMS design and aberration theory

    OpenAIRE

    Corrente, Fabio; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Lin WANG; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    The SMS, Simultaneous Multiple Surfaces, design was born to Nonimaging Optics applications and is now being applied also to Imaging Optics. In this paper the wave aberration function of a selected SMS design is studied. It has been found the SMS aberrations can be analyzed with a little set of parameters, sometimes two. The connection of this model with the conventional aberration expansion is also presented. To verify these mathematical model two SMS design systems were raytraced and the dat...

  2. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  3. Patterns of photoassimilate translocation to reproductive shoots from adjacent shoots in Camellia sasanqua by manipulation of sink-source balance between the shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oitate, Hiroki; Noguchi, Ko; Sone, Kosei; Terashima, Ichiro; Suzuki, Alata Antönio

    2011-01-01

    To know to what extent reproductive shoots are autonomous in Camellia sasanqua, we manipulated the sink-source balance between the reproductive shoots and their adjacent shoots by selecting vegetative or reproductive adjacent shoots, or defoliating the reproductive shoots, and photosynthetically labeled adjacent shoots with (13)C. The atom% of (13)C did not increase in the unlabeled shoots that had leaves, whereas that in the defoliated, unlabeled shoot was significantly increased. These results indicated that the pattern of translocation of photoassimilates to adjacent reproductive shoots occurs depending on the sink-source balance between shoots. PMID:20574679

  4. Phase aberration effects in elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, T; Bilgen, M; Ophir, J

    2001-06-01

    In sonography, phase aberration plays a role in the corruption of sonograms. Phase aberration does not have a significant impact on elastography, if statistically similar phase errors are present in both the pre- and postcompression signals. However, if the phase errors are present in only one of the pre- or postcompression signal pairs, the precision of the strain estimation process will be reduced. In some cases, increased phase errors may occur only in the postcompression signal due to changes in the tissue structure with the applied compression. Phase-aberration effects increase with applied strain and may be viewed as an image quality derating factor, much like frequency-dependent attenuation or undesired lateral tissue motion. In this paper, we present a theoretical and simulation study of the effects of phase aberration on the elastographic strain-estimation process, using the strain filter approach.

  5. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various concentrations tested, 2.0mg/l BAP (Benzyl amino purine and 0.1 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid (NAA were found to be the best for maximum shoot bud differentiation. Percentage, as well as the number of shoots per explant showing differentiation of shoot buds was higher on MS media supplement with BAP and optimal BAP concentration for shoot regeneration was 2mg/l. The elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins. Among them indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l induced maximum frequency of rooting. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil where 91% of them have been developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. This method can thus be advantageously applied in the production of transgenic pigeon pea plants.

  6. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various concentrations tested, 2.0mg/l BAP (Benzyl amino purine and 0.1 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid (NAA were found to be the best for maximum shoot bud differentiation. Percentage, as well as the number of shoots per explant showing differentiation of shoot buds was higher on MS media supplement with BAP and optimal BAP concentration for shoot regeneration was 2mg/l. The elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins. Among them indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l induced maximum frequency of rooting. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil where 91% of them have been developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. This method can thus be advantageously applied in the production of transgenic pigeon pea plants.

  7. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  8. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  9. Growth and carbohydrate status of coppice shoots of hybrid poplar following shoot pruning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschaplinski, T J; Blake, T J

    1995-05-01

    Fifteen, 1-year-old Populus maximowiczii Henry x P. nigra L. 'MN9' trees were decapitated and allowed to sprout. After 8 weeks, all had 6 to 10 coppice shoots. All shoots, except the tallest (dominant) shoot, were removed from five of the trees (pruned treatment), and shoot growth, gas exchange and carbohydrate status were compared in the pruned and unpruned trees. Although photosynthetic rate of recently mature leaves of pruned trees was approximately 50% greater than that of leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, and the dry weight of leaves of pruned trees was 37% greater than that of the leaves on the dominant shoot of unpruned trees, the shoot dry matter relative growth rate did not differ between treatments. Concentrations of water-soluble carbohydrates and starch in the uppper stem and leaves of the dominant shoot were similar in pruned and unpruned trees. However, relative to that of the dominant shoot in unpruned trees, the lower stem in pruned trees was depleted in both soluble carbohydrates and starch. Starch deposition, assessed as the quantity of (14)C-starch in tissues 24 h after a fully expanded source leaf was labeled with (14)CO(2), was 3.9 times greater in roots of pruned trees than in roots of unpruned trees. We conclude that early removal of all but the dominant shoot reduces the carbohydrate status of the roots and the lower portion of the stem by eliminating the excised shoots as a source of photosynthate.

  10. Phase Aberrations in Diffraction Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Marchesini, S; Barty, A; Cui, C; Howells, M R; Spence, J C H; Weierstall, U; Minor, A M

    2005-01-01

    In coherent X-ray diffraction microscopy the diffraction pattern generated by a sample illuminated with coherent x-rays is recorded, and a computer algorithm recovers the unmeasured phases to synthesize an image. By avoiding the use of a lens the resolution is limited, in principle, only by the largest scattering angles recorded. However, the imaging task is shifted from the experiment to the computer, and the algorithm's ability to recover meaningful images in the presence of noise and limited prior knowledge may produce aberrations in the reconstructed image. We analyze the low order aberrations produced by our phase retrieval algorithms. We present two methods to improve the accuracy and stability of reconstructions.

  11. Aberrant methylation patterns in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hudler, Petra; Videtič, Alja

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins affecting nucleosome remodelling, and regulation by small and large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) work in concert with cis and trans acting elements to drive appropriate gene expression. Advances in detection methods and development of dedicated platforms and methylation arrays resulted in an explo - sion of information on aberrantly methylated sequences linking devia...

  12. Characteristics of one-year-old shoots of peach hybrids from the crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Aleksandar R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year research (2011-2012 of the most important morphological characteristics of 1-year-old shoots in eight peach hybrids obtained from a crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni were shown in this paper. The following characteristics were studied in tested hybrids: length and diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flowers and vegetative buds per shoot, ratio of flower to vegetative buds, number of flower buds per node and 1-m length of a shoot. The properties of sylleptic shoots on one-year-old shoots have also been studied. The significant differences were determined among the hybrids for parameters such as the diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flower and vegetative buds per shoot. Hybrids FH1 and FH6 were characterized by the highest density of flower buds, so that they are singled out as potentially the most yielding. These hybrids may be of interest for growing in areas where there is a risk of frost and in the domain of breeding when creating new peach cultivars of high yield potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063: Primena novih genotipova i tehnoloških inovacija u cilju unapređenja voćarske i vinogradarske proizvodnje

  13. A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, D.A.; Sherwood, G.A.; Murdy, H.W.

    1973-01-01

    Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

  14. Atom lens without chromatic aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Maxim A; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-01-01

    We propose a lens for atoms with reduced chromatic aberrations and calculate its focal length and spot size. In our scheme a two-level atom interacts with a near-resonant standing light wave formed by two running waves of slightly different wave vectors, and a far-detuned running wave propagating perpendicular to the standing wave. We show that within the Raman-Nath approximation and for an adiabatically slow atom-light interaction, the phase acquired by the atom is independent of the incident atomic velocity.

  15. Competition Strategies of Resources Between Stipa grandis and Cleistogenes squarrosa.Ⅰ.Morphological Response of Shoot and Root on Sulfur Supply%大针茅和糙隐子草对养分资源的竞争策略Ⅰ.根和茎对施硫和其他养分的形态学反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芬; 汪诗平; 邢雪荣; 陈佐忠; Ewald SCHNUG; Silvia HANEKLAUS

    2004-01-01

    Effects of nutrients (compounds of macro- and micro-elements) supply without sulfur (T1)and with sulfur (T2) on the competition between Stipa grandis L. (C3) and Cleistogenes squarrosa L. (C4)were examined using a replacement series design in a greenhouse experiment over a period of 80 d. Blank treatment (nothing applied) (To) was conducted simultaneously. it seems to be no inter-competition between S. grandis and C. squarrosa in all treatments. There was also no intra-competition for S. grandis in all treatments, and for C. squarrosa under T0 treatment because of low productivity. However, the intra-competition of aboveground of C squarrosa was significant when nutrients were supplied regardless of sulfur (S) application. The interaction on dry weight of C. squarrosa per pot between S supply and proportion of C. squarrosa was observed. Under the treatments of T1 and T2 the shoot growth of S. grandis increased significantly compared with To treatment, but there was no significant difference between T1 and T2 treatments, indicating S had no effect on it. Root morphologies of S. grandis was not sensitive to nutrients added. Nutrients supply (T1 and T2 treatments) not only increased significantly the shoot growth of C. squarrosa, but also increased significantly its root growth. Sulfur increased significantly growth of the shoot and root of C. squarrosa. Nutrients supply decreased significantly ratio of root to shoot dry matter (RRS) of C. squarrosa regardless of S application, but the RRS of S. grandis was not affected by nutrients applied. Sulfur also decreased significantly the RRS of C. squarrosa in 100% and 75% proportions of C.squarrosa. The RRS of C. squarrosa was greater significantly in the 100% proportion than that in the 25% proportion of C. squarrosa for all treatments. Therefore, photosynthesis is more allocated to root in infertility soils than in fertility soils and the competition for nutrient resources stimulates root production.The degree of leaf

  16. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  17. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas.

  18. Novel species of Botryosphaeriaceae associated with shoot blight of pistachio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, ShuaiFei; Li, GuoQing; Liu, FeiFei; Michailides, Themis J

    2015-01-01

    Various species of phytopathogenic Botryosphaeriaceae were identified previously from pistachio trees worldwide. Disease symptoms caused by pathogens in Botryosphaeriaceae on pistachio include panicle and shoot blight, leaf defoliation, fruit discoloration and decay. In this study species of Botryosphaeriaceae were collected from blighted pistachio shoots in Arizona, USA, and Greece. The aims of this study were to identify these Botryosphaeriaceae isolates and to test their pathogenicity to pistachio. The fungi were identified based on comparisons of DNA sequence data of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), a partial translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene (TEF1), a partial β-tubulin gene (TUB2) and morphological characteristics. Results indicated that some isolates collected from pistachio represent two previously undescribed species, which we described here as Lasiodiplodia americana sp. nov. from the United States and Neofusicoccum hellenicum sp. nov. from Greece. Field inoculations of L. americana and N. hellenicum on branches of four pistachio cultivars showed that both L. americana and N. hellenicum are pathogenic on pistachio. The four pistachio cultivars differed in their susceptibility to the Botryosphaeriaceae species. Results of this study suggested that the two new species of Botryosphaeriaceae need to be monitored carefully to determine the distribution of these pathogens and the possible spread to other areas. PMID:25977211

  19. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherry Towers

    Full Text Available Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts.Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed. We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event.We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015. We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001. All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings.

  20. Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Several past studies have found that media reports of suicides and homicides appear to subsequently increase the incidence of similar events in the community, apparently due to the coverage planting the seeds of ideation in at-risk individuals to commit similar acts. Methods Here we explore whether or not contagion is evident in more high-profile incidents, such as school shootings and mass killings (incidents with four or more people killed). We fit a contagion model to recent data sets related to such incidents in the US, with terms that take into account the fact that a school shooting or mass murder may temporarily increase the probability of a similar event in the immediate future, by assuming an exponential decay in contagiousness after an event. Conclusions We find significant evidence that mass killings involving firearms are incented by similar events in the immediate past. On average, this temporary increase in probability lasts 13 days, and each incident incites at least 0.30 new incidents (p = 0.0015). We also find significant evidence of contagion in school shootings, for which an incident is contagious for an average of 13 days, and incites an average of at least 0.22 new incidents (p = 0.0001). All p-values are assessed based on a likelihood ratio test comparing the likelihood of a contagion model to that of a null model with no contagion. On average, mass killings involving firearms occur approximately every two weeks in the US, while school shootings occur on average monthly. We find that state prevalence of firearm ownership is significantly associated with the state incidence of mass killings with firearms, school shootings, and mass shootings. PMID:26135941

  1. Shoot Tip Culture of Arnica montana for Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchou, O; Nichterlein, K; Vömel, A

    1992-02-01

    Multiple shoots were regenerated from shoot tips of ARNICA MONTANA on MS and B5 media supplemented with BA (1 mg/l) and NAA (0.1 mg/l). Sections of 1-2 mm in length cultured from IN VITRO germinated seedlings regenerated 7.7 (mean) shoots on the MS medium, whereas sections cultured from greenhouse plants regenerated 9.0 (mean) shoots on the B5 medium within 6 weeks. Subsequent subcultures of shoots on the same media but without NAA resulted in similar or lower multiplication rates (1.6 to 3.1 in 3 weeks). Shoot development was promoted, whereas shoot initiation was simultaneously inhibited by the addition of activated charcoal to the media. Rooting was induced by culturing shoots from seedling as well as from greenhouse plant shoot tips on MS or B5 medium supplemented with NAA. The plantlets were transplanted into soil and grown successfully under greenhouse and field conditions.

  2. Psychometric Characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aman, Michael G.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Information is presented on the psychometric characteristics of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, a measure of psychotropic drug effects. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the checklist appeared very good. Interrater reliability was generally in the moderate range. In general, validity was established for most Aberrant Behavior…

  3. Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given

  4. Shooting Gallery Notes. Working Paper #22. Preliminary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgois, Philippe

    This paper contains ethnographic participant-observation field notes taken on a one-night visit to a "shooting gallery" in East Harlem (New York City) along with background information and commentary. East Harlem, also referred to as "El Barrio" or Spanish Harlem, is a 200-square block neighborhood on the upper East Side of Manhattan in New York…

  5. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Brooks

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem (SAM maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1 or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1, a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  6. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  7. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  8. Bullshot : sporting shooting, alcohol and the two cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the role and function of alcohol in sporting shooting in the UK. It seeks to understand and critically comment upon alcohol consumption relating to this sport, to widen empirical knowledge of sporting shooting and to use the lens of alcohol to enhance our theoretical understanding of changes taking place in the global countryside. The paper contextualises the activity of sporting shooting by discussing the characteristics of game shooting participants and also the natur...

  9. Shoot Regeneration from Leaf Explants of Withania somnifera (L. Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Girish JOSHI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Regeneration from leaf explants of Withania somnifera (L. for mass propagation was studied on Murashige and Skoog�s medium supplemented with Kinetin (Kn and 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP alone or in combination. Shoot buds were induced from the midrib on the abaxial side in presence of Kn and BAP (4 �M. These shoot buds developed into shoots on the same medium. Rooting of these shoots was achieved in 0.5 �M of IBA.

  10. The weathering and transformation process of lead in China's shooting ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yeling; Zhu, Yongbing; Zhao, Sanping; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    Corroding steel-core bullets from three shooting ranges in different climate zones of China were collected. Multiple technical methods (EMPA, SEM, XRD, and ICP-OES) were applied to investigate the structure, morphology, and weathering product of this type of bullet in China to analyze the weathering mechanisms in different types of soils. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to view the morphology and microstructure of corrosion layers. On the corroded lead layer surface, unevenness, micro cracks, and spallation were usually present. Around the micro cracks, many types of euhedral and subhedral crystals of the secondary products of lead were formed, most of which were composed of cerussite (PbCO3), while hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2) was predominant in the bullet collected from the humid environment. X-ray power diffraction (XRD) results show that the secondary weathering products in the three shooting range soils are clearly different. In the Fangyan shooting range, which has a neutral and semi-arid soil, the lead weathering product was mainly hydrocerussite (Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2), while no substantial amount of crystal phase of lead compound could be found in acidic, damp soils from the Fenghuang shooting range, possibly due to the enhanced dissolution and mobilization of lead compounds at lower pH and higher content of organic matter in the soil. In hot and arid environment of the Baicheng shooting range, cerussite might have undergone thermal decomposition, thus generating shannonite (Pb2O(CO3)). These results indicate that the formation of secondary Pb minerals is largely affected by the climatic zone or the soil properties, which may have implications for range management practices.

  11. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  12. Flow cytometric detection of aberrant chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.W.; Lucas, J.; Yu, L.C.; Langlois, R.

    1983-05-11

    This report describes the quantification of chromosomal aberrations by flow cytometry. Both homogeneously and heterogeneously occurring chromosome aberrations were studied. Homogeneously occurring aberrations were noted in chromosomes isolated from human colon carcinoma (LoVo) cells, stained with Hoechst 33258 and chromomycin A3 and analyzed using dual beam flow cytometry. The resulting bivariate flow karyotype showed a homogeneously occurring marker chromosome of intermediate size. Heterogeneously occurring aberrations were quantified by slit-scan flow cytometry in chromosomes isolated from control and irradiated Chinese hamster cells and stained with propidium iodide. Heterogeneously occurring dicentric chromosomes were detected by their shapes (two centrometers). The frequencies of such chromosomes estimated by slit-scan flow cytometry correlated well with the frequencies determined by visual microscopy.

  13. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gondolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, res...

  14. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  15. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed

  16. Multiple Shooting in Rational Expectations Models

    OpenAIRE

    David Lipton; James M. Poterba; Jeffrey Sachs; Summers, Lawrence H.

    1983-01-01

    This note describes an algorithm for the solution of rational expectations models with saddlepoint stability properties. The algorithm is based on the method of multiple shooting, which is widely used to solve mathematically similar problems in the physical sciences. Potential applications to economics include models of capital accumulation and valuation, money arid growth, exchange rate determination, and macroeconomic activity. In general, whenever an asset price incorporates information ab...

  17. Chlordecone Transfer and Distribution in Maize Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal-Lorber, Sophie; Létondor, Clarisse; Liber, Yohan; Jamin, Emilien L; Laurent, François

    2016-01-20

    Chlordecone (CLD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP) that was mainly used as an insecticide against banana weevils in the French West Indies (1972-1993). Transfer of CLD via the food chain is now the major mechanism for exposure of the population to CLD. The uptake and the transfer of CLD were investigated in shoots of maize, a C4 model plant growing under tropical climates, to estimate the exposure of livestock via feed. Maize plants were grown on soils contaminated with [(14)C]CLD under controlled conditions. The greatest part of the radioactivity was associated with roots, nearly 95%, but CLD was detected in whole shoots, concentrations in old leaves being higher than those in young ones. CLD was thus transferred from the base toward the plant top, forming an acropetal gradient of contaminant. In contrast, results evidenced the existence of a basipetal gradient of CLD concentration within leaves whose extremities accumulated larger amounts of CLD because of evapotranspiration localization. Extractable residues accounted for two-thirds of total residues both in roots and in shoots. This study highlighted the fact that the distribution of CLD contamination within grasses resulted from a conjunction between the age and evapotranspiration rate of tissues. CLD accumulation in fodder may be the main route of exposure for livestock. PMID:26701746

  18. Dynamics of the eye's wave aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, H; Artal, P; Singer, B; Aragón, J L; Williams, D R

    2001-03-01

    It is well known that the eye's optics exhibit temporal instability in the form of microfluctuations in focus; however, almost nothing is known of the temporal properties of the eye's other aberrations. We constructed a real-time Hartmann-Shack (HS) wave-front sensor to measure these dynamics at frequencies as high as 60 Hz. To reduce spatial inhomogeneities in the short-exposure HS images, we used a low-coherence source and a scanning system. HS images were collected on three normal subjects with natural and paralyzed accommodation. Average temporal power spectra were computed for the wave-front rms, the Seidel aberrations, and each of 32 Zernike coefficients. The results indicate the presence of fluctuations in all of the eye's aberration, not just defocus. Fluctuations in higher-order aberrations share similar spectra and bandwidths both within and between subjects, dropping at a rate of approximately 4 dB per octave in temporal frequency. The spectrum shape for higher-order aberrations is generally different from that for microfluctuations of accommodation. The origin of these measured fluctuations is not known, and both corneal/lenticular and retinal causes are considered. Under the assumption that they are purely corneal or lenticular, calculations suggest that a perfect adaptive optics system with a closed-loop bandwidth of 1-2 Hz could correct these aberrations well enough to achieve diffraction-limited imaging over a dilated pupil. PMID:11265680

  19. Pulse compressor with aberration correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mankos, Marian [Electron Optica, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    In this SBIR project, Electron Optica, Inc. (EOI) is developing an electron mirror-based pulse compressor attachment to new and retrofitted dynamic transmission electron microscopes (DTEMs) and ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) cameras for improving the temporal resolution of these instruments from the characteristic range of a few picoseconds to a few nanoseconds and beyond, into the sub-100 femtosecond range. The improvement will enable electron microscopes and diffraction cameras to better resolve the dynamics of reactions in the areas of solid state physics, chemistry, and biology. EOI’s pulse compressor technology utilizes the combination of electron mirror optics and a magnetic beam separator to compress the electron pulse. The design exploits the symmetry inherent in reversing the electron trajectory in the mirror in order to compress the temporally broadened beam. This system also simultaneously corrects the chromatic and spherical aberration of the objective lens for improved spatial resolution. This correction will be found valuable as the source size is reduced with laser-triggered point source emitters. With such emitters, it might be possible to significantly reduce the illuminated area and carry out ultrafast diffraction experiments from small regions of the sample, e.g. from individual grains or nanoparticles. During phase I, EOI drafted a set of candidate pulse compressor architectures and evaluated the trade-offs between temporal resolution and electron bunch size to achieve the optimum design for two particular applications with market potential: increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of UEDs, and increasing the temporal and spatial resolution of DTEMs. Specialized software packages that have been developed by MEBS, Ltd. were used to calculate the electron optical properties of the key pulse compressor components: namely, the magnetic prism, the electron mirror, and the electron lenses. In the final step, these results were folded

  20. Aberrant “Barbed-Wire” Nuclear Projections of Neutrophils in Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil M. Kahwash

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the significance of neutrophils with increased, aberrant nuclear projections mimicking “barbed-wire” in a newborn child with trisomy 18 (T18. Increased, aberrant nuclear projections have been previously reported in trisomy of the D group of chromosomes (chromosomes 13, 14, and 15, and we report similar findings in a patient with T18. The peripheral blood smear showed relative neutrophilia with the majority (37% of neutrophils showing two or more thin, rod-shaped or spike-shaped, and often pedunculated aberrant nuclear projections. The number of projections ranged from 2 to 6 per cell, averaged 2 per affected neutrophil, and ranged in length from 0.22 μm to 0.83 μm. This case confirms that the morphologic finding described is not restricted to trisomy of one of the chromosomes in group D, as implied in the literature.

  1. Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp nov and associated shoots from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jixi Basin, Heilongjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing (China). Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology

    2004-10-01

    Ginkgoalean leaves attributed to Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp. nov. and associated long and dwarf shoots were collected from the Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing Muling Formation of the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang, China. The common characteristic feature of the various leaves is the dense venation. The species may be distinguished from other known species of Ginkgoites from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of eastern Asia in having 8-18 closely arranged oblanceolate segments each with 6-16 veins. The fragmentary long and dwarf shoots are similar to those of extant Ginkgo biloba in gross morphology. They are considered to belong to the same tree as that which produced Ginkgoites myrioneurus.

  2. Chemical constituents of Caragana bungei shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniil N. Olennikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical study of flowering shoots of Caragana bungei Ledeb., Fabaceae, collected in Tuva Republic (Russian Federation resulted in the isolation of sixteen compounds identified as β-sitosterol, β-sitosterol-3-O-glucoside, umbelliferone, kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, isoquercitrin, rutin, narcissin, nicotiflorin, caffeic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, gallic acid and sucrose. The structures of the compounds were established by spectral analyses. This is the first phytochemical investigation of C. bungei. The nicotiflorin, phenylpropanoids and gallic acid were isolated from the Caragana genus for the first time.

  3. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  4. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of Borage (Borago officinalis) Affected by Salicylic Acid as an Enhancer

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid AKBARPOUR; Hossein ARUEI; Seyyed Hossein NEMATI

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the response of borage (Borago officinalis) phytochemical and morphological attributes in relation to application of different levels of salicylic acid. Borage planted in pots and salicylic acid was sprayed on the shoots at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM with 6 replications in a completely randomized block design. Morphological attributes such as shoot height, shoot dry matter, flower dry matter, flower weight and shoot wet weight were me...

  5. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, R.K.; Tarver, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics); Yates, B.L.; Morgan, W.F. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G[sub 1] Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author).

  6. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G1 Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author)

  7. DIRECT IN VITRO SHOOTS PROLIFERATION OF CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L. FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS INDUCED BY THIDIAZURON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheena Parveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and efficient protocol for direct in vitro multiple shoot induction and plantlet regeneration was achieved from shoot tip explants of Cicer arietinum. The shoot tips were cultured on MS medium fortified with Thidiazuron (TDZ (1.0-7.0 mg/L for multiple shoot induction. Multiple shoots proliferation was best observed at 3.0 mg/L TDZ from the shoot tip explants within three weeks of culture. Shoot number per explant ranged between 2 and 10. Individual shoots were aseptically excised and sub cultured in the same media for shoot elongation. The elongated shoots were transferred to Indole Butyric Acid (IBA (1.0mg/L–5.0mg/L for root induction. Rooting was observed within two weeks of culture. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened under culture conditions and subsequently established in the field conditions. The recorded survival rate of the plants was 86%. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variations.

  8. Multiple shoot cultures of Atropa belladonna: Effect of physico-chemical factors on growth and alkaloid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple shoot cultures were established from shoot tip and axillary meristem of the plant Atropa belladonna. The cultures were initially raised on agar medium and subsequently maintained on liquid medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with BA. These cultures were subjected to different doses of -y-irradiation. Recovery from the radiation effects was observed in tissues subjected to 29 Gy during four successive passages. Plant growth regulators influenced the growth and morphogenetic events of the tissues. The precursors of tropane alkaloids marginally increased the alkaloid synthesis during the stationary phase of growth. Shoot cultures, established from different field grown plants varying in alkaloid content, were morphologically similar and did not exhibit the parental characteristics with respect to alkaloid formation

  9. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargallo-Garriga, Albert; Sardans, Jordi; Pérez-Trujillo, Míriam; Rivas-Ubach, Albert; Oravec, Michal; Vecerova, Kristyna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, Anke; Kreyling, Juergen; Beierkuhnlein, Carl; Parella, Teodor; Peñuelas, Josep

    2014-10-01

    Shoots and roots are autotrophic and heterotrophic organs of plants with different physiological functions. Do they have different metabolomes? Do their metabolisms respond differently to environmental changes such as drought? We used metabolomics and elemental analyses to answer these questions. First, we show that shoots and roots have different metabolomes and nutrient and elemental stoichiometries. Second, we show that the shoot metabolome is much more variable among species and seasons than is the root metabolome. Third, we show that the metabolic response of shoots to drought contrasts with that of roots; shoots decrease their growth metabolism (lower concentrations of sugars, amino acids, nucleosides, N, P, and K), and roots increase it in a mirrored response. Shoots are metabolically deactivated during drought to reduce the consumption of water and nutrients, whereas roots are metabolically activated to enhance the uptake of water and nutrients, together buffering the effects of drought, at least at the short term.

  10. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  11. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  12. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Igawa Shoji; Sato Takeshi; Watanabe Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants) aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal) and shot timing. S...

  13. Fruit bearing shoot characteristics of European plum (Prunus domestica L. and Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of fruit bearing shoots: length, number of flower buds and vegetative buds and their ratio were studied in 11 cultivars of European plum and 11 cultivars of Japanese plum during a two-year period. Fruit bearing shoots were divided into two groups: long (shoots and short (spurs. For all studied traits, statistically significant differences between plum cultivars were found. Japanese plums had lesser thickness and shorter internodes of shoots in relation to European plums. They also had a significantly higher number of flower buds both on shoots and spurs. Based on obtained results, recommendations for pruning can be made. Cultivars with a higher number of flower buds per 1-m length and in relation to vegetative buds, like most varieties of Japanese plum and some varieties of European plum ("Stanley", "Topper", "Top", "Topking", require severe pruning. On the other hand, cultivars with lower density of flower buds, such as "Čačanska rana" and "Golden Plum", can be pruned slightly.

  14. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  15. Studies on shoot and leaf characters of brinjal plants and their quantitative relationships with brinjal shoot and fruit borer

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....

  16. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, P.W., E-mail: peter.hawkes@cemes.fr

    2015-09-15

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies.

  17. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  18. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal...

  19. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  20. Role of endodermal cell vacuoles in shoot gravitropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takehide; Morita, Miyo Terao; Tasaka, Masao

    2002-06-01

    In higher plants, shoots and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. Data from surgical ablation experiments and analysis of starch deficient mutants have led to the suggestion that columella cells in the root cap function as gravity perception cells. On the other hand, endodermal cells are believed to be the statocytes (that is, gravity perceiving cells) of shoots. Statocytes in shoots and roots commonly contain amyloplasts which sediment under gravity. Through genetic research with Arabidopsis shoot gravitropism mutants, sgr1/scr and sgr7/shr, it was determined that endodermal cells are essential for shoot gravitropism. Moreover, some starch biosynthesis genes and EAL1 are important for the formation and maturation of amyloplasts in shoot endodermis. Thus, amyloplasts in the shoot endodermis would function as statoliths, just as in roots. The study of the sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants provides new insights into the early steps of shoot gravitropism, which still remains unclear. SGR2 and ZIG/SGR4 genes encode a phospholipase-like and a v-SNARE protein, respectively. Moreover, these genes are involved in vacuolar formation or function. Thus, the vacuole must play an important role in amyloplast sedimentation because the sgr2 and zig/sgr4 mutants display abnormal amyloplast sedimentation.

  1. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf of Uenishiwase Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-lian; LIU Xiao-na; ZHANG Zi-de

    2004-01-01

    Effects of basal mediums, hormones and their concentrations on the shoot regeneration from leaf of sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. Cv. Uenishiwase) were studied by orthogonal design trial. The result showed that modified Murashige and Skoog [MS (1/2 N)] was the most optimum for the regeneration and 1/2 MS was better than MS. Shoot percentage in the medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT(zeatin) was much higher than that of other two concentrations, among which 2.0 mg L-1 ZT was much better than 1.0 mg L-1 ZT and shoot percentage in the concentration of 1.0 mg L-1 ZT was only 4%. There were no any beneficial effects when supplementing IAA in the medium. Shoot percentage and average shoots perexplantsweredramaticallydecreasedinthe 2.0 mg L-1 IAA. Data in the orthogonal trial indicated that ZT was the most effective factor in the shoot regenerating of Uenishwase persimmon and basal medium was important too, but IAAhad no any beneficial effects at all. In the orthogonal trial, the best result was achieved in MS (1/ 2 N) medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT and 1.0 mg L-1 IAA, in which shoot percentage and average shoots per explants were 86% and 2.2, respectively.

  2. Shoot production in squash (Cucurbita pepo) by in vitro organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishnan, G; Xia, X; Elman, C; Singer, S; Paris, H S; Gal-On, A; Gaba, V

    2003-04-01

    Seedling-derived cotyledon explants of squash ( Cucurbita pepo L.) of commercial cultivars True French, Ma'yan and Goldy were regenerated in vitro on Murashige and Skoog medium augmented with 1 mg/l benzyladenine. After 4 weeks in culture small shoots and buds regenerated only on the most proximal cotyledon edge. Culture on an elongation medium with a reduced cytokinin concentration (0.1 mg/l) with or without 1 mg/l gibberellic acid (GA(3)) facilitated the recovery of shoots. Fresh shoots could be recovered at each subculture of the regenerating mass. Peak productivity was during the third cycle of subculture, and shoot production ceased after the fifth subculture. Culture on elongation medium supplemented with GA(3) was 55% more effective with respect to overall shoot production than that on medium without GA(3), with 22 shoots recovered in total per explant from the former. Regeneration occurred under both light and dark conditions. All of the shoots tested were diploid. The shoots were rooted and transferred to the greenhouse where they grew and flowered normally.

  3. Adaptive and aberrant reward prediction signals in the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roiser, J.P.; Stephan, K.E.; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Theories of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia hypothesize a role for aberrant reinforcement signaling driven by dysregulated dopamine transmission. Recently, we provided evidence of aberrant reward learning in symptomatic, but not asymptomatic patients with schizophrenia, using a novel paradigm

  4. Plant regeneration from protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis via somatic embryogenesis and shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeder, M; Kohn, H; Nibbe, M; Schieder, O; Pickardt, T

    1996-11-01

    Protoplasts ofVicia narbonensis isolated from epicotyls and shoot tips of etiolated seedlings were embedded in 1.4% sodium-alginate at a final density of 2.5×10(5) protoplasts/ml and cultivated in Kao and Michayluk-medium containing 0.5 mg/I of each of 2,4- dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, naphthylacetic acid and 6 -benzylaminopurine. A division frequency of 36% and a plating efficiency of 0.40-0.5% were obtained. Six weeks after embedding, protoplast-derived calluses were transferred onto gelrite-solidified Murashige and Skoog-media containing various growth regulators. Regeneration of plants was achieved via two morphologically distinguishable pathways. A two step protocol (initially on medium with a high auxin concentration followed by a culture phase with lowered auxin amount) was used to regenerate somatic embryos, whereas cultivation on medium containing thidiazuron and naphthylacetic acid resulted in shoot morphogenesis. Mature plants were recovered from both somatic embryos as well as from thidiazuron-induced shoots.

  5. Shoot Branching and Leaf Dissection in Tomato Are Regulated by Homologous Gene Modules[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Bernhard L.; Schmitz, Gregor; Rossmann, Susanne; Piron, Florence; Ding, Jia; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Theres, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Aerial plant architecture is predominantly determined by shoot branching and leaf morphology, which are governed by apparently unrelated developmental processes, axillary meristem formation, and leaf dissection. Here, we show that in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), these processes share essential functions in boundary establishment. Potato leaf (C), a key regulator of leaf dissection, was identified to be the closest paralog of the shoot branching regulator Blind (Bl). Comparative genomics revealed that these two R2R3 MYB genes are orthologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana branching regulator REGULATOR OF AXILLARY MERISTEMS1 (RAX1). Expression studies and complementation analyses indicate that these genes have undergone sub- or neofunctionalization due to promoter differentiation. C acts in a pathway independent of other identified leaf dissection regulators. Furthermore, the known leaf complexity regulator Goblet (Gob) is crucial for axillary meristem initiation and acts in parallel to C and Bl. Finally, RNA in situ hybridization revealed that the branching regulator Lateral suppressor (Ls) is also expressed in leaves. All four boundary genes, C, Bl, Gob, and Ls, may act by suppressing growth, as indicated by gain-of-function plants. Thus, leaf architecture and shoot architecture rely on a conserved mechanism of boundary formation preceding the initiation of leaflets and axillary meristems. PMID:22039213

  6. The correction of electron lens aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, P W

    2015-09-01

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. PMID:26025209

  7. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  8. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles a_lm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l=1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fidu...

  9. Preculturing effect of thidiazuron on in vitro shoot multiplication and micropropagation round in Capparis decidua (Forsk.) an important multipurpose plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, Najat A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, Kahkashan

    2016-09-01

    An efficient protocol was developed for clonal multiplication of an important shrub: Capparis decidua (Forsk.) Edgew, through in vitro shoot induction and multiplication from nodal explants. Pretreatment of nodal explants in a liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium augmented with various thidiazuron (TDZ) concentrations at relatively high levels (5-100 μM) for different time duration (4, 8, 12 and 16 d), proved a significant approach for in vitro shoot production. After an initial exposure time to TDZ, nodal explants were inoculated onto a MS basal medium devoid of TDZ for further induction and proliferation. The highest regeneration rate (85%), average number of shoots/explant (8.7 ± 0.22) and maximum shoot length (3.9 ± 0.33 cm) were obtained from the nodal explants exposed to 50 μM TDZ for 8 d. The nodal explants excised from the proliferated cultures of TDZ (50 μM) for 8 d were used as explants and showed an enhancement rate after next three round of in vitro propagation. Best results for rooting was obtained by ex vitro treatment of shoots with 200 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) for 20 min. as it produced an average of 5.7 ± 0.41 roots per microshoot with 4.4 ± 0.39 cm root length in 84% shoots. Different planting substrates was tested for maximum survival of hardening off micropropagated plantlets and soilrite proved most effective than others as 97.1 ± 7.21 plantlets survived. All micropropagated plants grew well in natural conditions and showed similar morphology to the mother plant. PMID:27630052

  10. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  11. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U-14C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U-14C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  12. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  13. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  14. Radiotherapeutical chromosomal aberrations in laryngeal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić-Divjak Svetlana L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors present the results of cytogenetic analysis of 21 patients with laryngeal carcinomas diagnosed and treated in the period 1995-2000 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia and Clinical Center of Novi Sad. Material and methods. The patients were specially monitored and the material was analyzed at the Institute of Human Genetics of the School of Medicine in Belgrade as well as in the Laboratory for Radiological Protection of the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health 'Dr Dragomir Karajovic' in Belgrade. Results. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations and incidence of exchange of material between sister chromatids were observed in the preparation of the metaphasic lymphocyte chromosomes of the peripheral blood obtained in the culture. Structural aberrations were found on the chromosomes in the form of breakups, rings, translocations and dicentrics as early as after a single exposure of patients to tumor radiation dose of 2 Gy in the field sized 5x7. Out of the total number of 35 cultivated blood samples obtained from 13 patients, 21 were successfully cultivated and they were proved to contain chromosomal aberrations. Some of the peripheral blood samples failed to show cell growth in vitro due to the lethal cell damages in vivo. Discussion.. We have consluded that the number of structural aberrations cannot be used as a biological measure of the absorbed ionizing radiation dose. The presence of aberrations per se is indicative of the mutagenic effect of the ionizing radiation, which was also confirmed in our series on the original model by cultivation of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the culture of the cells of the volunteer donors upon in vitro radiation. Using the method of bromdeoxyuridylreductase, the increased incidence of SCE as a mutagenic effect was registered. Conclusion. It has been concluded that the increase of absorbed radiation dose in

  15. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  16. Electro-Hydrodynamic Shooting Phenomenon of Liquid Metal Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We reported an electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream. A small voltage direct current electric field would induce ejection of liquid metal inside capillary tube and then shooting into sodium hydroxide solution to form discrete droplets. The shooting velocity has positive relationship with the applied voltage while the droplet size is dominated by the aperture diameter of the capillary nozzle. Further, the motion of the liquid metal droplets can be flexibly manipulated by the electrodes. This effect suggests an easy going way to generate metal droplets in large quantity, which is important from both fundamental and practical aspects.

