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Sample records for aberrant cholesterol levels

  1. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  2. High blood cholesterol levels

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  3. What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean

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    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What Your Cholesterol Levels Mean Updated:Apr 3,2017 Keeping your ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  4. What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results: total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) and HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and triglycerides (blood fats). What should my total cholesterol level ... I Improve My Cholesterol? What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? What Is High Blood Pressure? How Can I ...

  5. Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels?

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    ... The Health Information Center Do You Know Your Cholesterol Levels? Print-friendly Version (PDF, 6.1 MB) ... Eat Smart Did you know that high blood cholesterol is a serious problem among Latinos? About one ...

  6. Americans' Cholesterol Levels Keep Falling

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    ... and 2013-2014, the CDC reported. Dr. David Friedman is chief of heart failure services at Long ... for cholesterol treatment, all seem to be working," Friedman said. The study was published online Nov. 30 ...

  7. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  8. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

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    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II (b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Cholesterol levels in fragile X syndrome.

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    Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Levin, Rebecca; Shah, Haroon; Mathur, Shaguna; Darnell, Jennifer C; Ouyang, Bichun

    2015-02-01

    Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is associated with intellectual disability and behavioral dysfunction, including anxiety, ADHD symptoms, and autistic features. Although individuals with FXS are largely considered healthy and lifespan is not thought to be reduced, very little is known about the long-term medical health of adults with FXS and no systematically collected information is available on standard laboratory measures from metabolic screens. During the course of follow up of a large cohort of patients with FXS we noted that many patients had low cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL) values and thus initiated a systematic chart review of all cholesterol values present in charts from a clinic cohort of over 500 patients with FXS. Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL were all significantly reduced in males from the FXS cohort relative to age-adjusted population normative data. This finding has relevance for health monitoring in individuals with FXS, for treatments with cholesterol-lowering agents that have been proposed to target the underlying CNS disorder in FXS based on work in animal models, and for potential biomarker development in FXS.

  10. CHOLESTEROL LEVELS AND SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

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    Nikhil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In modern psychiatry, there is a movement to understand mental health, not solely based on behaviors and subjective report, but also based on objective markers of illness. Several studies have focused on a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and aggressive behaviors including suicide. AIM: To identify a potential link between cholesterol and suicidal behavior. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 150 patients with psychiatry diagnosis were divided into three equal groups (50 each: those who had a recent suicidal attempt, those who had suicidal ideations but no attempts and those with psychiatry diagnosis but no suicidal ideations and attempts. Blood sample for total cholesterol level was on IPD or OPD basis. The study was started after taking approval from institute ethical committee. Analysis was done using Chi square test. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: It was found that maximum patients who attempted suicide belonged to major depression and schizophrenia followed by substance dependence and bipolar affective disorder (BPAD with major depression and there was statistical difference in cholesterol levels of patients with suicide attempt, with suicidal ideations and control group. 42% and 44% of major depression and schizophrenia cases respectively had low total serum cholesterol levels (below 160 mg%. CONCLUSION: There is a potential link between serum total cholesterol levels and suicidal behavior. Taking the literature as a whole there is substantial evidence that low cholesterol levels are found in suicidal behaviors of various psychiatric illnesses especially major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, substance dependence and bipolar depressive disorder

  11. Hen eggs chemical compounds, caloricity and cholesterol level, as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    simba

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... although the cholesterol level in eggs was not influenced by the ... Consumer behaviour and preferences are frequently influenced by the marketing strategies of food ..... iodine and selenium: A new natural multi-enriched egg.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibition decreases cholesterol levels in neuronal cells by modulating key genes in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux.

