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Sample records for aberrant shoot morphology

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on morphology of leaf and shoot apex of ginger, turmeric and mango-ginger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 kR gamma irradiation on morphology and growth of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), Turmeric (Curcuma domestica Valet) and mango-ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb), and shoot apical organisation in ginger was studied. Higher doses (20 and 30 kR) of radiation proved to be lethal. Morphological aberrations in foliage leaves are reported. Irradiated shoot apices appear histologically inert. (auth.)

  2. Diversity of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture and Its Relationship to Plant Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Addie M.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Schnable, Patrick; Crants, James C.; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and controls initiation of all aerial plant organs. In maize (Zea mays), leaves are formed throughout vegetative development; on transition to floral development, the shoot meristem forms the tassel. Due to the regulated balance between stem cell maintenance and organogenesis, the structure and morphology of the shoot meristem are constrained during vegetative development. Previous work identified loci controlling merist...

  3. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS) – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    OpenAIRE

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae), furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of ...

  4. Morphological variants induced from shoot tips of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) treated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plantlets were regenerated on a revised Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 mg 1−1 6-benzyladenine (BA) from shoot tip explants of taro (Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott) treated with 0–20 Gy of gamma radiation. These were acclimated in the greenhouse and cultivated in the field. No visible variation was observed among plants grown from seed corms and shoot tips treated with gamma radiation. A 12% rate of variation was observed among plants directly regenerated from the irradiated shoot tips. Among these plants, eight variants were selected and observed for various characters during the succeeding year. The morphological characteristics of the eight variants are described. Increased number of lateral shoots, flowering behavior, increase or decrease in plant height, presence or absence of corms, unusually small and large leaf blades, variations in the amount of anthocyanin in petioles, late sprouting and late wilting are among the significant characteristics of the variants. Variants R28 and R51, which are dwarf types, and R56 and R152, whose corms can be separated easily from the main corm, were considered horticulturally valuable. Variants R12 and R15 did not produce corms, but extensive flowering occurred. (author)

  5. PEAR SHOOT SAWFLY (JANUS COMPRESSUS FABRICIUS – LIFE CYCLE AND BIOLOGICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Validžić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the thesis was to investigate life cycle, biological and morphological characteristics of pear shoot sawfly (Janus compressus Fabricius, Hymenoptera Cephidae, furthermore to identify natural enemies in order to protect pear from this pest. The trial was conducted in the period of three years: 2010, 2011 and 2012 in pear orchards at five localities. Monitoring of adult sawfly was done by yellow sticky traps. Laboratory research was done at the Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Plant Protection, Section of Entomology and Nematology. In this study, pear shoot sawfly in Eastern Slavonia occurred in the period of four weeks, starting from the third decade of April with the peak population at the beginning of the May. Adults flight is the most intensive during warm and sunny days, when temperatures are above 14°C. Adult sawflies are characterized by elongated body and antennae, usually 7-12 mm long and sexual dimorphism is present. Pest is univoltine. Basic colour of adult sawfly is black. Antennae are moniliform and consist of 20 (male - 22 (female segments. Females have red or dark red colored abdomen, while males have yellow or orange one. Eggs are cylindrically shaped, 0.8-1.0 mm long. Female lays approximately 30 eggs. Embryonic development of pear shoot sawfly eggs lasts from 11 to 14 days. Larvae are 8-10 mm long, white or pale yellow. Larvae molt three times. Pear shoot sawfly larvae were parasitized by insects from Hymenoptera order, from five identified and one unidentified genera. Level of parasitism by genera is as follows: Eurytoma sp. (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae – 9.83%, Tetrastichus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae – 2.01%, Eupelmus sp. (Hymenoptera: Eupelmidae – 1.66%, Pteromalus sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae – 0.55%, Ichneumonida sp. (Hymenoptera: Pimplinae – 0.35% and unidentified genera – 0.62%. Plant parasitic species Metopoplax origani (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae was found in 1.80% of analyzed shoots. Larvae were

  6. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  7. Variation of the chemical contents and morphology of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting pistol as a potential contribution to a shooting incidence reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brożek-Mucha, Zuzanna

    2011-07-15

    A study of the chemical contents and sizes of gunshot residue originating from 9×18mm PM ammunition, depositing in the vicinity of the shooting person was performed by means of scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Samples of the residue were collected from targets placed at various distances in the range 0-100cm as well as from hands and clothing of the shooting person. Targets were covered by fragments of white cotton fabric or black bovine leather. In the case of cotton targets microtraces were collected from circles of 5 and 10cm in radius. Results of the examinations in the form of numbers of particles, proportions of their chemical classes and dimensions revealed a dependence on the distance from the gun muzzle, both in the direction of shooting and in the opposite one, i.e., on the shooting person. The parameters describing gunshot residue differed also depending on the kind of the target substrate. The kind of obtained information gives rise to understanding the general rules of the dispersion of gunshot residue in the surroundings of the shooting gun. Thus, it may be utilised in the reconstruction of shooting incidences, especially in establishing the mutual positions of the shooter and other participants of the incident. PMID:21354728

  8. Morphological and physiological photon flux influence under in vitro culture of apple shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilisandra Zanandrea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the growth and development of apple rootstock shoots submitted to different photon flux densities (7, 14, 21 and 60 µmol m-2 s-1 and three culture media. The best photon flux for maximizing growth, number of shoots and leaves was 14 µmol m-2 s-1, which also resulted in the highest values of chloroplastic pigments. On the other hand, the highest photon flux (60 µmol m-2 s-1 decreased significantly these parameters. Medium with reduced sucrose concentration did not affect the analyzed parameters, enabling an efficient multiplication of the cultivar with only 1% of sucrose.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar características de crescimento e desenvolvimento de brotações de macieira submetidas a diferentes densidades de fluxo de fótons (7, 14, 21 e 60 µmol m-2 s-1 e três meios de cultura. O melhor fluxo de fótons para maximizar o crescimento, número de brotações e de folhas foi de 14 µmol m-2 s-1, o qual também proporcionou os maiores valores de pigmentos cloroplastídicos. Por outro lado, alto fluxo de fótons (60 µmol m-2 s-1 diminuiu significativamente os parâmetros citados acima. O meio com concentração reduzida de sacarose não afetou os parâmetros analisados, possibilitando uma multiplicação eficiente desta cultivar com apenas 1% deste carboidrato.

  9. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Polguj; Łukasz Chrzanowski; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Ludomir Stefańczyk; Mirosław Topol; Agata Majos

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinical...

  10. Morphological evolution of InAs/InP quantum wires through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, D L; Varela, M; Pennycook, S J; Galindo, P L; González, L; González, Y; Fuster, D; Molina, S I

    2010-08-13

    Evolution of the size, shape and composition of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires through the Stranski-Krastanov transition has been determined by aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. High resolution compositional maps of the wires in the initial, intermediate and final formation stages are presented. (001) is the main facet at their very initial stage of formation, which is gradually reduced in favour of [114] or [118], ending with the formation of mature quantum wires with {114} facets. Significant changes in wire dimensions are measured when varying slightly the amount of InAs deposited. These results are used as input parameters to build three-dimensional models that allow calculation of the strain energy during the quantum wire formation process. The observed morphological evolution is explained in terms of the calculated elastic energy changes at the growth front. Regions of the wetting layer close to the nanostructure perimeters have higher strain energy, causing migration of As atoms towards the quantum wire terraces, where the structure is partially relaxed; the thickness of the wetting layer is reduced in these zones and the island height increases until the (001) facet is removed. PMID:20647625

  11. Morphological evolution of InAs/InP quantum wires through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evolution of the size, shape and composition of self-assembled InAs/InP quantum wires through the Stranski-Krastanov transition has been determined by aberration-corrected Z-contrast imaging. High resolution compositional maps of the wires in the initial, intermediate and final formation stages are presented. (001) is the main facet at their very initial stage of formation, which is gradually reduced in favour of {114} or {118}, ending with the formation of mature quantum wires with {114} facets. Significant changes in wire dimensions are measured when varying slightly the amount of InAs deposited. These results are used as input parameters to build three-dimensional models that allow calculation of the strain energy during the quantum wire formation process. The observed morphological evolution is explained in terms of the calculated elastic energy changes at the growth front. Regions of the wetting layer close to the nanostructure perimeters have higher strain energy, causing migration of As atoms towards the quantum wire terraces, where the structure is partially relaxed; the thickness of the wetting layer is reduced in these zones and the island height increases until the (001) facet is removed.

  12. Preformation in vegetative buds of pistachio (Pistacia vera): relationship to shoot morphology, crown structure and rootstock vigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, Timothy M; Beede, Robert H; Dejong, Theodore M

    2007-08-01

    Effects of rootstock, shoot carbohydrate status, crop load and crown position on the number of preformed leaf primordia in the dormant terminal and lateral buds of mature and immature 'Kerman' pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) trees were investigated to determine if rootstock vigor is associated with greater shoot preformation. There was no significant variation in preformation related to the factors studied, suggesting strong genetic control of preformation in 'Kerman' pistachio. The growth differences observed among trees on different rootstocks were associated with greater stimulation of neoformed growth in trees on the more vigorous rootstocks. However, most annual extension growth in mature tree crowns was preformed, contrasting with the relatively high rate of neoformation found in young tree crowns. Large amounts of neoformed growth in young trees may allow the trees to become established quickly and secure resources, whereas predominantly preformed growth in mature trees may allow for continued crown expansion without outgrowing available resources. We hypothesized that the stimulation of neoformed growth by the more vigorous rootstocks is associated with greater resource uptake or transport, or both. Understanding the source of variation in shoot extension growth on different rootstocks has important implications for orchard management practices. PMID:17472944

  13. Phenotypic aberrations during micropropagation of Soymida febrifuga (Roxb. Adr. Juss

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Like most of the medicinal plants Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae possess significance for its valuable secondary metabolites. Multiplication of this endemic plant is limited by difficulty in rooting of stem cuttings, high seedling mortality rates and low seed viability period. Hence efficient protocols for in vitro mass propagation has been established from field grown and aseptic seedlings explants. Strikingly, we observed aberrant structures such as vitrified shoots, faciated shoots, albino shoots as well shoot necrosis during its micropropagation. These phenotypic maladies were observed during organogenesis and rooting. Compared to other abnormalities, shoot necrosis nonetheless was frequent and pronounced leading to plant death. Shoots when subjected to rooting also displayed necrosis which was controlled by transferring to MS medium containing various concentrations and combinations of calcium levels, activated charcoal, glucose, fructose and auxins. Microshoots initiated roots on half strength MS medium with IBA and IAA individually or in combination within two weeks. MS half strength solid medium supplemented with CAN (556 mg l–1, CAP (1.0 mg l–1, IAA (2.0 mg l–1 and IBA (2.0 mg l–1 in combination was found to be more efficient in showing high frequency (95% of root regeneration. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 70-85% of regenerated plants were successfully acclimatized to natural environment. In vitro derived plantlets were morphologically similar to in vivo plants.

  14. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy · hr-1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  15. The effects of gamma-ray irradiation to strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) calli on shoot regeneration, achene formation and morphological variations of regenerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasumi, Masakazu [Plant Biotechnology Inst., Ibaraki Agricultural Center, Iwama, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa 'Nyoho') calli, derived from anthers, were irradiated with gamma -ray at dosages from 100 to 1,600 Gy (10 Gy {center_dot} hr{sup -}1) and their effects on callus growth, plant regeneration, and somaclonal variation were analyzed. The growth of callus and percentage of plant regeneration from the callus were reduced slightly at dosages less than 200 Gy, moderately at 400 Gy, and markedly above 800 Gy. Fruit growth associated with seed fertility (>50 % ) was morphologically normal at less than 100 Gy, whereas achene formation was significantly inhibited above 200 Gy. The percentages of morphological variation in regenerants formed from the irradiated callus were:13.7 (no irradiation), 18.6 (100 Gy), 66.0 (200 Gy), 75.7 (400 Gy), and 97.0 (800 Gy). Furthermore, higher dosages yielded wider variations, e.g., thick and small leaf, light leaf color, white flesh, and long fruit. In some regenerants, more than one morphological aberrations developed, some of which were transmissible to daughter plants. These results revealed that the irradiating strawberry callus with gamma - ray resulted in a higher degree and wider spectrum of somaclonal variation than did simple callus culture. (author)

  16. Effects of acute and chronic gamma irradiation on the shoot apex and general morphology of Lupinus albus L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinus albus L. plants were grown from seeds and irradiated at various stages of development with acute or chronic gamma rays. All plants were greenhouse grown (pre- and post-irradiation) and allowed to proceed through their normal growth cycle. The purpose of these experiments was to establish a Plactochron Index for Lupinus albus L. and to determine the effects of acute and chronic irradiation on development at the macro and microscopic levels. A Plastochron Index was calculated and used as an indirect time scale to evaluate the effects of gamma rays from a common base line. Acute radiation treatment lasted for a period of a few days, whereas chronic treatment was initiated at the seedling stage and lasted for the entire growth season. Vegetative plants were used to study the effects of acute radiation exposure on apical meristem morphology, Plastochron Index, phyllatoxis and gross morphology

  17. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria: The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Polguj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria. If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9±19.4 years for all patients but 54.0±19.6 years and 44.9±18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P=0.0061. The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%, dyspnea (18.7%, retrosternal pain (17.0%, cough (7.6%, and weight loss (5.9%. The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%, Kommerell’s diverticulum (14.9%, aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%, and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%. In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss.

  18. The Aberrant Right Subclavian Artery (Arteria Lusoria): The Morphological and Clinical Aspects of One of the Most Important Variations—A Systematic Study of 141 Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  19. The aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria): the morphological and clinical aspects of one of the most important variations--a systematic study of 141 reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polguj, Michał; Chrzanowski, Łukasz; Kasprzak, Jarosław D; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Topol, Mirosław; Majos, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The most important abnormality of the aortic arch is arguably the presence of an aberrant right subclavian artery (arteria lusoria). If this vessel compresses the adjacent structures, several symptoms may be produced. The aim of the study is to present the morphological and clinical aspects of the aberrant right subclavian artery. Three different databases searched for a review of pertinent literature using strictly predetermined criteria. Of 141 cases, 15 were cadaveric and 126 were clinically documented. The gender distribution of the subjects was 55.3% female and 44.7% male. The mean age of the patients at symptoms onset was 49.9 ± 19.4 years for all patients but 54.0 ± 19.6 years and 44.9 ± 18.1 years for female and male subjects, respectively (P = 0.0061). The most common symptoms in this group were dysphagia (71.2%), dyspnea (18.7%), retrosternal pain (17.0%), cough (7.6%), and weight loss (5.9%). The vascular anomalies coexisting with an arteria lusoria were truncus bicaroticus (19.2%), Kommerell's diverticulum (14.9%), aneurysm of the artery itself (12.8%), and a right sided aortic arch (9.2%). In conclusion, compression of adjacent structures by an aberrant right subclavian artery needs to be differentiated from other conditions presenting dysphagia, dyspnea, retrosternal pain, cough, and weight loss. PMID:25105156

  20. Evaluación morfológica de brotes regenerados de callos de arroz (variedad IACuba-28 resistentes a higromicina Morphological Evaluation of Shoots Regenerated from Hygromycin-Resistant Rice Callus (cv IACuba-28

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    Hernández Díaz Carlos Alberto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Se estableció un sistema de evaluación de brotes de arroz regenerados de callos resistentes a higromicina, que permitió relacionar las características morfológicas de dichos brotes con su resistencia al antibiótico. Callos embriogénicos de arroz se transformaron con Agrobacterium tumefaciens (EHA105/ pCAMBIA1300, con el gen de la higromicina-fosfotransferasa como marcador de selección. Después de dos semanas en medio de cultivo con higromicina, los callos resistentes fueron transferidos a regeneración. Durante 30 días se realizaron extracciones sucesivas de brotes emitidos de los callos, en seis intervalos de cinco días cada uno. Estos brotes se clasificaron según su morfología en: clase I – brote vigoroso con una estructura bipolar típica, de ápice y raíz con longitudes proporcionales; clase II – brote con raíz pequeña respecto al ápice, o sin raíz; clase III – brote con alteraciones fenotípicas, albinismo, hojas muy anchas o enrolladas. Los brotes clasificados se transfirieron a medio MS con higromicina para evaluar su viabilidad. Los de clase I, que predominaron en las primeras extracciones, presentaron la mayor viabilidad durante el enraizamiento y crecimiento del follaje. En las últimas dos extracciones ocurrió una drástica reducción de los brotes clase I, y aumentaron los de clases II y III, simultáneamente disminuyó la viabilidad de estos últimos en MS con higromicina. Este resultado puede aplicarse para mejorar la eficiencia de obtención de plantas transgénicas de arroz en estas condiciones, debido a que precisa el momento óptimo para lograr brotes con características morfológicas normales y que sean resistentes a higromicina.An evaluation system based on the morphological characteristics of regenerated hygromycin-resistant rice callus shoots was established for correlating such characteristics with shoot viability on hygromycin. Embryogenic rice calli were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  1. Shooting stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurette, M.; Hammer, C.

    A shooting star passage -even a star shower- can be sometimes easily seen during moonless black night. They represent the partial volatilization in earth atmosphere of meteorites or micrometeorites reduced in cosmic dusts. Everywhere on earth, these star dusts are searched to be gathered. This research made one year ago on the Greenland ice-cap is the object of this article; orbit gathering projects are also presented.

  2. Dose dependence of morphological changes and aberration to the plantation of pine in the Chernobyl NPP exclusion zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose rate to the Scots pine' (Pinus sylvestris L.) apical meristem at three experimental sites were calculated. The morphological and cytogenetic changes of the trees were estimated, and the dependences of these changes on the dose rates to the apical meristem were formulated

  3. Chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal aberrations are classified into two types, chromosome-type and chromatid-type. Chromosom-type aberrations include terminal deletion, dicentric, ring and interstitial deletion, and chromatid-type aberrations include achromatic lesion, chromatid deletion, isochromatid deletion and chromatid exchange. Clastogens which induce chromosomal aberration are divided into ''S-dependent'' agents and ''S-independent''. It might mean whether they can induce double strand breaks independent of the S phase or not. Double strand breaks may be the ultimate lesions to induce chromosomal aberrations. Caffeine added even in the G2 phase appeared to modify the frequency of chromatid aberrations induced by X-rays and mitomycin C. Those might suggest that the G2 phase involves in the chromatid aberration formation. The double strand breaks might be repaired by ''G2 repair system'', the error of which might yield breakage types of chromatid aberrations and the by-pass of which might yield chromatid exchanges. Chromosome-type aberrations might be formed in the G1 phase. (author)

  4. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  5. Morphological images analysis and chromosomic aberrations classification based on fuzzy logic; Analise morfologica de imagens e classificacao de aberracoes cromossomicas por meio de logica fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Leonardo Peres

    2011-07-01

    This work has implemented a methodology for automation of images analysis of chromosomes of human cells irradiated at IEA-R1 nuclear reactor (located at IPEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil), and therefore subject to morphological aberrations. This methodology intends to be a tool for helping cytogeneticists on identification, characterization and classification of chromosomal metaphasic analysis. The methodology development has included the creation of a software application based on artificial intelligence techniques using Fuzzy Logic combined with image processing techniques. The developed application was named CHRIMAN and is composed of modules that contain the methodological steps which are important requirements in order to achieve an automated analysis. The first step is the standardization of the bi-dimensional digital image acquisition procedure through coupling a simple digital camera to the ocular of the conventional metaphasic analysis microscope. Second step is related to the image treatment achieved through digital filters application; storing and organization of information obtained both from image content itself, and from selected extracted features, for further use on pattern recognition algorithms. The third step consists on characterizing, counting and classification of stored digital images and extracted features information. The accuracy in the recognition of chromosome images is 93.9%. This classification is based on classical standards obtained at Buckton [1973], and enables support to geneticist on chromosomic analysis procedure, decreasing analysis time, and creating conditions to include this method on a broader evaluation system on human cell damage due to ionizing radiation exposure. (author)

  6. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGinley John N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF, a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. Additional file 1 Click here for file

  7. Effect of gelling agents on shoot growth and multiple shoot formation of mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Apomict seeds of mangosteen were cultured as a whole or half seed on MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l 6-benzyladenine (BA. The medium was solidified with various gelling agents. After culture for 2 months, multiple shoot formation, morphological and physiological characters of the shoot were investigated. The results revealed that 1.5% agarose gave the highest seed forming shoot (98% and number of shoots per culture seed (20.7. Wounding the seed by sectioning into half promoted higher callus formation (47-88% in all gelling agents. Phytagel (0.17% resulted in the highest callus formation (100% and hyperhydric shoots (11-31%. Those shoots produced translucent, thin and brittle leaves and stems, and malformed stoma. Those leaves had the lowest content of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll.

  8. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  9. Anatomy of normal and hyperhydric sunflower shoots regenerated in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Fauguel C.M.; Vega T.A.; Nestares G.; Zorzoli R.; Picardi L.A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhydricity is a morphological and physiological disorder affecting plants regenerated in vitro. This malformation is associated with excessive hydration and abnormal shoot morphogenesis such as glassy water-soaked appearance of shoots. This undesirable phenomenon is a frequent problem in sunflower tissue culture systems and has been described by visual symptoms but there is no information on the anatomic structure of the affected shoots. In this paper we describe anatomic features of norm...

  10. Violence and school shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Modzeleski, William; Kretschmar, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Multiple-homicide school shootings are rare events, but when they happen they significantly impact individuals, the school and the community. We focus on multiple-homicide incidents and identified mental health issues of shooters. To date, studies of school shootings have concluded that no reliable profile of a shooter exists, so risk should be assessed using comprehensive threat assessment protocols. Existing studies primarily utilize retrospective case histories or media accounts. The field requires more empirical and systematic research on all types of school shootings including single victim incidents, those that result in injury but not death and those that are successfully averted. We discuss current policies and practices related to school shootings and the role of mental health professionals in assessing risk and supporting surviving victims. PMID:23254623

  11. Ozone-Induced Rice Grain Yield Loss Is Triggered via a Change in Panicle Morphology That Is Controlled by ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Tsukahara

    Full Text Available Rice grain yield is predicted to decrease in the future because of an increase in tropospheric ozone concentration. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we investigated the responses to ozone of two rice (Oryza Sativa L. cultivars, Sasanishiki and Habataki. Sasanishiki showed ozone-induced leaf injury, but no grain yield loss. By contrast, Habataki showed grain yield loss with minimal leaf injury. A QTL associated with grain yield loss caused by ozone was identified in Sasanishiki/Habataki chromosome segment substitution lines and included the ABERRANT PANICLE ORGANIZATION 1 (APO1 gene. The Habataki allele of the APO1 locus in a near-isogenic line also resulted in grain yield loss upon ozone exposure, suggesting APO1 involvement in ozone-induced yield loss. Only a few differences in the APO1 amino acid sequences were detected between the cultivars, but the APO1 transcript level was oppositely regulated by ozone exposure: i.e., it increased in Sasanishiki and decreased in Habataki. Interestingly, the levels of some phytohormones (jasmonic acid, jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine, and abscisic acid known to be involved in attenuation of ozone-induced leaf injury tended to decrease in Sasanishiki but to increase in Habataki upon ozone exposure. These data indicate that ozone-induced grain yield loss in Habataki is caused by a reduction in the APO1 transcript level through an increase in the levels of phytohormones that reduce leaf damage.

  12. Shooting Sports Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This year for the first time Congress is introducing an actual shooting competition in Rifle and Archery. An introduction and firing the first shots workshop will be conducted with all participants to begin the day and then break out to disciplines for the competition. There will also be a general knowledge/safety test that will count toward the final scores of participants.

  13. Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Ahmed A; Rabie, Gamal H; Kenawey, Saied E M; Abd El-Aal, Marwa A

    2012-10-01

    By using agar well diffusion assay, antifungal activity of aqueous extract prepared from Egyptian garlic (Allium sativum L.) was evaluated in vitro against two strains of Aspergillus flavus (OC1 and OC10) causing human ocular infection. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for growth inhibition of both strains was 3.60 mg/ml. Aqueous garlic extract (AGE) was used in successive in vivo tests as an attempt to cure rabbit's fungal keratitis caused by A. flavus OC1. Findings showed that diluted preparation of AGE was effective topical antifungal agent and succeeded to cure severe A. flavus keratitis in a time course less than 10 days without any observable side effects. Microscopic examination showed that AGE induced deleterious cyto-morphological aberrations in A. flavus target cells. AGE applied to Czapek's broth via contact method was more effective on growth, spores and aflatoxin B1 production than AGE applied to the same broth at the same concentration via fumigation method. PMID:24031964

  14. Radiographing roots and shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of seed orientation on germination time and on shoot and root growth patterns is studied. Neutron radiography is used to observe the development of 4 types of plants, maize, greenpea, soya bean and padi. These plants were grown in varying orientations; sand sizes, sand thicknesses, and level of water content. Radiography of the seeds and plants were obtained for time exposure ranging from 3-12 hours and at reactor thermal power level, ranging from 500-750 kilowatts. Results obtained showed that seeds planted in varying orientations need different length of time for shoot emergence. Neutron radiography is now developed to other areas of non-industrial applications in Malaysia. (A.J.)

  15. Aberrations in Fresnel Lenses and Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Don

    1999-01-01

    The NASA/MSFC Shooting Star program revealed a number of technical problems that must be solved before solar thermal propulsion can become a reality. The fundamental problem of interest here is the collection of solar energy. This is the first step in the propulsion process and indeed the most important. Everything else depends on the efficiency and focusing ability of the collection lens or mirror. An initial model of Fresnel lens behavior using a wave optics approach has been completed and the results were encouraging enough to warrant an experimental investigation. This experimental investigation confirmed some of the effects predicted and produced invaluable photographic evidence of coherence based diffraction and aberration.

  16. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  17. Shoot multiplication and plant regeneration in Caragana fruticosa (Pall.) Besser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Xiao-jie; YANG Ling; SHEN Hai-long

    2011-01-01

    Different nutrient media can affectin vitro culturing protocols,and experimentation under varied growth conditions is valuable in plants where in vitro methods are in preliminary stages.We carried out the first in vitro propagation studies for the endangered species Caragana fruticosa (Fabaceae).We evaluated various nutrient media for their inpact on shoot elongation and axillary bud proliferation using different concentrations of 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) and α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).Shoot elongation was evaluated based on adventitious shoot primary culture and subculture regeneration from Caragana seedlings.Our goal was to improve both micropropagation and regeneration in C.fruticosa.MS nutrient media was superior to 1/2MS macronutrients,DKW,QL,and WPM for shoot elongation and axillary shoot proliferation.Shoots grown on 1/2MS and WPM exhibited some chlorosis,and shoots on QL produced larger leavers than plants growing on normal medium.The shoot proliferation coefficient on MS media supplemented with 2.22 μM BA and 0.44 μM BA + 2.69 μM NAA was significantly higher than that with other treatments in the primary culture.Shoots on 2.22 μM BA showed a higher proliferation coefficient (3.17) than others in the subculture.Shoots were rooted on 1/2MS medium with the addition of different concentrations of NAA.The optimal concentration for rooting was 0.27 μM NAA (74%).Roots exhibited many stout and long root hairs.Survivl of established plantlets was 82% at 30 days after transfer to soil.Plants established in the green house showed normal growth and displayed no apparent morphological differences compared to stock plants.

  18. Ferns: the missing link in shoot evolution and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Robert George Plackett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shoot development in land plants is a remarkably complex process that gives rise to an extreme diversity of forms. Our current understanding of shoot developmental mechanisms comes almost entirely from studies of angiosperms (flowering plants, the most recently diverged plant lineage. Shoot development in angiosperms is based around a layered multicellular apical meristem that produces lateral organs and/or secondary meristems from populations of founder cells at its periphery. In contrast, non-seed plant shoots develop from either single apical initials or from a small population of morphologically distinct apical cells. Although developmental and molecular information is becoming available for non-flowering plants, such as the model moss Physcomitrella patens, making valid comparisons between highly divergent lineages is extremely challenging. As sister group to the seed plants, the monilophytes (ferns and relatives represent an excellent phylogenetic midpoint of comparison for unlocking the evolution of shoot developmental mechanisms, and recent technical advances have finally made transgenic analysis possible in the emerging model fern Ceratopteris richardii. This review compares and contrasts our current understanding of shoot development in different land plant lineages with the aim of highlighting the potential role that the fern C. richardii could play in shedding light on the evolution of underlying genetic regulatory mechanisms.

  19. Comparison of Morphological Microstructure of Vitrified and Normal Shoots of Aronia melanocarpa Elloit%黑果腺肋花楸正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶显微结构的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晔华; 利爽; 吕天舒; 胡婷婷; 吴荣哲

    2014-01-01

    The Aronia melanocarpa El oit was used as test material. The microstruc-ture of normal and vitrified shoots and the characteristics of their stomas on leaf surface were compared by paraffin section and leaf epidermis-tearing method. The results showed the palisade tissue of Aronia melanocarpa El oit consists of 2-3 lay-ers of cells. The stomas on lower epidermis cave in, and are smal and dense. There are abundant vessels and sieve tubes in stems. ln contrast, the main veins of vitrified shoots are unobvious, messy and irregular. The boundary between pal-isade tissue and spongy tissue is not obvious. The stomas open circularly and bigly. The stems are swel ing and thick, but the pith parenchyma cells are broken.%以黑果花楸组培苗为试材,采用石蜡切片和叶表皮撕取法,比较正常苗与玻璃化苗茎叶横切面显微结构以及叶表面气孔特征。结果表明,黑果腺肋花楸栅栏组织由2~3层细胞构成,下表皮气孔下陷,小而密集,茎内分布大量导管、筛管。玻璃化苗主脉不明显,细胞排列凌乱不规则,栅栏组织与海绵组织的区别不明显,气孔开口大近圆形,茎肿胀粗大髓腔内薄壁细胞较多、已破裂。

  20. Induced mutations in citrus shoot tip culture in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of using induced mutation of the callus of citrus clones as a method in citrus breeding. It was observed that the nuclear clones had a higher ratio of callus cell differentiation than the old clones. The callus cells were exposed to gamma irradiation of 7,000 roentgen at 127 R/min. Callus cells derived from the shoot tip proved to be more appropriate for cytological examination by the smearing technique than the root tip cells. Gamma irradiation of callus cells is quite effective for inducing chromosome aberration and micronucleus inspection

  1. Support application for shooting clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Lenič, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    The process of logging shooting results, especially without proper electronic support, can be a very tedious task, for which no practical solution exists. The web application, in addition to logging results, offers many other useful functionalities to shooters and to shooting clubs. In addition to the web application, we also developed an Android mobile application, which enables shooters to take photos of their targets and upload them to a server so they can review them later. The first p...

  2. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were pr...

  3. Trouble shooting in toxicopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxicopathology, also referred to as toxicologic pathology, can be defined as the study of structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs that are induced by toxicants (such as drugs, industrial and agricultural chemicals), toxins (chemicals of biological origin such as mycotoxins and phycotoxins), and physical agents (such as heat and radiation); the investigation of the mechanisms by which these changes are induced; and the development of risk assessment and risk management policies based on such information. Toxicologic pathology primarily deals with the morphologic or structural effects of the toxicant and the mechanism by which this structural effect is induced. This article highlights some of the problems that toxicologic pathologists may encounter in obtaining and interpreting pathology lesions. By alerting toxicologists to some of these issues, it is hoped that a better understanding of the use and limitations of toxicologic pathology data will occur

  4. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  5. School Shootings and Critical Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Juliet

    2013-01-01

    What has been left out of studying school violence and shootings is a comprehensive look at the culture that creates violence and the lack of support for those deemed "different" in an educational setting that promotes and rewards competition. If parents, teachers, and other adults associated with children were teaching the values of…

  6. Segmenting the sepal and shoot apical meristem of Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, Alexandre L.; Roeder, Adrienne H. K.; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2010-01-01

    We present methods for segmenting the sepal and shoot apical meristem of the Arabidopsis thaliana plant. We propose a mathematical morphology pipeline and a modified numerical scheme for the active contours without edges algorithm to extract the geometry and topology of plant cells imaged using confocal laser scanning microscopy. We demonstrate our methods in typical images used in the studies of cell endoreduplication and hormone transport and show that in practice they produce highly accura...

  7. Genetic Control of Maize Shoot Apical Meristem Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Addie M.; Crants, James; Schnable, Patrick S.; Yu, Jianming; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Springer, Nathan M.; Scanlon, Michael J; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2014-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem contains a pool of undifferentiated stem cells and generates all above-ground organs of the plant. During vegetative growth, cells differentiate from the meristem to initiate leaves while the pool of meristematic cells is preserved; this balance is determined in part by genetic regulatory mechanisms. To assess vegetative meristem growth and genetic control in Zea mays, we investigated its morphology at multiple time points and identified three stages of growth. We me...

  8. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  9. Short and long term effects of root and shoot chilling of ransom soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musser, R L; Thomas, S A; Kramer, P J

    1983-11-01

    The immediate short term effects on some physiological processes and the long term effects on morphology and reproductive development of root- and shoot-chilled soybeans (Glycine max L. cv Ransom) were studied. Roots or shoots of 16- or 17-day-old plants were chilled at 10 degrees C for one week, and then rewarmed to 25 degrees C. Leaf elongation rate, net CO(2) uptake rate, and stomatal conductance decreased during root or shoot chilling. Root chilling had only temporary effects on water relations, while shoot chilling caused large changes in potentials during chilling. Most processes measured returned to control levels after two days of rewarming. Root-chilled plants harvested 90 days after emergence were similar in morphology and seed weight to controls. Shoot-chilled plants showed a large increase over controls in axillary branch growth, but an early abortion of flowers and a delayed resumption of flowering caused a 78% reduction in seed weight. Root chilling in this study was found to have little or no long term effect on the plants, while shoot chilling caused significant changes in vegetative morphology, and a delay in flowering and subsequent pod filling. PMID:16663300

  10. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. -- Highlights: ► Develops the analogy between light and electron optics in aberration calculations. ► Optimized spherical and chromatic aberrations for an electrostatic einzel lens. ► Comparison between analytic and numerical aberration calculations.

  11. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various concentrations tested, 2.0mg/l BAP (Benzyl amino purine and 0.1 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid (NAA were found to be the best for maximum shoot bud differentiation. Percentage, as well as the number of shoots per explant showing differentiation of shoot buds was higher on MS media supplement with BAP and optimal BAP concentration for shoot regeneration was 2mg/l. The elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins. Among them indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l induced maximum frequency of rooting. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil where 91% of them have been developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. This method can thus be advantageously applied in the production of transgenic pigeon pea plants.

  12. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP VAR LRG-41

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Raghavendra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various concentrations tested, 2.0mg/l BAP (Benzyl amino purine and 0.1 mg/l Napthalene acetic acid (NAA were found to be the best for maximum shoot bud differentiation. Percentage, as well as the number of shoots per explant showing differentiation of shoot buds was higher on MS media supplement with BAP and optimal BAP concentration for shoot regeneration was 2mg/l. The elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing different concentrations of auxins. Among them indole buteric acid (IBA at 1.0mg/l induced maximum frequency of rooting. Regenerated plants were successfully established in soil where 91% of them have been developed into morphologically normal and fertile plants. This method can thus be advantageously applied in the production of transgenic pigeon pea plants.

  13. Tragedy and the Meaning of School Shootings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Bryan R.; Johnson, Benjamin A.; Rocha, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    School shootings are traumatic events that cause a community to question itself, its values, and its educational systems. In this article Bryan Warnick, Benjamin Johnson, and Samuel Rocha explore the meanings of school shootings by examining three recent books on school violence. Topics that grow out of these books include (1) how school shootings…

  14. Aberrations in asymmetrical electron lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, J P S; Word, R C; Könenkamp, R

    2012-08-01

    Starting from well established knowledge in light-optics we explore the question if electron-optical aberration can be improved in asymmetrical electron lenses. We show that spherical as well as chromatic aberration coefficients are reduced in asymmetric electrostatic einzel lenses when the center electrode is moved away from the center position towards the entrance electrode. Relative improvements up to 40% for both the chromatic and the spherical aberration coefficients can be obtained. We use analytical and numerical calculations to confirm this result for exemplary cases of a lens with fixed length and working distance. The agreement of the two calculation methods is very good. We then derive an estimate for the electron-optical aberration coefficients from light-optics. The derived expressions for chromatic and spherical aberrations are somewhat simpler than the ones derived from electron-optics as they involve integrals only over the electrostatic potential, not over the electron paths. The estimated formulas still agree well with the electron optical calculations. Overall, we are tempted to suggest that the enormous knowledge base of light optics can provide considerable guidance for electron-optical applications. PMID:22206603

  15. Effect of light intensity on in vitro multiple shoot induction and regeneration of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv Khandawa-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, S K; Singh, P K; Sawant, S V; Chaturvedi, R; Tuli, R

    2000-04-01

    Cotyledonary nodes taken alongwith shoot apex from seedlings of cotton (G. hirsutum) proliferated into shoots on nutrient agar medium supplemented with cytokinins. In the presence of optimal plant growth regulators, low light intensity enhanced the number of shoots initiated per explant in cotton. An average of 33.5 +/- 2.9 shoots were obtained from a single explant cultured for 8 weeks which is about four fold higher than the values reported in earlier protocols. The isolated shoots were rooted on nutrient agar medium supplemented with alpha-naphthalene acetic acid and transferred to soil after acclimatization. Regenerated plants were morphologically identical to the seed-germinated plants and were fertile. PMID:11218821

  16. Aberrations of diffracted wave fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J E; Shack, R V

    1978-09-15

    This paper is an attempt to provide new insight into the behavior of near-field scalar diffraction phenomena by showing that the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral is equivalent to the Fourier transform integral of a generalized pupil function which includes a term that represents phase errors in the aperture. This term can be interpreted as describing a conventional wavefront aberration function. The resulting aberration coefficients are calculated and expressed in terms of the aperture diameter, observation distance, and appropriate field parameter for several different geometrical configurations of incident beam and observation space. These aberrations, which are inherently associated with the diffraction process, are precisely the effects ignored when making the usual Fresnel and Fraunhofer approximations. PMID:20203910

  17. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  18. Characteristics of one-year-old shoots of peach hybrids from the crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radović Aleksandar R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two-year research (2011-2012 of the most important morphological characteristics of 1-year-old shoots in eight peach hybrids obtained from a crossing combination Flaminia × Hale Tardiva Spadoni were shown in this paper. The following characteristics were studied in tested hybrids: length and diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flowers and vegetative buds per shoot, ratio of flower to vegetative buds, number of flower buds per node and 1-m length of a shoot. The properties of sylleptic shoots on one-year-old shoots have also been studied. The significant differences were determined among the hybrids for parameters such as the diameter of shoots, internode length, number of flower and vegetative buds per shoot. Hybrids FH1 and FH6 were characterized by the highest density of flower buds, so that they are singled out as potentially the most yielding. These hybrids may be of interest for growing in areas where there is a risk of frost and in the domain of breeding when creating new peach cultivars of high yield potential. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31063: Primena novih genotipova i tehnoloških inovacija u cilju unapređenja voćarske i vinogradarske proizvodnje

  19. A method to determine waterfowl shooting distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, D.A.; Sherwood, G.A.; Murdy, H.W.

    1973-01-01

    Long-range shooting at ducks and geese frequently results in a high crippling loss, unretrieved birds and frustrated hunters. A principal problem has been the general inability of hunters or observers to properly judge distance of birds. This paper describes a reasonably accurate method developed to determine shooting distances to geese. Two observers utilized transit-mounted 4X hunting scopes to determine angles and elevations to goose hunters and birds. These data were used to set up a series of triangles by which a distance between hunter and birds could be calculated. Known-distance tests indicated an average measurement error of approximately two percent. An average shooting distance of 71 yards was calculated from 175 sightings. The maximum range was 240 yards and the minimum was 24 yards. The relationship of shooting to clean kills and crippling loss is also discussed.

  20. Distortion of ultrashort pulses caused by aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Z. L.; Kovács, A. P.; Bor, Zs.

    The effect of the primary wave aberrations (spherical aberration, astigmatism and coma) on ultrashort pulses is studied by the Nijboer-Zernike theory. The results of the geometrical and the wave optical treatments are compared.

  1. Baseline chromosome aberrations in children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Merlo, D.F.; Ceppi, M.; Stagi, E.; Bocchini, V.; Šrám, Radim; Rössner st., Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 172, - (2007), s. 60-67. ISSN 0378-4274 Grant ostatní: EU(EU) 2002-02198; EU(EU) 2005-016320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK ; R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : chromosome aberrations * children * molecular epidemiology Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.826, year: 2007

  2. Aberrant methylation patterns in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hudler, Petra; Videtič, Alja

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, DNA hydroxymethylation, post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins affecting nucleosome remodelling, and regulation by small and large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) work in concert with cis and trans acting elements to drive appropriate gene expression. Advances in detection methods and development of dedicated platforms and methylation arrays resulted in an explo - sion of information on aberrantly methylated sequences linking devia...

  3. Competition Strategies of Resources Between Stipa grandis and Cleistogenes squarrosa.Ⅰ.Morphological Response of Shoot and Root on Sulfur Supply%大针茅和糙隐子草对养分资源的竞争策略Ⅰ.根和茎对施硫和其他养分的形态学反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳芬; 汪诗平; 邢雪荣; 陈佐忠; Ewald SCHNUG; Silvia HANEKLAUS

    2004-01-01

    Effects of nutrients (compounds of macro- and micro-elements) supply without sulfur (T1)and with sulfur (T2) on the competition between Stipa grandis L. (C3) and Cleistogenes squarrosa L. (C4)were examined using a replacement series design in a greenhouse experiment over a period of 80 d. Blank treatment (nothing applied) (To) was conducted simultaneously. it seems to be no inter-competition between S. grandis and C. squarrosa in all treatments. There was also no intra-competition for S. grandis in all treatments, and for C. squarrosa under T0 treatment because of low productivity. However, the intra-competition of aboveground of C squarrosa was significant when nutrients were supplied regardless of sulfur (S) application. The interaction on dry weight of C. squarrosa per pot between S supply and proportion of C. squarrosa was observed. Under the treatments of T1 and T2 the shoot growth of S. grandis increased significantly compared with To treatment, but there was no significant difference between T1 and T2 treatments, indicating S had no effect on it. Root morphologies of S. grandis was not sensitive to nutrients added. Nutrients supply (T1 and T2 treatments) not only increased significantly the shoot growth of C. squarrosa, but also increased significantly its root growth. Sulfur increased significantly growth of the shoot and root of C. squarrosa. Nutrients supply decreased significantly ratio of root to shoot dry matter (RRS) of C. squarrosa regardless of S application, but the RRS of S. grandis was not affected by nutrients applied. Sulfur also decreased significantly the RRS of C. squarrosa in 100% and 75% proportions of C.squarrosa. The RRS of C. squarrosa was greater significantly in the 100% proportion than that in the 25% proportion of C. squarrosa for all treatments. Therefore, photosynthesis is more allocated to root in infertility soils than in fertility soils and the competition for nutrient resources stimulates root production.The degree of leaf

  4. Delphinella Shoot Blight on Abies lasiocarpa Provenances in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venche Talgø

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Delphinella shoot blight (Delphinella abietis attacks true firs (Abies spp. in Europe and North America. Especially subalpine fir (A. lasiocarpa, one of the main Christmas tree species in Norway, is prone to the disease. The fungus kills current year needles, and in severe cases entire shoots. Dead needles become covered with black fruiting bodies, both pycnidia and pseudothecia. Delphinella shoot blight has mainly been a problem in humid, coastal regions in the northwestern part of Southern Norway, but, probably due to higher precipitation in inland regions during recent years, heavy attacks were found in 2011 in a field trial with 76 provenances of subalpine fir in Southeastern Norway. However, the amount of precipitation seemed less important once the disease had established in the field. Significant differences in susceptibility between provenances were observed. In general, the more bluish the foliage was, the healthier the trees appeared. The analysis of provenance means indicated that, at least for the southern range, the disease ratings were correlated with foliage color. This study also includes isolation, identification, a pathogenicity test, a seed test and electron microscopy of the wax layer on the needles. The fungus was identified based on the morphology of spores and by sequencing the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS regions of the ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. The fungus was found present on newly harvested seeds and may therefore spread via international seed trade. When comparing the wax layers on green and blue needles, those of the latter were significantly thicker, a factor that may be involved in disease resistance.

  5. Photosynthesis of a scots pine shoot: the effect of shoot inclination on the photosynthetic response of a shoot subjected to direct radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of photosynthetic responses of a Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) shoot to light was derived from the shoot geometry and the photosynthetic response of a single needle. Computations showed that the shape of the photosynthesis light-curves varies substantially depending on the direction of radiation relative to the shoot position. Differences in the initial and maximum rates of photosynthesis were due to changes in the effective projection area and the irradiated fraction of the shoot, respectively

  6. Microdissection of shoot meristem functional domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel Brooks

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem (SAM maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection-microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes that function during leaf development. Nine hundred and sixty-two differentially expressed maize genes were detected; control genes known to be upregulated in the initiating leaf (P0/P1 or in the SAM proper verified the precision of the microdissections. Genes involved in cell division/growth, cell wall biosynthesis, chromatin remodeling, RNA binding, and translation are especially upregulated in initiating leaves, whereas genes functioning during protein fate and DNA repair are more abundant in the SAM proper. In situ hybridization analyses confirmed the expression patterns of six previously uncharacterized maize genes upregulated in the P0/P1. P0/P1-upregulated genes that were also shown to be downregulated in leaf-arrested shoots treated with an auxin transport inhibitor are especially implicated to function during early events in maize leaf initiation. Reverse genetic analyses of asceapen1 (asc1, a maize D4-cyclin gene upregulated in the P0/P1, revealed novel leaf phenotypes, less genetic redundancy, and expanded D4-CYCLIN function during maize shoot development as compared to Arabidopsis. These analyses generated a unique SAM domain-specific database that provides new insight into SAM function and a useful platform for reverse genetic analyses of shoot development in maize.

  7. Microdissection of Shoot Meristem Functional Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintains a pool of indeterminate cells within the SAM proper, while lateral organs are initiated from the SAM periphery. Laser microdissection–microarray technology was used to compare transcriptional profiles within these SAM domains to identify novel maize genes th...

  8. Auditory risk estimates for youth target shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Deanna K.; Murphy, William J.; Finan, Donald S.; Lankford, James E.; Flamme, Gregory A.; Stewart, Michael; Soendergaard, Jacob; Jerome, Trevor W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the impulse noise exposure and auditory risk for youth recreational firearm users engaged in outdoor target shooting events. The youth shooting positions are typically standing or sitting at a table, which places the firearm closer to the ground or reflective surface when compared to adult shooters. Design Acoustic characteristics were examined and the auditory risk estimates were evaluated using contemporary damage-risk criteria for unprotected adult listeners and the 120-dB peak limit suggested by the World Health Organization (1999) for children. Study sample Impulses were generated by 26 firearm/ammunition configurations representing rifles, shotguns, and pistols used by youth. Measurements were obtained relative to a youth shooter’s left ear. Results All firearms generated peak levels that exceeded the 120 dB peak limit suggested by the WHO for children. In general, shooting from the seated position over a tabletop increases the peak levels, LAeq8 and reduces the unprotected maximum permissible exposures (MPEs) for both rifles and pistols. Pistols pose the greatest auditory risk when fired over a tabletop. Conclusion Youth should utilize smaller caliber weapons, preferably from the standing position, and always wear hearing protection whenever engaging in shooting activities to reduce the risk for auditory damage. PMID:24564688

  9. Chromosomal aberrations and bone marrow toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Heddle, J A; Salamone, M F

    1981-01-01

    The importance of chromosomal aberrations as a proximate cause of bone marrow toxicity is discussed. Since chemicals that can cause nondisjunction are rare, numerical aberrations (aneuploidy, polyploidy) are not ordinarily important. Many structural aberrations, however, can lead directly to cell death and so are proximate causes of toxicity when they occur. The micronucleus test which utilizes the polychromatic erythrocyte is capable of detecting agents (clastogens) that can cause such struc...