  17. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin. PMID:24747671

  18. Cell-specific transcriptomic analyses of three-dimensional shoot development in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Margaret H; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Haploid moss gametophytes harbor distinct stem cell types, including tip cells that divide in single planes to generate filamentous protonemata, and bud cells that divide in three planes to yield axial gametophore shoots. This transition from filamentous to triplanar growth occurs progressively during the moss life cycle, and is thought to mirror evolution of the first terrestrial plants from Charophycean green algal ancestors. The innovation of morphologically complex plant body plans facilitated colonization of the vertical landscape, and enabled development of complex vegetative and reproductive plant morphologies. Despite its profound evolutionary significance, the molecular programs involved in this transition from filamentous to triplanar meristematic plant growth are poorly understood. In this study, we used single-cell type transcriptomics to identify more than 4000 differentially expressed genes that distinguish uniplanar protonematal tip cells from multiplanar gametophore bud cells in the moss Physcomitrella patens. While the transcriptomes of both tip and bud cells show molecular signatures of proliferative cells, the bud cell transcriptome exhibits a wider variety of genes with significantly increased transcript abundances. Our data suggest that combined expression of genes involved in shoot patterning and asymmetric cell division accompanies the transition from uniplanar to triplanar meristematic growth in moss.

  19. Osmotic stress, endogenous abscisic acid and the control of leaf morphology in Hippuris vulgaris L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T. E.; Feldman, L. J.

    1989-01-01

    Previous reports indicate that heterophyllous aquatic plants can be induced to form aerial-type leaves on submerged shoots when they are grown in exogenous abscisic acid (ABA). This study reports on the relationship between osmotic stress (e.g. the situation encountered by a shoot tip when it grows above the water surface), endogenous ABA (as measured by gas chromatography-electron capture detector) and leaf morphology in the heterophyllous aquatic plant, Hippuris vulgaris. Free ABA could not be detected in submerged shoots of H. vulgaris but in aerial shoots ABA occurred at ca. 40 ng (g fr wt)-1. When submerged shoots were osmotically stressed ABA appeared at levels of 26 to 40 ng (g fr wt)-1. These and other data support two main conclusions: (1) Osmotically stressing a submerged shoot causes the appearance of detectable levels of ABA. (2) The rise of ABA in osmotically stressed submerged shoots in turn induces a change in leaf morphology from the submerged to the aerial form. This corroborates the hypothesis that, in the natural environment, ABA levels rise in response to the osmotic stress encountered when a submerged shoot grows up through the water/air interface and that the increased ABA leads to the production of aerial-type leaves.

  20. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk; Ireneusz Bilichowski; Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik; Halina Wysokińska

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid) in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP). It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots s...

  1. Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Improve Basketball Shooting Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-01-01

    The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of the Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court positions and height. The phase space volume that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations are then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but human factors as well.

  2. Influence Of Iron Sources In The Nutrient Medium On In Vitro Shoot Multiplication And Rooting Of Magnolia And Cherry Plum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov Rosen S.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of compounds providing Fe in chelated (NaFeEDTA and Fe(IIIAC and non-chelated (FeSO4·7H2O forms as components of culture media, on in vitro shoot multiplication and rooting of Magnolia soulangeana ‘Alexandrina’, Magnolia grandiflora and Prunus cerasifera ‘Nigra’ were comparatively evaluated. Each of the tested chemicals was used as a single Fe source in the basal salt medium. In the stages of shoot multiplication and rooting plant response was scored by biometrical indices (number of shoots, leaves and roots, shoot and root length, percent of rooted plants and root hairs. The occurrence of physiological disorders was estimated by visual observations. In presence of FeSO4, symptoms of chlorosis, hyperhy-dricity, early senescence and specific morphology of roots, suggesting Fe deficiency, were observed. These deteriorations were entirely prevented at the application of Fe chelates of which, in this experimental systems, Fe(IIIAC was tested for the first time. The addition of Fe(IIIAC positively affected the plant quality to extent comparable to that of NaFeEDTA. The obtained data suggest that both applied Fe chelates are more appropriate than non-chelated Fe form and can be alternatively used in the optimization of nutrient media for micropropagation of Magnolia and Prunus cerasifera genotypes.

  3. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  4. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  5. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Zeichner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  6. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Zeichner; Baruch Glattstein

    2002-01-01

    A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  7. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  8. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Stojičić Dragana; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA) were compared to those of untreated control...

  9. Aberrant splicing and drug resistance in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Shouse, Geoffrey P; Zhou, Qi; Mirshahidi, Saied; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has unveiled a new window into the heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, recurrent mutations in spliceosome machinery and genome-wide aberrant splicing events have been recognized as a prominent component of this disease. This review will focus on how these factors influence drug resistance through altered splicing of tumor suppressor and oncogenes and dysregulation of the apoptotic signaling network. A better understanding of these factors in disease progression is necessary to design appropriate therapeutic strategies recognizing specific alternatively spliced or mutated oncogenic targets. PMID:27613060

  10. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation.

  11. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation. PMID:23179712

  12. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  13. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  14. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  15. Aberration measurement from specific photolithographic images: a different approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, H; Tawarayama, K; Kohno, T

    2000-03-01

    Techniques for measurement of higher-order aberrations of a projection optical system in photolithographic exposure tools have been established. Even-type and odd-type aberrations are independently obtained from printed grating patterns on a wafer by three-beam interference under highly coherent illumination. Even-type aberrations, i.e., spherical aberration and astigmatism, are derived from the best focus positions of vertical, horizontal, and oblique grating patterns by an optical microscope. Odd-type aberrations, i.e., coma and three-foil, are obtained by detection of relative shifts of a fine grating pattern to a large pattern by an overlay inspection tool. Quantitative diagnosis of lens aberrations with a krypton fluoride (KrF) excimer laser scanner is demonstrated.

  16. Aberration influenced generation of rotating two-lobe light fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, S. P.; Losevsky, N. N.; Prokopova, D. V.; Samagin, S. A.; Volostnikov, V. G.; Vorontsov, E. N.

    2016-08-01

    The influence of aberrations on light fields with a rotating intensity distribution is considered. Light fields were generated with the phase masks developed using the theory of spiral beam optics. The effects of basic aberrations, such as spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma are studied. The experimental implementation of the fields was achieved with the assistance of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator HOLOEYE HEO-1080P, operating in reflection mode. The results of mathematical modelling and experiments have been qualitatively compared.

  17. Higher order aberrations of the eye: Part one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha Oberholzer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first in a series of two articles that provide a comprehensive literature review of higher order aberrations (HOAs of the eye. The present article mainly explains the general principles of such HOAs as well as HOAs of importance, and the measuring apparatus used to measure HOAs of the eye. The second article in the series discusses factors contributing to variable results in measurements of HOAs of the eye.Keywords: Higher order aberrations; wavefront aberrations; aberrometer

  18. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  19. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  20. Cellular origin of prognostic chromosomal aberrations in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Jensen, H.; Jendholm, J.; Rapin, N.;

    2015-01-01

    karyotype have demonstrated the presence of prognostic driver aberrations (that is, NPM1, FLT3-ITD and FLT3-TKD) in committed HPCs but not in multipotent HSCs. However, the HSC populations lacking the prognostic driver aberrations contained preleukemic clones harboring a series of recurrent molecular...... aberrations that were present in the fully transformed committed HPCs together with the prognostic driver aberration. Adding to this vast heterogeneity and complexity of AML genomes and their clonal evolution, a recent study of a murine AML model demonstrated that t(9;11) AML originating from HSCs responded...

  1. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  2. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Septennial ionahta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.B. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn; Li, W.J. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, S. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, X.C. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, L.X. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Q. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, G.M. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, Q.X. [Institute of Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Southern Tianshui Road 222, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2006-03-15

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  3. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. B.; Li, W. J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X. C.; Yu, L. X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G. M.; Gao, Q. X.

    2006-03-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  4. Aberrant expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Takayuki [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Naruke, Yuki; Shigematsu, Sayuri; Kohno, Tomoko; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Ma, Yuhua; Chua, Koon Jiew [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Katayama, Ikuo; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Radiology and Cancer Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takehiko [Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yatabe, Yasushi [Department of Pathology and Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Research Institute, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Nagayasu, Takeshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Fujita, Takashi [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsuyama, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosim@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); The Global Center of Excellence Program at Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); and others

    2010-06-25

    We analyzed the subcellular distributions and gene structures of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor in 50 cases of human primary lung cancer. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed substantially aberrant IRF3 expression specific to the cancer lesions (2 and 6 tumors with nuclear staining, and 4 and 5 tumors with negative staining, in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively), while the morphologically normal region around the tumors exhibited only cytoplasmic staining. In addition, we determined the sequence of the entire IRF3 coding region, and found two novel variants with the amino acid changes (S{sup 175}(AGC) {yields} R{sup 175}(CGC) and A{sup 208}(GCC) {yields} D{sup 208}(GAC)). The R{sup 175} variant was also detected in a morphologically normal region around the nuclear staining squamous cell carcinoma, and exhibited almost the same functions as the wild type IRF3. On the other hand, the D{sup 208} variant, found in the negative staining squamous cell carcinoma cases, reduced the nuclear translocation in response to I{kappa}B kinase {epsilon} stimulation, as compared to the wild type IRF3, but the same variant was detected in the surrounding morphologically normal region. The aberrant expression of IRF3 and the novel D{sup 208} variant may provide clues to elucidate the etiology of primary lung cancer.

  5. Transcript profiling of cytokinin action in Arabidopsis roots and shoots discovers largely similar but also organ-specific responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenner Wolfram G

    2012-07-01

    the growth response of roots and shoots to the hormone, the vast majority of the cytokinin-regulated transcriptome showed similar response patterns in roots and shoots. Conclusions The shift of the root and shoot transcriptomes towards the respective other organ depending on the cytokinin status indicated that the hormone determines part of the organ-specific transcriptome pattern independent of morphological organ identity. Numerous novel cytokinin-regulated genes were discovered which had escaped earlier discovery, most probably due to unspecific sampling. These offer novel insights into the diverse activities of cytokinin, including crosstalk with other hormones and different environmental cues, identify the AP2/ERF class of transcriptions factors as particularly cytokinin sensitive, and also suggest translational control of cytokinin-induced changes.

  6. Convergences and divergences in polar auxin transport and shoot development in land plant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2009-01-01

    A shoot is a reiterated structure consisting of stems and leaves and is the prevailing body plan in most land plant lineages. Vascular plants form shoots in the diploid generation, whereas mosses do so in the haploid generation.1 However, whether these plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development and how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved is not clear. In our recent paper,2 we examined polar auxin transport in several mosses, which is essential for shoot develo...

  7. Difference in Selenium Accumulation in Shoots of Two Rice Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lian-He; SHI Wei-Ming; WANG Xiao-Chang

    2006-01-01

    Two japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars, Xiushui 48 and S. Andrea, differing in their ability to accumulate Se in the grain (as high as a three-fold difference), were compared for selenium (Se) accumulation in their shoots when their growth media was supplied with different forms of Se. Results indicated that when treated with 0.25μmol L-1 Na2SeO3,Xiushui 48 accumulation of Se in the shoots was significantly more rapid (P ≤ 0.05) than S. Andrea, probably because of greater Se uptake and transport in Xiushui 48. Xiushui 48 rice seedlings had a higher shoot-Se accumulation rate and absorbed selenocysteine (Se-Cys) more rapidly than S. Andrea seedlings. However, when treated with Se as 0.25 μmol L-1 selenomethionine (Se-Met), the S. Andrea seedlings' accumulation rate was significantly greater (P ≤ 0.05) than that of Xiushui 48. Possibly, the high Se accumulation rate of Xiushui 48 seedling shoots compared to S. Andrea shoots was the result of a higher capacity of Xiushui 48 to transform selenite to organic Se compounds and a higher selenite uptake rate.

  8. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Bartlett, R

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range. PMID:8809716

  9. Aberrant angiogenesis: The gateway to diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic cum vascular syndrome with resultant abnormalities in both micro- and macrovasculature. The adverse long-term effects of diabetes mellitus have been described to involve many organ systems. Apart from hyperglycemia, abnormalities of angiogenesis may cause or contribute toward many of the clinical manifestations of diabetes. These are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular abnormalities of the retina, kidneys, and fetus, impaired wound healing, increased risk of rejection of transplanted organs, and impaired formation of coronary collaterals. A perplexing feature of the aberrant angiogenesis is that excessive and insufficient angiogenesis can occur in different organs in the same individual. The current article hereby reviews the molecular mechanisms including abnormalities in growth factors, cytokines, and metabolic derangements, clinical implications, and therapeutic options of dealing with abnormal angiogenesis in diabetes.

  10. Environmental TEM in an Aberration Corrected Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    The increasing use of environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides exciting new possibilities for investigating chemical reactions and understanding both the interaction of fast electrons with gas molecules and the effect of the presence of gas on high......‐resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole‐piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 10‐20 nm), the gas in the environmental......‐of‐the‐art aberration corrected TEMs provide electron micrographs with high spatial resolution. The apparent interpretability of such images encourages microscopists to analyze data more quantitatively. Such an analysis requires a detailed knowledge of the entire path and propagation of the electrons along...

  11. Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized.

  12. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Tripathy; S Ananda Rao

    2003-01-01

    Expressions for third-order aberration in the reconstructed wave front of point objects are established by Meier. But Smith, Neil Mohon, Sweatt independently reported that their results differ from that of Meier. We found that coefficients for spherical aberration, astigmatism, tally with Meier’s while coefficients for distortion and coma differ.

  14. Morphological traits and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. genotypes with varying inflorescence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two red clover breeding strains with elongated flower heads, developed by one of the authors (H.Góral, were studied for forage and seed yield and compared to the standard cultivar 'Nike'. In addition, six morphological shoot traits were measured and their interrelations were computed. The leaf area index (LAI of successive cuts in two harvest years was determined on the basis of shoot density and leaf area of individual shoots. All three genotypes exhibited a high leaf area on shoots and a very high forage productivity. Among the morphological traits only shoot height could be a good selective criterion because it is easily measured, is significantly associated with shoot weight and shoot leaf area and its variation is low. Both strains, particularly the one with longer inflorescences belong to short-lived red clover forms giving satis factory forage and seed yields in the first harvest year. Depending on the strain the number of seeds per elongated inflorescence in the first harvest year was higher by 92 and 42% compared to that of a standard cultivar.

  15. Tobacco curly shoot virus iso-lated in Yunnan is a distinct species of Begomovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Virus isolate Y1 was obtained from tobacco showing curly shoot symptoms in Baoshan, Yunnan Province. Whitefly transmission test and virion morphology observation showed that it is a begomovirus. In reactions with 14 monoclonal antibodies raised against begomoviruses, Y1 was readily differentiated from begomoviruses reported in China, Pakistan and India. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined, it contains 2746 nucleotides, with two ORFs in virion-sense DNA and four ORFs in complementary-sense DNA. Comparisons with total DNA-A, intergenic region and deduced amino acid sequences of individual ORFs showed that Y1 is a distinct Begomovirus species, for which the name Tobacco curly shoot virus (TCSV) is proposed. The total DNA-A of TCSV is most closely related to that of Tomato leaf curl virus from India (85% sequence identity). In contrast, the deduced coat protein of TCSV is most like that of Cotton leaf curl virus 72b isolate from Pakistan (98% amino acid sequence identity).

  16. A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Toshi; JOHNSTON, ROBYN; SELEZNYOVA, ALLA

    2003-01-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized....

  17. Chromosome aberration analysis based on a beta-binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses carried out here generalized on earlier studies of chromosomal aberrations in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by allowing extra-binomial variation in aberrant cell counts corresponding to within-subject correlations in cell aberrations. Strong within-subject correlations were detected with corresponding standard errors for the average number of aberrant cells that were often substantially larger than was previously assumed. The extra-binomial variation is accomodated in the analysis in the present report, as described in the section on dose-response models, by using a beta-binomial (B-B) variance structure. It is emphasized that we have generally satisfactory agreement between the observed and the B-B fitted frequencies by city-dose category. The chromosomal aberration data considered here are not extensive enough to allow a precise discrimination between competing dose-response models. A quadratic gamma ray and linear neutron model, however, most closely fits the chromosome data. (author)

  18. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  19. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs. PMID:18522379

  20. Algorithm on robot soccer pass and shoot a ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Introduces of robot soccer's competition software of Harbin Institute of Technology(HIT), the con cept of running range and the method of calculating the running range for both the opponent and our teammates according to the distances Between the ball and robot soccers, and therefore the method of calculating the angle that the robot passes or shoots the ball according to the running ranges of both sides. And gives the examples of passing the ball when the ball's position is in the backcourt and shooting the ball when the ball's position is in the frontcourt.

  1. Exogenous gibberellin altered morphology, anatomic and transcriptional regulatory networks of hormones in carrot root and shoot

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guang-Long; Que, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Gibberellins stimulate cell elongation and expansion during plant growth and development. Carrot is a root plant with great value and undergoes obvious alteration in organ size over the period of plant growth. However, the roles of gibberellins in carrot remain unclear. Results To investigate the effects of gibberelliins on the growth of carrot, we treated carrot plants with gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) or paclobutrazol (a gibberellin inhibitor). The results found that GA3 dramatically...

  2. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  3. Phytochemical and Morphological Attributes of Borage (Borago officinalis Affected by Salicylic Acid as an Enhancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid AKBARPOUR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the response of borage (Borago officinalis phytochemical and morphological attributes in relation to application of different levels of salicylic acid. Borage planted in pots and salicylic acid was sprayed on the shoots at concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mM with 6 replications in a completely randomized block design. Morphological attributes such as shoot height, shoot dry matter, flower dry matter, flower weight and shoot wet weight were measured. In the other hand, phytochemical attributes such as ion leakage, chlorophyll a, b, carotenoid, and antioxidant activity were also investigated under induced stress by different concentrations of salicylic acid. Results showed that some morphological traits such as shoot dry matter (31.23%, flower dry matter (20.43%, flower weight (38.54 g, shoot wet weight (109.43 g, possessed the highest values under treatment of 1.5 mM salicylic acid. Also, some phytochemical traits in plants treated with 1.5 mM salicylic acid reached the highest values during the growth stage with the exception of ion leakage (0.54%. These measured traits with higher values consisted of chlorophyll a (4.16 mg.l-1, chlorophyll b (1.65 mg.l-1, total chlorophyll (5.81 mg.l-1, carotenoid (1.18 mg.l-1, antioxidant activity (53.73%.

  4. [Distribution patterns of shoots, flowers and seeds in Ginkgo biloba canopy and their relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wei, G

    2000-04-01

    The distribution patterns of shoots, flowers and seeds in the canopy of 14 years old engrafted Ginkgo biloba and their relationships were investigated with stratification method. The result shows that long shoots, short shoots, bearing-shoots and flowers uniformly distributed in the central section of canopy. From the top to the bottom, the average age and the divaricating angle of long shoots increase 51.3% of the seeds distributed in 180-320 cm layer from the ground. The number of shoots, flowers and seeds in different canopy layers was closely correlated.

  5. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  6. Population dynamics in a 6-year old coppice culture of poplar. I. Clonal differences in stool mortality, shoot dynamics and shoot diameter distribution in relation to biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplar trees have the capacity to regrow a number of shoots after being coppiced. In April 1996, a high density field trial with 17 different poplar (Populus) clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. At the end of the establishment year (December 1996), all plants were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. Four years after the first coppicing in January 2001, the stand was cut back again. During 6 years (1996-2001), shoot diameters and number of stools and shoots were assessed every year for all clones. Before the second coppicing, biomass production of all clones was estimated. Significant clonal differences were found in stool mortality, number of shoots per stool and biomass production. After 6 years (December 2001), stool mortality averaged 7-65%. After the first coppicing (1997), the average number of shoots ranged between three and seven shoots per stool; after the second coppicing, the average number of shoots ranged between 8 and 19 shoots per stool. During the 4 years following the first coppicing, shoot density decreased exponentially, leaving mostly one or two dominant shoots per stool by the end of 2000. The other shoots had no significant influence on stool dry mass, since most of the surviving shoots were suppressed and small and made little contribution to total dry mass. The diameter of the dominant shoot(s) was the most important determinant of stool dry mass. Mean annual biomass production ranged from 2 to 11 Mg ha-1

  7. Rootstocks: diversity, domestication and impacts on shoot phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot system (scion) of another individual. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops such as Apples, Grapes, and Citrus species to shorten scion juvenile stage length, facilitate clo...

  8. Connecting the Dots: Lessons from the Virginia Tech Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Gordon K.

    2008-01-01

    The shootings that took place last spring on the campus of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, located in Blacksburg, Virginia, elicited a host of reactions, many deeply emotional. In groups of college and university presidents, the response was generally empathetic. Indeed, they were right to be put on alert by the random and…

  9. Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

  10. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  11. Role of acetylcholine on plant root-shoot signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) on plant root- shoot communication was investigated using the root-split system of Vicia faba L. In the experiments, slight osmotic stress caused the decrease of ACh content in root tips and the xylem sap transported up per time unit from root tip to the shoot when the water potential of the shoot was kept unchanged. It also caused the decrease of ACh content in the abaxial epidermis. The decrease was highly correlative to the changes of transpiration rate, suggesting that the decrease of ACh content probably functions as a signal to regulate stomatal behavior. The effect of osmotic stress might be mainly through the inhibition of the ACh synthesis in root tip; thus further influences the ACh content in root tip, xylem sap and abaxial epidermis and resulting in the changes of stomatal behavior. These results provide new evidence that plants transduce positive and negative signals among roots and shoots to coordinate stomatal behavior and adapt to variable environments.

  12. Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

  13. Murky Shooting: a quest for the sound primacy on videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, João

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo é apresentado e descrito um protótipo para um videojogo (Murky Shooting) cujo sistema de estímulos enviados ao jogador é alicerçado no uso do som, sendo, por isso, também considerado um audiojogo.

  14. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  15. INDIRECT SHOOT ORGANOGENESIS OF EGGPLANT (SOLANUM MELONGENA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely ZAYOVA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for indirect shoot organogenesis of Solanum melongena ‘Larga Negra’ and ‘Black Beauty’ was established using hypocotyl and cotyledon derived calluses. The maximum morphogenic callus induction was observed from cultured cotyledons of 30-days old seedlings on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l α-naphthalene acetic acid and 0.5 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine. The highest percentage of shoot regeneration and the highest mean number of shoots/callus were obtained on hormone-free MS medium. In terms of callus induction and subsequent plant regeneration, cotyledon explants were more responsive than hypocotyl explants. Regenerated shoots (2-3 cm were rooted on MS hormone-free medium or medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole-3-butyric acid. About 90% of regenerated plantlets survived under field conditions after hardening in the glasshouse. Several somaclones exhibiting useful variation would to be proposed as initial plant material for eggplant breeding programs.

  16. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  17. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M., E-mail: rtromp@us.ibm.com [Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM Research Division, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wan, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 80R0114, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schramm, S.M. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C{sub c}) and spherical (C{sub 3}) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A theory is presented for the aberrations of the uniform electrostatic field up to fifth order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such aberrations are important for advanced LEEM and PEEM instruments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between theory and raytracing results for a full cathode objective lens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrast Transfer Function calculations predict that spatial resolution below 1 nm is achievable.

  18. Chromosome aberrations in solid tumors have a stochastic nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Mauro A.A. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil) and Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil) and Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil)]. E-mail: mauro@ufrgs.br; Onsten, Tor G.H. [Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil); Moreira, Jose C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil); Almeida, Rita M.C. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2006-08-30

    An important question nowadays is whether chromosome aberrations are random events or arise from an internal deterministic mechanism, which leads to the delicate task of quantifying the degree of randomness. For this purpose, we have defined several Shannon information functions to evaluate disorder inside a tumor and between tumors of the same kind. We have considered 79 different kinds of solid tumors with 30 or more karyotypes retrieved from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. The Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival was also obtained for each solid tumor type in order to correlate data with tumor malignance. The results here show that aberration spread is specific for each tumor type, with high degree of diversity for those tumor types with worst survival indices. Those tumor types with preferential variants (e.g. high proportion of a given karyotype) have shown better survival statistics, indicating that aberration recurrence is a good prognosis. Indeed, global spread of both numerical and structural abnormalities demonstrates the stochastic nature of chromosome aberrations by setting a signature of randomness associated to the production of disorder. These results also indicate that tumor malignancy correlates not only with karyotypic diversity taken from different tumor types but also taken from single tumors. Therefore, by quantifying aberration spread, we could confront diverse models and verify which of them points to the most likely outcome. Our results suggest that the generating process of chromosome aberrations is neither deterministic nor totally random, but produces variations that are distributed between these two boundaries.

  19. Epigenetic aberrations and therapeutic implications in gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsume, Atsushi; Kondo, Yutaka; Ito, Motokazu; Motomura, Kazuya; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Jun

    2010-06-01

    Almost all cancer cells have multiple epigenetic abnormalities, which combine with genetic changes to affect many cellular processes, including cell proliferation and invasion, by silencing tumor-suppressor genes. In this review, we focus on the epigenetic mechanisms of DNA hypomethylation and CpG island hypermethylation in gliomas. Aberrant hypermethylation in promoter CpG islands has been recognized as a key mechanism involved in the silencing of cancer-associated genes and occurs at genes with diverse functions related to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Such promoter hypermethylation can modulate the sensitivity of glioblastomas to drugs and radiotherapy. As an example, the methylation of the O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is a specific predictive biomarker of tumor responsiveness to chemotherapy with alkylating agents. Further, we reviewed reports on pyrosequencing - a simple technique for the accurate and quantitative analysis of DNA methylation. We believe that the quantification of MGMT methylation by pyrosequencing might enable the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from chemotherapy. Finally, we also evaluated the potential of de novo NY-ESO-1, the most immunogenic cancer/testis antigen (CTA) discovered thus far, as an immunotherapy target. The use of potent epigenetics-based therapy for cancer cells might restore the abnormally regulated epigenomes to a more normal state through epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, epigenetic therapy may be a promising and potent treatment for human neoplasia.

  20. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  1. SHOOT AND ROOT EVALUATIONS ON SEEDLINGS FROM Coffea GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMOS LUIS CARLOS DA SILVA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Roots and shoots from seedlings of 29 coffee genotypes were studied to better characterize the entries from the Coffea germplasm bank of the Instituto Agronômico (IAC, Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brasil. The varieties were seeded in a randomized complete block design with 6 replications and 10 plants per plot. The characters evaluated were: plant (PL, shoot (SL and root (RL length; total plant (PDM, shoot (SDM, root (RDM and lateral root (LRDM dry matter. A lateral root index (LRI and shoot root dry matter (SRDM = SDM/RDM and length ratios; (SRL = SL/RL were calculated. The dwarf varieties (Catuaí, Icatu-caturra, Vila Sarchi, San Ramon, Vila Lobos, São Bernardo presented higher LRDM and lower SDM than the normal size varieties such as Mundo Novo, Bourbon Vermelho, Arábica, Amarelo de Botucatu, Glaucia, etc. The varieties Macrodiscus, Icatu-caturra, Bourbon Amarelo, Vila Lobos and C. congensis showed higher root development related to shoot. The Arábica coffee standard variety showed intermediary root and shoot development. Genotypes of high yield background were higher in SL and SDM, while the dwarf types had only lower SL than the normal ones, but higher RL and dry matters. Seedlings from genotypes of known higher field drought tolerance had lower SL and RL, but higher RDM. Significant phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficients were obtained, such the genotypes for PL and PDM (r = 0.64; P = 0.01, SL and SDM (r = 0.40; P = 0.05, SDM and LRDM (r = 0.52; P = 0.05, RDM and LRI (r = 0.68; P = 0.01, LRI and SRDM (r = 0.85; P = 0.01 and LRI and LRDM (r = 0.84; P = 0.01. High genotypic correlations suggest that selection directed to one character will directly affect the other. Conversely, low or non-significant correlations suggest independence of association, an indication that it would be possible to select two characteristics to diverse directions. Selection could be done towards different goals to change root and shoot measures

  2. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase. PMID:25632972

  3. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role of hemoglobins during in vitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture, and altered the transcript levels of genes participating in cytokinin perception and signalling. The up-regulation of GLB1 or GLB2 activated CKI1 and AHK3, genes encoding cytokinin receptors and affected the transcript levels of cytokinin responsive regulators (ARRs). The expression of Type-A ARRs (ARR4, 5, 7, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely unresponsive to applications of exogenous cytokinins. PMID:21741261

  4. Study of residual aberration for non-imaging focusing heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.T.; Chong, K.K.; Lim, B.H.; Lim, C.S. [Institute of Energy and Environment, Malaysia University of Science and Technology, No. 17, Jalan SS7/26, Kelana Jaya, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2003-08-01

    Instead of using a specific focusing geometry, a non-imaging focusing heliostat has no fixed geometry but is composed of many small movable element mirrors that can be manoeuvred to eliminate the first-order aberration. Following our previous publication on the principle of non-imaging focusing heliostat, this paper further explores higher order residual aberration that limits the size of the focusing spot. The residual aberration can be partially corrected by offsetting the pivot point of mirrors and pre-setting the tilting angles of mirrors.

  5. Effects of carbon ion beam irradiation on the shoot regeneration from in vitro axillary bud explants of the Impatiens hawkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Li, Ping; Dong, Xicun; Qu, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qiang

    Accelerated ion beams is an excellent mutagen in plant breeding which can induce higher mutation frequencies and wider mutation spectrum than those of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations, such as X-rays (Okamura et al. 2003, Yamaguchi et al. 2003). Mutation breeding operation of two Saintpaulia ionahta cultivars using the method combining plant tissue culture technique and carbon ion beam irradiations were set out at Institute of Modern Physics from 2005 (Zhou et al. 2006). The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiations on regenerated shoots of Impatiens hawkeri from another kind of explants named in vitro axillary buds explants were studied recently. The biology endpoints in this study included relative number of roots (RNR), relative length of roots (RLR), relative height of shoots (RHS), relative number of nodes (RNN), survival fraction (SF) and morphology changes in the regenerated shoots. The experimental results showed that carbon ion beams inhibited the root and stem developments of axillary bud explants more severely than X-rays did. And the 50% lethal dose (LD50 ) is about 23.3 Gy for the carbon ion beam and 49.1 Gy for the X-rays, respectively. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Impatiens hawkeri with respect to X-rays according to 50% SF was about two. Secondly, the percentage of shoots regenerated with malformed shoots including curliness, carnification, nicks in all Impatiens hawkeri axillary bud explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 55.6%, while the highest number for the 40 Gy X-ray irradiation was 40%. Last, many regenerated shoots whose vascular bundle fused together were obtained only from explants irradiated with carbon ion beams. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the axillary explants of Impatiens hawkeri is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy

  6. Aberrations of Genetic Material as Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milacic, S.

    2004-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most powerful mutagen in environmental and working conditions. The result of genotoxic effect of radiation is the development of chromosome aberrations. The structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are dicentric, ring, acentric fragment. The observation of chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocyte karyotype is the conclusive method to assess the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. Our study compared the incidence of chromosome aberrations in occupationally exposed healthy medical workers and in non-exposed healthy population. We analyzed the effect of working place, dose by thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD), duration of occupational exposure (DOE) and age to the sum of aberrant cells and aberrations. four-year study included 462 subjects, mean-aged 42.3 years, who were occupational exposed to ionizing radiation and 95 subjects, mean-aged 35,2 years, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, during the same time period and from the same territory. All of them possess thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD) which is read by scanner for thermo luminescence dosimeters. Modified Moorheard's micro method for peripheral blood lymphocytes and conventional cytogenetic technique of chromosome aberration analysis were used for analysis of chromosome aberrations. Stained preparations (Giemsa) are observed in immersion by light microscope. The karyotype of 200 lymphocytes in metaphase is analyzed the most characteristic aberration: dicentric, then the ring and acentric fragments. The increased incidence of chromosome aberrations was found to tbe 21.6% in the exposed group and 2.1% in the controls, while the findings within the limits (non-specific chromosome lesions-gaps breaks, elongations, and exchanges) were equal in both groups (22%). Among occupationally exposed medical workers, the highest incidence was found in nuclear medicine workers (42.6%), then in orthopedists (27.08%). There is highly

  7. Setbacks to shoot growth are common in woody plants, so how are shoots of some species safer than others?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Don W; Gleason, Sean M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-06-01

    Tissue turnover is a critical facet of plant life history variation. This study quantifies losses from setbacks to growth of terminal woody shoots 1.2m long, across 83 species and seven sites in eastern Australia. Setbacks, where the leading meristem had been removed or died and a new leader had emerged, were common (median three per shoot). Shoots had lost an average of 0.25 m of lead-stem length for 1.2 m net shoot-length gain. Insects like girdlers and borers were prominent causes of large setbacks. The sites spanned tropical to temperate and humid to semiarid climates, but variation in stem loss was much greater across species than across sites. We measured 17 plant functional traits related to growth form, mechanics, hydraulics, and economics. Only four traits were correlated with variation across species in stem losses: stem diameter, stem nitrogen content, bark thickness, and maximum photosynthetic rate. The correlations were weak. Stem specific gravity (wood density) showed no correlation with risk. Our results suggest a pattern similar to the growth risk trade-off known for herbaceous plants, where traits associated with fast growth increase tissue turnover and herbivory, but the weak correlations leave ample scope for other influences that remain to be identified.

  8. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric,aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian; T; A; Kretz; Tamer; Tandogan; Ramin; Khoramnia; Gerd; U; Auffarth

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting,monofocal intraocular lens(IOL).·METHODS: Twenty-one patients(34 eyes) aged 50 to83 y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL(Tecnis ZCB00,Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected(UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA), contrast sensitivity(CS)under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations(HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight(C-Quant).· RESULTS: Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 log MAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27(primary coma components) and-0.04 ±0.16(spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed(P ≥0.28).· CONCLUSION: The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataractsurgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration(HOA) and normal straylight.

  9. AgNO3 boosted high-frequency shoot regeneration in Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookkan, Muruganantham; Andy, Ganapathi

    2014-01-01

    In order to further increase shoot regeneration frequency of Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper., the effects of AgNO3 on this process was investigated in this study. The shoot tip and cotyledonary node explants were cultured on MS salts B5 Vitamins medium containing BA+TDZ+Ads+AgNO3 for multiple shoot induction. AgNO3 influenced the shoot bud formation and their subsequent proliferation. The best medium composition for multiple shoot induction was BA, TDZ combination with Ads and AgNO3 in MSB5 medium. Maximum 39 shoots in cotyledonary node and 22 shoots in shoot tip were obtained per explants after 4 - 6 wk. of culture. Elongation and rooting were performed in GA3 (0.6mg/l) and IBA (0.4mg/L) containing media respectively. The in vitro raised plantlets were acclimatized in green house and successfully transplanted to the field with a survival rate of 78%.

  10. Anisoplanatism in adaptive optics systems due to pupil aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B

    2005-08-01

    Adaptive optics systems typically include an optical relay that simultaneously images the science field to be corrected and also a set of pupil planes conjugate to the deformable mirror of the system. Often, in the optical spaces where DM's are placed, the pupils are aberrated, leading to a displacement and/or distortion of the pupil that varies according to field position--producing a type of anisoplanatism, i.e., a degradation of the AO correction with field angle. The pupil aberration phenomenon is described and expressed in terms of Seidel aberrations. An expression for anisoplanatism as a function of pupil distortion is derived, an example of an off-axis parabola is given, and a convenient method for controlling pupil-aberration-generated anisoplanatism is proposed.

  11. Impact of primary aberrations on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist;

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system in which the transmit beam is under the influence of primary phase aberrations: spherical aberration (SA) and astigmatism. The experimental investigation is realized by probing the spatial weighting function...... of the lidar system using different optical transceiver configurations. A rotating belt is used as a hard target. Our study shows that the lidar weighting function suffers from both spatial broadening and shift in peak position in the presence of aberration. It is to our knowledge the first experimental...... effciency, the optimum truncation of the transmit beam and the spatial sensitivity of a CW coherent lidar system. Under strong degree of aberration, the spatial confinement is significantly degraded. However for SA, the degradation of the spatial confinement can be reduced by tuning the truncation...