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    Maria João Nunes

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential component of the central nervous system and increasing evidence suggests an association between brain cholesterol metabolism dysfunction and the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. Interestingly, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi such as trichostatin A (TSA are emerging as promising therapeutic approaches in neurodegenerative diseases, but their effect on brain cholesterol metabolism is poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that HDACi up-regulate CYP46A1 gene transcription, a key enzyme in neuronal cholesterol homeostasis. In this study, TSA was shown to modulate the transcription of other genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in human neuroblastoma cells, namely by up-regulating genes that control cholesterol efflux and down-regulating genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake, thus leading to an overall decrease in total cholesterol content. Furthermore, co-treatment with the amphipathic drug U18666A that can mimic the intracellular cholesterol accumulation observed in cells of Niemman-Pick type C patients, revealed that TSA can ameliorate the phenotype induced by pathological cholesterol accumulation, by restoring the expression of key genes involved in cholesterol synthesis, uptake and efflux and promoting lysosomal cholesterol redistribution. These results clarify the role of TSA in the modulation of neuronal cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional level, and emphasize the idea of HDAC inhibition as a promising therapeutic tool in neurodegenerative disorders with impaired cholesterol metabolism.

  13. Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

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    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Cholesterol Cholesterol Levels: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents Measuring Cholesterol Levels Learn more at MedlinePlus: https://medlineplus.gov/ ...

  14. Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?

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    Ford Earl S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our paper addresses three major public health issues: cholesterol, statins and policies to prevent cardiovascular disease. Discussion Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used. Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger. Summary In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy. Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.

  15. Improvements in cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels in youths during the 1980s.

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    Frank, E; Winkleby, M; Fortmann, S P; Rockhill, B; Farquhar, J W

    1993-01-01

    This article examines cholesterol-related knowledge, cholesterol-related behaviors, and plasma cholesterol levels in 12-24-year-olds, using data collected from four community-based cross-sectional surveys conducted 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990. Participants included 1,552 individuals from randomly sampled households in two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, California) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Over the eleven-year study period, cholesterol-related knowledge improved in both control cities (P population than Modesto). In general, knowledge and behavior scores and plasma cholesterol levels were lower in these 12-24-year-olds than in 25-74-year-olds, although trends at all ages were similar over time and by demographic variables. Although the cholesterol-related interventions that began in the mid-1980s primarily targeted adults, these 12-24-year-olds' cholesterol-related knowledge improved (as did, to a lesser extent, their cholesterol-related behavior and plasma cholesterol levels). These findings have implications for upcoming youth-related cholesterol interventions.

  16. Cholesterol Levels in Genetically Determined Familial Hypercholesterolaemia in Russian Karelia

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    V. A. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH is a rare disease that tends to be diagnosed lately. In Russia, the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the disease are not well defined. We investigated 102 patients with definite FH. In 52 of these patients (50.9% genetic analysis was performed, revealing pathogenic mutations of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene in 22 patients. We report here five mutations of the LDL receptor gene found in the Karelian FH sample for the first time. The detection rate of mutations in definite FH patients was 42.3%. Two groups of patients with a definite diagnosis of FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria were compared: the first group had putatively functionally important LDL receptor gene mutations, while in the second group LDL receptor gene mutations were excluded by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in the group with LDL receptor mutations compared to the mutation-free population. The frequency of mutations in patients with LDL cholesterol > 6.5 mmol/L was more than 3 times higher than that in patients with LDL < 6.5 mmol/L. Total and LDL cholesterol levels and the frequency of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction were higher in the group with definite FH compared to groups with probable and possible FH. Cholesterol figures in FH patients of different age and sex from the Karelian population were comparable.

  17. [Is there a relationship between cholesterol reduction, low levels of cholesterol and mortality?].

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    LaRosa, J C

    1995-01-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  18. Oxidised LDL, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol levels in patients of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Joya; Mishra, T.K.; Rao, Y. N.; S K Aggarwal

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is a major cause of morbidity and has various risk factors. Lipid profile i.e. low HDL-cholesterol, high LDL cholesterol, high total cholesterol, high triglycerides playing important role in its causation. Recently interest has been shown in the oxidized fraction of LDL as one of the risk factors. In the present study 60 age and sex matched normal healthy individuals were taken as controls and 60 patients of CAD were taken. Cholesterol was measured by enzymatic method,...