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in ore miners of Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pilot study was performed in which the incidence of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners in ore mines located in Central Slovakia was monitored and related to lifetime underground radon exposure and to lifetime smoking. The conclusions drawn from the results of the study were as follows: the counts of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of miners were significantly higher than in an age matched control group of white-collar staff; the higher counts of chromosomal aberrations could be ascribed to underground exposure of miners and to smoking; a dependence of chromosomal aberration counts on the exposure to radon could not be assessed. (A.K.)

  11. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; YANG, JINLIANG; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Timmermans, Marja C. P.; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S.; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult trai...

  12. Ready, aim, shoot: stem cell regulation of the shoot apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyars, Cara L; James, Sean R; Nimchuk, Zachary L

    2016-02-01

    Plant shoot meristems contain stem cells that are continuously renewed to replenish cells that exit and differentiate during lateral organ formation. Complex cell-to-cell signaling systems balance division and differentiation. These center on ligand-receptor networks, hormone pathways, and transcriptional regulators that function in an integrated manner. In this review, we aim to highlight new findings in shoot stem cell regulation across species. PMID:26803586

  13. Bullshot : sporting shooting, alcohol and the two cultures.

    OpenAIRE

    Hillyard, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paper discusses the role and function of alcohol in sporting shooting in the UK. It seeks to understand and critically comment upon alcohol consumption relating to this sport, to widen empirical knowledge of sporting shooting and to use the lens of alcohol to enhance our theoretical understanding of changes taking place in the global countryside. The paper contextualises the activity of sporting shooting by discussing the characteristics of game shooting participants and also the natur...

  14. Shoot Apical Meristem Organization in Several Philippine Species of Selaginella

    OpenAIRE

    Prescillano Zamora; V. B. Bagaoisan-Cosico

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of two types of shoot apical meristem organization on the main and lateral shoots of eight Philippine species of Selaginella: (1) shoot apical meristem with a single lenticular apical cell in S. cupressina and S. delicatula and (a) shoot apical meristem with a row of several prominent prismatic apical cells in the lateral plane in S. jagorii, S. halconensis), S. involvens (S. polyura, S. peltata), S. flagellifera (S. biformis), S. nummulari...

  15. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies

  16. Clonal analysis of corn plant development. I. The development of the tassel and the ear shoot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johri, M.M.; Coe, E.H. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    The development of the tassel and the ear shoot has been investigated in corn (Zea mays L.). X irradiation of dry kernels and seedlings heterozygous for anthocyanin markers or for factors altering tassel and ear morphology results in the formation of clones (sectors) from cells of the apical meristem. Most tassels develop from 4 +/- 1 cells of the mature embryo. The expression of ramosa-1, tunicate, tassel seed-6, and vestigial is cell autonomous in the tassel. These genes act late in development and modify the developmental fate or decision of an individual clone and not of the whole group of cells producing a tassel. The ear shoot develops from lineages of one to three cells derived each from the L-I (outmost cell layer) and L-II (second cell layer) of the apical meristem. Typically the clones start in the ear shoot (in the husks and possibly in the cob), extend upward in an internode, continue along the margin of the leaf sheath or leaf blade at the node above, and terminate in this or the next higher leaf. The separation of lineages for ear shoot and internode occurs in the period around 13 days after sowing. The analysis of clonal boundaries shows that a small number of embryonic cells become isolated in their developmental capacity. This commitment process appears to be analogous to the process of compartmentation in the imaginal disks of fruit flies. The extent of proliferation of individual cells within a group of highly flexible and any particular clone does not generate a specific part of a tassel or an ear shoot. There must be cellular communication between various clones so that the overall size and morphology of an organ remain normal and more or less fixed. Thus the process of development in plants is also highly regulative in nature and shares many features in common with development in fruit flies.

  17. Calculation of aberration coefficients by ray tracing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oral, Martin; Lencová, Bohumila

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 109, č. 11 (2009), s. 1365-1373. ISSN 0304-3991 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100650805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : Aberrations * Aberration coefficients * Ray tracing * Regression * Fitting Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.067, year: 2009

  18. Nodal aberration theory applied to freeform surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P.; Thompson, Kevin P.

    2014-12-01

    When new three-dimensional packages are developed for imaging optical systems, the rotational symmetry of the optical system is often broken, changing its imaging behavior and making the optical performance worse. A method to restore the performance is to use freeform optical surfaces that compensate directly the aberrations introduced from tilting and decentering the optical surfaces. In order to effectively optimize the shape of a freeform surface to restore optical functionality, it is helpful to understand the aberration effect the surface may induce. Using nodal aberration theory the aberration fields induced by a freeform surface in an optical system are explored. These theoretical predications are experimentally validated with the design and implementation of an aberration generating telescope.

  19. Aberration compensation in charged particle projection lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Projection systems offer the opportunity to increase the throughput for charged particle lithography, because such systems image a large area of a mask directly on to a wafer as a single shot. Shots have to be imaged over a certain range of off-axis distances at the wafer to increase the writing speed, because shot sizes are limited to about 0.25x0.25 mm2 due to aberrations. In a projection system with only lenses, however, the aberrations for off-axis shots are still very large, and some aberration compensation elements need to be introduced. In this paper, three aberration compensation elements (deflectors, stigmators and dynamic focus lenses) are first discussed, a suite of newly developed software, called PROJECTION, based on this principle and our unified aberration theory is then described, and an illustrative example computed with the software is finally given

  20. Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, Michael; Körkel, Stefan; Rannacher, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive collection of the most advanced numerical techniques for the efficient and effective solution of simulation and optimization problems governed by systems of time-dependent differential equations. The contributions present various approaches to time domain decomposition, focusing on multiple shooting and parareal algorithms.  The range of topics covers theoretical analysis of the methods, as well as their algorithmic formulation and guidelines for practical implementation. Selected examples show that the discussed approaches are mandatory for the solution of challenging practical problems. The practicability and efficiency of the presented methods is illustrated by several case studies from fluid dynamics, data compression, image processing and computational biology, giving rise to possible new research topics.  This volume, resulting from the workshop Multiple Shooting and Time Domain Decomposition Methods, held in Heidelberg in May 2013, will be of great interest to applied...

  1. Higher-Order Aberrations in Myopic Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Karimian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between refractive error and higher-order aberrations (HOAs in patients with myopic astigmatism. Methods: HOAs were measured using the Zywave II aberrometer over a 6 mm pupil. Correlations between HOAs and myopia, astigmatism, and age were analyzed. Results: One hundred and twenty-six eyes of 63 subjects with mean age of 26.4±5.9 years were studied. Mean spherical equivalent refractive error and refractive astigmatism were -4.94±1.63 D and 0.96±1.06 D, respectively. The most common higher-order aberration was primary horizontal trefoil with mean value of 0.069±0.152 μm followed by spherical aberration (-0.064±0.130 μm and primary vertical coma (-0.038±0.148 μm. As the order of aberration increased from third to fifth, its contribution to total HOA decreased: 53.9% for third order, 31.9% for fourth order, and 14.2% for fifth order aberrations. Significant correlations were observed between spherical equivalent refractive error and primary horizontal coma (R=0.231, P=0.022, and root mean square (RMS of spherical aberration (R=0.213, P=0.031; between astigmatism and RMS of total HOA (R=0.251, P=0.032, RMS of fourth order aberration (R=0.35, P<0.001, and primary horizontal coma (R=0.314, P=0.004. Spherical aberration (R=0.214, P=0.034 and secondary vertical coma (R=0.203, P=0.031 significantly increased with age. Conclusion: Primary horizontal trefoil, spherical aberration and primary vertical coma are the predominant higher-order aberrations in eyes with myopic astigmatism.

  2. Multiple Shooting in Rational Expectations Models

    OpenAIRE

    David Lipton; James M. Poterba; Jeffrey Sachs; Summers, Lawrence H.

    1983-01-01

    This note describes an algorithm for the solution of rational expectations models with saddlepoint stability properties. The algorithm is based on the method of multiple shooting, which is widely used to solve mathematically similar problems in the physical sciences. Potential applications to economics include models of capital accumulation and valuation, money arid growth, exchange rate determination, and macroeconomic activity. In general, whenever an asset price incorporates information ab...

  3. Auxin at the Shoot Apical Meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Vernoux, Teva; Besnard, Fabrice; Traas, Jan,

    2010-01-01

    Plants continuously generate new tissues and organs through the activity of populations of undifferentiated stem cells, called meristems. Here, we discuss the so-called shoot apical meristem (SAM), which generates all the aerial parts of the plant. It has been known for many years that auxin plays a central role in the functioning of this meristem. Auxin is not homogeneously distributed at the SAM and it is thought that this distribution is interpreted in terms of differential gene expression...

  4. Structuring agreements for seismic group shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigma Explorations Inc. sells licenses to use Sigma owned seismic data. The company participates with exploration and production companies in the joint acquisition of semi-private participation surveys. This paper discusses three major types of seismic group shoots and the essential elements of the agreements that govern or should govern them. They are: (1) exploration and production company joint ventures, (2) publicly offered spec shoots, and (3) semi-private participation surveys. The key issue with the exploration and production company joint ventures is that the companies are owners of the seismic data in proportion to their contribution towards the cost of the program. Their use of the data should be restricted to those situations permitted by the other owners. These are not often well documented, and there is much concern in the industry as a result. The key issue with publicly offered spec shoots is that the seismic company ultimately owns the data and the client exploration and production company is a licensee and must behave as such. In most such cases the rights and responsibilities are well documented in formal agreements that are signed in advance of the program's beginning date

  5. Disruption of Nfic Causes Dissociation of Odontoblasts by Interfering With the Formation of Intercellular Junctions and Aberrant Odontoblast Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Tae-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Seol; Kim, Hyun-Man; Ko, Jea Seung; Gronostajski, Richard M; Cho, Moon-Il; Son, Ho-Hyun; Park, Joo-Cheol

    2009-01-01

    We reported previously that Nfic-deficient mice exhibit short and abnormal molar roots and severely deformed incisors. The objective of this study is to address the mechanisms responsible for these changes using morphological, IHC, and RT-PCR analysis. Nfic-deficient mice exhibited aberrant odontoblasts and abnormal dentin formation in molar roots and the labial crown analog of incisors. The most striking changes observed in these aberrant odontoblasts were the loss of intercellular junctions...

  6. Chromosomal induced aberrations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) with gamma-irradiation, sodium azide and combined treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seeds of 2 varieties of common Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) viz: USH-430 and KL-675 were treated to estimate the mutagenicity of both gamma-rays, sodium azide alone and in combination with a view to generate morphological macro-mutations and screen and ascertain the chromosomal aberrations followed by reduction of pollen fertility with increased doses. An attempt was made to know the genetic basis of the chromosomal aberrations. Such aberrations are a source of changes in the pattern of gene regulation at the time of differentiation leading to the formation of cultivars. (author)

  7. Chromosome aberration assays in Allium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, W.F.

    1982-01-01

    The common onion (Allium cepa) is an excellent plant for the assay of chromosome aberrations after chemical treatment. Other species of Allium (A. cepa var. proliferum, A. carinatum, A. fistulosum and A. sativum) have also been used but to a much lesser extent. Protocols have been given for using root tips from either bulbs or seeds of Allium cepa to study the cytological end-points, such as chromosome breaks and exchanges, which follow the testing of chemicals in somatic cells. It is considered that both mitotic and meiotic end-points should be used to a greater extent in assaying the cytogenetic effects of a chemical. From a literature survey, 148 chemicals are tabulated that have been assayed in 164 Allium tests for their clastogenic effect. Of the 164 assays which have been carried out, 75 are reported as giving a positive reaction, 49 positive and with a dose response, 1 positive and temperature-related, 9 borderline positive, and 30 negative; 76% of the chemicals gave a definite positive response. It is proposed that the Allium test be included among those tests routinely used for assessing chromosomal damage induced by chemicals.

  8. Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp nov and associated shoots from the Lower Cretaceous of the Jixi Basin, Heilongjiang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X.J. [Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing (China). Nanjing Institute of Geology & Palaeontology

    2004-10-01

    Ginkgoalean leaves attributed to Ginkgoites myrioneurus sp. nov. and associated long and dwarf shoots were collected from the Lower Cretaceous coal-bearing Muling Formation of the Jixi Basin, eastern Heilongjiang, China. The common characteristic feature of the various leaves is the dense venation. The species may be distinguished from other known species of Ginkgoites from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous of eastern Asia in having 8-18 closely arranged oblanceolate segments each with 6-16 veins. The fragmentary long and dwarf shoots are similar to those of extant Ginkgo biloba in gross morphology. They are considered to belong to the same tree as that which produced Ginkgoites myrioneurus.

  9. Effect of aberrations in vortex spatial filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Senthilkumaran, P.

    2012-11-01

    Edge enhancement is a very important operation in image processing and a spiral phase plate can be used as a radial Hilbert mask for isotropic edge enhancement. In this paper we analyze the effect of various Seidel aberrations on the performance of radial Hilbert mask or the vortex phase mask. The aberrated vortex phase mask is implemented optically with the help of a high resolution, spatial light modulator (SLM). It has also been shown that out of various aberrations astigmatism can introduce anisotropy in the Hilbert mask which causes selective edge enhancement.

  10. Plant regeneration via direct shoot organogenesis from cotyledon explants of Bambara groundnut, Vigna subterranea (L. Verdc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koné, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea [L.] Verdc. is mainly grown for human consumption. However, several factors limit a wider adoption of the crop including the presence of antinutritional factors in the seeds that lower product quality and protein availability but also the plant susceptibility to pests and diseases. Tissue culture techniques are very scanty in Bambara groundnut and should be developed before carrying out genetic transformation for the crop improvement. Therefore, here, an efficient system for in vitro shoot induction from cotyledons derived from mature seeds has been established. Different types and concentrations of plant growth regulators were used to induce buds in embryo-free cotyledon explants. Cotyledons were cut transversally or longitudinally into three segments: proximal, middle and distal part. The influence of explant orientation on the medium, the type of segment and landrace has then been studied. Benzylaminopurine (3 mg·l-1 alone or combined with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (0.05 mg·l-1 induced multiple shoot formations. The organogenic potential was restricted to the proximal segment of cotyledons. Frequency of bud induction (30% and average number of buds per explant (12 were higher when the adaxial side of the proximal segment was in contact with the medium. Shoot regeneration from cotyledon explants of ten Bambara landraces revealed that the response is genotype-dependent with varieties Ci6, Ci2, Ci4 and Ci15 exhibiting 20 to 30% shoot regeneration and six to ten buds per explant. Regenerated shoot buds excised from explants were elongated and rooted on MS basal medium devoid of plant growth regulators. All rooted plantlets survived to the transfer on a sand soil mixture, and morphologically normal plants were hardened and transferred to greenhouse for further growth to maturity and seed set.

  11. Aberration corrected Lorentz scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope which has been customised for high resolution quantitative Lorentz microscopy with the sample located in a magnetic field free or low field environment. We discuss the innovations in microscope instrumentation and additional hardware that underpin the imaging improvements in resolution and detection with a focus on developments in differential phase contrast microscopy. Examples from materials possessing nanometre scale variations in magnetisation illustrate the potential for aberration corrected Lorentz imaging as a tool to further our understanding of magnetism on this lengthscale. - Highlights: • Demonstration of nanometre scale resolution in magnetic field free environment using aberration correction in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). • Implementation of differential phase contrast mode of Lorentz microscopy in aberration corrected STEM with improved sensitivity. • Quantitative imaging of magnetic induction of nanostructures in amorphous and cross-section samples

  12. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    CERN Document Server

    Bozorgnia, Nassim; Gondolo, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, res...

  13. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M. [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, PO Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden Institute of Physics, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed.

  14. Catadioptric aberration correction in cathode lens microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper I briefly review the use of electrostatic electron mirrors to correct the aberrations of the cathode lens objective lens in low energy electron microscope (LEEM) and photo electron emission microscope (PEEM) instruments. These catadioptric systems, combining electrostatic lens elements with a reflecting mirror, offer a compact solution, allowing simultaneous and independent correction of both spherical and chromatic aberrations. A comparison with catadioptric systems in light optics informs our understanding of the working principles behind aberration correction with electron mirrors, and may point the way to further improvements in the latter. With additional developments in detector technology, 1 nm spatial resolution in LEEM appears to be within reach. - Highlights: • The use of electron mirrors for aberration correction in LEEM/PEEM is reviewed. • A comparison is made with similar systems in light optics. • Conditions for 1 nm spatial resolution are discussed

  15. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  16. Sensing Phase Aberrations behind Lyot Coronagraphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Rémi; Pueyo, Laurent; Wallace, J. Kent; Shao, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Direct detection of young extrasolar planets orbiting nearby stars can be accomplished from the ground with extreme adaptive optics and coronagraphy in the near-infrared, as long as this combination can provide an image with a dynamic range of 107 after the data are processed. Slowly varying speckles due to residual phase aberrations that are not measured by the primary wave-front sensor are the primary obstacle to achieving such a dynamic range. In particular, non-common optical path aberrations occurring between the wave-front sensor and the coronagraphic occulting spot degrade performance the most. We analyze the passage of both low and high spatial frequency phase ripples, as well as low-order Zernike aberrations, through an apodized pupil Lyot coronagraph in order to demonstrate the way coronagraphic filtering affects various aberrations. We derive the coronagraphically induced cutoff frequency of the filtering and estimate coronagraphic contrast losses due to low-order Zernike aberrations: tilt, astigmatism, defocus, coma, and spherical aberration. Such slowly varying path errors can be measured behind a coronagraph and corrected by a slowly updated optical path delay precompensation or offset asserted on the wave front by the adaptive optics (AO) system. We suggest ways of measuring and correcting all but the lowest spatial frequency aberrations using Lyot plane wave-front data, in spite of the complex interaction between the coronagraph and those mid-spatial frequency aberrations that cause image plane speckles near the coronagraphic focal plane mask occulter's edge. This investigation provides guidance for next-generation coronagraphic instruments currently under construction.

  17. Aberrant right hepatic artery; A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a rare case of aberrant hepatic artery in a 40-year-old male with a history of chronic cholecystitis. During laparoscopic surgery, the artery found to pass anterior to the body the gallbladder and bifurcating anterior to the gallbladder body. The surgery was un eventful. We present this anomaly of the rare condition of aberrant right hepatic artery which should be in mind during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, because inadverant injury could lead to massive bleeding and increase co morbidities. (author)

  18. Multiple shoot cultures of Atropa belladonna: Effect of physico-chemical factors on growth and alkaloid formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple shoot cultures were established from shoot tip and axillary meristem of the plant Atropa belladonna. The cultures were initially raised on agar medium and subsequently maintained on liquid medium of Murashige and Skoog (1962) supplemented with BA. These cultures were subjected to different doses of -y-irradiation. Recovery from the radiation effects was observed in tissues subjected to 29 Gy during four successive passages. Plant growth regulators influenced the growth and morphogenetic events of the tissues. The precursors of tropane alkaloids marginally increased the alkaloid synthesis during the stationary phase of growth. Shoot cultures, established from different field grown plants varying in alkaloid content, were morphologically similar and did not exhibit the parental characteristics with respect to alkaloid formation

  19. DIRECT IN VITRO SHOOTS PROLIFERATION OF CHICK PEA (CICER ARIETINUM L. FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS INDUCED BY THIDIAZURON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheena Parveen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, simple and efficient protocol for direct in vitro multiple shoot induction and plantlet regeneration was achieved from shoot tip explants of Cicer arietinum. The shoot tips were cultured on MS medium fortified with Thidiazuron (TDZ (1.0-7.0 mg/L for multiple shoot induction. Multiple shoots proliferation was best observed at 3.0 mg/L TDZ from the shoot tip explants within three weeks of culture. Shoot number per explant ranged between 2 and 10. Individual shoots were aseptically excised and sub cultured in the same media for shoot elongation. The elongated shoots were transferred to Indole Butyric Acid (IBA (1.0mg/L–5.0mg/L for root induction. Rooting was observed within two weeks of culture. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened under culture conditions and subsequently established in the field conditions. The recorded survival rate of the plants was 86%. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variations.

  20. Translocation of labelled carbon in ramified peach shoots following 14CO2 assimilation by single primary leaves and secondary shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5th, 11th, 20th and 28th primary leaves (counted from the tip downwards, not including the young unfolded leaves) of the rapidied peach shoots and secondary shoots situated on the 6th, 13th and 26 nodes on the central shoots of the peach cultivar Redhaven were fed with μC14CO2 at the time of vegetative tips of the central and secondary shoots were in a state of active growth. Results were scored using the method of autoradiography. It was established that 14C assimilates transport from the primary leaves toward the secondary shoots was favoured by two main factors: a) convenient phloem connection, and b) insufficient proper assimilates for the growth of secondary shoots. Vascular connection proved most convenient within the axial complex ''leaf-axilar shoot'' as well as between the 1st and the 6th node. Connection with the 4th leaf was comparatively good, with the third leaf it was considerably more inconvenient, while the 2nd and the 5th nodes were situated in a most unfavourable position in their relation to the 1st node. Eight to twelve leaves were necessary for a growing secondary shoot in order to be fully self sufficient. The rate of 14C assimilates translocation from the primary leaves toward the secondary shoots depended on the combination of the two above mentioned factors. Evidently the main function of the upper primary leaves was to supply the growing tips of the central and secondary shoots with photosynthesis. Transport from the lower leaves was directed exclusively toward the remified shoots' base and outwards. The young secondary shoots having no more than 8 mature leaves made use of their own and of imported assimilates, and at the same time exported certain quantities. Older secondary shoots were self-sufficient and exported assimilates. (author)

  1. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  2. The molecular path to in vitro shoot regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motte, Hans; Vereecke, Danny; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Plant regeneration through de novo shoot organogenesis in tissue culture is a critical step in most plant transformation and micropropagation procedures. Establishing an efficient regeneration protocol is an empirical process and requires optimization of multiple factors that influence the regeneration capacity. Here, we review the molecular process of shoot induction in a two-step regeneration protocol and focus on the role of auxins and cytokinins. First, during incubation on an auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM), organogenic callus is produced that exhibits characteristics of a root meristem. Subsequent incubation on a cytokinin-rich shoot induction medium (SIM) induces root to shoot conversion. Through a detailed analysis of the different aspects of shoot regeneration, we try to reveal hinge points and novel candidate genes that may be targeted to increase shoot regeneration capacity in order to improve transformation protocols. PMID:24355763

  3. Fruit bearing shoot characteristics of European plum (Prunus domestica L. and Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milatović Dragan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological properties of fruit bearing shoots: length, number of flower buds and vegetative buds and their ratio were studied in 11 cultivars of European plum and 11 cultivars of Japanese plum during a two-year period. Fruit bearing shoots were divided into two groups: long (shoots and short (spurs. For all studied traits, statistically significant differences between plum cultivars were found. Japanese plums had lesser thickness and shorter internodes of shoots in relation to European plums. They also had a significantly higher number of flower buds both on shoots and spurs. Based on obtained results, recommendations for pruning can be made. Cultivars with a higher number of flower buds per 1-m length and in relation to vegetative buds, like most varieties of Japanese plum and some varieties of European plum ("Stanley", "Topper", "Top", "Topking", require severe pruning. On the other hand, cultivars with lower density of flower buds, such as "Čačanska rana" and "Golden Plum", can be pruned slightly.

  4. In vitro mass propagation of Salvia canariensis by axillary shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana Mederos Molina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the establishment of shoots of Salvia canariensis L., five environmental factor treatments were applied. For each axillary node two shoots grew well when explants were incubated at continued ligth for 15 days followed by 16 hrs photoperiod by 30 days. Shoots multiplication was improved on a modified Murashige and Skoog (MS (1962 medium - MS + 825 mg/l NH4NO3 - supplemented with 10-7 M BA and 10-7 M NAA. The shoots produced well developed root systems within three weeks after transfer to the same culture medium supplemented with 5x 10-7 M NAA.

  5. Shoot Apical Meristem Organization in Several Philippine Species of Selaginella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prescillano Zamora

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports for the first time the occurrence of two types of shoot apical meristem organization on the main and lateral shoots of eight Philippine species of Selaginella: (1 shoot apical meristem with a single lenticular apical cell in S. cupressina and S. delicatula and (a shoot apical meristem with a row of several prominent prismatic apical cells in the lateral plane in S. jagorii, S. halconensis, S. involvens (S. polyura, S. peltata, S. flagellifera (S. biformis, S. nummularia, S. aristata, and S. philippina (endemic.

  6. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Igawa Shoji; Sato Takeshi; Watanabe Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants) aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal) and shot timing. S...

  7. Studies on shoot and leaf characters of brinjal plants and their quantitative relationships with brinjal shoot and fruit borer

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, H; Rahman, M.H.; Haque, K.S; K.S. Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    The field experiment was conducted with twenty brinjal varieties/lines during October 2007 to May 2008 to identify shoot and leaf characteristics of brinjal plants for their susceptibility/resistance against brinjal shoot and fruit borer infestation. Borer infestation was influenced by different characters of plant shoot and leaf. Various parameters like plant height, stem diameter, number of branches and leaves plant-1, third leaf length and width were recorded from different varieties used....

  8. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Rice Shoots Exposed to High Arsenate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanli Liu; Ming Li; Chao Han; Fengxia Wu; Bingkun Tu; Pingfang Yang

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of arsenic contaminated water and cereals is a serious threat to humans all over the world. Rice (Oryza sativa“Nipponbare”), as a main cereal crop, can accumulate arsenic more than 10-fold that of in other cereals. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the response of rice subjected to 100 mM arsenate stress, a comparative proteomic analysis of rice shoots in combination with morphological and biochemical investigations have been performed in this study. The results demonstrated that arsenate suppressed the growth of rice seedlings, destroyed the cellular ultra-structure and changed the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species. Moreover, a total of 38 differentially displayed proteins, which were mainly involved in metabolism, redox and protein-metabolism, were identified. The data suggest the arsenic can inhibit rice growth through negatively affecting chloroplast structure and photosynthesis. In addition, upregulation of the proteins involved in redox and protein metabolism might help the rice to be resistant or tolerant to arsenic toxicity. In general, this study improves our understanding about the rice arsenic responsive mechanism.

  9. Shoot inversion-induced ethylene in Pharbitis nil induces the release of apical dominance by restricting shoot elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, T. K.; Cline, M. G.

    1985-01-01

    Shoot inversion induces outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) adjacent to the bend in the stem in Pharbitis nil. In order to determine whether or not ethylene produced by shoot inversion plays a direct role in promoting or inhibiting bud outgrowth, comparisons were made of endogenous levels of ethylene in the HLB and HLB node of plants with and without inverted shoots. That no changes were found suggests that the control of apical dominance does not involve the direction action of ethylene. This conclusion is further supported by evidence that the direct application of ethylene inhibitors or ethrel to inactive or induced lateral buds has no significant effect on bud outgrowth. The hypothesis that ethylene evolved during shoot inversion indirectly promotes the outgrowth of the highest lateral bud (HLB) in restricting terminal bud (TB) growth is found to be supported by the following observations: (1) the restriction of TB growth appears to occur before the beginning of HLB outgrowth; (2) the treatment of the inverted portion of the shoot with AgNO3, an inhibitor of ethylene action, dramatically eliminates both the restriction of TB growth and the promotion of HLB outgrowth which usually accompany shoot inversion; and (3) the treatment of the upper shoot of an upright plant with ethrel mimics shoot inversion by retarding upper shoot growth and inducing outgrowth of the lateral bud basipetal to the treated region.

  10. X-ray induction of mitotic and meiotic chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1964 six pairs of rat kangaroo (Potorous tridactylis) were obtained from Australia. The tissues of these animals were used to initiate cell lines. Since this species has a low chromosome number of six pairs, each pair with its own distinctive morphology, it is particularly favorable for cytogenetic research. In cell cultures derived from the corneal endothelial tissues of one animal there emerged a number of haploid cells. The number of haploid cells in the cultures reached as high as 20% of the total mitotic configurations. The in vitro diploid and haploid mixture cell cultures could be a resemblance or a coincidence to the mixture existence of the diploid primary spermatocytes and the haploid secondary spermatocytes (gametes) in the in vivo testicular tissues of the male animals. It would be interesting to compare reactions of the haploid and diploid cell mixture, either in the cultures or in the testes, to x-ray exposure. Two other studies involving x-ray effects on Chinese hamster oocyte maturation and meiotic chromosomes and the x-ray induction of Chinese hamster spermatocyte meiotic chromosome aberrations have been done in this laboratory. A review of these three studies involving diploid and haploid chromosomes may lead to further research in the x-ray induction of chromosome aberrations

  11. Adventitious Shoot Regeneration from Leaf of Uenishiwase Persimmon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jun-lian; LIU Xiao-na; ZHANG Zi-de

    2004-01-01

    Effects of basal mediums, hormones and their concentrations on the shoot regeneration from leaf of sweet persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb. Cv. Uenishiwase) were studied by orthogonal design trial. The result showed that modified Murashige and Skoog [MS (1/2 N)] was the most optimum for the regeneration and 1/2 MS was better than MS. Shoot percentage in the medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT(zeatin) was much higher than that of other two concentrations, among which 2.0 mg L-1 ZT was much better than 1.0 mg L-1 ZT and shoot percentage in the concentration of 1.0 mg L-1 ZT was only 4%. There were no any beneficial effects when supplementing IAA in the medium. Shoot percentage and average shoots perexplantsweredramaticallydecreasedinthe 2.0 mg L-1 IAA. Data in the orthogonal trial indicated that ZT was the most effective factor in the shoot regenerating of Uenishwase persimmon and basal medium was important too, but IAAhad no any beneficial effects at all. In the orthogonal trial, the best result was achieved in MS (1/ 2 N) medium containing 4.0 mg L-1 ZT and 1.0 mg L-1 IAA, in which shoot percentage and average shoots per explants were 86% and 2.2, respectively.

  12. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, R.K.; Tarver, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics); Yates, B.L.; Morgan, W.F. (California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G[sub 1] Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author).

  13. Modelling the formation of polycentric chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exchange-type chromosome aberrations produced by ionizing radiation or restriction enzymes are believed to result from pairwise interaction of DNA double-strand breaks (dsb). In addition to dicentrics, such aberrations may include higher-order polycentries (tricentries, tetracentrics, etc.). The authors have developed computer programs that calculate the probability of the various polycentrics for a given average number of pairwise interactions. Two models are used. Model I incorporates kinetic competition between restitution, complete exchanges (illegitimate recombination events), and incomplete exchanges. Model II allows unrestituted breaks even if there is no recombination. The models were applied to experimental observations of aberrations produced in G1 Chinese hamster ovary cells after electroporation with the restriction enzyme PvuII, which produces blunt-end dsb. (author)

  14. Chromosomal aberrations induced by alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chromosomal aberrations produced by the ionizing radiation are commonly used when it is necessary to establish the exposure dose of an individual, it is a study that is used like complement of the traditional physical systems and its application is only in cases in that there is doubt about what indicates the conventional dosimetry. The biological dosimetry is based on the frequency of aberrations in the chromosomes of the lymphocytes of the individual in study and the dose is calculated taking like reference to the dose-response curves previously generated In vitro. A case of apparent over-exposure to alpha particles to which is practiced analysis of chromosomal aberrations to settle down if in fact there was exposure and as much as possible, to determine the presumed dose is presented. (Author)

  15. Estimation of dose from chromosome aberration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods and skills of evaluating dose from correctly scored shromsome aberration rate are presented, and supplemented with corresponding BASIC computer code. The possibility and preventive measures of excessive probability of missing score of the aberrations in some of the current routine score methods are discussed. The use of dose-effect relationship with exposure time correction factor G in evaluating doses and their confidence intervals, dose estimation in mixed n-γ exposure, and identification of high by nonuniform acute exposure to low LET radiation and its dose estimation are discussed in more detail. The difference of estimated dose due to whether the interaction between subleisoms produced by n and γ have been taken into account is examined. In fitting the standard dose-aberration rate curve, proper weighing of experiment points and comparison with commonly accepted values are emphasised, and the coefficient of variation σy√y of the aberration rate y as a function of dose and exposure time is given. In appendix I and II, the dose-aberration rate formula is derived from dual action theory, and the time variation of subleisom is illustrated and in appendix III, the estimation of dose from scores of two different types of aberrations (of other related score) is illustrated. Two computer codes are given in appendix IV, one is a simple code, the other a complete code, including the fitting of standard curve. the skills of using compressed data storage, and the production of simulated 'data ' for testing the curve fitting procedure are also given

  16. Variants of Digitalis obscura from irradiated shoot tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoot tips excised from genotype T4 of Digitalis obscura were exposed to gamma rays (20–100 Gy). Radiosensitivity was assessed and LD50 determined was about 60 Gy. The effect of the herbicide amitrole on shoot-tip culture was investigated, efficient bleaching was obtained with 10 mg/l amitrole. Shoot tips mutagenized (20–40 Gy) were cultured on several selective amitrole-containing media, but none of them permitted prolonged survival of the green shoots formed. Ploidy level of the plantlets developed was analysed by flow cytometry 8 and 18 months after culture establishment. Variations detected corresponded to aneuploid changes and increased in parallel with the gamma radiation dose. Plantlets developed from irradiated shoot tips presented a high variability in their cardenolide production (878 to 3291 μg/g d.w.), including variants with similar or even higher productivities than the native T4 plant. (author)

  17. Mental Illness, Mass Shootings, and the Politics of American Firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeish, Kenneth T.

    2015-01-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  18. Mental illness, mass shootings, and the politics of American firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzl, Jonathan M; MacLeish, Kenneth T

    2015-02-01

    Four assumptions frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control "won't prevent" another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular instances. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime, and when "mentally ill" ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. PMID:25496006

  19. Modeling shoot-tip temperature in the greenhouse environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy-balance model is described that predicts vinca (Catharanthus roseus L.) shoot-tip temperature using four environmental measurements: solar radiation and dry bulb, wet bulb, and glazing material temperature. The time and magnitude of the differences between shoot-tip and air temperature were determined in greenhouses maintained at air temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, or 35 °C. At night, shoot-tip temperature was always below air temperature. Shoot-tip temperature decreased from 0.5 to 5 °C below air temperature as greenhouse glass temperature decreased from 2 to 15 °C below air temperature. During the photoperiod under low vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and low air temperature, shoot-tip temperature increased ≈4 °C as solar radiation increased from 0 to 600 W·m-2. Under high VPD and high air temperature, shoot-tip temperature initially decreased 1 to 2 °C at sunrise, then increased later in the morning as solar radiation increased. The model predicted shoot-tip temperatures within ±1 °C of 81% of the observed 1-hour average shoot-tip temperatures. The model was used to simulate shoot-tip temperatures under different VPD, solar radiation, and air temperatures. Since the rate of leaf and flower development are influenced by the temperature of the meristematic tissues, a model of shoot-tip temperature will be a valuable tool to predict plant development in greenhouses and to control the greenhouse environment based on a plant temperature setpoint. (author)

  20. Determination of chromatic aberration in the human eye by means of Fresnel propagation theory

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Candela, David; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Illueca Contri, Carlos; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Vázquez Ferri, Carmen; Miret Marí, Juan José

    2005-01-01

    In this communication, the authors have determined the longitudinal chromatic aberrations in real eyes. The method that has been used combines real data of corneal morphology, central thickness of crystalline lens and biometric measures of axial length together with numerical calculation of the propagation process. The curvature of the crystalline lens has been adjusted to different curvature models and refractive index distributions. The wavelength dependence of all ocular media has been mod...

  1. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, P.W., E-mail: peter.hawkes@cemes.fr

    2015-09-15

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies.

  2. Aberration features in directional dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The motion of the Earth around the Sun causes an annual change in the magnitude and direction of the arrival velocity of dark matter particles on Earth, in a way analogous to aberration of stellar light. In directional detectors, aberration of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) modulates the pattern of nuclear recoil directions in a way that depends on the orbital velocity of the Earth and the local galactic distribution of WIMP velocities. Knowing the former, WIMP aberration can give information on the latter, besides being a curious way of confirming the revolution of the Earth and the extraterrestrial provenance of WIMPs. While observing the full aberration pattern requires extremely large exposures, we claim that the annual variation of the mean recoil direction or of the event counts over specific solid angles may be detectable with moderately large exposures. For example, integrated counts over Galactic hemispheres separated by planes perpendicular to Earth's orbit would modulate annually, resulting in Galactic Hemisphere Annual Modulations (GHAM) with amplitudes larger than the usual non-directional annual modulation

  3. Prenatal hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, K; Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Rabol, A;

    1996-01-01

    With routine use of obstetric ultrasonography, fetal low-grade hydronephrosis is commonly detected, but may resolve spontaneously after birth. Two cases are presented to illustrate that in some cases such findings can express intermittent hydronephrosis caused by aberrant renal vessels. Renal det...

  4. The correction of electron lens aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. - Highlights: • Geometrical aberration correction. • Chromatic aberration correction. • 50 pm resolution. • High-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy. • Extensive bibliographies

  5. Optical advantages of astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, De Wet; Schöttl, Peter; Bern, Gregor; Heimsath, Anna; Nitz, Peter

    2016-05-01

    Astigmatic aberration corrected heliostats adapt their shape in dependence of the incidence angle of the sun on the heliostat. Simulations show that this optical correction leads to a higher concentration ratio at the target and thus in a decrease in required receiver aperture in particular for smaller heliostat fields.

  6. Anti-forensics of chromatic aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Owen; Stamm, Matthew C.

    2015-03-01

    Over the past decade, a number of information forensic techniques have been developed to identify digital image manipulation and falsification. Recent research has shown, however, that an intelligent forger can use anti-forensic countermeasures to disguise their forgeries. In this paper, an anti-forensic technique is proposed to falsify the lateral chromatic aberration present in a digital image. Lateral chromatic aberration corresponds to the relative contraction or expansion between an image's color channels that occurs due to a lens's inability to focus all wavelengths of light on the same point. Previous work has used localized inconsistencies in an image's chromatic aberration to expose cut-and-paste image forgeries. The anti-forensic technique presented in this paper operates by estimating the expected lateral chromatic aberration at an image location, then removing deviations from this estimate caused by tampering or falsification. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate that our anti-forensic technique can be used to effectively disguise evidence of an image forgery.

  7. Cosmological parameter estimation: impact of CMB aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces an apparent deflection of the observed CMB photons, i.e. aberration, and a shift in their frequency, i.e. Doppler effect. Both effects distort the temperature multipoles alm's via a mixing matrix at any l. The common lore when performing a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation is to consider that Doppler affects only the l = 1 multipole, and neglect any other corrections. In this paper we reconsider the validity of this assumption, showing that it is actually not robust when sky cuts are included to model CMB foreground contaminations. Assuming a simple fiducial cosmological model with five parameters, we simulated CMB temperature maps of the sky in a WMAP-like and in a Planck-like experiment and added aberration and Doppler effects to the maps. We then analyzed with a MCMC in a Bayesian framework the maps with and without aberration and Doppler effects in order to assess the ability of reconstructing the parameters of the fiducial model. We find that, depending on the specific realization of the simulated data, the parameters can be biased up to one standard deviation for WMAP and almost two standard deviations for Planck. Therefore we conclude that in general it is not a solid assumption to neglect aberration in a CMB based cosmological parameter estimation

  8. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, K.L.

    1982-08-01

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references.

  9. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Borghezan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, and ended on 2/6/2007, totalizing 144 days of evaluation. During the 2008/2009 cycle, phenology and shoot growth for 'Cabernet Sauvignon' were assessed from grape development (1/13/2009 (pea-sized grapes until shoot vegetative growth had ceased. Budburst occurred in the second half of September, and shoot-growth cessation occurred during ripening. Higher growth rates (about 4 cm per day were observed in pre- and post-flowering, followed by reduction due to the competition for photosynthates for the formation of flowers and bunches. Temperature and photoperiod induce grapevine shoots to cease growth in the highland regions of Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

  10. Metabolic changes associated with shoot formation in tobacco callus cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callus tissue derived from Nicotiana tabacum L. stem pith parenchyma cells was grown either on medium which maintains the callus in an undifferentiated state, or on medium which induces the formation of shoots. Two complementary types of studies were performed with the goal of establishing metabolic markers for the initiation of shoot formation: one designed to characterize the flow of radioactive sucrose into various metabolic pools, and one which allowed measurement of intermediary metabolite concentrations. In the former, callus tissue was incubated in [U-14C]sucrose for periods up to one hour, and patterns of metabolite labelling in tissue grown on shoot-forming and non-shoot-forming media were compared. In the latter studies, tissue was grown for an entire subculture period on non-shoot-forming medium labelled with [U-14C]sucrose, then subcultured to labelled non-shoot-forming or shoot-forming media, and sampled at intervals during the first week of growth. 189 references

  11. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia × candida Pers

    OpenAIRE

    Randall P. Niedz; Evens, Terence J.; Hyndman, Scott E.; Adkins, Scott; Chellemi, Daniel O.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida ‘Creamsickle’. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4+, NO3−, K+, FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weight of shoot mass, and shoot number. The experiment to determine the levels of NH4+, NO3−, and K+, was conducted as a 2-component NH4+: K+ mixture crossed by [NO3−] and resulted in an experimental de...

  12. Electro-Hydrodynamic Shooting Phenomenon of Liquid Metal Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Wen-Qiang; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We reported an electro-hydrodynamic shooting phenomenon of liquid metal stream. A small voltage direct current electric field would induce ejection of liquid metal inside capillary tube and then shooting into sodium hydroxide solution to form discrete droplets. The shooting velocity has positive relationship with the applied voltage while the droplet size is dominated by the aperture diameter of the capillary nozzle. Further, the motion of the liquid metal droplets can be flexibly manipulated by the electrodes. This effect suggests an easy going way to generate metal droplets in large quantity, which is important from both fundamental and practical aspects.

  13. Shoot growth of Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Borghezan; Olavo Gavioli; Hamilton Justino Vieira; Aparecido Lima da Silva

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate shoot growth of the grapevine varieties Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2006/2007, and Cabernet Sauvignon, during 2008/2009, in São Joaquim, SC, Brazil. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard trained on a vertical trellis system. The shoots of the central part of the plants were selected, and the lengths from the base to the apex of 20 shoots per cultivar were evaluated. In 2006/2007, monitoring began at pruning, on 9/15/2006, ...

  14. Recent non-chemical approaches to estimate the shooting distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Shooting distance estimation offers useful information for the reconstruction of firearm related incidents. The muzzle to target distance is usually estimated by examining the bullet entrance hole and the gunshot residue pattern. To visualize the pattern the forensic analyst usually uses presumptive tests based on color chemical reactions that are applied using long and tedious proceedings. Due to the drawbacks of the chemical tests recent developments for shooting distance estimation not based on color chemical tests were described in the literature. The present review covers the approaches for shooting distance estimation published in the last 10 years considering two types of target, clothing and skin. PMID:24747671

  15. Adaptive and aberrant reward prediction signals in the human brain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roiser, J.P.; Stephan, K.E.; Ouden, H.E.M. den; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Theories of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia hypothesize a role for aberrant reinforcement signaling driven by dysregulated dopamine transmission. Recently, we provided evidence of aberrant reward learning in symptomatic, but not asymptomatic patients with schizophrenia, using a novel paradigm

  16. The effect of irradiation on the cell ultrastructure of the shoot apical meristem in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irradiation with doses of 0.02-0.3 kGy of γ-rays could cause varied damages to the cellular and subcellular structures of the shoot apical meristems in garlic. The irradiated cells were elongated and cell walls were thickened. The highest radio-sensitivity was found in the vacuoles which developed morphological abnormality before the end of dormancy, while the nuclei and nucleoli, which remained intact even after the cell walls were broken, demonstrated the highest resistance to irradiation. The observed morphological damages were of higher magnitude in sprouting period than that in dormancy in which irradiation treatments were conducted, suggesting that metabolism plays an important role in the development of initial irradiation lesions into structural damages in the cells

  17. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk; Ireneusz Bilichowski; Elżbieta Mikiciuk-Olasik; Halina Wysokińska

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid) in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP). It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots s...

  18. Primary aberrations in focused radially polarized vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biss, David P.; Brown, T. G.

    2004-02-01

    We study the effect of primary aberrations on the 3-D polarization of the electric field in a focused lowest order radially polarized beam. A full vector diffraction treatment of the focused beams is used. Attention is given to the effects of primary spherical, astigmatic, and comatic aberrations on the local polarization, Strehl ratio, and aberration induced degradation of the longitudinal field at focus

  19. Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Improve Basketball Shooting Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-01-01

    The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of the Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court positions and height. The phase space volume that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations are then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but human factors as well.

  20. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Zeichner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  1. Recent Developments in the Methods of Estimating Shooting Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Zeichner; Baruch Glattstein

    2002-01-01

    A review of developments during the past 10 years in the methods of estimating shooting distance is provided. This review discusses the examination of clothing targets, cadavers, and exhibits that cannot be processed in the laboratory. The methods include visual/microscopic examinations, color tests, and instrumental analysis of the gunshot residue deposits around the bullet entrance holes. The review does not cover shooting distance estimation from shotguns that fired pellet loads.

  2. LAX and SPA: Major regulators of shoot branching in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Komatsu, Keishi; Maekawa, Masahiko; Ujiie, Shin; Satake, Yuzuki; Furutani, Ikuyo; Okamoto, Hironobu; Shimamoto, Ko; Kyozuka, Junko

    2003-01-01

    The aerial architecture of plants is determined primarily by the pattern of shoot branching. Although shoot apical meristem initiation during embryogenesis has been extensively studied by molecular genetic approaches using Arabidopsis, little is known about the genetic mechanisms controlling axillary meristem initiation, mainly because of the insufficient number of mutants that specifically alter it. We identified the LAX PANICLE (LAX) and SMALL PANICLE (SPA) genes as the main regulators of a...

  3. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzelac Branka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA were compared to those of untreated control plants.

  4. Effect of cytokinins on shoot apical meristem in Nicotiana tabacum

    OpenAIRE

    Uzelac Branka; Janošević Dušica; Stojičić Dragana; Budimir Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Cytokinins are involved in plant cell proliferation leading to plant growth and morphogenesis. The size, activity and maintenance of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are defined by a balanced rate of mitotic cell divisions and functional cell differentiation that are controlled by cytokinins. In order to investigate the effect of exogenous cytokinin on SAM, morpho-anatomical changes in the shoot apices of tobacco treated with benzyladenine (BA) were compared to those of untreated control...

  5. The Hidden Advantage in Shoot/Don’t Shoot Simulation Exercises for Police Recruit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Davies

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the past thirty-five years, developments in computer-related technology have been providing increasingly more sophisticated simulation alternatives for training law enforcement officers. Such developments have leveraged on the back of progress achieved in the aviation, military and medical professions as law enforcement educators seek to address the challenges of training for high-risk, high-stakes professional environments. While globally, simulation based learning exercises are at the forefront in use-of-force training with firearms for police recruits there is limited published research which views the influence of these exercises on operational practice through the lens of the police recruit as they engage with the demands of their volatile, unpredictable workplace. This paper discusses a case study of a cohort of 372 police recruits whose police academy education program included participation in simulation based learning exercises centred on decision making in use-of-force. The pivotal inclusion in the study was the opportunity for the police recruits to reflect on the influence of the simulation exercise experience from an operational perspective. The study revealed an unvoiced advantage—while trainers are focusing on the amount of ammunition used, the marksmanship accuracy, and the justification for the use-of-force, the students are unconsciously building a repertoire of realistic experiences as a reference library for the moment of decision in real life shoot/don’t shoot incidents.