  12. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding...

  13. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  14. CT of ruptured aneurysm of aberrant right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, A; Ortíz, A; Longo, J M; Pagola, M A

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the first description of a ruptured aneurysm of an aberrant right subclavian artery. CT clearly demonstrated the vascular malformation as well as the existence of a bilateral hemothorax. PMID:3102065

  15. Moment aberrations in magneto-electrostatic plasma lenses (computer simulation)

    CERN Document Server

    Butenko, V I

    2001-01-01

    In this work moment aberrations in the plasma magneto-electrostatic lenses are considered in more detail with the use of the computer modeling. For solution of the problem we have developed a special computer code - the model of plasma optical focusing device, allowing to display the main parameters and operations of experimental sample of a lens, to simulate the moment and geometrical aberrations and give recommendations on their elimination.

  16. Photothermal Lens Aberration Effects in Two Laser Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bialkowski, Stephen E.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of theories describing two laser photothermal lens signals is given. The aberrant nature of this lens is accounted for in a theory which treats the propagation of a monitor laser in terms of a phase shift in this laser beam wave front. The difference between theories are discussed in terms of the predicted signal strengths and temporal behavior. The aberrant theory results in smaller theoretical signal strengths and different functional relationships between signal and analyte le...

  17. Aberrant cervical thymus mimicking thyroid on ultrasonography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Sub; Park, Ju Hyun; Kim, Bong Soo; Park, Ji Kang; Choi, Jae Hyuck [Jeju National Univ. Hospital/Jeju National Univ. School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Aberrant cervical thymus is rarely reported in adults. We report a case of solid aberrant cervical thymus in a 27 year old female, which was found incidentally on ultrasonography for the evaluation of the thyroid cancer. On ultrasonography, the lesion was found between the left thyroid and common carotid artery without any remarkable interface echo, and had similar echogenicity to the thyroid. The lesion extended to the upper pole of the left thyroid.

  18. Study of the wavefront aberrations in children with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-fei; ZHOU Yue-hua; WANG Ning-li; ZHANG Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common ophthalmological condition and the wavefront aberrometer is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure optical characteristics of human eyes as well as to study refractive errors in amblyopic eyes. We studied the wavefront aberration of the amblyopic children's eyes and analyzed the mechanism of the wavefront aberration in the formation of the amblyopia, try to investigate the new evidence of the treatment of the amblyopia, especially in the refractory amblyopia.Methods The WaveScan Wavefront System (VISX, USA) aberrometer was used to investigate four groups of children under dark accommodation and cilliary muscle paralysis. There were 45 cases in the metropic group, 87 in the amblyopic group, 92 in the corrected-amblyopic group and 38 in the refractory amblyopic group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze all the data.Results Third order to 6th order aberrations showed a decreasing trend whereas in the higher order aberrations the main ones were 3rd order coma (Z3-1-Z31), trefoil (Z3-3-Z33) and 4th order aberration (Z40); and 3rd order coma represented the highest percentage of all three main aberrations. Within 3rd order coma, vertical coma (Z3-1) accounted for a greater percentage than horizontal coma (Z31). Significant differences of vertical coma were found among all clinical groups of children: vertical coma in the amblyopic group (0.17±0.15) was significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.11±0.13, P0.05).Conclusions Although lower order aberrations such as defocus (myopia and hyperopia) and astigmatism are major factors determining the quality of the retinal image, higher order aberrations also need to be considered in amblyopic eyes as their effects are significant.

  19. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely i

  20. The relationship between physical fitness and shooting accuracy of professional basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Pojskić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.

  1. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  2. Dimensions of driving anger and their relationships with aberrant driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingru; Chan, Alan H S; Zhang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between driving anger and aberrant driving behaviours. An internet-based questionnaire survey was administered to a sample of Chinese drivers, with driving anger measured by a 14-item short Driving Anger Scale (DAS) and the aberrant driving behaviours measured by a 23-item Driver Behaviour Questionnaire (DBQ). The results of Confirmatory Factor Analysis demonstrated that the three-factor model (hostile gesture, arrival-blocking and safety-blocking) of the DAS fitted the driving anger data well. The Exploratory Factor Analysis on DBQ data differentiated four types of aberrant driving, viz. emotional violation, error, deliberate violation and maintaining progress violation. For the anger-aberration relation, it was found that only "arrival-blocking" anger was a significant positive predictor for all four types of aberrant driving behaviours. The "safety-blocking" anger revealed a negative impact on deliberate violations, a finding different from previously established positive anger-aberration relation. These results suggest that drivers with different patterns of driving anger would show different behavioural tendencies and as a result intervention strategies may be differentially effective for drivers of different profiles.

  3. Ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized LASIK for myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan Prema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the change in ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized (WFO laser in situ keratomileusis ( Lasik for correction of myopia and to analyze causative factors that may influence them. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case series. WFO Lasik was performed for the correction of myopia, using the hansatome (Bausch and Lomb microkeratome to create the flap and the Allegretto laser (Wavelight Technologie to perform the ablation. The Allegretto wave analyser (Tscherning-type measured the ocular aberrations prior to Lasik , one month and six months postoperatively. Results: The mean age of the 59 patients included in the study was 25±5.64 years and the mean spherical equivalent of the 117 eyes that underwent Lasik0 was -5.33±1.22 preoperatively and -0.21±0.38 postoperatively. Hundred and two eyes of 117 (87% achieved uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA of 20/20 or better after WFO Lasik and 104 of 117 eyes (89% were within ±0.5D of the attempted refractive correction. There was a 1.96-fold increase in total root-mean-square of higher order aberrations. Induced changes in seven of the 22 higher order Zernike terms showed a significant linear correlation with the refractive correction attempted. Larger ablation zones induced less spherical aberration. Conclusion: In spite of an excellent visual outcome, WFO Lasik induces significant higher order aberrations. Large ablation zones reduce the induction of spherical aberration.

  4. Propagation of Dianthus deltoides L. by shoot culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Marija

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of improving D. deltoides micropropagation was studied in the aim of reducing the number of vitrified and necrotic shoots. Micropropagation was performed on the medium with MS mineral solution, supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.8% agar, 50 mg·L-1 mio-inositol, 0.025 mg·L-1 thiamin, 0.125 mg·L-1 nicotinic acid and 0.5 mg·L-1 glycine. The shoot multiplication was induced on 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA. Vitrification was successfully reduced, and the best results were achieved on the medium with 1 mg·L-1 BAP and 0.1 mg·L-1 NAA. Rooting was successful on the medium without hormones, and the acclimatisation percentage accounted for 92%.

  5. Inclination not force is sensed by plants during shoot gravitropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Hugo; Pouliquen, Olivier; Forterre, Yoël; Legué, Valérie; Moulia, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Gravity perception plays a key role in how plants develop and adapt to environmental changes. However, more than a century after the pioneering work of Darwin, little is known on the sensing mechanism. Using a centrifugal device combined with growth kinematics imaging, we show that shoot gravitropic responses to steady levels of gravity in four representative angiosperm species is independent of gravity intensity. All gravitropic responses tested are dependent only on the angle of inclination from the direction of gravity. We thus demonstrate that shoot gravitropism is stimulated by sensing inclination not gravitational force or acceleration as previously believed. This contrasts with the otolith system in the internal ear of vertebrates and explains the robustness of the control of growth direction by plants despite perturbations like wind shaking. Our results will help retarget the search for the molecular mechanism linking shifting statoliths to signal transduction. PMID:27739470

  6. Clonal propagation of Dorystoechas hastata via axillary shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA; EMEK, Yelda Çalmaz; AYDOĞAN, Serap KURT

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for the in vitro seed germination, seedling development, and axillary shoot propagation of Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham is described. By employing sterilised seeds that were transferred onto in vitro media, the effects of various in vitro media, photoperiods, and temperatures on germination were investigated. At the end of these experiments, a final protocol was determined for the in vitro germination of D. hastata seeds. With this protocol, the highest germi...

  7. Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A Faria

    2013-01-01

    Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and...

  8. PREVENTING SCHOOL SHOOTINGS : A PUBLIC HEALTH APPROACH TO GUN VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Edward

    2013-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Gun violence in America must be addressed at the highest levels of society. Newtown, Aurora, and Virginia Tech were attacks on the very fabric of America. School shootings represent attacks on our nations future. A public health approach to gun violence focuses on prevention. Public safety professionals, educators and community leaders are squandering opportunities to prevent horrific acts of extreme violence. Preparedness is derived by planning, which is critical to mobil...

  9. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Liang BAO; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow grow...

  10. BGP Started Shooting Its Largest Oversea Seismic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ At 5 a.m. on November 1, 2005 of Beijing time, BGP (Bureau of Geophysical Prospecting)formally began shooting the S-51 3D seismic acquisition project in Saudi Arabia, its largest oversea seismic survey project to date. At the same time, the SRAK 2D seismic survey project was also started in the country. These two projects mark the construction of BGP's another large oversea production base.

  11. Regulation of Shoot and Root Development through Mutual Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jér(o)me Puig; Germain Pauluzzi; Emmanuel Guiderdoni; Pascal Gantet

    2012-01-01

    Plants adjust their development in relation to the availability of nutrient sources.This necessitates signaling between root and shoot.Aside from the well-known systemic signaling processes mediated by auxin,cytokinin,and sugars,new pathways involving carotenoid-derived hormones have recently been identified.The auxin-responsive MAX pathway controls shoot branching through the biosynthesis of strigolactone in the roots.The BYPASS1 gene affects the production of an as-yet unknown carotenoid-derived substance in roots that promotes shoot development.Novel local and systemic mechanisms that control adaptive root development in response to nitrogen and phosphorus starvation were recently discovered.Notably,the ability of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1.1 to transport auxin drew for the first time a functional link between auxin,root development,and nitrate availability in soil.The study of plant response to phosphorus starvation allowed the identification of a systemic mobile miRNA.Deciphering and integrating these signaling pathways at the whole-plant level provide a new perspective for understanding how plants regulate their development in response to environmental cues.

  12. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus

  13. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  14. Persistence of Early Emerging Aberrant Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark; Itchon, Jonathan; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the persistence of early emerging aberrant behavior in 13 preschool children with developmental disabilities. The severity of aberrant behavior was assessed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Teachers completed the assessments using the Aberrant Behavior Checklist [Aman, M. G., & Singh, N. N. (1986). "Aberrant Behavior…

  15. Optical aberrations of intraocular lenses measured in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio; Marcos, Susana; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio

    2003-10-01

    Corneal and ocular aberrations were measured in a group of eyes before and after cataract surgery with spherical intraocular lens (IOL) implantation by use of well-tested techniques developed in our laboratory. By subtraction of corneal from total aberration maps, we also estimated the optical quality of the intraocular lens in vivo. We found that aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are not significantly different from aberrations in eyes before cataract surgery or from previously reported aberrations in healthy eyes of the same age. However, aberrations in pseudophakic eyes are significantly higher than in young eyes. We found a slight increase of corneal aberrations after surgery. The aberrations of the IOL and the lack of balance of the corneal spherical aberrations by the spherical aberrations of the intraocular lens also degraded the optical quality in pseudophakic eyes. We also measured the aberrations of the IOL in vitro, using an eye cell model, and simulated the aberrations of the IOL on the basis of the IOL's physical parameters. We found a good agreement among in vivo, in vitro, and simulated measures of spherical aberration: Unlike the spherical aberration of the young crystalline lens, which tends to be negative, the spherical aberration of the IOL is positive and increases with lens power. Computer simulations and in vitro measurements show that tilts and decentrations might be contributors to the increased third-order aberrations in vivo in comparison with in vitro measurements.

  16. Recovering vitrified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) shoots using Bacto-Peptone and its subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, S; Hagimori, M; Iwai, S

    1993-05-01

    Vitrified shoots regenerated from carnation petals (Dianthus caryophyllus L. cv. Scania) were recovered by culturing them in a medium containing 3.0 g/l Bacto-Peptone. Wax structures not found on vitrified shoots developed on the abaxial surface of leaves of recovered shoots and on those of normal leaves. Recovered shoots were rooted and successfully acclimatized while vitrified shoots could not survive the acclimatization process. The Bacto-Peptone solution was fractionated and the efficiency of each fraction for the recovery of vitrification was examined. Only basic, non high molecular fractions whose molecular weight was less than 10,000 were effective.

  17. Projectile motion in real-life situation: Kinematics of basketball shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.

    2015-06-01

    Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.

  18. Multiplication of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. from a Single Shoot in Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYanju; YANGZhengli; SHIGERUHisajima

    2004-01-01

    Multiplication of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. was examined in vitro successively from a single shoot under the specified condition of different media, plant growth regulators, pH value and sucrose concentration. It was showed that MMS1 was the most suitable medium on shoot multiplication among 5 media concerned;BAP was the most effective one among all the cytokinin involved, BAP, KN, TDZ and ZT; the explunt of the top half-part from a shoot produced more new shoots than that of the foot half-part did; more new shoots (>2 cm) were produced under 3 % sucrose between the concentrations with top half-part explants; shoots could grow well between pH 4.4 and pH 7.0, and the biggest number of shoots was produced in pH 5.6, while in pH 5.8 the maximum rooting rate appeared. As a result, the combination of 0.5μM BAP and 0.1μM IBA on MMS1 medium induced the maximum shoot multiplication. The number of shoot amplified 3 times in 1 month, and 312 shoots (>2 cm) might be theoretically multiplied annually from a single shoot.

  19. Multiple shoot-bud formation and plantlet regeneration on Castanea sativa Mill. seeds in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, R

    1982-06-01

    Primordial initiation and development of shoot-buds has been accomplished by using shoots derived from chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill) seedlings cultured with added 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Germination of chestnut seeds in the presence of BAP (4 - 40 μM) stimulated varying numbers of shoot-buds in those areas of the main axis that were favorably altered. When excised single shoots from these treated seeds were subcultured on a fresh medium containing BAP (4 - 40 μM) continual shoot production was observed. Bud growth and shoot elongation were stimulated by transferring cultures to a reduced concentration of BAP (2 μM) plus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA 0.4 μM). Plant regeneration occurred in the presence of IBA (0.8 μM) after a preconditioning treatment in which naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA 50 μM) and kinetin (k 2 μM) were applied to the tissue culture shoots for 7 days in light.

  20. Frequent and distinct aberrations of DNA methylation patterns in fibrolamellar carcinoma of the liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Tränkenschuh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gene silencing due to aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent event in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and also in hepatocellular adenoma (HCA. However, very little is known about epigenetic defects in fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC, a rare variant of hepatocellular carcinoma that displays distinct clinical and morphological features. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the methylation status of the APC, CDH1, cyclinD2, GSTπ1, hsa-mir-9-1, hsa-mir-9-2, and RASSF1A gene in a series of 15 FLC and paired normal liver tissue specimens by quantitative high-resolution pyrosequencing. Results were compared with common HCC arising in non-cirrhotic liver (n = 10. Frequent aberrant hypermethylation was found for the cyclinD2 (19% and the RASSF1A (38% gene as well as for the microRNA genes mir-9-1 (13% and mir-9-2 (33%. In contrast to common HCC the APC and CDH1 (E-cadherin genes were found devoid of any DNA methylation in FLC, whereas the GSTπ1 gene showed comparable DNA methylation in tumor and surrounding tissue at a moderate level. Changes in global DNA methylation level were measured by analyzing methylation status of the highly repetitive LINE-1 sequences. No evidence of global hypomethylation could be found in FLCs, whereas HCCs without cirrhosis showed a significant reduction in global methylation level as described previously. CONCLUSIONS: FLCs display frequent and distinct gene-specific hypermethylation in the absence of significant global hypomethylation indicating that these two epigenetic aberrations are induced by different pathways and that full-blown malignancy can develop in the absence of global loss of DNA methylation. Only quantitative DNA methylation detection methodology was able to identify these differences.

  1. Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus torminalis (L. Crantz in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Bednorz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on morphological variability of leaves of a scattered tree species Sorbus torminalis (L. Crantz in Poland. The leaves from short- and long shoots were collected from 17 localities widespread within the range of the species in Poland. Leaves were measured according to 15 morphological traits. The biometric data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in attempt to define variability between local populations. Most of the leaf traits are significantly correlated and are characterised by moderate level of variation. The average among population component of variation was 32.82% and 27.46% for leaves on short- and long shoots, respectively. The differences between sampled populations are significant, but only a weak geographical pattern of this differentiation was detected. Clinal type of variation was ascertained in two traits. Leaf traits which discriminate best the studied populations are also indicated. It was proved that leaves on short shoots differ markedly in shape and size from those of long shoots. Leaves on long shoots are steadier, but morphological trait values are less correlated. The study also confirmed the occurrence of individuals with leaves characteristic for S. torminalis var. perincisa Borbas et Feck and S. torminalis f. mollis Beck in a few Polish populations.

  2. Adventitious shoot regeneration from the leaves of some pear varieties (Pyrus spp.) grown in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharat Kumar POUDYAL; Yuxing ZHANG; Guoqiang DU

    2008-01-01

    The pear (Pyrus spp.) is one of the most important temperate fruit crops. A complete protocol for adventitious shoot regeneration was developed from the leaves of four pear varieties grown in vitro: Abbe Fetel, Yali, Packham's Triumph and Aikansui, and the Chinese rootstock variety Dull. Shoot explants were collected from the field and cultured in vitro in Murashige and acid (IBA). After four weeks, leaf explants of all 5 varieties grown in vitro were excised and cultured in MS cultures were maintained in darkness for 21 days for shoot induction in the shoot induction medium (IM), then transferred to the shoot expression medium (EM) in room at (25±2)℃ under a 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod regime for 8 weeks. Finally, the shoots were transferred to the MS shoot elongation medium (SEM) supplemented gibberellic acid (GA3). A combination of TDZ and NAA had a significant effect on the number of shoot regenera-tions in all 5 tested varieties. The maximum mean number of shoots and maximum number of shoots per leaf obtained from Yali variety were 11.8 (P≤0.001) and 22, followed by Aikansui with 6.6 (P≤0.001) and 4.6, and Duff with 8 (P≤0.001) and 12, all arising from the For Packham's Triumph and Abbe Fetel, the maximum mean number of shoots and maximum number of shoots per leaf were 5.6 (P≤0.001), 4.8 and 8 (P≤0.001), and 11, which produced significantly higher adventitious shoots problems associated with shoot proliferation and regenera-tion were also observed and discussed in this paper.

  3. Aberrations Involving Chromosome 1 as a Possible Predictor of Odds Ratio for Colon Cancer--Results from the Krakow Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Galas

    Full Text Available There is still an open question how to predict colorectal cancer risk before any morphological changes appear in the colon.The purpose was to investigate aberrations in chromosomes 1, 2 and 4 in peripheral blood lymphocytes analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique as a tool to assess the likelihood of colorectal cancer.A hospital-based case-control study included 20 colon cancer patients and 18 hospital-based controls. Information about potential covariates was collected by interview. The frequency of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations in chromosome 1, 2 and 4 was assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization technique.Colorectal cancer patients, as compared to controls, had a relatively higher frequency of chromosome 1 translocations (median: 3.5 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.006, stable aberrations (3.8 versus 1.0 /1000 cells, p = 0.007 and total aberrations (p = 0.009. There were no differences observed for chromosomes 2 and 4. Our results showed an increase in the odds of having colon cancer by about 50-80% associated with an increase by 1/1000 cells in the number of chromosome 1 aberrations.The results revealed that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations, especially translocations in chromosome 1, seems to be a promising method to show a colon cancer risk. Additionally, our study suggests the reasonableness of use of biomarkers such as chromosome 1 aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes in screening prevention programs for individuals at higher colon cancer risk to identify those who are at increased risk and require more frequent investigations, e.g. by sigmoidoscopy.

  4. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAGUNATHAN Irulappan; PANNEERSELVAM Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  5. Spherical aberration and other higher-order aberrations in the human eye : from summary wave-front analysis data to optical variables relevant to visual perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2010-01-01

    Wave-front analysis data from the human eye are commonly presented using the aberration coefficient c(4)(0) (primary spherical aberration) together with an overall measure of all higher-order aberrations. If groups of subjects are compared, however, the relevance of an observed difference cannot eas

  6. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the analysis of chromosome aberrations in mutagen tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on exposed individuals, and on cultured cells, have shown that the human peripheral blood lymphocyte is an extremely sensitive indicator of both in vivo and in vitro induced chromosome structural change. These changes in chromosome structure offer readily scored morphological evidence of damage to the genetic material. Although problems exist in the extrapolation from in vitro results to the in vivo situation, the lymphocyte offers several advantages as a test system. The types of chromosome damage which can be cytologically distinguished at metaphase can be divided into two main groups: chromosome type and chromatid type. The circulating lymphocyte is in the G/sub 0/ or G/sub 1/ phase of mitosis and exposure to ionising radiations and certain other mutagenic agents during this stage produces chromosome-type damage where the unit of breakage and reunion is the whole chromosome (i.e. both chromatids at the same locus). However, cells exposed to these agents while in the S or G/sub 2/ stages of the cell cycle, after the chromosome has divided into two sister chromatids, yield chromatid-type aberrations and only the single chromatid is involved in breakage or exchange. Other agents (e.g. some of the alkylating agents) will usually produce only chromatid-type aberrations in cells in cycle although the cells are exposed to the mutagen whilst in G/sub 1/

  7. Correction of axial chromatic aberrations in confocal Raman microspectroscopic measurements of a single microbial spore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Peter; Hermelink, Antje; Naumann, Dieter

    2009-06-01

    Herein we describe a strategy for correcting the longitudinal or axial component of chromatic aberration in confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The method is based on measuring a vertical series of confocal Raman sections of samples by a high numerical aperture Raman microscope. Using the known characteristics of the wavelength-dependent focal shift of the optical system, the Raman intensities can be corrected to allow the rearrangement of Raman data from different focal planes. In the present study the computational correction routine was applied to an experimental data set of 4-dimensional (xyz spatial and the spectral dimension) confocal Raman spectra collected from single spores of Bacillus cereus. After correcting the axial component of the chromatic aberration, univariate and multivariate spectral parameters were obtained and used in the following for 3D segmentation and volume rendering on the basis of the structural and compositional information contained in the Raman spectra of the spore. Using univariate Raman intensities from defined functional group frequencies or k-means cluster membership values as a multivariate parameter for volume rendering, we demonstrate a high degree of correlation between confocal Raman microspectroscopy and the spores' morphology. In this paper we will also present cluster mean spectra which will be discussed in light of the presence of proteins and Ca-DPA, a calcium chelate of dipicolinic acid in the spore. PMID:19475143

  8. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response relationships for unstable chromosome exchange aberrations were obtained after irradiation with 200 kV X-rays and 60Co gamma rays, the doses ranging within 0.05-3.0 Gy. The data points were fitted to the linear quadratic model Y = C + αD + βD2, and after the chromosome hits leading to two-break unstable aberrations were estimated, to the model average x = C +kD. The results fitted the latter model particularly well, the index of determination being 0.988 for gamma rays and 0.997 for X-rays. The RBE of 200 kV X-rays as compared with 60Co gamma radiation was 1.6, when primary chromosome breaks leading to dicentric and centric ring aberrations were used as the biological endpoint. (author)

  9. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  10. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  11. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  12. On-line correction of aberrations in particle spectrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is presented that allows the reconstruction of trajectories and the on-line correction of residual aberrations that limit the resolution of particle spectrographs. Using a computed or fitted high order transfer map that describes the uncorrected aberrations of the spectrograph under consideration, it is possible to determine a pseudo transfer map that allows the computation of the corrected data of interest as well as the reconstructed trajectories in terms of position measurements in two planes near the focal plane. The technique is only limited by the accuracy of the position measurements and the accuracy of the transfer map. In practice the method can be expressed as an inversion of a pseudo transfer map and implemented in the differential algebraic framework. The method will be used to correct residual high aberrations in the S800 spectrograph which is under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University

  13. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio; Renzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on Non-Gaussianity estimators $f_{NL}$. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax $= 2000$) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt Non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Usi...

  14. An Efficient In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration from Shoot Tip Cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Babaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L−1 and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L−1 after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L−1 thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L−1 IBA produced more numbers of roots.

  15. Shoot and root dry weight in drought exposed tomato populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim to among forty-one tested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill populations distinguish those tolerant to limited water supply. Tolerance assessments were performed by using sixteen drought stress selection indices calculated on the basis of tomato shoot and root dry weight yields determined at water stress and non-stress conditions. Populations were differentiated in groups using the method of cluster analysis. The pot experiment was set in controlled greenhouse conditions and comprised optimally irrigated control and drought treatment (35.0 and 20.9% volumetric soil water content, respectively, imposed at the phase of intensive vegetative growth. The experiment was conducted at the Institute for Vegetable Crops in Smederevska Palanka, Serbia. The analyzed tomatoes exhibited significant differences in terms of response to limited irrigation, which had more pronounced effect on shoot dry weight than on the roots (average decrease of 64.4 and 35.7%, respectively. Consequently, root fraction in the total dry weight increased at drought for 68.2% on average. Shoot and root dry weights were positively correlated at optimal irrigation but not in drought, implying genotypic differences in terms of root adjustments to stress conditions. As for the calculated selection indices, substantial variation was found among the populations enabling their ranking in terms of drought tolerance. Since ranking was not the same in all cases, clustering the populations was performed taking into account all sixteen selection indices. The results of this analysis indicate that populations designated with numbers 126, 124, 131, 125, 128, 105, 101, 138, 110, 132 and 109 in Institute for Vegetable Crops germplasm collection exhibit satisfactory level of drought tolerance at vegetative phase and therefore may be used as parents in breeding programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31005 i br. TR 31059

  16. Roles for auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in regulating shoot branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brett J; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-04-01

    Many processes have been described in the control of shoot branching. Apical dominance is defined as the control exerted by the shoot tip on the outgrowth of axillary buds, whereas correlative inhibition includes the suppression of growth by other growing buds or shoots. The level, signaling, and/or flow of the plant hormone auxin in stems and buds is thought to be involved in these processes. In addition, RAMOSUS (RMS) branching genes in pea (Pisum sativum) control the synthesis and perception of a long-distance inhibitory branching signal produced in the stem and roots, a strigolactone or product. Auxin treatment affects the expression of RMS genes, but it is unclear whether the RMS network can regulate branching independently of auxin. Here, we explore whether apical dominance and correlative inhibition show independent or additive effects in rms mutant plants. Bud outgrowth and branch lengths are enhanced in decapitated and stem-girdled rms mutants compared with intact control plants. This may relate to an RMS-independent induction of axillary bud outgrowth by these treatments. Correlative inhibition was also apparent in rms mutant plants, again indicating an RMS-independent component. Treatments giving reductions in RMS1 and RMS5 gene expression, auxin transport, and auxin level in the main stem were not always sufficient to promote bud outgrowth. We suggest that this may relate to a failure to induce the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes, which always correlated with bud outgrowth in our treatments. We present a new model that accounts for apical dominance, correlative inhibition, RMS gene action, and auxin and cytokinin and their interactions in controlling the progression of buds through different control points from dormancy to sustained growth. PMID:19218361

  17. Uprooting an abscisic acid paradigm: Shoots are the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdam, Scott A M; Manzi, Matías; Ross, John J; Brodribb, Timothy J; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio

    2016-06-01

    In the past, a conventional wisdom has been that abscisic acid (ABA) is a xylem-transported hormone that is synthesized in the roots, while acting in the shoot to close stomata in response to a decrease in plant water status. Now, however, evidence from two studies, which we have conducted independently, challenges this root-sourced ABA paradigm. We show that foliage-derived ABA has a major influence over root development and that leaves are the predominant location for ABA biosynthesis during drought stress. PMID:27031537

  18. Posttraumatic Stress Among Students After the Shootings at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael; Brymer, Melissa; Chiu, Wai Tat; Fairbank, John A.; Jones, Russell T.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Rothwell, Virginia; Steinberg, Alan M.; Ronald C. Kessler

    2011-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, in the worst campus shooting incident in U.S. history, 49 students and faculty at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) were shot, of whom 32 were killed. A cross-sectional survey of 4,639 Virginia Tech students was carried out the following summer/fall to assess PTSD symptoms using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ). High levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (probable PTSD) were experienced by 15.4% of respondents 3 to 4 months follo...

  19. A study on optical aberrations in parabolic neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yuntao [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zu, Yong [China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048 (China); He, Linfeng; Wei, Guohai; Sun, Kai [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Han, Songbai, E-mail: hansb@ciae.ac.cn [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Chen, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciae.ac.cn [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2015-06-21

    It is widely believed that a neutron beam can be focused to a small spot using a parabolic guide, which will significantly improve the flux. However, researchers have also noted challenges for the neutron inhomogeneous phase space distribution in parabolic focusing guide systems. In this paper, the sources of most prominent optical aberrations, such as an inhomogeneous phase space distribution and irregular divergence distribution, are discussed, and an optimization solution is also proposed. We indicate that optimizing the parabolic guide geometrical configuration removes almost all of the aberrations and yields a considerable intensity gain factor.

  20. Aberrations of the point spread function of a multimode fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Descloux, Adrien; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the point spread function of a multimode fiber. The distortion of the focal spot created on the fiber output facet is studied for a variety of the parameters. We develop a theoretical model of wavefront shaping through a multimode fiber and use it to confirm our experimental results and analyze the nature of the focal distortions. We show that aberration-free imaging with a large field of view can be achieved by using an appropriate number of segments on the spatial light modulator during the wavefront-shaping procedure. The results describe aberration limits for imaging with multimode fibers as in, e.g., microendoscopy.

  1. Investigation of spherical aberration effects on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist;

    2013-01-01

    different telescope configurations using a hard target. It is experimentally and numerically proven that the SA has a significant impact on lidar antenna efficiency and optimal beam truncation ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both effective probing range and spatial resolution of the system are......In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system under the influence of phase aberrations, especially the typically predominant spherical aberration (SA). The performance is evaluated by probing the spatial weighting function of the lidar system with...

  2. Double aberration correction in a low-energy electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Th., E-mail: schmidtt@fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Marchetto, H.; Levesque, P.L. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Groh, U.; Maier, F. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Preikszas, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Angewandte Physik, Hochschulstrasse 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, Carl-Zeiss-Strasse 56, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Hartel, P.; Spehr, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Angewandte Physik, Hochschulstrasse 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Lilienkamp, G. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Physikalisches Institut, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 (Germany); Engel, W. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Fink, R. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Physikalische Chemie II, Egerlandstrasse 3, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Bauer, E. [Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Physikalisches Institut, Leibnizstrasse 4, D-38678 (Germany); Arizona State University, Department of Physics, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Rose, H. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Angewandte Physik, Hochschulstrasse 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Umbach, E. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Experimentelle Physik II, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Freund, H.-J. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 6-8, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    The lateral resolution of a surface sensitive low-energy electron microscope (LEEM) has been improved below 4 nm for the first time. This breakthrough has only been possible by simultaneously correcting the unavoidable spherical and chromatic aberrations of the lens system. We present an experimental criterion to quantify the aberration correction and to optimize the electron optical system. The obtained lateral resolution of 2.6 nm in LEEM enables the first surface sensitive, electron microscopic observation of the herringbone reconstruction on the Au(1 1 1) surface.

  3. The adaptive value of shoot differentiation in deciduous trees and its evolutionary relevance Valor adaptativo de la diferenciación de brotes en árboles deciduos y su relevancia evolutiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit M. Dörken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Pronounced long shoot/short shoot differentiation is typical for deciduous angiosperm trees. It also occurs in a number of gymnosperms and very few evergreen angiosperm trees. The study of 719 angiosperm tree species (602 deciduous and 117 evergreen species demonstrated that the deciduous condition is nearly always associated with shoot differentiation. Detailed measurements in 38 angiosperms showed that the leaf area of an entire short shoot equals the leaf area of a single long shoot leaf of the same species and individual. In the few cases where the leaf area of the short shoot is slightly larger than that of a single long-shoot leaf, the short shoot leaves shade each other and the projection of the short shoot equals the area of a single long shoot leaf. Calculations of the stem biomass needed to expose a given assimilatory surface show two interesting aspects. First, the stem biomass (dry weight to expose leaf surface is about 10 times less in short shoots than in long shoots. Second, this biomass in long shoots and short shoots appears to be species independent. Regarding shoot structure efficiency, leaf size and shape do not matter. Some evergreen species resemble in all parameters more to deciduous species than to typical evergreen species. Phytogeographical data as well as morphological data suggest that these atypical evergreen species are derived from deciduous ancestors. As measured parameters differ markedly between all gymnosperms, except Ginkgo, and angiosperms, we suppose that the evolutionary pathway leading to shoot differentiation was different for gymnosperms and angiosperms.En Angiospermas arbóreas deciduas, es común encontrar un alto grado de diferenciación entre brotes largos y brotes cortos. También se presenta esta característica en un número de gimnospermas y en muy pocas angiospermas arbóreas siempreverdes. El estudio de 719 especies de angiospermas arbóreas (602 deciduas y 117 siempreverdes demostró que la

  4. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP) VAR LRG-41

    OpenAIRE

    T. Raghavendra; P. Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS) medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various c...

  5. Seasonal Variation in Phenolic Constituents of Hazelnut (Coryllus avellana L.) and Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Leaves and Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGENER, Şükriye Kurnaz

    1998-01-01

    In this research, the seasonal variation in total phenolic contents in hazelnut and chestnut leaves and shoots was determined. In addition, the phenolic compounds extracted by aqueous alcohol or obtained by acid hydrolysis of the leaves and shoots were separated by paper chromatography (PC). The total phenolic contents of the chestnut leaves and shoots were higher than the hazelnut. In both species, the young shoots had higher total phenolic contents than one year old shoots. The total phen...

  6. Effects of Reasoning Ability on Field Goal Shooting Skills of Female Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Kumar Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, field goal shooting skills of female basketball players were assessed in the background to their reasoning ability. The sample consists of 100 female intercollegiate basketball players (age = 21.05±1.67 yrs.. Shooting skills reasoning ability were assessed by Johnson’s “Basketball Field Goal Speed Shooting Test” and Mixed Type Group Test of Intelligence prepared by Mehrotra (1984, respectively. Results reveal that field goal shooting ability of female basketball players exhibiting superior reasoning ability was found to be significantly better as compared to field goal shooting ability of female basketball players with low and average reasoning ability. It was concluded that shooting skills of female basketball players is influenced by their cognitive ability i.e. ability to rationalize problems in proper sequence.

  7. The effects of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on shoot-root nitrogen and water signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming eEaslon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial higher plants are composed of roots and shoots, distinct organs that conduct complementary functions in dissimilar environments. For example, roots are responsible for acquiring water and nutrients such as inorganic nitrogen from the soil, yet shoots consume the majority of these resources. The success of such a relationship depends on excellent root-shoot communications. Increased net photosynthesis and decreased shoot nitrogen and water use at elevated CO2 fundamentally alter these source-sink relations. Lower than predicted productivity gains at elevated CO2 under nitrogen or water stress may indicate shoot-root signaling lacks plasticity to respond to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The following presents recent research results on shoot-root nitrogen and water signaling, emphasizing the influence that rising atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are having on these source-sink interactions.

  8. Effect of Coma Aberration on Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Vortex Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-Yang; PU Ji-Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Spiral spectra of vortex beams with coma aberration are studied.It is shown that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams with coma aberration are different from those aberration-free vortex beams.Spiral spectra of beams with coma aberration are spreading.It is found that in the presence of coma aberration,the vortex beams contain not only the original OAM component but also other components.A larger coma aberration coefficient and/or a larger beam waist will lead to a wider spreading of the spiral spectrum. The results may have potential applications in information encoding and transmittance.

  9. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  10. Shoot tissue culture of Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana is a transfiguration of Robinia pseudoacacia. For enhancing propagation coefficient of the species, the experiment of shoot tissue culture of Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana was conducted in Forestry College of Shenyang Agricultural University from July 1999 to July 2001. The experiment included medium selection of explant induction survival, initial culture, subculture as well as rooting culture, and forming seedling with callus. The results showed that shoot segment in vitro survive rate is larger in spring than in autumn, and green dense callus could form plantlet. The best medium for initial culture was SH+0.5mg/L BA+0.05 mg/L NAA, with a propagation coefficient of 4.1 (per micro-cutting in a month), and for subculture it was B5+0.5 mg/L BA+0.05 mg/L NAA+ 10 mg/L Glu., with a propagation coefficient of 4.7. The best rooting medium was 1/2MS+0.5 mg/L NAA+10 mg/L Glu., with a rooting rate of 84.4%. These results provide reference data for reproduction of superior individuals of Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana.

  11. Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Bednorz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study on morphological variability of leaves of a scattered tree species Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) in Poland. The leaves from short- and long shoots were collected from 17 localities widespread within the range of the species in Poland. Leaves were measured according to 15 morphological traits. The biometric data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in attempt to define variability between local populations. Most of the leaf traits ar...