  19. Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and TAG levels by gender.

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    Jian, Zhi-Hong; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Lung, Chia-Chi; Ho, Chien-Chang; Ko, Pei-Chieh; Ndi Nfor, Oswald; Chang, Hui-Chin; Liaw, Yi-Ching; Liang, Yu-Chiu; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2015-03-01

    The present study assessed the effects of vegetarian and omnivorous diets on HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), TAG and the ratio of HDL-C to total cholesterol (TC) by gender. HDL-C, LDL-C, TAG and HDL-C:TC were compared among three diet groups (vegan, ovo-lacto vegetarian and omnivorous). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine factors significantly and independently associated with vegetarian status and to estimate the β value of lipid profiles for the diet groups. Settings A cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Taiwanese Survey on the Prevalence of Hyperglycemia, Hyperlipidemia and Hypertension (TwSHHH). The study comprised included 3257 men and 3551 women. After adjusting for confounders, vegan and ovo-lacto vegetarian diets lowered LDL-C levels (β=-10.98, P=0.005 and β=-7.12, P=0.025, respectively) in men compared with omnivorous diet. There was a significant association between HDL-C and vegan diet (β=-6.53, P=0.004). In females, the β values of HDL-C, TAG and HDL-C:TC were -5.72 (Pvegetarian diet, when compared with omnivorous diet. Vegan diet was associated with lower HDL-C concentrations in both males and females. Because the ovo-lacto vegetarian diet was effective in lowering LDL-C, it may be more appropriate for males.

  20. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  1. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol.” What is dyslipidemia? Having abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides is called dyslipidemia . A common dyslipidemia in the ... the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. When should my cholesterol levels be measured? Women ...

  2. The Effect of Biliary Sphincterotomy on Serum Cholesterol Levels in Postcholecystectomy Patients: A Pilot Study

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    Waleed M Alazmi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cholesterol, in the form of bile salts, is reabsorbed from the small intestine via the enterohepatic circulation. Biliary sphincterotomy increases the delivery of bile to the terminal ileum. If the absorptive capacity is exceeded, cholesterol excretion may increase, resulting in a decrease in serum cholesterol levels and improvement in serum lipid profiles.

  3. Opioid doses required for pain management in lung cancer patients with different cholesterol levels: negative correlation between opioid doses and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhenhua; Liang, Lining; Li, Lingyu; Xu, Miao; Li, Xiang; Sun, Hao; He, Songwei; Lin, Lilong; Zhang, Yixin; Song, Yancheng; Yang, Man; Luo, Yuling; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee; Zheng, Dayong; Zheng, Hui

    2016-03-08

    Pain management has been considered as significant contributor to broad quality-of-life improvement for cancer patients. Modulating serum cholesterol levels affects analgesia abilities of opioids, important pain killer for cancer patients, in mice system. Thus the correlation between opioids usages and cholesterol levels were investigated in human patients with lung cancer. Medical records of 282 patients were selected with following criteria, 1) signed inform consent, 2) full medical records on total serum cholesterol levels and opioid administration, 3) opioid-naïve, 4) not received/receiving cancer-related or cholesterol lowering treatment, 5) pain level at level 5-8. The patients were divided into different groups basing on their gender and cholesterol levels. Since different opioids, morphine, oxycodone, and fentanyl, were all administrated at fixed low dose initially and increased gradually only if pain was not controlled, the percentages of patients in each group who did not respond to the initial doses of opioids and required higher doses for pain management were determined and compared. Patients with relative low cholesterol levels have larger percentage (11 out of 28 in female and 31 out of 71 in male) to not respond to the initial dose of opioids than those with high cholesterol levels (0 out of 258 in female and 8 out of 74 in male). Similar differences were obtained when patients with different opioids were analyzed separately. After converting the doses of different opioids to equivalent doses of oxycodone, significant correlation between opioid usages and cholesterol levels was also observed. Therefore, more attention should be taken to those cancer patients with low cholesterol levels because they may require higher doses of opioids as pain killer.