  6. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Waldie, Tanya; Sawchuk, Megan G; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin; Leyser, Ottoline

    2016-04-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  7. Connective Auxin Transport in the Shoot Facilitates Communication between Shoot Apices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tom; Hines, Geneviève; van Rongen, Martin; Sawchuk, Megan G.; Scarpella, Enrico; Ljung, Karin

    2016-01-01

    The bulk polar movement of the plant signaling molecule auxin through the stem is a long-recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. Here we show that the highly polar, high conductance polar auxin transport stream (PATS) is only part of a multimodal auxin transport network in the stem. The dynamics of auxin movement through stems are inconsistent with a single polar transport regime and instead suggest widespread low conductance, less polar auxin transport in the stem, which we term connective auxin transport (CAT). The bidirectional movement of auxin between the PATS and the surrounding tissues, mediated by CAT, can explain the complex auxin transport kinetics we observe. We show that the auxin efflux carriers PIN3, PIN4, and PIN7 are major contributors to this auxin transport connectivity and that their activity is important for communication between shoot apices in the regulation of shoot branching. We propose that the PATS provides a long-range, consolidated stream of information throughout the plant, while CAT acts locally, allowing tissues to modulate and be modulated by information in the PATS. PMID:27119525

  8. The correction of electron lens aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, P W

    2015-09-01

    The progress of electron lens aberration correction from about 1990 onwards is chronicled. Reasonably complete lists of publications on this and related topics are appended. A present for Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek in the year of their 65th birthdays. By a happy coincidence, this review was completed in the year that both Max Haider and Ondrej Krivanek reached the age of 65. It is a pleasure to dedicate it to the two leading actors in the saga of aberration corrector design and construction. They would both wish to associate their colleagues with such a tribute but it is the names of Haider and Krivanek (not forgetting Joachim Zach) that will remain in the annals of electron optics, next to that of Harald Rose. I am proud to know that both regard me as a friend as well as a colleague. PMID:26025209

  9. Surveys of harvest technology of winter bamboo shoots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tian-hu

    2011-01-01

    Winter bamboo shoots are widely used in Asian cuisine. We surveyed growth depth (tail depth and root depth), harvest speed, and harvest processes to provide information for developing new harvest technology. The tail depth of most winter bamboo shoots was 100-350 mm below the soil surface, and the root depth was 200-500 mm below the soil surface. Most winter bamboo shoots were difficult to locate with only the naked eye. The digging depth was 200-500 mm to cut winter bamboo shoots from the root. The highest harvest rate was 7.75 times faster than the slowest one and the average harvest speed ratio of men: women was about 1.71:1. The harvest process of winter bamboo shoots was divisible into three steps: searching, digging a hole (around the shoot) and cutting the root. The ratio of searching time to the sum of digging and cutting time was about 8:1, showing that searching required more time than digging and cutting together.

  10. Transport of rubidium and strontium in detached wheat shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb is easily translocated in xylem and phloem (similar to K), while Sr is mobile in the xylem but rather immobile in the phloem. Wheat shoots from the field were cut 1 week after ear emergence below or above the uppermost node and incubated for 3 days standing in flasks with 2 mM rubidium chloride + 2 mM strontium chloride. In some plants the phloem flux to the ear was interrupted by steam-girdling below the ear. Rb and Sr were analyzed in the different parts of the shoots by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Rb content in the ear depended remarkably on the treatment: 0.139 mg/ear were detected in shoots cut below the node (A), 0.015 mg/ear in shoots cut above the node (B), 0.019 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node after removing the flag leaf spread (C) and only 0.001 mg/ear in shoots cut below the node and steam-girdled below the ear (D). The Sr content was not drastically affected by these treatments: 0.278 (a), 0.317 (b), 0.356 (C) and 0.214 (D) mg/ear. These results suggest that Rb was transferred from the xylem to the phloem and translocated mainly with the phloem stream to the ear

  11. Micropropagation of Asparagus by in vitro shoot culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajner, Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is most extensively studied species within the genus Asparagus, which is well known as garden asparagus. This species is dioecious with unisexual flowers, which means that generative propagation gives roughly equal number of male and female plants. Male plants are high yielders and preferred commercially over female plants. Tissue culture techniques could efficiently promote vegetative propagation of male plants and pave the way for efficient plant breeding.This chapter describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for developing rapid growing in vitro Asparagus shoot cultures. The source of explants, inoculation, and shoot proliferation, followed by shoot propagation, rooting, and acclimatization is described. The optimal medium for Asparagus micropropagation described in this chapter is composed of MS macro- and microelements and a combination of auxins and cytokinins. Plant growth regulators NAA, kinetin, and BA were used in various concentrations. Three different media representing the whole micropropagation protocol of Asparagus are described; medium for shoot initiation, medium for shoot multiplication, and medium for root formation. By in vitro propagation of Asparagus, root initiation is difficult, but can be promoted by adding growth retardant ancymidol which also greatly promotes shoot development and suppresses callus formation. PMID:23179712

  12. Aberrant laryngeal location of Onchocerca lupi in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Cruz, Luís; Coelho, Ana; Martinho, Filipe; Mansinho, Mário; Annoscia, Giada; Lia, Riccardo P; Giannelli, Alessio; Otranto, Domenico; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira

    2016-06-01

    Onchocerca lupi (Spirurida, Onchocercidae) is an emerging vector-borne helminth that causes nodular lesions associated with acute or chronic ocular disease in dogs and cats. Since its first description in dogs in 1991, this zoonotic filarioid has been increasingly reported in Europe and the United States. An 8-year-old outdoor mixed-breed female dog from the Algarve (southern Portugal) was presented with a history of severe dyspnoea. Cervical and thoracic radiographs revealed a slight reduction in the diameter of the cervical trachea and a moderate increase in radiopacity of the laryngeal soft tissue. An exploratory laryngoscopy was performed, revealing filiform worms associated with stenosis of the thyroid cartilage and a purulent necrotic tissue in the larynx lumen. A single sessile nodule, protruding from the dorsal wall of the laryngeal lumen caused a severe reduction of the glottis and tracheal diameter. Fragments of the worms were morphologically and molecularly identified as O. lupi. Histological examination of the nodule showed a granulomatous reaction with sections of coiled gravid female nematodes. Following laryngoscopy, a tracheostomy tube was inserted to relieve dyspnoea and ivermectin (300μg/kg, once a week, for 8weeks) combined with prednisolone was prescribed. The dog showed a complete recovery. Although O. lupi has been isolated in human patients from the spinal cord, this is the first report of an aberrant migration of O. lupi in a dog. The veterinary medical community should pay attention to aberrant location of O. lupi and consider onchocercosis as a differential diagnosis for airway obstruction in dogs. PMID:26732654

  13. Do patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant salience?

    OpenAIRE

    Roiser, J. P.; Stephan, K E; den Ouden, H. E. M.; Barnes, T. R. E.; Friston, K.J.; Joyce, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that some psychotic symptoms reflect ‘aberrant salience’, related to dysfunctional reward learning. To test this hypothesis we investigated whether patients with schizophrenia showed impaired learning of task-relevant stimulusreinforcement associations in the presence of distracting task-irrelevant cues. METHODS: We tested 20 medicated patients with schizophrenia and 17 controls on a reaction time game, the Salience Attribution Test. In this game, ...

  14. Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Pamplona, Vitor F.; Oliveira, Manuel M.; Aliaga, Daniel G.; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable optical corrections when looking at displays. Our tailoring process uses aberration and scattering maps to account for refractive errors and cataracts. It splits an object's light field into multiple instances that are each in-focus for a given eye sub-aperture. Their integrati...

  15. Assessing the construct validity of aberrant salience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Schmidt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to validate the psychometric properties of a recently developed paradigm that aims to measure salience attribution processes proposed to contribute to positive psychotic symptoms, the Salience Attribution Test (SAT. The “aberrant salience” measure from the SAT showed good face validity in previous results, with elevated scores both in high-schizotypy individuals, and in patients with schizophrenia suffering from delusions. Exploring the construct validity of salience attribution variables derived from the SAT is important, since other factors, including latent inhibition/learned irrelevance, attention, probabilistic reward learning, sensitivity to probability, general cognitive ability and working memory could influence these measures. Fifty healthy participants completed schizotypy scales, the SAT, a learned irrelevance task, and a number of other cognitive tasks tapping into potentially confounding processes. Behavioural measures of interest from each task were entered into a principal components analysis, which yielded a five-factor structure accounting for ~75% percent of the variance in behaviour. Implicit aberrant salience was found to load onto its own factor, which was associated with elevated “Introvertive Anhedonia” schizotypy, replicating our previous finding. Learned irrelevance loaded onto a separate factor, which also included implicit adaptive salience, but was not associated with schizotypy. Explicit adaptive and aberrant salience, along with a measure of probabilistic learning, loaded onto a further factor, though this also did not correlate with schizotypy. These results suggest that the measures of learned irrelevance and implicit adaptive salience might be based on similar underlying processes, which are dissociable both from implicit aberrant salience and explicit measures of salience.

  16. The effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds in shoot cultures of Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This report describes the effect of triacontanol on shoot multiplication and production of antioxidant compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid in S. officinalis cultures grown on MS basal medium (agar solidified medium supplemented with 0.1 mg l-1 IAA, 0.45 mg l-1 BAP. It was found that shoot proliferation significantly increased when triacontanol at concentrations of 5, 10 or 20 µg l-1 was added to the medium. HPLC analysis of acetone and methanolic extracts of sage shoots showed that the production of diterpenoids, carnosic acid/carnosol ratio, as well as, contents of rosmarinic acid were also affected by the treatment with triacontanol. The highest stimulation effect of triacontanol was observed on the production of carnosol, where the treatment with 20 µg l l-1 increased the content of this diterpenoid 4.5-fold compared to that in the control (sage shoots growing on MS basal medium, only.

  17. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  18. DNA Repair Defects and Chromosomal Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, K. A.; Huff, J. L.; Pluth, J. M.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Yields of chromosome aberrations were assessed in cells deficient in DNA doublestrand break (DSB) repair, after exposure to acute or to low-dose-rate (0.018 Gy/hr) gamma rays or acute high LET iron nuclei. We studied several cell lines including fibroblasts deficient in ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated; product of the gene that is mutated in ataxia telangiectasia patients) or NBS (nibrin; product of the gene mutated in the Nijmegen breakage syndrome), and gliomablastoma cells that are proficient or lacking in DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity. Chromosomes were analyzed using the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosome painting method in cells at the first division post irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). Gamma irradiation induced greater yields of both simple and complex exchanges in the DSB repair-defective cells than in the normal cells. The quadratic dose-response terms for both simple and complex chromosome exchanges were significantly higher for the ATM- and NBS-deficient lines than for normal fibroblasts. However, in the NBS cells the linear dose-response term was significantly higher only for simple exchanges. The large increases in the quadratic dose-response terms in these repair-defective cell lines points the importance of the functions of ATM and NBS in chromatin modifications to facilitate correct DSB repair and minimize the formation of aberrations. The differences found between ATM- and NBS-deficient cells at low doses suggest that important questions should with regard to applying observations of radiation sensitivity at high dose to low-dose exposures. For aberrations induced by iron nuclei, regression models preferred purely linear dose responses for simple exchanges and quadratic dose responses for complex exchanges. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors of all of

  19. Radiotherapeutical chromosomal aberrations in laryngeal cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić-Divjak Svetlana L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The authors present the results of cytogenetic analysis of 21 patients with laryngeal carcinomas diagnosed and treated in the period 1995-2000 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology and Maxillofacial Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia and Clinical Center of Novi Sad. Material and methods. The patients were specially monitored and the material was analyzed at the Institute of Human Genetics of the School of Medicine in Belgrade as well as in the Laboratory for Radiological Protection of the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health 'Dr Dragomir Karajovic' in Belgrade. Results. The incidence of chromosomal aberrations and incidence of exchange of material between sister chromatids were observed in the preparation of the metaphasic lymphocyte chromosomes of the peripheral blood obtained in the culture. Structural aberrations were found on the chromosomes in the form of breakups, rings, translocations and dicentrics as early as after a single exposure of patients to tumor radiation dose of 2 Gy in the field sized 5x7. Out of the total number of 35 cultivated blood samples obtained from 13 patients, 21 were successfully cultivated and they were proved to contain chromosomal aberrations. Some of the peripheral blood samples failed to show cell growth in vitro due to the lethal cell damages in vivo. Discussion.. We have consluded that the number of structural aberrations cannot be used as a biological measure of the absorbed ionizing radiation dose. The presence of aberrations per se is indicative of the mutagenic effect of the ionizing radiation, which was also confirmed in our series on the original model by cultivation of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in the culture of the cells of the volunteer donors upon in vitro radiation. Using the method of bromdeoxyuridylreductase, the increased incidence of SCE as a mutagenic effect was registered. Conclusion. It has been concluded that the increase of absorbed radiation dose in

  20. Chromatic variation of aberration: the role of induced aberrations and raytrace direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Nobis, T.; Shafer, D.; Gross, H.

    2015-09-01

    The design and optimization process of an optical system contains several first order steps. The definition of the appropriate lens type and the fixation of the raytrace direction are some of them. The latter can be understood as a hidden assumption rather than an aware design step. This is usually followed by the determination of the paraxial lens layout calculated for the primary wavelength. It is obvious, that for this primary wavelength the paraxial calculations are independent of raytrace direction. Today, most of the lens designs are specified not to work only for one wavelength, but in a certain wavelength range. Considering such rays of other wavelengths, one can observe that depending on the direction there will already occur differences in the first order chromatic aberrations and additionally in the chromatic variation of the third-order aberrations. The reason for this effect are induced aberrations emerging from one surface to the following surfaces by perturbed ray heights and ray angles. It can be shown, that the total amount of surface-resolved first order chromatic aberrations and the chromatic variation of the five primary aberrations can be split into an intrinsic part and an induced part. The intrinsic part is independent of the raytrace direction whereas the induced part is not.

  1. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Septennial ionahta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, L.B. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)]. E-mail: libinzhou@impcas.ac.cn; Li, W.J. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Ma, S. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Dong, X.C. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yu, L.X. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Li, Q. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhou, G.M. [Radiobiology Department, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Gao, Q.X. [Institute of Cell Biology, School of Life Science, Lanzhou University, Southern Tianshui Road 222, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2006-03-15

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  2. Effects of ion beam irradiation on adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L. B.; Li, W. J.; Ma, S.; Dong, X. C.; Yu, L. X.; Li, Q.; Zhou, G. M.; Gao, Q. X.

    2006-03-01

    The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiation on adventitious shoots from in vitro leaf explants of two different Saintpaulia ionahta (Mauve and Indikon) cultivars were studied with regard to tissue increase, shoots differentiation and morphology changes in the shoots. The experimental results showed that the survival fraction of shoot formation for the Mauve and Indikon irradiated with the carbon ion beam at 20 Gy were 0.715 and 0.600, respectively, while those for both the cultivars exposed to the X-ray irradiation at the same dose were 1.000. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Mauve with respect to X-ray was about two. Secondly, the percentage of regenerating explants with malformed shoots in all Mauve regenerating explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 49.6%, while that irradiated with the same dose of X-ray irradiation was only 4.7%; as for Saintpaulia ionahta Indikon irradiated with 20 Gy carbon ion beam, the percentage was 43.3%, which was higher than that of X-ray irradiation. Last, many chlorophyll deficient and other varieties of mutants were obtained in this study. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the leaf explants of Saintpaulia ionahta is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy to 25 Gy for carbon ion beam irradiation.

  3. Convergences and divergences in polar auxin transport and shoot development in land plant evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Tomomichi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2009-01-01

    A shoot is a reiterated structure consisting of stems and leaves and is the prevailing body plan in most land plant lineages. Vascular plants form shoots in the diploid generation, whereas mosses do so in the haploid generation.1 However, whether these plants use similar molecular mechanisms in shoot development and how the genetic networks for shoot development evolved is not clear. In our recent paper,2 we examined polar auxin transport in several mosses, which is essential for shoot develo...

  4. Signals flowing from mature tissues to shoot apical meristem affect phyllotaxis in coniferous shoot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Zagórska-Marek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial homodromy in growing shoots of perennial plants with spiral phyllotaxis is the case when the chirality of phyllotactic pattern does not change in consecutive growth increments of the same axis. In conifers such as Picea or Abies this rule is strictly observed, except for the rare cases of discontinuous phyllotactic transitions. In Torreya, however, the chirality changes, at random, every year. The pattern of primordia packing, executed by vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM, depends in Torreya on their identity. The primordia of bud scales are initiated in the decussate and those of needles in bijugate spiral pattern. The decussate, achiral i.e. neutral pattern always precedes the formation of new spiral pattern and thus facilitates random selection of its chiral configuration. Periodic change in organ identity cannot itself be responsible for the special behavior of Torreya, because in other conifers it also exists. There is, however, one important difference: in Torreya, when the initiation of bud scales begins at SAM, the distance between differentiated protoxylem and the initiation site gradually increases, while in other conifers it remains constant and small. In Torreya, at this phase of development, the rate of xylem differentiation and the rate of organogenesis become uncoupled. Closer anatomical examination shows that the decussate pattern in a bud scale zone develops slowly suggesting gradual decrease of the putative signal flowing acropetally from differentiated protoxylem, responsible for positioning of primordia. We hypothesize that in the absence of this signal SAM starts acting autonomously, distributing primordia according to their identity only. A constant presence of the signal in other conifers assures the continuation of the same phyllotactic pattern throughout the period of bud scale formation, despite the change in organ identity.

  5. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  6. Genomic copy number analysis of a spectrum of blue nevi identifies recurrent aberrations of entire chromosomal arms in melanoma ex blue nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, May P; Andea, Aleodor A; Harms, Paul W; Durham, Alison B; Patel, Rajiv M; Wang, Min; Robichaud, Patrick; Fisher, Gary J; Johnson, Timothy M; Fullen, Douglas R

    2016-03-01

    Blue nevi may display significant atypia or undergo malignant transformation. Morphologic diagnosis of this spectrum of lesions is notoriously difficult, and molecular tools are increasingly used to improve diagnostic accuracy. We studied copy number aberrations in a cohort of cellular blue nevi, atypical cellular blue nevi, and melanomas ex blue nevi using Affymetrix's OncoScan platform. Cases with sufficient DNA were analyzed for GNAQ, GNA11, and HRAS mutations. Copy number aberrations were detected in 0 of 5 (0%) cellular blue nevi, 3 of 12 (25%) atypical cellular blue nevi, and 6 of 9 (67%) melanomas ex blue nevi. None of the atypical cellular blue nevi displayed more than one aberration, whereas complex aberrations involving four or more regions were seen exclusively in melanomas ex blue nevi. Gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms were identified in four of five melanomas ex blue nevi with copy number aberrations. In particular, gains of 1q, 4p, 6p, and 8q, and losses of 1p and 4q were each found in at least two melanomas. Whole chromosome aberrations were also common, and represented the sole finding in one atypical cellular blue nevus. When seen in melanomas, however, whole chromosome aberrations were invariably accompanied by partial aberrations of other chromosomes. Three melanomas ex blue nevi harbored aberrations, which were absent or negligible in their precursor components, suggesting progression in tumor biology. Gene mutations involving GNAQ and GNA11 were each detected in two of eight melanomas ex blue nevi. In conclusion, copy number aberrations are more common and often complex in melanomas ex blue nevi compared with cellular and atypical cellular blue nevi. Identification of recurrent gains and losses of entire chromosomal arms in melanomas ex blue nevi suggests that development of new probes targeting these regions may improve detection and risk stratification of these lesions. PMID:26743478

  7. In vitro Flowering of Shoots Regenerated from Cultured Nodal Explants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantamaht KANCHANAPOOM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A protocol for the regeneration of Gypsophila paniculata L. using nodal explants from 2-month-old field grown plants was established. The induction of multiple shoots was best obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 13.3 μM BA. Callus growth was observed on MS medium containing 44.3 μM BA. Calluses were transferred to MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D (4.5, 13.5, 22.6 μM, NAA (5.3, 16.1, 26.8 μM or BA (4.4, 13.3, 22.1 μM for 2 months to induce shoot formation. After 6 weeks of initial culture, multiple shoots were regenerated from calluses cultured on MS medium supplemented with 13.3 μM BA. All regenerated shoots produced roots on 16.1 μM NAA containing MS medium within 4 weeks. Rooted plantlets were hardened and established in pots at 100% survival. For induction of in vitro flowering, regenerated shoots could be induced to flower efficiently when cultured on MS medium containing 13.3 μM BA and 50 g/l sucrose.

  8. The relationship between basketball shooting kinematics, distance and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Bartlett, R

    1996-06-01

    Three-dimensional cinematography (100 Hz) was used to establish the relationship between distance and the kinematics of shooting with respect to playing position in basketball. Fifteen subjects, divided into guards, forwards and centres (all n = 5), performed jump shots from each of three distances: 2.74, 4.57 and 6.40 m from the basket. Increases in mean release speed were found as shooting distance increased for all groups. This was due to increased angular velocities of both shoulder flexion and elbow extension and an increased speed of the centre of mass in the direction of the basket. Release angles for the two shorter distances (52-55 degrees) tended to provide the advantage of a steep angle of entry into the basket, whereas those at the longest distance (48-50 degrees) were closer to those requiring the minimum possible release speed. All groups exhibited an earlier timing of release as shooting distance increased, which gave rise to an earlier rotation of the shoulder axis. The more consistent changes in kinematic patterns with changes in shooting distance exhibited by guards as compared to centres would suggest that such adjustments are easier to make for those players who regularly shoot from long range. PMID:8809716

  9. Cryopreservation of citrus shoot tips using micrografting for recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Gayle M; Bonnart, Remi; Krueger, Robert; Lee, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) and the University of California Citrus Variety Collection maintain more than 888 unique accessions representing 132 taxa of Citrus, Fortunella, and citrus wild species within field, screenhouse, and greenhouse collections. We have identified a cryopreservation method by which Citrus genetic resources that are not maintained in vitro can be successfully conserved. Shoot tips were excised from actively growing vegetative flushes of protected trees. Surface-disinfected shoot tips were precultured overnight in 0.3 M sucrose, loaded with a loading solution for 20 min and treated with PVS2 for 30 or 60 min at 0 degree C, prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Rewarmed shoot tips post-cultured overnight on survival medium were then micrografted on 'Carrizo' seedling rootstocks to produce whole plants. Micrografted shoot tips recovered quickly and rooted plants could be transferred to the greenhouse within months. Regrowth of whole plants after micrografting averaged 53 percent for cryopreserved shoot tips of cultivars representing eight Citrus and Fortunella species. This method has several advantages: it uses screenhouse or greenhouse plants as source materials, it is not dependent upon cultivar-specific recovery media, and it avoids seedling juvenility. PMID:23250401

  10. Chromosomal aberrations in ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). Nonetheless, the effect of increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required in order to better estimate the radiation risk for longer duration missions. The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (around 6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second one within 3 days after return from flight. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Giemsa stained and in situ hybridised metaphases were scored for chromosome changes in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to elevated radiation levels. Overall slight but significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short term stays on-board the ISS.

  11. Aberrant splicing and drug resistance in AML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Necochea-Campion, Rosalia; Shouse, Geoffrey P; Zhou, Qi; Mirshahidi, Saied; Chen, Chien-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing technologies has unveiled a new window into the heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, recurrent mutations in spliceosome machinery and genome-wide aberrant splicing events have been recognized as a prominent component of this disease. This review will focus on how these factors influence drug resistance through altered splicing of tumor suppressor and oncogenes and dysregulation of the apoptotic signaling network. A better understanding of these factors in disease progression is necessary to design appropriate therapeutic strategies recognizing specific alternatively spliced or mutated oncogenic targets. PMID:27613060

  12. Morphological traits and yield of red clover (Trifolium pratense L. genotypes with varying inflorescence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Two red clover breeding strains with elongated flower heads, developed by one of the authors (H.Góral, were studied for forage and seed yield and compared to the standard cultivar 'Nike'. In addition, six morphological shoot traits were measured and their interrelations were computed. The leaf area index (LAI of successive cuts in two harvest years was determined on the basis of shoot density and leaf area of individual shoots. All three genotypes exhibited a high leaf area on shoots and a very high forage productivity. Among the morphological traits only shoot height could be a good selective criterion because it is easily measured, is significantly associated with shoot weight and shoot leaf area and its variation is low. Both strains, particularly the one with longer inflorescences belong to short-lived red clover forms giving satis factory forage and seed yields in the first harvest year. Depending on the strain the number of seeds per elongated inflorescence in the first harvest year was higher by 92 and 42% compared to that of a standard cultivar.

  13. Efficient in vitro direct shoot organogenesis and regeneration of fertile plants from embryo explants of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B; Assoumou, Y; Sangwan, R S

    2003-08-01

    An efficient protocol has been developed for direct shoot organogenesis from embryo axes derived from mature seeds of two different landraces of Bambara groundnut. Multiple shoots were initiated on several media containing different concentrations and combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP) or thidiazuron (TDZ). Efficient regeneration occurred when the embryo axes were first plated for 6 days on a medium containing high concentrations of BAP (1 mg/l) and alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 1 mg/l) and then cut transversely and transferred onto a medium containing 1.5 mg/l BAP. Shoot regeneration frequency was 100% and from five to eight shoots per explant were obtained. The importance of using embryo explants and cytokinins in the culture media, with respect to controlling the development of a highly organogenic system, was demonstrated. Histological studies revealed that proliferating buds originated directly from the superficial layers of the explants without an intermediate callus phase. The regenerated shoots were rooted on a medium containing 1 mg/l NAA and then transferred to the greenhouse. Flow cytometric analyses and chloroplast counts of guard cells suggested that the regenerants were diploid. All were morphologically normal and fertile. The short duration, high efficiency and low frequency of somaclonal variation of this system make it well suited for wider biotechnological applications of Bambara groundnut-a neglected and under-utilized crop. PMID:12910367

  14. A Morphological and Quantitative Characterization of Early Floral Development in Apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.)

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Toshi; JOHNSTON, ROBYN; SELEZNYOVA, ALLA

    2003-01-01

    Apple is an important crop and a focus of research worldwide. However, some aspects of floral commitment and morphogenesis remain unclear. A detailed characterization of bourse shoot apex development was undertaken to provide a framework for future genetic, molecular and physiological studies. Eight morphologically distinct stages of shoot apex development, prior to winter dormancy, were defined. Based on measurements of meristem diameter, two stages of vegetative development were recognized....

  15. Somatic embryogenesis and massive shoot regeneration from immature embryo explants of tef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugsa, Likyelesh; Kumlehn, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tef (Eragrostis tef) provides a major source of human nutrition in the Horn of Africa, but biotechnology has had little impact on its improvement to date. Here, we report the elaboration of an in vitro regeneration protocol, based on the use of immature zygotic embryos as explant. Explant size was an important determinant of in vitro regeneration efficiency, as was the formulation of the culture medium. Optimal results were obtained by culturing 0.2-0.35 mm embryo explants on a medium containing KBP minerals, 9.2-13.8 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 6 mM glutamine, and 0.5% Phytagel. Although this protocol was effective for both the improved cultivar "DZ-01-196" and the landrace "Fesho", the former produced consistently more embryogenic tissue and a higher number of regenerants. An average of more than 2,800 shoots could be obtained from each "DZ-01-196" explant after 12 weeks of in vitro culture. These shoots readily formed roots, and plantlets transferred to soil were able to develop into morphologically normal, fertile plants. This regeneration and multiplication system should allow for the application of a range of biotechnological methods to tef. PMID:22028975

  16. Sensitivity of singular beams in the presence of Zernike aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Awakash; Mishra, Sanjay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Singular beams in the presence of Zernike aberrations create an opportunity for various applications such as trapping and manipulation of micro-particles, atomic optics and atmospheric optics. In the milieu of importance of the role of aberrations, sensitivity of singular beams with Zernike aberrations is studied. In this paper, the effect of various Zernike aberrations on a singular beam is reported in terms of its Point Spread Function (PSF) deformations. The intensity distributions around the focal plane, i.e. PSF, of the singular beam of various topological charges and in the presence of different strengths of Zernike aberrations are theoretically estimated by the Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral. Experimentally, the singular beams have been generated and known strengths of Zernike aberration introduced in the beam by a phase-only Spatial Light Modulator. Metric Ensquared Energy is used to analyze the PSF of the corresponding intensity distributions of the singular beams. The experimental results have been validated with numerical simulation.

  17. Light signaling and the phytohormonal regulation of shoot growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurepin, Leonid V; Pharis, Richard P

    2014-12-01

    Shoot growth of dicot plants is rigorously controlled by the interactions of environmental cues with several groups of phytohormones. The signaling effects of light on shoot growth are of special interest, as both light irradiance and light quality change rapidly throughout the day, causing profound changes in stem elongation and leaf area growth. Among the several dicot species examined, we have focused on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) because its shoots are robust and their growth is highly plastic. Sunflower shoots thus constitute an ideal tissue for assessing responses to both light irradiance and light quality signals. Herein, we discuss the possible roles of gibberellins, auxin, ethylene, cytokinins and brassinosteroids in mediating the stem elongation and leaf area growth that is induced by shade light. To do this we uncoupled the plant's responses to changes in the red to far-red [R/FR] light ratio from its responses to changes in irradiance of photosynthetically active radiation [PAR]. Reducing each of R/FR light ratio and PAR irradiance results in increased sunflower stem elongation. However, the plant's response for leaf area growth differs considerably, with a low R/FR ratio generally promoting leaf area growth, whereas low irradiance PAR inhibits it. The increased stem elongation that occurs in response to lowering R/FR ratio and PAR irradiance is accomplished at the expense of leaf area growth. In effect, the low PAR irradiance signal overrides the low R/FR ratio signal in shade light's control of leaf growth and development. Three hormone groups, gibberellins, auxin and ethylene are directly involved in regulating these light-mediated shoot growth changes. Gibberellins and auxin function as growth promoters, with auxin likely acting as an up-regulator of gibberellin biosynthesis. Ethylene functions as a growth-inhibitor and probably interacts with gibberellins in regulating both stem and leaf growth of the sunflower shoot. PMID:25443853

  18. Calculation of aberration of electron gun in color picture tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a color picture tube, aberration is an important factor influencing the electron beam spot on the screen. This paper discusses a new method which is used to calculate the aberration of an electron gun in a CPT. In this method, electron trajectories are simulated directly in the cathode and the pre-focus lens. In the main lens, the asymptotic aberration is calculated to decide the size of the image. Some results of the calculation are shown in this paper. (orig.)

  19. Monitoring of chromosomal aberrations in natural populations of Pinus pallasiana

    OpenAIRE

    V. P. Koba

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of monitoring research of the chromosome aberrations at the stage of anaphase-telophase. The statistical characteristics of dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in populations of Pinus pallasiana D. Don across the high-altitude zones of the Mountain Crimea is given. It is established that on the southern macroslope of the Crimean Main Ridge the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in the P. pallasiana stands is higher in the lower zone in comparison with the mid...

  20. Aberrations caused by mechanical misalignments in electrostatic quadrupole lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, L. A.; Read, F. H.

    Image aberrations resulting from small misalignments in quadrupole lenses multiplets have been analysed. Analytical formulas for the coefficients of the beam displacement, astigmatism and coma associated with misalignments in a general quadrupole lens system have been derived. Numerical computations of systems of three and four quadrupole lenses have also been carried out. The aberration figures obtained for systems with and without a mechanical defect are compared. The aberration coefficients that have been obtained can be used for estimating tolerance limits for lens misalignments.

  1. Chromosomal aberrations in children exposed to diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among children who have received high x-ray doses congenital dislocation of the hip joint is the predominating diagnosis. In a series of 9 children who had received high x-ray doses (8 with luxation of the hip joint and one with achondroplasia) a significant increase of chromosomal aberrations was found. The increase concerned mainly chromosome type aberrations. The shorter the time since the last x-ray investigation the higher was the frequency of chromosome type aberrations. (author)

  2. Hydronephrosis by an Aberrant Renal Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Byoung Seok; Jeong, Taek Kyun; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan; Kim, Nam Ho; Choi, Ki Chul; Jeong, Yong Yeon

    2003-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is usually intrinsic and is most common in children. Aberrant renal arteries are present in about 30% of individuals. Aberrant renal arteries to the inferior pole cross anteriorly to the ureter and may cause hydronephrosis. To the best of our knowledge, although there are some papers about aberrant renal arteries producing ureteropelvic junction obstruction, there is no report of a case which is diagnosed by the new modalities, such as computed tomography an...

  3. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Saeedeh Ghazaey; Farzaneh Mirzaei; Mitra Ahadian; Fatemeh Keifi; Semiramis Tootian; Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in K...

  4. [Double homicide by shooting with removal of the victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Ingo; Correns, Andreas; Schmeling, Andreas; Schmidt, Sven

    2008-01-01

    Despite strict assault weapons laws shooting deaths are not uncommon in the Federal Republic of Germany. Especially in multiple one-stage homicides shooting is a frequently established cause of death. The described double homicide from the autopsy material of the Berlin Institute of Legal Medicine shows the difficulties in the forensic assessment of gunshot wounds. It is noteworthy under criminalistic aspects how methodically the offender proceeded in the removal of the victims and how extensive the search for the bodies was, which were only found after calling in water search dogs. PMID:18522379

  5. Algorithm on robot soccer pass and shoot a ball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Introduces of robot soccer's competition software of Harbin Institute of Technology(HIT), the con cept of running range and the method of calculating the running range for both the opponent and our teammates according to the distances Between the ball and robot soccers, and therefore the method of calculating the angle that the robot passes or shoots the ball according to the running ranges of both sides. And gives the examples of passing the ball when the ball's position is in the backcourt and shooting the ball when the ball's position is in the frontcourt.

  6. Aberrant expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 in human lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Takayuki [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Naruke, Yuki; Shigematsu, Sayuri; Kohno, Tomoko; Yasui, Kiyoshi; Ma, Yuhua; Chua, Koon Jiew [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Katayama, Ikuo; Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Radiology and Cancer Biology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Hishikawa, Yoshitaka; Koji, Takehiko [Department of Developmental and Reconstructive Medicine, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yatabe, Yasushi [Department of Pathology and Clinical Oncology, Aichi Cancer Research Institute, Nagoya 464-8681 (Japan); Nagayasu, Takeshi [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Translational Medical Science, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Fujita, Takashi [Laboratory of Molecular Genetics, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsuyama, Toshifumi, E-mail: tosim@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Cytokine Signaling, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Science, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); The Global Center of Excellence Program at Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); and others

    2010-06-25

    We analyzed the subcellular distributions and gene structures of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) transcription factor in 50 cases of human primary lung cancer. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed substantially aberrant IRF3 expression specific to the cancer lesions (2 and 6 tumors with nuclear staining, and 4 and 5 tumors with negative staining, in adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, respectively), while the morphologically normal region around the tumors exhibited only cytoplasmic staining. In addition, we determined the sequence of the entire IRF3 coding region, and found two novel variants with the amino acid changes (S{sup 175}(AGC) {yields} R{sup 175}(CGC) and A{sup 208}(GCC) {yields} D{sup 208}(GAC)). The R{sup 175} variant was also detected in a morphologically normal region around the nuclear staining squamous cell carcinoma, and exhibited almost the same functions as the wild type IRF3. On the other hand, the D{sup 208} variant, found in the negative staining squamous cell carcinoma cases, reduced the nuclear translocation in response to I{kappa}B kinase {epsilon} stimulation, as compared to the wild type IRF3, but the same variant was detected in the surrounding morphologically normal region. The aberrant expression of IRF3 and the novel D{sup 208} variant may provide clues to elucidate the etiology of primary lung cancer.

  7. Chromosome aberration analysis for biological dosimetry: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among various biological dosimetry techniques, dicentric chromosome aberration method appears to be the method of choice in analysing accidental radiation exposure in most of the laboratories. The major advantage of this method is its sensitivity as the number of dicentric chromosomes present in control population is too small and more importantly radiation induces mainly dicentric chromosome aberration among unstable aberration. This report brings out the historical development of various cytogenetic methods, the basic structure of DNA, chromosomes and different forms of chromosome aberrations. It also highlights the construction of dose-response curve for dicentric chromosome and its use in the estimation of radiation dose. (author)

  8. Cellular origin of prognostic chromosomal aberrations in AML patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Jensen, H.; Jendholm, J.; Rapin, N.;

    2015-01-01

    these aberrations occur in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) before definitive leukemic transformation through additional acquisition of a few (that is, mostly 1 or 2) leukemia-promoting driver aberrations. NGS studies on sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of AML patients with...... molecular aberrations that were present in the fully transformed committed HPCs together with the prognostic driver aberration. Adding to this vast heterogeneity and complexity of AML genomes and their clonal evolution, a recent study of a murine AML model demonstrated that t(9;11) AML originating from HSCs...

  9. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Świetlik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the shortest shoots (1-10 cm bore more fruit per unit length as compared to the longer shoots.

  10. Population dynamics in a 6-year old coppice culture of poplar. I. Clonal differences in stool mortality, shoot dynamics and shoot diameter distribution in relation to biomass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poplar trees have the capacity to regrow a number of shoots after being coppiced. In April 1996, a high density field trial with 17 different poplar (Populus) clones was established in Boom (Belgium) on a former waste disposal site. At the end of the establishment year (December 1996), all plants were cut back to a height of 5 cm to create a coppice culture. Four years after the first coppicing in January 2001, the stand was cut back again. During 6 years (1996-2001), shoot diameters and number of stools and shoots were assessed every year for all clones. Before the second coppicing, biomass production of all clones was estimated. Significant clonal differences were found in stool mortality, number of shoots per stool and biomass production. After 6 years (December 2001), stool mortality averaged 7-65%. After the first coppicing (1997), the average number of shoots ranged between three and seven shoots per stool; after the second coppicing, the average number of shoots ranged between 8 and 19 shoots per stool. During the 4 years following the first coppicing, shoot density decreased exponentially, leaving mostly one or two dominant shoots per stool by the end of 2000. The other shoots had no significant influence on stool dry mass, since most of the surviving shoots were suppressed and small and made little contribution to total dry mass. The diameter of the dominant shoot(s) was the most important determinant of stool dry mass. Mean annual biomass production ranged from 2 to 11 Mg ha-1

  11. Exogenous gibberellin altered morphology, anatomic and transcriptional regulatory networks of hormones in carrot root and shoot

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guang-Long; Que, Feng; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Gibberellins stimulate cell elongation and expansion during plant growth and development. Carrot is a root plant with great value and undergoes obvious alteration in organ size over the period of plant growth. However, the roles of gibberellins in carrot remain unclear. Results To investigate the effects of gibberelliins on the growth of carrot, we treated carrot plants with gibberellic acid 3 (GA3) or paclobutrazol (a gibberellin inhibitor). The results found that GA3 dramatically...

  12. Morphological differentiation and distribution of non-glandular and glandular trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, micromorphology and distribution of trichomes on Dracocephalum moldavicum L. shots were investigated using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. There were distinguished 3 types of non-glandular trichomes, 3 types of glandular trichomes and papillae of the osmophore in the epidermis of the corolla. The highest density of non-glandular and glandular trichomes was found on the abaxial surface of the calyx, on bracts and in the upper part of the stem. Structural variations in the head and stalk of long glandular trichomes were demonstrated. The dimensions of particular types of trichomes are given in the present paper. Differences in the structure of the trichomes of this species are presented, compared to literature data. The micromorphology of particular trichome types is documented in numerous photographs showing the rich ornamentation of the cuticle of non-glandular trichomes.

  13. Genetic control of morphometric diversity in the maize shoot apical meristem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiboff, Samuel; Li, Xianran; Hu, Heng-Cheng; Todt, Natalie; Yang, Jinliang; Li, Xiao; Yu, Xiaoqing; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Timmermans, Marja C P; Yu, Jianming; Schnable, Patrick S; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The maize shoot apical meristem (SAM) comprises a small pool of stem cells that generate all above-ground organs. Although mutational studies have identified genetic networks regulating SAM function, little is known about SAM morphological variation in natural populations. Here we report the use of high-throughput image processing to capture rich SAM size variation within a diverse maize inbred panel. We demonstrate correlations between seedling SAM size and agronomically important adult traits such as flowering time, stem size and leaf node number. Combining SAM phenotypes with 1.2 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via genome-wide association study reveals unexpected SAM morphology candidate genes. Analyses of candidate genes implicated in hormone transport, cell division and cell size confirm correlations between SAM morphology and trait-associated SNP alleles. Our data illustrate that the microscopic seedling SAM is predictive of adult phenotypes and that SAM morphometric variation is associated with genes not previously predicted to regulate SAM size. PMID:26584889

  14. Shoot biomass of turfgrass cultivars grown on composted waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bruce R.; Kohorst, Sanford D.; Decker, Henry F.; Yaussy, Daniel

    1995-09-01

    Various cultivars of four cool-season grass types (tall fescue, fine fescue, perennial ryegrass, and Kentucky bluegrass) were seeded in 0.34-liter plastic pots containing either composted sewage sludge [Com-Til2 (CT), Soil Magic2 (SM)] or composted yard mulch (YM). Plants were grown in the greenhouse for four weeks prior to measuring shoot biomass. White most tall fescue cultivars showed more shoot growth on YM, perennial ryegrass cultivars generally grew better on SM. Cultivars of fine fescue and bluegrass grew about the same on YM or SM, and slightly less on CT. With very few exceptions, shoot biomass of individual cultivars was greater on either YM or SM than it was on CT. Within individual grass types, Pennlawn (fine fescue), Pennant (perennial ryegrass), and Victa (Kentucky bluegrass) averaged consistently better growth on all three composted media. For tall fescue, Aquara, Rebel II, and Monarch performed best on YM, SM, and CT, respectively. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals did not occur in selective samples of shoot tissues collected from the grass types used.

  15. Todd Strasser Takes Aim at School Shootings: An Interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Joel

    2001-01-01

    Includes an interview with Todd Strasser, the young adult book author of "Give a Boy a Gun", as well as an excerpt from one of his speeches. Addresses issues related to school shootings, the easy availability of guns, ridicule and bullying, peer pressure, and violence in media. (LRW)

  16. The age of school shootings: a sociological interpretation on masculinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades there has been a growing interest in the study of the horrendous massacres perpetrated by students at school premises. These massacres, known as school shootings, haven been predominantly analyzed by employing psychological approaches. Despite the fact that empirical research clearly reveals that school shooters tend not to present life-long histories of mental illness, these approaches usually put a strong emphasis on the perpetrator’s individual pathologies, ignoring the influence that social values such as masculinity exert on perpetrators’ actions. Consequently, perpetrators are viewed as lone wolf shooters and school shootings as isolated cases. Based on data derived from scholarly works published mainly in peer-review journals and the sociological theory of P. Berger and T. Luckmann, the aim of this essay is to offer a sociological interpretation on school shootings by explaining why school shooters commit violent actions against teachers and classmates as a form of retrieving their masculinity. In this regard, the essay finds that male rather than female students commit school shootings. At the same time, the majority of perpetrators have had parents who were gun collectors. It is no coincide that shooters mostly use family guns to commit the massacres. Additionally, shooters see school as a social entity that has diminished their masculinity, and the way to reaffirm their masculinity is to attack randomly students and teachers in full view of the rest of school members during school hours.

  17. Opposite metabolic responses of shoots and roots to drought

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gargallo-Garriga, A.; Sardans, J.; Pérez-Trujillo, M.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Oravec, Michal; Večeřová, Kristýna; Urban, Otmar; Jentsch, A.; Kreyling, J.; Beierkuhnlein, C.; Parella, T.; Penuelas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 6829 (2014), s. 1-7. ISSN 2045-2322 Grant ostatní: AV ČR(CZ) M200871201 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : shoot and roots * autotrophic and heterotrophic organs * environmental change * growth metabolism * water and nutirens Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.578, year: 2014

  18. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS AND SHOOT GROWING IN APRICOT CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Islam

    2002-01-01

    In this research, shoot growing and amount of total phenolic compounds were investigated on apricot grown in Van ecological conditions. Correlations between the two it was determined. In the end of this study it was determined that phenolic compounds increased during the rapid growing period (generally until the end of May) and decreased in the following period.

  19. Murky Shooting: a quest for the sound primacy on videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Cordeiro, João

    2011-01-01

    Neste artigo é apresentado e descrito um protótipo para um videojogo (Murky Shooting) cujo sistema de estímulos enviados ao jogador é alicerçado no uso do som, sendo, por isso, também considerado um audiojogo.

  20. Hormonal control of second flushing in Douglas-fir shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Morris; Yoders, Mark; Desai, Dipti; Harrington, Constance; Carlson, William

    2006-10-01

    Spring-flushing, over-wintered buds of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) produce new buds that may follow various developmental pathways. These include second flushing in early summer or dormancy before flushing during the following spring. Second flushing usually entails an initial release of apical dominance as some of the current-season upper lateral buds grow out. Four hypotheses concerning control of current bud outgrowth in spring-flushing shoots were tested: (1) apically derived auxin in the terminal spring-flushing shoot suppresses lateral bud outgrowth (second flushing); (2) cytokinin (0.5 mM benzyladenine) spray treatments given midway through the spring flush period induce bud formation; (3) similar cytokinin spray treatments induce the outgrowth of existing current lateral buds; and (4) defoliation of the terminal spring-flushing shoot promotes second flushing. Hypothesis 1 was supported by data demonstrating that decapitation-released apical dominance was completely restored by treatment with exogenous auxin (22.5 or 45 mM naphthalene acetic acid) (Thimann-Skoog test). Hypothesis 2 was marginally supported by a small, but significant increase in bud number; and Hypothesis 3 was strongly supported by a large increase in the number of outgrowing buds following cytokinin applications. Defoliation produced similar results to cytokinin application. We conclude that auxin and cytokinin play important repressive and promotive roles, respectively, in the control of second flushing in the terminal spring-flushing Douglas-fir shoot. PMID:16815839

  1. Chapter Four - Shoot apical meristem form and function. In:

    Science.gov (United States)

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) generates above-ground aerial organs throughout the lifespan of higher plants. In order to fulfill this function, the meristem must maintain a balance between the self-renewal of a reservoir of central stem cells and organ initiation from peripheral cells. The activit...

  2. Role of acetylcholine on plant root-shoot signal transduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The role of acetylcholine (ACh) on plant root- shoot communication was investigated using the root-split system of Vicia faba L. In the experiments, slight osmotic stress caused the decrease of ACh content in root tips and the xylem sap transported up per time unit from root tip to the shoot when the water potential of the shoot was kept unchanged. It also caused the decrease of ACh content in the abaxial epidermis. The decrease was highly correlative to the changes of transpiration rate, suggesting that the decrease of ACh content probably functions as a signal to regulate stomatal behavior. The effect of osmotic stress might be mainly through the inhibition of the ACh synthesis in root tip; thus further influences the ACh content in root tip, xylem sap and abaxial epidermis and resulting in the changes of stomatal behavior. These results provide new evidence that plants transduce positive and negative signals among roots and shoots to coordinate stomatal behavior and adapt to variable environments.