  12. Enhanced shoot multiplication in Ficus religiosa L. in the presence of adenine sulphate, glutamine and phloroglucinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, Priyanka; Gill, Anita Rani

    2011-07-01

    Ficus religiosa (Pipal) is a long-lived valuable multipurpose forest tree. The tree is exploited because of its religious, ornamental and medicinal value and the regeneration rate in natural habitat is low. An in vitro propagation protocol has been developed from nodal segments obtained from a 45-50-year old tree. The highest bud break frequency (100 %) followed by maximum number of multiple shoots (13.9) as well as length (2.47 cm) were obtained on Woody Plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l IAA. Two modifications in this medium resulted in enhanced shoot regeneration-one with 200 mg/l glutamine + 150 mg/l ADS (called as MM-1) giving 32.5 shoots per nodal explant while another modification-with 200 mg/l glutamine + 150 mg/l ADS + 100 mg/l phloroglucinol (called as MM-2) giving 35.65 shoots per explant. These two media were used for sub-culturing of shoots for 4 months. The rate of shoot multiplication was same during the first three sub-cultures on MM-1 and the shoots regenerated were healthy, afterwards shoot multiplication declined. While on MM-2, shoot multiplication declined after first sub-culture and shoots underwent the problem of early leaf fall. Rooting was best induced in micro-shoots excised from proliferated shoot cultures on semi-solid as well as liquid WPM modified with 2.0 mg/l IBA and 0.5 mg/l IAA. The in vitro-raised plantlets were potted and acclimatized under culture room conditions for 25-30 days before transfer to soil conditions, where the established plants showed more than 90 % survival. PMID:23573019

  13. Spatial-temporal patterns of Bashania fargesii bamboo shoot emergence and giant panda herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijun Lu; Wei Wang; Wenhui Zhang; Hong Li; Qing Cao; Gaodi Dang; Dong He; Scott Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Bashania fargesii is an important food resource for giant panda in the Qinling Mountains, China, especially in winter and spring when giant panda prefers new shoots. Therefore, regeneration of B. fargesii is a key factor for conservation of the giant panda. B. fargesii regenerates mainly via new shoot recruitment. To identify spatial-temporal patterns of B. fargesii new shoot emergence and giant panda herbivory as well as spatial and quantitative associations between them, we established one ...

  14. Design of Simulation System for Effectiveness Evaluation of Future Airspace Window Shooting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Da-qing; WU An-bo; BAI Gai-chao; TU Yi

    2013-01-01

    Future Airspace Window Shooting is a newly developed technology, which needs effectiveness evaluation before widely used. Future airspace window shooting technology, simulation system development principles and software chosen to develop the simulation system are introduced in the first. And then the overall design of the system, realization of the system and effectiveness evaluation through simulation are discussed in detail. Through the simulation, it is known that the FAW shooting has more superior performance when facing maneuvering targets.

  15. Effect of nitrogen salts on the growth of Ceratonia siliqua L. Shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Vinterhalter Branka; Ninković Slavica; Zdravković-Korać Snežana; Subotić Angelina; Vinterhalter D.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of reduced nitrogen salt nutriton on the growth, lenticel hypertrophy and anthocyanin accumulation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) shoot cultures were investigated in conditions of light and darkness. Growth of shoot cultures was not significantly affected until nitrogen salts were reduced to less than ¼ of full-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) values. Cultures in darkness were less affected and their main shoots even increased in length. Appearance of hypertrophied lenticels i...

  16. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    OpenAIRE

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely in commercial horticulture. To answer this question investigations were made on the regeneration of leaf cuttings and the results are presented in this thesis.It was found that the majority of a lar...

  17. Phylogeny and Functions of Bacterial Communities Associated with Field-Grown Rice Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sato, Tadashi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis was applied to bacterial communities associated with the shoots of two field-grown rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Kasalath. In both cultivars, shoot microbiomes were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (51–52%), Actinobacteria (11–15%), Gammaproteobacteria (9–10%), and Betaproteobacteria (4–10%). Compared with other rice microbiomes (root, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere) in public databases, the shoot microbiomes harbored abundant genes for C1 compound metabolism and 1-aminoc...

  18. Frequency and distribution studies of asymmetrical versus symmetrical chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two aspects of the relationship between Asymmetrical (A) and Symmetrical (S) radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations are considered in this paper. (1) Are A and S truly alternative modes of lesion interaction. Relative frequencies for chromatid-type and chromosome-type are examined, and new lymphocyte data using banding is used to look at this, and also for parallelism in chromosome participation of the two forms for various aberration categories. All the tests applied suggest that A and S are alternative interaction modes. (2) The long-term survival characteristics of A and S are discussed, and the differences in expected frequencies of derived S per surviving cell from chromosome-type and chromatid-types are stressed. Since many in vivo tissues have varying mixtures of potential chromatid and chromosome aberration-bearing target cells, ultimate cell survival and derived S frequencies may differ between tissues for the same absorbed dose. An Appendix gives Relative Corrected Lengths (RCL) for chromosomes of the human karyotype which should be used when testing the various exchange aberration categories for random chromosome participation. (orig.)

  19. High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy Using Negative Spherical Aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chun-Lin; Lentzen, Markus

    2004-04-01

    A novel imaging mode for high-resolution transmission electron microscopy is described. It is based on the adjustment of a negative value of the spherical aberration CS of the objective lens of a transmission electron microscope equipped with a multipole aberration corrector system. Negative spherical aberration applied together with an overfocus yields high-resolution images with bright-atom contrast. Compared to all kinds of images taken in conventional transmission electron microscopes, where the then unavoidable positive spherical aberration is combined with an underfocus, the contrast is dramatically increased. This effect can only be understood on the basis of a full nonlinear imaging theory. Calculations show that the nonlinear contrast contributions diminish the image contrast relative to the linear image for a positive-CS setting whereas they reinforce the image contrast relative to the linear image for a negative-CS setting. The application of the new mode to the imaging of oxygen in SrTiO3 and YBa2Cu3O7 demonstrates the benefit to materials science investigations. It allows us to image directly, without further image processing, strongly scattering heavy-atom columns together with weakly scattering light-atom columns.

  20. Polarization aberrations of radiation at the lens focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sokolov, AL

    2005-01-01

    The polarization aberrations of radiation at the lens focus are calculated with allowance for diffraction effects. Calculations are performed using the representation of radiation as a coherent set of Hermite-Gauss modes with certain amplitudes, phases, and polarizations. An expression for the longi

  1. Consequences of Aberrant Hedgehog Signaling During Zebrafish Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway is controlling proliferation, patterning and differentiation during development of vertebrates and invertebrates. Aberrant Hedgehog activity has been shown to be one of the underlying causes of a number of congenital disorders and multiple types of cancer. We investiga

  2. The Aberrant Salience Inventory: A New Measure of Psychosis Proneness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C.; Kerns, John G.; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2010-01-01

    Aberrant salience is the unusual or incorrect assignment of salience, significance, or importance to otherwise innocuous stimuli and has been hypothesized to be important for psychosis and psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Despite the importance of this concept in psychosis research, no questionnaire measures are available to assess…

  3. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro dose-response curves of unstable chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes have been obtained for neutron spectra of mean energies 0.7, 0.9, 7.6 and 14.7 MeV. The aberration yields have been fitted to the quadratic function Y = αD + βD2, which is consistent with the single-track and two-track model of aberration formation. However with high-LET radiation, the linear component of yield, corresponding to damage caused by single tracks, predominates, and this term becomes more dominant with increasing LET, so that for fission spectrum neutrons the relationship is linear, Y = αD. At low doses, such as those received by radiation workers, limiting r.b.e. values between 13 and 47 were obtained relative to 60Co γ-radiation. At higher doses, as used in radiotherapy, the values were much lower; ranging from 2.7 to 8 at 200 rad of equivalent γ-radiation. Both sets of r.b.e. values correlated well with track-averaged LET but not with dose-averaged LET. When the numbers of cells without aberrations were plotted against radiation dose, curves were obtained which are similar in shape to those for conventional cell-survival experiments with comparable neutron spectra. The D0 values obtained in the present study are close to those from other cell systems. (author)

  4. Frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration and the different options available for management. Subjects and Methods: All patients with primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations were included in study. Patient's detailed history, general physical examination, presence or absence of secondary sexual characteristics, abdominal and pelvic examination finding were noted. Targeted investigations, including ultrasound, hormonal assay, buccal smear and karyotyping results were recorded. The management options were individually tailored with focus n psychological management. Results: Eighteen patients out of 30,000 patients were diagnosed as having primary amenorrhea. Six had primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations with the frequency of 0.02%. The age at presentation was 20 years and above in 50%. The most common cause was Turner's syndrome seen in 4 out of 6. The presenting symptoms were delay in onset of menstruation in 05 patients and primary infertility in 01 patient. Conclusion: Primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration is an uncommon condition requiring an early and accurate diagnosis. Turner's syndrome is a relatively common cause of this condition. Management should be multi-disciplinary and individualized according to the patient's age and symptom at presentation. Psychological management is very important and counselling throughout treatment is recommended. (author)

  5. In vitro and in vivo safety evaluation of low molecular weight chitosans prepared by hydrolyzing crab shell chitosans with bamboo shoots chitosanase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Min; Lee, Yu-Jing; Liao, Junn-Wang; Jhan, Jyun-Kai; Chang, Chen-Tien; Chung, Yun-Chin

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that the oral administration of low molecular weight chitosans (LMWC), prepared by hydrolyzing crab shell chitosans with bamboo shoots chitosanase in an appropriate dose, reduced aristolochic acid-induced renal lesions in mice. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety of LMWC using genetic and animal toxicity assays. Two assays for genotoxicity were performed: the chromosomal aberration of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1 cells) (in vitro) and micronucleus assays in mice (in vivo). Acute oral toxicity and 28-day repeated feeding toxicity tests were performed via the oral gavage method in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. LMWC did not induce an increase in micronucleus ratios in vivo, and the chromosome aberration assay indicated that the LMWC was safe in terms of clastogenicity in doses up to 5.0 mg/ml. No acute lethal effect at a maximum tested dose of 5.0 g LMWC/kg body weight (bw) was observed in rats. The results of the 28-day study revealed no adverse effects on the body weight, feed consumption, hematology, blood biochemical parameters, organ weights or pathology. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of LMWC in rats was 1.0 g/kg bw for the subacute toxicity study.

  6. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat - a review of root and shoot physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D;

    2016-01-01

    and in aerenchyma formation within these roots, resulting in varying waterlogging tolerances. Root extension is restricted by capacity for internal O2 movement to the apex. Sub-optimal O2 restricts root N uptake and translocation to the shoots, with N deficiency causing reduced shoot growth and grain yield....... Although photosynthesis declines, sugars typically accumulate in shoots of waterlogged plants. Mn or Fe toxicity might occur in shoots of wheat on strongly acidic soils, but probably not more widely. Future breeding for waterlogging tolerance should focus on root internal aeration and better N...

  7. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Świetlik; Kazimierz Słowik; Sebastian Rejman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the sh...

  8. Effect of nitrogen salts on the growth of Ceratonia siliqua L. Shoot cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinterhalter Branka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of reduced nitrogen salt nutriton on the growth, lenticel hypertrophy and anthocyanin accumulation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L. shoot cultures were investigated in conditions of light and darkness. Growth of shoot cultures was not significantly affected until nitrogen salts were reduced to less than ¼ of full-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962 values. Cultures in darkness were less affected and their main shoots even increased in length. Appearance of hypertrophied lenticels in light decreased, while in darkness they were absent in all treatments. Reduced nitrogen salt nutrition strongly affected anthocyanin accumulation of shoots and leaves, which greatly increased in both light and darkness. .

  9. From gene manipulation to forest establishment: shoot cultures of woody plants can be a central tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCown, B.H.

    1985-05-01

    Establishing germplasm of woody plants in microculture as shoot cultures has proved to be an effective method of overcoming many of the obstacles in working with these crops. Shoot cultures eliminate the changes associated with seasonal growth cycles and phase change and put large plants into a more manageable form. Well-established shoot cultures are central to successful clonal propagation systems for forest trees as well as to genetic improvement based on the use of cellular techniques such as protoplast manipulation. The physiological basis as to why tissues from shoot cultures are so readily manipulated is not well understood.

  10. Factors affecting proliferation and elongation of shoots of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. through tissue culture technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. was investigated for micropropagation. The types of explant, culture media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, orientation of explant and section of explant were tested for their efficacy in inducing and proliferating shoot buds. The elongation of shoots and root induction was also studied. Young leaves gave the highest number of shoot buds when they were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l IBA and 1.53 mg/l BA. The medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ alone provided the best result on multiple shoot bud induction both in percentage of explant forming shoots and number of shoot buds per explant. The percentage of explant forming shoot buds and number of shoot buds obtained from leaves were 90% and 26.50 shoot buds, while those from stems were 96.25% and 23.00 shoot buds, respectively. One hundred percent friable callus was induced from stem explant in the same medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D after 2 months of culture. Culturing whole leaf in the position of dorsal contact with medium gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 92% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant. Cutting stem into half and culturing in horizontal position gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 96% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant after culture for 2 months. The best elongation of shoot buds (2.54 shoots derived from cultured leaves was induced in the liquid medium. While stem-derived shoot buds (3.45 shoots was induced in the solid medium of the same medium components. However, root could not be induced from elongated shoots.

  11. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 105 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G0, the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  12. The mitochondrial protease AtFTSH4 safeguards Arabidopsis shoot apical meristem function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzblasz, Alicja; Smakowska, Elwira; Gola, Edyta M; Sokołowska, Katarzyna; Kicia, Marta; Janska, Hanna

    2016-06-20

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) ensures continuous plant growth and organogenesis. In LD 30 °C, plants lacking AtFTSH4, an ATP-dependent mitochondrial protease that counteracts accumulation of internal oxidative stress, exhibit a puzzling phenotype of premature SAM termination. We aimed to elucidate the underlying cellular and molecular processes that link AtFTSH4 with SAM arrest. We studied AtFTSH4 expression, internal oxidative stress accumulation, and SAM morphology. Directly in the SAM we analysed H2O2 accumulation, mitochondria behaviour, and identity of stem cells using WUS/CLV3 expression. AtFTSH4 was expressed in proliferating tissues, particularly during the reproductive phase. In the mutant, SAM, in which internal oxidative stress accumulates predominantly at 30 °C, lost its meristematic fate. This process was progressive and stage-specific. Premature meristem termination was associated with an expansion in SAM area, where mitochondria lost their functionality. All these effects destabilised the identity of the stem cells. SAM termination in ftsh4 mutants is caused both by internal oxidative stress accumulation with time/age and by the tissue-specific role of AtFTSH4 around the flowering transition. Maintaining mitochondria functionality within the SAM, dependent on AtFTSH4, is vital to preserving stem cell activity throughout development.

  13. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  14. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  15. Gravitropism of cut shoots is mediated by oxidative processes: A physiological and molecular study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Friedman, Haya; Meir, Shimon

    2012-07-01

    The signal transduction events occurring during shoot gravitropism are mediated through amyloplasts sedimentation, reorientation of actin filaments in the endodermis, and differential changes in level and action of auxin, associated with differential growth leading to shoot curvature. Since increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was shown to be associated with growth, we examined the possible use of antioxidants in controlling the gravitropic response, via their interaction with events preceding shoot bending. Reoriented snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. MicroTom) shoots showed a visual upward bending after a lag period of 3 or 5 h, respectively, which was inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH). This suggests the involvement of oxidative reactions in the process. The two antioxidants prevented the sedimentation of amyloplasts to the bottom of the endodermis cells following 0.5-5 h of snapdragon shoot reorientation, suggesting that oxidative reactions are involved already at a very early signal perception stage prior to the visual bending. In addition, a differential distribution in favor of the lower shoot side of various oxidative elements, including H2O2 concentrations and activity of the NADPH-oxidase enzyme, was observed during reorientation of snapdragon spikes. Application of the two antioxidants reduced the levels of these elements and abolished their differential distribution across the shoot. On the other hand, the activity of the antioxidative enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), which was not differentially distributed across the shoot, increased significantly following application of the two antioxidants. The auxin redistribution in reoriented shoots was analyzed using transgenic tomato plants expressing the GUS reporter gene under the Aux/IAA4 promoter (a generous gift of M. Bouzayen, France). GUS response, detected in control shoots 4 h after their reorientation

  16. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  17. Aberrations measurement of freeform spectacle lenses based on Hartmann wavefront technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Fang, Fengzhou; Qiu, Zhongjun

    2015-02-10

    Freeform spectacle lenses have been popularized in the past few years. Traditional evaluation methods only focused on the refractive power parameters. The inspection technology of wavefront aberration has been introduced to optometry. In this paper, the wavefront aberration is used to evaluate the freeform spectacle lenses. The Shack-Hartmann wavefront technology is used to measure the same zones on the lenses with different designed forms. It shows that the aberration distributions are different from each other. The design with the freeform surface on the back can obtain the smallest aberrations in the entire surface. The aberrations on different zones for the same lens are analyzed. The blending zones show the greatest aberrations. The aberration on the progressive corridor is greater than the other zones. The Hartmann wavefront technology can be used to measure the wavefront aberration of freeform spectacle lenses. PMID:25968012

  18. Geomaterial Constitutive Models in Toe-Shooting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Ji-yan; DING Hua; ZHENG Zhe-min

    2007-01-01

    For toe-shooting method, geomaterial constitutive models concerned are studied.Analysis shows that, although extensively applied in soil mechanics, due to its angular singularity of yielding surface, the Mohr-Coulomb model is not suitable for numerical simulations in large deformation;in this case the rock-fills may be regarded as the Drucker-Prager model and the seaooze as the Prandtl-Reuss model.By comparing experimental data with numerical results, the constitutive model of the seaooze is numerically verified.It shows that, in high strain rate stage forming the blasting crater, the seaooze behaves as ideal non-compressible fluid, while in low strain rate stage during which the rock-fills flow to the blasting crater, the viscosity of the seaooze is negligible.

  19. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role...... of hemoglobins during invitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed......, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants...

  20. Oil Reservoir Production Optimization using Single Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Völcker, Carsten; Frydendall, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Conventional recovery techniques enable recovery of 10-50% of the oil in an oil field. Advances in smart well technology and enhanced oil recovery techniques enable significant larger recovery. To realize this potential, feedback model-based optimal control technologies are needed to manipulate...... the injections and oil production such that flow is uniform in a given geological structure. Even in the case of conventional water flooding, feedback based optimal control technologies may enable higher oil recovery than with conventional operational strategies. The optimal control problems that must be solved...... are large-scale problems and require specialized numerical algorithms. In this paper, we combine a single shooting optimization algorithm based on sequential quadratic programming (SQP) with explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) integration methods and the a continuous adjoint method...

  1. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Liang; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow growth rate of gametophores. We also found that red and far-red light can induce phototropism, with blue light being less effective. These results suggest that plants used a broad range of light wavelengths as phototropic signals during the early evolution of land plants.

  2. Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes - The ray-shooting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter; Weiss, Achim

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of light in a clumpy universe is studied using the ray-shooting method. It is found that 'empty cones' in a clumpy universe are rare, which points out the limitation of frequently used distance measures in an inhomogeneous universe. The results show some qualitatively new features of multiple-gravitational-lens geometry, and a likely explanation for these features is presented. A statistical analysis of the simulations give amplification probability distributions for extended sources, as well as the distribution for the ratio of amplifications of compact sources to amplifications of more extended sources. Sample light curves of individual sources are obtained. Finally, the results support the validity of recent investigations on the influence of gravitational light deflection on source counts of compact extragalactic objects.

  3. Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes - the ray-shooting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of light in a clumpy universe is studied using the ray-shooting method. It is found that empty cones in a clumpy universe are rare, which points out the limitation of frequently used distance measures in an inhomogeneous universe. The results show some qualitatively new features of multiple-gravitational-lens geometry, and a likely explanation for these features is presented. A statistical analysis of the simulations give amplification probability distributions for extended sources, as well as the distribution for the ratio of amplifications of compact sources to amplifications of more extended sources. Sample light curves of individual sources are obtained. Finally, the results support the validity of recent investigations on the influence of gravitational light deflection on source counts of compact extragalactic objects. 36 references

  4. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria step and shoot IMRT treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David; Richter, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We consider Pareto surface based multi-criteria optimization for step and shoot IMRT planning. By analyzing two navigation algorithms, we show both theoretically and in practice that the number of plans needed to form convex combinations of plans during navigation can be kept small (much less than the theoretical maximum number needed in general, which is equal to the number of objectives for on-surface Pareto navigation). Therefore a workable approach for directly deliverable navigation in this setting is to segment the underlying Pareto surface plans and then enforce the mild restriction that only a small number of these plans are active at any time during plan navigation, thus limiting the total number of segments used in the final plan.

  5. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria step and shoot IMRT treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider Pareto surface based multi-criteria optimization for step and shoot IMRT planning. By analyzing two navigation algorithms, we show both theoretically and in practice that the number of plans needed to form convex combinations of plans during navigation can be kept small (much less than the theoretical maximum number needed in general, which is equal to the number of objectives for on-surface Pareto navigation). Therefore a workable approach for directly deliverable navigation in this setting is to segment the underlying Pareto surface plans and then enforce the mild restriction that only a small number of these plans are active at any time during plan navigation, thus limiting the total number of segments used in the final plan.

  6. A Case Study of the Reduction of Aberrant, Repetitive Responses of an Adolescent with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Philip L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In this case study, music was applied noncontingently and contingently across four settings with an adolescent male with autism, to reduce aberrant, repetitive vocalizations. The intervention was associated with dramatic reductions in the primary aberrant behavior and reductions in two other aberrant behaviors. Task performance was differentially…

  7. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Wurff, Peter; Daanen, Hein A M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop the treadmill and shoot at the target. Fatigue increased progressively throughout the 20-minute test. Results indicated that shooting accuracy was not affected by fatigue. However, the distance to the target at which participants decided to shoot showed a U-shaped relationship with fatigue, R(2) = 0.884, p = 0.013. At low fatigue levels (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE] distance to the target at which participants shot decreased, whereas at higher fatigue levels (RPE > 6.5) shooting distance increased again. At high levels of fatigue, participants stopped running sooner, aimed at the target longer and shot less often. Findings indicate that physiological parameters influence not only perception but also actual transitions between different actions. PMID:24168556

  8. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  9. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  10. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Wang, Xianling; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance, and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION) gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice. Taken together, our results showed that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive peptide hormone gene, and it regulates shoot apical

  11. Morphological aspects of the propagation in Heliconia velloziana L. Emygd. (Zingiberales: Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simão Daniela G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphology of seed and vegetative propagation was studied toHeliconia velloziana L. Emygd. (Heliconiaceae, a rhizomatous herb with a large aerial part. Seeds took about four months to germinate, probably due to the undifferentiated embryo and hard endocarp. Seedlings had two first foliar structures as scale leaves and the primary root developed, but the adventitious roots were more conspicuous. Vegetative propagation by rhizomes was faster than the sexual one. The roots developed after one month, while young shoots started developing after four to six weeks; young aerial shoots presented a variable number of cataphylls and two protophylls.

  12. The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P movement or centre of pressure movement (P > 0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy. PMID:26375196

  13. Shoot demographics for melaleuca and impacts of simulated herbivory on vegetative development

    Science.gov (United States)

    We monitored branches of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (melaleuca) at two sites in southern Florida between January 2002 and May 2003 to elucidate patterns in vegetative shoot maturation. Six shoot stages characterize development from dormancy to fully expanded and lignified...

  14. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  15. Anxiety Sensitivity Prospectively Predicts Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Following a Campus Shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffa, Joseph W; Norr, Aaron M; Raines, Amanda M; Albanese, Brian J; Short, Nicole A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2016-05-01

    Anxiety sensitivity (AS), the feared consequences of anxious arousal, is known to be related to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) concurrently and longitudinally. However, no studies have demonstrated whether AS prior to a Criterion A traumatic event predicts later PTSS. The present study evaluated whether preshooting AS predicted PTSS following a campus shooting, as well as whether preshooting AS interacted with shooting exposure to predict PTSS. Participants comprised undergraduates (N=71) who completed a self-report battery upon enrolling in Introductory Psychology. After a campus shooting later in the semester, they were invited to complete measures of PTSS and level of exposure to the shooting. Preshooting levels of AS significantly predicted PTSS after the shooting. This effect was qualified by a significant AS by shooting exposure interaction, such that those with high AS who were exposed to the shooting reported the greatest levels of PTSS. Though all three of the preshooting physical, cognitive, and social AS subfactors demonstrated main effects significantly predicting postshooting PTSS, only AS physical concerns significantly interacted with shooting exposure. The implications of this study concerning AS as a causal risk factor for PTSD are discussed. PMID:27157030

  16. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  17. Relationship of shoot dieback in pecan to fungi and fruiting stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two shoot dieback maladies (SDM) of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] are of unknown cause and can adversely affect tree canopy health. They occur during either early spring (SpSDM) or early summer (SuSDM). Field studies found that both maladies predominately occur on shoots retaining...

  18. Monopodial shoot systems of Lamiaceae of Ukrainian flora and the models of its formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yosyp Berko

    2013-01-01

    Special characteristics of formation and morphostructure of monopodial shoot systems of perennial herbaceous and sиbshrub life forms of Lamiaceae from Ukrainian flora are described as based on two models – the monopodial long-shoot and monopodial rosetted. As well as relevant submodels are classified.

  19. Experts Appear to Use Angle of Elevation Information in Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…

  20. Studies on chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic assays for unstable chromosomes were performed on 54 medical radiation workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation and 42 controls. A total of 15,577 metaphase cells were scored. The frequencies of dicentrics and acentric chromosomes on controls were 0.52*10-3 and 0.82*10-2, respectively. On radiation workers those were 2.28*10-3 and 1.34*10-2, respectively. Though the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the workers were higher than those in the controls, the only significant difference was found in the case of dicentrics (P 0.05) except exposure dose of recent one year (P < 0.05). These results could indicate that low level exposure to ionizing radiation can induce unstable chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes

  1. [239Pu and chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral blood lymphocytes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okladnikova, N D; Osovets, S V; Kudriavtseva, T I

    2009-01-01

    The genome status in somatic cells was assessed using the chromosomal aberration (CA) test in peripheral blood lymphocytes from 194 plutonium workers exposed to occupational radiation mainly from low-transportable compounds of airborne 230Pu. Pu body burden at the time of cytogenetic study varied from values close to the method sensitivity to values multiply exceeding the permissible level. Standard (routine) methods of peripheral blood lymphocytes cultivation were applied. Chromatid- and chromosomal-type structural changes were estimated. Aberrations were estimated per 100 examined metaphase cells. The quantitative relationship between the CA frequency and Pu body burden and the absorbed dose to the lung was found. Mathematical processing of results was carried out based on the phenomenological model. The results were shown as theoretical and experimental curves. The threshold of the CA yield was 0.43 +/- 0.03 kBq (Pu body burden) and 6.12 +/- 1.20 cGy (absorbed dose to the lung).

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Carcinogenesis Based on Chromosome Aberration Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The progression of human cancer is characterized by the accumulation of genetic instability. An increasing number of experimental genetic molecular techniques have been used to detect chromosome aberrations. Previous studies on chromosome abnormalities often focused on identifying the frequent loci of chromosome alterations, but rarely addressed the issue of interrelationship of chromosomal abnormalities. In the last few years, several mathematical models have been employed to construct models of carcinogenesis, in an attempt to identify the time order and cause-and-effect relationship of chromosome aberrations. The principles and applications of these models are reviewed and compared in this paper. Mathematical modeling of carcinogenesis can contribute to our understanding of the molecular genetics of tumor development, and identification of cancer related genes, thus leading to improved clinical practice of cancer.

  3. Correction of Optical Aberrations in Elliptic Neutron Guides

    CERN Document Server

    Bentley, Phillip M; Andersen, Ken H; Rodriguez, Damian Martin; Mildner, David F R

    2012-01-01

    Modern, nonlinear ballistic neutron guides are an attractive concept in neutron beam delivery and instrumentation, because they offer increased performance over straight or linearly tapered guides. However, like other ballistic geometries they have the potential to create significantly non-trivial instrumental resolution functions. We address the source of the most prominent optical aberration, namely coma, and we show that for extended sources the off-axis rays have a different focal length from on-axis rays, leading to multiple reflections in the guide system. We illustrate how the interplay between coma, sources of finite size, and mirrors with non-perfect reflectivity can therefore conspire to produce uneven distributions in the neutron beam divergence, the source of complicated resolution functions. To solve these problems, we propose a hybrid elliptic-parabolic guide geometry. Using this new kind of neutron guide shape, it is possible to condition the neutron beam and remove almost all of the aberration...

  4. Detection of epigenetic aberrations in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujing

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex, multistep process. It is now recognized that HCC is a both genetic and epigenetic disease; genetic and epigenetic components cooperate at all stages of hepatocarcinogenesis. Epigenetic changes involve aberrant DNA methylation, posttranslational histone modifications and aberrant expression of microRNAs all of which can affect the expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and other tumor-related genes and alter the pathways in cancer development. Several risk factors for HCC, including hepatitis B and C virus infections and exposure to the chemical carcinogen aflatoxin B1 have been found to influence epigenetic changes. Their interactions could play an important role in the initiation and progression of HCC. Discovery and detection of biomarkers for epigenetic changes is a promising area for early diagnosis and risk prediction of HCC.

  5. Chromosomal Aberrations in Humans Induced by Urban Air Pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Norppa, Hannu; Gamborg, Michael O.;

    1999-01-01

    We have studied the influence of individual susceptibility factors on the genotoxic effects of urban air pollution in 106 nonsmoking bus drivers and 101 postal workers in the Copenhagen metropolitan area. We used the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes...... that long-term exposure to urban air pollution (with traffic as the main contributor) induces chromosome damage in human somatic cells. Low DNA repair capacity and GSTM1 and NAT2 variants associated with reduced detoxification ability increase susceptibility to such damage. The effect of the GSTM1 genotype......, which was observed only in the bus drivers, appears to be associated with air pollution, whereas the NAT2 genotype effect, which affected all subjects, may influence the individual response to some other common exposure or the baseline level of chromosomal aberrations....

  6. Nematodes from galls on Myrtaceae. VIII. Fergusobia from small galls on shoot buds, with descriptions of four new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kerrie A; Bartholomaeus, Faerlie; Giblin-Davis, Robin M; Ye, Weimin; Taylor, Gary S; Thomas, W Kelley

    2014-08-28

    Small shoot bud galls induced by the Fergusobia (Nematoda: Neotylenchidae)/Fergusonina (Diptera: Fergusoninidae) mutualism occur on various Eucalyptus spp. Four new species of Fergusobia, collected from small shoot bud galls on Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala and E. leucoxylon, are described. Fergusobia gomphocephalae Davies n. sp. is morphologically characterized by a combination of a small C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a variable, conoid tail, a small C-shaped infective female with a hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate or J-shaped male with a broad tail, angular spicule and short peloderan bursa. Fergusobia leucoxylonae Davies n. sp. has a C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a conoid tail with a narrowly rounded tip, an arcuate infective female with a broadly rounded tail tip, and an almost straight to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short bursa. Fergusobia schmidti Davies & Bartholomaeus n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively large body diameter, relatively long stylet and small tail with a broadly rounded tail tip, an open C-shaped infective female with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tail tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with spicules angular at about 33% of their length and peloderan bursa arising at about half body length. Fergusobia sporangae Davies n. sp. has an arcuate to open C-shaped parthenogenetic female with a relatively long stylet and a broadly rounded tail tip, an arcuate infective female with a short tail with a broadly rounded to hemispherical tip, and an arcuate to barely J-shaped male with angular (not heavily sclerotised) spicule and short peloderan bursa. Various forms of small shoot bud galls are described. From phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the D2/D3 expansion segment of the large subunit rRNA gene, the four new species belong to two sister clades of Fergusobia. The larval shield morphology of their associated

  7. Improved mass multiplication of Rhodiola crenulata shoots using temporary immersion bioreactor with forced ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ying; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-03-01

    A temporary immersion bioreactor system was found to be suitable for mass shoot proliferation of Rhodiola crenulata. The shoot multiplication ratio and hyperhydration rate reached 46.8 and 35.4%, respectively, at a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 300 min. Forced ventilation was employed in the temporary immersion bioreactor culture in order to decrease the hyperhydration rate, improve shoot quality and enhance the multiplication ratio. The highest multiplication ratio of 55.7 was obtained under a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 180 min with the forced ventilation at an air flow rate of 40 l/h, and the hyperhydration rate was reduced to 26.1%. Forced ventilation also improved the subsequent elongation and rooting rate of these proliferated shoots, and the shoot cultures from the temporary immersion bioreactor formed complete plantlets when subcultured onto a rooting medium containing 5 μmol/l indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22238017

  8. Aberrant Phenotype in Iranian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aberrant phenotypes and possible prognostic value in peripheral and bone marrow blood mononuclear cells of Iranian patients with AML. Methods: 56 cases of de novo AML (2010-2012 diagnosed by using an acute panel of monoclonal antibodies by multiparametric flowcytometry. Immunophenotyping was done on fresh bone marrow aspirate and/or peripheral blood samples using the acute panel of MoAbs is stained with Phycoerythrin (PE /fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, Allophycocyanin (APC and Peridinin-chlorophyll protein complex (perCP. We investigated Co-expression of lymphoid-associated markers CD2, CD3, CD7, CD 10, CD19, CD20 and CD22 in myeloblasts. Results: Out of the 56 cases, 32 (57.1% showed AP. CD7 was positive in 72.7% of cases in M1 and 28.5% in M2 but M3 and M4 cases lacked this marker. We detected CD2 in 58.35 of M1cases, 21.40% of M2 cases, 33.3 of M3 and 20% of M5; but M4 patients lacked this marker. The CBC analysis demonstrated a wide range of haemoglobin concentration, Platelet and WBC count which varied from normal to anaemia, thrombocytopenia to thrombocytosis and leukopenia to hyper leukocytosis. Conclusions: Our findings showed that CD7 and CD2 were the most common aberrant marker in Iranian patients with AML. However, we are not find any significant correlation between aberrant phenotype changing and MRD in our population. Taken together, this findings help to provide new insights in to the investigation of other aberrant phenotypes that may play roles in diagnosis and therapeutic of AML.

  9. An integrative characterization of recurrent molecular aberrations in glioblastoma genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between ‘effector’ molecular aberrations and ‘target’ gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior st...

  10. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Tang; Jun Long; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Jian Liao; Hua Xie; Guihu Zhao; Hao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlation...

  11. Evaluation of corneal higher order aberrations in normal topographic patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzajani, Ali; Aghataheri, Sattar; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Mohammadinia, Mohadese

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study reports the characteristics of corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with normal topographic pattern using the Pentacam scheimpflug system. Methods In this prospective, observational, comparative study, 165 eyes of 97 patients separated into five groups based on corneal topographic patterns were enrolled. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including corneal tomographic analysis with the Pentacam system. Keratometry, corneal cylinder, and ...

  12. Aberrant left pulmonary artery associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrant left pulmonary artery (ALPA), or pulmonary artery sling, is an uncommon vascular malformation that is frequently associated with obstructive disorders of the tracheobronquial tree. In newborns, it produces severe respiratory problems. In contrast, in adults, it is usually discovered by change. ALPA has been associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia (RPH) in a small number of cases. We present a new case of ALP associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia in an adult woman, diagnosed by CT and MR. 12 refs

  13. Use of chromosome aberrations for predicting genetic hazards to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the use of chromosome aberrations for predicting genetic hazards to man is discussed under the following headings: interspecific comparisons of dicentric and deletion production in peripheral leukocytes; comparison of dicentric yields in leukocytes to reciprocal translocation yield in spermatogonia; recovery of spermatogonia induced translocations in the sons of irradiated males; cytologically and genetically detected deletions; and current gaps in our knowledge and problems of future interest

  14. Chromosome aberrations and environmental exposures in acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindquist, Ragnhild Rosengren

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis are to evaluate the role of environmental exposures, especially professional exposure to organic solvents and petroleum products in the etiology of acute leukemia and to investigate if there is a correlation between the exposure to a specific leukemogen factor and a clonal chromosome aberration of the leukemic cells. Papers I and II present results of a case-control study of environmental exposures, in all occupations during life-time, medical treatm...

  15. Aberrant Gene Promoter Methylation Associated with Sporadic Multiple Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Gonzalo; Juan José Lozano; Jenifer Muñoz; Francesc Balaguer; Maria Pellisé; Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel; Montserrat Andreu; Rodrigo Jover; Xavier Llor; M Dolores Giráldez; Teresa Ocaña; Anna Serradesanferm; Virginia Alonso-Espinaco; Mireya Jimeno; Miriam Cuatrecasas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-...