  4. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

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    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  5. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  7. Effect of serum cholesterol levels on meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-evoked neuroendocrine responses in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, T; Yoshimura, R; Ohmori, O; Takano, T; Takahashi, N; Iwata, N; Suzuki, T; Abe, K

    1997-05-01

    This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that serum cholesterol levels might be associated with serotonergic receptor function. The participants were 10 healthy male subjects. After an overnight fast, the subjects received meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) or identical placebo capsules orally in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Blood was obtained for measurement of prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and cholesterol. There were some significantly positive correlations between serum cholesterol levels and hormonal responses to m-CPP administration. These results suggest that serum cholesterol levels may be positively associated with serotonergic receptor function.

  8. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion.

  9. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  10. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. Aim: To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. Materials and Methods: We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20–70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P values with Friedewald's formula. Results: There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. Conclusion: This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method.

  11. Correlation of Friedewald's calculated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels with direct low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Sunil Kumar; Bharathy, M; Dinakaran, Asha; Ray, Lopamudra; Ravichandran, K

    2017-01-01

    One of the risk factors for the development of coronary heart disease is high low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III guidelines suggest drug therapy to be considered at LDL-cholesterol levels >130 mg/dl. This makes accurate reporting of LDL cholesterol crucial in the management of Coronary heart disease. Estimation of LDL cholesterol by direct LDL method is accurate, but it is expensive. Hence, We compared Friedewald's calculated LDL values with direct LDL values. To evaluate the correlation of Friedewalds calculated LDL with direct LDL method. We compared LDL cholesterol measured by Friedewald's formula with direct LDL method in 248 samples between the age group of 20-70 years. Paired t-test was used to test the difference in LDL concentration obtained by a direct method and Friedewald's formula. The level of significance was taken as P correlation formula was used to test the correlation between direct LDL values with Friedewald's formula. There was no significant difference between the direct LDL values when compared to calculated LDL by Friedewalds formula (P = 0.140). Pearson correlation showed there exists good correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds formula (correlation coefficient = 0.98). The correlation between direct LDL versus Friedewalds calculated LDL was best at triglycerides values between 101 and 200 mg/dl. This study indicates calculated LDL by Friedewalds equation can be used instead of direct LDL in patients who cannot afford direct LDL method.

  12. Knowledge of cholesterol levels and targets in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Susan; Lichtman, Judith H; Amatruda, Joan M; Smith, Grace L; Mattera, Jennifer A; Roumanis, Sarah A; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which patients are aware of nationally-recommended cholesterol and lipid subfraction targets. The authors interviewed 738 patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease to assess their knowledge of their low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol levels as well as corresponding national targets. Only 8%, 8%, and 43% of patients could recall their low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and total cholesterol values, respectively. Only 5%, 2%, and 50% could correctly name targets for these values. Knowledge of cholesterol targets was particularly poor among women, nonwhites, and patients without any college education. Patients with multiple cardiac risk factors and patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease were no more knowledgeable about their cholesterol targets than those without these conditions. These findings suggest that current cholesterol education efforts appear inadequate, particularly for women, nonwhites, and patients without any college education.

  13. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Harini M, Astirin OP. 2009. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 53-58. This study aims to determine treatment effect of VCO on blood cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic white rat (Rattus norvegicus L.. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain divided into five treatment groups, namely: control, simvastatin (1.3 mL/270 g BW, cholesterol (9:1 lard, VCO 1 (1 mL/270 g BW, and VCO 2 (1.3 mL/270 g BW. Treatment was given orally. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, day 14 and day 28. Cholesterol data (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL were analyzed by Ancova and followed by contrast test at significance level of 5%.. The results showed that treatment of VCO at different doses significantly affected the decrease in blood total cholesterol, blood LDL levels, increasing blood HDL in hipercholesterolemic white rat.