  3. Radiocesium distribution in bamboo shoots after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Higaki

    Full Text Available The distribution of radiocesium was examined in bamboo shoots, Phyllostachys pubescens, collected from 10 sites located some 41 to 1140 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, in the Spring of 2012, 1 year after the Fukushima nuclear accident. Maximum activity concentrations for radiocesium ¹³⁴Cs and ¹³⁷Cs in the edible bamboo shoot parts, 41 km away from the Fukushima Daiichi plant, were in excess of 15.3 and 21.8 kBq/kg (dry weight basis; 1.34 and 1.92 kBq/kg, fresh weight, respectively. In the radiocesium-contaminated samples, the radiocesium activities were higher in the inner tip parts, including the upper edible parts and the apical culm sheath, than in the hardened culm sheath and underground basal parts. The radiocesium/potassium ratios also tended to be higher in the inner tip parts. The radiocesium activities increased with bamboo shoot length in another bamboo species, Phyllostachys bambusoides, suggesting that radiocesium accumulated in the inner tip parts during growth of the shoots.

  4. Aberrant angiogenesis: The gateway to diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K Kota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic cum vascular syndrome with resultant abnormalities in both micro- and macrovasculature. The adverse long-term effects of diabetes mellitus have been described to involve many organ systems. Apart from hyperglycemia, abnormalities of angiogenesis may cause or contribute toward many of the clinical manifestations of diabetes. These are implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular abnormalities of the retina, kidneys, and fetus, impaired wound healing, increased risk of rejection of transplanted organs, and impaired formation of coronary collaterals. A perplexing feature of the aberrant angiogenesis is that excessive and insufficient angiogenesis can occur in different organs in the same individual. The current article hereby reviews the molecular mechanisms including abnormalities in growth factors, cytokines, and metabolic derangements, clinical implications, and therapeutic options of dealing with abnormal angiogenesis in diabetes.

  5. Intraspecific and interspecific attraction of three Tomicus beetle species during the shoot-feeding phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Zhang, Z; Kong, X; Wang, H; Zhang, S

    2015-04-01

    The shoot beetles Tomicus minor, Tomicus yunnanensis, and Tomicus brevipilosus have been decimating Pinus yunnanensis trees for more than 30 years in Southwestern China. To understand the chemical ecological relationship between pines and Tomicus, and among the three beetle species, we compared the attraction of these beetles to damaged shoots, extracts from damaged shoots, and volatiles from damaged shoots collected by the dynamic headspace sampling method. Experiments were performed using a modified open-arena olfactometer. The male T. minor and both sexes of T. brevipilosus were more strongly attracted to damaged shoots than to undamaged shoots and they showed attraction to shoots damaged by the same species. Female T. minor and both sexes of T. yunnanensis were attracted to shoots damaged by female T. brevipilosus. The three beetle species were attracted to shoot extracts and dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by the same species and sex. Female T. minor and male T. yunnanensis were also attracted to dynamic headspace volatiles from shoots damaged by both sexes of T. brevipilosus. The results suggested that specific semiochemicals that are induced or produced by T. brevipilosus also attract T. minor and T. yunnanensis. The semiochemicals in damaged shoots affect the attraction of the three beetle species and play an important chemical communication role in weakening the host trees during the beetles' shoot-feeding phase. PMID:25632972

  6. Effects of carbon ion beam irradiation on the shoot regeneration from in vitro axillary bud explants of the Impatiens hawkeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Libin; Zhou, Libin; Li, Wenjian; Li, Ping; Dong, Xicun; Qu, Ying; Ma, Shuang; Li, Qiang

    Accelerated ion beams is an excellent mutagen in plant breeding which can induce higher mutation frequencies and wider mutation spectrum than those of low linear energy transfer (LET) irradiations, such as X-rays (Okamura et al. 2003, Yamaguchi et al. 2003). Mutation breeding operation of two Saintpaulia ionahta cultivars using the method combining plant tissue culture technique and carbon ion beam irradiations were set out at Institute of Modern Physics from 2005 (Zhou et al. 2006). The effects of 960 MeV carbon ion beam and 8 MeV X-ray irradiations on regenerated shoots of Impatiens hawkeri from another kind of explants named in vitro axillary buds explants were studied recently. The biology endpoints in this study included relative number of roots (RNR), relative length of roots (RLR), relative height of shoots (RHS), relative number of nodes (RNN), survival fraction (SF) and morphology changes in the regenerated shoots. The experimental results showed that carbon ion beams inhibited the root and stem developments of axillary bud explants more severely than X-rays did. And the 50% lethal dose (LD50 ) is about 23.3 Gy for the carbon ion beam and 49.1 Gy for the X-rays, respectively. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of Impatiens hawkeri with respect to X-rays according to 50% SF was about two. Secondly, the percentage of shoots regenerated with malformed shoots including curliness, carnification, nicks in all Impatiens hawkeri axillary bud explants irradiated with carbon ion beam at 20 Gy accounted for 55.6%, while the highest number for the 40 Gy X-ray irradiation was 40%. Last, many regenerated shoots whose vascular bundle fused together were obtained only from explants irradiated with carbon ion beams. Based on the results above, it can be concluded that the effect of mutation induction by carbon ion beam irradiation on the axillary explants of Impatiens hawkeri is better than that by X-ray irradiation; and the optimal mutagenic dose varies from 20 Gy

  7. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Hill, Robert D; Stasolla, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Over the past few years non-symbiotic plant hemoglobins have been described in a variety of plant species where they fulfill several functions ranging from detoxification processes to basic aspects of plant growth and post-embryonic development. To date no information is available on the role of hemoglobins during in vitro morphogenesis. Shoot organogenesis was induced in Arabidopsis lines constitutively expressing class 1, 2 and 3 hemoglobins (GLB1, 2 and 3) and lines in which the respective genes were either downregulated by RNAi (GLB1) or knocked out (GLB2 and GLB3). The process was executed by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture, and altered the transcript levels of genes participating in cytokinin perception and signalling. The up-regulation of GLB1 or GLB2 activated CKI1 and AHK3, genes encoding cytokinin receptors and affected the transcript levels of cytokinin responsive regulators (ARRs). The expression of Type-A ARRs (ARR4, 5, 7, 15, and 16), feed-back repressors of the cytokinin pathway, was repressed in both hemoglobin over-expressors whereas that of several Type-B ARRs (ARR2, 12, and 13), transcription activators of cytokinin-responsive genes, was induced. Such changes enhanced the sensitivity of the root explants to cytokinin allowing the 35S::GLB1 and 35S::GLB2 lines to produce shoots at low cytokinin concentrations which did not promote organogenesis in the WT line. These results show that manipulation of hemoglobin can modify shoot organogenesis in Arabidopsis and possibly in those systems partially or completely unresponsive to applications of exogenous cytokinins. PMID:21741261

  8. Using nodal aberration theory to understand the aberrations of multiple unobscured three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kevin P.; Fuerschbach, Kyle; Schmid, Tobias; Rolland, Jannick P.

    2009-08-01

    The alignment of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes has been studied since their invention in the 60s. Recently, Thompson et al.1 reported that other than the conventional uniform coma over the field caused by misalignment, TMA telescopes display only one other misalignment induced aberration, field-asymmetric, field-linear astigmatism. Currently, an instrument with three TMAs is under development as the primary spectrometer on the James Webb Space Telescope. This paper will report on the application of Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) to understanding the optical design of an optical system with multiple TMAs as a first step towards investigating and potentially independently analyzing the sensitivities to alignment of this key instrument.

  9. Expressions for third-order aberration theory for holographic images

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Tripathy; S Ananda Rao

    2003-01-01

    Expressions for third-order aberration in the reconstructed wave front of point objects are established by Meier. But Smith, Neil Mohon, Sweatt independently reported that their results differ from that of Meier. We found that coefficients for spherical aberration, astigmatism, tally with Meier’s while coefficients for distortion and coma differ.

  10. Fifth-order aberrations in magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Explicit integral expressions are given for the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients in rectilinear magnetic quadrupole-octupole systems used for the transport of nonrelativistic charged particle beams. The numerical values of the fifth-order geometrical aberration coefficients for a rare earth cobalt (REC) quadrupole doublet are given as an example. 26 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Aberration analysis calculations for synchrotron radiation beamline design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of ray deviation calculations based on aberration coefficients for a single optical surface for the design of beamline optical systems is reviewed. A systematic development is presented which allows insight into which aberration may be causing the rays to deviate from perfect focus. A new development allowing analytical calculation of line shape is presented

  12. Statistical virtual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie-Mei; Liu, Chun-Ling; Luo, Yi-Ning; Liu, Yi-Guang; Hu, Bing-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront aberration affects the quality of retinal image directly. This paper reviews the representation and reconstruction of wavefront aberration, as well as the construction of virtual eye model based on Zernike polynomial coefficients. In addition, the promising prospect of virtual eye model is emphasized.

  13. Exact solutions in the scalar diffraction theory of aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budgor, A B

    1980-05-15

    A simple exact method is presented for evaluating the circularly symmetric Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral in the presence of Seidel aberrations, all orders of spherical aberration, and all orders of linear coma. The resultant formulas involve a simple quadrature over a single special function of mathematics. PMID:20221084

  14. Exact solutions in the scalar diffraction theory of aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple exact method is presented for evaluating the circularly symmetric Fresnel-Kirchhoff diffraction integral in the presence of Seidel aberrations, all orders of spherical aberration, and all orders of linear coma. The resultant formulas involve a simple quadrature over a single special function of mathematics

  15. Seasonal Variation of Organogenetic Activity and Reserves Allocation in the Shoot Apex of Pinus pinaster Ait.

    OpenAIRE

    JORDY, MARIE‐NOËLLE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and aims To understand better the basic growth characteristics of pines and the fundamental properties of the shoot apical meristem (SAM), variations within the shoot apex of buds were studied.

  16. Brown's transport up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effect by artificial intelligence, outputting automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  17. Chromosome aberration analysis based on a beta-binomial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses carried out here generalized on earlier studies of chromosomal aberrations in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, by allowing extra-binomial variation in aberrant cell counts corresponding to within-subject correlations in cell aberrations. Strong within-subject correlations were detected with corresponding standard errors for the average number of aberrant cells that were often substantially larger than was previously assumed. The extra-binomial variation is accomodated in the analysis in the present report, as described in the section on dose-response models, by using a beta-binomial (B-B) variance structure. It is emphasized that we have generally satisfactory agreement between the observed and the B-B fitted frequencies by city-dose category. The chromosomal aberration data considered here are not extensive enough to allow a precise discrimination between competing dose-response models. A quadratic gamma ray and linear neutron model, however, most closely fits the chromosome data. (author)

  18. Brown's TRANSPORT up to third order aberration by artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown's TRANSPORT is a first and second order matrix multiplication computer program intended for the design of accelerator beam transport systems, neglecting the third order aberration. Recently a new method was developed to derive analytically any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system, applicable to any practical systems, such as accelerators, electron microscopes, lithographs, etc., including those unknown systems yet to be invented. An artificial intelligence program in Turbo Prolog was implemented on IBM-PC 286 or 386 machine to generate automatically the analytical expression of any order aberration coefficients of general charged particle optic system. Based on this new method and technique, Brown's TRANSPORT is extended beyond the second order aberration effects by artificial intelligence, outputing automatically all the analytical expressions up to the third order aberration coefficients

  19. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, R M; Wan, W; Schramm, S M

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C(c)) and spherical (C₃) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. PMID:22188906

  20. Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  1. Noun Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Santazilia, Ekaitz

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the Basque noun morphology, which sets out the noun paradigm of historical Basque and the structure of its NP, and then goes on to list the explanations proposed so far for every aspect concerning the formation of that paradigm: first the number/definiteness axis, and then the individual cases, classifying these into primary cases (grammatical and local), secondary cases (those built upon the allative and the genitive), and pseudo-flectional morphemes or non-cases.

  2. Gaze Behavior in Basketball Shooting: Further Evidence for Online Visual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to help resolve conflicting findings and interpretations regarding the visual control of basketball shooting by examining the looking behavior of 6 expert basketball players (3 with a low shooting style and 3 with a high shooting style) executing both free throws and jump shots. Based on previous findings, they…

  3. The relationship between physical fitness and shooting accuracy of professional basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Pojskić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.

  4. The Effect of High School Shootings on Schools and Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Louis-Philippe; Kim, Dongwoo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze how fatal shootings in high schools affect schools and students using data from shooting databases, school report cards, and the Common Core of Data. We examine schools' test scores, enrollment, number of teachers, graduation, attendance, and suspension rates at schools that experienced a shooting, employing a difference-in-differences…

  5. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely i

  6. In vitro shoot growth of Brugmansia × candida Pers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedz, Randall P; Evens, Terence J; Hyndman, Scott E; Adkins, Scott; Chellemi, Daniel O

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the growth of in vitro shoot cultures of Brugmansia × candida 'Creamsickle'. Several mineral nutrient experiments were conducted to determine the effect of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), K(+), FeSO4/EDTA, ZnSO4, MnSO4, and CuSO4 on quality, leaf width and length, size and weight of shoot mass, and shoot number. The experiment to determine the levels of NH4 (+), NO3 (-), and K(+), was conducted as a 2-component NH4 (+): K(+) mixture crossed by [NO3 (-)] and resulted in an experimental design free of ion confounding and capable of separating the effects of proportion and concentration. The results of the NH4 (+)-K(+)-NO3 (-) experiment revealed a region in the design space where growth was significantly improved; the region generally had lower total nitrogen and lower NH4 (+):K(+) ratios than MS medium. The experiments to determine the appropriate levels of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were conducted at six log levels ranging from 0 to 1 mM. Of the four metal salts tested, MnSO4 had the least effect on in vitro shoot growth and its concentration was reduced from 0.1 mM (MS level) to 0.001 mM. CuSO4 had large effects on in vitro shoot growth and was increased from 0.0001 mM to 0.001 mM. A 2-level factorial of NH4 (+)-K(+)-NO3 (-), FeSO4/EDTA, and ZnSO4 was conducted and several formulations identified for their improvements of quality and growth. In addition to the changes to MnSO4 and CuSO4, these formulations were characterized by lower levels of NH4 (+), K(+), NO3 (-) and Zn, and higher levels of FeSO4/EDTA. Overall, several nutrient formulations were identified as superior to MS medium for growth of in vitro shoot cultures of B. 'Creamsickle'. PMID:23573042

  7. Aberrations of the cathode objective lens up to fifth order

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromp, R.M., E-mail: rtromp@us.ibm.com [Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM Research Division, 1101 Kitchawan Road, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Wan, W. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 80R0114, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schramm, S.M. [Leiden University, Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, P.O. Box 9504, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper we discuss a topic that was close to Prof. Gertrude Rempfer s interests for many years. On this occasion of her 100th birthday, we remember and honor Gertrude for her many outstanding contributions, and for the inspiring example that she set. We derive theoretical expressions for the aberration coefficients of the uniform electrostatic field up to 5th order and compare these with raytracing calculations for the cathode lens used in Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Photo Electron Emission Microscopy experiments. These higher order aberration coefficients are of interest for aberration corrected experiments in which chromatic (C{sub c}) and spherical (C{sub 3}) aberrations of the microscope are set to zero. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the results of raytracing. Calculations of image resolution using the Contrast Transfer Function method show that sub-nanometer resolution is achievable in an aberration corrected LEEM system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A theory is presented for the aberrations of the uniform electrostatic field up to fifth order. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Such aberrations are important for advanced LEEM and PEEM instruments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement between theory and raytracing results for a full cathode objective lens. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contrast Transfer Function calculations predict that spatial resolution below 1 nm is achievable.

  8. Chromosome aberrations in solid tumors have a stochastic nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Mauro A.A. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil) and Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil) and Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil) and Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil)]. E-mail: mauro@ufrgs.br; Onsten, Tor G.H. [Departamento de Medicina Interna, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2350, Porto Alegre 90035-903 (Brazil); Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Rua Miguel Tostes 101, Canoas 92420-280 (Brazil); Moreira, Jose C.F. [Departamento de Bioquimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos 2600-anexo, Porto Alegre 90035-003 (Brazil); Almeida, Rita M.C. de [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil)

    2006-08-30

    An important question nowadays is whether chromosome aberrations are random events or arise from an internal deterministic mechanism, which leads to the delicate task of quantifying the degree of randomness. For this purpose, we have defined several Shannon information functions to evaluate disorder inside a tumor and between tumors of the same kind. We have considered 79 different kinds of solid tumors with 30 or more karyotypes retrieved from the Mitelman Database of Chromosome Aberrations in Cancer. The Kaplan-Meier cumulative survival was also obtained for each solid tumor type in order to correlate data with tumor malignance. The results here show that aberration spread is specific for each tumor type, with high degree of diversity for those tumor types with worst survival indices. Those tumor types with preferential variants (e.g. high proportion of a given karyotype) have shown better survival statistics, indicating that aberration recurrence is a good prognosis. Indeed, global spread of both numerical and structural abnormalities demonstrates the stochastic nature of chromosome aberrations by setting a signature of randomness associated to the production of disorder. These results also indicate that tumor malignancy correlates not only with karyotypic diversity taken from different tumor types but also taken from single tumors. Therefore, by quantifying aberration spread, we could confront diverse models and verify which of them points to the most likely outcome. Our results suggest that the generating process of chromosome aberrations is neither deterministic nor totally random, but produces variations that are distributed between these two boundaries.

  9. Aberrant DNA methylation in cloned ovine embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; HOU Jian; LEI TingHua; BAI JiaHua; GUAN Hong; AN XiaoRong

    2008-01-01

    By using the approach of immunofluorescence staining with an antibody against 5-methylcytosine (5MeC), the present study detected the DNA methylation patterns of cloned ovine embryos. The em-bryos derived from in vitro fertilization were also examined for reference purpose. The results showed that: (1) during the pre-implantation development, cloned embryos displayed a similar demethylation profile to the fertilized embryos; that is, the methylation level decreased to the lowest at 8-cell stage, and then increased again at morulae stage. However, methylation level was obviously higher in cloned embryos than in stage-matched fertilized embryos, especially at 8-cell stage and afterwards; (2) at blastocyst stage, the methylation pattern in cloned embryos was different from that in fertilized em-bryos. In cloned blastocyst, inner cell mass (ICM) exhibited a comparable level to trophectoderm cells (TE), while in in-vitro fertilized blastocyst the methylation level of ICM was lower than that of TE, which is not consistent with that reported by other authors. These results indicate that DNA methylation is abnormally reprogrammed in cloned embryos, implying that aberrant DNA methylation reprogramming may be one of the factors causing cloned embryos developmental failure.

  10. Aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meany Danni L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the new roles for enzymes in personalized medicine builds on a rational approach to cancer biomarker discovery using enzyme-associated aberrant glycosylation. A hallmark of cancer, aberrant glycosylation is associated with differential expressions of enzymes such as glycosyltransferase and glycosidases. The aberrant expressions of the enzymes in turn cause cancer cells to produce glycoproteins with specific cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures. Content In this review we provide examples of cancer biomarker discovery using aberrant glycosylation in three areas. First, changes in glycosylation machinery such as glycosyltransferases/glycosidases could be used as cancer biomarkers. Second, most of the clinically useful cancer biomarkers are glycoproteins. Discovery of specific cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures of these existing biomarkers could improve their cancer specificity, such as the discovery of AFP-L3, fucosylated glycoforms of AFP. Third, cancer-associated aberrations in glycan structures provide a compelling rationale for discovering new biomarkers using glycomic and glycoproteomic technologies. Summary As a hallmark of cancer, aberrant glycosylation allows for the rational design of biomarker discovery efforts. But more important, we need to translate these biomarkers from discovery to clinical diagnostics using good strategies, such as the lessons learned from translating the biomarkers discovered using proteomic technologies to OVA 1, the first FDA-cleared In Vitro Diagnostic Multivariate Index Assay (IVDMIA. These lessons, providing important guidance in current efforts in biomarker discovery and translation, are applicable to the discovery of aberrant glycosylation associated with enzymes as cancer biomarkers as well.

  11. Shooting string holography of jet quenching at RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a new formula for jet energy loss using finite endpoint momentum shooting strings initial conditions in SYM plasmas to overcome the difficulties of previous falling string holographic scenarios. We apply the new formula to compute the nuclear modification factor RAA and the elliptic flow parameter v2 of light hadrons at RHIC and LHC. We show furthermore that Gauss–Bonnet quadratic curvature corrections to the AdS5 geometry improve the agreement with the recent data

  12. Shoot and root dry weight in drought exposed tomato populations

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka; Girek Zdenka; Pavlović Suzana; Ugrinović Milan; Zdravković Jasmina

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted with the aim to among forty-one tested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) populations distinguish those tolerant to limited water supply. Tolerance assessments were performed by using sixteen drought stress selection indices calculated on the basis of tomato shoot and root dry weight yields determined at water stress and non-stress conditions. Populations were differentiated in groups using the method of cluster analysis. The ...

  13. Clonal propagation of Dorystoechas hastata via axillary shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    ERDAĞ, Bengi BABA; EMEK, Yelda Çalmaz; AYDOĞAN, Serap KURT

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for the in vitro seed germination, seedling development, and axillary shoot propagation of Dorystoechas hastata Boiss. & Heldr. ex Bentham is described. By employing sterilised seeds that were transferred onto in vitro media, the effects of various in vitro media, photoperiods, and temperatures on germination were investigated. At the end of these experiments, a final protocol was determined for the in vitro germination of D. hastata seeds. With this protocol, the highest germi...

  14. Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A Faria

    2013-01-01

    Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and...

  15. Regulatory Networks Involving YABBY Genes in Rice Shoot Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Mingqiu; Hu, Yongfeng; Zhao, Yu; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2007-01-01

    Shoot development is regulated by specific gene expression programs depending on the interplay between transcription factors and growth hormones that function in specific domains of the meristem and lateral organs. Functional relationship between different regulators is not clearly established. In the May issue of Plant Physiology (2007) we have shown that Wuschel-like Homeobox3 and YABBY3 are coexpressed in the leaf primordia and young leaves, and that WOX3 functions as a transcriptional rep...

  16. BGP Started Shooting Its Largest Oversea Seismic Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ At 5 a.m. on November 1, 2005 of Beijing time, BGP (Bureau of Geophysical Prospecting)formally began shooting the S-51 3D seismic acquisition project in Saudi Arabia, its largest oversea seismic survey project to date. At the same time, the SRAK 2D seismic survey project was also started in the country. These two projects mark the construction of BGP's another large oversea production base.

  17. The shoot apical meristem: the dynamics of a stable structure.

    OpenAIRE

    Traas, Jan,; Vernoux, Teva

    2002-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a group of proliferating, embryonic-type cells that generates the aerial parts of the plant. SAMs are highly organized and stable structures that can function for years or even centuries. This is in apparent contradiction to the behaviour of their constituent cells, which continuously proliferate and differentiate. To reconcile the dynamic nature of the cells with the stability of the overall system the existence of elaborate signalling networks has been pro...

  18. Phototropism in gametophytic shoots of the moss Physcomitrella patens

    OpenAIRE

    Liang BAO; Yamamoto, Kotaro T; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2015-01-01

    Shoot phototropism enables plants to position their photosynthetic organs in favorable light conditions and thus benefits growth and metabolism in land plants. To understand the evolution of this response, we established an experimental system to study phototropism in gametophores of the moss Physcomitrella patens. The phototropic response of gametophores occurs slowly; a clear response takes place more than 24 hours after the onset of unilateral light irradiation, likely due to the slow grow...

  19. Nitrate assimilation in plant shoots depends on photorespiration

    OpenAIRE

    Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Cousins, Asaph B.; Bloom, Arnold J.

    2004-01-01

    Photorespiration, a process that diminishes net photosynthesis by ≈25% in most plants, has been viewed as the unfavorable consequence of plants having evolved when the atmosphere contained much higher levels of carbon dioxide than it does today. Here we used two independent methods to show that exposure of Arabidopsis and wheat shoots to conditions that inhibited photorespiration also strongly inhibited nitrate assimilation. Thus, nitrate assimilation in both dicotyledonous and monocotyledono...

  20. (14C)-glucose metabolism during shoot bud development in cultured cotyledon explants of Pinus radiata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured under shoot-forming (plus benzyladenine) and non shoot-forming (minus benzyladenine) conditions for 10 and 21 days were fed U-[14C]-glucose for 3 h in the light followed by a 3 h chase period. The labelling of individual metabolites as well as 14C incorporation into protein was assessed. It was found that the general metabolic patterns were qualitatively the same in shoot-forming and non shoot-forming conditions, however, metabolism leading to respiration as well as to the synthesis of some amino acids and protein synthesis was enhanced in the shoot-forming cultures. (author)

  1. Projectile motion in real-life situation: Kinematics of basketball shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.

    2015-06-01

    Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.

  2. Regulation of Shoot and Root Development through Mutual Signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jér(o)me Puig; Germain Pauluzzi; Emmanuel Guiderdoni; Pascal Gantet

    2012-01-01

    Plants adjust their development in relation to the availability of nutrient sources.This necessitates signaling between root and shoot.Aside from the well-known systemic signaling processes mediated by auxin,cytokinin,and sugars,new pathways involving carotenoid-derived hormones have recently been identified.The auxin-responsive MAX pathway controls shoot branching through the biosynthesis of strigolactone in the roots.The BYPASS1 gene affects the production of an as-yet unknown carotenoid-derived substance in roots that promotes shoot development.Novel local and systemic mechanisms that control adaptive root development in response to nitrogen and phosphorus starvation were recently discovered.Notably,the ability of the NITRATE TRANSPORTER 1.1 to transport auxin drew for the first time a functional link between auxin,root development,and nitrate availability in soil.The study of plant response to phosphorus starvation allowed the identification of a systemic mobile miRNA.Deciphering and integrating these signaling pathways at the whole-plant level provide a new perspective for understanding how plants regulate their development in response to environmental cues.

  3. IN VITRO SHOOT TIP CULTURE OF BANANA CULTIVAR MEITEI HEI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROBERT LALRINSANGA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micropopagation is preferred over the conventional method of propagation in banana owing to its fastermultiplication rate, uniformity in planting materials, production of disease-free planting materials, higherbunch weight, more fingers and hands and less variability in fruit size and shape. The apical meristem orshoot-tip culture is very efficient for rapid clonal micropopagation. Though abundant information on themicropropagation of banana is available for cultivars in India and abroad, there is only little or no informationon micropropagation of Meitei Hei, a popular local variety of Manipur. Thus, study was undertaken during2009-10 in the Tissue Culture Laboratory of the Department of Horticulture, CAU, Imphal on the in vitroshoot tip culture of Meiteti Hei banana to analyze its micropropagation potential. Results revealed that thehighest multiple shoot induction was found in MS+5mg1-1BAP at 2.17 shoots while MS+1 mg1-1NAA+0.2mg1-1BAP gave the longest regenerated shoots after 45 days of incubation. Highest number of roots wasfound in MS+2 mg1-1NAA. 98-100% survival was found in all the ex-vitro hardening media of sand,soil:FYM (2:1 and soil:vermicompost (2:1.

  4. Differential algebraic method for aberration analysis of typical electrostatic lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper up to fifth-order geometric and third-order chromatic aberration coefficients of typical electrostatic lenses are calculated by means of the charged particle optics code, COSY INFINITY, based on the differential algebraic (DA) method. A two-tube immersion lens and a symmetric einzel lens have been chosen as two examples, whose axial potential distributions are numerically calculated by a FORTRAN program using the finite difference method. The DA results are in good agreement with those evaluated by the aberration integrals in electron optics. The DA method presented here can easily be extended to aberration analysis of other numerically computed electron lenses, including magnetic lenses

  5. Aberrations of Genetic Material as Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milacic, S.

    2004-07-01

    Ionizing radiation is the most powerful mutagen in environmental and working conditions. The result of genotoxic effect of radiation is the development of chromosome aberrations. The structural chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes are dicentric, ring, acentric fragment. The observation of chromosome aberration frequency in lymphocyte karyotype is the conclusive method to assess the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. Our study compared the incidence of chromosome aberrations in occupationally exposed healthy medical workers and in non-exposed healthy population. We analyzed the effect of working place, dose by thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD), duration of occupational exposure (DOE) and age to the sum of aberrant cells and aberrations. four-year study included 462 subjects, mean-aged 42.3 years, who were occupational exposed to ionizing radiation and 95 subjects, mean-aged 35,2 years, who were not exposed to ionizing radiation, during the same time period and from the same territory. All of them possess thermo luminescence personal dosimeter (TLD) which is read by scanner for thermo luminescence dosimeters. Modified Moorheard's micro method for peripheral blood lymphocytes and conventional cytogenetic technique of chromosome aberration analysis were used for analysis of chromosome aberrations. Stained preparations (Giemsa) are observed in immersion by light microscope. The karyotype of 200 lymphocytes in metaphase is analyzed the most characteristic aberration: dicentric, then the ring and acentric fragments. The increased incidence of chromosome aberrations was found to tbe 21.6% in the exposed group and 2.1% in the controls, while the findings within the limits (non-specific chromosome lesions-gaps breaks, elongations, and exchanges) were equal in both groups (22%). Among occupationally exposed medical workers, the highest incidence was found in nuclear medicine workers (42.6%), then in orthopedists (27.08%). There is highly

  6. Independent Control of Organogenesis and Shoot Tip Abortion are Key Factors to Developmental Plasticity in Kiwifruit (Actinidia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Toshi M.; Seleznyova, Alla N.; Barnett, Andrew M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In kiwifruit (Actinidia), the number of nodes per shoot is highly variable and is influenced by genotype and environmental conditions. To understand this developmental plasticity, three key processes were studied: organogenesis by the shoot apical meristem during shoot growth; expansion of phytomers; and shoot tip abortion. Methods Studies were made of organogenesis and shoot tip abortion using light and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of temperature on shoot growth cessation was investigated using temperature indices over the budbreak period, and patterns of shoot tip abortion were quantified using stochastic modelling. Key Results All growing buds began organogenesis before budbreak. During shoot development, the number of phytomers initiated by the shoot apical meristem is correlated with the number of expanding phytomers and the mean internode length. Shoot tip abortion is preceded by growth cessation and is not brought about by the death of the shoot apical meristem, but occurs by tissue necrosis in the sub-apical zone. For most genotypes studied, the probability of shoot tip abortion is higher during expansion of the preformed part of the shoot. Lower temperatures during early growth result in a higher probability of shoot tip abortion. Conclusions Organogenesis and shoot tip abortion are controlled independently. All buds have the potential to become long shoots. Conditions that increase early growth rate postpone shoot tip abortion. PMID:17650513

  7. Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with plant growth, nodulation, and shoot npk in legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlation of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization with different root and shoot growth, nodulation and shoot NPK parameters was studied in three legumes viz. Trifolium alexandrianum, Medicago polymorpha and Melilotus parviflora. The three test legume species showed different patterns of root and shoot growth, nodulation, mycorrhizal colonization and shoot N, P and K content. Different mycorrhizal structures viz. mycelium, arbuscules and vesicles showed different patters of correlation with different studied parameters. Mycelial infection showed an insignificantly positive correlation with root and shoot dry biomass and total root length. Maximum root length was however, negatively associated with mycelial infection. Both arbuscular and vesicular infections were negatively correlated with shoot dry biomass and different parameters of root growth. The association between arbuscular infection and maximum root length was significant. All the three mycorrhizal structures showed a positive correlation with number and biomass of nodules. The association between arbuscular infection and nodule number was significant. Mycelial infection was positively correlated with percentage and total shoot N and P. Similarly percentage N was also positively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. By contrast, total shoot N showed a negative association with arbuscular as well as vesicular infections. Similarly both percentage and total shoot P were negatively correlated with arbuscular and vesicular infections. All the associations between mycorrhizal parameters and shoot K were negative except between vesicular infection and shoot %K. (author)

  8. High order aberration and straylight evaluation after cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric,aberration correcting monofocal intraocular lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian; T; A; Kretz; Tamer; Tandogan; Ramin; Khoramnia; Gerd; U; Auffarth

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To evaluate the quality of vision in respect to high order aberrations and straylight perception after implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting,monofocal intraocular lens(IOL).·METHODS: Twenty-one patients(34 eyes) aged 50 to83 y underwent cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, aberration correcting IOL(Tecnis ZCB00,Abbott Medical Optics). Three months after surgery they were examined for uncorrected(UDVA) and corrected distance visual acuity(CDVA), contrast sensitivity(CS)under photopic and mesopic conditions with and without glare source, ocular high order aberrations(HOA, Zywave II) and retinal straylight(C-Quant).· RESULTS: Postoperatively, patients achieved a postoperative CDVA of 0.0 log MAR or better in 97.1% of eyes. Mean values of high order abberations were +0.02±0.27(primary coma components) and-0.04 ±0.16(spherical aberration term). Straylight values of the C-Quant were 1.35±0.44 log which is within normal range of age matched phakic patients. The CS measurements under mesopic and photopic conditions in combination with and without glare did not show any statistical significance in the patient group observed(P ≥0.28).· CONCLUSION: The implantation of an aspherical aberration correcting monofocal IOL after cataractsurgery resulted in very low residual higher order aberration(HOA) and normal straylight.

  9. Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus torminalis (L. Crantz in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Bednorz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the study on morphological variability of leaves of a scattered tree species Sorbus torminalis (L. Crantz in Poland. The leaves from short- and long shoots were collected from 17 localities widespread within the range of the species in Poland. Leaves were measured according to 15 morphological traits. The biometric data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in attempt to define variability between local populations. Most of the leaf traits are significantly correlated and are characterised by moderate level of variation. The average among population component of variation was 32.82% and 27.46% for leaves on short- and long shoots, respectively. The differences between sampled populations are significant, but only a weak geographical pattern of this differentiation was detected. Clinal type of variation was ascertained in two traits. Leaf traits which discriminate best the studied populations are also indicated. It was proved that leaves on short shoots differ markedly in shape and size from those of long shoots. Leaves on long shoots are steadier, but morphological trait values are less correlated. The study also confirmed the occurrence of individuals with leaves characteristic for S. torminalis var. perincisa Borbas et Feck and S. torminalis f. mollis Beck in a few Polish populations.

  10. Chromosome aberrations in pesticide-exposed greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lander, B F; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Gamborg, M O;

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of subtoxic exposure to pesticides causing chromosome aberrations in greenhouse workers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional and prospective study design chromosome aberration frequencies in cultured lymphocytes were examined for 116...... greenhouse workers exposed to a complex mixture of almost 50 insecticides, fungicides, and growth regulators and also for 29 nonsmoking, nonpesticide-exposed referents. RESULTS: The preseason frequencies of chromosome aberrations were slightly but not statistically significantly elevated for the greenhouse...... workers when they were compared with the referents. After a summer season of pesticide spraying in the greenhouses, the total frequencies of cells with chromosome aberrations were significantly higher than in the preseason samples (P=0.02) and also higher than for the referents (P=0.05). This finding was...

  11. Electron Optics for Biologists: Physical Origins of Spherical Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, Peter; Zadunaisky, Jose

    1974-01-01

    Reports on the physical origins of spherical aberrations in axially symmetric electrostatic lenses to convey the essentials of electon optics to those who must think critically about the resolution of the electron microscope. (GS)

  12. CT of ruptured aneurysm of aberrant right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, A; Ortíz, A; Longo, J M; Pagola, M A

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the first description of a ruptured aneurysm of an aberrant right subclavian artery. CT clearly demonstrated the vascular malformation as well as the existence of a bilateral hemothorax. PMID:3102065

  13. Lymphocyte chromosome aberrations in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    a relationship between lymphocyte chromosome aberration yields which occur in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy and those yields measured in vitro is derived. These calculations are applied to the case of patients undergoing radiation therapy for mammary carcinoma. (author)

  14. Lymphocyte chromosome aberrations in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstrand, K.E.; Dixon, R.L. (Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC (USA))

    1982-03-01

    a relationship between lymphocyte chromosome aberration yields which occur in partial-body fractionated radiation therapy and those yields measured in vitro is derived. These calculations are applied to the case of patients undergoing radiation therapy for mammary carcinoma.

  15. Lens aberration measurement and analysis using a novel pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Byung-Ho; Cho, Byeong-Ho; Park, Jong O.; Kim, Dong-Seok; Baek, SungJin; Jeong, JongHo; Nam, ByungSub; Hwang, Young J.; Song, Young Jin

    2001-09-01

    Lens aberration of the exposure tool causes pattern deformation and position shift. As design rule shrinks, the ratio of printed feature size to applied wavelength for optical lithography is driven inexorably toward resolution limit. In this study, we devised an efficient method to evaluate lens aberration using multi-ring pattern on an attenuated phase-shift mask. Adoption of multi-ring pattern can cut down measurement time and improve measurement repeatability. These patterns are uniformly distributed through entire field in 7 by 7 manner. Lens aberration was evaluated by multi-ring pattern array under conventional or off-axis illumination with KrF stepper of NA 0.65. Multi-ring critical dimension (CD) data was discussed together with the issue of lens aberration such as coma, astigmatism, field curvature, etc. We can apply this new measurement technique to select better lens system efficiently. multi-ring, field size, pattern deformation

  16. Optimizing chromatic aberration calibration using a novel genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Tung-Kuan; MacDonald, John; Chou, Jyh-Horng; Wu, Bo-Wen; Tsai, Hsien-Lin; Chang, En-Hao

    2006-10-01

    Advances in digitalized image optics has increased the importance of chromatic aberration. The axial and lateral chromatic aberrations of an optical lens depends on the choice of optical glass. Based on statistics from glass companies worldwide, more than 300 optical glasses have been developed for commercial purposes. However, the complexity of optical systems makes it extremely difficult to obtain the right solution to eliminate small chromatic aberration. Even the damped least-squares technique, which is a ray-tracing-based method, is limited owing to its inability to identify an enhanced optical system configuration. Alternatively, this study instead attempts to eliminate even negligible axial and lateral colour aberration by using algorithms involving the theories of geometric optics in triplet lens, binary and real encoding, multiple dynamic crossover and random gene mutation techniques.

  17. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  18. Aberrant internal carotid artery in the middle ear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Keun Tak; Kang, Hyun Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The knowledge about the aberrant internal carotid artery (ICA) in the middle ear is essential for clinicians, because a misdiagnosis of the aberrant ICA could have serious consequences such as excessive aural bleeding during a middle ear surgery. A 38-year-old woman presented with tinnitus and hearing difficulties of the left ear that had started 5 years ago. During otoscopy, an anteroinferior bluish mass was seen in the tympanic space. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a left-side aberrant ICA with bony dehiscence of the carotid canal in the middle ear and a reduced diameter of the tympanic ICA. Herein we report a case of an aberrant ICA in the middle ear. We also review the literature regarding this important vascular anomaly of the temporal bone which may lead to disastrous surgical complications.

  19. Isoplanatic patch size for aberration correction in ultrasonic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Wayne C.

    Methods and experimental results are described for determination of the region size in an aberrating medium over which a single set of aberration estimates can achieve satisfactory b-scan resolution ( i.e., the isoplanatic patch) using time-shift compensation for aberration correction of ultrasonic transmit and receive beams. Based on twenty percent allowable increases in the -12 dB width of the receive or transmit beam focus using cross-correction compared to self-correction, the isoplanatic patch sizes were found to between 3 and 5 millimeters laterally for a linearly-scanned transducer, and at least 12 millimeters axially for a target distance of 55 millimeters and aberration comparable to human abdominal wall. These sizes depend on the aberration severity, reference site axial position, and allowable resolution degradation with cross-correction. The lateral isoplanatic patch size of a linearly scanned image can be more than doubled to match that of a beam-steered acquisition using aberration estimate position matching relative to the tissue surface. Further expansion of the lateral isoplanatic patch size by an additional 50 to 100 percent for both scanning methods is also shown through propagation path matched cross-correction mapping of aberration estimates. The specific mapping required to achieve the best propagation path match depends on the axial distribution of the aberrating structures, the focal depth being imaged, and the cross-correction distance. The effectiveness of alternate methods to derive propagation path matching maps with and without a priori knowledge of aberrator spatial distribution are contrasted; and a means to dynamically adjust correction maps to maximize isoplanatic patch sizes is proposed and verified. Lateral cross-correction mapping and the map changes required for each cross-correction distance can all be implemented with simple shifting of aberration estimates within the transducer aperture. Therefore, use of optimally mapped

  20. Moment aberrations in magneto-electrostatic plasma lenses (computer simulation)

    CERN Document Server

    Butenko, V I

    2001-01-01

    In this work moment aberrations in the plasma magneto-electrostatic lenses are considered in more detail with the use of the computer modeling. For solution of the problem we have developed a special computer code - the model of plasma optical focusing device, allowing to display the main parameters and operations of experimental sample of a lens, to simulate the moment and geometrical aberrations and give recommendations on their elimination.

  1. Study of the wavefront aberrations in children with amblyopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng-fei; ZHOU Yue-hua; WANG Ning-li; ZHANG Jing

    2010-01-01

    Background Amblyopia is a common ophthalmological condition and the wavefront aberrometer is a relatively new diagnostic tool used globally to measure optical characteristics of human eyes as well as to study refractive errors in amblyopic eyes. We studied the wavefront aberration of the amblyopic children's eyes and analyzed the mechanism of the wavefront aberration in the formation of the amblyopia, try to investigate the new evidence of the treatment of the amblyopia, especially in the refractory amblyopia.Methods The WaveScan Wavefront System (VISX, USA) aberrometer was used to investigate four groups of children under dark accommodation and cilliary muscle paralysis. There were 45 cases in the metropic group, 87 in the amblyopic group, 92 in the corrected-amblyopic group and 38 in the refractory amblyopic group. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), t-test and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze all the data.Results Third order to 6th order aberrations showed a decreasing trend whereas in the higher order aberrations the main ones were 3rd order coma (Z3-1-Z31), trefoil (Z3-3-Z33) and 4th order aberration (Z40); and 3rd order coma represented the highest percentage of all three main aberrations. Within 3rd order coma, vertical coma (Z3-1) accounted for a greater percentage than horizontal coma (Z31). Significant differences of vertical coma were found among all clinical groups of children: vertical coma in the amblyopic group (0.17±0.15) was significantly higher than in the metropic group (0.11±0.13, P0.05).Conclusions Although lower order aberrations such as defocus (myopia and hyperopia) and astigmatism are major factors determining the quality of the retinal image, higher order aberrations also need to be considered in amblyopic eyes as their effects are significant.

  2. Minimum $G_2$-aberration for nonregular fractional factorial designs

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Boxin; Deng, Lih-Yuan

    1999-01-01

    Deng and Tang proposed generalized resolution and minimum aberration criteria for comparing and assessing nonregular fractional factorials, of which Plackett–Burman designs are special cases.A relaxed variant of generalized aberration is proposed and studied in this paper.We show that a best design according to this criterion minimizes the contamination of nonnegligible interactions on the estimation of main effects in the order of importance given by the hierarchical assump...

  3. Photothermal Lens Aberration Effects in Two Laser Thermal Lens Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Bialkowski, Stephen E.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of theories describing two laser photothermal lens signals is given. The aberrant nature of this lens is accounted for in a theory which treats the propagation of a monitor laser in terms of a phase shift in this laser beam wave front. The difference between theories are discussed in terms of the predicted signal strengths and temporal behavior. The aberrant theory results in smaller theoretical signal strengths and different functional relationships between signal and analyte le...

  4. Sharpness changes of gaussian beams induced by spherically aberrated lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, G.; Mejías, P. M.; Martínez-Herrero, R.

    1994-04-01

    Sharpness changes of the spatial profile of a gaussian beam induced by spherically aberrated lenses are investigated in terms of the so-called kurtosis parameter. It is shown both theoretically and experimentally that, after a single aberrated lens, it is possible to get flatter and sharper beam intensity distributions than the input gaussian beam depending on the plane where the field is observed. Agreement between analytical and experimental results is discussed.

  5. Pattern of Chromosomal Aberrations in Patients from North East Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Ghazaey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Chromosomal aberrations are common causes of multiple anomaly syndromes. Recurrent chromosomal aberrations have been identified by conventional cytogenetic methods used widely as one of the most important clinical diagnostic techniques.Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, the incidences of chromosomal aberrations were evaluated in a six year period from 2005 to 2011 in Pardis Clinical and Genetics Laboratory on patients referred to from Mashhad and other cities in Khorasan province. Karyotyping was performed on 3728 patients suspected of having chromosomal abnormalities.Results: The frequencies of the different types of chromosomal abnormalities were determined, and the relative frequencies were calculated in each group. Among these patients, 83.3% had normal karyotypes with no aberrations. The overall incidences of chromosomal abnormalities were 16.7% including sex and autosomal chromosomal anomalies. Of those, 75.1 % showed autosomal chromosomal aberrations. Down syndrome (DS was the most prevalent autosomal aberration in the patients (77.1%. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 was seen in 5% of patients. This inversion was prevalent in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. Sex chromosomal aberrations were observed in 24.9% of abnormal patients of which 61% had Turner’s syndrome and 33.5% had Klinefelter’s syndrome.Conclusion: According to the current study, the pattern of chromosomal aberrations in North East of Iran demonstrates the importance of cytogenetic evaluation in patients who show clinical abnormalities. These findings provide a reason for preparing a local cytogenetic data bank to enhance genetic counseling of families who require this service.

  6. Lens customization method to minimize aberration in integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Matheus; Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho

    2015-10-01

    Conventionally the elemental lenses of the lens-array used in integral imaging have spherical surface profiles, thus they suffer from intrinsic lens aberrations such as spherical aberration and astigmatism. Aberrations affect the ability of the lens to focus light in a single point, or to collimate light from a point source. In integral imaging, this results in a loss of image quality of the reconstructed image due to distortions. The viewing characteristics of the integral imaging system, such as viewing angle and image resolution, are also affected by aberrations. We propose the use of a custom made aspherical lens-array which was specifically designed to minimize distortions due to aberrations and hence improve the reconstructed image quality. Ray optics calculations are used in order to analyze the aberrations and find the initial lens surface profile. Lens optimization is performed with the aid of numerical simulation software. The designed lens-array is compared to a conventional spherical lens-array of same properties. The design, optimization, and fabrication processes are described and the experiments are presented and compared with the computer simulations.

  7. Ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized LASIK for myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanabhan Prema

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the change in ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized (WFO laser in situ keratomileusis ( Lasik for correction of myopia and to analyze causative factors that may influence them. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case series. WFO Lasik was performed for the correction of myopia, using the hansatome (Bausch and Lomb microkeratome to create the flap and the Allegretto laser (Wavelight Technologie to perform the ablation. The Allegretto wave analyser (Tscherning-type measured the ocular aberrations prior to Lasik , one month and six months postoperatively. Results: The mean age of the 59 patients included in the study was 25±5.64 years and the mean spherical equivalent of the 117 eyes that underwent Lasik0 was -5.33±1.22 preoperatively and -0.21±0.38 postoperatively. Hundred and two eyes of 117 (87% achieved uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA of 20/20 or better after WFO Lasik and 104 of 117 eyes (89% were within ±0.5D of the attempted refractive correction. There was a 1.96-fold increase in total root-mean-square of higher order aberrations. Induced changes in seven of the 22 higher order Zernike terms showed a significant linear correlation with the refractive correction attempted. Larger ablation zones induced less spherical aberration. Conclusion: In spite of an excellent visual outcome, WFO Lasik induces significant higher order aberrations. Large ablation zones reduce the induction of spherical aberration.

  8. An Efficient In Vitro Plantlet Regeneration from Shoot Tip Cultures of Curculigo latifolia, a Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Babaei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A procedure was developed for in vitro propagation of Curculigo latifolia through shoot tip culture. Direct regeneration and indirect scalp induction of Curculigo latifolia were obtained from shoot tip grown on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of thidiazuron and indole-3-butyric acid. Maximum response for direct regeneration in terms of percentage of explants producing shoot, shoot number, and shoot length was obtained on MS medium supplemented with combination of thidiazuron (0.5 mg L−1 and indole-3-butyric acid (0.25 mg L−1 after both 10 and 14 weeks of cultures. Indole-3-butyric acid in combination with thidiazuron exhibited a synergistic effect on shoot regeneration. The shoot tips were able to induce maximum scalp from basal end of explants on the medium with 2 mg L−1 thidiazuron. Cultures showed that shoot number, shoot length, and scalp size increased significantly after 14 weeks of culture. Transferring of the shoots onto the MS medium devoid of growth regulators resulted in the highest percentage of root induction and longer roots, while medium supplemented with 0.25 mg L−1 IBA produced more numbers of roots.