  16. Transformation of a recalcitrant grain legume, Vigna mungo L. Hepper, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated gene transfer to shoot apical meristem cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Raman; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of Vigna mungo L. Hepper transformation was significantly increased from an average of 1% to 6.5% by using shoot apices excised from embryonic axes precultured on 10 microM benzyl-6-aminopurine (BAP) for 3 days and wounded prior to inoculation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying the binary vector pCAMBIA2301, which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase gene (nptII) and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (gusA) interrupted by an intron. The transformed green shoots that were selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, and which tested positive for nptII gene by polymerase chain reaction, were established in soil to collect seeds. GUS activity was detected in whole T(0) shoots and T(1) seedlings. All T(0) plants were morphologically normal, fertile and the majority of them transmitted transgenes in a 3:1 ratio to their progenies. Southern analysis of T(1) plants showed integration of nptII into the plant genome.

  17. Conservation and Diversification of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 Regulatory Network in the Development of the Functional Endodermis in Arabidopsis Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Kyung; Dhar, Souvik; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Song, Jae Hyo; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Gyuree; Jang, Sejeong; Choi, Ji Won; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Myeong Min; Lim, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Development of the functional endodermis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots is controlled, in part, by GRAS transcription factors, namely SHORT-ROOT (SHR), SCARECROW (SCR), and SCARECROW-LIKE 23 (SCL23). Recently, it has been shown that the SHR-SCR-SCL23 regulatory module is also essential for specification of the endodermis (known as the bundle sheath) in leaves. Nevertheless, compared with what is known about the role of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 regulatory network in roots, the molecular interactions of SHR, SCR, and SCL23 are much less understood in shoots. Here, we show that SHR forms protein complexes with SCL23 to regulate transcription of SCL23 in shoots, similar to the regulation mode of SCR expression. Our results indicate that SHR acts as master regulator to directly activate the expression of SCR and SCL23. In the SHR-SCR-SCL23 network, we found a previously uncharacterized negative feedback loop whereby SCL23 modulates SHR levels. Through molecular, genetic, physiological, and morphological analyses, we also reveal that the SHR-SCR-SCL23 module plays a key role in the formation of the endodermis (known as the starch sheath) in hypocotyls. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the regulatory role of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 network in the endodermis development in both roots and shoots. PMID:27353361

  18. Conservation and Diversification of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 Regulatory Network in the Development of the Functional Endodermis in Arabidopsis Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Kyung; Dhar, Souvik; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Song, Jae Hyo; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Gyuree; Jang, Sejeong; Choi, Ji Won; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Myeong Min; Lim, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Development of the functional endodermis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots is controlled, in part, by GRAS transcription factors, namely SHORT-ROOT (SHR), SCARECROW (SCR), and SCARECROW-LIKE 23 (SCL23). Recently, it has been shown that the SHR-SCR-SCL23 regulatory module is also essential for specification of the endodermis (known as the bundle sheath) in leaves. Nevertheless, compared with what is known about the role of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 regulatory network in roots, the molecular interactions of SHR, SCR, and SCL23 are much less understood in shoots. Here, we show that SHR forms protein complexes with SCL23 to regulate transcription of SCL23 in shoots, similar to the regulation mode of SCR expression. Our results indicate that SHR acts as master regulator to directly activate the expression of SCR and SCL23. In the SHR-SCR-SCL23 network, we found a previously uncharacterized negative feedback loop whereby SCL23 modulates SHR levels. Through molecular, genetic, physiological, and morphological analyses, we also reveal that the SHR-SCR-SCL23 module plays a key role in the formation of the endodermis (known as the starch sheath) in hypocotyls. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the regulatory role of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 network in the endodermis development in both roots and shoots.

  19. Pancreatic cancer genomes reveal aberrations in axon guidance pathway genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biankin, Andrew V; Waddell, Nicola; Kassahn, Karin S; Gingras, Marie-Claude; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi B; Johns, Amber L; Miller, David K; Wilson, Peter J; Patch, Ann-Marie; Wu, Jianmin; Chang, David K; Cowley, Mark J; Gardiner, Brooke B; Song, Sarah; Harliwong, Ivon; Idrisoglu, Senel; Nourse, Craig; Nourbakhsh, Ehsan; Manning, Suzanne; Wani, Shivangi; Gongora, Milena; Pajic, Marina; Scarlett, Christopher J; Gill, Anthony J; Pinho, Andreia V; Rooman, Ilse; Anderson, Matthew; Holmes, Oliver; Leonard, Conrad; Taylor, Darrin; Wood, Scott; Xu, Qinying; Nones, Katia; Fink, J Lynn; Christ, Angelika; Bruxner, Tim; Cloonan, Nicole; Kolle, Gabriel; Newell, Felicity; Pinese, Mark; Mead, R Scott; Humphris, Jeremy L; Kaplan, Warren; Jones, Marc D; Colvin, Emily K; Nagrial, Adnan M; Humphrey, Emily S; Chou, Angela; Chin, Venessa T; Chantrill, Lorraine A; Mawson, Amanda; Samra, Jaswinder S; Kench, James G; Lovell, Jessica A; Daly, Roger J; Merrett, Neil D; Toon, Christopher; Epari, Krishna; Nguyen, Nam Q; Barbour, Andrew; Zeps, Nikolajs; Kakkar, Nipun; Zhao, Fengmei; Wu, Yuan Qing; Wang, Min; Muzny, Donna M; Fisher, William E; Brunicardi, F Charles; Hodges, Sally E; Reid, Jeffrey G; Drummond, Jennifer; Chang, Kyle; Han, Yi; Lewis, Lora R; Dinh, Huyen; Buhay, Christian J; Beck, Timothy; Timms, Lee; Sam, Michelle; Begley, Kimberly; Brown, Andrew; Pai, Deepa; Panchal, Ami; Buchner, Nicholas; De Borja, Richard; Denroche, Robert E; Yung, Christina K; Serra, Stefano; Onetto, Nicole; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Shaw, Patricia A; Petersen, Gloria M; Gallinger, Steven; Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Schulick, Richard D; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Morgan, Richard A; Lawlor, Rita T; Capelli, Paola; Corbo, Vincenzo; Scardoni, Maria; Tortora, Giampaolo; Tempero, Margaret A; Mann, Karen M; Jenkins, Nancy A; Perez-Mancera, Pedro A; Adams, David J; Largaespada, David A; Wessels, Lodewyk F A; Rust, Alistair G; Stein, Lincoln D; Tuveson, David A; Copeland, Neal G; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Scarpa, Aldo; Eshleman, James R; Hudson, Thomas J; Sutherland, Robert L; Wheeler, David A; Pearson, John V; McPherson, John D; Gibbs, Richard A; Grimmond, Sean M

    2012-11-15

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy with few effective therapies. We performed exome sequencing and copy number analysis to define genomic aberrations in a prospectively accrued clinical cohort (n = 142) of early (stage I and II) sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Detailed analysis of 99 informative tumours identified substantial heterogeneity with 2,016 non-silent mutations and 1,628 copy-number variations. We define 16 significantly mutated genes, reaffirming known mutations (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A, SMAD4, MLL3, TGFBR2, ARID1A and SF3B1), and uncover novel mutated genes including additional genes involved in chromatin modification (EPC1 and ARID2), DNA damage repair (ATM) and other mechanisms (ZIM2, MAP2K4, NALCN, SLC16A4 and MAGEA6). Integrative analysis with in vitro functional data and animal models provided supportive evidence for potential roles for these genetic aberrations in carcinogenesis. Pathway-based analysis of recurrently mutated genes recapitulated clustering in core signalling pathways in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and identified new mutated genes in each pathway. We also identified frequent and diverse somatic aberrations in genes described traditionally as embryonic regulators of axon guidance, particularly SLIT/ROBO signalling, which was also evident in murine Sleeping Beauty transposon-mediated somatic mutagenesis models of pancreatic cancer, providing further supportive evidence for the potential involvement of axon guidance genes in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

  20. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  1. Polarization Aberrations in Astronomical Telescopes: The Point Spread Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B.; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the image of the point spread function (PSF) is necessary to optimize astronomical coronagraph masks and to understand potential sources of errors in astrometric measurements. The PSF for astronomical telescopes and instruments depends not only on geometric aberrations and scalar wave diffraction but also on those wavefront errors introduced by the physical optics and the polarization properties of reflecting and transmitting surfaces within the optical system. These vector wave aberrations, called polarization aberrations, result from two sources: (1) the mirror coatings necessary to make the highly reflecting mirror surfaces, and (2) the optical prescription with its inevitable non-normal incidence of rays on reflecting surfaces. The purpose of this article is to characterize the importance of polarization aberrations, to describe the analytical tools to calculate the PSF image, and to provide the background to understand how astronomical image data may be affected. To show the order of magnitude of the effects of polarization aberrations on astronomical images, a generic astronomical telescope configuration is analyzed here by modeling a fast Cassegrain telescope followed by a single 90° deviation fold mirror. All mirrors in this example use bare aluminum reflective coatings and the illumination wavelength is 800 nm. Our findings for this example telescope are: (1) The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: one for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-coupled polarization terms. (2) The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. (3) The PSF images for two orthogonal linearly polarization components are shifted with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for unpolarized point sources to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 mas. This is important for both astrometry

  2. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomal aberration in perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali D Gane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause for neonatal mortality and morbidity around the world. The reduction of O2results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which interact with nucleic acid and make alteration in the structure and functioning of the genome. We studied the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomes with karyotyping. Subjects and Methods: Babies in the hypothermia group were cooled for the first 72 h, using gel packs. Rectal temperature of 33–34°C was maintained. Blood sample was collected after completion of therapeutic hypothermia for Chromosomal analysis. It was done with IKAROS Karyotyping system, Metasystems, based on recommendations of International system of human cytogenetic nomenclature. Results: The median chromosomal aberration was lower in hypothermia [2(0-5] than control group [4(1-7] and chromatid breakage was commonest aberration seen. Chromosomal aberration was significantly higher in severe encephalopathy group than moderate encephalopathy group. Conclusion: We conclude that the TH significantly reduces DNA damage in perinatal asphyxia.

  3. Analysis of chromosome aberration data by hybrid-scale models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indrawati, Iwiq [Research and Development on Radiation and Nuclear Biomedical Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency (Indonesia); Kumazawa, Shigeru [Nuclear Technology and Education Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Honkomagome, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing data of chromosome aberrations, which is useful to understand the characteristics of dose-response relationships and to construct the calibration curves for the biological dosimetry. The hybrid scale of linear and logarithmic scales brings a particular plotting paper, where the normal section paper, two types of semi-log papers and the log-log paper are continuously connected. The hybrid-hybrid plotting paper may contain nine kinds of linear relationships, and these are conveniently called hybrid scale models. One can systematically select the best-fit model among the nine models by among the conditions for a straight line of data points. A biological interpretation is possible with some hybrid-scale models. In this report, the hybrid scale models were applied to separately reported data on chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes as well as on chromosome breaks in Tradescantia. The results proved that the proposed models fit the data better than the linear-quadratic model, despite the demerit of the increased number of model parameters. We showed that the hybrid-hybrid model (both variables of dose and response using the hybrid scale) provides the best-fit straight lines to be used as the reliable and readable calibration curves of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  4. A survey of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevan`kaev, A.V.; Moiseenko, V.V.; Zhloba, A.A. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Braselmann, H. [G.S.F. Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 875 Chernobyl liquidators have been scored and by comparison with control subjects the dicentric plus ring and excess acentric fragment frequencies are higher for persons who worked in the exclusion zone in 1986-1988 but not in 1989. Aberration yields are too low for individual biological dosimetry but, after taking account of the time interval between irradiation and blood sampling, the dicentric plus ring frequencies indicate average doses for 1986, 1987 and 1989 in good agreement with the annual averages in the Obninsk Registry. For 1988 the cytogenetic data indicate a significant higher average dose than the Registry. Liquidators who were not issued with a personal film badge tend to have higher aberration yields than those for whom badge data are recorded. This is particularly evident for those persons who worked in the first three months after the accident where physical dosimetry data are less complete or reliable. The persons probably experienced the highest exposures of all liquidators and the chromosomal data suggest an average value of about 300 mGy. (author).

  5. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  6. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  7. Disentangling the intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouteillé, Marie; Rolland, Gaëlle; Balsera, Crispulo; Loudet, Olivier; Muller, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    Root growth and architecture are major components of plant nutrient and water use efficiencies and these traits are the matter of extensive genetic analysis in several crop species. Because root growth relies on exported assimilate from the shoot, and changes in assimilate supply are known to alter root architecture, we hypothesized (i) that the genetic bases of root growth could be intertwined with the genetic bases of shoot growth and (ii) that the link could be either positive, with alleles favouring shoot growth also favouring root growth, or negative, because of competition for assimilates. We tested these hypotheses using a quantitative genetics approach in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred lines population. In accordance with our hypothesis, root and shoot growth traits were strongly correlated and most root growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs) colocalized with shoot growth QTLs with positive alleles originating from either the same or the opposite parent. In order to identify regions that could be responsible for root growth independently of the shoot, we generated new variables either based on root to shoot ratios, residuals of root to shoot correlations or coordinates of principal component analysis. These variables showed high heritability allowing genetic analysis. They essentially all yielded similar results pointing towards two regions involved in the root--shoot balance. Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families (a kind of near-isogenic lines), we validated part of the QTLs present in these two regions for different traits. Our study thus highlights the difficulty of disentangling intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth and shows that this difficulty can be overcome by using simple statistical tools.

  8. Disentangling the intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth in Arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bouteillé

    Full Text Available Root growth and architecture are major components of plant nutrient and water use efficiencies and these traits are the matter of extensive genetic analysis in several crop species. Because root growth relies on exported assimilate from the shoot, and changes in assimilate supply are known to alter root architecture, we hypothesized (i that the genetic bases of root growth could be intertwined with the genetic bases of shoot growth and (ii that the link could be either positive, with alleles favouring shoot growth also favouring root growth, or negative, because of competition for assimilates. We tested these hypotheses using a quantitative genetics approach in the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and the Bay-0 × Shahdara recombinant inbred lines population. In accordance with our hypothesis, root and shoot growth traits were strongly correlated and most root growth quantitative trait loci (QTLs colocalized with shoot growth QTLs with positive alleles originating from either the same or the opposite parent. In order to identify regions that could be responsible for root growth independently of the shoot, we generated new variables either based on root to shoot ratios, residuals of root to shoot correlations or coordinates of principal component analysis. These variables showed high heritability allowing genetic analysis. They essentially all yielded similar results pointing towards two regions involved in the root--shoot balance. Using Heterogeneous Inbred Families (a kind of near-isogenic lines, we validated part of the QTLs present in these two regions for different traits. Our study thus highlights the difficulty of disentangling intertwined genetic bases of root and shoot growth and shows that this difficulty can be overcome by using simple statistical tools.

  9. Estimation of phase wave-front aberration distribution function using wavelet transform profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Kambiz; Faez, Karim; Attaran-Kakhki, Ebrahim

    2012-06-01

    Reduction of image quality under the effects of wavefront aberration of the optical system has a direct impact on the vision system's performance. This paper tries to estimate the amount of aberration with the use of wavelet transform profilometry. The basic idea is based on the principle that under aberration effects, the position of the fringes' image on the image plane will change, and this change correlates with the amount of aberration. So the distribution of aberration function can directly be extracted through measuring the amount of changes in the fringes' image on the image plane. Experimental results and the empirical validity of this idea are evaluated.

  10. Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari; Ali, Khaled; Hong, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A device that enables the automated cutting and transfer of plant shoots is undergoing development for use in the propagation of plants in a nursery or laboratory. At present, it is standard practice for a human technician to use a knife and forceps to cut, separate, and grasp a plant shoot. The great advantage offered by the present device is that its design and operation are simpler than would be those of a device based on the manual cutting/separation/grasping procedure. [The present device should not be confused with a prior device developed for partly the same purpose and described in Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator (NPO-21104), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 59.]. The device (see figure) includes a circular tube sharpened at its open (lower) end and mounted on a robotic manipulator at its closed (upper) end. The robotic manipulator simply pushes the sharpened open end of the tube down onto a bed of plants and rotates a few degrees clockwise then counterclockwise about the vertical axis, causing the tube to cut a cylindrical plug of plant material. Exploiting the natural friction between the tube and plug, the tube retains the plug, without need for a gripping mechanism and control. The robotic manipulator then retracts the tube, translates it to a new location over a plant-growth tray, and inserts the tube part way into the growth medium at this location in the tray. A short burst of compressed air is admitted to the upper end of the tube to eject the plug of plant material and drive it into the growth medium. A prototype has been tested and verified to function substantially as intended. It is projected that in the fully developed robotic plant-propagation system, the robot control system would include a machine- vision subsystem that would automatically guide the robotic manipulator in choosing the positions from which to cut plugs of plant material. Planned further development efforts also include more testing and

  11. IFSAR Simulation Using the Shooting and Bouncing Ray Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Bijan; Bhalla, Rajan; Ling, Hao

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a technique that allows an automated way to carry out terrain mapping. IFSAR is carried out by first generating a SAR image pair from two antennas that are spatially separated. The phase difference between the SAR image pair is proportional to the topography. After registering the SAR images, the difference in phase in each pixel is extracted to generate an interferogram. Since the phase can only be measured within 2pi radians, phase unwrapping is carried out to extract the absolute phase for each pixel that will be proportional to the local height. While IFSAR algorithm is typically applied to measurement data, it is useful to develop an IFSAR simulator to develop a better understanding of the IFSAR technique. The IFSAR simulator can be used in choosing system parameters, experimenting with processing procedures and mission planning. In this paper we will present an IFSAR simulation methodology to simulate the interferogram based on the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) technique. SBR is a standard ray-tracing technique used to simulate scattering from large, complex targets. SBR is carried out by shooting rays at the target or scene. At the exit point of each ray, a ray-tube integration is done to find its contribution to the total field. A fast algorithm has been developed for the SBR for simulating SAR images of complex targets. In the IFSAR simulation, we build upon the fast SAR simulation technique. Given the antenna pair configuration, radar system parameters and the geometrical description of the scene, we first simulate two SAR images from each antenna. After post processing the two SAR images, we generate an interferogram. Phase unwrapping is then performed on the interferogram to arrive at the desired terrain map. We will present results from the SBR-based IFSAR simulator. The results will include terrain map reconstruction of urban environments. The reconstruction will be compared to the ground truth to

  12. Drag forces of common plant species in temperate streams: consequences of morphology, velocity and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaj Sand

    2008-01-01

    Swift flow in streams may physically influence the morphology and distribution of plants. I quantified drag as a function of velocity, biomass and their interaction on the trailing canopy of seven European stream species in an experimental flume and evaluated its importance for species distribution....... Drag increased at a power of 1.3-1.9 with velocity and 0.59-0.77 with biomass in 75% of the measurements. Velocity and biomass interacted because higher velocity causes reconfiguration and greater internal shelter to unimpeded flow and higher biomass enhances shelter among neighbouring shoots. Increase...... of drag with velocity did not differ systematically among inherently streamlined or non-streamlined species while increase of drag with biomass was smallest among non-streamlined shoots which provide greater mutual shelter. At low shoot density, inherently streamlined species usually experienced...

  13. A Pickled Method of Bamboo Shoot%一种竹笋的腌制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠红; 黄选检

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo shoot is a kind of seasonal vegetables, and the production of bamboo shoot season is short and concentrated. It is easy to cause decay and waste because of untimely procession. At the same time, the preservation technique level is not high which can make the flavor quality of bamboo shoot drop. In this paper, using fresh bamboo shoot as raw material, a method of curing the bamboo shoot is studied. The method is simple and easy to operate. There is good taste, and no chemical additive, and preserve the original flavor of bamboo shoot and is easy to preserve in prepared bamboo shoot.%竹笋是一种季节性蔬菜,笋期集中,产笋季节短,容易造成笋加工厂旺季时来不及加工处理,鲜竹腐烂,浪费严重的问题,同时,保鲜处理技术水平不高也会导致竹笋的风味品质下降。本文以新鲜的竹笋为原料,研究了一种竹笋的腌制方法,方法简单,便于操作。所制出的竹笋口感好、易保存,不含有化学添加剂,保留了竹笋的原汁原味。

  14. The effects of benzyladenine and meta-topolin on in vitro shoot regeneration of a citrus citrandarin rootstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of 6-benzyladeninepurine (BA) and meta-topolin (mT) on the three responses shoot quality, numbers of epicotyl explants producing shoots, and the number of shoots greater than 2 mm from citrus rootstock US-812 (Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata) epicotyl explants was determined. Th...

  15. Using Arabidopsis to study shoot branching in biomass willow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Sally P; Salmon, Jemma; Hanley, Steven J; Karp, Angela; Leyser, Ottoline

    2013-06-01

    The success of the short-rotation coppice system in biomass willow (Salix spp.) relies on the activity of the shoot-producing meristems found on the coppice stool. However, the regulation of the activity of these meristems is poorly understood. In contrast, our knowledge of the mechanisms behind axillary meristem regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has grown rapidly in the past few years through the exploitation of integrated physiological, genetic, and molecular assays. Here, we demonstrate that these assays can be directly transferred to study the control of bud activation in biomass willow and to assess similarities with the known hormone regulatory system in Arabidopsis. Bud hormone response was found to be qualitatively remarkably similar in Salix spp. and Arabidopsis. These similarities led us to test whether Arabidopsis hormone mutants could be used to assess allelic variation in the cognate Salix spp. hormone genes. Allelic differences in Salix spp. strigolactone genes were observed using this approach. These results demonstrate that both knowledge and assays from Arabidopsis axillary meristem biology can be successfully applied to Salix spp. and can increase our understanding of a fundamental aspect of short-rotation coppice biomass production, allowing more targeted breeding.

  16. Apple shoot multiplication and plantlets reaction to in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTIUC-KEUL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the expression of several enzymatic systems in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Romus3, Romus4, Colmar, Rebra, Goldrush, Idared plants grown in vitro in comparison with the in vivo donor plants. In vitro culture was established on Murashige and Skoog (1962 basal medium supplemented with Lee and Fossard (1977 (LF vitamins, 2 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine, 0.01 mg l-1 N6-naphtyl-acetic acid, 30 g l-1 dextrose and 7 g l-1 agar. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained for all cultivars on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N6-benzyladenine. Our study shows that in vivo plants have a distinct pattern of izoesterases in comparison with in vitro plantlets. Several izoesterases characteristic for in vitro or in vivo plants were identified. Izoperoxidases are inducible with culture conditions, physiological condition and developmental stage. The pattern of superoxid-dismutases is less variable with the culture conditions which demonstrate that in vitro culture does not occur oxidative stress. According to the pattern of peroxidases, estarases and superoxid-dismutases, there are not significant differences between in vivo and in vitro plants. Valuable apple cultivars could be preserved short or medium term by in vitro culture without genetically changes.

  17. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renuka P Sankaran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75% at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  18. Whole shoot mineral partitioning and accumulation in pea (Pisum sativum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, Renuka P; Grusak, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Several grain legumes are staple food crops that are important sources of minerals for humans; unfortunately, our knowledge is incomplete with respect to the mechanisms of translocation of these minerals to the vegetative tissues and loading into seeds. Understanding the mechanism and partitioning of minerals in pea could help in developing cultivars with high mineral density. A mineral partitioning study was conducted in pea to assess whole-plant growth and mineral content and the potential source-sink remobilization of different minerals, especially during seed development. Shoot and root mineral content increased for all the minerals, although tissue-specific partitioning differed between the minerals. Net remobilization was observed for P, S, Cu, and Fe from both the vegetative tissues and pod wall, but the amounts remobilized were much below the total accumulation in the seeds. Within the mature pod, more minerals were partitioned to the seed fraction (>75%) at maturity than to the pod wall for all the minerals except Ca, where only 21% was partitioned to the seed fraction. Although there was evidence for net remobilization of some minerals from different tissues into seeds, continued uptake and translocation of minerals to source tissues during seed fill is as important, if not more important, than remobilization of previously stored minerals.

  19. Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and proponents of gun control assert that the problem lies in the "easy availability of guns" and "too many guns" in the hand of the public. Second Amendment and gun rights advocates, on the other hand, believe the problem lies elsewhere, including a permissive criminal justice system that panders to criminals; the failure of public education; the fostering of a culture of dependence, violence, and alienation engendered by the welfare state; and the increased secularization of society with children and adolescents growing up devoid of moral guidance. I cannot disagree with the latter view, but I believe there are additional, contributing, and more proximate causes - e.g., failures of the mental health system and the role of the media and popular culture in the sensationalization of violence - that also need to be specifically pointed out and discussed in the medical literature, as I have set out to do in this review article. PMID:23493715

  20. Increased distance of shooting on basketball jump shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Rodacki, André Luiz Félix

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of increased distance on basketball jump shot outcome and performance. Ten male expert basketball players were filmed and a number of kinematic variables analyzed during jump shot that were performed from three conditions to represent close, intermediate and far distances (2.8, 4.6, and 6.4m, respectively). Shot accuracy decreased from 59% (close) to 37% (far), in function of the task constraints (p distances (65.60°). While, ball release velocity increased (p distance is augmented. Key pointsThe increased distance leads to greater spatial con-straint over shot movement that demands an adapta-tion of the movement for the regulation of the accu-racy and the impulse generation to release the ball.The reduction in balls release height and release angle, in addition to the increase in balls release ve-locity, were suggested as the main factors that de-creased shot accuracy with the distance increased.Players should look for release angles of shooting that provide an optimal balls release velocity to im-prove accuracy. PMID:24149195

  1. The Mobile bypass Signal Arrests Shoot Growth by Disrupting Shoot Apical Meristem Maintenance, Cytokinin Signaling, and WUS Transcription Factor Expression1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, David L.; Adhikari, Emma; Fraser, Nisa

    2016-01-01

    The bypass1 (bps1) mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) produces a root-sourced compound (the bps signal) that moves to the shoot and is sufficient to arrest growth of a wild-type shoot; however, the mechanism of growth arrest is not understood. Here, we show that the earliest shoot defect arises during germination and is a failure of bps1 mutants to maintain their shoot apical meristem (SAM). This finding suggested that the bps signal might affect expression or function of SAM regulatory genes, and we found WUSCHEL (WUS) expression to be repressed in bps1 mutants. Repression appears to arise from the mobile bps signal, as the bps1 root was sufficient to rapidly down-regulate WUS expression in wild-type shoots. Normally, WUS is regulated by a balance between positive regulation by cytokinin (CK) and negative regulation by CLAVATA (CLV). In bps1, repression of WUS was independent of CLV, and, instead, the bps signal down-regulates CK responses. Cytokinin treatment of bps1 mutants restored both WUS expression and activity, but only in the rib meristem. How the bps signal down-regulates CK remains unknown, though the bps signal was sufficient to repress expression of one CK receptor (AHK4) and one response regulator (AHP6). Together, these data suggest that the bps signal pathway has the potential for long-distance regulation through modification of CK signaling and altering gene expression. PMID:27208247

  2. Shoot regeneration of mesophyll protoplasts transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens, not achievable with untransformed protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, A; Eriksson, T; Schieder, O

    1986-04-01

    Alternative methods for shoot regeneration in protoplast derived cultures were developed in Nicotiana paniculata and Physalis minima. In both species protoplast derived callus is not regeneratable to shoots by conventional methods, e.g. hormone treatment. Leaf discs and stem segments of N. paniculata and P. minima were incubated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens "shooter" strains harbouring pGV 2215 or pGV 2298 or wildtype strain B6S3. After 36 h of co-incubation protoplasts were prepared. (Leaf disc and stem segment cloning). Co-cultivation experiments were also undertaken with protoplasts of both species. Transformed clones, characterized by their hormone independent growth and octopine production, could be isolated after about two months. Transformation frequencies of "leaf disc and stem segment cloning" and co-cultivation experiments varied from 5×10(-3) to 5×10(-5). After about one year of cultivation on hormone-free culture medium, shoots could be recovered from colonies of N. paniculata, transformed by the strain harbouring pGV 2298. In protoplast derived colonies of P. minima, shoot induction was obtained only after transformation by bacteria carrying pGV 2215. This demonstrates the importance of the particular "shooter" mutant, as well as the response of the host plant. Transformed shoots of P. minima produced octopine, whereas octopine production in transformed shoots and callus of N. paniculata was undetectable after one year of cultivation, though T-DNA was still present in the plant genome. Transformed shoots of N. paniculata and P. minima do not produce any roots. Shoots of N. paniculata have an especially tumerous phenotype. Shoots of both species were successfully grafted to normal donor plants of N. tabacum.

  3. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of �Punjab Upma� and (2.93 in case of �IPA-3�. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and � MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses. PMID:27170010

  5. Extended alternating-temperature cold acclimation and culture duration improve pear shoot cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y; Reed, B M

    2000-06-01

    Meristems of many pear genotypes can be successfully cryopreserved following 1 week of cold acclimation, but an equal number do not survive the process or have very little regrowth. This study compared commonly used cold acclimation protocols to determine whether the cold acclimation technique used affected the cold hardiness of shoots or the regrowth of cryopreserved meristems. In vitro-grown pear (Pyrus L.) shoots were cold acclimated for up to 16 weeks, then either the shoot tips were tested for cold hardiness or the meristems were cryopreserved by controlled freezing. Cold acclimation consisted of alternating temperatures (22 degrees C with light/-1 degrees C darkness with various photo- and thermoperiods) or a constant temperature (4 degrees C with an 8-h photoperiod or darkness). Compared with nonacclimated controls, both alternating- and constant-temperature acclimation significantly improved postcryopreservation regrowth of P. cordata Desv. and P. pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don meristems. Alternating-temperature acclimation combined with either an 8-h photoperiod or darkness was significantly better than constant-temperature acclimation. Alternating-temperature shoot acclimation for 2 to 5 weeks significantly increased postcryopreservation meristem regrowth, and recovery remained high for up to 15 weeks acclimation. Postcryopreservation meristem regrowth increased with 1 to 5 weeks of constant-temperature acclimation and then declined with longer acclimation. Shoot cold hardiness varied with the acclimation procedure. The LT(50) of shoots acclimated for 10 weeks with alternating temperatures was -25 degrees C; that with constant temperature was -14.7 degrees C; and that of the nonacclimated control was -10 degrees C. Less frequent transfer of cultures also improved acclimation of shoots. Shoots grown without transfer to fresh medium for 6-12 weeks had higher postcryopreservation recovery with shorter periods of acclimation than shoots with a 3-week transfer

  6. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses.

  7. The Equilibrium and Growth Stability of Winter Wheat Root and Shoot Under Different Soil Water Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhi-hong; CHEN Xiao-yuan; LUO Yuan-pei

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium between root, shoot and growth stability under different soil water conditions were investigated in a tube experiment of winter wheat. The water supplying treatments included: sufficient irrigation at whole growth phase, moderate deficiency irrigation at whole growth phase, serious deficiency irrigation at whole growth phase, sufficient irrigation at jointing stage, tillering stage, flowering stage, and fillering respectively, after moderate and serious water deficit during their previous growth stage. Root and shoot biomass were measured. On the basis of the cooperative root-shoot interactions model, the equilibrium and growth stability were studied on the strength of the kinetics system theory. There was only one varying equilibrium point between the root and shoot over the life time of the winter wheat plant. Water stress prolonged the duration of stable growth, the more serious the water deficit, the longer the period of stable growth.The duration of stable growth was shortened and that of unstable growth was prolonged after water recovery. The growth behavior of the plants exposed to moderate water deficit shifted from stable to unstable until the end of the growth,after rewatering at flowering. In the life-time of the crop, the root and shoot had been adjusting themselves in structure and function so as to maintain an equilibrium, but could not achieve the equilibrium state for long. They were always in an unbalanced state from the beginning to the end of growth. This was the essence of root-shoot equilibrium. Water stress inhibited the function of root and shoot, reduced root shoot interactions, and as a result, the plant growth gradually tended to stabilize. Rewatering enhanced root shoot interactions, prolonged duration of instable growth. Rewatering at flowering could upset the inherent relativity during the long time of stable growth from flowering to filling stage, thus leading to unstable growth and enhanced dry matter accumulating rate

  8. EMF1, a novel protein involved in the control of shoot architecture and flowering in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubert, D.; Chen, L.; Moon, Y.-H.;

    2001-01-01

    shares common motifs that include nuclear localization signals, P-loop, and LXXLL elements. Alteration of EMF1 expression in transgenic plants caused progressive changes in flowering time, shoot determinacy, and inflorescence architecture. EMF1 and its related sequence may belong to a new class......Shoot architecture and flowering time in angiosperms depend on the balanced expression of a large number of flowering time and flower meristem identity genes. Loss-of-function mutations in the Arabidopsis EMBRYONIC FLOWER (EMF) genes cause Arabidopsis to eliminate rosette shoot growth and transform...

  9. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss

    OpenAIRE

    Coudert, Y.; Palubicki, W.; Ljung, K.; Novák, O. (Ondřej); Leyser, O.; Harrison, C J

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Most land plants have shoots that form branches and plants can regulate when and where they grow these branches to best exploit their environment. Plants with flowers and the more ancient mosses both have branching shoots, but these two groups of plants evolved to grow in this way independently of each other. Most studies on shoot branching have focused on flowering plants and so it is less clear how branching works in mosses. Three plant hormones—called auxin, cytokinin and stri...

  10. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  11. Parallel shooting methods for finding steady state solutions to engine simulation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stig Kildegård; Thomsen, Per Grove; Carlsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Parallel single- and multiple shooting methods were tested for finding periodic steady state solutions to a Stirling engine model. The model was used to illustrate features of the methods and possibilities for optimisations. Performance was measured using simulation of an experimental data set...... as test case. A parallel speedup factor of 23 on 33 processors was achieved with multiple shooting. But fast transients at the beginnings of sub intervals caused significant overhead for the multiple shooting methods and limited the best speedup to 3.8 relative to the fastest sequential method: Single...

  12. Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress in College Women Following a Campus Mass Shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Holly K.; Bonanno, George A.; Hannan, Susan M.; Miron, Lynsey R.

    2014-01-01

    In a sample with known levels of pre-shooting posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, we examined the impact of a campus mass shooting on trajectories of PTS in the 31 months following the shooting using latent growth mixture modeling. Female students completed 7 waves of a longitudinal study (sample sizes ranged from 812 to 559). We identified 4 distinct trajectories (n = 660): (a) minimal impact-resilience (60.9%), (b) high impact-recovery (29.1%), (c) moderate impact-moderate symptoms (8.2%),...

  13. Immobilization of Pb and Sb in shooting range soil : column experiment with Fe-based sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Frøsland, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Tons of trace metals such as lead, antimony, copper and zink, get deposited every year in Norwegian shooting ranges (Strømseng et al. 2011). Due to the accumulation and use of bullets and ammunition, these shooting ranges represent a potensially big environmental hazard. Shooting range soil is most often contaminated with trace metals such as lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb). A way of immobilizing the trace metals in this kind of contaminated soil is to add an iron-based sorbent material....

  14. Risk assessment of lead contamination for small mammal food chains (case studyfor shooting ranges)

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar; Tome, Davorin; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-01-01

    Pb levels were measured in tissues of small mammals (Microtus agrestis, Apodemus flavicollis, Sorex araneus and Crocidura leucodon), inhabiting shooting ranges of the Slovenian Army (Apače, Bač, Bloška polica, Crngrob, Mačkovec, Poček); in addition, Pb content was analysed in their diet as well. The present research was performed with the aim to confirm the use of small mammals as bioindicators of Pb contamination of shooting ranges and to performthe risk assessment of military shooting range...

  15. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  16. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative

  17. Effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Xiaoling, E-mail: jiXL100@163.com; Deng, Jinping

    2014-07-18

    The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations of Gaussian beams in weak, moderate and strong turbulence is studied using numerical simulation method. It is found that the effect of the negative spherical aberration on the on-axis scintillation index is quite different from that of the positive spherical aberration. In weak turbulence, the positive spherical aberration results in a decrease of the on-axis scintillation index on propagation, but the negative spherical aberration results in an increase of the on-axis scintillation index when the propagation distance is not large. In particular, in weak turbulence the negative spherical aberration may cause peaks of the on-axis scintillation index, and the peaks disappear in moderate and strong turbulence, which is explained in physics. The strong turbulence leads to less discrepancy among scintillations of Gaussian beams with and without spherical aberration. - Highlights: • In weak turbulence scintillations can be suppressed using positive spherical aberration. • In weak turbulence scintillations may be very large due to negative spherical aberration. • The effect of spherical aberration on scintillations is less with increasing of turbulence.

  18. Influence of Misalignment on High-Order Aberration Correction for Normal Human Eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hao-Xin; XU Bing; XUE Li-Xia; DAI Yun; LIU Qian; RAO Xue-Jun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Although a compensation device can correct aberrations of human eyes, the effect will be degraded by its misalignment, especially for high-order aberration correction. We caJculate the positioning tolerance of correction device for high-order aberrations, and within what degree the correcting effect is better than low-order aberration (defocus and astigmatism) correction. With fixed certain misalignment within the positioning tolerance, we calculate the residual wavefront rms aberration of the first-6 to first-35 terms along with the 3rd-5th terms of aberrations corrected, and the combined first-13 terms of aberrations are also studied under the same quantity of misalignment. However, the correction effect of high-order aberrations does not meliorate along with the increase of the high-order terms under some misalignment, moreover, some simple combined terms correction can achieve similar result as complex combinations. These results suggest that it is unnecessary to correct too much the terms of high-order aberrations which are diffcult to accomplish in practice, and gives confdence to correct high-order aberrations out of the laboratory.