  14. Association analyses of the INSIG2 polymorphism in the obesity and cholesterol levels of Korean populations

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    Shin Hyoung

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While INSIG2 has been reported to be associated with BMI in many populations, conflicting results have prevented consensus over its role. In analyses of mice and cell cultures the gene has been found to be involved in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis; however, no relationship has been found with cholesterol metabolism in human epidemiological research. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the effect of rs7566605 near INSIG2 on both obesity- and cholesterol-related traits in Koreans. Methods The rs7566605 polymorphism was genotyped with 2,364 Koreans, and associations with obesity- and cholesterol-related traits were analyzed statistically via an ANOVA or T-test. Results Replication of an association with BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat percent, and abdominal fat area failed, and the C allele of rs7566605 was not associated significantly with total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglyceride. However, it was found in a meta-analysis of a dominant model that the C allele of rs7566605 appeared to affect the level of the total cholesterol, especially in female subjects. Conclusion We failed to show associations of rs7566605 with cholesterol- and obesity-related phenotypes, although we newly suggest the possible involvement of INSIG2 with the plasma level of the total cholesterol in women.

  15. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, B. van; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  16. Nearly lethal resuscitated suicide attempters have no low serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Girardi, Paolo; Tatarelli, Roberto

    2010-06-01

    To verify the hypothesis that suicide attempts are associated with lower serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels of patients with mood disorders, 26 patients with mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder) were admitted after a medically serious suicide attempt to the emergency department and then hospitalized in the psychiatric unit of the Sant' Andrea Hospital (Rome, Italy). Controls were 87 patients who had not made a recent suicide attempt. Attempters and nonattempters did not differ in the levels of serum cholesterol or triglycerides. Indeed, attempters had nonsignificantly higher serum levels of cholesterol and lower serum levels of triglycerides. The use of biologic indicators such as levels of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the prediction of suicide risk in mood disorders was not fully supported from this small sample.

  17. Reasons for the upsetting cholesterol level during the community investigation from residents, physicians, and social aspects: The China Cholesterol Education Program (CCEP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Jiang; GUAN Fei; WANG Jia-hong; HU Da-yi

    2011-01-01

    Background The community medical center is the first barrier for lipid control. We aimed to survey the residents' cholesterol condition in the community, and pursue the reasons for the upsetting results from various aspects.Methods Residents and physicians were recruited from four community centers. Residents completed questionnaires and a physical examination as well as biochemical analysis. Physicians were also asked to complete a questionnaire,some of which were about basic knowledge of lipids.Results About 37.0% male and 48.1% female had elevated cholesterol levels. Residents' blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose (FG), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were positively associated with their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Framingham risk scoring (FRS) was strongly related to cholesterol (P <0.001 for LDL-C and TC). Residents' higher education grade was positively related to a normal cholesterol condition (P<0.001), while personal income was negatively related to it. Rural residents had higher percent of population with normal cholesterol level (normal cholesterol rate) than their city counterpart (P <0.001). Although physicians with college education had a much higher lipid knowledge level themselves, the physicians' factors had almost no relationship with the residents' cholesterol levels.Conclusions Management of hypercholesterolemia should be an important component of health strategy in Beijing.Education is imperative for residents as well as for physicians.

  18. Impact of prescription size on statin adherence and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehler Phillip S

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Therapy with 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Co-enzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins improve outcomes in a broad spectrum of patients with hyperlipidemia. However, effective therapy requires ongoing medication adherence; restrictive pharmacy policies may represent a barrier to successful adherence, particularly among vulnerable patients. In this study we sought to assess the relationship between the quantity of statin dispensed by the pharmacy with patient adherence and total cholesterol. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 3,386 patients receiving more than one fill of statin medications through an integrated, inner-city health care system between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2002. Our measure of adherence was days of drug acquisition divided by days in the study for each patient, with adequate adherence defined as ≥ 80%. Log-binomial regression was used to determine the relative risk of various factors, including prescription size, on adherence. We also assessed the relationship between adherence and total cholesterol using multiple linear regression. Results After controlling for age, gender, race, co-payment, comorbidities, and insurance status, patients who obtained a majority of fills as 60-day supply compared with 30-day supply were more likely to be adherent to their statin medications (RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.28–1.55, P Conclusion In a healthcare system serving predominantly indigent patients, the provision of a greater quantity of statin medication at each prescription fill contributes to improved adherence and greater drug effectiveness.