  9. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus

  10. Transcranial phase aberration correction using beam simulations and MR-ARFI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Kaye, Elena; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive technique for causing selective tissue necrosis. Variations in density, thickness, and shape of the skull cause aberrations in the location and shape of the focal zone. In this paper, the authors propose a hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to achieve aberration correction for transcranial MR-guided focused ultrasound surgery. The technique uses ultrasound beam propagation simulations with MR Acoustic Radiation Force Imaging (MR-ARFI) to correct skull-caused phase aberrations. Methods: Skull-based numerical aberrations were obtained from a MR-guided focused ultrasound patient treatment and were added to all elements of the InSightec conformal bone focused ultrasound surgery transducer during transmission. In the first experiment, the 1024 aberrations derived from a human skull were condensed into 16 aberrations by averaging over the transducer area of 64 elements. In the second experiment, all 1024 aberrations were applied to the transducer. The aberrated MR-ARFI images were used in the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique to find 16 estimated aberrations. These estimated aberrations were subtracted from the original aberrations to result in the corrected images. Each aberration experiment (16-aberration and 1024-aberration) was repeated three times. Results: The corrected MR-ARFI image was compared to the aberrated image and the ideal image (image with zero aberrations) for each experiment. The hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique resulted in an average increase in focal MR-ARFI phase of 44% for the 16-aberration case and 52% for the 1024-aberration case, and recovered 83% and 39% of the ideal MR-ARFI phase for the 16-aberrations and 1024-aberration case, respectively. Conclusions: Using one MR-ARFI image and noa priori information about the applied phase aberrations, the hybrid simulation-MR-ARFI technique improved the maximum MR-ARFI phase of the beam's focus.

  11. Shoot and root dry weight in drought exposed tomato populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brdar-Jokanović Milka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim to among forty-one tested tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill populations distinguish those tolerant to limited water supply. Tolerance assessments were performed by using sixteen drought stress selection indices calculated on the basis of tomato shoot and root dry weight yields determined at water stress and non-stress conditions. Populations were differentiated in groups using the method of cluster analysis. The pot experiment was set in controlled greenhouse conditions and comprised optimally irrigated control and drought treatment (35.0 and 20.9% volumetric soil water content, respectively, imposed at the phase of intensive vegetative growth. The experiment was conducted at the Institute for Vegetable Crops in Smederevska Palanka, Serbia. The analyzed tomatoes exhibited significant differences in terms of response to limited irrigation, which had more pronounced effect on shoot dry weight than on the roots (average decrease of 64.4 and 35.7%, respectively. Consequently, root fraction in the total dry weight increased at drought for 68.2% on average. Shoot and root dry weights were positively correlated at optimal irrigation but not in drought, implying genotypic differences in terms of root adjustments to stress conditions. As for the calculated selection indices, substantial variation was found among the populations enabling their ranking in terms of drought tolerance. Since ranking was not the same in all cases, clustering the populations was performed taking into account all sixteen selection indices. The results of this analysis indicate that populations designated with numbers 126, 124, 131, 125, 128, 105, 101, 138, 110, 132 and 109 in Institute for Vegetable Crops germplasm collection exhibit satisfactory level of drought tolerance at vegetative phase and therefore may be used as parents in breeding programs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31005 i br. TR 31059

  12. Roles for auxin, cytokinin, and strigolactone in regulating shoot branching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brett J; Beveridge, Christine A

    2009-04-01

    Many processes have been described in the control of shoot branching. Apical dominance is defined as the control exerted by the shoot tip on the outgrowth of axillary buds, whereas correlative inhibition includes the suppression of growth by other growing buds or shoots. The level, signaling, and/or flow of the plant hormone auxin in stems and buds is thought to be involved in these processes. In addition, RAMOSUS (RMS) branching genes in pea (Pisum sativum) control the synthesis and perception of a long-distance inhibitory branching signal produced in the stem and roots, a strigolactone or product. Auxin treatment affects the expression of RMS genes, but it is unclear whether the RMS network can regulate branching independently of auxin. Here, we explore whether apical dominance and correlative inhibition show independent or additive effects in rms mutant plants. Bud outgrowth and branch lengths are enhanced in decapitated and stem-girdled rms mutants compared with intact control plants. This may relate to an RMS-independent induction of axillary bud outgrowth by these treatments. Correlative inhibition was also apparent in rms mutant plants, again indicating an RMS-independent component. Treatments giving reductions in RMS1 and RMS5 gene expression, auxin transport, and auxin level in the main stem were not always sufficient to promote bud outgrowth. We suggest that this may relate to a failure to induce the expression of cytokinin biosynthesis genes, which always correlated with bud outgrowth in our treatments. We present a new model that accounts for apical dominance, correlative inhibition, RMS gene action, and auxin and cytokinin and their interactions in controlling the progression of buds through different control points from dormancy to sustained growth. PMID:19218361

  13. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of Corchorus acutangulus Lam. (Tiliaceae).

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy, K.; Paulsamy, S.; J Thambiraj

    2013-01-01

    The herb, Corchorus acutangulus is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family Tiliaceae. The present study describes the efficient in vitro regeneration protocol standardized for this species through leaf explant. The leaf explants were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.5 mgl-1) and NAA (0.2 mgl-1) for efficient callus induction (84.43%). Multiple shoots (83%) were developed in the MS medium fortified with IBA (2.0 mgl-1) and TDZ (0.2 mgl-1). Better ...

  14. Posttraumatic Stress Among Students After the Shootings at Virginia Tech

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Michael; Brymer, Melissa; Chiu, Wai Tat; Fairbank, John A.; Jones, Russell T.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Rothwell, Virginia; Steinberg, Alan M.; Ronald C. Kessler

    2011-01-01

    On April 16, 2007, in the worst campus shooting incident in U.S. history, 49 students and faculty at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) were shot, of whom 32 were killed. A cross-sectional survey of 4,639 Virginia Tech students was carried out the following summer/fall to assess PTSD symptoms using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ). High levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms (probable PTSD) were experienced by 15.4% of respondents 3 to 4 months follo...

  15. Rootstocks: Diversity, Domestication, and Impacts on Shoot Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschefsky, Emily J; Klein, Laura L; Frank, Margaret H; Chitwood, Daniel H; Londo, Jason P; von Wettberg, Eric J B; Miller, Allison J

    2016-05-01

    Grafting is an ancient agricultural practice that joins the root system (rootstock) of one plant to the shoot (scion) of another. It is most commonly employed in woody perennial crops to indirectly manipulate scion phenotype. While recent research has focused on scions, here we investigate rootstocks, the lesser-known half of the perennial crop equation. We review natural grafting, grafting in agriculture, rootstock diversity and domestication, and developing areas of rootstock research, including molecular interactions and rootstock microbiomes. With growing interest in perennial crops as valuable components of sustainable agriculture, rootstocks provide one mechanism by which to improve and expand woody perennial cultivation in a range of environmental conditions. PMID:26698413

  16. Seasonal Variation in Phenolic Constituents of Hazelnut (Coryllus avellana L.) and Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) Leaves and Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGENER, Şükriye Kurnaz

    1998-01-01

    In this research, the seasonal variation in total phenolic contents in hazelnut and chestnut leaves and shoots was determined. In addition, the phenolic compounds extracted by aqueous alcohol or obtained by acid hydrolysis of the leaves and shoots were separated by paper chromatography (PC). The total phenolic contents of the chestnut leaves and shoots were higher than the hazelnut. In both species, the young shoots had higher total phenolic contents than one year old shoots. The total phen...

  17. PATTERN OF PLANT REGENERATION FROM SHOOT TIP EXPLANTS OF PIGEONPEA (CAJANUS CAJAN L MILLLSP) VAR LRG-41

    OpenAIRE

    T. Raghavendra; P. Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    An efficient direct shoot bud differentiation and multiple shoot induction from shoot tip explants of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L.) has been achieved. The frequency of shoot bud regeneration was influenced by the type of explants, genotype and concentrations of cytokinin. Explants viz. shoot tip isolated from 10 day old seedlings showed better explants response Explants were cultured on Murashige and skoog (MS) medium augmented with different concentrations of BAP and NAA. Among the various c...

  18. Modelling of multi-conjugate adaptive optics for spatially variant aberrations in microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaptive optics has been implemented in a range of high-resolution microscopes in order to overcome the problems of specimen-induced aberrations. Most implementations have used a single aberration correction across the imaged field. It is known, however, that aberrations often vary across the field of view, so a single correction setting cannot compensate all aberrations. Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) has been suggested as a possible method for correction of these spatially variant aberrations. MCAO is modelled to simulate the correction of aberrations, both for simple model specimens and using real aberration data from a biological specimen. (special issue article)

  19. Shoot regeneration of limau purut (citrus hystrix) using shoot tip: assessment of calcium gluconate and silver nitrate in overcoming premature leaf senescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to establish an optimum In vitro shoot multiplication system using shoot tip explants derived from 7 week-old seedlings of Citrus hystrix. In the first experiment, shoot tips were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0-13.33 mu M 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) for 8 weeks. Shoot tips cultured on 2.22 mu M BAP produced the highest mean number of shoots (3.42 shoots) but the shoots had low number of leaves (1.14 leaves) due to the occurrence of premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Meanwhile, the medium devoid of BAP produced the lowest mean number of shoots (1.50 shoots) but highest mean number of leaves (5.41 leaves) indicating that BAP was likely responsible for the premature leaf senescence. In order to overcome the occurrence of premature leaf senescence on medium with BAP, a second experiment was carried out whereby shoot tips were cultured on medium containing 2.22 micro M BAP fortified with 2.00, 4.00 and 6.00 mM calcium gluconate (Ca-glu) and a control treatment with 2.22 mu M BAP. The shoot and leaf numbers were increased with the addition of 4.00 and 6.00 mM Ca-glu. The presence of Ca-glu reduced premature leaf senescence and callus formation to some extent. In the third experiment, the addition of silver nitrate (AgNO/sub 3/) at 10-80 micro M in media with 2.22 micro M BAP and 2.22 micro M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu could totally overcome premature leaf senescence and callus formation. Media supplemented with 2.22 mirco M BAP + 4 mM Ca-glu + 20 micro M AgNOsub 3/ significantly induced among the highest mean number of shoots and highest mean number of leaves per shoot. (author)

  20. Induction of chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes by fission neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberrations induced by sparsely ionizing radiation (low-LET) are well known and cytogenetic analyses of irradiated human lymphocytes have been widely applied to biological dosimetry. However, much less is known about chromosome aberrations induced by densely ionizing radiation (high LET), such as that of alpha particles or neutrons. Such particles induce DNA strand breaks, as well as chromosome breakage and rearrangements of high complexity. This damage is more localized and less efficiently repaired than after X- or γ-ray irradiation. This preferential production of complex aberrations by densely ionizing radiation is related to the unique energy deposition patterns, which produces highly localized multiple DNA damage at the chromosomal level. A better knowledge of the interactions between different types of radiation and cellular DNA is of importance, not only from the radiobiological viewpoint but also for dosimetric and therapeutic purposes. The objective of the present study was to analyse the cytogenetic effects of fission neutrons on peripheral blood lymphocytes in order to evaluate structural and numerical aberrations and number of cells in the different mitotic cycles. So, blood samples from five healthy donors, 22-25 years old, of both sexes, were irradiated in the Research Reactor IEA-R1 of our Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP) with thermal and fast neutrons at doses of 0.2; 0.3; 0.5 and 1.0 Gy. The γ contribution to the total absorbed dose was about 30%. These doses were monitored by thermoluminescent dosemeters: LiF-600 (for neutrons) and LiF-700 (for γ-rays). The data concerning structural aberrations were evaluated with regard to three parameters: percentage of cells with aberrations, number of aberrations/cell and number of dicentric/cell. The cytogenetic results showed an increase in the three parameters after irradiation with neutrons, as a function of radiation dose. Apparently, there was no influence of neutrons on the kinetics of cellular

  1. Seasonal variation in secondary metabolites of edible shoots of Buck's beard [Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald (Rosaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusani, Pietro; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Zidorn, Christian; Kiss, Anna K; Scartezzini, Fabrizio; Granica, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald is an herbaceous plant belonging to the Rosaceae family. In the northern regions of Italy young shoots of A. dioicus are collected and used as vegetable. No studies on the chemical composition of young shoots of A. dioicus have been reported so far. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive chromatographic method allowing the identification and quantification of chemical compounds occurring in A. dioicus shoots harvested at different developmental stages. The results showed that shoots contain mainly polyphenols. Twenty-four compounds were detected. Caffeoylglucose derivatives were recognized as major compounds. It was also confirmed that shoots contain the cyanogenic compound prunasin at all investigated vegetation stages. It was shown that the prunasin content significantly increases during plant development, thus justifying the belief that after the development of the first green leaves, shoots should not be used for culinary purposes any longer. PMID:26920262

  2. Effects of Reasoning Ability on Field Goal Shooting Skills of Female Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Kumar Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, field goal shooting skills of female basketball players were assessed in the background to their reasoning ability. The sample consists of 100 female intercollegiate basketball players (age = 21.05±1.67 yrs.. Shooting skills reasoning ability were assessed by Johnson’s “Basketball Field Goal Speed Shooting Test” and Mixed Type Group Test of Intelligence prepared by Mehrotra (1984, respectively. Results reveal that field goal shooting ability of female basketball players exhibiting superior reasoning ability was found to be significantly better as compared to field goal shooting ability of female basketball players with low and average reasoning ability. It was concluded that shooting skills of female basketball players is influenced by their cognitive ability i.e. ability to rationalize problems in proper sequence.

  3. Morphological variability of leaves of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Leszek Bednorz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study on morphological variability of leaves of a scattered tree species Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz) in Poland. The leaves from short- and long shoots were collected from 17 localities widespread within the range of the species in Poland. Leaves were measured according to 15 morphological traits. The biometric data were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis in attempt to define variability between local populations. Most of the leaf traits ar...

  4. Enhanced shoot multiplication in Ficus religiosa L. in the presence of adenine sulphate, glutamine and phloroglucinol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, Priyanka; Gill, Anita Rani

    2011-07-01

    Ficus religiosa (Pipal) is a long-lived valuable multipurpose forest tree. The tree is exploited because of its religious, ornamental and medicinal value and the regeneration rate in natural habitat is low. An in vitro propagation protocol has been developed from nodal segments obtained from a 45-50-year old tree. The highest bud break frequency (100 %) followed by maximum number of multiple shoots (13.9) as well as length (2.47 cm) were obtained on Woody Plant medium (WPM) supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP along with 0.5 mg/l IAA. Two modifications in this medium resulted in enhanced shoot regeneration-one with 200 mg/l glutamine + 150 mg/l ADS (called as MM-1) giving 32.5 shoots per nodal explant while another modification-with 200 mg/l glutamine + 150 mg/l ADS + 100 mg/l phloroglucinol (called as MM-2) giving 35.65 shoots per explant. These two media were used for sub-culturing of shoots for 4 months. The rate of shoot multiplication was same during the first three sub-cultures on MM-1 and the shoots regenerated were healthy, afterwards shoot multiplication declined. While on MM-2, shoot multiplication declined after first sub-culture and shoots underwent the problem of early leaf fall. Rooting was best induced in micro-shoots excised from proliferated shoot cultures on semi-solid as well as liquid WPM modified with 2.0 mg/l IBA and 0.5 mg/l IAA. The in vitro-raised plantlets were potted and acclimatized under culture room conditions for 25-30 days before transfer to soil conditions, where the established plants showed more than 90 % survival. PMID:23573019

  5. Spatial-temporal patterns of Bashania fargesii bamboo shoot emergence and giant panda herbivory

    OpenAIRE

    Zhijun Lu; Wei Wang; Wenhui Zhang; Hong Li; Qing Cao; Gaodi Dang; Dong He; Scott Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Bashania fargesii is an important food resource for giant panda in the Qinling Mountains, China, especially in winter and spring when giant panda prefers new shoots. Therefore, regeneration of B. fargesii is a key factor for conservation of the giant panda. B. fargesii regenerates mainly via new shoot recruitment. To identify spatial-temporal patterns of B. fargesii new shoot emergence and giant panda herbivory as well as spatial and quantitative associations between them, we established one ...

  6. Longevity of cut inflorescence shoots of high kamasija (Camassia quamash (Pursh) Greene) depending on postharvest treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paulina Ulczycka; Agnieszka Krzymińska

    2013-01-01

    The research was carried out to determine the effect of conditioning of cut flowering shoots of the Camassia quamash in 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate on postharvest longevity. The inflorescence shoots were conditioned for 24 h in water solutions of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate at concentration of 200 mg·dm-3 and then kept in water or gibberellic acid solutions at concentration of 50 or 100 mg·dm-3. The inflorescent shoots not conditioned and kept in water showed the longest posthar...

  7. Translocation of sorbitol and other photosynthates in golden delicious apple shoots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine to what extent sorbitol and other photosynthates are translocated in Golden Delicious apple shoots. The distribution of radioactivity in the different fractions, after the leaves had been exposed to radiocarbon, was found in segment of the shoots directly below the treatment leaves. The highest 14C activity was in the carbohydrate fraction. The results indicate that sorbitol is the principal carbohydrate transported in Golden Delicious apple shoots

  8. Effect of nitrogen salts on the growth of Ceratonia siliqua L. Shoot cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Vinterhalter Branka; Ninković Slavica; Zdravković-Korać Snežana; Subotić Angelina; Vinterhalter D.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of reduced nitrogen salt nutriton on the growth, lenticel hypertrophy and anthocyanin accumulation of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) shoot cultures were investigated in conditions of light and darkness. Growth of shoot cultures was not significantly affected until nitrogen salts were reduced to less than ¼ of full-strength MS (Murashige and Skoog, 1962) values. Cultures in darkness were less affected and their main shoots even increased in length. Appearance of hypertrophied lenticels i...

  9. Adventitious shoot formation on leaf cuttings in vivo, a tool in horticulture.

    OpenAIRE

    Custers, J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    Adventitious shoot formation implies the regeneration or development of shoots from fully differentiated tissue. Its application has, after the rise of in vitro culture, assumed large proportions. Then the question arose whether in vivo adventitious shoot formation could not be applied more widely in commercial horticulture. To answer this question investigations were made on the regeneration of leaf cuttings and the results are presented in this thesis.It was found that the majority of a lar...

  10. Phylogeny and Functions of Bacterial Communities Associated with Field-Grown Rice Shoots

    OpenAIRE

    Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sato, Tadashi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomic analysis was applied to bacterial communities associated with the shoots of two field-grown rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Kasalath. In both cultivars, shoot microbiomes were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (51–52%), Actinobacteria (11–15%), Gammaproteobacteria (9–10%), and Betaproteobacteria (4–10%). Compared with other rice microbiomes (root, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere) in public databases, the shoot microbiomes harbored abundant genes for C1 compound metabolism and 1-aminoc...

  11. Pattern formation during de novo assembly of the Arabidopsis shoot meristem

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sean P.; Heisler, Marcus G.; Reddy, G Venugopala; Ohno, Carolyn; Das, Pradeep; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2007-01-01

    Most multicellular organisms have a capacity to regenerate tissue after wounding. Few, however, have the ability to regenerate an entire new body from adult tissue. Induction of new shoot meristems from cultured root explants is a widely used, but poorly understood, process in which apical plant tissues are regenerated from adult somatic tissue through the de novo formation of shoot meristems. We characterize early patterning during de novo development of the Arabidopsis shoot meristem using ...

  12. Design of Simulation System for Effectiveness Evaluation of Future Airspace Window Shooting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Da-qing; WU An-bo; BAI Gai-chao; TU Yi

    2013-01-01

    Future Airspace Window Shooting is a newly developed technology, which needs effectiveness evaluation before widely used. Future airspace window shooting technology, simulation system development principles and software chosen to develop the simulation system are introduced in the first. And then the overall design of the system, realization of the system and effectiveness evaluation through simulation are discussed in detail. Through the simulation, it is known that the FAW shooting has more superior performance when facing maneuvering targets.

  13. Shoot tissue culture of Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana is a transfiguration of Robinia pseudoacacia. For enhancing propagation coefficient of the species, the experiment of shoot tissue culture of Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana was conducted in Forestry College of Shenyang Agricultural University from July 1999 to July 2001. The experiment included medium selection of explant induction survival, initial culture, subculture as well as rooting culture, and forming seedling with callus. The results showed that shoot segment in vitro survive rate is larger in spring than in autumn, and green dense callus could form plantlet. The best medium for initial culture was SH+0.5mg/L BA+0.05 mg/L NAA, with a propagation coefficient of 4.1 (per micro-cutting in a month), and for subculture it was B5+0.5 mg/L BA+0.05 mg/L NAA+ 10 mg/L Glu., with a propagation coefficient of 4.7. The best rooting medium was 1/2MS+0.5 mg/L NAA+10 mg/L Glu., with a rooting rate of 84.4%. These results provide reference data for reproduction of superior individuals of Robinia pseudoacacia f. decaisneana.

  14. Antimutagenic potential of curcumin on chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAGUNATHAN Irulappan; PANNEERSELVAM Natarajan

    2007-01-01

    Turmeric has long been used as a spice and food colouring agent in Asia. In the present investigation, the antimutagenic potential of curcumin was evaluated in Allium cepa root meristem cells. So far there is no report on the biological properties of curcumin in plant test systems. The root tip cells were treated with sodium azide at 200 and 300 μg/ml for 3 h and curcumin was given at 5, 10 and 20 μg/ml for 16 h, prior to sodium azide treatment. The tips were squashed after colchicine treatment and the cells were analyzed for chromosome aberration and mitotic index. Curcumin induces chromosomal aberration in Allium cepa root tip cells in an insignificant manner, when compared with untreated control. Sodium azide alone induces chromosomal aberrations significantly with increasing concentrations. The total number of aberrations was significantly reduced in root tip cells pretreated with curcumin. The study reveals that curcumin has antimutagenic potential against sodium azide induced chromosomal aberrations in Allium cepa root meristem cells. In addition, it showed mild cytotoxicity by reducing the percentage of mitotic index in all curcumin treated groups, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. The antimutagenic potential of curcumin is effective at 5 μg/ml in Allium cepa root meristem cells.

  15. Metaphase chromosome aberrations as markers of radiation exposure and dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome aberration frequency provides the most reliable biological marker of dose for detecting acute accidental radiation exposure. Significant radiation-induced changes in the frequency of chromosome aberrations can be detected at very low doses. Our paper provides information on using molecular chromosome probes ''paints'' to score chromosome damage and illustrates how technical advances make it possible to understand mechanisms involved during formation of chromosome aberrations. In animal studies chromosome aberrations provide a method to relate cellular damage to cellular dose. Using an In vivo/In vitro approach aberrations provided a biological marker of dose from radon progeny exposure which was used to convert WLM to dose in rat tracheal epithelial cells. Injection of Chinese hamsters with 144Ce which produced a low dose rate exposure of bone marrow to either low-LET radiation increased the sensitivity of the cells to subsequent external exposure to 60Co. These studies demonstrated the usefulness of chromosome damage as a biological marker of dose and cellular responsiveness

  16. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes for the analysis of chromosome aberrations in mutagen tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on exposed individuals, and on cultured cells, have shown that the human peripheral blood lymphocyte is an extremely sensitive indicator of both in vivo and in vitro induced chromosome structural change. These changes in chromosome structure offer readily scored morphological evidence of damage to the genetic material. Although problems exist in the extrapolation from in vitro results to the in vivo situation, the lymphocyte offers several advantages as a test system. The types of chromosome damage which can be cytologically distinguished at metaphase can be divided into two main groups: chromosome type and chromatid type. The circulating lymphocyte is in the G/sub 0/ or G/sub 1/ phase of mitosis and exposure to ionising radiations and certain other mutagenic agents during this stage produces chromosome-type damage where the unit of breakage and reunion is the whole chromosome (i.e. both chromatids at the same locus). However, cells exposed to these agents while in the S or G/sub 2/ stages of the cell cycle, after the chromosome has divided into two sister chromatids, yield chromatid-type aberrations and only the single chromatid is involved in breakage or exchange. Other agents (e.g. some of the alkylating agents) will usually produce only chromatid-type aberrations in cells in cycle although the cells are exposed to the mutagen whilst in G/sub 1/

  17. Correction of axial chromatic aberrations in confocal Raman microspectroscopic measurements of a single microbial spore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasch, Peter; Hermelink, Antje; Naumann, Dieter

    2009-06-01

    Herein we describe a strategy for correcting the longitudinal or axial component of chromatic aberration in confocal Raman microspectroscopy. The method is based on measuring a vertical series of confocal Raman sections of samples by a high numerical aperture Raman microscope. Using the known characteristics of the wavelength-dependent focal shift of the optical system, the Raman intensities can be corrected to allow the rearrangement of Raman data from different focal planes. In the present study the computational correction routine was applied to an experimental data set of 4-dimensional (xyz spatial and the spectral dimension) confocal Raman spectra collected from single spores of Bacillus cereus. After correcting the axial component of the chromatic aberration, univariate and multivariate spectral parameters were obtained and used in the following for 3D segmentation and volume rendering on the basis of the structural and compositional information contained in the Raman spectra of the spore. Using univariate Raman intensities from defined functional group frequencies or k-means cluster membership values as a multivariate parameter for volume rendering, we demonstrate a high degree of correlation between confocal Raman microspectroscopy and the spores' morphology. In this paper we will also present cluster mean spectra which will be discussed in light of the presence of proteins and Ca-DPA, a calcium chelate of dipicolinic acid in the spore. PMID:19475143

  18. Factors affecting proliferation and elongation of shoots of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. through tissue culture technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The tissue culture of Phak Liang (Gnetum gnemon Linn. was investigated for micropropagation. The types of explant, culture media, types and concentrations of plant growth regulators, orientation of explant and section of explant were tested for their efficacy in inducing and proliferating shoot buds. The elongation of shoots and root induction was also studied. Young leaves gave the highest number of shoot buds when they were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l IBA and 1.53 mg/l BA. The medium supplemented with 0.25 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ alone provided the best result on multiple shoot bud induction both in percentage of explant forming shoots and number of shoot buds per explant. The percentage of explant forming shoot buds and number of shoot buds obtained from leaves were 90% and 26.50 shoot buds, while those from stems were 96.25% and 23.00 shoot buds, respectively. One hundred percent friable callus was induced from stem explant in the same medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D after 2 months of culture. Culturing whole leaf in the position of dorsal contact with medium gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 92% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant. Cutting stem into half and culturing in horizontal position gave the best multiple shoot bud formation of 96% and 23.00 shoot buds/explant after culture for 2 months. The best elongation of shoot buds (2.54 shoots derived from cultured leaves was induced in the liquid medium. While stem-derived shoot buds (3.45 shoots was induced in the solid medium of the same medium components. However, root could not be induced from elongated shoots.

  19. Multiple vantage points on the mental health effects of mass shootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Thoresen, Siri; Flynn, Brian W; Muschert, Glenn W; Shaw, Jon A; Espinel, Zelde; Walter, Frank G; Gaither, Joshua B; Garcia-Barcena, Yanira; O'Keefe, Kaitlin; Cohen, Alyssa M

    2014-09-01

    The phenomenon of mass shootings has emerged over the past 50 years. A high proportion of rampage shootings have occurred in the United States, and secondarily, in European nations with otherwise low firearm homicide rates; yet, paradoxically, shooting massacres are not prominent in the Latin American nations with the highest firearm homicide rates in the world. A review of the scientific literature from 2010 to early 2014 reveals that, at the individual level, mental health effects include psychological distress and clinically significant elevations in posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms in relation to the degree of physical exposure and social proximity to the shooting incident. Psychological repercussions extend to the surrounding affected community. In the aftermath of the deadliest mass shooting on record, Norway has been in the vanguard of intervention research focusing on rapid delivery of psychological support and services to survivors of the "Oslo Terror." Grounded on a detailed review of the clinical literature on the mental health effects of mass shootings, this paper also incorporates wide-ranging co-author expertise to delineate: 1) the patterning of mass shootings within the international context of firearm homicides, 2) the effects of shooting rampages on children and adolescents, 3) the psychological effects for wounded victims and the emergency healthcare personnel who care for them, 4) the disaster behavioral health considerations for preparedness and response, and 5) the media "framing" of mass shooting incidents in relation to the portrayal of mental health themes. PMID:25085235

  20. Some features of one-year-old tart Cherry shoots of cv. Sehattenmorelle

    OpenAIRE

    Dariusz Świetlik; Kazimierz Słowik; Sebastian Rejman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain data on the relationship between the length of 1-year-old shoots and their fruiting, and both their terminal and lateral growtn produced in the current year. The measurements were taken in 1977 and 1979 from the tart cherry trees of cv. Schattenmorelle grafted of Prunus mahaleb L. or Prunus avium L. grown in loose sandy soil. In 1977 there were more shoots of over 30 cm than in 1979. The longer the shoots, the more lateral shoots were there. Only the sh...

  1. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  2. Biological dosimetry: chromosomal aberration analysis for dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the growing importance of chromosomal aberration analysis as a biological dosimeter, the present report provides a concise summary of the scientific background of the subject and a comprehensive source of information at the technical level. After a review of the basic principles of radiation dosimetry and radiation biology basic information on the biology of lymphocytes, the structure of chromosomes and the classification of chromosomal aberrations are presented. This is followed by a presentation of techniques for collecting blood, storing, transporting, culturing, making chromosomal preparations and scaring of aberrations. The physical and statistical parameters involved in dose assessment are discussed and examples of actual dose assessments taken from the scientific literature are given

  3. Measurement of the atmospheric primary aberrations by 4-aperture DIMM

    CERN Document Server

    Shomali, Ramin; Darudi, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    The present paper investigates and discusses the ability of the Hartmann test with 4-aperture DIMM to measure the atmospheric primary aberrations which, in turn, can be used for calculation of the atmospheric coherence time. Through performing numerical simulations, we show that the 4-aperture DIMM is able to measure the defocus and astigmatism terms correctly while its results are not reliable for the coma. The most important limitation in the measurement of the primary aberrations by 4-aperture DIMM is the centroid displacements of the spots which are caused by the higher order aberrations. This effect is negligible in calculating of the defocus and astigmatisms, while, it cannot be ignored in the calculation of the coma.

  4. Correcting the Chromatic Aberration in Barrel Distortion of Endoscopic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Harry Ng

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern endoscopes offer physicians a wide-angle field of view (FOV for minimally invasive therapies. However, the high level of barrel distortion may prevent accurate perception of image. Fortunately, this kind of distortion may be corrected by digital image processing. In this paper we investigate the chromatic aberrations in the barrel distortion of endoscopic images. In the past, chromatic aberration in endoscopes is corrected by achromatic lenses or active lens control. In contrast, we take a computational approach by modifying the concept of image warping and the existing barrel distortion correction algorithm to tackle the chromatic aberration problem. In addition, an error function for the determination of the level of centroid coincidence is proposed. Simulation and experimental results confirm the effectiveness of our method.

  5. Screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to promote a fuller understanding of how psychological assessment procedures can be used to reduce the threat from aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry. It begins with a discussion of the scientifically based methods that are used by psychologists in constructing, scoring, and interpreting these procedures. This discussion includes an emphasis on the concepts of validity and reliability and their central importance when one is choosing specific psychological screening tools. Criteria for selecting and using psychological assessment procedures when screening for aberrant behavior are also provided. Some commonly used assessment procedures that satisfy these criteria are discussed. A number a psychological assessment procedures specifically recommended for use in screening for aberrant behavior in the nuclear industry are described

  6. On-line correction of aberrations in particle spectrographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method is presented that allows the reconstruction of trajectories and the on-line correction of residual aberrations that limit the resolution of particle spectrographs. Using a computed or fitted high order transfer map that describes the uncorrected aberrations of the spectrograph under consideration, it is possible to determine a pseudo transfer map that allows the computation of the corrected data of interest as well as the reconstructed trajectories in terms of position measurements in two planes near the focal plane. The technique is only limited by the accuracy of the position measurements and the accuracy of the transfer map. In practice the method can be expressed as an inversion of a pseudo transfer map and implemented in the differential algebraic framework. The method will be used to correct residual high aberrations in the S800 spectrograph which is under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University

  7. Subwavelength-grating-induced wavefront aberrations: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Karlton; Chipman, Russell A.

    2007-07-01

    The on-axis wavefront aberrations of a one-dimensional subwavelength-grating antireflection coating on an f/1.7 lens surface are shown to be small with noticeable contributions of defocus, astigmatism, and piston. The astigmatism is 0.02 wave, and the magnitude of the piston approaches one wave peak-to-valley. The difference in aberrations between orthogonally polarized wavefronts, or the retardance aberration, shows 0.01 wave of astigmatismlike variation and more than 0.01 wave of retardance-induced defocuslike variation. A small coupling between polarization states occurs in the form of the familiar Maltese cross, yielding a maximum of 3% coupling in the four diagonal edges of the pupil.

  8. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    CERN Document Server

    Catena, Riccardo; Notari, Alessio; Renzi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on Non-Gaussianity estimators $f_{NL}$. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax $= 2000$) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt Non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Usi...

  9. Radiation-induced chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose-response relationships for unstable chromosome exchange aberrations were obtained after irradiation with 200 kV X-rays and 60Co gamma rays, the doses ranging within 0.05-3.0 Gy. The data points were fitted to the linear quadratic model Y = C + αD + βD2, and after the chromosome hits leading to two-break unstable aberrations were estimated, to the model average x = C +kD. The results fitted the latter model particularly well, the index of determination being 0.988 for gamma rays and 0.997 for X-rays. The RBE of 200 kV X-rays as compared with 60Co gamma radiation was 1.6, when primary chromosome breaks leading to dicentric and centric ring aberrations were used as the biological endpoint. (author)

  10. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  11. Stability of chromosome aberrations with post-irradiation time. Implications in retrospective biodosimetry. Chromosome aberration analysis in retrospective biodosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the persistence chromosome aberrations induced by three doses of X-rays. For this purpose fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) painting and multiplex FISH (mFISH) techniques have been applied to a long-term culture of irradiated cells. By painting, at 2 Gy the frequency of apparently simple translocations remained almost invariable during all the culture, whereas at 4 Gy a rapid decline was observed between the first and the second sample, followed by a slight decrease until the end of the culture. Apparently simple dicentrics and complex aberrations disappeared after the first sample at 2 and 4 Gy. When simple aberrations analysed by mFISH are considered, at 2 Gy the frequency of complete plus one-way translocations remained invariable between the first and last sample, but at 4 Gy a 60% decline was observed. True incomplete simple translocations disappeared at 2 and 4 Gy. The analysis by mFISH showed that the frequency of complex aberrations and their complexity increased with dose and tends to disappear in the last sample. Our results indicate that the dose influence on the decrease of the frequency of simple translocations with post-irradiation time cannot be fully explained by the disappearance of true incomplete translocations and complex aberrations. (author)

  12. Gravitropism of cut shoots is mediated by oxidative processes: A physiological and molecular study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia; Friedman, Haya; Meir, Shimon

    2012-07-01

    The signal transduction events occurring during shoot gravitropism are mediated through amyloplasts sedimentation, reorientation of actin filaments in the endodermis, and differential changes in level and action of auxin, associated with differential growth leading to shoot curvature. Since increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) was shown to be associated with growth, we examined the possible use of antioxidants in controlling the gravitropic response, via their interaction with events preceding shoot bending. Reoriented snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L.) spikes and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. MicroTom) shoots showed a visual upward bending after a lag period of 3 or 5 h, respectively, which was inhibited by the antioxidants N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and reduced glutathione (GSH). This suggests the involvement of oxidative reactions in the process. The two antioxidants prevented the sedimentation of amyloplasts to the bottom of the endodermis cells following 0.5-5 h of snapdragon shoot reorientation, suggesting that oxidative reactions are involved already at a very early signal perception stage prior to the visual bending. In addition, a differential distribution in favor of the lower shoot side of various oxidative elements, including H2O2 concentrations and activity of the NADPH-oxidase enzyme, was observed during reorientation of snapdragon spikes. Application of the two antioxidants reduced the levels of these elements and abolished their differential distribution across the shoot. On the other hand, the activity of the antioxidative enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), which was not differentially distributed across the shoot, increased significantly following application of the two antioxidants. The auxin redistribution in reoriented shoots was analyzed using transgenic tomato plants expressing the GUS reporter gene under the Aux/IAA4 promoter (a generous gift of M. Bouzayen, France). GUS response, detected in control shoots 4 h after their reorientation

  13. Use of Chromosome Aberration Frequencies for Biological Dosimetry in Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vast amount of work on chromosome aberrations induced by radiation exposure under defined biological and physical conditions, has shown that there exist strict relationships between aberration frequencies, radiation quality and absorbed dose in a variety of cell systems. These relationships are such that in many irradiated plant and animal systems the frequency of induced chromosome aberrations has been used to give reliable estimates of the radiation dose to which the system was exposed. A similar extrapolation from induced aberration frequency to absorbed dose can be made with human peripheral blood lymphocytes, if such cells are exposed and cultured in vitro under well defined conditions. Moreover, since aberrations induced in lymphocytes following an in vivo exposure can be detected in the cells when subsequently cultured in vitro, the peripheral blood leucocyte system has been utilized for biological dosimetry in cases where individuals have been accidentally exposed to radiations. In the case of uniform whole-body exposure of an individual, and under defined conditions of in vitro culture, the system may be expected to fulfil most of the requirements for a sensitive and accurate biological measure of absorbed dose. In this context biological variations between individuals may be of importance and the influence of such factors as age and genotype on the radiation response are considered. In cases of partial body exposure, there are a variety of biological factors that may have a considerable influence on the yields of aberrations measured in cells removed from the body shortly after exposure. Factors that are important include: the proportions of lymphocytes located in or passing through the radiation field at the time of exposure; the distribution and mobility of lymphocytes between peripheral blood and the lymphoid systems; differences in the radiation response of lymphocytes of differing types, and differences in the capacities of irradiated and non

  14. A study on optical aberrations in parabolic neutron guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Hongli; Liu, Yuntao [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Zu, Yong [China International Engineering Consulting Corporation, Beijing 100048 (China); He, Linfeng; Wei, Guohai; Sun, Kai [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Han, Songbai, E-mail: hansb@ciae.ac.cn [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Chen, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciae.ac.cn [Neutron Scattering Laboratory, China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China)

    2015-06-21

    It is widely believed that a neutron beam can be focused to a small spot using a parabolic guide, which will significantly improve the flux. However, researchers have also noted challenges for the neutron inhomogeneous phase space distribution in parabolic focusing guide systems. In this paper, the sources of most prominent optical aberrations, such as an inhomogeneous phase space distribution and irregular divergence distribution, are discussed, and an optimization solution is also proposed. We indicate that optimizing the parabolic guide geometrical configuration removes almost all of the aberrations and yields a considerable intensity gain factor.

  15. Aberrations of the point spread function of a multimode fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Descloux, Adrien; Pinkse, Pepijn W H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the point spread function of a multimode fiber. The distortion of the focal spot created on the fiber output facet is studied for a variety of the parameters. We develop a theoretical model of wavefront shaping through a multimode fiber and use it to confirm our experimental results and analyze the nature of the focal distortions. We show that aberration-free imaging with a large field of view can be achieved by using an appropriate number of segments on the spatial light modulator during the wavefront-shaping procedure. The results describe aberration limits for imaging with multimode fibers as in, e.g., microendoscopy.

  16. Investigation of spherical aberration effects on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist;

    2013-01-01

    different telescope configurations using a hard target. It is experimentally and numerically proven that the SA has a significant impact on lidar antenna efficiency and optimal beam truncation ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrate that both effective probing range and spatial resolution of the system are......In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system under the influence of phase aberrations, especially the typically predominant spherical aberration (SA). The performance is evaluated by probing the spatial weighting function of the lidar system with...

  17. Optical imaging and aberrations, p.2 wave diffraction optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahajan, Virendra N

    2011-01-01

    Ten years have passed since the publication of the first edition of this classic text in April 2001. Considerable new material amounting to 100 pages has been added in this second edition. Each chapter now contains a Summary section at the end. The new material in Chapter 4 consists of a detailed comparison of Gaussian apodization with a corresponding beam, determination of the optimum value of the Gaussian radius relative to that of the pupil to yield maximum focal-point irradiance, detailed discussion of standard deviation, aberration balancing, and Strehl ratio for primary aberrations, deri

  18. In Vitro Shoot Regeneration of Corchorus acutangulus Lam. (Tiliaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Padmavathy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The herb, Corchorus acutangulus is an important medicinal plant belongs to the family Tiliaceae. The present study describes the efficient in vitro regeneration protocol standardized for this species through leaf explant. The leaf explants were cultured on Murashige & Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D (1.5 mgl-1 and NAA (0.2 mgl-1 for efficient callus induction (84.43%. Multiple shoots (83% were developed in the MS medium fortified with IBA (2.0 mgl-1 and TDZ (0.2 mgl-1. Better rooting response (74% was observed on half strength MS medium containing IBA (2.0 mgl-1 and Kn (0.2 mgl-1. Regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and hardened off inside the culture room and then transferred to green house with 81% survival rate.

  19. Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes - The ray-shooting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Peter; Weiss, Achim

    1988-01-01

    The propagation of light in a clumpy universe is studied using the ray-shooting method. It is found that 'empty cones' in a clumpy universe are rare, which points out the limitation of frequently used distance measures in an inhomogeneous universe. The results show some qualitatively new features of multiple-gravitational-lens geometry, and a likely explanation for these features is presented. A statistical analysis of the simulations give amplification probability distributions for extended sources, as well as the distribution for the ratio of amplifications of compact sources to amplifications of more extended sources. Sample light curves of individual sources are obtained. Finally, the results support the validity of recent investigations on the influence of gravitational light deflection on source counts of compact extragalactic objects.

  20. Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes - the ray-shooting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The propagation of light in a clumpy universe is studied using the ray-shooting method. It is found that empty cones in a clumpy universe are rare, which points out the limitation of frequently used distance measures in an inhomogeneous universe. The results show some qualitatively new features of multiple-gravitational-lens geometry, and a likely explanation for these features is presented. A statistical analysis of the simulations give amplification probability distributions for extended sources, as well as the distribution for the ratio of amplifications of compact sources to amplifications of more extended sources. Sample light curves of individual sources are obtained. Finally, the results support the validity of recent investigations on the influence of gravitational light deflection on source counts of compact extragalactic objects. 36 references

  1. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria step and shoot IMRT treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, David; Richter, Christian

    2013-01-01

    We consider Pareto surface based multi-criteria optimization for step and shoot IMRT planning. By analyzing two navigation algorithms, we show both theoretically and in practice that the number of plans needed to form convex combinations of plans during navigation can be kept small (much less than the theoretical maximum number needed in general, which is equal to the number of objectives for on-surface Pareto navigation). Therefore a workable approach for directly deliverable navigation in this setting is to segment the underlying Pareto surface plans and then enforce the mild restriction that only a small number of these plans are active at any time during plan navigation, thus limiting the total number of segments used in the final plan.

  2. Deliverable navigation for multicriteria step and shoot IMRT treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    We consider Pareto surface based multi-criteria optimization for step and shoot IMRT planning. By analyzing two navigation algorithms, we show both theoretically and in practice that the number of plans needed to form convex combinations of plans during navigation can be kept small (much less than the theoretical maximum number needed in general, which is equal to the number of objectives for on-surface Pareto navigation). Therefore a workable approach for directly deliverable navigation in this setting is to segment the underlying Pareto surface plans and then enforce the mild restriction that only a small number of these plans are active at any time during plan navigation, thus limiting the total number of segments used in the final plan.

  3. Reaction-diffusion pattern in shoot apical meristem of plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Fujita

    Full Text Available A fundamental question in developmental biology is how spatial patterns are self-organized from homogeneous structures. In 1952, Turing proposed the reaction-diffusion model in order to explain this issue. Experimental evidence of reaction-diffusion patterns in living organisms was first provided by the pigmentation pattern on the skin of fishes in 1995. However, whether or not this mechanism plays an essential role in developmental events of living organisms remains elusive. Here we show that a reaction-diffusion model can successfully explain the shoot apical meristem (SAM development of plants. SAM of plants resides in the top of each shoot and consists of a central zone (CZ and a surrounding peripheral zone (PZ. SAM contains stem cells and continuously produces new organs throughout the lifespan. Molecular genetic studies using Arabidopsis thaliana revealed that the formation and maintenance of the SAM are essentially regulated by the feedback interaction between WUSHCEL (WUS and CLAVATA (CLV. We developed a mathematical model of the SAM based on a reaction-diffusion dynamics of the WUS-CLV interaction, incorporating cell division and the spatial restriction of the dynamics. Our model explains the various SAM patterns observed in plants, for example, homeostatic control of SAM size in the wild type, enlarged or fasciated SAM in clv mutants, and initiation of ectopic secondary meristems from an initial flattened SAM in wus mutant. In addition, the model is supported by comparing its prediction with the expression pattern of WUS in the wus mutant. Furthermore, the model can account for many experimental results including reorganization processes caused by the CZ ablation and by incision through the meristem center. We thus conclude that the reaction-diffusion dynamics is probably indispensable for the SAM development of plants.

  4. Using Automated Image Analysis Algorithms to Distinguish Normal, Aberrant, and Degenerate Mitotic Figures Induced by Eg5 Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigley, Alison L; Klein, Stephanie K; Davies, Barry; Williams, Leigh; Rudmann, Daniel G

    2016-07-01

    Modulation of the cell cycle may underlie the toxicologic or pharmacologic responses of a potential therapeutic agent and contributes to decisions on its preclinical and clinical safety and efficacy. The descriptive and quantitative assessment of normal, aberrant, and degenerate mitotic figures in tissue sections is an important end point characterizing the effect of xenobiotics on the cell cycle. Historically, pathologists used manual counting and special staining visualization techniques such as immunohistochemistry for quantification of normal, aberrant, and degenerate mitotic figures. We designed an automated image analysis algorithm for measuring these mitotic figures in hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections. Algorithm validation methods used data generated from a subcutaneous human transitional cell carcinoma xenograft model in nude rats treated with the cell cycle inhibitor Eg5. In these studies, we scanned and digitized H&E-stained xenografts and applied a complex ruleset of sequential mathematical filters and shape discriminators for classification of cell populations demonstrating normal, aberrant, or degenerate mitotic figures. The resultant classification system enabled the representations of three identifiable degrees of morphological change associated with tumor differentiation and compound effects. The numbers of mitotic figure variants and mitotic indices data generated corresponded to a manual assessment by a pathologist and supported automated algorithm verification and application for both efficacy and toxicity studies. PMID:26936079

  5. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  6. Identification of Water Use Strategies at Early Growth Stages in Durum Wheat from Shoot Phenotyping and Physiological Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Bodewein, Thomas; Fiorani, Fabio; Bodner, Gernot

    2016-01-01

    Modern imaging technology provides new approaches to plant phenotyping for traits relevant to crop yield and resource efficiency. Our objective was to investigate water use strategies at early growth stages in durum wheat genetic resources using shoot imaging at the ScreenHouse phenotyping facility combined with physiological measurements. Twelve durum landraces from different pedoclimatic backgrounds were compared to three modern check cultivars in a greenhouse pot experiment under well-watered (75% plant available water, PAW) and drought (25% PAW) conditions. Transpiration rate was analyzed for the underlying main morphological (leaf area duration) and physiological (stomata conductance) factors. Combining both morphological and physiological regulation of transpiration, four distinct water use types were identified. Most landraces had high transpiration rates either due to extensive leaf area (area types) or both large leaf areas together with high stomata conductance (spender types). All modern cultivars were distinguished by high stomata conductance with comparatively compact canopies (conductance types). Only few landraces were water saver types with both small canopy and low stomata conductance. During early growth, genotypes with large leaf area had high dry-matter accumulation under both well-watered and drought conditions compared to genotypes with compact stature. However, high stomata conductance was the basis to achieve high dry matter per unit leaf area, indicating high assimilation capacity as a key for productivity in modern cultivars. We conclude that the identified water use strategies based on early growth shoot phenotyping combined with stomata conductance provide an appropriate framework for targeted selection of distinct pre-breeding material adapted to different types of water limited environments. PMID:27547208

  7. Model Persamaan Massa Karbon Akar Pohon dan Root-Shoot Ratio Massa Karbon (Equation Models of Tree Root Carbon Mass and Root-Shoot Carbon Mass Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias .

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The case study was conducted in the area of Acacia mangium plantation at BKPH Parung Panjang, KPH Bogor. The objective of the study was to formulate equation models of tree root carbon mass and root to shoot carbon mass ratio of the plantation. It was found that carbon content in the parts of tree biomass (stems, branches, twigs, leaves, and roots was different, in which the highest and the lowest carbon content was in the main stem of the tree and in the leaves, respectively. The main stem and leaves of tree accounted for 70% of tree biomass. The root-shoot ratio of root biomass to tree biomass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root biomass to main stem biomass was 0.1443 and 0.25771, respectively, in which 75% of tree carbon mass was in the main stem and roots of tree. It was also found that the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree carbon mass above the ground and the root-shoot ratio of root carbon mass to tree main stem carbon mass was 0.1442 and 0.2034, respectively. All allometric equation models of tree root carbon mass of A. mangium have a high goodness-of-fit as indicated by its high adjusted R2.Keywords: Acacia mangium, allometric, root-shoot ratio, biomass, carbon mass

  8. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Wurff, Peter; Daanen, Hein A M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop the treadmill and shoot at the target. Fatigue increased progressively throughout the 20-minute test. Results indicated that shooting accuracy was not affected by fatigue. However, the distance to the target at which participants decided to shoot showed a U-shaped relationship with fatigue, R(2) = 0.884, p = 0.013. At low fatigue levels (ratings of perceived exertion [RPE] distance to the target at which participants shot decreased, whereas at higher fatigue levels (RPE > 6.5) shooting distance increased again. At high levels of fatigue, participants stopped running sooner, aimed at the target longer and shot less often. Findings indicate that physiological parameters influence not only perception but also actual transitions between different actions. PMID:24168556

  9. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyan; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Hainan; Zheng, Kaijie; Dai, Xuemei; Liu, Shanda; Hu, Qingnan; Wang, Xianling; Liu, Bao; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance, and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa) CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION) gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice. Taken together, our results showed that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive peptide hormone gene, and it regulates shoot apical

  10. Aberration of a negative ion beam caused by space charge effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrations are inevitable when the charged particle beams are extracted, accelerated, transmitted, and focused with electrostatic and magnetic fields. In this study, we investigate the aberration of a negative ion accelerator for a neutral beam injector theoretically, especially the spherical aberration caused by the negative ion beam expansion due to the space charge effect. The negative ion current density profiles with the spherical aberration are compared with those without the spherical aberration. It is found that the negative ion current density profiles in a log scale are tailed due to the spherical aberration.

  11. Effect of Coma Aberration on Orbital Angular Momentum Spectrum of Vortex Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zi-Yang; PU Ji-Xiong

    2009-01-01

    Spiral spectra of vortex beams with coma aberration are studied.It is shown that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of vortex beams with coma aberration are different from those aberration-free vortex beams.Spiral spectra of beams with coma aberration are spreading.It is found that in the presence of coma aberration,the vortex beams contain not only the original OAM component but also other components.A larger coma aberration coefficient and/or a larger beam waist will lead to a wider spreading of the spiral spectrum. The results may have potential applications in information encoding and transmittance.

  12. Relationship between wave aberrations and histological features in ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Eva; Bueno, Juan M.; Schwarz, Christina; Artal, Pablo

    2010-09-01

    Wave aberrations of isolated ex vivo porcine crystalline lenses were measured by using a point-diffraction interferometer. This method allowed us to gain greater insight into the detailed aberration structure of eye lenses showing systematic presence of some dominant aberrations. In order of significance, astigmatism together with spherical aberration, coma, and trefoil are the main aberrations present in all lenses. We found a high correlation between the axis of both astigmatism and trefoil with the Y-shaped suture planes of the lens, revealing a subtle relationship between the induced aberrations and the histological features.

  13. Developmental anatomy of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. ‘Aurora’) shoot regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The culture of Vaccinium corymbosum L. ’Aurora’ leaves on regeneration medium results in the regeneration of adventitious shoots. We present anatomical evidence that these new shoot apices are directly regenerated from the cultured blades. Mounds of densely staining cells, which formed from epidermi...

  14. The effect of time constraints and running phases on combined event pistol shooting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadswell, Clare; Payton, Carl; Holmes, Paul; Burden, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The combined event is a crucial aspect of the modern pentathlon competition, but little is known about how shooting performance changes through the event. This study aimed to identify (i) how performance-related variables changed within each shooting series and (ii) how performance-related variables changed between each shooting series. Seventeen modern pentathletes completed combined event trials. An optoelectronic shooting system recorded score and pistol movement, and force platforms recorded centre of pressure movement 1 s prior to every shot. Heart rate and blood lactate values were recorded throughout the event. Whilst heart rate and blood lactate significantly increased between series (P movement or centre of pressure movement (P > 0.05). Thus, combined event shooting performance following each running phase appears similar to shooting performance following only 20 m of running. This finding has potential implications for the way in which modern pentathletes train for combined event shooting, and highlights the need for modern pentathletes to establish new methods with which to enhance shooting accuracy. PMID:26375196

  15. Shoot demographics for melaleuca and impacts of simulated herbivory on vegetative development

    Science.gov (United States)

    We monitored branches of the invasive tree Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) Blake (melaleuca) at two sites in southern Florida between January 2002 and May 2003 to elucidate patterns in vegetative shoot maturation. Six shoot stages characterize development from dormancy to fully expanded and lignified...

  16. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... this section, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes....

  17. The Nutritional Facts of Bamboo Shoots and Their Usage as Important Traditional Foods of Northeast India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongdam, P.; Tikendra, Leimapokpam

    2014-01-01

    Bamboo shoots are considered as one of the useful health foods because of their rich contents of proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, fibres, and minerals and very low fat. Though bamboo shoots provide lots of health benefits, their consumption is confined mostly to Southeast Asian and East Asian countries. The acceptability of bamboo shoots as popular vegetable crop is very less due to their high pungent smell and bitter acidic taste. The use of bamboo as food in India is mainly restricted to Northeastern part of the country where they form an indispensable part of several traditional speciality dishes. The different ethnic communities take fresh or fermented bamboo shoot as one of most preferred traditional food items. Some of the important bamboo based traditional foods are ushoi, soibum, rep, mesu, eup, ekhung, hirring, and so forth. Bamboo shoots should be properly processed before they are consumed as freshly harvested shoots have high content of toxic cyanogenic glycosides which may pose serious health problems. The prospect of bamboo shoot industry in Northeast India is bright due to its rich genetic resources of bamboos. However, habitat destruction and extensive use of bamboos for food, handicraft, and construction purposes have resulted in severe depletion of natural bamboo resources. This review stresses upon the high nutritive values and health benefits of bamboo shoots and their usage as important traditional foods in Northeast India. The bamboo market potential of the region and use of in vitro plant micropropagation methods as effective means of bamboo conservation are also emphasized in this paper.

  18. The fate of lead at abandoned and active shooting ranges in a boreal pine forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selonen, Salla; Liiri, Mira; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2012-12-01

    Changes in leaching, availability, bioaccumulation, and vertical distribution of lead (Pb) in soil 20 years after the cessation of shooting activity were studied by comparing three pine forest sites in southern Finland: an active shooting range, an abandoned shooting range, and a noncontaminated control site. At both shooting ranges, shooting activity had lasted for 20 years, but it had taken place 20 years earlier at the abandoned range. Up to 4 kg m(-2) of Pb pellets had accumulated in the soil at both shooting ranges, and extremely high Pb concentrations, reaching 50,000 mg kg(-1) , were detected in the organic soil layer. Elevated Pb concentrations were also found in leachate waters and in the biota. Concentrations of Pb in the top organic soil layer and in some of the biota were lower at the abandoned shooting range, which can be taken as a sign of starting recovery of the forest ecosystem. However, the concentration of water-extractable Pb had not decreased in the topsoil, possibly indicating the release of Pb from decaying litter. Deeper in the organic soil layer, weathering of Pb pellets enhanced Pb availability and leaching, indicating an increased risk of groundwater contamination over time at shooting sites located above aquifers. PMID:22933087

  19. Mechanisms of waterlogging tolerance in wheat - a review of root and shoot physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Striker, Gustavo G; Colmer, Timothy D;

    2016-01-01

    and in aerenchyma formation within these roots, resulting in varying waterlogging tolerances. Root extension is restricted by capacity for internal O2 movement to the apex. Sub-optimal O2 restricts root N uptake and translocation to the shoots, with N deficiency causing reduced shoot growth and grain...

  20. Manipulation of hemoglobin expression affects Arabidopsis shoot organogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaping; Elhiti, Mohamed; Hebelstrup, Kim;

    2011-01-01

    by culturing root explants on an initial auxin-rich callus induction medium (CIM) followed by a transfer onto a cytokinin-containing shoot induction medium (SIM). While the repression of GLB2 inhibited organogenesis the over-expression of GLB1 or GLB2 enhanced the number of shoots produced in culture...

  1. Experts Appear to Use Angle of Elevation Information in Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita Ferraz; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    For successful basketball shooting, players must use information about the location of the basket relative to themselves. In this study, the authors examined to what extent shooting performance depends on the absolute distance to the basket ("m") and the angle of elevation (alpha). In Experiment 1, expert players took jump shots under different…

  2. Monopodial shoot systems of Lamiaceae of Ukrainian flora and the models of its formation

    OpenAIRE

    Yosyp Berko

    2013-01-01

    Special characteristics of formation and morphostructure of monopodial shoot systems of perennial herbaceous and sиbshrub life forms of Lamiaceae from Ukrainian flora are described as based on two models – the monopodial long-shoot and monopodial rosetted. As well as relevant submodels are classified.

  3. Sodium instead of potassium and chloride is an important macronutrient to improve leaf succulence and shoot development for halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Haiyan; Han, Bing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Anping; Zheng, Dong; Liu, Chongjing; Chang, Lili; Peng, Ming; Wang, Xuchu

    2012-02-01

    Soil salinity is contributed largely by NaCl but some halophytes such as Sesuvium portulacastrum have evolved to adapt salinity environment and demonstrate optimal development under moderate salinity. To elucidate the detail mechanisms of the great salt tolerance and determine the respective contributions of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) on the development of S. portulacastrum, morphological and physiological analysis were performed using plants supplied with 200 mM of different ions including cations (Na(+), K(+), Li(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), Ac(-)) respectively. The results revealed that the salt-treated plants accumulated large amounts of sodium in both leaf and stem. There was a greater shoot growth in presence of external Na(+) compared to K(+) and Cl(-). Na(+) was found more effective than K(+) and Cl(-) in cell expansion, leaf succulence, and shoot development. Flame emission and X-Ray microanalysis revealed the relative Na(+) content was much higher than K(+) and Cl(-) in both leaf and stem of well developed S. portulacastrum, leading to a higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio. The effects of different ions on the development of S. portulacastrum were listed as the following: Na(+) > NO(3)(-) > CK > Cl(-) > K(+) > Ac(-) > Li(+). These results demonstrated NaCl toxicity is attributable largely to the effect of Cl(-) but rarely to Na(+), and thus sodium is concluded as a more important macronutrient than potassium and chloride for improving leaf succulence and shoot development of halophyte S. portulacastrum. PMID:22153240

  4. Conservation and Diversification of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 Regulatory Network in the Development of the Functional Endodermis in Arabidopsis Shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eun Kyung; Dhar, Souvik; Lee, Mi-Hyun; Song, Jae Hyo; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Gyuree; Jang, Sejeong; Choi, Ji Won; Choe, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Jeong Hoe; Lee, Myeong Min; Lim, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Development of the functional endodermis of Arabidopsis thaliana roots is controlled, in part, by GRAS transcription factors, namely SHORT-ROOT (SHR), SCARECROW (SCR), and SCARECROW-LIKE 23 (SCL23). Recently, it has been shown that the SHR-SCR-SCL23 regulatory module is also essential for specification of the endodermis (known as the bundle sheath) in leaves. Nevertheless, compared with what is known about the role of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 regulatory network in roots, the molecular interactions of SHR, SCR, and SCL23 are much less understood in shoots. Here, we show that SHR forms protein complexes with SCL23 to regulate transcription of SCL23 in shoots, similar to the regulation mode of SCR expression. Our results indicate that SHR acts as master regulator to directly activate the expression of SCR and SCL23. In the SHR-SCR-SCL23 network, we found a previously uncharacterized negative feedback loop whereby SCL23 modulates SHR levels. Through molecular, genetic, physiological, and morphological analyses, we also reveal that the SHR-SCR-SCL23 module plays a key role in the formation of the endodermis (known as the starch sheath) in hypocotyls. Taken together, our results provide new insights into the regulatory role of the SHR-SCR-SCL23 network in the endodermis development in both roots and shoots. PMID:27353361

  5. Aberration Corrected Photoemission Electron Microscopy with Photonics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Joseph P. S.

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) uses photoelectrons excited from material surfaces by incident photons to probe the interaction of light with surfaces with nanometer-scale resolution. The point resolution of PEEM images is strongly limited by spherical and chromatic aberration. Image aberrations primarily originate from the acceleration of photoelectrons and imaging with the objective lens and vary strongly in magnitude with specimen emission characteristics. Spherical and chromatic aberration can be corrected with an electrostatic mirror, and here I develop a triode mirror with hyperbolic geometry that has two adjacent, field-adjustable regions. I present analytic and numerical models of the mirror and show that the optical properties agree to within a few percent. When this mirror is coupled with an electron lens, it can provide a large dynamic range of correction and the coefficients of spherical and chromatic aberration can be varied independently. I report on efforts to realize a triode mirror corrector, including design, characterization, and alignment in our microscope at Portland State University (PSU). PEEM may be used to investigate optically active nanostructures, and we show that photoelectron emission yields can be identified with diffraction, surface plasmons, and dielectric waveguiding. Furthermore, we find that photoelectron micrographs of nanostructured metal and dielectric structures correlate with electromagnetic field calculations. We conclude that photoemission is highly spatially sensitive to the electromagnetic field intensity, allowing the direct visualization of the interaction of light with material surfaces at nanometer scales and over a wide range of incident light frequencies.

  6. Chromosomal aberrations and SCEs as biomarkers of cancer risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Norppa, H.; Bonassi, S.; Hansteen, I. L.; Hagmar, L.; Strömberg, U.; Rössner st., Pavel; Boffetta, P.; Lindholm, C.; Gundy, S.; Lazutka, J.; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Fabiánová, E.; Šrám, Radim; Knudsen, L. E.; Barale, R.; Fucic, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 37-45. ISSN 0027-5107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : biomarkers * chromosomal aberration * sister chromatid exchange Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.111, year: 2006

  7. Consequences of Aberrant Hedgehog Signaling During Zebrafish Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koudijs, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hedgehog signaling pathway is controlling proliferation, patterning and differentiation during development of vertebrates and invertebrates. Aberrant Hedgehog activity has been shown to be one of the underlying causes of a number of congenital disorders and multiple types of cancer. We investiga

  8. Geometric aberrations in final focussing for heavy ion fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general formulation is developed to estimate third-order distortions of ion beams without detailed calculations. Several candidate heavy ion fusion (HIF) beams are discussed in detail as examples. Some general ideas on constraints which third-order aberrations place on HIF parameters are developed

  9. Impact of primary aberrations on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist;

    2014-01-01

    demonstration of these tendencies. Furthermore, our numerical and experimental results show good agreement. We also demonstrate how the truncation of the transmit beam affects the system performance. It is both experimentally and numerically proven that aberration effects have profound impact on the antenna...

  10. Chromosomal aberration frequency in lymphocytes predicts the risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonassi, Stefano; Norppa, Hannu; Ceppi, Marcello;

    2008-01-01

    Mechanistic evidence linking chromosomal aberration (CA) to early stages of cancer has been recently supported by the results of epidemiological studies that associated CA frequency in peripheral lymphocytes of healthy individuals to future cancer incidence. To overcome the limitations of single...

  11. Frequency and distribution studies of asymmetrical versus symmetrical chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two aspects of the relationship between Asymmetrical (A) and Symmetrical (S) radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations are considered in this paper. (1) Are A and S truly alternative modes of lesion interaction. Relative frequencies for chromatid-type and chromosome-type are examined, and new lymphocyte data using banding is used to look at this, and also for parallelism in chromosome participation of the two forms for various aberration categories. All the tests applied suggest that A and S are alternative interaction modes. (2) The long-term survival characteristics of A and S are discussed, and the differences in expected frequencies of derived S per surviving cell from chromosome-type and chromatid-types are stressed. Since many in vivo tissues have varying mixtures of potential chromatid and chromosome aberration-bearing target cells, ultimate cell survival and derived S frequencies may differ between tissues for the same absorbed dose. An Appendix gives Relative Corrected Lengths (RCL) for chromosomes of the human karyotype which should be used when testing the various exchange aberration categories for random chromosome participation. (orig.)

  12. Telomere Length in Circulating Lymphocytes: Association with Chromosomal Aberrations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hemminki, K.; Rachakonda, S.; Musak, L.; Vymetálková, Veronika; Halasová, E.; Forsti,, A.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buchancová, J.; Vodička, Pavel; Kumar, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2015), s. 194-196. ISSN 1045-2257 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : structural chromosome aberrations * healthy subjects * relative telomere length * genotoxicity * telomere biology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.041, year: 2014

  13. Chromosomal aberrations in tire plant workers and interaction with

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musak, L.; Souček, P.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Naccarati, Alessio; Halasová, E.; Poláková, Veronika; Slyšková, Jana; Susová, S.; Buchancová, J.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Sediková, J.; Klimentová, G.; Osina, O.; Hemminki, K.; Vodička, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 641, 1-2 (2008), s. 36-42. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8563 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Chromosomal aberrations * Genetic polymorphisms * DNA repair genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.198, year: 2008

  14. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro dose-response curves of unstable chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes have been obtained for neutron spectra of mean energies 0.7, 0.9, 7.6 and 14.7 MeV. The aberration yields have been fitted to the quadratic function Y = αD + βD2, which is consistent with the single-track and two-track model of aberration formation. However with high-LET radiation, the linear component of yield, corresponding to damage caused by single tracks, predominates, and this term becomes more dominant with increasing LET, so that for fission spectrum neutrons the relationship is linear, Y = αD. At low doses, such as those received by radiation workers, limiting r.b.e. values between 13 and 47 were obtained relative to 60Co γ-radiation. At higher doses, as used in radiotherapy, the values were much lower; ranging from 2.7 to 8 at 200 rad of equivalent γ-radiation. Both sets of r.b.e. values correlated well with track-averaged LET but not with dose-averaged LET. When the numbers of cells without aberrations were plotted against radiation dose, curves were obtained which are similar in shape to those for conventional cell-survival experiments with comparable neutron spectra. The D0 values obtained in the present study are close to those from other cell systems. (author)

  15. Frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the frequency of primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration and the different options available for management. Subjects and Methods: All patients with primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations were included in study. Patient's detailed history, general physical examination, presence or absence of secondary sexual characteristics, abdominal and pelvic examination finding were noted. Targeted investigations, including ultrasound, hormonal assay, buccal smear and karyotyping results were recorded. The management options were individually tailored with focus n psychological management. Results: Eighteen patients out of 30,000 patients were diagnosed as having primary amenorrhea. Six had primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberrations with the frequency of 0.02%. The age at presentation was 20 years and above in 50%. The most common cause was Turner's syndrome seen in 4 out of 6. The presenting symptoms were delay in onset of menstruation in 05 patients and primary infertility in 01 patient. Conclusion: Primary amenorrhea due to chromosomal aberration is an uncommon condition requiring an early and accurate diagnosis. Turner's syndrome is a relatively common cause of this condition. Management should be multi-disciplinary and individualized according to the patient's age and symptom at presentation. Psychological management is very important and counselling throughout treatment is recommended. (author)

  16. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41. ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  17. Radiation induced chromosomal aberrations after cardiac catheterization and angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the radiation doses and the chromosomal aberrations of peripheral lymphocytes was studied in patients under-going catheterization with or without angiocardiography. The radiation doses were estimated and chromosomal aberration analyses were carried out in 17 cases. They consisted of 10 males and 7 females at the age of 4 to 26 years with an average of 14 years. Doses in the chest and gonadal regions were measured with calibrated thermoluminescent dosimeters. Peripheral blood samples were taken immediately before and after the diagnostic procedure for chromosome analyses. Results showed that the average doses in the gonad region during cardiac catheterization with and without angiocardiography were 2.4 and 0.83 kC/kg respectively, while those in the chest region were as high as 0.93 and 0.54 kC/kg respectively. The chromosome aberration rate in both groups were significantly higher (2.75-3.33%) than the control value (0.22-0.75%) which was determined before X ray examination. No statistically significant difference of chromosome aberration yield was found between the two groups with and without angiocardiography

  18. Active Optical Control of Quasi-Static Aberrations for ATST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. C.; Upton, R.; Rimmele, T. R.; Hubbard, R.; Barden, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) requires active control of quasi-static telescope aberrations in order to achieve the image quality set by its science requirements. Four active mirrors will be used to compensate for optical misalignments induced by changing gravitational forces and thermal gradients. These misalignments manifest themselves primarily as low-order wavefront aberrations that will be measured by a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. When operating in closed-loop with the wavefront sensor, the active optics control algorithm uses a linear least-squares reconstructor incorporating force constraints to limit force applied to the primary mirror while also incorporating a neutral-point constraint on the secondary mirror to limit pointing errors. The resulting system compensates for astigmatism and defocus with rigid-body motion of the secondary mirror and higher-order aberrations with primary mirror bending modes. We demonstrate this reconstruction method and present simulation results that apply the active optics correction to aberrations generated by finite-element modeling of thermal and gravitational effects over a typical day of ATST operation. Quasi-static wavefront errors are corrected to within limits set by wavefront sensor noise in all cases with very little force applied to the primary mirror surface and minimal pointing correction needed.

  19. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations in Prague mothers and their newborns.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössnerová, Andrea; Balascak, I.; Rössner ml., Pavel; Šrám, Radim

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 699, 1-2 (2010), s. 29-34. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * Chromosomal aberrations * Fluorescence in situ hybridization Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.938, year: 2010

  20. Improved mass multiplication of Rhodiola crenulata shoots using temporary immersion bioreactor with forced ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Ying; Saxena, Praveen K; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2012-03-01

    A temporary immersion bioreactor system was found to be suitable for mass shoot proliferation of Rhodiola crenulata. The shoot multiplication ratio and hyperhydration rate reached 46.8 and 35.4%, respectively, at a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 300 min. Forced ventilation was employed in the temporary immersion bioreactor culture in order to decrease the hyperhydration rate, improve shoot quality and enhance the multiplication ratio. The highest multiplication ratio of 55.7 was obtained under a temporary immersion cycle of 3-min immersion every 180 min with the forced ventilation at an air flow rate of 40 l/h, and the hyperhydration rate was reduced to 26.1%. Forced ventilation also improved the subsequent elongation and rooting rate of these proliferated shoots, and the shoot cultures from the temporary immersion bioreactor formed complete plantlets when subcultured onto a rooting medium containing 5 μmol/l indole-3-acetic acid. PMID:22238017

  1. Effects of irradiation on physicochemical and sensory qualities of fermented shoot tip of sweet potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on sensory quality, physicochemical and functional prosperities of fermented shoot tips of sweet potatoes were studied. The results showed that total content of free amino acids in fermented shoot tips of sweet potato were not influenced at 4 kGy irradiation, but increased at 6 kGy. Total content of organic acids in shoot tips were not influenced by 2 ∼ 6 kGy of irradiation. The total viable cells of the tips was reduced from 7.35 to 4.67 log CFU/g at 2 kGy irradiation, and no growth of total viable cells was observed at 4 and 6 kGy irradiated fermented shoot tips. It is recommended that 4 kGy was the endurance irradiation dose for fermented shoot tips of sweet potato to ensure the maximum retention of taste quality and health-relevant functionality. (authors)

  2. Micropropagation and radiation sensitivity in shoot-tip cultures of banana and plantain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoot-tip cultures were derived from nine different clones of Musa spp. Shoot proliferation was compared in solid and liquid media for the two clones Saba and Pelipita. Rapidly proliferating cultures were established in liquid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 20 μM 6-benzylaminopurine. Shoots were easily rooted on half-strength MS medium with 1 μM β-indolebutyric acid. The specificity of different Musa clones for micropropagation is described. The shoot tips of the clone Saba were exposed to gamma radiation. Radiosensitivity was assessed as the fresh weight increase and the number of shoots per clump in a period of four weeks after irradiation. A 50% decrease was obtained after doses of 30-45 Gy. (author)

  3. In vitro Direct Shoot Organogenesis and Regeneration of Plantlets from Leaf Explants of Sentang (Azadirachta excelsa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Chiew Foan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A micropropagation protocol for the production of Azadirachta excelsa plantlets was developed through the formation of shoots using leaf cuttings. Leaf cuttings cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with 2 mg L-1 benzylaminopurine (BAP, .2 mg L-1 kinetin and 6 mg L-1 adenine sulphate produced an average of 5 shoot primordias per leaf cutting. Twenty five percent of these shoot primordias formed shoots with true leaves when cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg L-1 BAP and 12.5 mg L-1 magnesium sulphate. One hundred percent of these shoots formed roots when transferred onto medium supplemented with 10 mg L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA.

  4. Machine vision system for measuring conifer seedling morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigney, Michael P.; Kranzler, Glenn A.

    1995-01-01

    A PC-based machine vision system providing rapid measurement of bare-root tree seedling morphological features has been designed. The system uses backlighting and a 2048-pixel line- scan camera to acquire images with transverse resolutions as high as 0.05 mm for precise measurement of stem diameter. Individual seedlings are manually loaded on a conveyor belt and inspected by the vision system in less than 0.25 seconds. Designed for quality control and morphological data acquisition by nursery personnel, the system provides a user-friendly, menu-driven graphical interface. The system automatically locates the seedling root collar and measures stem diameter, shoot height, sturdiness ratio, root mass length, projected shoot and root area, shoot-root area ratio, and percent fine roots. Sample statistics are computed for each measured feature. Measurements for each seedling may be stored for later analysis. Feature measurements may be compared with multi-class quality criteria to determine sample quality or to perform multi-class sorting. Statistical summary and classification reports may be printed to facilitate the communication of quality concerns with grading personnel. Tests were conducted at a commercial forest nursery to evaluate measurement precision. Four quality control personnel measured root collar diameter, stem height, and root mass length on each of 200 conifer seedlings. The same seedlings were inspected four times by the machine vision system. Machine stem diameter measurement precision was four times greater than that of manual measurements. Machine and manual measurements had comparable precision for shoot height and root mass length.

  5. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, F.L.; Rice, D.W. Jr., Moore, D.H.

    1984-07-01

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects from ocean disposal of low-level radioactive waste because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The SCEs, in contrast to chromosomal aberrations, do not alter the overall chromosome morphology and in mammalian cells appear to be a more sensitive indicator of DNA alterations caused by environmental mutagens. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation-exposure regimes of either x rays at a high dose rate of 0.7 Gy (70 rad)/min for as long as 5.5 min or to /sup 60/Co gamma rays at a low dose rate of from 4.8 x 10/sup -5/ to 1.2 x 10/sup -1/ Gy (0.0048 to 12 rad)/h for 24 h. After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 x 10/sup -5/M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h (/sup 60/Co-irradiated larvae). Larval cells were examined for the proportion of cells in first, second, and third or greater division. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs were determined in first and second division cells, respectively. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but a dose of equal or greater 2 Gy (equal to or greater than 200 rad) was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving /sup 60/Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies with a significant increase of 0.6 Gy (60 rad). We suggest that both SCEs and chromosomal aberrations may be useful for measuring effects on genetic material induced by radiation. 56 references, 7 figures, 9 tables.

  6. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges in the benthic worm Neanthes arenaceodentata exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional bioassays are unsuitable for assessing sublethal effects from ocean disposal of low-level radioactive waste because mortality and phenotypic responses are not anticipated. We compared the usefulness of chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) induction as measures of low-level radiation effects in a sediment-dwelling marine worm, Neanthes arenaceodentata. The SCEs, in contrast to chromosomal aberrations, do not alter the overall chromosome morphology and in mammalian cells appear to be a more sensitive indicator of DNA alterations caused by environmental mutagens. Newly hatched larvae were exposed to two radiation-exposure regimes of either x rays at a high dose rate of 0.7 Gy (70 rad)/min for as long as 5.5 min or to 60Co gamma rays at a low dose rate of from 4.8 x 10-5 to 1.2 x 10-1 Gy (0.0048 to 12 rad)/h for 24 h. After irradiation, the larvae were exposed to 3 x 10-5M bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) for 28 h (x-ray-irradiated larvae) or for 54 h (60Co-irradiated larvae). Larval cells were examined for the proportion of cells in first, second, and third or greater division. Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and SCEs were determined in first and second division cells, respectively. Results from x-ray irradiation indicated that dose-related increases occur in chromosome and chromatid deletions, but a dose of equal or greater 2 Gy (equal to or greater than 200 rad) was required to observe a significant increase. Worm larvae receiving 60Co irradiation showed elevated SCE frequencies with a significant increase of 0.6 Gy (60 rad). We suggest that both SCEs and chromosomal aberrations may be useful for measuring effects on genetic material induced by radiation. 56 references, 7 figures, 9 tables

  7. Long-term persistence of chromosome aberrations in uranium miners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Gabriella; Bognár, Gabriella; Köteles, G J

    2004-07-01

    Chromosome aberration analyses were performed on blood samples from 165 active underground uranium miners between 1981 and 1985. After decommissioning the mine in 1997 chromosome aberration analyses were also included in the medical laboratory investigations of health conditions of 141 subjects between 1998 and 2002 within the framework of a follow-up-study. The numerical data are presented as functions of the exposure categories expressed in working level month up to 600. In the active groups the dicentric level was 7 to 12 times higher than in the unexposed population, the acentrics also higher with more than an order of magnitude, the frequency of total aberrations--including dicentrics, acentrics, rings, deletions, minits and numerical aberrations, i.e. both chromatid and chromosome type of aberrations were also well above the control level. In the group of former uranium miners although there were slight decreases in the dicentrics after 8 to 25 yr, the values were not significantly different from the values of active miners. The frequency of deletions was also maintained in the post-mining period. The frequency of acentrics, however, decreased significantly, but even the lowest values remained 2-3 times higher than the values in the unexposed population.The possibility is suggested that for the long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations the permanent production and presence of clastogenic factors might be responsible. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in a large fraction of persons investigated. PMID:15308832

  8. Chromatin structure and ionizing-radiation-induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible influence of chromatic structure or activity on chromosomal radiosensitivity was studied. A cell line was isolated which contained some 105 copies of an amplified plasmid in a single large mosquito artificial chromosome (MAC). This chromosome was hypersensitive to DNase I. Its radiosensitivity was some three fold greater than normal mosquito chromosomes in the same cell. In cultured human cells irradiated during G0, the initial breakage frequency in chromosome 4, 19 and the euchromatic and heterochromatic portions of the Y chromosome were measured over a wide range of doses by inducing Premature Chromosome Condensation (PCC) immediately after irradiation with Cs-137 gamma rays. No evidence was seen that Y heterochromatin or large fragments of it remained unbroken. The only significant deviation from the expected initial breakage frequency per Gy per unit length of chromosome was that observed for the euchromatic portion of the Y chromosome, with breakage nearly twice that expected. The development of aberrations involving X and Y chromosomes at the first mitosis after irradation was also studied. Normal female cells sustained about twice the frequency of aberrations involving X chromosomes for a dose of 7.3 Gy than the corresponding male cells. Fibroblasts from individuals with supernumerary X chromosomes did not show any further increase in X aberrations for this dos. The frequency of aberrations involving the heterochromatic portion of the long arm of the Y chromosome was about what would be expected for a similar length of autosome, but the euchromatic portion of the Y was about 3 times more radiosensitive per unit length. 5-Azacytidine treatment of cultured human female fibroblasts or fibroblasts from a 49,XXXXY individual, reduced the methylation of cytosine residues in DNA, and resulted in an increased chromosomal radiosensitivity in general, but it did not increase the frequency of aberrations involving the X chromosomes

  9. Non-Gaussianity and CMB aberration and Doppler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peculiar motion of an observer with respect to the CMB rest frame induces a deflection in the arrival direction of the observed photons (also known as CMB aberration) and a Doppler shift in the measured photon frequencies. As a consequence, aberration and Doppler effects induce non trivial correlations between the harmonic coefficients of the observed CMB temperature maps. In this paper we investigate whether these correlations generate a bias on non-Gaussianity estimators fNL. We perform this analysis simulating a large number of temperature maps with Planck-like resolution (lmax = 2000) as different realizations of the same cosmological fiducial model (WMAP7yr). We then add to these maps aberration and Doppler effects employing a modified version of the HEALPix code. We finally evaluate a generalization of the Komatsu, Spergel and Wandelt non-Gaussianity estimator for all the simulated maps, both when peculiar velocity effects have been considered and when these phenomena have been neglected. Using the value v/c = 1.23 × 10−3 for our peculiar velocity, we found that the aberration/Doppler induced non-Gaussian signal is at most of about half of the cosmic variance σ for fNL both in a full-sky and in a cut-sky experimental configuration, for local, equilateral and orthogonal estimators. We conclude therefore that when estimating fNL it is safe to ignore aberration and Doppler effects if the primordial map is already Gaussian. More work is necessary however to assess whether a map which contains non-Gaussianity can be significantly distorted by a peculiar velocity

  10. Physiological and morphological variation in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide in two populations of Plantago lanceolata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klus, D.J.; Kalisz, S.; Tonsor, S.J. (Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners (United States))

    1993-06-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Duke University Phytotron to determine the nature and extent of genetic variation in response to elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide in 44 families from two populations of Plantago lanceolata. 10 seedlings from each maternal family were divided equally between ambient and elevated greenhouses and were grown for 60 days. At the end of that period measurements of assimilation and transpiration were made, the plants were harvested and seven morphological traits were measured. Analysis of the data reveals that genetic variation in response to elevated carbon dioxide exists at the family level for assimilation, and at the population level for three of the morphological traits: number of vegetative shoots per plant, diameter of the vegetative shoots, and number of leaves per shoot. Thus, the potential for elevated carbon dioxide to act as an agent of natural selection exists within this plant species.

  11. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  12. TGF-β-stimulated aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TGF-β induces aberrant expression of βIII in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. ► TGF-β increases O-GlcNAc modification of βIII in RPE cells. ► Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-β. -- Abstract: The class III β-tubulin isotype (βIII) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-β on the aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-β-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III β-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-β also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-β-induced aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-β stimulated aberrant expression of class III β-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-β stimulation and provide useful information towards understanding the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases.

  13. Subjective face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility, sleeping disturbances and aberrant eating habits in families with Asperger syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Källman Tiia

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study was undertaken in order to determine whether a set of clinical features, which are not included in the DSM-IV or ICD-10 for Asperger Syndrome (AS, are associated with AS in particular or whether they are merely a familial trait that is not related to the diagnosis. Methods Ten large families, a total of 138 persons, of whom 58 individuals fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AS and another 56 did not to fulfill these criteria, were studied using a structured interview focusing on the possible presence of face recognition difficulties, aberrant sensibility and eating habits and sleeping disturbances. Results The prevalence for face recognition difficulties was 46.6% in individuals with AS compared with 10.7% in the control group. The corresponding figures for subjectively reported presence of aberrant sensibilities were 91.4% and 46.6%, for sleeping disturbances 48.3% and 23.2% and for aberrant eating habits 60.3% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion An aberrant processing of sensory information appears to be a common feature in AS. The impact of these and other clinical features that are not incorporated in the ICD-10 and DSM-IV on our understanding of AS may hitherto have been underestimated. These associated clinical traits may well be reflected by the behavioural characteristics of these individuals.

  14. Profiling CpG island field methylation in both morphologically normal and neoplastic human colonic mucosa

    OpenAIRE

    Belshaw, N. J.; Elliott, G O; Foxall, R J; Dainty, J.R.; Pal, N.; Coupe, A; Garg, D; Bradburn, D. M.; Mathers, J C; Johnson, I. T.

    2008-01-01

    Aberrant CpG island (CGI) methylation occurs early in colorectal neoplasia. Quantitative methylation-specific PCR profiling applied to biopsies was used to quantify low levels of CGI methylation of 18 genes in the morphologically normal colonic mucosa of neoplasia-free subjects, adenomatous polyp patients, cancer patients and their tumours. Multivariate statistical analyses distinguished tumour from mucosa with a sensitivity of 78.9% and a specificity of 100% (P=3 × 10−7). In morphologically ...

  15. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana. The large genomic changes are important for

  16. Image transfer with spatial coherence for aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Fumio; Sawada, Hidetaka; Shinkawa, Takao; Sannomiya, Takumi

    2016-08-01

    The formula of spatial coherence involving an aberration up to six-fold astigmatism is derived for aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Transfer functions for linear imaging are calculated using the newly derived formula with several residual aberrations. Depending on the symmetry and origin of an aberration, the calculated transfer function shows characteristic symmetries. The aberrations that originate from the field's components, having uniformity along the z direction, namely, the n-fold astigmatism, show rotational symmetric damping of the coherence. The aberrations that originate from the field's derivatives with respect to z, such as coma, star, and three lobe, show non-rotational symmetric damping. It is confirmed that the odd-symmetric wave aberrations have influences on the attenuation of an image via spatial coherence. Examples of image simulations of haemoglobin and Si [211] are shown by using the spatial coherence for an aberration-corrected electron microscope. PMID:27155359

  17. Influence of misalignment and aberrations on antenna received power in free-space laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liying; Yang, Yuqiang; Ma, Jing; Zheng, Guoxian

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of wavefront aberrations on antenna received power in free-space laser communications, an aberration attenuation factor is proposed, based on which the power penalty at the receiver due to misalignment and primary aberrations is investigated. It is shown that antenna received power decreases gradually with increasing misalignment and aberrations. A comparison shows that tilt (misalignment) has greater influence than other primary aberrations. When the rms aberration value is 0.1λ, the received power penalties caused by tilt, astigmatism, coma, curvature, and spherical aberrations are about 40%, 36%, 35%, 24%, and 23%, respectively. In addition, the obscuration ratio of the transmitter antenna has a noticeable but relatively minor influence on the aberration attenuation factor.

  18. The Effect of the Asphericity of Myopic Laser Ablation Profiles on the Induction of Wavefront Aberrations

    OpenAIRE

    Bühren, Jens; Nagy, Lana; Yoon, Geunyoung; MacRae, Scott; Kohnen, Thomas; Huxlin, Krystel R.

    2010-01-01

    A PMMA model study showed that spherical aberration induction in laser refractive surgery is due to loss of ablation efficiency in the corneal periphery. Aspheric ablation induced less spherical aberration and provided better theoretical image quality.

  19. Device for Automated Cutting and Transfer of Plant Shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipra, Raymond; Das, Hari; Ali, Khaled; Hong, Dennis

    2003-01-01

    A device that enables the automated cutting and transfer of plant shoots is undergoing development for use in the propagation of plants in a nursery or laboratory. At present, it is standard practice for a human technician to use a knife and forceps to cut, separate, and grasp a plant shoot. The great advantage offered by the present device is that its design and operation are simpler than would be those of a device based on the manual cutting/separation/grasping procedure. [The present device should not be confused with a prior device developed for partly the same purpose and described in Compliant Gripper for a Robotic Manipulator (NPO-21104), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 3 (March 2003), page 59.]. The device (see figure) includes a circular tube sharpened at its open (lower) end and mounted on a robotic manipulator at its closed (upper) end. The robotic manipulator simply pushes the sharpened open end of the tube down onto a bed of plants and rotates a few degrees clockwise then counterclockwise about the vertical axis, causing the tube to cut a cylindrical plug of plant material. Exploiting the natural friction between the tube and plug, the tube retains the plug, without need for a gripping mechanism and control. The robotic manipulator then retracts the tube, translates it to a new location over a plant-growth tray, and inserts the tube part way into the growth medium at this location in the tray. A short burst of compressed air is admitted to the upper end of the tube to eject the plug of plant material and drive it into the growth medium. A prototype has been tested and verified to function substantially as intended. It is projected that in the fully developed robotic plant-propagation system, the robot control system would include a machine- vision subsystem that would automatically guide the robotic manipulator in choosing the positions from which to cut plugs of plant material. Planned further development efforts also include more testing and

  20. IFSAR Simulation Using the Shooting and Bouncing Ray Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Bijan; Bhalla, Rajan; Ling, Hao

    2000-01-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a technique that allows an automated way to carry out terrain mapping. IFSAR is carried out by first generating a SAR image pair from two antennas that are spatially separated. The phase difference between the SAR image pair is proportional to the topography. After registering the SAR images, the difference in phase in each pixel is extracted to generate an interferogram. Since the phase can only be measured within 2pi radians, phase unwrapping is carried out to extract the absolute phase for each pixel that will be proportional to the local height. While IFSAR algorithm is typically applied to measurement data, it is useful to develop an IFSAR simulator to develop a better understanding of the IFSAR technique. The IFSAR simulator can be used in choosing system parameters, experimenting with processing procedures and mission planning. In this paper we will present an IFSAR simulation methodology to simulate the interferogram based on the shooting and bouncing ray (SBR) technique. SBR is a standard ray-tracing technique used to simulate scattering from large, complex targets. SBR is carried out by shooting rays at the target or scene. At the exit point of each ray, a ray-tube integration is done to find its contribution to the total field. A fast algorithm has been developed for the SBR for simulating SAR images of complex targets. In the IFSAR simulation, we build upon the fast SAR simulation technique. Given the antenna pair configuration, radar system parameters and the geometrical description of the scene, we first simulate two SAR images from each antenna. After post processing the two SAR images, we generate an interferogram. Phase unwrapping is then performed on the interferogram to arrive at the desired terrain map. We will present results from the SBR-based IFSAR simulator. The results will include terrain map reconstruction of urban environments. The reconstruction will be compared to the ground truth to

  1. Identification of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations by G-band staining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative study was made concerning chromosome aberration, especially symmetrical aberration in 23 serious A-bomb survivors (exposed with more than 100 rad) based upon the observations by using an ordinary staining method (O-method) and a G-band staining method (G-method). By both staining methods, 548 cells of 896 which could be analyzed were identified as normal. Aberration was detected in remaining 348 cells by either method. The number of cells in which aberration was observed by G-method but not by O-method was 55. Cells where aberration was observed by O-method but not by G-method were only 6 in number. Concerning overall aberrations, there were 197 cells in which the number detected kind of aberration by both methods was inconsistent. Also there were 31 cells, aberration of which could not be identified by G-method. The number of cells identified as abnormal by G-method was 342 and 293 by O-method, namely identification of aberration by O-method was 86% of that by G-method. The kinds of aberration are now studying. Results obtained from this study were summarized as follows; aberration which could not be detected by O-method are frequently identified by G-method and most of these aberration are symmetrical. (Kanao, N.)

  2. Effect of Hormones on Direct Shoot Regeneration in Hypocotyl Explants of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan RASHID

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for developing a high frequency regeneration system in two genotypes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� for direct shoot regeneration from hypocotyl explants. The explants were excised from in vitro tomato seedlings and cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of hormones. Direct regeneration was significantly influenced by the genotype hormones combination and concentrations. The MS medium supplemented with (Kinetin 0.5 mg/l and (BAP 0.5 mg/l was found optimum for inducing direct shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant from hypocotyl explants on this medium. Shoot regeneration per cent in �Punjab Upma� and �IPA-3� per cent was recorded to be highest i.e (86.02 and (82.57 respectively. Besides this, average number shoots per explant was also highest i.e (3.16 in case of �Punjab Upma� and (2.93 in case of �IPA-3�. A significant decline was observed in percent shoot regeneration and average number of shoots per explant with increase in the hormonal concentration. Shoots were obtained and transferred to the elongation medium (MS + BAP 0.3 mg/l. Hundred per cent rooting was induced in separated shoots upon culturing on MS and � MS basal media. Hardening on moist cotton showed maximum plantlet survival rate in case of both genotypes. After hardening, plants were transferred to soil. Thus, a tissue culture base line was established in tomato for obtaining direct regeneration using hypocotyl as explants.