  19. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  20. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  1. Breast tumor copy number aberration phenotypes and genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumors, although the underlying causes of chromosomal instability in tumors remain obscure. Genes likely to have genomic instability phenotypes when mutated (e.g. those involved in mitosis, replication, repair, and telomeres) are rarely mutated in chromosomally unstable sporadic tumors, even though such mutations are associated with some heritable cancer prone syndromes. We applied array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to the analysis of breast tumors. The variation in the levels of genomic instability amongst tumors prompted us to investigate whether alterations in processes/genes involved in maintenance and/or manipulation of the genome were associated with particular types of genomic instability. We discriminated three breast tumor subtypes based on genomic DNA copy number alterations. The subtypes varied with respect to level of genomic instability. We find that shorter telomeres and altered telomere related gene expression are associated with amplification, implicating telomere attrition as a promoter of this type of aberration in breast cancer. On the other hand, the numbers of chromosomal alterations, particularly low level changes, are associated with altered expression of genes in other functional classes (mitosis, cell cycle, DNA replication and repair). Further, although loss of function instability phenotypes have been demonstrated for many of the genes in model systems, we observed enhanced expression of most genes in tumors, indicating that over expression, rather than deficiency underlies instability. Many of the genes associated with higher frequency of copy number aberrations are direct targets of E2F, supporting the hypothesis that deregulation of the Rb pathway is a major contributor to chromosomal instability in breast tumors. These observations are consistent with failure to find mutations in sporadic tumors in genes that have roles in maintenance or manipulation of the genome

  2. Influence of calcium content of tissue on hyperhydricity and shoot-tip necrosis of in vitro regenerated shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of two CaCl2.2H2O levels (440 and 1320 mg L-1 and two subcultures were evaluated on in vitro shoots of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Provence Blue. Ca2+ content of the apical, middle and basal portion of shoots was determined. Increasing CaCl2.2H2O level in the culture medium increased tissue Ca2+ content and decreased hyperhydricity. Shoot-tip necrosis also decreased with 1320 mg L-1 CaCl2.2H2O, but it did not occur in the second subculture. The middle and basal portion had higher Ca2+ content than apical portion. In non-hyperhydric tissues, there were smaller and more juxtaposed cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaves demonstrated that trichomes from in vitro leaf surface occurred in smaller quantities.

  3. Construction of minimum generalized aberration two-level orthogonal arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelaras, Haralambos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of constructing two-level Minimum Generalized Aberration (MGA) orthogonal arrays with strength $t$, $n$ runs and $q>t$ columns, using a method that employs the $J$-characteristics of a two-level design. General results for the construction of MGA orthogonal arrays with $t+1$, $t+2$ and $t+3$ columns are given, while all MGA designs with strength $t\\ge 2$, $n \\equiv$ 0 mod 4 runs and $q\\le 6$ are constructed. Results are also given for two-level orthogonal ...

  4. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  5. Propagation of aberrated wavefronts using a ray transfer matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raasch, Thomas W

    2014-05-01

    A ray transfer matrix is used to calculate the propagation of aberrated wavefronts across a homogeneous refractive index. The wavefront is represented by local surface normals, i.e., by a ray bundle, and the propagation is accomplished by transferring those rays across the space. Wavefront shape is generated from the slopes and positions of the collection of rays. Calculation methods are developed for the paraxial case, for higher-order expansions, and for the exact tangent case. A numerical example is used to compare results between an analytical method and the methods developed here.

  6. Spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a PSF almost insensitive to aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Peng; Boccara, A Claude

    2016-01-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function width of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations that mostly induce a reduction of the signal level without broadening. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis, numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such result has been demonstrated.

  7. Generic Misalignment Aberration Patterns and the Subspace of Benign Misalignment

    CERN Document Server

    Schechter, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    Q1: Why deploy N wavefront sensors on a three mirror anastigmat (TMA) and not N + 1? Q2: Why measure M Zernike coefficients and not M + 1? Q3: Why control L rigid body degrees of freedom (total) on the secondary and tertiary and not L + 1? The usual answer: "We did a lot of ray tracing and N,M, and L seemed OK." We show how straightforward results from aberration theory may be used to address these questions. We consider, in particular, the case of a three mirror anastigmat.

  8. A unique HEAT repeat-containing protein SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 is involved in vacuolar membrane dynamics in gravity-sensing cells of Arabidopsis inflorescence stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Yasuko; Yano, Daisuke; Nagafusa, Kiyoshi; Kato, Takehide; Saito, Chieko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Ueda, Takashi; Nakano, Akihiko; Tasaka, Masao; Terao Morita, Miyo

    2014-04-01

    Plant vacuoles play critical roles in development, growth and stress responses. In mature cells, vacuolar membranes (VMs) display several types of structures, which are formed by invagination and folding of VMs into the lumenal side and can gradually move and change shape. Although such VM structures are observed in a broad range of tissue types and plant species, the molecular mechanism underlying their formation and maintenance remains unclear. Here, we report that a novel HEAT-repeat protein, SHOOT GRAVITROPISM6 (SGR6), of Arabidopsis is involved in the control of morphological changes and dynamics of VM structures in endodermal cells, which are the gravity-sensing cells in shoots. SGR6 is a membrane-associated protein that is mainly localized to the VM in stem endodermal cells. The sgr6 mutant stem exhibits a reduced gravitropic response. Higher plants utilize amyloplast sedimentation as a means to sense gravity direction. Amyloplasts are surrounded by VMs in Arabidopsis endodermal cells, and the flexible and dynamic structure of VMs is important for amyloplast sedimentation. We demonstrated that such dynamic features of VMs are gradually lost in sgr6 endodermal cells during a 30 min observation period. Histological analysis revealed that amyloplast sedimentation was impaired in sgr6. Detailed live-cell imaging analyses revealed that the VM structures in sgr6 had severe defects in morphological changes and dynamics. Our results suggest that SGR6 is a novel protein involved in the formation and/or maintenance of invaginated VM structures in gravity-sensing cells.

  9. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  10. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  11. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  12. Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological Responses of Sugar Beet to Salinization

    OpenAIRE

    Eisa, Sayed S.; Ali, Safwat H.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugar beet grown on sandy soil under three levels of NaCl salinity in irrigation water, i.e. control, 3000 & 6000 ppm was studied in pot experiment. Results showed that root fresh weight linearly decreased by increasing NaCl salinity levels up to 6000 ppm, but sucrose percentage in root was significantly increased. On the other hand, increasing NaCl levels resulted in significant increase of Na content in both of shoot and root Meanwhi...

  13. Shoot transcriptome of the giant reed, Arundo donax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Barrero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The giant reed, Arundo donax, is a perennial grass species that has become an invasive plant in many countries. Expansive stands of A. donax have significant negative impacts on available water resources and efforts are underway to identify biological control agents against this species. The giant reed grows under adverse environmental conditions, displaying insensitivity to drought stress, flooding, heavy metals, salinity and herbaceous competition, thus hampering control programs. To establish a foundational molecular dataset, we used an llumina Hi-Seq protocol to sequence the transcriptome of actively growing shoots from an invasive genotype collected along the Rio Grande River, bordering Texas and Mexico. We report the assembly of 27,491 high confidence transcripts (≥200 bp with at least 70% coverage of known genes in other Poaceae species. Of these 13,080 (47.58%, 6165 (22.43% and 8246 (30.0% transcripts have sequence similarity to known, domain-containing and conserved hypothetical proteins, respectively. We also report 75,590 low confidence transcripts supported by both trans-ABBySS and Velvet-Oases de novo assembly pipelines. Within the low confidence subset of transcripts we identified partial hits to known (19,021; 25.16%, domain-containing (7093; 9.38% and conserved hypothetical (16,647; 22.02% proteins. Additionally 32,829 (43.43% transcripts encode putative hypothetical proteins unique to A. donax. Functional annotation resulted in 5,550 and 6,070 transcripts with assigned Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway information, respectively. The most abundant KEGG pathways are spliceosome, ribosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, plant–pathogen interaction, RNA degradation and oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we also found 12, 9, and 4 transcripts annotated as stress-related, heat stress, and water stress proteins, respectively. We envisage that these resources will promote and facilitate studies of the abiotic

  14. Shoot transcriptome of the giant reed, Arundo donax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Roberto A; Guerrero, Felix D; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Goolsby, John A; Tidwell, Jason; Bellgard, Stanley E; Bellgard, Matthew I

    2015-06-01

    The giant reed, Arundo donax, is a perennial grass species that has become an invasive plant in many countries. Expansive stands of A. donax have significant negative impacts on available water resources and efforts are underway to identify biological control agents against this species. The giant reed grows under adverse environmental conditions, displaying insensitivity to drought stress, flooding, heavy metals, salinity and herbaceous competition, thus hampering control programs. To establish a foundational molecular dataset, we used an llumina Hi-Seq protocol to sequence the transcriptome of actively growing shoots from an invasive genotype collected along the Rio Grande River, bordering Texas and Mexico. We report the assembly of 27,491 high confidence transcripts (≥200 bp) with at least 70% coverage of known genes in other Poaceae species. Of these 13,080 (47.58%), 6165 (22.43%) and 8246 (30.0%) transcripts have sequence similarity to known, domain-containing and conserved hypothetical proteins, respectively. We also report 75,590 low confidence transcripts supported by both trans-ABBySS and Velvet-Oases de novo assembly pipelines. Within the low confidence subset of transcripts we identified partial hits to known (19,021; 25.16%), domain-containing (7093; 9.38%) and conserved hypothetical (16,647; 22.02%) proteins. Additionally 32,829 (43.43%) transcripts encode putative hypothetical proteins unique to A. donax. Functional annotation resulted in 5,550 and 6,070 transcripts with assigned Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway information, respectively. The most abundant KEGG pathways are spliceosome, ribosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, plant-pathogen interaction, RNA degradation and oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we also found 12, 9, and 4 transcripts annotated as stress-related, heat stress, and water stress proteins, respectively. We envisage that these resources will promote and facilitate studies of the abiotic stress

  15. Risk factors associated with interdog aggression and shooting phobias among purebred dogs in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Proschowsky, Helle Friis; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær;

    2003-01-01

    aggression, separation anxiety and shooting phobia. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the following breeds and breed groups had higher odds of being reported to have interdog dominance aggression: Belgian Sheepdogs, Dachshunds, Dalmatians, German, Shepherds, Hovawarts, Pinschers, Rottweilers, Scent dogs...

  16. [Relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Fang; Gong, Jia-Wen; Liu, Chao; Mu, Chi; Qin, Hong

    2009-08-01

    In August of 2007 and 2008, a field investigation was made to study the relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree in Sichuan Province. The three pairs of variables, i. e., C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number, C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree, and C. buqueti wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree, fitted cubic equations well, with the correlation coefficients at P = 0.001. Based on these mathematical models, the forecast tables for C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree were established, and the thresholds of C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number were 0.13 and 0.40 individual per bamboo, respectively. PMID:19947221

  17. Solution of Constrained Optimal Control Problems Using Multiple Shooting and ESDIRK Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capolei, Andrea; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a novel numerical algorithm for solution of constrained optimal control problems of the Bolza type for stiff and/or unstable systems. The numerical algorithm combines explicit singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (ESDIRK) integration methods with a multiple shooting...... algorithm. As we consider stiff systems, implicit solvers with sensitivity computation capabilities for initial value problems must be used in the multiple shooting algorithm. Traditionally, multi-step methods based on the BDF algorithm have been used for such problems. The main novel contribution...... of this paper is the use of ESDIRK integration methods for solution of the initial value problems and the corresponding sensitivity equations arising in the multiple shooting algorithm. Compared to BDF-methods, ESDIRK-methods are advantageous in multiple shooting algorithms in which restarts and frequent...

  18. Compensatory mechanisms operating in sugar cane: phosphorus uptake by the shoot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, role of shoot roots in imparting compensatory ability to the sugar cane plant has been investigated by studying uptake of 32P in plants, where dry matter supported by a unit root varied

  19. IN VITRO SHOOT ORGANOGENESIS AND PLANTLET REGENERATION IN BRINJAL (SOLANUM MELONGENA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. BHAT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro plant regeneration of brinjal genotype “Manjari Gota” was achieved using cotyledonary leave, nodalsegment and shoot tip explants. Best regeneration was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 6-benzylamino purine (BAP and 1 mg/l kinetin, with regards to regeneration efficiency, days to callus initiation andnumber of shoots per explant. Among the explants used cotyledonary leaf pair showed highest shoot regenerationefficiency (100 % followed by shoot tip (96. 66 % and nodal segment (93.33 %. The highest numbers of shootsper explant (6.66 were obtained while using cotyledonary leaf pair explant. In vitro root initiation was obtainedwithin 8 days of culture on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rootedplantlets were successfully established in polycarbonated polyhouse with 100 % survival rate. This plantregeneration method can be very useful for genetic transformation of brinjal

  20. The effect of different doses of caffeine on cardiovascular variables and shooting performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Mohsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 3 mg and 5 mg per kg of body weight of caffeine on heart rate, blood pressure and shooting performance among elite shooters.

  1. Phylogeny and functions of bacterial communities associated with field-grown rice shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sato, Tadashi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-09-17

    Metagenomic analysis was applied to bacterial communities associated with the shoots of two field-grown rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Kasalath. In both cultivars, shoot microbiomes were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (51-52%), Actinobacteria (11-15%), Gammaproteobacteria (9-10%), and Betaproteobacteria (4-10%). Compared with other rice microbiomes (root, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere) in public databases, the shoot microbiomes harbored abundant genes for C1 compound metabolism and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate catabolism, but fewer genes for indole-3-acetic acid production and nitrogen fixation. Salicylate hydroxylase was detected in all microbiomes, except the rhizosphere. These genomic features facilitate understanding of plant-microbe interactions and biogeochemical metabolism in rice shoots. PMID:25130883

  2. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter. PMID:19733457

  3. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

  4. Objective Evaluation Criteria for Shooting Quality of Stereo Cameras over Short Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stereo cameras are the basic tools used to obtain stereoscopic image pairs, which can lead to truly great image quality. However, some inappropriate shooting conditions may cause discomfort while viewing stereo images. It is therefore considerably necessary to establish the perceptual criteria that can be used to evaluate the shooting quality of stereo cameras. This article proposes objective quality evaluation criteria based on the characteristics of parallel and toed-in camera configurations. Considering the different internal structures and basic shooting principles, this paper focuses on short-distance shooting conditions and establishes assessment criteria for both parallel and toed-in camera configurations. Experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can predict the visual perception of stereoscopic images and effectively evaluate stereoscopic image quality.

  5. Management techniques of moso bamboo forest at shooting period%毛竹林笋期管理技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林利铭

    2015-01-01

    笋是毛竹经济效益的一个重要组成部分,毛竹笋期的管理对于毛竹幼林的培育具有重要作用。总结毛竹林笋期管理技术,主要包括鞭笋管理、冬笋管理、春笋管理、小年笋保护、病虫害防治等方面内容。%Bamboo shoot is one of the most important components for bamboo economic benefits. Management at shooting pe-riod plays a vital role in cultivating young bamboo forestry. This paper summarized management techniques of moso bamboo forest at shooting period including terminal shoot management,winter bamboo shoot management,spring bamboo shoot man-agement,off-year bamboo shoot protection and control of diseases and pests.

  6. Alginate-encapsulation of shoot tips of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] for germplasm exchange and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Rai, Manoj K; Singh, Narender; Mangal, Manisha

    2010-12-01

    Shoot tips excised from in vitro proliferated shoots derived from nodal explants of jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) Schneider] were encapsulated in calcium alginate beads for germplasm exchange and distribution. A gelling matrix of 3 % sodium alginate and 100 mM calcium chloride was found most suitable for formation of ideal calcium alginate beads. Best response for shoot sprouting from encapsulated shoot tips was recorded on 0.8 % agar-solidified full-strength MS medium. Rooting was induced upon transfer of sprouted shoots to 0.8 % agar-solidified MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA. About 70 % of encapsulated shoot tips were rooted and converted into plantlets. Plants regenerated from encapsulated shoot tips were acclimatized successfully. The present encapsulation approach could also be applied as an alternative method of propagation of desirable elite genotype of jojoba.

  7. Explanation of test and assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and Assessment of Chromosomal Aberrations on Occupational Health Examinations for Radiation Workers was formulated for standardizing analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers. In order to provide experimental and theoretical basis for implementation and extension of this standard, this paper interpreted the standard comprehensively, including some existed problems that methods on detection and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations is not unified in different laboratories in China, and related criteria,laws and regulations at home and abroad are not fit for the detection of chromosomal aberrations for radiation workers very well; some introduction on methods of chromosomal slide preparation, discriminant analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberration; and some influencing factors in the quality of chromosomal aberration detection. (authors)

  8. Influence of spherical aberrations on fundamental mode beam quality under different laser resonators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Zhen; Hu Miao; Ge Jian-Hong; Zhao Zhi-Gang; Wang Sha; Liu Chong; Chen Jun

    2009-01-01

    Spherical aberrations of the thermal lens of the active media are severe when solid state lasers are strongly pumped.The fundamental mode profile deteriorates due to the aberrations. Self-consistent modes of a resonator with aberrations are calculated by using the Fox-Li diffraction iterative algorithm. Calculation results show that the aberration induced fundamental mode beam quality deterioration depends greatly on the resonator design. The tolerance of a flat-flat resonator to the aberration coefficient is about 30λ in the middle of stability, where λ is the wavelength of laser beam. But for a dynamically stable resonator, 2λ of spherical aberration will create diffraction loss of more than 40%, if inappropriate design criteria are used. A birefringence compensated laser resonator with two Nd:YAG rods is experimentally studied. The experimental data are in quite good agreement with simulation results.

  9. Effects of Turbulent Aberrations on Probability Distribution of Orbital Angular Momentum for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi-Xin; CANG Ji

    2009-01-01

    Effects of atmospheric turbulence tilt, defocus, astigmatism and coma aberrations on the orbital angular mo-mentum measurement probability of photons propagating in weak turbulent regime are modeled with Rytov approximation. By considering the resulting wave as a superposition of angular momentum eigenstates, the or-bital angular momentum measurement probabilities of the transmitted digit axe presented. Our results show that the effect of turbulent tilt aberration on the orbital angular momentum measurement probabilities of photons is the maximum among these four kinds of aberrations. As the aberration order increases, the effects of turbulence aberrations on the measurement probabilities of orbital angular momentum generally decrease, whereas the effect of turbulence defoens can be ignored. For tilt aberration, as the difference between the measured orbital angular momentum and the original orbital angular momentum increases, the orbital angular momentum measurement probabifity decreases.

  10. An experimental study of aero-optical aberration and dithering of supersonic mixing layer via BOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The optical performance of supersonic mixing layer is heavily deteriorated by the aero-optical aberration and dithering of coherent structures, but current measuring methods limit the spatiotemporal resolution in relevant studies. A high resolution whole-field aero-optical aberration and dithering measuring method based on the Background Orient Schlieren (BOS) technique was studied. The systematic structure, sensitivity and resolution of BOS are analyzed in this paper. The aero-optical aberration and dithering of streamwise structures in supersonic mixing layers were quantificationally studied with BOS. The aberration field of spanwise structures revealed the ribbon-like aberration structures, which heavily restrict the optical performance of a mixing layer. The quantifications of aero-optical aberration and dithering are very important in studying aero-optical performance of supersonic mixing layer.

  11. Ray and Wave Aberrations Revisited: A Huygens Construction yields Exact Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Restrepo, John; Ihrke, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The optical aberrations of a system can be described in terms of the wave aberrations, defined as the departure from the ideal spherical wavefront; or the ray aberrations, which are in turn the deviations from the paraxial ray intersection measured in the image plane. The classical connection between the two descriptions is an approximation, the error of which has, so far, not been quantified analytically. We derive exact analytical equations for computing the wavefront surface, the aberrated ray directions, and the transverse ray aberrations in terms of the wave aberrations (OPD) and the reference sphere. We introduce precise conditions for a function to be an OPD function, show that every such function has an associated wavefront, and study the error arising from the classical approximation. We establish strict conditions for the error to be small. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations. Our results show that large numerical apertures and high-frequency OPD functions yield larger approximation...

  12. Ray and wave aberrations revisited: a Huygens-like construction yields exact relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, John; Stoerck, Pawel J; Ihrke, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    The aberrations of an optical system can be described in terms of the wave aberrations, defined as the departure from the ideal spherical wavefront; or the ray aberrations, which are in turn the deviations from the paraxial ray intersections measured in the image plane. The classical connection between the two descriptions is an approximation, the error of which has, to our knowledge, so far not been quantified analytically. We derive exact analytical equations for computing the wavefront surface, the aberrated ray directions, and the transverse ray aberrations in terms of the wave aberrations (OPD) and the reference sphere. We introduce precise conditions for a function to be an OPD function, show that every such function has an associated wavefront, and study the error arising from the classical approximation. We establish strict conditions for the error to be small. We illustrate our results with numerical simulations. Our results show that large numerical apertures and OPD functions with strong gradients yield larger approximation errors.

  13. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis.

  14. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23754197

  15. Transgenic shoots and plants as a source of natural phytochemical products

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Floryanowicz-Czekalska; Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Genetic engineering has allowed the production of plants and in vitro cultures with an altered content of secondary metabolites. In the present work it is hoped to give some detailed background information on obtaining bioactive compounds based on the use of genetically transformed shoots and the whole plants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoots have recently been a matter of great interest as a source of chemicals synthesized in the aerial parts of plants. The possibilities for the fut...

  16. Position Prediction of Ball and Fuzzy Controller for Shooting Action in A Soccer Robot System

    OpenAIRE

    Ryang, GyongIl; Choe, MyongSong; Sin, YongChol

    2016-01-01

    The robot soccer game based complex motion control has been widely studied for the moving object capture and shooting. A position prediction algorithm based on global vision is introduced in order to improve the accuracy and robustness of the vision system for tracking moving objects, including a Kalmanfiter, a dynamic window and an obstacle avoidance strategy. This paper deals with the positon prediction for moving ball by using Kalmanfiter and the Fuzzy Controller for shooting action in a d...

  17. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  18. Preservation of Disease-free Shoot Tips of Potato Germplasm through in vitro System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M K Biswas; M Hossain; R Islam

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to find out the best medium composition for medium-term preservation of disease free potato shoot tips in in vitro system. Thirteen potato genotypes and fourteen treatments were taken under consideration for the present experiment. Among fourteen treatments, mannitol and sorbitol containing media proved to be the best for medium-term preservation of potato shoot tips. High concentration of mannitol delayed root formation.

  19. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB), “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB) and “Thap Maeo” (AAB) varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics ...

  20. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot

  1. Shoot growth restriction in dry matter partitioning andminituber production of potato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin; Jacso Dellai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of shoot growth restriction in the dry matter partitioning and minituber production of potato plants grown in a closed soilless system. Minitubers of the cultivars 'Macaca' and 'Asterix' were planted in the greenhouse in the density of 100 hills m-2, during autumn and spring growing seasons. Growth restriction levels were gotten by pruning shoots at 10, 20 and 30cm height or without pruning. The growth restriction levels were identified by ...

  2. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Nippert

    2012-01-01

    Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket ...

  3. Objective Evaluation Criteria for Shooting Quality of Stereo Cameras over Short Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Liu; Jiachen Yang; Rongrong Chu

    2015-01-01

    Stereo cameras are the basic tools used to obtain stereoscopic image pairs, which can lead to truly great image quality. However, some inappropriate shooting conditions may cause discomfort while viewing stereo images. It is therefore considerably necessary to establish the perceptual criteria that can be used to evaluate the shooting quality of stereo cameras. This article proposes objective quality evaluation criteria based on the characteristics of parallel and toed-in camera configuration...

  4. Mechanistic modeling of aberrant energy metabolism in human disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet eSangar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in energy metabolism—including in pathways localized to the mitochondria—has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a wide array of disorders, ranging from cancer to neurodegenerative diseases to type II diabetes. The inherent complexities of energy and mitochondrial metabolism present a significant obstacle in the effort to understand the role that these molecular processes play in the development of disease. To help unravel these complexities, systems biology methods have been applied to develop an array of computational metabolic models, ranging from mitochondria-specific processes to genome-scale cellular networks. These constraint-based models can efficiently simulate aspects of normal and aberrant metabolism in various genetic and environmental conditions. Development of these models leverages—and also provides a powerful means to integrate and interpret—information from a wide range of sources including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and enzyme kinetics. Here, we review a variety of mechanistic modeling studies that explore metabolic functions, deficiency disorders, and aberrant biochemical pathways in mitochondria and related regions in the cell.

  5. Correction for polychromatic aberration in computed tomography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method and apparatus for correcting a computed tomography image for polychromatic aberration caused by the non-linear interaction (i.e. the energy dependent attenuation characteristics) of different body constituents, such as bone and soft tissue, with a polychromatic X-ray beam are described in detail. An initial image is conventionally computed from path measurements made as source and detector assembly scan a body section. In the improvement, each image element of the initial computed image representing attenuation is recorded in a store and is compared with two thresholds, one representing bone and the other soft tissue. Depending on the element value relative to the thresholds, a proportion of the respective constituent is allocated to that element location and corresponding bone and soft tissue projections are determined and stored. An error projection generator calculates projections of polychromatic aberration errors in the raw image data from recalled bone and tissue projections using a multidimensional polynomial function which approximates the non-linear interaction involved. After filtering, these are supplied to an image reconstruction computer to compute image element correction values which are subtracted from raw image element values to provide a corrected reconstructed image for display. (author)

  6. Correction of optical aberrations in elliptic neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, Phillip M., E-mail: phillip.bentley@esss.se [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Kennedy, Shane J. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Locked Bag 2001, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232 (Australia); Andersen, Ken H. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Martin Rodriguez, Damian [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Mildner, David F.R. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2012-11-21

    Modern, nonlinear ballistic neutron guides are an attractive concept in neutron beam delivery and instrumentation because they offer increased performance over straight or linearly tapered guides. However, like other ballistic geometries they have the potential to create significantly non-trivial instrumental resolution functions. We address the source of the most prominent optical aberration, namely coma, and we show that for extended sources the off-axis rays have a different focal length from on-axis rays, leading to multiple reflections in the guide system. We illustrate how the interplay between coma, sources of finite size, and mirrors with non-perfect reflectivity can therefore conspire to produce uneven distributions in the neutron beam divergence, a source of complicated resolution functions. To solve these problems, we propose a hybrid elliptic-parabolic guide geometry. Using this new kind of neutron guide shape, it is possible to condition the neutron beam and remove almost all of the aberrations, whilst providing the same performance in beam current as a standard elliptic neutron guide. We highlight the positive implications for neutron scattering instruments that this new shape can bring.

  7. Exercise protects against methamphetamine-induced aberrant neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minseon; Levine, Harry; Toborek, Michal

    2016-01-01

    While no effective therapy is available for the treatment of methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity, aerobic exercise is being proposed to improve depressive symptoms and substance abuse outcomes. The present study focuses on the effect of exercise on METH-induced aberrant neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the context of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) pathology. Mice were administered with METH or saline by i.p. injections for 5 days with an escalating dose regimen. One set of mice was sacrificed 24 h post last injection of METH, and the remaining animals were either subjected to voluntary wheel running (exercised mice) or remained in sedentary housing (sedentary mice). METH administration decreased expression of tight junction (TJ) proteins and increased BBB permeability in the hippocampus. These changes were preserved post METH administration in sedentary mice and were associated with the development of significant aberrations of neural differentiation. Exercise protected against these effects by enhancing the protein expression of TJ proteins, stabilizing the BBB integrity, and enhancing the neural differentiation. In addition, exercise protected against METH-induced systemic increase in inflammatory cytokine levels. These results suggest that exercise can attenuate METH-induced neurotoxicity by protecting against the BBB disruption and related microenvironmental changes in the hippocampus. PMID:27677455

  8. Chromosome aberrations in workers of beach sand mineral industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beach Sand Mining (BSM) is a profitable industry earning a sizable income for the country by way of foreign exchange. The Indian coast is rich in rare earths such as ilmenite, rutile, leucoxene, zircon, garnet and sillimanite, and is invariably associated with radioactive monazite. Due to the nature of the separation processes involved and the manual handling, workers in these factories are continuously being exposed to suspended particles containing naturally occurring radioactive materials. An attempt was made to estimate DNA damage using a chromosome aberration assay to monitor radiation effects in workers of BSM industries in India. The study group comprised 27 BSM workers and 20 controls. Percentage yields of dicentrics, acentric fragments and chromatid breaks observed in the control group were 0.058 ± 0.017, 0.073 ± 0.03 and 0.22 ± 0.112, respectively. Percentage yields of dicentrics + centric rings, acentric fragments and chromatid breaks observed in the BSM group were 0.029 ± 0.01 (P value 0.19), 0.24 ± 0.06 (P value 0.006) and 0.455 ± 0.06 (P value 0.0004), respectively. Elevated levels of fragments and chromatid aberrations are suggestive of low-dose radiation effects and also chemically-induced DNA damage. (authors)

  9. Aberrant activity in degenerated retinas revealed by electrical imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther eZeck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this review I present and discuss the current understanding of aberrant electrical activity found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL of rod-degenerated (rd mouse retinas. The reported electrophysiological properties revealed by electrical imaging using high-density microelectrode arrays can be subdivided between spiking activity originating from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and local field potentials reflecting strong trans-membrane currents within the GCL. RGCs in rod-degenerated retinas show increased and rhythmic spiking compared to age-matched wild-type retinas. Fundamental spiking frequencies range from 5 to 15 Hz in various mouse models. The rhythmic RGC spiking is driven by a presynaptic network comprising AII amacrine and bipolar cells. In the healthy retina this rhythm-generating circuit is inhibited by photoreceptor input. A unique physiological feature of rd retinas is rhythmic local field potentials (LFP manifested as spatially-restricted low-frequency (5–15 Hz voltage changes. Their spatiotemporal characterization revealed propagation and correlation with RGC spiking. LFPs rely on gap-junctional coupling and are shaped by glycinergic and by GABAergic transmission. The aberrant RGC spiking and LFPs provide a simple readout of the functionality of the remaining retinal circuitry which can be used in the development of improved vision restoration strategies.

  10. Chromosomal aberrations as etiological factors of intrauterine growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Bojana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR is a pathological condition of pregnancy characterised by birth weight below the 10th centile. A number of fetal, placental and maternal causes can lead to IUGR; although, in most cases no specific causes can be identified. The aim of this study was to determine the part of chromosomal abnormalities in IUGR etiology. Methods. Fetal blood karyotype taken by cordocentesis from 168 fetuses with diagnosed IUGR was analyzed. Results. Chromosomal rearrangements both numerical and structural were detected in 14 cases (12.2%. Two cases were triploid. Patau syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Down syndrome were found in two cases each. There was one case of trisomy 7 (47, XY, +7 and one case of trisomy 16 (47, XX, +16; one translocation, 46, XY, t (2; 14(q23; q32 and a deletion 46, XYdel (12 (p12 as well as two cases of sex chromosomes abnormalities, 45, X (Turner syndrome and 47, XYY. Conclusion. These findings suggest that a consistent number of symmetrical IUGR cases (about 12% can be associated with chromosomal rearrangements. Chromosomal aberrations that cause IUGR are heterogeneous, aberration of autosomes, mostly autosomal trisomies, being the most common.

  11. Maternal age, reproduction and chromosomal aberrations in Wistar derived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggeschulze, A; Kast, A

    1994-01-01

    The fertility of rats ranges from one to 18 months. In standard teratogenicity testing young, mature females are used which may not reflect the situation in women above 35 years old. Reproduction among different age groups of Wistar ats (strain Chbb: THOM) was compared at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. At least 20 virgin females were inseminated per age group. The copulation rate did not differ between the groups. From the maternal age of 12 months, the pregnancy rate was significantly decreased, from the age of 9 months, the litter values were significantly lowered and the resorption rates were increased. Maternal age did not influence the incidence of fetal variations and malformations. Additionally, the chromosomal aberration rate in the bone marrow was evaluated in male and female rats. Twelve animals of each sex were scheduled per group, and studied at the age of 1, 3, 6, 12, 15, 18, 21 or 24 months. In males, the aberration rate increased continuously from 0.18 through 3%, while in females the increase continued from 0.33 to 2.29% at 15 months old when a plateau was reached. When testing new compounds for embryotoxicity or genotoxicity in female rats, the animals should be of comparable age to man in order to avoid a misinterpretation of spontaneous abnormalities. From these studies, however, it was concluded that the use of higher age groups of female rats in teratogenicity studies would not improve the risk assessment.

  12. Aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling in parathyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åkerström Göran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parathyroid carcinoma (PC is a very rare malignancy with a high tendency to recur locally, and recurrent disease is difficult to eradicate. In most western European countries and United States, these malignant neoplasms cause less than 1% of the cases with primary hyperparathyroidism, whereas incidence as high as 5% have been reported from Italy, Japan, and India. The molecular etiology of PC is poorly understood. Results The APC (adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor gene was inactivated by DNA methylation in five analyzed PCs, as determined by RT-PCR, Western blotting, and quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing analyses. This was accompanied by accumulation of stabilized active nonphosphorylated β-catenin, strongly suggesting aberrant activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway in these tumors. Treatment of a primary PC cell culture with the DNA hypomethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine, Dacogen(r induced APC expression, reduced active nonphosphorylated β-catenin, inhibited cell growth, and caused apoptosis. Conclusion Aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling by lost expression and DNA methylation of APC, and accumulation of active nonphosphorylated β-catenin was observed in the analyzed PCs. We suggest that adjuvant epigenetic therapy should be considered as an additional option in the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.

  13. Relationship of DNA lesions and their repair to chromosomal aberration production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent work on the roles of specific kinds of DNA lesions and their enzymatic repair systems in the production of chromosomal aberrations seems consistent with a simple molecular model of chromosomal aberrations formation. Evidence from experiments with the human repair-deficient genetic diseases xeroderma pigmentosom, ataxia telangiectasia, and Fanconi's anemia is reviewed in the light of the contributions to aberration production of single and double polynucleotide strand breaks, base damage, polynucleotide strand crosslinks, and pyrimidine cyclobutane dimers

  14. ANALYSES OF CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS IN LYMPHOCYTES AND BONE MARROW CELLS INDUCED BY RADIATION OR BENZENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鸿源; 王兰金; 等

    1995-01-01

    The chromosomoe and chromatid type aberration can be induced by benzene and the dicentric and ring ones were not observed in vitro experiment but observed in vivo one.In vitro experiment a good linear reression can be given between benzene concentrations and total aberration cells while power regression for radiation dose.The chromosome aberrations induced by benzene combined with radiation in rabbit blood lymphocytes are higher than in bone marryow cells.

  15. Correction of cell-induced optical aberrations in a fluorescence fluctuation microscope.

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Charles-Edouard; Grichine, Alexei; Wang, Irène; Delon, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    International audience We describe the effect of optical aberrations on fluorescence fluctuations microscopy (FFM), when focusing through a single living cell. FFM measurements are performed in an aqueous fluorescent solution and prove to be a highly sensitive tool to assess the optical aberrations introduced by the cell. We demonstrate an adaptive optics (AO) system to remove the aberration-related bias in the FFM measurements. Our data show that AO is not only useful when imaging deep in...

  16. EVALUATION OF CORRECTION METHODS OF CHROMATIC ABERRATION IN DIGITAL CAMERA IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, R; Asonuma, K.; Takahashi, G; Danjo, T.; Hirana, K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment conducted to evaluate correction methods of chromatic aberrations in images acquired by a nonmetric digital camera. The chromatic aberration correction methods evaluated in the experiment are classified into two kinds. One is the method to correct image coordinates by using camera calibration results of color-separated images. The other is the method based on the assumption that the magnitude of chromatic aberrations can be expressed by a function of ...

  17. Inhibition of the gravitropic bending response of flowering shoots by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Haya; Meir, Shimon; Halevy, Abraham H; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia

    2003-10-01

    The upward gravitropic bending of cut snapdragon, lupinus and anemone flowering shoots was inhibited by salicylic acid (SA) applied at 0.5 mM and above. This effect was probably not due to acidification of the cytoplasm, since other weak acids did not inhibit bending of snapdragon shoots. In order to study its mode of inhibitory action, we have examined in cut snapdragon shoots the effect of SA on three processes of the gravity-signaling pathway, including: amyloplast sedimentation, formation of ethylene gradient across the stem, and differential growth response. The results show that 1 mM SA inhibited differential ethylene production rates across the horizontal stem and the gravity-induced growth, without significantly inhibiting vertical growth or amyloplast sedimentation following horizontal placement. However, 5 mM SA inhibited all three gravity-induced processes, as well as the growth of vertical shoots, while increasing flower wilting. It may, therefore, be concluded that SA inhibits bending of various cut flowering shoots in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, at a low concentration SA exerts its effect in snapdragon shoots by inhibiting processes operating downstream to stimulus sensing exerted by amyloplast sedimentation. At a higher concentration SA inhibits bending probably by exerting general negative effects on various cellular processes.