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  20. [The dependence of the level of chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes on the duration of their cultivation under ultraviolet irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushkovskiĭ, S R; Bezrukov, V F; Bariliak, I R

    1998-01-01

    The effect of duration of cultivation of lymphocytes of human UV-irradiated peripheral blood on the chromosomal aberration rate was studied. Under prolonged cultivation the more irradiated blood samples revealed higher level of chromosomal aberrations. The existence of UV-induced delayed chromosomal instability is supposed that may be found under prolonged cultivation. The mechanisms of this phenomenon are discussed.

  1. Low serum LDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated mortality from liver cancer in Japan: the Ibaraki Prefectural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Nobue; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Irie, Fujiko; Iso, Hiroyasu; Iimura, Kyoko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Muto, Takashi; Ota, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer a global public health concern and well known for poor prognosis. The association between low total cholesterol level and liver cancer has been reported. However, the association between low low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and liver cancer is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between LDL cholesterol level and liver cancer mortality. A total of 16,217 persons (5,551 men and 10,666 women) aged 40-79 years in 1993 were followed until 2008. LDL cholesterol levels were divided into four categories (LDL cholesterol level for liver cancer mortality was calculated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. Covariates were age, sex, alanine transaminase, body mass index, alcohol intake and smoking status, all of which were correlated with LDL cholesterol levels. There were 51 deaths (32 men and 19 women) from liver cancer. Multivariable hazard ratios of liver cancer deaths for LDL cholesterol levels of LDL cholesterol levels of 80-99 mg/dl was 1.03 (95% CI: 0.42, 2.53), and for LDL cholesterol levels of ≥120 mg/dl was 0.43 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.92) compared with LDL cholesterol levels of 100-199 mg/dl (p for trendLDL cholesterol levels are associated with elevated risk of liver cancer mortality. Low LDL cholesterol may be a predictive marker for death due to liver cancer.

  2. High level of deoxycholic acid in human bile does not promote cholesterol gallstone formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ulf Gustafsson; Staffan Sahlin; Curt Einarsson

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study whether patients with excess deoxycholic acid (DCA) differ from those with normal percentage of DCA with respect to biliary lipid composition and cholesterol saturation of gallbladder bile.METHODS: Bile was collected during operation through puncturing into the gallbladder from 122 cholesterol gallstone patients and 46 gallstone-free subjects undergoing cholecystectomy. Clinical data, biliary lipids, bile acid composition,presence of crystals and nucleation time were analyzed.RESULTS: A subgroup of gallstone patients displayeda higher proportion of DCA in bile than gallstone free subjects.By choosing a cut-off level of the 90th percentile, a group of 13 gallstone patients with high DCA levels (mean 50percent of total bile acids) and a large group of 109 patients with normal DCA levels (mean 21 percent of total bile acids)were obtained. The mean age of the patients with high DCA levels was higher than that of the group with normal levels (mean age: 62 years vs45 years) and so was the mean BMI (28.3 vs. 24.7). Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were slightly higher in the DCA excess groups compared with those in the normal DCA group. There was no difference in biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals in bile between patients with high and normal levels of DCA.CONCLUSION: Gallstone patients with excess DCA were of older age and had higher BMI than patients with normal DCA. The two groups of patients did not differ with respect to biliary lipid composition, cholesterol saturation, nucleation time or occurrence of cholesterol crystals. It is concluded that DCA in bile does not seem to contribute to gallstone formation in cholesterol gallstone patients.