  3. Extended alternating-temperature cold acclimation and culture duration improve pear shoot cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y; Reed, B M

    2000-06-01

    Meristems of many pear genotypes can be successfully cryopreserved following 1 week of cold acclimation, but an equal number do not survive the process or have very little regrowth. This study compared commonly used cold acclimation protocols to determine whether the cold acclimation technique used affected the cold hardiness of shoots or the regrowth of cryopreserved meristems. In vitro-grown pear (Pyrus L.) shoots were cold acclimated for up to 16 weeks, then either the shoot tips were tested for cold hardiness or the meristems were cryopreserved by controlled freezing. Cold acclimation consisted of alternating temperatures (22 degrees C with light/-1 degrees C darkness with various photo- and thermoperiods) or a constant temperature (4 degrees C with an 8-h photoperiod or darkness). Compared with nonacclimated controls, both alternating- and constant-temperature acclimation significantly improved postcryopreservation regrowth of P. cordata Desv. and P. pashia Buch. -Ham. ex D. Don meristems. Alternating-temperature acclimation combined with either an 8-h photoperiod or darkness was significantly better than constant-temperature acclimation. Alternating-temperature shoot acclimation for 2 to 5 weeks significantly increased postcryopreservation meristem regrowth, and recovery remained high for up to 15 weeks acclimation. Postcryopreservation meristem regrowth increased with 1 to 5 weeks of constant-temperature acclimation and then declined with longer acclimation. Shoot cold hardiness varied with the acclimation procedure. The LT(50) of shoots acclimated for 10 weeks with alternating temperatures was -25 degrees C; that with constant temperature was -14.7 degrees C; and that of the nonacclimated control was -10 degrees C. Less frequent transfer of cultures also improved acclimation of shoots. Shoots grown without transfer to fresh medium for 6-12 weeks had higher postcryopreservation recovery with shorter periods of acclimation than shoots with a 3-week transfer

  4. INFLUENCE OF FRUITLESS SHOOTS ON QUANTATIVE TRAITS OF GRAPES AND WINE OF SAPERAVI VARIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chausov V. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have shown the influence of fruitless shoots to number of berries in clusters, the mass of 100 berries, average weight of the bunch, yield, sugar content and acid in the juice of the berries, the quality of wine. These indicators have been studied at a ratio of fertile and sterile shoots 1: 1, 3: 1, 6: 1 with a load of bushes 12, 16, 20 fruit-bearing shoots and nutrition area 3 x 1 m2. Control was a natural balance of fruit-bearing and barren shoots. Digital material is processed by one-way analysis of variance experience for each load of bushes, and then the same method of two-experience for all the options. Fragmentation of sterile shoots with load of 12 fruit-bearing shoots per plant decreases, and with loads of 16 and 20 increases the number of fruit-bearing shoots berries in clusters, the mass of 100 berries, average weight of the bunch, yield, and sugar content in berries. For the content of titratable acids we have marked a tendency to increase with a decrease in the number of sterile shoots. The content of phenolic substances on the variants of the experiment was 2.2-2.3 g / dm3, the acidity of 7.3-7.8 g / dm3, alcohol 10,2-10,9% vol. Dry wines tasting score on the options was in the range of 7.4-7.6 points. Significant difference in taste and smell features wines by variants of the experiment was not revealed. Conclusions on the effect of sterile shoots on fruiting vine indicators drawn from the analysis of variance one- and two-factor experiments, in most cases were the same

  5. Genome-wide analysis of shoot growth-associated alternative splicing in moso bamboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Hu, Tao; Li, Xueping; Mu, Shaohua; Cheng, Zhanchao; Ge, Wei; Gao, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Alternative splicing (AS) significantly enhances transcriptome complexity and is differentially regulated in a wide variety of physiological processes in plants, including shoot growth. Presently, the functional implications and conservation of AS occurrences are not well understood in the moso bamboo genome. To analyze the global changes in AS during moso bamboo shoot growth, fast-growing shoots collected at seven different heights and culms after leaf expansion were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform. It was found that approximately 60.74 % of all genes were alternatively spliced, with intron retention (IR) being the most frequent AS event (27.43 %). Statistical analysis demonstrated that variations of AS frequency and AS types were significantly correlated with changes in gene features and gene transcriptional level. According to the phylogenetic analysis of isoform expression data and AS frequency, the bamboo shoot growth could be divided into four different growth periods, including winter bamboo shoot (S1), early growth period (S2-S5), late growth period (S6 and S7), and mature period (CK). In addition, our data also showed that the winter bamboo shoot had the highest number of AS events. Twenty-six putative Serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins were identified, producing a total of 109 transcripts. AS events were frequently and specifically regulated by SR splicing factors throughout shoot growth, resulting in changes to the original open reading frame (ORF) and subsequently changes to conserved domains. The AS product-isoforms showed regular expression change during the whole shoot growth period, thus influencing shoot growth. All together, these data indicate that AS events are adjusted to different growth stages, providing briefness and efficient means of gene regulation. This study will provide a very useful clue for future functional analyses. PMID:27170010

  6. Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and proponents of gun control assert that the problem lies in the "easy availability of guns" and "too many guns" in the hand of the public. Second Amendment and gun rights advocates, on the other hand, believe the problem lies elsewhere, including a permissive criminal justice system that panders to criminals; the failure of public education; the fostering of a culture of dependence, violence, and alienation engendered by the welfare state; and the increased secularization of society with children and adolescents growing up devoid of moral guidance. I cannot disagree with the latter view, but I believe there are additional, contributing, and more proximate causes - e.g., failures of the mental health system and the role of the media and popular culture in the sensationalization of violence - that also need to be specifically pointed out and discussed in the medical literature, as I have set out to do in this review article. PMID:23493715

  7. Apple shoot multiplication and plantlets reaction to in vitro culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca BUTIUC-KEUL

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the expression of several enzymatic systems in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Romus3, Romus4, Colmar, Rebra, Goldrush, Idared plants grown in vitro in comparison with the in vivo donor plants. In vitro culture was established on Murashige and Skoog (1962 basal medium supplemented with Lee and Fossard (1977 (LF vitamins, 2 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine, 0.01 mg l-1 N6-naphtyl-acetic acid, 30 g l-1 dextrose and 7 g l-1 agar. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained for all cultivars on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N6-benzyladenine. Our study shows that in vivo plants have a distinct pattern of izoesterases in comparison with in vitro plantlets. Several izoesterases characteristic for in vitro or in vivo plants were identified. Izoperoxidases are inducible with culture conditions, physiological condition and developmental stage. The pattern of superoxid-dismutases is less variable with the culture conditions which demonstrate that in vitro culture does not occur oxidative stress. According to the pattern of peroxidases, estarases and superoxid-dismutases, there are not significant differences between in vivo and in vitro plants. Valuable apple cultivars could be preserved short or medium term by in vitro culture without genetically changes.

  8. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''MS Expert'' system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills avilable on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system ''shell.'' The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it will also provide structures diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell. 22 refs., 5 figs

  9. Diagnostics aid for mass spectrometer trouble-shooting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MS Expert system provides problem diagnostics for instruments used in the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory (MSL). The most critical results generated on these mass spectrometers are the uranium concentration and isotopic content data used for process control and materials accountability at the Idaho General Processing Plant. The two purposes of the system are: (1) to minimize instrument downtime and thereby provide the best possible support to the Plant, and (2) to improve long-term data quality. This system combines the knowledge of several experts on mass spectrometry to provide a diagnostic tool, and can make these skills available on a more timely basis. It integrates code written in the Pascal language with a knowledge base entered into a commercial expert system shell. The user performs some preliminary status checks, and then selects from among several broad diagnostic categories. These initial steps provide input to the rule base. The overall analysis provides the user with a set of possible solutions to the observed problems, graded as to their probabilities. Besides the trouble-shooting benefits expected from this system, it also provides structured diagnostic training for lab personnel. In addition, development of the system knowledge base has already produced a better understanding of instrument behavior. Two key findings are that a good user interface is necessary for full acceptance of the tool, and, a development system should include standard programming capabilities as well as the expert system shell

  10. Redox regulation in shoot growth, SAM maintenance and flowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schippers, Jos Hm; Foyer, Christine H; van Dongen, Joost T

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and associated reduction/oxidation (redox) controls involving glutathione, glutaredoxins and thioredoxins play key roles in the regulation of plant growth and development. While many questions remain concerning redox functions in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), accumulating evidence suggests that redox master switches integrate major hormone signals and transcriptional networks in the SAM, and so regulate organ growth, polarity and floral development. Auxin-induced activation of plasma-membrane located NADPH-oxidases and mitochondrial respiratory bioenergetics are likely regulators of the ROS bursts that drive the cell cycle in proliferating regions, with other hormones such as jasmonic acid playing propagating or antagonistic roles in gene regulation. Moreover, the activation of oxygen production by photosynthesis and oxygen-dependent N-end rule controls are linked to the transition from cell proliferation to cell expansion and differentiation. While much remains to be understood, the nexus of available redox controls provides a key underpinning mechanism linking hormonal controls, energy metabolism and bioenergetics to plant growth and development. PMID:26799134

  11. Shooting rampages, mental health, and the sensationalization of violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2013-01-01

    Gun violence and, most recently, senseless shooting rampages continue to be sensitive and emotional points of debate in the American media and the political establishment. The United Nations is already set to commence discussing and approving its Small Arms Treaty in March 2013. And following the Newtown, Connecticut tragedy in the United States this past December, American legislators are working frantically to pass more stringent gun control laws in the U.S. Congress. The American media and proponents of gun control assert that the problem lies in the “easy availability of guns” and “too many guns” in the hand of the public. Second Amendment and gun rights advocates, on the other hand, believe the problem lies elsewhere, including a permissive criminal justice system that panders to criminals; the failure of public education; the fostering of a culture of dependence, violence, and alienation engendered by the welfare state; and the increased secularization of society with children and adolescents growing up devoid of moral guidance. I cannot disagree with the latter view, but I believe there are additional, contributing, and more proximate causes — e.g., failures of the mental health system and the role of the media and popular culture in the sensationalization of violence — that also need to be specifically pointed out and discussed in the medical literature, as I have set out to do in this review article. PMID:23493715

  12. Increased distance of shooting on basketball jump shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Victor Hugo Alves; Rodacki, André Luiz Félix

    2012-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effect of increased distance on basketball jump shot outcome and performance. Ten male expert basketball players were filmed and a number of kinematic variables analyzed during jump shot that were performed from three conditions to represent close, intermediate and far distances (2.8, 4.6, and 6.4m, respectively). Shot accuracy decreased from 59% (close) to 37% (far), in function of the task constraints (p distances (65.60°). While, ball release velocity increased (p distance is augmented. Key pointsThe increased distance leads to greater spatial con-straint over shot movement that demands an adapta-tion of the movement for the regulation of the accu-racy and the impulse generation to release the ball.The reduction in balls release height and release angle, in addition to the increase in balls release ve-locity, were suggested as the main factors that de-creased shot accuracy with the distance increased.Players should look for release angles of shooting that provide an optimal balls release velocity to im-prove accuracy. PMID:24149195

  13. Direct axillary shoot regeneration from the mature seed explant of the hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth)

    OpenAIRE

    Aasim Muhammad; Sahin-Demirbag Nurdan; Khawar Mahmood Khalid; Kendir Hayrettin; Özcan Sebahattin

    2011-01-01

    The hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth) is a climbing, prostrate or trailing legume grown as forage.It fixes atmospheric nitrogen, reduces soil erosion and provides an instant mulch. Multiple axillary shoot regeneration from a mature seed explant (zygotic embryo with two cotyledons) was obtained on MS medium containing 0.05 - 1.6 mg/l TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/l IBA. The frequency (%) of shoot regeneration ranged from 45.83-75.00% with a maximum number of 28.6 shoots per explant on MS me...

  14. Micropropagation of Plantago asiatica L. through culture of shoot-tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Makowczyńska

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Shoot-tip multiplication of the medicinal species - Plantago asiatica was carried on MS medium with IAA and BAP or kinetin. Best results in micropropagation were achieved by adding 0.1 mg/dm3 IAA and 1 mg/dm3 BAP. After 6 weeks shoots were transferred to MS medium for rooting. The resulting plantlets were transferred after 8 weeks into pots and after a period of adaptation into the ground (field culture. The species Plantago asiatica was propagated in vitro by shoot-tip multiplication for the first time.

  15. Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress in College Women Following a Campus Mass Shooting

    OpenAIRE

    Orcutt, Holly K.; Bonanno, George A.; Hannan, Susan M.; Miron, Lynsey R.

    2014-01-01

    In a sample with known levels of pre-shooting posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms, we examined the impact of a campus mass shooting on trajectories of PTS in the 31 months following the shooting using latent growth mixture modeling. Female students completed 7 waves of a longitudinal study (sample sizes ranged from 812 to 559). We identified 4 distinct trajectories (n = 660): (a) minimal impact-resilience (60.9%), (b) high impact-recovery (29.1%), (c) moderate impact-moderate symptoms (8.2%),...

  16. Stem-Cell Homeostasis and Growth Dynamics Can Be Uncoupled in the Arabidopsis Shoot Apex

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, G Venugopala; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.

    2005-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is a collection of stem cells that resides at the tip of each shoot and provides the cells of the shoot. It is divided into functional regions. The central zone (CZ) at the tip of the meristem is the domain of expression of the CLAVATA3 (CLV3) gene, encoding a putative ligand for a transmembrane receptor kinase, CLAVATA1, active in cells of the rib meristem (RM), located just below the CZ. We show here that CLV3 restricts its own domain of expression (the CZ) b...

  17. Three ancient hormonal cues co-ordinate shoot branching in a moss

    OpenAIRE

    Coudert, Y.; Palubicki, W.; Ljung, K.; Novák, O. (Ondřej); Leyser, O.; Harrison, C J

    2015-01-01

    eLife digest Most land plants have shoots that form branches and plants can regulate when and where they grow these branches to best exploit their environment. Plants with flowers and the more ancient mosses both have branching shoots, but these two groups of plants evolved to grow in this way independently of each other. Most studies on shoot branching have focused on flowering plants and so it is less clear how branching works in mosses. Three plant hormones—called auxin, cytokinin and stri...

  18. Immobilization of Pb and Sb in shooting range soil : column experiment with Fe-based sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Frøsland, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Tons of trace metals such as lead, antimony, copper and zink, get deposited every year in Norwegian shooting ranges (Strømseng et al. 2011). Due to the accumulation and use of bullets and ammunition, these shooting ranges represent a potensially big environmental hazard. Shooting range soil is most often contaminated with trace metals such as lead (Pb) and antimony (Sb). A way of immobilizing the trace metals in this kind of contaminated soil is to add an iron-based sorbent material....

  19. Risk assessment of lead contamination for small mammal food chains (case studyfor shooting ranges)

    OpenAIRE

    Al Sayegh-Petkovšek, Samar; Tome, Davorin; Pokorny, Boštjan

    2010-01-01

    Pb levels were measured in tissues of small mammals (Microtus agrestis, Apodemus flavicollis, Sorex araneus and Crocidura leucodon), inhabiting shooting ranges of the Slovenian Army (Apače, Bač, Bloška polica, Crngrob, Mačkovec, Poček); in addition, Pb content was analysed in their diet as well. The present research was performed with the aim to confirm the use of small mammals as bioindicators of Pb contamination of shooting ranges and to performthe risk assessment of military shooting range...

  20. Retrospective chromosome aberration analysis of former uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present our data collected in the period of 1981-1985 on 165 persons exposed by different radon concentrations expressed in working level month (WLM) units from 100 up to 600. Following the decommissioning of the uranium mine in Hungary in 1997 cytogenetic status of 131 persons were within a follow-up-study of their health conditions initiated by the Hungarian Academy of Science. The persons have terminated their underground activities 5 to 20 years before testing. The comparison of the two datasets suggest a long-term persistence of cytogenetic alterations above the population average values in large percentages of persons investigated. The frequency of chromosome aberrations of uranium miners was found increased in function of their exposure to radon. The comparison of the miner's categories 20 years ago and in the recent years demonstrated the long-term existence of aberrations for many years after completion of underground mining activities. (authors)

  1. Relationships between DNA double-strand breaks and chromosomal aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence suggests that double strand breaks are induced linearly with radiation dose at frequencies of 30-40 DSB/cell/Gy. It seems possible that there is a fast component not normally related to the induction of chromosomal aberrations, and a second slower component underlying the observed joining of chromosome and chromatid breaks. Radiation induces a mixture of blunt and cohesive-ended DSB probably with a preponderance of the latter which are much less effective at inducing aberrations. Visible chromatid breaks are also induced linearly with dose at much lower frequency than DSB and rejoin with a half-time reminiscent of slowly repairing DSB. It is possible that this slow rejoining reflects underlying repair of biologically important DSB. Rejoining of chromatid breaks and misjoining giving rise to exchanges are thought to be determined by different mechanisms. (UK)

  2. Studies on chromosome aberrations in workers occupationally exposed to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cytogenetic assays for unstable chromosomes were performed on 54 medical radiation workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation and 42 controls. A total of 15,577 metaphase cells were scored. The frequencies of dicentrics and acentric chromosomes on controls were 0.52*10-3 and 0.82*10-2, respectively. On radiation workers those were 2.28*10-3 and 1.34*10-2, respectively. Though the frequencies of all types of chromosome aberrations in the workers were higher than those in the controls, the only significant difference was found in the case of dicentrics (P 0.05) except exposure dose of recent one year (P < 0.05). These results could indicate that low level exposure to ionizing radiation can induce unstable chromosome aberrations in blood lymphocytes

  3. Chromosome aberrations in A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements are known to have persisted in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A dose-response relationship for chromosome aberration frequencies has been observed in both cities. A preliminary analysis of cytogenetic data indicates that the inter-city difference observed with the T65D dose estimate becomes less pronounced with the new DS86 dosimetry system. The regression coefficient of the dose-response curves is nevertheless higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The majority of chromosome aberrations detectable to date are of the stable type, such as translocations and inversions, and they have formed the dose-response relationship. (author)

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Carcinogenesis Based on Chromosome Aberration Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-bo Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The progression of human cancer is characterized by the accumulation of genetic instability. An increasing number of experimental genetic molecular techniques have been used to detect chromosome aberrations. Previous studies on chromosome abnormalities often focused on identifying the frequent loci of chromosome alterations, but rarely addressed the issue of interrelationship of chromosomal abnormalities. In the last few years, several mathematical models have been employed to construct models of carcinogenesis, in an attempt to identify the time order and cause-and-effect relationship of chromosome aberrations. The principles and applications of these models are reviewed and compared in this paper. Mathematical modeling of carcinogenesis can contribute to our understanding of the molecular genetics of tumor development, and identification of cancer related genes, thus leading to improved clinical practice of cancer.

  5. Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes Irradiated with Ionizing Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the present experiment was to provide data on the dose-dependent production of chromosome aberrations such as dicentrics, centric rings, and excess acentrics. Radiation is one of the more dangerous clastogens in the environment. Ionizing radiation causes chromosome breakages and various cytogenetic aberrations in exposed cells. In an investigation into radiation emergencies, it is important to estimate the dose to exposed persons for several reasons. Physical dosimeters (e. g., film badges) may misrepresent the actual radiation dose and may not be available in a radiological accident or terrorism incident. Biological dosimetry is suitable for estimating the radiation dose during such accidents. The dicentric chromosome assay is very sensitive and a reliable bio-indicator in cases of accidental overexposure

  6. The Effect of Water Stress on Some Morphological, Physiological, and Biochemical Characteristics and Bud Success on Apple and Quince Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Bolat; Murat Dikilitas; Sezai Ercisli; Ali Ikinci; Tahsin Tonkaz

    2014-01-01

    The effects of different water stress (control, medium, and severe) on some morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics and bud success of M9 apple and MA quince rootstocks were determined. The results showed that water stress significantly affected most morphological, physiological, and biochemical characteristics as well as budding success on the both rootstocks. The increasing water stress decreased the relative shoot length, diameter, and plant total fresh and dry weight...

  7. An auxin responsive CLE gene regulates shoot apical meristem development in Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan eGuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant hormone auxin regulates most, if not all aspects of plant growth and development, including lateral root formation, organ pattering, apical dominance and tropisms. Peptide hormones are peptides with hormone activities. Some of the functions of peptide hormones in regulating plant growth and development are similar to that of auxin, however, the relationship between auxin and peptide hormones remains largely unknown. Here we report the identification of OsCLE48, a rice (Oryza sativa CLE (CLAVATA3/ENDOSPERM SURROUNDING REGION gene, as an auxin response gene, and the functional characterization of OsCLE48 in Arabidopsis and rice. OsCLE48 encodes a CLE peptide hormone that is similar to Arabidopsis CLEs. RT-PCR analysis showed that OsCLE48 was induced by exogenously application of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid, a naturally occurred auxin. Expression of integrated OsCLE48p:GUS reporter gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants was also induced by exogenously IAA treatment. These results indicate that OsCLE48 is an auxin responsive gene. Histochemical staining showed that GUS activity was detected in all the tissue and organs of the OsCLE48p:GUS transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis inhibited shoot apical meristem development. Expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the CLV3 native regulatory elements almost completely complemented clv3-2 mutant phenotypes, suggesting that OsCLE48 is functionally similar to CLV3. On the other hand, expression of OsCLE48 under the control of the 35S promoter in Arabidopsis has little, if any effects on root apical meristem development, and transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsCLE48 are morphologically indistinguishable from wild type plants, suggesting that the functions of some CLE peptides may not be fully conserved in Arabidopsis and rice.

  8. Minimizing camera-eye optical aberrations during the 3D reconstruction of retinal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana-Iuit, Javier; Martinez-Perez, M. Elena; Espinosa-Romero, Arturo; Diaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2010-05-01

    3D reconstruction of blood vessels is a powerful visualization tool for physicians, since it allows them to refer to qualitative representation of their subject of study. In this paper we propose a 3D reconstruction method of retinal vessels from fundus images. The reconstruction method propose herein uses images of the same retinal structure in epipolar geometry. Images are preprocessed by RISA system for segmenting blood vessels and obtaining feature points for correspondences. The correspondence points process is solved using correlation. The LMedS analysis and Graph Transformation Matching algorithm are used for outliers suppression. Camera projection matrices are computed with the normalized eight point algorithm. Finally, we retrieve 3D position of the retinal tree points by linear triangulation. In order to increase the power of visualization, 3D tree skeletons are represented by surfaces via generalized cylinders whose radius correspond to morphological measurements obtained by RISA. In this paper the complete calibration process including the fundus camera and the optical properties of the eye, the so called camera-eye system is proposed. On one hand, the internal parameters of the fundus camera are obtained by classical algorithms using a reference pattern. On the other hand, we minimize the undesirable efects of the aberrations induced by the eyeball optical system assuming that contact enlarging lens corrects astigmatism, spherical and coma aberrations are reduced changing the aperture size and eye refractive errors are suppressed adjusting camera focus during image acquisition. Evaluation of two self-calibration proposals and results of 3D blood vessel surface reconstruction are presented.

  9. Aberrant Phenotype in Iranian Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jahedi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of aberrant phenotypes and possible prognostic value in peripheral and bone marrow blood mononuclear cells of Iranian patients with AML. Methods: 56 cases of de novo AML (2010-2012 diagnosed by using an acute panel of monoclonal antibodies by multiparametric flowcytometry. Immunophenotyping was done on fresh bone marrow aspirate and/or peripheral blood samples using the acute panel of MoAbs is stained with Phycoerythrin (PE /fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC, Allophycocyanin (APC and Peridinin-chlorophyll protein complex (perCP. We investigated Co-expression of lymphoid-associated markers CD2, CD3, CD7, CD 10, CD19, CD20 and CD22 in myeloblasts. Results: Out of the 56 cases, 32 (57.1% showed AP. CD7 was positive in 72.7% of cases in M1 and 28.5% in M2 but M3 and M4 cases lacked this marker. We detected CD2 in 58.35 of M1cases, 21.40% of M2 cases, 33.3 of M3 and 20% of M5; but M4 patients lacked this marker. The CBC analysis demonstrated a wide range of haemoglobin concentration, Platelet and WBC count which varied from normal to anaemia, thrombocytopenia to thrombocytosis and leukopenia to hyper leukocytosis. Conclusions: Our findings showed that CD7 and CD2 were the most common aberrant marker in Iranian patients with AML. However, we are not find any significant correlation between aberrant phenotype changing and MRD in our population. Taken together, this findings help to provide new insights in to the investigation of other aberrant phenotypes that may play roles in diagnosis and therapeutic of AML.

  10. Aberrant left pulmonary artery associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberrant left pulmonary artery (ALPA), or pulmonary artery sling, is an uncommon vascular malformation that is frequently associated with obstructive disorders of the tracheobronquial tree. In newborns, it produces severe respiratory problems. In contrast, in adults, it is usually discovered by change. ALPA has been associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia (RPH) in a small number of cases. We present a new case of ALP associated with right pulmonary hypoplasia in an adult woman, diagnosed by CT and MR. 12 refs

  11. Aberrant functional brain connectome in people with antisocial personality disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Tang; Jun Long; Wei Wang(College of William and Mary); Jian Liao; Hua Xie; Guihu Zhao; Hao Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is characterised by a disregard for social obligations and callous unconcern for the feelings of others. Studies have demonstrated that ASPD is associated with abnormalities in brain regions and aberrant functional connectivity. In this paper, topological organisation was examined in resting-state fMRI data obtained from 32 ASPD patients and 32 non-ASPD controls. The frequency-dependent functional networks were constructed using wavelet-based correlation...

  12. Antimutagenic effects of garlic extract on chromosomal aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum) has been used since ancient times, as a spice and also for its medicinal properties. In present set of investigations antimutagenic effect of garlic extract (GE) has been evaluated using 'in vivo chromosomal aberration assay' in Swiss albino mice. Cyclophosphamide (CP), a well-known mutagen, was given at a single dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally. Pretreatment with 1, 2.5 and 5% of freshly prepared GE was given through oral intubation for 5 days prior to CP administration. Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24 and 48 h and their bone marrow tissue was analyzed for chromosomal damage. The animals of the positive control group (CP alone) shows a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations both at 24 and 48 h sampling time. GE, alone did not significantly induced aberrations at either sampling time, confirming its non-mutagenicity. However in the GE pre-treated and CP post-treated groups, a dose dependent decrease in cytogenetic damage was recorded. A significant suppression in the chromosomal aberrations was recorded following pretreatment with 2.5 and 5% GE administration. The anticytotoxic effects of GE were also evident, as observed by significant increase in mitotic index, when compared to positive control group. Reduction in CP induced clastogenicity by GE was evident at 24 h and to a much greater extent at 48 h of cell cycle. Thus results of the present investigations revealed that GE has chemopreventive potential against CP induced chromosomal mutations in Swiss albino mice. PMID:11790451

  13. An integrative characterization of recurrent molecular aberrations in glioblastoma genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Sintupisut, Nardnisa; Liu, Pei-Ling; Yeang, Chen-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumor in adults. Decades of investigations and the recent effort of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have mapped many molecular alterations in GBM cells. Alterations on DNAs may dysregulate gene expressions and drive malignancy of tumors. It is thus important to uncover causal and statistical dependency between ‘effector’ molecular aberrations and ‘target’ gene expressions in GBMs. A rich collection of prior st...

  14. Ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized LASIK for myopia

    OpenAIRE

    Padmanabhan Prema; Basuthkar Subam; Joseph Roy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study the change in ocular aberrations after wavefront optimized (WFO) laser in situ keratomileusis ( Lasik ) for correction of myopia and to analyze causative factors that may influence them. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective case series. WFO Lasik was performed for the correction of myopia, using the hansatome (Bausch and Lomb) microkeratome to create the flap and the Allegretto laser (Wavelight Technologie) to perform the ablation. The Allegretto wave analyser ...

  15. On the prediction of optical aberrations by personalized eye models

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Rafael; González, Luis M; Hernández-Matamoros, José Luis

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to develop and analyze a method to obtain optical schematic models of individual eyes. Each model should be able to reproduce the measured monochromatic wave aberration with high fidelity. Methods. First, we choose a generic eye model as the input guess and then apply a two-stage customization procedure. Stage 1 consists of replacing, in the initial generic model, those anatomic and optical parameters with experimental data measured on the eye under analy...

  16. Aberrant Gene Promoter Methylation Associated with Sporadic Multiple Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Gonzalo; Juan José Lozano; Jenifer Muñoz; Francesc Balaguer; Maria Pellisé; Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel; Montserrat Andreu; Rodrigo Jover; Xavier Llor; M Dolores Giráldez; Teresa Ocaña; Anna Serradesanferm; Virginia Alonso-Espinaco; Mireya Jimeno; Miriam Cuatrecasas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-...

  17. An aberrant right lateral branch from right internal thoracic artery

    OpenAIRE

    Salve VM; Ratnaprabha C

    2010-01-01

    The internal thoracic artery is the largest artery of the thoracic wall. The internal thoracic artery is often mobilized for coronary artery bypass grafting. During routine dissection (MBBS Batch 2009-2010) of a middle aged male cadaver at Dr. Pinnamaneni Siddhartha Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Foundation, Gannavaram, (INDIA); an aberrant right lateral branch from right internal thoracic artery was found. It arose from right internal thoracic artery behind right first rib. It ran ...

  18. Perceptual aberrations impair mental own-body transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, C.; Blanke, O.; Brugger, P

    2006-01-01

    Dysfunctional self and bodily processing have been reported from the schizophrenia spectrum. Here, the authors tested 72 students (40 women) to determine whether performance in a mental own-body transformation task relates to self-rated frequency of spontaneously experienced schizotypal body schema alterations (perceptual aberration). Participants provided speeded left-right decisions concerning the body of a visually depicted human figure (front view vs. back view). For men, reaction times t...

  19. Use of chromosome aberrations for predicting genetic hazards to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of the use of chromosome aberrations for predicting genetic hazards to man is discussed under the following headings: interspecific comparisons of dicentric and deletion production in peripheral leukocytes; comparison of dicentric yields in leukocytes to reciprocal translocation yield in spermatogonia; recovery of spermatogonia induced translocations in the sons of irradiated males; cytologically and genetically detected deletions; and current gaps in our knowledge and problems of future interest

  20. Evaluation of corneal higher order aberrations in normal topographic patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzajani, Ali; Aghataheri, Sattar; Ghoreishi, Mohammad; Jafarzadepour, Ebrahim; Mohammadinia, Mohadese

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study reports the characteristics of corneal higher order aberrations (HOAs) in eyes with normal topographic pattern using the Pentacam scheimpflug system. Methods In this prospective, observational, comparative study, 165 eyes of 97 patients separated into five groups based on corneal topographic patterns were enrolled. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including corneal tomographic analysis with the Pentacam system. Keratometry, corneal cylinder, and ...

  1. Electron Vortex Production and Control Using Aberration Induced Diffraction Catastrophes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, T. C.; Weyland, M.; Paganin, D. M.; Simula, T. P.; Eastwood, S. A.; Morgan, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    An aberration corrected electron microscope is used to create electron diffraction catastrophes, containing arrays of intensity zeros threading vortex cores. Vortices are ascribed to these arrays using catastrophe theory, scalar diffraction integrals, and experimentally retrieved phase maps. From measured wave function phases, obtained using focal-series phase retrieval, the orbital angular momentum density is mapped for highly astigmatic electron probes. We observe vortex rings and topological reconnections of nodal lines by tracking the vortex cores using the retrieved phases.

  2. Aberration analysis and efficiency improvement of a bidirectional optical subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Huang, Zhangdi; Yu, Ziyan; Qian, Xiaoshi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Beckham; Lu, Yanqing

    2009-10-01

    An approach to improve the coupling efficiency of bidirectional optical subassembly (BOSA) modules is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. We analyzed the wavefront aberration coefficients of a typical BOSA. It was found that the 45-deg wavelength filter induces coma and astigmatism, and then it further deteriorates the laser diode to fiber coupling. We measured the BOSA efficiencies based on a series of different filters. For a typical 0.5-mm filter, 25% coupling efficiency improvement was achieved by optimizing the filter parameters.

  3. Chromosome aberrations and environmental exposures in acute leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindquist, Ragnhild Rosengren

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this thesis are to evaluate the role of environmental exposures, especially professional exposure to organic solvents and petroleum products in the etiology of acute leukemia and to investigate if there is a correlation between the exposure to a specific leukemogen factor and a clonal chromosome aberration of the leukemic cells. Papers I and II present results of a case-control study of environmental exposures, in all occupations during life-time, medical treatm...

  4. Low Order Aberrations in Band-Limited Lyot Coronagraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishnan, A; Sivaramakrishnan, A V; Lloyd, J P; Oppenheimer, B R; Makidon, R B; Sivaramakrishnan, Anand; Soummer, Remi; Sivaramakrishnan, Allic V.; Lloyd, James P.; Oppenheimer, Ben R.

    2005-01-01

    We study the way Lyot coronagraphs with unapodized entrance pupils respond to small, low order phase aberrations. This study is applicable to ground-based adaptive optics coronagraphs operating at 90% and higher Strehl ratios, as well as to some space-based coronagraphs with intrinsically higher Strehl ratio imaging. We utilize a second order expansion of the monochromatic point-spread function (written as a power spectrum of a power series in the phase aberration over clear aperture) to derive analytical expressions for the response of a `band-limited' Lyot coronagraph (BLC) to small, low order, phase aberrations. The BLC possesses a focal plane mask with an occulting spot whose opacity profile is a spatially band-limited function rather than a hard-edged, opaque disk. The BLC is, to first order, insensitive to tilt and astigmatism. Undersizing the stop in the re-imaged pupil plane (the Lyot plane) following the focal plane mask can alleviate second order effects of astigmatism, at the expense of system thro...

  5. Membrane based Deformable Mirror: Intrinsic aberrations and alignment issues

    CERN Document Server

    Bayanna, A Raja; Chatterjee, S; Mathew, Shibu K; Venkatakrishnan, P

    2015-01-01

    A Deformable Mirror (DM) is an important component of an Adaptive Optics system. It is known that an on-axis spherical/parabolic optical component, placed at an angle to the incident beam introduces defocus as well as astigmatism in the image plane. Although the former can be compensated by changing the focal plane position, the latter cannot be removed by mere optical re-alignment. Since the DM is to be used to compensate a turbulence-induced curvature term in addition to other aberrations, it is necessary to determine the aberrations induced by such (curved DM surface) an optical element when placed at an angle (other than 0 degree) of incidence in the optical path. To this effect, we estimate to a first order, the aberrations introduced by a DM as a function of the incidence angle and deformation of the DM surface. We record images using a simple setup in which the incident beam is reflected by a 37 channel Micro-machined Membrane Deformable Mirror for various angles of incidence. It is observed that astig...

  6. A survey of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevan`kaev, A.V.; Moiseenko, V.V.; Zhloba, A.A. [Medical Radiological Research Centre, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Lloyd, D.C.; Edwards, A.A. [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (United Kingdom); Braselmann, H. [G.S.F. Institut fuer Strahlenbiologie (Germany)

    1995-04-01

    Chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes of 875 Chernobyl liquidators have been scored and by comparison with control subjects the dicentric plus ring and excess acentric fragment frequencies are higher for persons who worked in the exclusion zone in 1986-1988 but not in 1989. Aberration yields are too low for individual biological dosimetry but, after taking account of the time interval between irradiation and blood sampling, the dicentric plus ring frequencies indicate average doses for 1986, 1987 and 1989 in good agreement with the annual averages in the Obninsk Registry. For 1988 the cytogenetic data indicate a significant higher average dose than the Registry. Liquidators who were not issued with a personal film badge tend to have higher aberration yields than those for whom badge data are recorded. This is particularly evident for those persons who worked in the first three months after the accident where physical dosimetry data are less complete or reliable. The persons probably experienced the highest exposures of all liquidators and the chromosomal data suggest an average value of about 300 mGy. (author).

  7. Aberrant behavior and cognitive ability in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Gustav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The sample included 712 preschool boys and girls at the age of 4 to 7 years (mean 5.96 decimal years and standard deviation .96 from preschool institutions in Novi Sad, Sombor, Sremska Mitrovica and Bačka Palanka. Information concerning 36 indicators of aberrant behavior of the children were supplied by their parents, whereas their cognitive ability was tested by Raven’s progressive colored matrices. Based on factor analysis (promax method, four factors i.e. generators of aberrant behavior in children were singled out: aggression, anxiousness, dissociation, and hysteria, whose relations with cognitive functioning and age were also analyzed by factor analysis. Aberrant behavior and cognitive abilities show significant interrelatedness. Owing to orderly developed cognitive abilities, a child understands essence and reality of problems, realizes possibilities and manners of solving them, and succeeds in realizing successful psycho-social functioning. Developed cognitive abilities enable a child to recognize and understand her/his own reactions in different situations and develop manners of reacting, which leads to strengthening psycho-social safety and adapting behavior in accordance with her/his age and abilities.

  8. Chromosome aberrations in ataxia telangiectasia cells exposed to heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, T.; Cucinotta, F.; George, K.; Wu, H.; Shigematsu, N.; Furusawa, Y.; Uno, T.; Isobe, K.; Ito, H.

    Understanding of biological effects of heavy ions is important to assess healt h risk in space. One of the most important issues may be to take into account individual susceptibility. Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) cells are known to exhibit abnormal responses to radiations but the mechanism of hyper radiosensitivity of A-T still remains unknown. We report chromosome aberrations in normal human fibroblasts and AT fibroblasts exposed to low- and high-LET radiations. A chemical-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique combined with chromosome- painting technique was applied to score chromosome aberrations in G2/M-phase cells. Following gamma irradiation, GM02052 cells were approximately 5 times more sensitive to g-rays than AG1522 cells. GM02052 cells had a much higher frequency of deletions and misrejoining than AG1522 cells. When the frequency of complex type aberrations was compared, GM02052 cells showed more than 10 times higher frequency than AG1522 cells. The results will be compared with those obtained from high-LET irradiations.

  9. Molecular mechanisms in the induction of chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In more recent years there have been attempts to understand the mechanisms giving rise to aberrations on a more molecular basis. This was initially stimulated by the demonstrations of enzyme repair systems in bacteria which repair mutagen-damaged DNA and the obvious suggestion that similar kinds of repair processes in eukaryotes could be responsible for spontaneous and mutagen-induced exchanges in somatic cells, and for recombinational exchanges in meiotic cells. This impetus has been maintained largely by discovery and the acquisition of information on five fronts: (i) increasing knowledge of the and organisation of the eukaryotic chromosome; (ii) a better understanding of the types of lesions induced in DNA by a wide variety of mutagens; (iii) the demonstrations of a variety of repair systems that restore damaged DNA in eukaryotes including man; (iv) the identification and characterisation of mutants defective in DNA repair and which give unusual reponses to aberration induction by specific mutagens; (v) the development of new techniques to visulise sister chromatid exchange and other facets of chromosome substructure. In this presentation some developments are considered and a picture is sketched of our current notions on how recent chromosomal aberrations are formed, by posing a number of questions and attempting to answer them. (Auth.)

  10. Polarization Aberrations in Astronomical Telescopes: The Point Spread Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckinridge, James B.; Lam, Wai Sze T.; Chipman, Russell A.

    2015-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of the image of the point spread function (PSF) is necessary to optimize astronomical coronagraph masks and to understand potential sources of errors in astrometric measurements. The PSF for astronomical telescopes and instruments depends not only on geometric aberrations and scalar wave diffraction but also on those wavefront errors introduced by the physical optics and the polarization properties of reflecting and transmitting surfaces within the optical system. These vector wave aberrations, called polarization aberrations, result from two sources: (1) the mirror coatings necessary to make the highly reflecting mirror surfaces, and (2) the optical prescription with its inevitable non-normal incidence of rays on reflecting surfaces. The purpose of this article is to characterize the importance of polarization aberrations, to describe the analytical tools to calculate the PSF image, and to provide the background to understand how astronomical image data may be affected. To show the order of magnitude of the effects of polarization aberrations on astronomical images, a generic astronomical telescope configuration is analyzed here by modeling a fast Cassegrain telescope followed by a single 90° deviation fold mirror. All mirrors in this example use bare aluminum reflective coatings and the illumination wavelength is 800 nm. Our findings for this example telescope are: (1) The image plane irradiance distribution is the linear superposition of four PSF images: one for each of the two orthogonal polarizations and one for each of two cross-coupled polarization terms. (2) The PSF image is brighter by 9% for one polarization component compared to its orthogonal state. (3) The PSF images for two orthogonal linearly polarization components are shifted with respect to each other, causing the PSF image for unpolarized point sources to become slightly elongated (elliptical) with a centroid separation of about 0.6 mas. This is important for both astrometry

  11. Analysis of chromosome aberration data by hybrid-scale models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a new methodology for analyzing data of chromosome aberrations, which is useful to understand the characteristics of dose-response relationships and to construct the calibration curves for the biological dosimetry. The hybrid scale of linear and logarithmic scales brings a particular plotting paper, where the normal section paper, two types of semi-log papers and the log-log paper are continuously connected. The hybrid-hybrid plotting paper may contain nine kinds of linear relationships, and these are conveniently called hybrid scale models. One can systematically select the best-fit model among the nine models by among the conditions for a straight line of data points. A biological interpretation is possible with some hybrid-scale models. In this report, the hybrid scale models were applied to separately reported data on chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes as well as on chromosome breaks in Tradescantia. The results proved that the proposed models fit the data better than the linear-quadratic model, despite the demerit of the increased number of model parameters. We showed that the hybrid-hybrid model (both variables of dose and response using the hybrid scale) provides the best-fit straight lines to be used as the reliable and readable calibration curves of chromosome aberrations. (author)

  12. Alignment induced aberration fields of next generation telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Tobias; Thompson, Kevin; Rolland, Jannick

    2008-08-01

    There is a long list of new ground-based optical telescopes being considered around the world. While many are conventional Cassegrain and Ritchey-Chretien designs, some are from a family of three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescopes that are configured with an offset field (but still obscured) that trace back to designs developed in the 1970s for military applications. The nodal theory of aberrations, developed in the late 1970s, provides valuable insights into the response of TMA telescopes to alignment errors. Here it is shown for the first time that the alignment limiting aberration in any TMA telescope is a 3rd order astigmatism term with a new field dependence, termed field-asymmetric, field-linear 3rd order astigmatism. It is also shown that a TMA telescope under assembly that is only measured to have excellent/perfect performance onaxis is not aligned in any significant way. This is because the new astigmatic term is always zero on-axis, even though it is large over the field of view. Knowledge of this intrinsic misalignment aberration field for any TMA telescope aids greatly in ensuring it can be aligned successfully. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), is used an example of a relevant TMA system.

  13. Effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomal aberration in perinatal asphyxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahubali D Gane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Perinatal asphyxia is a major cause for neonatal mortality and morbidity around the world. The reduction of O2results in the generation of reactive oxygen species which interact with nucleic acid and make alteration in the structure and functioning of the genome. We studied the effect of therapeutic hypothermia on chromosomes with karyotyping. Subjects and Methods: Babies in the hypothermia group were cooled for the first 72 h, using gel packs. Rectal temperature of 33–34°C was maintained. Blood sample was collected after completion of therapeutic hypothermia for Chromosomal analysis. It was done with IKAROS Karyotyping system, Metasystems, based on recommendations of International system of human cytogenetic nomenclature. Results: The median chromosomal aberration was lower in hypothermia [2(0-5] than control group [4(1-7] and chromatid breakage was commonest aberration seen. Chromosomal aberration was significantly higher in severe encephalopathy group than moderate encephalopathy group. Conclusion: We conclude that the TH significantly reduces DNA damage in perinatal asphyxia.

  14. Influence of calcium content of tissue on hyperhydricity and shoot-tip necrosis of in vitro regenerated shoots of Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Machado

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effects of two CaCl2.2H2O levels (440 and 1320 mg L-1 and two subcultures were evaluated on in vitro shoots of Lavandula angustifolia cv. Provence Blue. Ca2+ content of the apical, middle and basal portion of shoots was determined. Increasing CaCl2.2H2O level in the culture medium increased tissue Ca2+ content and decreased hyperhydricity. Shoot-tip necrosis also decreased with 1320 mg L-1 CaCl2.2H2O, but it did not occur in the second subculture. The middle and basal portion had higher Ca2+ content than apical portion. In non-hyperhydric tissues, there were smaller and more juxtaposed cells. Scanning electron microscopy of the leaves demonstrated that trichomes from in vitro leaf surface occurred in smaller quantities.

  15. Grappling the High Altitude for Safe Edible Bamboo Shoots with Rich Nutritional Attributes and Escaping Cyanogenic Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayanika Devi Waikhom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bamboo species with high level of total cyanogenic content (TCC in Asia by many ethnic groups is significantly associated with food poisoning and occasionally Konzo (a neurological disorder. Adequate characterization of edible bamboo species with low level of TCC and high nutritious attributes is required for consumer’s safety as well as for the conservation of the gene pool. Here, we employed morphological descriptors, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, RAPD, and trnL-F intergenic spacer to characterize 15 indigenous edible bamboo species of north-east India. The study indicates that morphologically and genetically evolved edible bamboo species having large and robust bamboo-shoot texture and growing at low altitude contain high level of TCC, low antioxidant properties, and low levels of beneficial macronutrients and micronutrients. Importantly, Dendrocalamus species are shown to be rich in TCC irrespective of the growing altitude while Bambusa species are found to have moderate level of TCC. The findings clearly demonstrated that Chimonobambusa callosa growing at high altitude represents safe edible bamboo species with nutritious attributes.

  16. Biochemical, Physiological and Morphological Responses of Sugar Beet to Salinization

    OpenAIRE

    Eisa, Sayed S.; Ali, Safwat H.

    2001-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and morphological responses of sugar beet grown on sandy soil under three levels of NaCl salinity in irrigation water, i.e. control, 3000 & 6000 ppm was studied in pot experiment. Results showed that root fresh weight linearly decreased by increasing NaCl salinity levels up to 6000 ppm, but sucrose percentage in root was significantly increased. On the other hand, increasing NaCl levels resulted in significant increase of Na content in both of shoot and root Meanwhi...

  17. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  18. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  19. On the spontaneous frequency of the structural chromosome aberrations (anomalies) in lymphocytes from human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosomal aberrations are observed both in irradiated cells and in cells which have not been irradiated but submitted to the action of the natural radioactive background. The reasons for these ''spontaneous chromosomal aberrations'' are both the natural radioactivity and a complex of physical, chemical and biological factors. A cytogenetic analysis of 6000 lymphocytes metaphases from the peripheral blood of 47 people indicates that the overall amount of the spontaneous aberrations is 2% with a ratio of chromosomal type aberrations to chromatide type aberrations of 1:5. Chromatide type aberrations are seen as the result of purely mechanical factors acting during slides preparation but yet another unknown moments cannot be excluded. They are more one hit type aberrations - chromatide and chromosomal fragments, wereas the two hit aberrations are very rare - one dicentric per 3000 cells. The chromosome type aberrations are proposed for comparison with radiation induced aberrations in human lymphocytes. They have a frequency of 0.0035 per cell or 0.0040 breakages per cell. Ionizing radiation does not induce qualitatively specific type of aberrations but increases many times the yield of anomalies, which are spontaneously observed. (A.B.)

  20. Utilization and accumulation of 14C-sucrose in sour cherry shoots rooted in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single shoots of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) cultivar ‘Schattenmorelle’ were grown on a rooting medium supplemented with 14C-sucrose. Uptake of radioactive sucrose from the medium and its distribution in the stems, leaves and roots during the course of their development were investigated. Radioactivity of shoots was detected as early as 3 days after excision, and both total and specific radioactivity rose continuously throughout the experimental period. After 5 weeks, the radioactivity of the agar medium had decreased to 77% of the original value, but only 5% of this activity was found in the shoots. At the beginning of shoot development, the radioactivity was distributed equally between the stem and leaves. Later, the radioactivity of the leaves was higher than that of the stem. The higher the leaf position, the higher was its radioactivity. At the time of root formation, radioactivity of leaves and stems decreased simultaneously with the appearance of radioactivity in the roots. (author)

  1. [Relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Fang; Gong, Jia-Wen; Liu, Chao; Mu, Chi; Qin, Hong

    2009-08-01

    In August of 2007 and 2008, a field investigation was made to study the relationships among Cyrtotrachelus buqueti larval density and wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree in Sichuan Province. The three pairs of variables, i. e., C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number, C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree, and C. buqueti wormhole number and bamboo shoot damage degree, fitted cubic equations well, with the correlation coefficients at P = 0.001. Based on these mathematical models, the forecast tables for C. buqueti larval density and bamboo shoot damage degree were established, and the thresholds of C. buqueti larval density and wormhole number were 0.13 and 0.40 individual per bamboo, respectively. PMID:19947221

  2. IN VITRO SHOOT ORGANOGENESIS AND PLANTLET REGENERATION IN BRINJAL (SOLANUM MELONGENA L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. BHAT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro plant regeneration of brinjal genotype “Manjari Gota” was achieved using cotyledonary leave, nodalsegment and shoot tip explants. Best regeneration was observed on MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l 6-benzylamino purine (BAP and 1 mg/l kinetin, with regards to regeneration efficiency, days to callus initiation andnumber of shoots per explant. Among the explants used cotyledonary leaf pair showed highest shoot regenerationefficiency (100 % followed by shoot tip (96. 66 % and nodal segment (93.33 %. The highest numbers of shootsper explant (6.66 were obtained while using cotyledonary leaf pair explant. In vitro root initiation was obtainedwithin 8 days of culture on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid (IBA. In vitro rootedplantlets were successfully established in polycarbonated polyhouse with 100 % survival rate. This plantregeneration method can be very useful for genetic transformation of brinjal

  3. Longevity of cut inflorescence shoots of high kamasija (Camassia quamash (Pursh Greene depending on postharvest treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paulina Ulczycka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The research was carried out to determine the effect of conditioning of cut flowering shoots of the Camassia quamash in 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate on postharvest longevity. The inflorescence shoots were conditioned for 24 h in water solutions of 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate at concentration of 200 mg·dm-3 and then kept in water or gibberellic acid solutions at concentration of 50 or 100 mg·dm-3. The inflorescent shoots not conditioned and kept in water showed the longest postharvest longevity. 8-hydroxyquinoline sulphate and gibberellic acid solutions shortened their longevity. The shortest fresh weight loss of Camassia quamash then was kept in gibberellic acid solutions at concentration of 100 mg·dm-3. The smallest change of the inflorescence shoots length of Camassia quamash was observed after application of gibberellic acid solutions at concentration of 50 mg·dm-3.