  18. Persistence of threat-induced errors in police officers' shooting decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-05-01

    This study tested whether threat-induced errors in police officers' shooting decisions may be prevented through practice. Using a video-based test, 57 Police officers executed shooting responses against a suspect who rapidly appeared with (shoot) or without (don't shoot) a firearm. Threat was manipulated by switching on (high-threat) or switching off (low-threat) a "shootback canon" that could fire small plastic bullets at the officers. After an initial pretest, officers were divided over four different practice groups and practiced their shooting decisions for three consecutive weeks. Effects of practice were evaluated on a posttest. On the pretest, all groups experienced more anxiety and executed more false-positive responses under high-threat. Despite practice, these effects persisted on the posttest and remained equally strong for all practice groups. It is concluded that the impact of threat on police officers' shooting decisions is robust and may be hard to prevent within the limits of available practice. PMID:25683553

  19. Influence of bamboo shoot powder fortification on physico-chemical, textural and organoleptic characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Monisha; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Borah, Pallab Kumar; Sit, Nandan; Deka, Sankar C

    2015-10-01

    Bamboo shoot has attracted significant research and a commercial interest due to its many health-promoting bioactive compounds as well as its effectiveness in decreasing blood pressure, cholesterol and increasing appetite. As availability of fresh shoot is limited due to its seasonality there is need of incorporation of nutrients of shoot to any common food product which is easily available throughout year. Shoots of Bambusa balcooa variety were taken and edible parts were separated. Slices of shoot were boiled, dried, powdered, sieved, analysed for nutritional status and used for biscuit making. Bamboo shoot powder (BSP) was added in 0 % (control), 5, 10, and 15 % level in dry ingredients by replacing wheat flour and other ingredients were kept constant. Dough prepared are firstly analysed for basic characteristics. Then biscuits were prepared and analyzed for moisture, water activity, protein, fiber, fat, ash, phenolics, antioxidant activity, dimension, hardness, color and sensory acceptability. Variations were observed for fiber, antioxidant activity and phenolics from 1.08 to 1.97 %, 3.50 to 17.85 % and 0.45 to 4.19 mg/100 g respectively. Results showed that up to 10 % fortification level the biscuits were acceptable with improved functional and neutraceutical properties compared to the control.

  20. Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

  1. The impact of personality traits and professional experience on police officers' shooting performance under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landman, Annemarie; Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2016-07-01

    We explored the impact of professional experience and personality on police officers' shooting performance under pressure. We recruited: (1) regular officers, (2) officers wanting to join a specialised arrest unit (AU) (expected to possess more stress-resistant traits; pre-AU) and (3) officers from this unit (expected to also possess more professional experience; AU) (all male). In Phase 1, we determined personality traits and experience. In Phase 2, state anxiety, shot accuracy, decision-making (shoot/don't shoot), movement speed and gaze behaviour were measured while officers performed a shooting test under low and high pressure. Results indicate minimal differences in personality among groups and superior performance of AU officers. Regression analyses showed that state anxiety and shooting performance under high pressure were first predicted by AU experience and second by certain personality traits. Results suggest that although personality traits attenuate the impact of high pressure, it is relevant experience that secures effective performance under pressure. Practitioner Summary: To obtain information for police selection and training purposes, we let officers who differed in personality and experience execute a shooting test under low and high pressure. Outcomes indicate that experience affected anxiety and performance most strongly, while personality traits of thrill- and adventure-seeking and self-control also had an effect. PMID:26467525

  2. Plastid osmotic stress influences cell differentiation at the plant shoot apex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret E; Mixdorf, Matthew; Berg, R Howard; Haswell, Elizabeth S

    2016-09-15

    The balance between proliferation and differentiation in the plant shoot apical meristem is controlled by regulatory loops involving the phytohormone cytokinin and stem cell identity genes. Concurrently, cellular differentiation in the developing shoot is coordinated with the environmental and developmental status of plastids within those cells. Here, we employ an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant exhibiting constitutive plastid osmotic stress to investigate the molecular and genetic pathways connecting plastid osmotic stress with cell differentiation at the shoot apex. msl2 msl3 mutants exhibit dramatically enlarged and deformed plastids in the shoot apical meristem, and develop a mass of callus tissue at the shoot apex. Callus production in this mutant requires the cytokinin receptor AHK2 and is characterized by increased cytokinin levels, downregulation of cytokinin signaling inhibitors ARR7 and ARR15, and induction of the stem cell identity gene WUSCHEL Furthermore, plastid stress-induced apical callus production requires elevated plastidic reactive oxygen species, ABA biosynthesis, the retrograde signaling protein GUN1, and ABI4. These results are consistent with a model wherein the cytokinin/WUS pathway and retrograde signaling control cell differentiation at the shoot apex. PMID:27510974

  3. Study on Variation of Endogenous Hormones at the Germinating Stage of Tea Spring Shoot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An HPLC method was used to analyze the contents ana variation of IAA, GA3, ABA and ZT at five stages around the tea shoot germinating in spring. The contents of GA3 and ABA had a top value during the winter and decreased with the growth of tea shoots, while the contents of IAA and ZT had a low value during the winter and increased quickly at the beginning of shoot growth, but soon afterwards increased slowly or decreased a little. The ratio of hormones was closely related to the growth of tea plant. The study indicated that the ratios of GA3 to ABA and IAA to ABA were at low values during the winter and went up with the shoot germinating. When the activity of roots was weak, the ratio of ZT to IAA had a top value, but went down gradually with luxuriant activity of roots. The ratio of GA3 to ZT had a certin relativity with the shoot germinating, which was at a top value during the winter but went down suddenly at the beginning of shoot germinating.

  4. The effect of acute exercise on pistol shooting performance of police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa J; Tandy, Richard D; Wulf, Gabriele; Young, John C

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that rifle shooting performance while standing is compromised when fatigued. Apprehension of suspects by police officers may involve foot pursuit and firing a weapon from a standing position. The purpose of the current study was to investigate pistol shooting performance in police officers under similar conditions of physical fatigue. Participants (mean age: 30.1 years; 4.4 years of experience as police officer) completed two shooting trials separated by an acute bout of exercise on a cycle ergometer to voluntary exhaustion. Each trial consisted of three rounds of five rapid-fire shots at a target, each round separated by a 15-s rest. Participants' backs were turned to the target between rounds. Despite physical exertion, with an average heart rate of 164 bpm, shooting accuracy (mean distance of the closest 4 shots from the center of the target) and precision (diameter of the tightest 4-shot grouping) remained unchanged on postexercise trials relative to preexercise trials. This suggests that automatic shooting reactions override the adverse consequences of fatiguing exercise on shooting performance. PMID:23756320

  5. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged. PMID:17394480

  6. The first observation of titanate nanotubes by spherical aberration corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, L.; Tanemura, S.; Jiang, T.; Tanemura, M.; Yoshida, K.; Tanaka, N.; Xu, G.

    2009-07-01

    Multi-wall titanate nanotubes (MW-TNNTs) with high aspect ratio, large surface area and good uniformity were produced by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of grounded TiO 2 aerogels and further by applying freeze-drying. Not only the crystal phase and diameter, but also morphology of the starting materials impact on the aspect ratio and transformation efficiency of the obtained nanotubes. Other parameters, such as pH value during neutralization process and drying method for the final products, are important to control length and dispersion of MW-TNNTs. By spherical aberration corrected high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (Cs-corrected HRTEM) with lateral space resolution of 0.14 nm at 200 kV accelerating voltage and electron energy loss spectrum (EELS), the detailed structural analysis of MW-TNNTs reveals that (1) diameters of inner and outer tubes are about 4-7 nm and 10 nm, respectively, (2) numbers of layers are different from part to part along the longitudinal tube axis, (3) the walls of the tubes have interlayer spacing of 0.70-0.80 nm and the lateral fringes which are vertical to the walls have spacing of 0.32 nm, (4) each layer of MW-TNNT is the nanosheet composed by the arrayed TiO 6 octahedrons, and respective octahedron being slightly strained, and (5) no chirality of MW-TNNT tubular structure is observed.

  7. Experience with the "good" limb induces aberrant synaptic plasticity in the perilesion cortex after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo Young; Allred, Rachel P; Adkins, DeAnna L; Tennant, Kelly A; Donlan, Nicole A; Kleim, Jeffrey A; Jones, Theresa A

    2015-06-01

    Following unilateral stroke, the contralateral (paretic) body side is often severely impaired, and individuals naturally learn to rely more on the nonparetic body side, which involves learning new skills with it. Such compensatory hyper-reliance on the "good" body side, however, can limit functional improvements of the paretic side. In rats, motor skill training with the nonparetic forelimb (NPT) following a unilateral infarct lessens the efficacy of rehabilitative training, and reduces neuronal activation in perilesion motor cortex. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated how forelimb movement representations and synaptic restructuring in perilesion motor cortex respond to NPT and their relationship with behavioral outcomes. Forelimb representations were diminished as a result of NPT, as revealed with intracortical microstimulation mapping. Using transmission electron microscopy and stereological analyses, we found that densities of axodendritic synapses, especially axo-spinous synapses, as well as multiple synaptic boutons were increased in the perilesion cortex by NPT. The synaptic density was negatively correlated with the functional outcome of the paretic limb, as revealed in reaching performance. Furthermore, in animals with NPT, there was dissociation between astrocytic morphological features and axo-spinous synaptic density in perilesion motor cortex, compared with controls. These findings demonstrate that skill learning with the nonparetic limb following unilateral brain damage results in aberrant synaptogenesis, potentially of transcallosal projections, and this seems to hamper the functionality of the perilesion motor cortex and the paretic forelimb. PMID:26041926

  8. Fishing for radiation quality: chromosome aberrations and the role of radiation track structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield of chromosome aberrations is not only dependent on dose but also on radiation quality, with high linear energy transfer (LET) typically having a greater biological effectiveness per unit dose than those of low-LET radiation. Differences in radiation track structure and cell morphology can also lead to quantitative differences in the spectra of the resulting chromosomal rearrangements, especially at low doses associated with typical human exposures. The development of combinatorial fluorescent labelling techniques (such as mFISH and mBAND) has helped to reveal the complexity of rearrangements, showing increasing complexity of observed rearrangements with increasing LET but has a resolution limited to ∼10 MBp. High-LET particles have not only been shown to produce clustered sites of DNA damage but also produce multiple correlated breaks along its path resulting in DNA fragments smaller than the resolution of these techniques. Additionally, studies have shown that the vast majority of radiation-induced HPRT mutations were also not detectable using fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) techniques, with correlation of breaks along the track being reflected in the complexity of mutations, with intra- and inter-chromosomal insertions, and inversions occurring at the sites of some of the deletions. Therefore, the analysis of visible chromosomal rearrangements observed using current FISH techniques is likely to represent just the tip of the iceberg, considerably underestimating the extent and complexity of radiation induced rearrangements. (author)

  9. Combined effects of low light and water stress on Jatropha curcas L. promotes shoot growth and morphological adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Christina Silveira Carneiro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas (physic nut is a plant with economic and pharmaceutical uses. Basic studies on the influence of environmental factors on the early development of J. curcas are important for improving farming techniques and increasing productivity. This study investigated the adjustments of J. curcas to the environmental factors of drought and light stress in order to determine which factors most strongly affect the allocation of biomass during early growth. Leaves, stems, and roots of young plants were sampled and leaf area was measured during January and June in 2011. Plants of J. curcas that were grown in shade and subjected to water stress showed higher biomass allocation to aerial parts (mainly stems, which can be explained as a strategy for maximizing carbon assimilation. The pattern of biomass allocation between aerial components and the root system changed in plants grown in shade. During June 2011, biomass in shade-grown J. curcas was preferentially allocated to stems, indicating long-term adjustment. The lower biomass allocation to the root system suggests reduced exploitation of soil water even when this resource is scarce. Thus, over the long term, growth of J. curcas may be compromised by the combined effects of light stress and water deficit.

  10. Spherical aberration from trajectories in real and hard-edge solenoid fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BISWAS B

    2016-06-01

    For analytical, real and hard-edge solenoidal axial magnetic fields, the low-energy electron trajectories are obtained using the third-order paraxial ray equation. Using the particle trajectories, it is shown that the spherical aberration in the hard-edge model is high and it increases monotonously with hard edginess, although the focal length converges, in agreement with a recentfield and spherical aberration model. The model paved the way for a hard-edge approximation that gives correct focal length and spherical aberration, which is verified here by the trajectory method. In essence, we show that exact hard-edge fields give infinite spherical aberrations.

  11. [Assessment of accumulation of the shot products on the targets in shooting from a short-barreled gun with a muffler for estimation of shooting distance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, I V; Luzanova, I S; Sonis, M A

    2006-01-01

    A practical expert task--to estimate shot distance and order of shots made in two victims from a gun with muffler--is described as illustration of opportunities of the complex investigation with experimental shots and emission spectral analysis of the targets. Distribution of the shot soot on the targets in shooting from the distance up to 1 m is analyzed. PMID:17191722

  12. Chromosomal aberrations related to metastasis of human solid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lun-Xiu Qin

    2002-01-01

    The central role of sequential accumulation of genetic alterations during the development of cancer has been firmly established since the pioneering cytogenetic studies successfully defined recurrent chromosome changes in spedfic types of tumor. In the course of carcinogenesis, cells experience several genetic alterations that are associated with the transition from a preneoplastic lesion to an invasive tumor and finally to the metastatic state. Tumor progression is characterized by stepwise accumulation of genetic alterations.So does the dominant metastatic clone. Modern molecular genetic analyses have clarified that genomic changes accumulate during the development and progression of cancers. In comparison with the corresponding primary tumor,additional events of chromosomal aberrations (including gains or allelic losses) are frequently found in metastases, and the incidence of combined chromosomal alterations in the primary tumor, plus the occurrence of additional aberrations inthe distant metastases, correlated significantly with decreased postmetastatic survival. The deletions at 3p, 4p, 6q, 8p, 10q,11p, 11q, 12p, 13q, 16q, 17p, 18q, 21q, and 22q, as well as the over-representations at 1q, 8q, 9q, 14q and 15q, have been found to associate preferentially with the metastatic phenotype of human cancers. Among of them, the deletions on chromosomes 8p, 17p, 11p and 13p seem to be more significant, and more detail fine regions of them, including 8p11, 8p21-12, 8p22, 8p23, 17p13.3, 11p15.5, and 13q12-13 have been suggested harboring metastasis-suppressor genes.During the past decade, several human chromosomes have been functionally tested through the use of microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT), and metastasis-suppressor activities have been reported on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 10,11, 12, 16, and 17. However, it is not actually known at what stage of the metastatic cascade these alterations have occurred.There is still controversial with the association

  13. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity.

  14. Influence of Plant Growth Regulators on In Vitro Shoot Multiplication and Plantlet Formation in Cassia angustifolia Vahl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iram Siddique

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn effective and improved plant regeneration system was successfully developed using shoot tip explants taken from a two years old mature plant of Cassia angustifolia. The effect of different cytokinins, [6-benzyladenine (BA, Kinetin (Kin and thidiazuron (TDZ] at different concentrations (0.5-10 µM were evaluated as augmented with Murashige and Skoog (MS 1962 medium. Among all the cytokinins tested, TDZ (5.0 µM was optimum in inducing multiple shoots as compared to BA and Kin. The rate of shoot multiplication was increased when optimal concentration (5.0 µM of BA and Kin was tested with different concentration (0.1-1.0 µM of Indole-3- acetic acid (IAA. Among all the combinations tested, the maximum rate of shoot multiplication was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 µM BA and 0.5 µM IAA. The number of the shoots and shoot length developed in TDZ was increased when transferred to MS medium devoid of TDZ. After every subculture, rate of the shoot multiplication and shoot length showed increment and continued even after fifth subculture without any decline rate. In vitro rooting in regenerated shoots were best obtained in half-strength MS medium supplemented with 2.0 µM indole-3- butyric acid (IBA. Plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in earthen pots containing garden soil and grown in greenhouse with 80% survival rate.

  15. Branch age and light conditions determine leaf-area-specific conductivity in current shoots of Scots pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Leila; Hölttä, Teemu; Mäkelä, Annikki

    2016-08-01

    Shoot size and other shoot properties more or less follow the availability of light, but there is also evidence that the topological position in a tree crown has an influence on shoot development. Whether the hydraulic properties of new shoots are more regulated by the light or the position affects the shoot acclimation to changing light conditions and thereby to changing evaporative demand. We investigated the leaf-area-specific conductivity (and its components sapwood-specific conductivity and Huber value) of the current-year shoots of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in relation to light environment and topological position in three different tree classes. The light environment was quantified in terms of simulated transpiration and the topological position was quantified by parent branch age. Sample shoot measurements included length, basal and tip diameter, hydraulic conductivity of the shoot, tracheid area and density, and specific leaf area. In our results, the leaf-area-specific conductivity of new shoots declined with parent branch age and increased with simulated transpiration rate of the shoot. The relation to transpiration demand seemed more decisive, since it gave higher R(2) values than branch age and explained the differences between the tree classes. The trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with simulated transpiration was closely related to Huber value, whereas the trend of leaf-area-specific conductivity with parent branch age was related to a similar trend in sapwood-specific conductivity. PMID:27217528

  16. Refractive and diffractive neutron optics with reduced chromatic aberration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Poulsen, Henning Friis; Bentley, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    by the use of optics for focusing and imaging. Refractive and diffractive optical elements, e.g. compound refractive lenses and Fresnel zone plates, are attractive due to their low cost, and simple alignment. These optical elements, however, suffer from chromatic aberration, which limit their effectiveness...... to highly monochromatic beams. This paper presents two novel concepts for focusing and imaging non-monochromatic thermal neutron beams with well-known optical elements: (1) a fast mechanical transfocator based on a compound refractive lens, which actively varies the number of individual lenses in the beam...... path to focus and image a time-of-flight beam, and (2) a passive optical element consisting of a compound refractive lens, and a Fresnel zone plate, which may focus and image both continuous and pulsed neutron beams....

  17. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy in an Aberration-Corrected Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas W.; Wagner, Jakob B.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing use of environmental transmission electron microscopy (ETEM) in materials science provides exciting new possibilities for investigating chemical reactions and understanding both the interaction of fast electrons with gas molecules and the effect of the presence of gas on high......-resolution imaging. A gaseous atmosphere in the pole-piece gap of the objective lens of the microscope alters both the incoming electron wave prior to interaction with the sample and the outgoing wave below the sample. Whereas conventional TEM samples are usually thin (below 100 nm), the gas in the environmental...... cell fills the entire gap between the pole pieces and is thus not spatially localized. By using an FEI Titan environmental transmission electron microscope equipped with a monochromator and an aberration corrector on the objective lens, we have investigated the effects on imaging and spectroscopy...

  18. Biological dosimetry of ionizing radiation by chromosomal aberration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological dosimetry consists of estimating absorbed doses for people exposed to radiation by mean biological methods. Several indicators used are based in haematological, biochemical, and cytogenetic data, although nowadays without doubt, the cytogenetic method is considered to be the most reliable. In this case, the study ol chromosomal aberrations, normally dicentric chromosomes, in peripheral lymphocytes can be related to absorbed dose through an experimental calibration curve. An experimental dose-response curve, using dicentric chromosomes analysis, X-rays at 300 kVp, 114 rad/min and temperature 37 degree celsius has been produced. Experimental data is fitted to model Y =α + β1D + β2D 2 , where Y is the number of dicentrics per cell and D the dose. The curve is compared with those produced elsewhere. (Author) 14 refs

  19. Studying Atomic Structures by Aberration-Corrected Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Knut W.

    2008-07-01

    Seventy-five years after its invention, transmission electron microscopy has taken a great step forward with the introduction of aberration-corrected electron optics. An entirely new generation of instruments enables studies in condensed-matter physics and materials science to be performed at atomic-scale resolution. These new possibilities are meeting the growing demand of nanosciences and nanotechnology for the atomic-scale characterization of materials, nanosynthesized products and devices, and the validation of expected functions. Equipped with electron-energy filters and electron-energy loss spectrometers, the new instruments allow studies not only of structure but also of elemental composition and chemical bonding. The energy resolution is about 100 milli electron volts, and the accuracy of spatial measurements has reached a few picometers. However, understanding the results is generally not straightforward and only possible with extensive quantum-mechanical computer calculations.

  20. Relativistic stellar aberration for the Space Interferometry Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the relativistic stellar aberration requirements for the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). We address the issue of general relativistic deflection of light by the massive self-gravitating bodies. Specifically, we present estimates for corresponding deflection angles due to the monopole components of the gravitational fields of a large number of celestial bodies in the solar system. We study the possibility of deriving an additional navigational constraints from the need to correct for the gravitational bending of light that is traversing the solar system. It turns out that positions of the outer planets presently may not have a sufficient accuracy for the precision astrometry. However, SIM may significantly improve those simply as a by-product of its astrometric program. We also consider influence of the higher gravitational multipoles, notably the quadrupole and the octupole ones, on the gravitational bending of light. Thus, one will have to model and account for their influence while o...

  1. Propagation of Aberrations through Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Pueyo, Laurent; Shaklan, Stuart; 10.1364/JOSAA.28.000189

    2011-01-01

    The specification of polishing requirements for the optics in coronagraphs dedicated to exo-planet detection requires careful and accurate optical modelling. Numerical representations of the propagation of aberrations through the system as well as simulations of the broadband wavefront compensation system using multiple DMs are critical when one devises an error budget for such a class of instruments. In this communication we introduce an analytical tool that serves this purpose for Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraphs. We first start by deriving the analytical form of the propagation of a harmonic ripple through a PIAA unit. Using this result we derive the chromaticity of the field at any plane in the optical train of a telescope equipped with such a coronagraph. Finally we study the chromatic response of a sequential DM wavefront actuator correcting such a corrugated field and thus quantify the requirements on the manufacturing of PIAA mirrors

  2. Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Norppa, Hannu; Ceppi, Marcello;

    2008-01-01

    incidence and/or mortality for an average of 10.1 years; 368 cancer deaths and 675 incident cancer cases were observed. Subjects were classified within each laboratory according to tertiles of CA frequency. The relative risk (RR) of cancer was increased for subjects in the medium [RR = 1.31, 95% confidence...... for stomach cancer [RR(medium) = 1.17 (95% CI = 0.37-3.70), RR(high) = 3.13 (95% CI = 1.17-8.39)]. Exposure to carcinogens did not modify the effect of CA levels on overall cancer risk. These results reinforce the evidence of a link between CA frequency and cancer risk and provide novel information......Mechanistic evidence linking chromosomal aberration (CA) to early stages of cancer has been recently supported by the results of epidemiological studies that associated CA frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy individuals to future cancer incidence. To overcome the limitations of single...

  3. The Oncoprotein BRD4-NUT Generates Aberrant Histone Modification Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Barry M.; Dibona, Amy B.; Alekseyenko, Artyom A.; French, Christopher A.; Kuroda, Mitzi I.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in chromatin proteins frequently manifest in diseases. A striking case of a chromatin-centric disease is NUT-midline carcinoma (NMC), which is characterized by expression of NUT as a fusion partner most frequently with BRD4. ChIP-sequencing studies from NMC patients revealed that BRD4-NUT (B4N) covers large genomic regions and elevates transcription within these domains. To investigate how B4N modulates chromatin, we performed affinity purification of B4N when ectopically expressed in 293-TREx cells and quantified the associated histone posttranslational modifications (PTM) using proteomics. We observed significant enrichment of acetylation particularly on H3 K18 and of combinatorial patterns such as H3 K27 acetylation paired with K36 methylation. We postulate that B4N complexes override the preexisting histone code with new PTM patterns that reflect aberrant transcription and that epigenetically modulate the nucleosome environment toward the NMC state. PMID:27698495

  4. Aberrantly methylated DNA as a biomarker in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Lars Mønster; Guldberg, Per;

    2013-01-01

    hypermethylation events, their use as tumor biomarkers is usually not hampered by analytical signals from normal cells, which is a general problem for existing protein tumor markers used for clinical assessment of breast cancer. There is accumulating evidence that DNA-methylation changes in breast cancer patients......Aberrant DNA hypermethylation at gene promoters is a frequent event in human breast cancer. Recent genome-wide studies have identified hundreds of genes that exhibit differential methylation between breast cancer cells and normal breast tissue. Due to the tumor-specific nature of DNA...... occur early during tumorigenesis. This may open up for effective screening, and analysis of blood or nipple aspirate may later help in diagnosing breast cancer. As a more detailed molecular characterization of different types of breast cancer becomes available, the ability to divide patients into...

  5. Carbon utilization by fruit limits shoot growth in alternate-bearing citrus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Alcántara, Belén; Iglesias, Domingo J; Reig, Carmina; Mesejo, Carlos; Agustí, Manuel; Primo-Millo, Eduardo

    2015-03-15

    Fruit load in alternate-bearing citrus trees is reported to alter shoot number and growth during spring, summer, and autumn flushes, and the source-sink balance, which affects the storage and mobilization of reserve nutrients. The aim of this work was to assess the extent of shoot growth inhibition resulting from the presence of fruits in 'Moncada' mandarin trees loaded with fruit (ON) or with very light fruit load (OFF), and to identify the role of carbohydrates and nitrogenous compounds in the competition between fruits and shoots. Growth of reproductive and vegetative organs was measured on a monthly basis. (13)C- and (15)N-labeled compounds were supplied to trace the allocation of reserve nutrients and subsequent translocation from source to sink. At the end of the year, OFF trees produced more abundant flushes (2.4- and 4.9-fold higher in number and biomass, respectively) than ON trees. Fruits from ON trees accumulated higher C amounts at the expense of developing flushes, whereas OFF trees exhibited the opposite pattern. An inverse relationship was identified between the amount of C utilized by fruits and vegetative flush growth. (13)C-labeling revealed an important role for mature leaves of fruit-bearing branches in supporting shoot/fruit growth, and the elevated sink strength of growing fruits on shoots. N availability for vegetative shoots was not affected by the presence or absence of fruits, which accumulated important amounts of (15)N. In conclusion, our results show that shoot growth is resource-limited as a consequence of fruit development, and vegetative-growth inhibition is caused by photoassimilate limitation. The competence for N is not a decisive factor in limiting vegetative growth under the experimental conditions of this study.

  6. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  7. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Premkumar G; Sankaranarayanan R; Jeeva S; Rajarathinam K

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Methods: Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 μM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05). Results: An in vitro method was developed to induce high frequency shoots regeneration from stem, mature leaf and young leaf explants of S. dulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 μM KI and 4.44 μM BAP) 2.85 μM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 μM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Conclusions:Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.

  8. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  9. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Anti-topoisomerase drugs as potent inducers of chromosomal aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Bassi

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA topoisomerases catalyze topological changes in DNA that are essential for normal cell cycle progression and therefore they are a preferential target for the development of anticancer drugs. Anti-topoisomerase drugs can be divided into two main classes: "cleavable complex" poisons and catalytic inhibitors. The "cleavable complex" poisons are very effective as anticancer drugs but are also potent inducers of chromosome aberrations so they can cause secondary malignancies. Catalytic inhibitors are cytotoxic but they do not induce chromosome aberrations. Knowledge about the mechanism of action of topoisomerase inhibitors is important to determine the best anti-topoisomerase combinations, with a reduced risk of induction of secondary malignancies.As topoisomerases de DNA catalisam alterações topológicas no DNA que são essenciais para a progressão do ciclo celular normal e, portanto, são um alvo preferencial para o desenvolvimento de drogas anticâncer. Drogas anti-topoisomerases podem ser divididas em duas classes principais: drogas anti-"complexos cliváveis" e inibidores catalíticos. As drogas anti-"complexos cliváveis" são muito eficazes como drogas anticancerígenas, mas são também potentes indutores de aberrações cromossômicas, podendo causar neoplasias malignas secundárias. Inibidores catalíticos são citotóxicos mas não induzem aberrações cromossômicas. Conhecimento a respeito do mecanismo de ação de inibidores de topoisomerases é importante para determinar as melhores combinações anti-topoisomerases, com um reduzido risco de indução de neoplasias malignas secundárias.

  11. Longitudinal trajectories of aberrant behavior in fragile X syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustyi, Kristin M; Hall, Scott S; Jo, Booil; Lightbody, Amy A; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-11-01

    The Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC-C; Aman et al., 1995) has been increasingly adopted as a primary tool for measuring behavioral change in clinical trials for individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS). To our knowledge, however, no study has documented the longitudinal trajectory of aberrant behaviors in individuals with FXS using the ABC-C. As part of a larger longitudinal study, we examined scores obtained on the ABC-C subscales for 124 children and adolescents (64 males, 60 females) with FXS who had two or more assessments (average interval between assessments was approximately 4 years). Concomitant changes in age-equivalent scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) were also examined. As expected for an X-linked genetic disorder, males with FXS obtained significantly higher scores on all subscales of the ABC-C and significantly lower age-equivalent scores on the VABS than females with FXS. In both males and females with FXS, scores on the Irritability/Agitation and Hyperactivity/Noncompliance subscales of the ABC-C decreased significantly with age, with little to no change occurring over time on the Lethargy/Social Withdrawal, Stereotypic Behavior, and Inappropriate Speech subscales. The decrease in scores on the Hyperactivity/Noncompliance domain was significantly greater for males than for females. In both males and females, age-equivalent scores on the VABS increased significantly over this developmental period. These results establish a basis upon which to evaluate long-term outcomes from intervention-based research. However, longitudinal direct observational studies are needed to establish whether the severity of problem behavior actually decreases over time in this population.

  12. Genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes in chordoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-07-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ∼8 Mb segment at 3p21.1-p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (∼23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (∼40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27072194

  13. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  14. Genomic Aberrations Frequently Alter Chromatin Regulatory Genes in Chordoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; Zehir, Ahmet; Nafa, Khedoudja; Zhou, Nengyi; Berger, Michael F.; Casanova, Jacklyn; Sadowska, Justyna; Lu, Chao; Allis, C. David; Gounder, Mrinal; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Ladanyi, Marc; Boland, Patrick J; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Chordoma is a rare primary bone neoplasm that is resistant to standard chemotherapies. Despite aggressive surgical management, local recurrence and metastasis is not uncommon. To identify the specific genetic aberrations that play key roles in chordoma pathogenesis, we utilized a genome-wide high-resolution SNP-array and next generation sequencing (NGS)-based molecular profiling platform to study 24 patient samples with typical histopathologic features of chordoma. Matching normal tissues were available for 16 samples. SNP-array analysis revealed nonrandom copy number losses across the genome, frequently involving 3, 9p, 1p, 14, 10, and 13. In contrast, copy number gain is uncommon in chordomas. Two minimum deleted regions were observed on 3p within a ~8 Mb segment at 3p21.1–p21.31, which overlaps SETD2, BAP1 and PBRM1. The minimum deleted region on 9p was mapped to CDKN2A locus at 9p21.3, and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was detected in 5/22 chordomas (~23%). NGS-based molecular profiling demonstrated an extremely low level of mutation rate in chordomas, with an average of 0.5 mutations per sample for the 16 cases with matched normal. When the mutated genes were grouped based on molecular functions, many of the mutation events (~40%) were found in chromatin regulatory genes. The combined copy number and mutation profiling revealed that SETD2 is the single gene affected most frequently in chordomas, either by deletion or by mutations. Our study demonstrated that chordoma belongs to the C-class (copy number changes) tumors whose oncogenic signature is non-random multiple copy number losses across the genome and genomic aberrations frequently alter chromatin regulatory genes. PMID:27072194

  15. Prostate cancer, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes, among men with metabolic aberrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Häggström, Christel; Stocks, Tanja; Nagel, Gabriele; Manjer, Jonas; Bjørge, Tone; Hallmans, Göran; Engeland, Anders; Ulmer, Hanno; Lindkvist, Björn; Selmer, Randi; Concin, Hans; Tretli, Steinar; Jonsson, Håkan; Stattin, Pär

    2014-01-01

    Few previous studies of metabolic aberrations and prostate cancer risk have taken into account the fact that men with metabolic aberrations have an increased risk of death from causes other than prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to calculate, in a real-life scenario, the risk of prostate cancer diagnosis, prostate cancer death, and death from other causes.

  16. A case of valvular pulmonic stenosis and an aberrant coronary artery in a Brittany spaniel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estey, Chelsie

    2011-05-01

    Valvular pulmonic stenosis and aberrancy of the right coronary artery with subsequent subvalvular stenosis was found on echocardiographic evaluation of a 9-month-old Brittany spaniel. Previous echocardiography at 4 mo of age revealed the pulmonic stenosis; however, the aberrant coronary artery only became apparent during the second evaluation.

  17. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for gene balance control, gene expression and regulation, and may affect the plant’s phenotype. Moreover, chromosome changes, in particular polyploidy, inversions and translocations play a signif...

  18. Combining Noncontingent Reinforcement and Differential Reinforcement Schedules as Treatment for Aberrant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bethany A.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

    1996-01-01

    In this study with three children (ages four and five) with severe developmental disabilities and aberrant behavior maintained by tangible positive reinforcement, noncontingent reinforcement, and differential reinforcement of alternative behavior were found to decrease the frequency of aberrant behavior while strengthening mands. (Author/DB)

  19. Micropropagation of an elite F1 watermelon (Citrullus lanatus hybrid from the shoot tip of field grown plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalekuzzaman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a protocol for rapid micropropagation of an elite F1 hybrid watermelon cultivar using shoot tip of field-grown plants. Maximum frequency (73% of shoot tip showed growth response in MS medium supplemented with 5 mg l-1 benzyl adenine (BA and 0.1 mg l-1 indole-3 acetic acid (IAA. Upon transfer to cytokinin-enriched medium, the cultures produced multiple shoots and 2.0 mg l-1 BA was optimum in this respect. Addition of gibberellic acid (GA3 in the multiplication medium resulted in better growth of shoots. Rooting rate was 100% when shoots were obtained from second subculture were cultured in medium with 1.0 mg l-1 indole-3 butyric acid (IBA. The shoots produced more roots with increasing number of subcultures. About 72% of the regenerated plantlets acclimatized successfully and survived in the soil condition.

  20. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  1. Characteristics of backspatter on the firearm and shooting hand--an experimental analysis of close-range gunshots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Sebastian N; Brandtner, Herwig; Meyer, Harald J

    2015-01-01

    Contact and close-range gunshot injuries can produce bloodstains on the shooting hand and weapon. In this study, backspatter was analyzed in experimental horizontal pistol shots into blood-filled sponges. The shooting distances were set between 0 and 45 cm. With increasing shooting distance, there was a significant decrease in the degree of backspatter. Microspatter could be detected on the weapon and shooting hand up to a shooting distance of 40 cm. They were predominantly located on thumb and index finger as well as the radial dorsal aspects of the hand. Fine spray of microspatter combined with elongated droplets in the shape of exclamation marks was found at contact and 2-cm distance shots. An angular calculation based on the shape of the bloodstains was possible up to a shooting distance of 2 cm. No bloodstains were detected beyond 45 cm. PMID:25039561

  2. Shooting gallery attendance among IDUs in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico: correlates, prevention opportunities, and the role of the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philbin, Morgan; Pollini, Robin A; Ramos, Rebecca; Lozada, Remedios; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Ramos, Maria Elena; Firestone-Cruz, Michelle; Case, Patricia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2008-07-01

    We identified factors associated with shooting gallery attendance among injection drug users (IDUs) in two Mexico-US border cities. IDUs in Tijuana (n=222) and Ciudad Juarez (n=205), Mexico, who were >or=18 years and injected illicit drugs in the last month were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). An interviewer-administered survey collected sociodemographic and behavioral data. Logistic regression was used to examine correlates of shooting gallery attendance in each of the two cities. Homelessness and being arrested for syringe possession--both structural level factors--were associated with shooting gallery use in both cities. In Ciudad Juarez, younger age and having overdosed were also associated with shooting gallery use. Our study highlights the need for structural interventions that mitigate homelessness among IDUs and facilitate changes in law enforcement practices associated with shooting gallery use. Harm reduction interventions based within shooting galleries should also be considered to prevent transmission of blood-borne pathogens among IDUs.