  3. Isoflavone supplementation reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women

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    Yenny Yenny

    2015-12-01

    Baseline subject characteristics and lipid profile in the two groups were comparable. In the isoflavone and control groups after 6 months of supplementation LDL cholesterol levels were 124.9 ± 35.2 mg/dL vs 112 .7 ± 29.7 mg/dL (p=0.013*, respectively, and after 12 months 116.9 ± 31.7 mg/dL vs 109.1 ± 29.8 mg/dL (p=0.086. There were no significant differences in the other lipid levels at 6 and 12 months. Conclusions Soy isoflavone supplementation for 6 months was capable of significantly reducing LDL cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women. No significant changes in total cholesterol, triacylgycerol, and HDL cholesterol were found after isoflavone supplementation.

  4. High-Cholesterol Diet Disrupts the Levels of Hormones Derived from Anterior Pituitary Basophilic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Zhang, X; Liu, Z; Yuan, Z; Song, Y; Shao, S; Zhou, X; Yan, H; Guan, Q; Gao, L; Zhang, H; Zhao, J

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence shows that elevated cholesterol levels are detrimental to health. However, it is unclear whether there is an association between cholesterol and the pituitary. We investigated the effects of a high-cholesterol diet on pituitary hormones using in vivo animal studies and an epidemiological study. In the animal experiments, rats were fed a high-cholesterol or control diet for 28 weeks. In rats fed the high-cholesterol diet, serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; also known as thyrotrophin), luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) produced by the basophilic cells of the anterior pituitary were elevated in a time-dependent manner. Among these hormones, TSH was the first to undergo a significant change, whereas adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), another hormone produced by basophilic cells, was not changed significantly. As the duration of cholesterol feeding increased, cholesterol deposition increased gradually in the pituitary. Histologically, basophilic cells, and especially thyrotrophs and gonadotrophs, showed an obvious increase in cell area, as well as a potential increase in their proportion of total pituitary cells. Expression of the β-subunit of TSH, FSH and LH, which controls hormone specificity and activity, exhibited a corresponding increase. In the epidemiological study, we found a similar elevation of serum TSH, LH and FSH and a decrease in ACTH in patients with hypercholesterolaemia. Significant positive correlations existed between serum total cholesterol and TSH, FSH or LH, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that the high-cholesterol diet affected the levels of hormones derived from anterior pituitary basophilic cells. This phenomenon might contribute to the pituitary functional disturbances described in hypercholesterolaemia.

  5. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  6. Changes during hibernation in different phospholipid and free and esterified cholesterol serum levels in black bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, V.; Sheikh, A.; Chauhan, A.; Tsiouris, J.; Malik, M.; Vaughan, M.

    2002-01-01

    During hibernation, fat is known to be the preferred source of energy. A detailed analysis of different phospholipids, as well as free and esterified cholesterol, was conducted to investigate lipid abnormalities during hibernation. The levels of total phospholipids and total cholesterol in the serum of black bears were found to increase significantly in hibernation as compared with the active state. Both free and esterified cholesterol were increased in the hibernating state in comparison with the active state (P biochimie et biologie mole??culaire. All rights reserved.

  7. Improvement of HDL- and LDL-cholesterol levels in diabetic subjects by feeding bread containing chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausar, S F; Morcillo, M; León, A E; Ribotta, P D; Masih, R; Vilaro Mainero, M; Amigone, J L; Rubin, G; Lescano, C; Castagna, L F; Beltramo, D M; Diaz, G; Bianco, I D

    2003-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the efficacy and safety of a bread formulation containing chitosan in dyslipidemic type 2 diabetic subjects. For this purpose a total of 18 patients were allowed to incorporate to their habitual diets 120 g/day of bread containing 2% (wt/wt) chitosan (chitosan group, n= 9) or standard bread (control group, n= 9). Before the study and after 12 weeks on the modified diet, the following parameters were evaluated: body weight, plasma cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, and hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)). Compared with the control group, the patients receiving chitosan-containing bread decreased their mean levels of LDL-cholesterol and significantly increased their mean levels of HDL-cholesterol at the end of the study. There were no significant differences in the body weight, serum triglyceride, and HbA(1c). These results suggest that chitosan incorporated into bread formulations could improve the lipoprotein balance similar to typical biliary salts trappers, increasing the HDL- and lowering the LDL-cholesterol, without changing the triglyceride levels. These results warrant further studies over a longer period of time to evaluate if a persistent improvement in levels of lipoproteins can be attained with this strategy.