  4. An Integrated Strategy to Identify Key Genes in Almond Adventitious Shoot Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant genetic transformation usually depends on efficient adventitious regeneration systems. In almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), regeneration of transgenic adventitious shoots was achieved but with low efficiency. Histological studies identified two main stages of organogenesis in almond explants that ...

  5. Phylogeny and functions of bacterial communities associated with field-grown rice shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Takashi; Ikeda, Seishi; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Sato, Tadashi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

    2014-09-17

    Metagenomic analysis was applied to bacterial communities associated with the shoots of two field-grown rice cultivars, Nipponbare and Kasalath. In both cultivars, shoot microbiomes were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria (51-52%), Actinobacteria (11-15%), Gammaproteobacteria (9-10%), and Betaproteobacteria (4-10%). Compared with other rice microbiomes (root, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere) in public databases, the shoot microbiomes harbored abundant genes for C1 compound metabolism and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate catabolism, but fewer genes for indole-3-acetic acid production and nitrogen fixation. Salicylate hydroxylase was detected in all microbiomes, except the rhizosphere. These genomic features facilitate understanding of plant-microbe interactions and biogeochemical metabolism in rice shoots. PMID:25130883

  6. Environmental contamination at Finnish shooting ranges--the scope of the problem and management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorvari, Jaana; Antikainen, Riina; Pyy, Outi

    2006-07-31

    In Finland, shooting ranges are among the most common activities causing soil contamination. According to our study based on questionnaires and previous regional surveys, the total number of Finnish outdoor shooting ranges is between 2000 and 2500. Most of the ranges are small and only ca. 5% exceed 20 ha. Almost a third of the ranges can cause a groundwater pollution risk, while only few cause an immediate health risk. In the first instance, 50-60 shooting ranges identified as being high-risk areas should be investigated in detail. At present, the risk management options at Finnish shooting ranges are very limited. Hence, soil excavation combined with disposal is the most common remediation technique. Some of the remediation methods used in other countries have been proven unsuitable in Finnish conditions. Therefore, new, feasible, cost-effective and economical remediation technologies are needed. To exclude future contamination, a total ban of lead shot would be the most effective way. PMID:16458952

  7. Estimating the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum bullet via ballistic experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresson, F; Franck, O

    2009-11-20

    We demonstrate here how the shooting distance of a 9-mm Parabellum FMJ bullet (115gr) has been estimated via shooting experiments. Such a bullet was found by investigators near a concrete wall, fairly distorted at its tip. The bullet carries no evidence of multiple impact and no evidence of ballistic impact on the wall has been reported. We estimated the impact velocity by comparing the questioned bullet with a set of comparison bullets hitting a wall (rigid target) with different velocities. The shooting distance was recovered from the impact velocity by studying the typical behavior of a manufactured 9 mm bullet weighting 115g (7.45g), shot in pistol or a sub-machine gun. The results demonstrated that the questioned bullet was a lost bullet. The shooting distance also helped the investigators, narrowing the range of the estimated positions of the shooter. PMID:19733457

  8. Compensatory mechanisms operating in sugar cane: phosphorus uptake by the shoot roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, role of shoot roots in imparting compensatory ability to the sugar cane plant has been investigated by studying uptake of 32P in plants, where dry matter supported by a unit root varied

  9. Objective Evaluation Criteria for Shooting Quality of Stereo Cameras over Short Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stereo cameras are the basic tools used to obtain stereoscopic image pairs, which can lead to truly great image quality. However, some inappropriate shooting conditions may cause discomfort while viewing stereo images. It is therefore considerably necessary to establish the perceptual criteria that can be used to evaluate the shooting quality of stereo cameras. This article proposes objective quality evaluation criteria based on the characteristics of parallel and toed-in camera configurations. Considering the different internal structures and basic shooting principles, this paper focuses on short-distance shooting conditions and establishes assessment criteria for both parallel and toed-in camera configurations. Experimental results show that the proposed evaluation criteria can predict the visual perception of stereoscopic images and effectively evaluate stereoscopic image quality.

  10. Shoot transcriptome of the giant reed, Arundo donax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Barrero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The giant reed, Arundo donax, is a perennial grass species that has become an invasive plant in many countries. Expansive stands of A. donax have significant negative impacts on available water resources and efforts are underway to identify biological control agents against this species. The giant reed grows under adverse environmental conditions, displaying insensitivity to drought stress, flooding, heavy metals, salinity and herbaceous competition, thus hampering control programs. To establish a foundational molecular dataset, we used an llumina Hi-Seq protocol to sequence the transcriptome of actively growing shoots from an invasive genotype collected along the Rio Grande River, bordering Texas and Mexico. We report the assembly of 27,491 high confidence transcripts (≥200 bp with at least 70% coverage of known genes in other Poaceae species. Of these 13,080 (47.58%, 6165 (22.43% and 8246 (30.0% transcripts have sequence similarity to known, domain-containing and conserved hypothetical proteins, respectively. We also report 75,590 low confidence transcripts supported by both trans-ABBySS and Velvet-Oases de novo assembly pipelines. Within the low confidence subset of transcripts we identified partial hits to known (19,021; 25.16%, domain-containing (7093; 9.38% and conserved hypothetical (16,647; 22.02% proteins. Additionally 32,829 (43.43% transcripts encode putative hypothetical proteins unique to A. donax. Functional annotation resulted in 5,550 and 6,070 transcripts with assigned Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway information, respectively. The most abundant KEGG pathways are spliceosome, ribosome, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, plant–pathogen interaction, RNA degradation and oxidative phosphorylation metabolic pathway. Furthermore, we also found 12, 9, and 4 transcripts annotated as stress-related, heat stress, and water stress proteins, respectively. We envisage that these resources will promote and facilitate studies of the abiotic

  11. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  12. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  13. Position Prediction of Ball and Fuzzy Controller for Shooting Action in A Soccer Robot System

    OpenAIRE

    Ryang, GyongIl; Choe, MyongSong; Sin, YongChol

    2016-01-01

    The robot soccer game based complex motion control has been widely studied for the moving object capture and shooting. A position prediction algorithm based on global vision is introduced in order to improve the accuracy and robustness of the vision system for tracking moving objects, including a Kalmanfiter, a dynamic window and an obstacle avoidance strategy. This paper deals with the positon prediction for moving ball by using Kalmanfiter and the Fuzzy Controller for shooting action in a d...

  14. Multiple shoot regeneration and alkaloid cerpegin accumulation in callus culture of Ceropegia juncea Roxb.

    OpenAIRE

    Nikam, T. D.; Savant, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first report of in vitro propagation and alkaloid accumulation in callus cultures of Ceropegia juncea Roxb. a source of “Soma” drug in Ayurvedic medicine. Multiple shoots and callus induction was optimized by studying the influence of auxins [IAA (Indole-3-acetic acid), NAA (2-Naphthalene acetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.)] and cytokinins [BA (6-benzyladenine) and Kin (Kinetin)] alone and in combinations. The best response for multiple shoot induction was obt...

  15. Changes in direction of growth as induced by unilateral auxin application to apple shoots

    OpenAIRE

    L. S. Jankiewicz

    2015-01-01

    Lanolin paste containing indoleacetic acid, applied unilaterally to the elongating internodes of apple shoot, caused a marked change in its direction of growth. Measurements taken during autumn have shown that the treated internodes were not longer than those of control shoots. There was a short zone a few cm above the treated area with inhibited internodes and small leaves. Possibilities for practical application of the described method exist.

  16. Changes in direction of growth as induced by unilateral auxin application to apple shoots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Jankiewicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lanolin paste containing indoleacetic acid, applied unilaterally to the elongating internodes of apple shoot, caused a marked change in its direction of growth. Measurements taken during autumn have shown that the treated internodes were not longer than those of control shoots. There was a short zone a few cm above the treated area with inhibited internodes and small leaves. Possibilities for practical application of the described method exist.

  17. Preservation of Disease-free Shoot Tips of Potato Germplasm through in vitro System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M K Biswas; M Hossain; R Islam

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to find out the best medium composition for medium-term preservation of disease free potato shoot tips in in vitro system. Thirteen potato genotypes and fourteen treatments were taken under consideration for the present experiment. Among fourteen treatments, mannitol and sorbitol containing media proved to be the best for medium-term preservation of potato shoot tips. High concentration of mannitol delayed root formation.

  18. Transgenic shoots and plants as a source of natural phytochemical products

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Floryanowicz-Czekalska; Halina Wysokińska

    2014-01-01

    Genetic engineering has allowed the production of plants and in vitro cultures with an altered content of secondary metabolites. In the present work it is hoped to give some detailed background information on obtaining bioactive compounds based on the use of genetically transformed shoots and the whole plants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoots have recently been a matter of great interest as a source of chemicals synthesized in the aerial parts of plants. The possibilities for the fut...

  19. Cryopreservation of apple shoot tips : importance of cryopreservation technique and of conditioning of donor plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Y; Engelmann, Florent; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, M.; Chen, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the efficiency of three techniques (two-step freezing, vitrification, encapsulation-dehydration) for freezing in vitro shoot tips was compared and the effect of conditioning of mother-plants was investigated. Cold-hardening mother plants for 3 weeks at 5°C improved regrowth rate and pattern of shoot tips whatever the cryopreservation technique employed. Increasing the time during which mother-plants were maintained on standard medium without subculture before sampling of apices...

  20. Shoot growth restriction in dry matter partitioning andminituber production of potato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dilson Antônio Bisognin; Jacso Dellai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the effect of shoot growth restriction in the dry matter partitioning and minituber production of potato plants grown in a closed soilless system. Minitubers of the cultivars 'Macaca' and 'Asterix' were planted in the greenhouse in the density of 100 hills m-2, during autumn and spring growing seasons. Growth restriction levels were gotten by pruning shoots at 10, 20 and 30cm height or without pruning. The growth restriction levels were identified by ...

  1. The Dynamics of Soybean Leaf and Shoot Apical Meristem Transcriptome Undergoing Floral Initiation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Chui E; Mohan B. Singh; Bhalla, Prem L

    2013-01-01

    Flowering process governs seed set and thus affects agricultural productivity. Soybean, a major legume crop, requires short-day photoperiod conditions for flowering. While leaf-derived signal(s) are essential for the photoperiod-induced floral initiation process at the shoot apical meristem, molecular events associated with early floral transition stages in either leaves or shoot apical meristems are not well understood. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of floral initiation,...

  2. Shoot Meristem Function and Leaf Polarity: The Role of Class III HD–ZIP Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Mary E

    2006-01-01

    The shoot apical meristem comprises an organized cluster of cells with a central region population of self-maintaining stem cells providing peripheral region cells that are recruited to form differentiated lateral organs. Leaves, the principal lateral organ of the shoot, develop as polar structures typically with distinct dorsoventrality. Interdependent interactions between the meristem and developing leaf provide essential cues that serve both to maintain the meristem and to pattern dorsoven...

  3. The Shoot Apical Meristem Regulatory Peptide CLV3 Does Not Activate Innate Immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Segonzac, Cécile; Nimchuk, Zachary L.; Beck, Martina; Tarr, Paul T.; Robatzek, Silke; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Zipfel, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase FLAGELLIN SENSING2 (FLS2) is required for the recognition of bacterial flagellin in innate immunity. Recently, FLS2 was proposed to act as a multispecific receptor recognizing unrelated exogenous and endogenous peptide ligands, including CLAVATA3 (CLV3), a key regulator of shoot meristem stem cell production. Here, we report experimental evidence demonstrating that FLS2 does not recognize CLV3 and that the shoot apical meristem is i...

  4. Biochemical characterization of systemic bacteria in bananas, sensitivity to antibiotics and plant phytotoxicity during shoot proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Janiffe Peres de Oliveira; Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the biochemically systemic bacterial isolated from banana plants, to evaluate the bacterial sensitivity to antibiotics, and to determine the phytotoxicity of banana shoots during in vitro proliferation. Systemic bacteria belonging to the Klebsiella and Aeromonas genera were isolated from the “Maravilha” (FHIA 01 AAAB), “Preciosa” (PV 4285 AAAB) and “Thap Maeo” (AAB) varieties and were then characterized. Tests of shoot sensitivity to antibiotics ...

  5. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot

  6. Micropropagation through adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf culture of Torenia fournieri Lind.

    OpenAIRE

    Kantamaht Kanchanapoom; Nirunya Buntin; Kamnoon Kanchanapoom

    2010-01-01

    A tissue culture system was established from young leaves of in vitro grown seedling of Torenia fournieri Lind. Leafsegments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) medium supplemented with combinations of NAA and BA. Shoot organogenesis was observed in all growth regulators containing medium. High frequency regeneration was obtained from leaves cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.05 mg/l NAA plus 3 mg/l BA. When individual isolated shoots were transferred to MS medium devoid o...

  7. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kuspa, Zeka E. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Welch, Alacia [National Park Service, Pinnacles National Park, 5000 Highway 146, Paicines, CA 95043 (United States); Eng, Curtis; Clark, Michael [Los Angeles Zoo and Botanical Gardens, 5333 Zoo Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90027 (United States); Burnett, Joseph [Ventana Wildlife Society, 19045 Portola Dr. Ste. F-1, Salinas, CA 93908 (United States); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology Department, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot from all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.

  8. Using Virtual Reality in K-12 Education: A Simulation of Shooting Bottle Rockets for Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Nippert

    2012-01-01

    Typically, it is often more challenging to shoot bottle rockets for distance instead of shooting them straight up and measuring altitude, as is often done.Using a device made from pipe and wood to launch bottle rockets and control the launch angle creates a much more interesting problem for students who are attempting to optimize launch conditions.Plans are presented for a launcher that allow students to adjust the launch angle. To help embellish the exercise, we supplement the bottle rocket ...

  9. Objective Evaluation Criteria for Shooting Quality of Stereo Cameras over Short Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Liu; Jiachen Yang; Rongrong Chu

    2015-01-01

    Stereo cameras are the basic tools used to obtain stereoscopic image pairs, which can lead to truly great image quality. However, some inappropriate shooting conditions may cause discomfort while viewing stereo images. It is therefore considerably necessary to establish the perceptual criteria that can be used to evaluate the shooting quality of stereo cameras. This article proposes objective quality evaluation criteria based on the characteristics of parallel and toed-in camera configuration...

  10. Effect of Gamma Radiation on In Vitro Multiple Shoot Formation of Aromatic Rice Seeds (oryza sativa L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of exposure dose of gamma radiation on multiple shoot formation of aromatic rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.c v. Khao Dawk Mali 105) was investigated. The seeds were irradiated by gamma radiation with varying exposure doses of 0,4,8,12,16,20,24,28,32,36,40 and 44 krad. After irradiation, the seeds were surface sterilized and cultured on Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with benzyl adenine 25 mg/1 to induce multiple shoot formation. After 5 weeks cultured the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds and the number of shoots per seed were counted. It was found that the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was increased from 45.9 per mille in the control to 83.3 per mille in seeds irradiated at 24 krad. At the exposure dose of 28 krad the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds was decreased to 80 per mille and was lowest (11.4 per mille) at 40 krad. Multiple shoots formation was completely inhibited at the highest exposure dose of 44 krad. The exposure dose required to reduce the number of multiple shoot-forming seeds by 50 percent (R D50) was 38 krad. Similarly, the number of shoots per multiple shoot-forming seed was increasing as the exposure dose increased from 5.7 shoots in the control to 21.3 shoots in seeds irradiated at 40 krad. The number of shoots per seed was zero at the exposure dose of 44 krad. The multiple shoots regenerated from irradiated seeds were rooted. Then the M1 R1 plant lets were transplanted into pots grown under greenhouse conditions

  11. Methanolic extract of white asparagus shoots activates TRAIL apoptotic death pathway in human cancer cells and inhibits colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousserouel, Souad; Le Grandois, Julie; Gossé, Francine; Werner, Dalal; Barth, Stephan W; Marchioni, Eric; Marescaux, Jacques; Raul, Francis

    2013-08-01

    Shoots of white asparagus are a popular vegetable dish, known to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals reported to possess antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory and antitumor activities. We evaluated the anticancer mechanisms of a methanolic extract of Asparagus officinalis L. shoots (Asp) on human colon carcinoma cells (SW480) and their derived metastatic cells (SW620), and Asp chemopreventive properties were also assessed in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW480 and SW620 cell proliferation was inhibited by 80% after exposure to Asp (80 µg/ml). We demonstrated that Asp induced cell death through the activation of TRAIL DR4/DR5 death receptors leading to the activation of caspase-8 and caspase-3 and to cell apoptosis. By specific blocking agents of DR4/DR5 receptors we were able to prevent Asp-triggered cell death confirming the key role of DR4/DR5 receptors. We found also that Asp (80 µg/ml) was able to potentiate the effects of the cytokine TRAIL on cell death even in the TRAIL-resistant metastatic SW620 cells. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for two weeks. One week after (post-initiation) rats received daily Asp (0.01%, 14 mg/kg body weight) in drinking water. After 7 weeks of Asp-treatment the colon of rats exhibited a 50% reduction of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition Asp induced inhibition of several pro-inflammatory mediators, in association with an increased expression of host-defense mediators. In the colonic mucosa of Asp-treated rats we also confirmed the pro-apoptotic effects observed in vitro including the activation of the TRAIL death‑receptor signaling pathway. Taken together, our data highlight the chemopreventive effects of Asp on colon carcinogenesis and its ability to promote normal cellular homeostasis. PMID:23754197

  12. Determination of root/shoot characters in barley mutant and improved lines at early stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried to determine root/shoot traits in barley mutants, their wild types and improved lines selected from the crosses among the wild types and mutants. Barley mutants were selected for above-ground characters and two groups of genetic material were grown in two different experiments in coca-peat in the greenhouse and in sand culture in outdoor conditions, respectively. The longest root length, root dry weight, shoot length, shoot dry weight, and root/shoot dry weight ratios were measured at an early stage in both experiments. There were statistically significant differences among genotypes for the longest root length and shoot length in barley mutant and improved lines. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare subgroups for the characters showing significant F values. A mutant, M-Q-54, selected from Quantum for tallness, high biomass, and ABA insensitivity and early heading mutants from Kaya and improved lines derived from early heading mutants were superior for root length and shoot length compared to the other genotypes. Specifically early heading lines with longer roots should be useful for direct and indirect use in breeding programs aiming at improving drought tolerance. (author)

  13. Cryopreservation of Thymus cariensis and T. vulgaris shoot tips: comparison of three vitrification-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozudogru, E A; Kaya, E

    2012-01-01

    Thymus is an important genus of the Lamiaceae family, comprising more than 400 perennial aromatic thyme species, which are used extensively for medicinal and culinary purposes. The present study focused on the development of cryopreservation procedures for Thymus vulgaris and T. cariensis, the latter being an endemic and endangered species of Turkey. For cryopreservation of T. vulgaris shoot tips, PVS2-based one-step freezing methods, i.e., PVS2 vitrification, encapsulation-vitrification and droplet-vitrification, were compared. Cold hardening and sucrose preculture were also optimized before the cryopreservation trials. For T. cariensis, a droplet-vitrification method was applied to cold-hardened shoot tips, and after sucrose preculture. In all the methods tested, PVS2 was applied for up to 120 min. The best T. vulgaris cryopreservation was achieved with a droplet-vitrification method, that involved 2-weeks cold hardening of shoot cultures, 48 h preculture of shoot tips on MS medium supplemented with 0.25 M sucrose, and a 90 min PVS2 treatment in droplets. After direct immersion in LN, thawing and plating, 80% of shoot-tips recovered. Post-thaw recovery was significantly lower when the same procedure was applied to T. cariensis shoot tips; however also here 90 min PVS2 treatment produced the highest survival (25 percent) and recovery (25 percent) levels. PMID:23224369

  14. Direct axillary shoot regeneration from the mature seed explant of the hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aasim Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth is a climbing, prostrate or trailing legume grown as forage.It fixes atmospheric nitrogen, reduces soil erosion and provides an instant mulch. Multiple axillary shoot regeneration from a mature seed explant (zygotic embryo with two cotyledons was obtained on MS medium containing 0.05 - 1.6 mg/l TDZ with or without 0.10 mg/l IBA. The frequency (% of shoot regeneration ranged from 45.83-75.00% with a maximum number of 28.6 shoots per explant on MS medium containing 0.20 mg/l TDZ-0.10 mg/l IBA. The mean shoot length decreased proportionately with each increase in TDZ concentration irrespective of the IBA concentration in the culture medium. However, comparing the two types of regeneration media, longer shoots were recorded in the presence of IBA in the culture medium. Regenerated shoots were pulse treated with 50 mg/l IBA for 5, 10 and 20 min for rooting.

  15. Persistence of threat-induced errors in police officers' shooting decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Arne; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; Oudejans, Raôul R D

    2015-05-01

    This study tested whether threat-induced errors in police officers' shooting decisions may be prevented through practice. Using a video-based test, 57 Police officers executed shooting responses against a suspect who rapidly appeared with (shoot) or without (don't shoot) a firearm. Threat was manipulated by switching on (high-threat) or switching off (low-threat) a "shootback canon" that could fire small plastic bullets at the officers. After an initial pretest, officers were divided over four different practice groups and practiced their shooting decisions for three consecutive weeks. Effects of practice were evaluated on a posttest. On the pretest, all groups experienced more anxiety and executed more false-positive responses under high-threat. Despite practice, these effects persisted on the posttest and remained equally strong for all practice groups. It is concluded that the impact of threat on police officers' shooting decisions is robust and may be hard to prevent within the limits of available practice. PMID:25683553

  16. Application of glutathione to roots selectively inhibits cadmium transport from roots to shoots in oilseed rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione is a tripeptide involved in various aspects of plant metabolism. This study investigated the effects of the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) applied to specific organs (source leaves, sink leaves, and roots) on cadmium (Cd) distribution and behaviour in the roots of oilseed rape plants (Brassica napus) cultured hydroponically. The translocation ratio of Cd from roots to shoots was significantly lower in plants that had root treatment of GSH than in control plants. GSH applied to roots reduced the Cd concentration in the symplast sap of root cells and inhibited root-to-shoot Cd translocation via xylem vessels significantly. GSH applied to roots also activated Cd efflux from root cells to the hydroponic solution. Inhibition of root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was visualized, and the activation of Cd efflux from root cells was also shown by using a positron-emitting tracer imaging system (PETIS). This study investigated a similar inhibitory effect on root-to-shoot translocation of Cd by the oxidized form of glutathione, GSSG. Inhibition of Cd accumulation by GSH was abolished by a low-temperature treatment. Root cells of plants exposed to GSH in the root zone had less Cd available for xylem loading by actively excluding Cd from the roots. Consequently, root-to-shoot translocation of Cd was suppressed and Cd accumulation in the shoot decreased. PMID:23364937

  17. Study on Variation of Endogenous Hormones at the Germinating Stage of Tea Spring Shoot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An HPLC method was used to analyze the contents ana variation of IAA, GA3, ABA and ZT at five stages around the tea shoot germinating in spring. The contents of GA3 and ABA had a top value during the winter and decreased with the growth of tea shoots, while the contents of IAA and ZT had a low value during the winter and increased quickly at the beginning of shoot growth, but soon afterwards increased slowly or decreased a little. The ratio of hormones was closely related to the growth of tea plant. The study indicated that the ratios of GA3 to ABA and IAA to ABA were at low values during the winter and went up with the shoot germinating. When the activity of roots was weak, the ratio of ZT to IAA had a top value, but went down gradually with luxuriant activity of roots. The ratio of GA3 to ZT had a certin relativity with the shoot germinating, which was at a top value during the winter but went down suddenly at the beginning of shoot germinating.

  18. Microarray gene expression profiling of developmental transitions in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) apical shoots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Michael; Ralph, Steven G; Aeschliman, Dana; Zhuang, Jun; Ritland, Kermit; Ellis, Brian E; Bohlmann, Joerg; Douglas, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    The apical shoot drives the yearly new stem growth of conifer trees, is the primary site for the establishment of chemical and physical defences, and is important in establishing subsequent perennial growth. This organ presents an interesting developmental system, with growth and development progressing from a meristematic tip through development of a primary vascular system, to a base with fully differentiated and lignified secondary xylem on the inside and bark tissue with constitutive defence structures such as resin, polyphenolic phloem parenchyma cells, and sclereids on the outside. A spruce (Picea spp.) microarray containing approximately 16.7K unique cDNAs was used to study transcript profiles that characterize the developmental transition in apical shoots of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) from their vegetative tips to their woody bases. Along with genes involved in cell-wall modification and lignin biosynthesis, a number of differentially regulated genes encoding protein kinases and transcription factors with base-preferred expression patterns were identified, which could play roles in the formation of woody tissues inside the apical shoot, as well as in regulating other developmental transitions associated with organ maturation. Preferential expression of known conifer defence genes, genes encoding defence-related proteins, and genes encoding regulatory proteins was observed at the apical shoot tip and in the green bark tissues at the apical shoot base, suggesting a commitment to constitutive defence in the apical shoot that is co-ordinated with rapid development of secondary xylem. PMID:17220514

  19. The effect of acute exercise on pistol shooting performance of police officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Melissa J; Tandy, Richard D; Wulf, Gabriele; Young, John C

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies indicate that rifle shooting performance while standing is compromised when fatigued. Apprehension of suspects by police officers may involve foot pursuit and firing a weapon from a standing position. The purpose of the current study was to investigate pistol shooting performance in police officers under similar conditions of physical fatigue. Participants (mean age: 30.1 years; 4.4 years of experience as police officer) completed two shooting trials separated by an acute bout of exercise on a cycle ergometer to voluntary exhaustion. Each trial consisted of three rounds of five rapid-fire shots at a target, each round separated by a 15-s rest. Participants' backs were turned to the target between rounds. Despite physical exertion, with an average heart rate of 164 bpm, shooting accuracy (mean distance of the closest 4 shots from the center of the target) and precision (diameter of the tightest 4-shot grouping) remained unchanged on postexercise trials relative to preexercise trials. This suggests that automatic shooting reactions override the adverse consequences of fatiguing exercise on shooting performance. PMID:23756320

  20. Relationships between postural balance, rifle stability and shooting accuracy among novice rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mononen, K; Konttinen, N; Viitasalo, J; Era, P

    2007-04-01

    The present study examined the relationships between shooting accuracy and shooters' behavioral performance, i.e., postural balance and gun barrel stability, among novice rifle shooters in intra- and inter-individual levels. Postural balance and rifle stability were assessed in terms of anteroposterior (VEL(AP)) and mediolateral (VEL(ML)) sway velocity of the movement of center of pressure, and horizontal (DEV(H)) and vertical (DEV(V)) deviation of the aiming point. The participants (n=58) performed 30 shots in the standing position at a distance of 10 m from the target. The data showed that shooting accuracy was related to postural balance and rifle stability, but only at the inter-individual level. The correlation coefficients between shooting score and behavioral performance variables ranged from -0.29 to -0.45. The stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the VEL(ML) and the DEV(H) as independent variables accounted for 26% of the variance in the shooting score. The results also suggested that postural balance is related to the shooting accuracy both directly and indirectly through rifle stability. As the role of postural balance appeared to be important in shooting performance, the use of additional balance training programs to improve a shooter's postural skills should be encouraged. PMID:17394480

  1. [Assessment of accumulation of the shot products on the targets in shooting from a short-barreled gun with a muffler for estimation of shooting distance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, I V; Luzanova, I S; Sonis, M A

    2006-01-01

    A practical expert task--to estimate shot distance and order of shots made in two victims from a gun with muffler--is described as illustration of opportunities of the complex investigation with experimental shots and emission spectral analysis of the targets. Distribution of the shot soot on the targets in shooting from the distance up to 1 m is analyzed. PMID:17191722

  2. Aberration-Coreected Electron Microscopy at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu,Y.; Wall, J.

    2008-04-01

    The last decade witnessed the rapid development and implementation of aberration correction in electron optics, realizing a more-than-70-year-old dream of aberration-free electron microscopy with a spatial resolution below one angstrom [1-9]. With sophisticated aberration correctors, modern electron microscopes now can reveal local structural information unavailable with neutrons and x-rays, such as the local arrangement of atoms, order/disorder, electronic inhomogeneity, bonding states, spin configuration, quantum confinement, and symmetry breaking [10-17]. Aberration correction through multipole-based correctors, as well as the associated improved stability in accelerating voltage, lens supplies, and goniometers in electron microscopes now enables medium-voltage (200-300kV) microscopes to achieve image resolution at or below 0.1nm. Aberration correction not only improves the instrument's spatial resolution but, equally importantly, allows larger objective lens pole-piece gaps to be employed thus realizing the potential of the instrument as a nanoscale property-measurement tool. That is, while retaining high spatial resolution, we can use various sample stages to observe the materials response under various temperature, electric- and magnetic- fields, and atmospheric environments. Such capabilities afford tremendous opportunities to tackle challenging science and technology issues in physics, chemistry, materials science, and biology. The research goal of the electron microscopy group at the Dept. of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science and the Center for Functional Nanomaterials, as well as the Institute for Advanced Electron Microscopy, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), is to elucidate the microscopic origin of the physical- and chemical-behavior of materials, and the role of individual, or groups of atoms, especially in their native functional environments. We plan to accomplish this by developing and implementing various quantitative

  3. Optimal incision sites to reduce corneal aberration variations after small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ling; Zhao, Jiang-Yue; Zhang, Jin-Song; Meng, Jie; Wang, Ming-Wu; Yang, Ya-Jing; Yu, Jia-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyze the effect of steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery on anterior, posterior and total corneal wavefront aberration. METHODS Steep meridian small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery was performed in age-related cataract patients which were divided into three groups according to the incision site: 12 o'clock, 9 o'clock and between 9 and 12 o'clock (BENT) incision groups. The preoperative and 3-month postoperative root mean square (RMS) values of anterior, posterior and total corneal wavefront aberration including coma, spherical aberration, and total higher-order aberrations (HOAs), were measured by Pentacam scheimpflug imaging. The mean preoperative and postoperative corneal wavefront aberrations were documented. RESULTS Total corneal aberration and total lower-order aberrations decreased significantly in three groups after operation. RMS value of total HOAs decreased significantly postoperatively in the 12 o'clock incision group (Pastigmatism changes in all three corneal incision location. CONCLUSION Corneal incision of phacoemulsification cataract surgery can affect corneal wavefront aberration. The 12 o'clock corneal incision eliminated more HOAs and the spherical aberrations decreased in BENT incision group obviously when we selected steep meridian small incision. Cataract lens replacement using wavefront-corrected intraocular lens combined with optimized corneal incision site would improve ocular aberration results. PMID:27162725

  4. The fluctuation of high-order aberration's sensitivity in ArF immersion lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Li, Yanqui

    2006-01-01

    To achieve smaller and smaller feature sizes in the semiconductor industry, extreme demands are placed on the lithographic optics, specifically the projection lens. Higher numerical aperture (NA) is adopted to obtain higher resolution. However, higher NA scales the impact of geometrical aberrations on lithography performance. Thus, a detailed understanding of the effect of geometrical aberrations on the lithographic process is indispensable. In this paper, we consider some of the surprising phenomena that occur at such high NA. We discuss the impact of flare, polarization state and MSD on higher-order aberration's sensitivity using ArF immersion lithography to print elbow pattern exposed features in photo resist on 65nm node. The higher-order aberration's sensitivity is analyzed when the annular illumination (NA=1.2, sigma out=0.76, sigma in=0.52) is employed. The 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th geometrical aberrations according to the Fringe convention are discussed. The sensitivities to individual geometrical aberrations are calculated by introducing a fixed amount of aberration for each Zernike coefficient with all other aberrations being zero. On 65nm node, with annular illumination, the high-order aberration's sensitivity is calculated respectively according to the variation of flare, polarization state, and MSD. The results show that flare, polarization state, and MSD can contribute to the high-order aberration's sensitivity. The aberration sensitivities are increasing with the MSD and flare's value rising. The aberration sensitivities can be decreased when the horizontal linear polarized light is adopted. The merits of adjusting polarization state to choke back the aberration sensitivities are presented.

  5. Chromosomal aberrations in Sigmodon hispidus from a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) were collected from an EPA Superfund site located on an abandoned oil refinery. Three trapping grids were located on the refinery and three similar grids were located at uncontaminated localities which served as reference sites. Bone marrow metaphase chromosome preparations were examined for chromosomal damage. For each individual, 50 cells were scored for six classes of chromosomal lesions. For the fall 1991 trapping period, mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.33, 0.85, and 1.50 for the three Superfund grids., Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 2.55, 2.55, and 2.12 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 2.77, 0.86, and 1.9 from the Superfund grids, and 3.55, 2.77, and 2.50 from the reference grids. For the spring 1992 trapping period, more damage was observed in animals from both Superfund and reference sites; however, animals from Superfund grids had more damage than animals from reference grids. Mean number of aberrant cells per individual was 3.50, 3.25, and 3.70 from the Superfund grids, and 2.40, 2.11, and 1.40 from the reference grids. Mean number of lesions per cell was 4.80, 4.25, and 5.50 from the Superfund grids, and 2.60, 2.33, and 1.50 from the reference grids. These data suggest animals may be more susceptible to chromosomal damage during winter months, and animals from the Superfund grids appear to be more severely affected than animals from reference grids

  6. Breast tumor copy number aberration phenotypes and genomic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic DNA copy number aberrations are frequent in solid tumors, although the underlying causes of chromosomal instability in tumors remain obscure. Genes likely to have genomic instability phenotypes when mutated (e.g. those involved in mitosis, replication, repair, and telomeres) are rarely mutated in chromosomally unstable sporadic tumors, even though such mutations are associated with some heritable cancer prone syndromes. We applied array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) to the analysis of breast tumors. The variation in the levels of genomic instability amongst tumors prompted us to investigate whether alterations in processes/genes involved in maintenance and/or manipulation of the genome were associated with particular types of genomic instability. We discriminated three breast tumor subtypes based on genomic DNA copy number alterations. The subtypes varied with respect to level of genomic instability. We find that shorter telomeres and altered telomere related gene expression are associated with amplification, implicating telomere attrition as a promoter of this type of aberration in breast cancer. On the other hand, the numbers of chromosomal alterations, particularly low level changes, are associated with altered expression of genes in other functional classes (mitosis, cell cycle, DNA replication and repair). Further, although loss of function instability phenotypes have been demonstrated for many of the genes in model systems, we observed enhanced expression of most genes in tumors, indicating that over expression, rather than deficiency underlies instability. Many of the genes associated with higher frequency of copy number aberrations are direct targets of E2F, supporting the hypothesis that deregulation of the Rb pathway is a major contributor to chromosomal instability in breast tumors. These observations are consistent with failure to find mutations in sporadic tumors in genes that have roles in maintenance or manipulation of the genome

  7. Effects of exercise on perceptual estimation and short-term recall of shooting performance in a biathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebot, Christelle; Groslambert, Alain; Pernin, Jean-Noel; Burtheret, Alain; Rouillon, Jean-Denis

    2003-12-01

    Little is known about the effects of exercise on cognitive function, but in a biathlon it is known that intense skiing exercise decreases shooting performance. So the present study was designed to assess the cognitive origin of this decrease by examining the influence of skiing exercise on perceptual estimation and short-term verbal recall of shooting performance in a biathlon. 10 elite biathletes (6 men, 4 women) performed five trials of five shots in standing position in two conditions, at rest and after a standardised skiing exercise. At the end of each trial, the shooting performance was investigated by measuring the actual shooting performance and the perceptual estimation of the shooting performance. A two-way analysis of variance and the effect size indicated a significant decrease in shooting performance after skiing, but none between the actual and estimated shooting performance. At rest .4% of the shots were not estimated (1 out of 250), whereas after exercise the biathletes were not able to estimate 4.8% of the shots (12 out of 250). Further, only .01% of the nonestimated shots after exercise missed the target, i.e., 3 out of 250. The results suggest that the perceptual estimation of the shooting is not significantly affected by skiing exercise and do not explain the decrease in shooting performance observed after intense exercise. However, intense exercise could increase the difficulty of recall shooting performance and may force biathletes to use their memory selectively. PMID:15002854

  8. A Morphological and Histological Characterization of Male Flower in Chestnut (Castanea) Cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Zou; Su-Juan Guo; Huan Xiong; Peng Xie; Wen-Jun Lv; Guang-Hui Li

    2013-01-01

    Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima Blume.) is a widely distributed fruit tree and well known for its ecological and economic value. In order to evaluate obstacles to male reproductive in the C. mollissima, a morphological and histological characterization of male flower of chestnut cultivar ‘Yanshanzaofeng’ were examined by paraffin section technique and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that male catkins with floral primordia were formed in the buds of one-year olds shoots ...

  9. Influence of nutrient supply on shade-sun acclimation of Picea abies seedlings: effects on foliar morphology, photosynthetic performance and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, G.; Minotta, G.

    2000-05-01

    Norway spruce seedlings (Picea abies Karst.) were grown in low light for one year, under conditions of adequate and limiting nutrition, then transferred to high light. Three months after transfer we measured photosynthesis, leaf nitrogen concentration, leaf chlorophyll concentration and leaf mass per area (LMA) of current-year and 1-year-old shoots; silhouette area ratio (SAR, the ratio of shoot silhouette area to projected needle area) was also measured in current-year shoots. At the foliage level, the effects of light and nutrient treatments differed markedly. Light availability during foliage expansion primarily affected LMA and SAR (morphological acclimation at the needle and shoot level, respectively). By contrast, nutrient supply in high light affected photosynthetic capacity per unit of leaf tissue (physiological acclimation at the cellular level) but did not affect LMA and SAR. The capacity for shade-sun acclimation in foliage formed before transfer to high light differed greatly from that of foliage formed following the transfer. The morphological inflexibility of mature needles (measured by LMA) limited their shade-sun acclimation potential. In contrast, at high nutrient supply, shoots that developed just after the change in photosynthetic photon flux density largely acclimated, both morphologically and physiologically, to the new light environment. The acclimation response of both current- and 1-year-old shoots was prevented by nutrient limitation. Analysis of growth at the whole-plant level largely confirmed the conclusions drawn at the shoot level. We conclude that nutrient shortage subsequent to the opening of a canopy gap may strongly limit the acclimation response of Norway spruce seedlings. Successful acclimation was largely related to the plant's ability to produce sun foliage and adjust whole-plant biomass allocation rapidly. PMID:12651514

  10. Genome-wide identification of significant aberrations in cancer genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xiguo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatic Copy Number Alterations (CNAs in human genomes are present in almost all human cancers. Systematic efforts to characterize such structural variants must effectively distinguish significant consensus events from random background aberrations. Here we introduce Significant Aberration in Cancer (SAIC, a new method for characterizing and assessing the statistical significance of recurrent CNA units. Three main features of SAIC include: (1 exploiting the intrinsic correlation among consecutive probes to assign a score to each CNA unit instead of single probes; (2 performing permutations on CNA units that preserve correlations inherent in the copy number data; and (3 iteratively detecting Significant Copy Number Aberrations (SCAs and estimating an unbiased null distribution by applying an SCA-exclusive permutation scheme. Results We test and compare the performance of SAIC against four peer methods (GISTIC, STAC, KC-SMART, CMDS on a large number of simulation datasets. Experimental results show that SAIC outperforms peer methods in terms of larger area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics curve and increased detection power. We then apply SAIC to analyze structural genomic aberrations acquired in four real cancer genome-wide copy number data sets (ovarian cancer, metastatic prostate cancer, lung adenocarcinoma, glioblastoma. When compared with previously reported results, SAIC successfully identifies most SCAs known to be of biological significance and associated with oncogenes (e.g., KRAS, CCNE1, and MYC or tumor suppressor genes (e.g., CDKN2A/B. Furthermore, SAIC identifies a number of novel SCAs in these copy number data that encompass tumor related genes and may warrant further studies. Conclusions Supported by a well-grounded theoretical framework, SAIC has been developed and used to identify SCAs in various cancer copy number data sets, providing useful information to study the landscape of cancer genomes

  11. Higher Order Aberration and Astigmatism in Children with Hyperopic Amblyopia

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seung Kwon; Chang, Ji Woong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the changes in corneal higher-order aberration (HOA) during amblyopia treatment and the correlation between HOA and astigmatism in hyperopic amblyopia children. Methods In this retrospective study, a total of 72 eyes from 72 patients ranging in age from 38 to 161 months were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on the degree of astigmatism. Corneal HOA was measured using a KR-1W aberrometer at the initial visit and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Co...

  12. Exploiting lens aberrations to create electron vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, L; Guzzinati, G; Lubk, A; Mazilu, M; Van Boxem, R; Verbeeck, J

    2013-01-01

    A model for a new electron vortex beam production method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The technique calls on the controlled manipulation of the degrees of freedom of the lens aberrations to achieve a helical phase front. These degrees of freedom are accessible by using the corrector lenses of a transmission electron microscope. The vortex beam is produced through a particular alignment of these lenses into a specifically designed astigmatic state and applying an annular aperture in the condensor plane. Experimental results are found to be in good agreement with simulations.

  13. Modeling aberrations in the Advanced Camera for Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houairi, K.; Casertano, S.; Lallo, M.; Makidon, R. B.

    2006-10-01

    We present an analysis of the optical model for HST and ACS that shows the possible impact of misalignments of various optical elements on apparent image aberrations. The analysis was aimed at identifying possible causes for apparent variations in coma and astigmatism seen on orbital time scales in HST images. Results indicate that any combinations of mirrors and motions that reproduce the observed coma and astigmatism changes, also predict either large shifts in the image, which is not observed, or require unrealistically large movements of the elements.

  14. Construction of minimum generalized aberration two-level orthogonal arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Evangelaras, Haralambos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we explore the problem of constructing two-level Minimum Generalized Aberration (MGA) orthogonal arrays with strength $t$, $n$ runs and $q>t$ columns, using a method that employs the $J$-characteristics of a two-level design. General results for the construction of MGA orthogonal arrays with $t+1$, $t+2$ and $t+3$ columns are given, while all MGA designs with strength $t\\ge 2$, $n \\equiv$ 0 mod 4 runs and $q\\le 6$ are constructed. Results are also given for two-level orthogonal ...

  15. Spatially incoherent illumination interferometry: a PSF almost insensitive to aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Xiao, Peng; Boccara, A Claude

    2016-01-01

    We show that with spatially incoherent illumination, the point spread function width of an imaging interferometer like that used in full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is almost insensitive to aberrations that mostly induce a reduction of the signal level without broadening. This is demonstrated by comparison with traditional scanning OCT and wide-field OCT with spatially coherent illuminations. Theoretical analysis, numerical calculation as well as experimental results are provided to show this specific merit of incoherent illumination in full-field OCT. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that such result has been demonstrated.

  16. Intrinsic Instability of Aberration-Corrected Electron Microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, S M; Tromp, R M

    2012-01-01

    Aberration-corrected microscopes with sub-atomic resolution will impact broad areas of science and technology. However, the experimentally observed lifetime of the corrected state is just a few minutes. Here we show that the corrected state is intrinsically unstable; the higher its quality, the more unstable it is. Analyzing the Contrast Transfer Function near optimum correction, we define an 'instability budget' which allows a rational trade-off between resolution and stability. Unless control systems are developed to overcome these challenges, intrinsic instability poses a fundamental limit to the resolution practically achievable in the electron microscope.

  17. Membrane based Deformable Mirror: Intrinsic aberrations and alignment issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bayanna, A. Raja; Louis, Rohan E.; Chatterjee, S; Mathew, Shibu K.; Venkatakrishnan, P

    2015-01-01

    A Deformable Mirror (DM) is an important component of an Adaptive Optics system. It is known that an on-axis spherical/parabolic optical component, placed at an angle to the incident beam introduces defocus as well as astigmatism in the image plane. Although the former can be compensated by changing the focal plane position, the latter cannot be removed by mere optical re-alignment. Since the DM is to be used to compensate a turbulence-induced curvature term in addition to other aberrations, ...

  18. Tea shoot production in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature in Pagilaran tea estate, Batang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tea shoot production pattern in PT Pagilaran tea estate, Batang, is studied in relation to rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature. Pagilaran tea estate is located at 700-1,500 m above the sea level, with temperature of 15-30 deg. C and rainfall ranging from 4,500 mm to 7,000 mm per year. However, the area is also characterized by two up to three dry months for every three years. Monthly data of rainfall, solar radiation, and temperature were collected and were related to tea shoot production using correlation and regression analysis. The results indicated that there was no significant different pattern of tea shoot production form the three estate units (Kayulandak, Pagilaran, and Andongsili). Monthly shoots production increases during October up to December, and then goes down in January up to February. It fluctuated at a lesser degree in the upper units (Kayulandak and Andongsili) which might be attributed to better soil moisture available in the area. They are right below a forests area which understandably serves as rainfall catchment area and maintains soil moisture of the area below in a better condition. Weak to moderate correlation was obtained when monthly tea shoot production was correlated to amount of rainfall (r = -0.3771), days of rainfall (r = -0.3512), maximum temperature (r = -0.3502), minimum temperature (r = -0.2786), and solar radiation (r=0.6607) of the same month. On regressing monthly tea shoot production to those variables, rainfall and duration of solar radiation turned out to be the two significant factors through the following equation y = 759.5616-0.1802 xi-1 + 0.1057 xi-2 + 0.5239 zi-1 (R at the power of 2 = 0.3398), where y = tea shoots production, x=amount of monthly rainfall, z=duration of solar radiation, and i refer to month

  19. Shoot regeneration from cotyledonary leaf explants of jatropha curcas: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish Chandramohana

    2010-03-07

    A simple, high frequency, and reproducible method for plant regeneration through direct organogenesis from cotyledonary leaf explants of Jatropha curcas was developed using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of thidiazuron (TDZ) or 6-benzyl aminopurine (BAP). Medium containing TDZ has greater influence on regeneration as compared to BAP. The induced shoot buds were transferred to MS medium containing 10 lM kinetin (Kn), 4.5 lM BAP, and 5.5 lM a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for shoot proliferation. The proliferated shoots could be elongated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of BAP, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), NAA, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). MS medium with 2.25 lM BAP and 8.5 lM IAA was found to be the best combination for shoot elongation. However, significant differences in plant regeneration and shoot elongation were observed among the genotypes studied. Rooting was achieved when the basal cut end of elongated shoots were dipped in half strength MS liquid medium containing dif- ferent concentrations and combinations of IBA, IAA, and NAA for 4 days, followed by transfer to growth regulators free half strength MS medium supplemented 0.25 mg l-1 activated charcoal. Elongated shoot treated with 15 lM IBA, 5.7 lM IAA, and 11 lM NAA resulted in highest percent rooting. The rooted plants could be established in soil with more than 90% survival rate. The method developed may be useful in improvement of J. curcas through genetic modification. © Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków 2010.

  20. Explanation of test and assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test and Assessment of Chromosomal Aberrations on Occupational Health Examinations for Radiation Workers was formulated for standardizing analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations on occupational health examinations for radiation workers. In order to provide experimental and theoretical basis for implementation and extension of this standard, this paper interpreted the standard comprehensively, including some existed problems that methods on detection and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberrations is not unified in different laboratories in China, and related criteria,laws and regulations at home and abroad are not fit for the detection of chromosomal aberrations for radiation workers very well; some introduction on methods of chromosomal slide preparation, discriminant analysis and outcome assessment of chromosomal aberration; and some influencing factors in the quality of chromosomal aberration detection. (authors)