  3. Gibberellin Promotes Shoot Branching in the Perennial Woody Plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jun; Gao, Congcong; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Pan, Bang-Zhen; Ye, Kaiqin; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-08-01

    Strigolactone (SL), auxin and cytokinin (CK) interact to regulate shoot branching. CK has long been considered to be the only key phytohormone to promote lateral bud outgrowth. Here we report that gibberellin also acts as a positive regulator in the control of shoot branching in the woody plant Jatropha curcas. We show that gibberellin and CK synergistically promote lateral bud outgrowth, and that both hormones influence the expression of putative branching regulators, J. curcas BRANCHED1 and BRANCHED2, which are key transcription factors maintaining bud dormancy. Moreover, treatment with paclobutrazol, an inhibitor of de novo gibberellin biosynthesis, significantly reduced the promotion of bud outgrowth by CK, suggesting that gibberellin is required for CK-mediated axillary bud outgrowth. In addition, SL, a plant hormone involved in the repression of shoot branching, acted antagonistically to both gibberellin and CK in the control of lateral bud outgrowth. Consistent with this, the expression of JcMAX2, a J. curcas homolog of Arabidopsis MORE AXILLARY GROWTH 2 encoding an F-box protein in the SL signaling pathway, was repressed by gibberellin and CK treatment. We also provide physiological evidence that gibberellin also induces shoot branching in many other trees, such as papaya, indicating that a more complicated regulatory network occurs in the control of shoot branching in some perennial woody plants. PMID:26076970

  4. Bioconcentration of atrazine and chlorophenols into roots and shoots of rice seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Yuhong [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Chemistry Department, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046 (China); Zhu Yongguan [Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: ygzhu@mail.rcees.ac.cn

    2006-01-15

    Accumulation of o-chlorophenol (CP), 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP), and atrazine (ATR), as single and mixed contaminants, from hydroponic solutions into roots and shoots of rice seedlings was studied following 48-h exposure of the plant roots. As single contaminants at low levels, the observed bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of CP and DCP with roots approximated the equilibrium values according to the partition-limited model. The BCF of atrazine with roots was about half the partition limit for unknown reasons. The BCFs of CP and ATR with shoots also approximated the partition limits, while the BCF for more lipophilic DCP with shoots was about half the estimated limit, due to insufficient water transport into plants for DCP. As mixed contaminants at low levels, the BCFs with both roots and shoots were comparable with those for the single contaminants; at high levels, the BCFs generally decreased because of the enhanced mixed-contaminant phytotoxicity, as manifested by the greatly reduced plant transpiration rate. - Uptakes of o-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, and atrazine at various levels from nutrient solution by roots and shoots of rice seedlings were investigated using a partition-limited model.

  5. IMPACT OF GROWTH INHIBITOR BERCEMA ON SHOOTS REGROWTH OF PERENNIAL RYEGRASS AND COCKSFOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Wiśniewska-Kadżajan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In a pot experiment conducted in a greenhouse, the effect of CCC Bercema growth inhibitor to reduce vegetative shoot growth of perennial ryegrass and cocksfoot was studded. The experiment was set up in triplicate. Growth regulator was applied once, in a form of an aqueous solution. The following experimental objects were specified: control object, Bercema with a concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Ten measurements were performed every 3 days. The study was conducted under conditions of 12-hour artificial light daily. The results were statistically analyzed using two-factorial variance analysis . It was found that the greatest shoot growth reduction of ryegrass due to the highest inhibitor concentration (B- 30%, but for cocksfoot under the influence of the minimal concentration (B- 10%, compared to the control object. It has been noted that cocksfoot is more sensitive to the applied growth regulator, resulted in significantly greater inhibition of shoot regrowth than for ryegrass. In the experiment with the perennial ryegrass significant differences in the growth of shoots were found under the influence of inhibitor application at a concentration of 30%, compared to the control object. In the case of cocksfoot, all the concentration increases of Bercema inhibitor significantly differentiated the shoots regrowth.

  6. Standardization of harvesting age of bamboo shoots with respect to nutritional and anti-nutritional components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashok K.Pandey; Vijayalakshmi Ojha

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo shoots can be harvested at different ages but the data on the changes in nutritional composition with age are scanty.We standardized harvesting age of bamboo shoots in central India to obtain best quality produce with respect to nutritional composition.The shoots harvested on different days (2-20 days after emergence from ground)were analyzed for their nutritional (dietary fibres,carbohydrates,proteins,total phenols,ascorbic acid,sodium,potassium,phosphorus,calcium,magnesium and phenolic acids) and anti nutritional (cyanogen) constituents.A significant variation (at p ≤ 0.5) was observed in the nutritional composition of shoots of Dendrocalamus asper,D.strictus and Bambusa tulda harvested at different days.An overall decrease was observed in proteins and total phenols while dietary fibres and carbohydrates increased with ages.Significant variation (atp ≤ 0.5) was also observed in phenolic acids while minerals did not vary significantly.Results revealed that the optimum harvesting age for D.asper,D.strictus and B.tulda was on 10-14 days,6-10 days and 10-16 days (after emergence from the ground) respectively.These results can be used to obtain quality bamboo shoots.

  7. Direct differentiation of ears and tassels from cultured shoot apices of maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学红; 张举仁

    1999-01-01

    In vitro morphogenesis of inflorescences from the cultured corn seedling shoot tips was obtained on modified Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium in complete darkness. Some shoot tip meristems excised from seedlings of inbred line 515, inbred line 8112 and their filial generations would directly give rise to florets on modified MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L N6-bezyladenine (6-BA) in five or six weeks. On the medium with 1.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0. 2 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-D), the explants swelled first, and produced multiple shoot clumps, then the culture of the shoot tips from all of the six inbred lines in experiment would ultimately initiate to develop ears and tassels accompanied by multiple shoot clumps developing on the medium with 1.0 mg/L 6-BA and 0. 2 mg/Lin-dole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The developmental patterns of the corn inflorescences were similar to the controls of normal plants in the field, but the number of the ears was much more than that of the tassels in vitro. It seem

  8. Metabolic Adaptations of White Lupin Roots and Shoots under Phosphorus Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Julia; Gödde, Victoria; Niehaus, Karsten; Zörb, Christian

    2015-01-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is highly adapted to phosphorus-diminished soils. P-deficient white lupin plants modify their root architecture and physiology to acquire sparingly available soil phosphorus. We employed gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for metabolic profiling of P-deficient white lupins, to investigate biochemical pathways involved in the P-acquiring strategy. After 14 days of P-deficiency, plants showed reduced levels of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in shoots. Phosphorylated metabolites such as glucose-6-phosphate, fructose-6-phosphate, myo-inositol-phosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate were reduced in both shoots and roots. After 22 days of P-deficiency, no effect on shoot or root sugar metabolite levels was found, but the levels of phosphorylated metabolites were further reduced. Organic acids, amino acids and several shikimate pathway products showed enhanced levels in 22-day-old P-deficient roots and shoots. These results indicate that P-deficient white lupins adapt their carbohydrate partitioning between shoot and root in order to supply their growing root system as an early response to P-deficiency. Organic acids are released into the rhizosphere to mobilize phosphorus from soil particles. A longer period of P-deficiency leads to scavenging of Pi from P-containing metabolites and reduced protein anabolism, but enhanced formation of secondary metabolites. The latter can serve as stress protection molecules or actively acquire phosphorus from the soil. PMID:26635840

  9. Cancer biomarkers defined by autoantibody signatures to aberrant O-glycopeptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandall, Hans H; Blixt, Ola; Tarp, Mads A;

    2010-01-01

    -glycopeptide microarray was developed that detected IgG antibodies to aberrant O-glycopeptide epitopes in patients vaccinated with a keyhole limpet hemocyanin-conjugated truncated MUC1 peptide. We detected cancer-associated IgG autoantibodies in sera from breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer patients against different...... evaluated whether autoantibodies generated to aberrant O-glycoforms of MUC1 might serve as sensitive diagnostic biomarkers for cancer. Using an antibody-based glycoprofiling ELISA assay, we documented that aberrant truncated glycoforms were not detected in sera of cancer patients. An O......Autoantibodies to cancer antigens hold promise as biomarkers for early detection of cancer. Proteins that are aberrantly processed in cancer cells are likely to present autoantibody targets. The extracellular mucin MUC1 is overexpressed and aberrantly glycosylated in many cancers; thus, we...

  10. Influence of wave-front aberrations on bit error rate in inter-satellite laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuqiang; Han, Qiqi; Tan, Liying; Ma, Jing; Yu, Siyuan; Yan, Zhibin; Yu, Jianjie; Zhao, Sheng

    2011-06-01

    We derive the bit error rate (BER) of inter-satellite laser communication (lasercom) links with on-off-keying systems in the presence of both wave-front aberrations and pointing error, but without considering the noise of the detector. Wave-front aberrations induced by receiver terminal have no influence on the BER, while wave-front aberrations induced by transmitter terminal will increase the BER. The BER depends on the area S which is truncated out by the threshold intensity of the detector (such as APD) on the intensity function in the receiver plane, and changes with root mean square (RMS) of wave-front aberrations. Numerical results show that the BER rises with the increasing of RMS value. The influences of Astigmatism, Coma, Curvature and Spherical aberration on the BER are compared. This work can benefit the design of lasercom system.

  11. Chromosomal aberration analysis of persons occupationally exposed to radiation in Iran (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of chromosome aberration analysis on lymphocytes from 333 persons suspected of being overexposed to X and gamma rays in recent years at Iran is presented. 91 persons were associated with industrial radiography, 124 with radiology and 118 with medical research and therapy centers. The total yields of chromosome aberration per 100 cells were respectively 3.76, 2.92 and 2.96. The frequencies of dicentrics which are important in biological dosimetry were respectively 0.18, 0.17 and 0.21. In this investigation, 50 subjects were also examined as control with a mean aberration of 1.14 per 100 cells. With regard to incidence of chromosome aberrations as mentioned, the rate of chromosome aberrations in industrial radiographers was the most significant

  12. Vision improvement by correcting higher-order aberrations with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Ramkumar; Jeong, Tae Moon; Carvalho, Luis; Cox, Ian G.; Williams, David R.; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2007-04-01

    Higher-order aberration correction in abnormal eyes can result in significant vision improvement, especially in eyes with abnormal corneas. Customized optics such as phase plates and customized contact lenses are one of the most practical, nonsurgical ways to correct these ocular higher-order aberrations. We demonstrate the feasibility of correcting higher-order aberrations and improving visual performance with customized soft contact lenses in keratoconic eyes while compensating for the static decentration and rotation of the lens. A reduction of higher-order aberrations by a factor of 3 on average was obtained in these eyes. The higher-order aberration correction resulted in an average improvement of 2.1 lines in visual acuity over the conventional correction of defocus and astigmatism alone.

  13. Correlation between Post-LASIK Starburst Symptom and Ocular Wavefront Aberrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong-Ji; MU Guo-Guang; WANG Zhao-Qi; WANG Yan

    2006-01-01

    Monochromatic aberrations in post laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eyes are measured. The data are categorized into reference group and starburst group according to the visual symptoms. Statistic analysis has been made to find the correJation between the ocular wavefront aberrations and the starburst symptom. The rms aberrations of the 3rd and 4th orders for the starburst group are significantly larger than those for the reference group. The starburst symptom shows a strong correlation with vertical coma, total coma, spherical aberrations. For 3-mm pupil size and 5.8-mm pupil size, the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the starburst group are lower than those of the reference group, but their visual acuities are close. MTF and PSF analyses are made for two groups, and the results are consistent with the statistical analysis, which means the difference between the two groups is mainly due to the third- and fourth-order Zernike aberrations.

  14. Transitionality in addiction: A "temporal continuum" hypotheses involving the aberrant motivation, the hedonic dysregulation, and the aberrant learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Enrico; Gasbarri, Antonella; Tomaz, Carlos; Nishijo, Hisao

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a chronic compulsion and relapsing disorder. It involves several brain areas and circuits, which encode vary functions such as reward, motivation, and memory. Drug addiction is defined as a "pathological pattern of use of a substance", characterized by the loss of control on drug-taking-related behaviors, the pursuance of those behaviors even in the presence of negative consequences, and a strong motivated activity to assume substances. Three different theories guide experimental research on drug addiction. Each of these theories consider singles features, such as an aberrant motivation, a hedonic dysregulation, and an aberrant habit learning as the main actor to explain the entire process of the addictive behaviors. The major goal of this study is to present a new hypotheses of transitionality from a controlled use to abuse of addictive substances trough the overview of the three different theories, considering all the single features of each single theory together on the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances. Recently, it has been suggested that common neural systems may be activated by natural and pharmacological stimuli, raising the hypotheses that binge-eating disorders could be considered as addictive behaviors. The second goal of this study is to present evidences in order to highlight a possible psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction". Finally, interesting questions are brought up starting from last findings about a theoretical/psycho-bio-physiological superimposition between drug and "food addiction" and their possibly same transitionality along the same "temporal continuum" from use to abuse of addictive substances in order to investigate new therapeutic strategies based on new therapeutic strategies based on the individual moments characterizing the transition from the voluntary intake of substances to the maladaptive addictive behavior. PMID:27372858

  15. Influence of core box vents distribution on flow dynamics of core shooting process based on experiment and numerical simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-jiang Ni; Gao-chun Lu; Qing-dong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Core shooting process plays a decisive role in the quality of sand cores, and core box vents distribution is one of the most important factor determining the effectiveness of core shooting process. In this paper, the influence of core box vents distribution on the flow dynamics of core shooting process was investigated based on in situ experimental observations with transparent core box, high-speed camera and pressure measuring system. Attention was focused on the variation of both the flow b...

  16. Racial and Mental Illness Stereotypes and Discrimination: An Identity-Based Analysis of the Virginia Tech and Columbine Shootings

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Charlene Y.; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Phelan, Jo C.; Yu, Gary; Yang, Lawrence H.

    2014-01-01

    The Virginia Tech and Columbine High shootings are 2 of the deadliest school massacres in the United States. The present study investigates in a nationally representative sample how White Americans’ causal attributions of these shooting moderate their attitudes toward the shooter’s race. White Americans shown a vignette based on the Virginia Tech shooting were more likely to espouse negative beliefs about Korean American men and distance themselves from this group the more they believed that ...

  17. Quantification of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus shoots by LC/MS and HPLC methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingfu; Tadmor, Yaakov; Wu, Qing-Li; Chin, Chee-Kok; Garrison, Stephen A; Simon, James E

    2003-10-01

    A liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method with selected ion monitoring was developed and validated to analyze the contents of protodioscin and rutin in asparagus. The distribution of rutin and protodioscin within the shoots was found to vary by location, with the tissue closest to the rhizome found to be a rich source of protodioscin, at an average level of 0.025% tissue fresh weight in the three tested lines, while the upper youngest shoot tissue contained the highest amount of rutin at levels of 0.03-0.06% tissue fresh weight. The lower portions of the asparagus shoots that are discarded during grading and processing should instead be considered a promising source of a new value-added nutraceutical product.

  18. Assessment of factors affecting in vitro shoot regeneration from axillary bud explant of Camptotheca acuminata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hui-Mei; ZU Yuan-Gang; DONG Feng-Li; ZHAO Xiao-Ju

    2005-01-01

    Axillary buds from 3-yr.-old seedlings of Camptotheca acuminata in the greenhouse were cultured on the different basal media with different concentrations of growth regulators for shoot regeneration for studying the effects of different basal media, different concentrations of growth regulators (BA or TDZ), sucrose, agar and pH value on shoot regeneration from axillary bud. The results showed that B5 and WPM media were the optimal basal media and the optimal phyotohormone was BA of 1.0 mg/L or TDZ of 0.1mg/L; The concentrations of sucrose of 30g/L and agar of 6g/L were most suitable for the shoot regeneration; pH value from 5.8 to 6.6 were broadly effective, but the best at pH 5.8.

  19. Association of charecters on yield and shoot and fruit borer resistance in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Praneetha*, V. Rajashree and L.Pugalendhi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighty one brinjal genotypes (nine parents and 72 hybrids were evaluated for 14 characters. Results showed that marketableyield per plant had significant positive association for both at genotypic and phenotypic level with all the characters studied viz.,plant height, number of branches per plant, fruit girth, calyx length, number of fruits per plant, single fruit weight, protein contentand total phenol content. The earliness showed positive association with fruit borer infestation both at genotypic and phenotypiclevel. The marketable yield per plant had significant negative association both at genotypic and phenotypic level with shoot andfruit borer infestation. Neither positive nor negative significant correlation was registered by shoot borer infestation with othercharacters. The shoot borer infestation showed negative relation with ascorbic acid content, protein content of fruit and totalphenol content at vegetable maturity.

  20. Shooting distance determination by m-XRF--examples on spectra interpretation and range estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, Silke; Neimke, Dieter; Schumacher, Rüdiger; Barth, Martin; Niewöhner, Ludwig

    2012-11-30

    The XRF's multiple element detection capability is especially useful for the detection of gunshot residue (GSR) of modern lead-free ammunition. An elemental mapping from milli-X-ray fluorescence analysis (m-XRF) can be used in an analogous way to the chemographic imprint to determine the shooting distance. As it is possible to take the mappings of all relevant elements into account, the shooting range estimation becomes more reliable. A numerical tool is presented to display the data and to help differentiate between shooting distances. From the nature of the samples, i.e. a small amount of GSR deposited on a highly scattering background some problems arise. Examples of some major problems in spectra interpretation are stated and examples are presented. Spectra interpretation cannot be fully automated and some points need to be verified by an experienced user. PMID:23107061

  1. Micro-propagation of Lepedium meyenii Walp. (Maca) by shoot culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengHua; YuLongjiang; HuQiongyue; SunYouping; JinWenwen; ChenShancai; LiMaoteng

    2004-01-01

    The callus induction and plant regeneration system for an important plant, Lepedium meyenii Walp., has been established. Calli were induced from cotyledons petioles of Lepedium meyenii Walp within 4 weeks in a modified MS medium supplemented with BA plus NAA. The highest percentage of callus formation (57. 1% ) was found on MS medium supplemented with 0. 5 mg l-1 BA and 0. 5 mg l-1 NAA. During subculture on the shoot formation medium, most of calli proliferated and 50% -60% formed shoots. About 66.7% of shoots formed into roots on 1/2 strength MS containing 0.5mg l-1 IBA after 4 weeks in culture. Chromosome count confirmed the number of the regeneration Maca plantlet was the same as that of the native plant(8x=64) .For regeneration of plantlets, from seedling via primary callus production, a four-step process of organogenes is required about 16 weeks.

  2. Increased root and shoot production during micropropagation of cherry and apple rootstalks: effect of subculture frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant; Hammatt

    1999-11-01

    Shoot cultures of apple rootstock cv. M9 and cherry rootstock cv. F12/1 were established and then divided into several sub-lines that were subcultured at 28-42-day intervals. Consequently, similarly aged cultures received various numbers of subcultures. Cultures kept at 24 degrees C showed an increase in shoot and root production over time. There were differences in shoot and root production between apple lines, but there were no differences among sub-lines. In cherry, altering the subculture interval affected rooting competence, which increased with time. Cherry cultures maintained at 4 degrees C gave rise to cultures that were as easy to root as cultures kept at 24 degrees C with more frequent subculturing. We conclude that total time in culture is the most important factor bringing about physiological changes in these genotypes of micropropagated apple and cherry.

  3. Sexuality and school shootings: what role does teasing play in school massacres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jessie

    2006-01-01

    Conventional explanations - lax gun control laws, media violence, single and working parents - do not adequately explain the recent spate of school shootings, and neither does bullying by itself, an explanation recently gaining more traction. A certain type of bullying, however, is revealed as particularly culpable. Many of the recent shootings share a disturbing component: The perpetrators were repeatedly, even relentlessly, accused by "preps and jocks" of being gay. Gay harassment is proposed as a point of departure for understanding the causes of school shootings. When boys who believe on some level that they warrant privilege, are instead harassed, they may feel driven to avenge the "wrong," and re-assert a more dominant, powerful, and victorious masculinity. These circumstances call for a cultural transformation such that "boys will be boys" is no longer used as an alibi for violence. The author presents implications for school-based social work practice, teacher and administrator interventions, as well as other prevention strategies. PMID:17135127

  4. Identification of a benzyladenine disaccharide conjugate produced during shoot organogenesis in Petunia leaf explants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auer, C.A. (Univ. of Connecticute, Storrs, CT (United States)); Cohen, J.D. (Beltsville Agricultural Research Ctr., MD (United States))

    1993-06-01

    Prior studies of benzyladenine (BA) metabolism in Petunia hybrida Vilm. leaf explants during shoot organogenesis revealed the presence of an abundant unidentified BA conjugate. The BA conjugate, compound C, made up to 39% of the total pool of BA conjugates in two Petunia lines and was associated with an increased shoot organogenic response when compared with a third Petunia line that did not produce any compound C. Structural analysis of compound C utilizing fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, two methods of carbohydrate analysis, ultraviolet absorption spectra, and Fourier transform infrared spectra identified it as a new cytokinin conjugate, 6-benzylamino-9-[O-glucopyranosyl-(1[yields]3)-ribofuranosyl]-purine. Based on our prior biological studies and the similarity of this compound to related cytokinin conjugates, this disaccharide cytokinin conjugate may be part of the interconvertible pool of cytokinins active in Petunia shoot organogenesis. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Synergistic effects of altered salinity and temperature on estuarine eelgrass (Zostera marina) seedlings and clonal shoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2014-01-01

    investigated experimentally how different combinations of salinity and temperature affect the physiological performance of adult eelgrass (Zostera marina) shoots and seedlings. Plants were exposed to different combinations of salinity (salinity 5, 12.5 and 20) and temperature (15, 20 and 25 °C) in a 5-week...... and temperature. Seedlings had higher absolute mortality, while adult shoots were relatively more sensitive to unfavorable levels of salinity. Leaf tissue sucrose concentrations in both life stages decreased at low salinity, whereas salinity and temperature resulted in contrasting starch...... concentrations between seedlings and adult shoots. Our results show that altered salinity and temperature may have negative synergistic effects on eelgrass performance. Future climate changes may thus have serious impacts on eelgrass survival and performance....

  6. Determination of main rational biomechanical characteristics in shooting from a bow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adashevskiy V.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to build rational parameters of technical actions of sportsman in shooting from a bow. It is worked out and decided mathematical model and the task of dynamics. Influence on having a special purpose exactness of corners of flight of arrow with an account and without the account of force of resistance of air environment is certain. It is distinguished the basic technical run-time errors of sportsman exercises. It is set that for successful realization of descriptions of target exactness and minimum values of deviations from an aim on different distances of shooting, sportsman must provide: maintenance of scene and rational pose, implementation of rational technical actions. It is shown directions of choice of necessary biomechanics descriptions that a sportsman can realize for providing target exactness and minimum values of deviations from aim on different distances of shooting.

  7. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade MKK7-MPK6 Plays Important Roles in Plant Development and Regulates Shoot Branching by Phosphorylating PIN1 in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Weiyan; Li, Baohua; Li, Shujia; Liang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Ma, Mei; Wang, Jiyao; Gao, Jin; Cai, Yueyue; Zhang, Yuanya; Wang, Yingchun; Li, Jiayang; Wang, Yonghong

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidences exhibit that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling pathways are connected with many aspects of plant development. The complexity of MAPK cascades raises challenges not only to identify the MAPK module in planta but also to define the specific role of an individual module. So far, our knowledge of MAPK signaling has been largely restricted to a small subset of MAPK cascades. Our previous study has characterized an Arabidopsis bushy and dwarf1 (bud1) mutant, in which the MAP Kinase Kinase 7 (MKK7) was constitutively activated, resulting in multiple phenotypic alterations. In this study, we found that MPK3 and MPK6 are the substrates for phosphorylation by MKK7 in planta. Genetic analysis showed that MKK7-MPK6 cascade is specifically responsible for the regulation of shoot branching, hypocotyl gravitropism, filament elongation, and lateral root formation, while MKK7-MPK3 cascade is mainly involved in leaf morphology. We further demonstrated that the MKK7-MPK6 cascade controls shoot branching by phosphorylating Ser 337 on PIN1, which affects the basal localization of PIN1 in xylem parenchyma cells and polar auxin transport in the primary stem. Our results not only specify the functions of the MKK7-MPK6 cascade but also reveal a novel mechanism for PIN1 phosphorylation, establishing a molecular link between the MAPK cascade and auxin-regulated plant development. PMID:27618482

  8. Comparison of treatments of steep and shoot generated by different inverse planning systems; Comparacion de tratamiento de steep and shoot generados por diferentes sistemas de planificacion inversa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Moreno, J. M.; Zucca Aparicio, D.; Fernandez Leton, P.; Garcia Ruiz-Zorrilla, J.; Minambres Moro, A.

    2011-07-01

    The problem of IMRT treatments with the technique Steep and Shoot or static is the number of segments and monitor units used in the treatment. These parameters depend largely on the inverse planning system which determines treatment. Are evaluated three commercial planning systems, with each one performing clinical dosimetry for the same series of patients. Dosimetric results are compared, UM calculated and number of segments.

  9. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad B. Hossain

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries. The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content.

  10. Root versus shoot biomass: Responses to water, nitrogen, and phosphorus applications for Agave lechuguilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (USA)); Quero, E.; Linares, H. (Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Coahuila (Mexico))

    1989-12-01

    Shoot and root growth of Agave lechuguilla, a Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) succulent widespread in the Chihuahuan Desert, was examined under natural conditions and with two watering regimes, five treatments involving N application to the soil surface, and three treatments involving P application. Under natural conditions root of A. lechuguilla made up only 3.7% of the total plant dry weight, suggesting that this species may be especially sensitive to changes in soil resources. Over the 2-yr study period, increasing the availability of soil water by weekly irrigation increased shoot dry weight of A. lechuguilla by 40% and root dry weight by 75%, which represented a doubling of the increment in plant growth compared with control plants receiving only rainfall. This doubling is consistent with changes in the Water Index (a relative measure of net CO{sub 2} uptake that has a maximum value of unity under wet conditions), which was predicted to be twice as large for the irrigated condition. The greater enhancement of root compared with shoot growth caused by increased water availability should lead to slightly more water uptake, which can compensate for the slightly greater reliance on daytime CO{sub 2} uptake by A. lechuguilla under wet conditions. The leaf N level tended to rise with the application level of N, the increase being 15% at 500 kg N ha{sup {minus}1}, whereas the leaf P level was little affected by P applications up to 500 kg ha{sup {minus}1}. Application of 100 kg N ha{sup {minus}1} increased shoot dry weight by 51% over the 2-yr study period with no effect on root dry weight, and application of 500 kg P ha{sup {minus}1} increased shoot dry weight by 40% but decreased root dry weight by 37%. At these application levels, which were optimal for shoot growth, the roots of A. lechuguilla made up only about 2% of the total plant dry weight.

  11. In vitro shoot proliferation and in vitro and ex vitro root formation of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet eAygun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip cultures of Pyrus elaeagrifolia Pallas, an important gene source for drought and chlorosis resistance in pear rootstock breeding, were established from a wild mature tree originated from seed. Murashige and Skoog (MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of benzyladenine (BA singly or in combination with auxin was used in the study. In the initial culture, the highest percentages (> 80 % of shoot proliferation were obtained in the mediums supplemented with 9.0 µM BA x 0.5 µM auxin combination and 0.5 µM indole-3-acetic acid . In the subcultures, the highest shoot proliferation rates were obtained in the medium containing 4.5 and 9.0 µM BA. The shoot proliferation rates ranged from 91.1% to 96.4% in the second subculture and from 76.7 to 89.4% in the third subculture. In the second subculture, the shoots grown on 9.0 µM BA without auxin produced the best proliferation (10.6. For the in vitro rooting experiments, the highest rooting rate (54.2%, root length (10.5 mm and root number (2.5 were obtained from 10 days dark treatment on the medium containing half strength of macronutrients supplemented with 5 µM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA. For the ex vitro rooting experiments, shoot rooting was significantly influenced by 10 mM IBA applied as quick-dip method. The percentage of rooting was 55% and root number was 1.8 at this concentration.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Shoot-Root Interactions and Resource Partitioning in Plant Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystel Feller

    Full Text Available Plants are highly plastic in their potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. For example, they can selectively promote the relative growth of the root and the shoot in response to limiting supply of mineral nutrients and light, respectively, a phenomenon that is referred to as balanced growth or functional equilibrium. To gain insight into the regulatory network that controls this phenomenon, we took a systems biology approach that combines experimental work with mathematical modeling. We developed a mathematical model representing the activities of the root (nutrient and water uptake and the shoot (photosynthesis, and their interactions through the exchange of the substrates sugar and phosphate (Pi. The model has been calibrated and validated with two independent experimental data sets obtained with Petunia hybrida. It involves a realistic environment with a day-and-night cycle, which necessitated the introduction of a transitory carbohydrate storage pool and an endogenous clock for coordination of metabolism with the environment. Our main goal was to grasp the dynamic adaptation of shoot:root ratio as a result of changes in light and Pi supply. The results of our study are in agreement with balanced growth hypothesis, suggesting that plants maintain a functional equilibrium between shoot and root activity based on differential growth of these two compartments. Furthermore, our results indicate that resource partitioning can be understood as the emergent property of many local physiological processes in the shoot and the root without explicit partitioning functions. Based on its encouraging predictive power, the model will be further developed as a tool to analyze resource partitioning in shoot and root crops.

  13. Effect of Drying Methods on the Steroidal Alkaloid Content of Potato Peels, Shoots and Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad B; Brunton, Nigel P; Rai, Dilip K

    2016-01-01

    The present study has found that dried potato samples yielded significantly higher levels of steroidal alkaloids such as α-solanine and α-chaconine than the corresponding fresh samples, as determined by the UPLC-MS/MS technique. Among the drying techniques used, air drying had the highest effect on steroidal alkaloid contents, followed by freeze drying and vacuum oven drying. There was no significant difference between the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples in their α-chaconine contents. However, freeze dried potato shoots and berries had significantly higher α-solanine contents (825 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2453 µg/g DW in berries) than the vacuum oven dried ones (325 µg/g dry weight (DW) in shoots and 2080 µg/g DW in berries). The kinetics of steroidal alkaloid contents of potato shoots during air drying were monitored over a period of 21 days. Both α-solanine and α-chaconine content increased to their maximum values, 875 µg/g DW and 3385 µg/g DW, respectively, after 7 days of drying. The steroidal alkaloid contents of the shoots decreased significantly at day 9, and then remained unchanged until day 21. In line with the potato shoots, air dried potato tuber peels also had higher steroidal alkaloid content than the freeze dried and vacuum oven dried samples. However, a significant decrease of steroidal alkaloid content was observed in air dried potato berries, possibly due to degradation during slicing of the whole berries prior to air drying. Remarkable variation in steroidal alkaloid contents among different tissue types of potato plants was observed with the potato flowers having the highest content. PMID:27023503

  14. Mathematical Modeling of the Dynamics of Shoot-Root Interactions and Resource Partitioning in Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Chrystel; Favre, Patrick; Janka, Ales; Zeeman, Samuel C; Gabriel, Jean-Pierre; Reinhardt, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Plants are highly plastic in their potential to adapt to changing environmental conditions. For example, they can selectively promote the relative growth of the root and the shoot in response to limiting supply of mineral nutrients and light, respectively, a phenomenon that is referred to as balanced growth or functional equilibrium. To gain insight into the regulatory network that controls this phenomenon, we took a systems biology approach that combines experimental work with mathematical modeling. We developed a mathematical model representing the activities of the root (nutrient and water uptake) and the shoot (photosynthesis), and their interactions through the exchange of the substrates sugar and phosphate (Pi). The model has been calibrated and validated with two independent experimental data sets obtained with Petunia hybrida. It involves a realistic environment with a day-and-night cycle, which necessitated the introduction of a transitory carbohydrate storage pool and an endogenous clock for coordination of metabolism with the environment. Our main goal was to grasp the dynamic adaptation of shoot:root ratio as a result of changes in light and Pi supply. The results of our study are in agreement with balanced growth hypothesis, suggesting that plants maintain a functional equilibrium between shoot and root activity based on differential growth of these two compartments. Furthermore, our results indicate that resource partitioning can be understood as the emergent property of many local physiological processes in the shoot and the root without explicit partitioning functions. Based on its encouraging predictive power, the model will be further developed as a tool to analyze resource partitioning in shoot and root crops.

  15. Modulation of leaf conductance by root to shoot signaling under water stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yi-juan; Liu Qing; Wei Kai-fa; Li Bing-bing; Ren Hui-bo; Gao Zhi-hui; Jia Wen-suo

    2006-01-01

    Signal communication between root and shoot plays a crucial role in plant resistance to water stress. While many studies on root to shoot signals have been carried out in many plant species, no information is available for the model plant, Arabidopsis, whose adoption has great significance for further probing the molecular aspects of long distance stress signals. Here, we introduced the establishment of techniques for investigations of root to shoot signals in Arabidopsis. Stomatal movements in relation to root signals were probed by using these techniques. The results show that Arabidopsis is a suitable plant species for partial roots drying (PRD)experiments. In the PRD system, while no significant differences were found in leaf water potential between well-watered and stressed plants, water stress led to a decrease in leaf conductance, which suggests a regulation of stomatal movements by root to shoot signals. While water stress caused a significant increase in the concentration of sap abscisic acid (ABA) of xylem, no increase in xylem sap pH was observed. Moreover, the increase in the ABA content of xylem coincided with the decrease in leaf conductance,which suggests a possible role of ABA in the regulation of stomatal movements. Infrared temperature images showed that leaf temperatures of PRD plant were higher compared with those of well-watered plants, which further indicates that stomatal movements can be modulated by root signals. The confirmation of root to shoot signaling in Arabidopsis has established a basis for further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of the root to shoot signaling under water stress.

  16. Differential response of root morphology to potassium deficient stress among rice genotypes varying in potassium efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo JIA; Xiao-e YANG; Ying FENG; Ghulam JILANI

    2008-01-01

    Disparity in the root morphology of six rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes varying in potassium (K) efficiency was studied with three K levels: 5 mg/L (low),10 mg/L (moderate) and 40 mg/L (adequate) in hydroponic culture.Morphological parameters included root length,surface area,volume and count of lateral roots,as well as fine (diameter0.2 mm) roots.The results indicate that the root growth of all genotypes was reduced under low K,but moderate K deficiency increased the root length of the efficient genotypes.At deficient and moderate K levels,all the efficient rice genotypes developed more fine roots (diameter<0.2 mm) than the inefficient ones.Both fine root count and root surface area were found to be the best parameters to portray K stress in rice.In accordance with the root morphology,higher K concentrations were noted in shoots of the efficient genotypes when grown at moderate and deficient K levels,indicating that root morphology parameters are involved in root uptake for K and in the translocation of K up to shoots.K deficiency affected not only the root morphology,but also the root ultra-structure.The roots of high-efficient genotypes had stronger tolerance to K deficient stress for root membrane damage,and could maintain the developed root architecture to adapt to the low K growth medium.

  17. Antioxidant compounds in Salvia officinalis L. shoot and hairy root cultures in the nutrient sprinkle bioreactor

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk; Halina Wysokińska

    2011-01-01

    The study focused on the production of compounds with antioxidant activity in hairy root and shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis grown in laboratory-scale sprinkle nutrient bioreactors. HPLC analysis showed that production of rosmarinic acid in transformed roots (34.65 ±1.07 mg l-1) was higher that in shoot culture (26.24 ±0.48 mg l-1). In the latter diterpenoids: carnosic acid (1.74 ±0.02 mg l-1) and carnosol (1.34 ±0.01 mg l-1) were also found. Biomass accumulation after a growth period in...

  18. Transgenic shoots and plants as a source of natural phytochemical products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Floryanowicz-Czekalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has allowed the production of plants and in vitro cultures with an altered content of secondary metabolites. In the present work it is hoped to give some detailed background information on obtaining bioactive compounds based on the use of genetically transformed shoots and the whole plants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoots have recently been a matter of great interest as a source of chemicals synthesized in the aerial parts of plants. The possibilities for the future exploitation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation techniques are enormous. However, we need more knowledge of genes and enzymes controlling secondary metabolic synthesis.

  19. Accurate inference of shoot biomass from high-throughput images of cereal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tester Mark

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the establishment of advanced technology facilities for high throughput plant phenotyping, the problem of estimating plant biomass of individual plants from their two dimensional images is becoming increasingly important. The approach predominantly cited in literature is to estimate the biomass of a plant as a linear function of the projected shoot area of plants in the images. However, the estimation error from this model, which is solely a function of projected shoot area, is large, prohibiting accurate estimation of the biomass of plants, particularly for the salt-stressed plants. In this paper, we propose a method based on plant specific weight for improving the accuracy of the linear model and reducing the estimation bias (the difference between actual shoot dry weight and the value of the shoot dry weight estimated with a predictive model. For the proposed method in this study, we modeled the plant shoot dry weight as a function of plant area and plant age. The data used for developing our model and comparing the results with the linear model were collected from a completely randomized block design experiment. A total of 320 plants from two bread wheat varieties were grown in a supported hydroponics system in a greenhouse. The plants were exposed to two levels of hydroponic salt treatments (NaCl at 0 and 100 mM for 6 weeks. Five harvests were carried out. Each time 64 randomly selected plants were imaged and then harvested to measure the shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight. The results of statistical analysis showed that with our proposed method, most of the observed variance can be explained, and moreover only a small difference between actual and estimated shoot dry weight was obtained. The low estimation bias indicates that our proposed method can be used to estimate biomass of individual plants regardless of what variety the plant is and what salt treatment has been applied. We validated this model on an independent

  20. Agent-Based Simulation of Mass Shootings: Determining How to Limit the Scale of a Tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Hayes; Reginald Hayes

    2014-01-01

    An agent-based simulation was created to examine key parameters in mass shootings. The goal of the simulation was to examine the potential effectiveness of Senator Dianne Feinstein’s (D-Calif.) assault weapons and high-capacity magazines bill. Based on the analysis, the proposed law would have a negligible effect on the number of people shot during mass shootings. The assault weapons portion of the proposed bill will have no effect on the number of people killed or wounded in a mass shootin...