  8. Cholesterol levels of Japanese dyslipidaemic patients with various comorbidities: BioBank Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Noda, Hokuto; Nagai, Akiko; Hirata, Makoto; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Matsuda, Koichi; Muto, Kaori; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamagata, Zentaro

    2017-03-01

    Controlling serum cholesterol is critical to prevent cardiovascular disease in patients with dyslipidaemia. Guidelines emphasise the need to select treatment for dyslipidaemia based on specific patient profiles; however, there is little information about the serum cholesterol levels of patients in each profile in Japan. Therefore, we aimed to describe the serum cholesterol levels and prevalence of uncontrolled cases in Japanese patients with dyslipidaemia. We included data for patients with dyslipidaemia between 2003 and 2007 from the BioBank Japan Project (66 hospitals). Then, we reported their serum cholesterol levels by age, body mass index, glycaemic control (glycated haemoglobin A1c), blood pressure, smoking, drinking, comorbidity and medication profiles. We included 22,189 male and 21,545 female patients. The mean serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG) and non-HDL-C levels in males were 117.4 mg/dL, 51.0 mg/dL, 187.6 mg/dL and 153.6 mg/dL, respectively; the corresponding levels in females were 129.5 mg/dL, 60.5 mg/dL, 144.9 mg/dL and 157.9 mg/dL, respectively. In both males and females, the LDL-C levels were the highest in the following profiles: age 19-44 years, body mass index 18.5-22 kg/m(2), glycated haemoglobin A1c cholesterol levels by risk-factor profile in patients with dyslipidaemia and could add evidence of treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level

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    Hiroyuki Takeuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trans fatty acid (TFA from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E; no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone.

  10. A reversal of decreasing trends in population cholesterol levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Norberg

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:High cholesterol is identified as a major risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Monitoring trends of cholesterol levels and comparing trends across population groups are important to assess population distribution and risks related to cholesterol change over time. Cholesterol surveillance data are lacking, even in high-income countries.Objectives:To describe the trends in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in different population groups and to estimate the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Västerbotten County, Sweden during 1990–2010.Designs and Methods:Since 1990, 133,082 individuals living in Västerbotten County, Northern Sweden, invited on their 30th, 40th, 50th and 60th birthdays, participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program. Ten years after baseline data collection, 34,868 individuals were surveyed for a second time. In addition to a self-administered health questionnaire (that included information on socioeconomic status, demographics, self-reported health and lifestyle behaviours, blood cholesterol and triglyceride were examined.Results:The level and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from 1990 to 2007, but the trends began to increase during 2008–2010 in men, women, and in all educational groups. Men had significantly higher serum triglyceride levels than women and their cholesterol levels were similar to those of the women. This study shows that those with basic education and who live in rural inlands had consistently higher triglyceride level than those who live in the city and have higher educational attainments. People with basic education are also at higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia at 10-year follow-up; the risk is much higher among the older cohorts, particularly women. During 1990–2010, the proportion of participants who reported

  11. A reversal of decreasing trends in population cholesterol levels in Västerbotten County, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Nawi; Johnson, Owe; Lindahl, Bernt; Norberg, Margareta

    2012-01-01

    Background High cholesterol is identified as a major risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Monitoring trends of cholesterol levels and comparing trends across population groups are important to assess population distribution and risks related to cholesterol change over time. Cholesterol surveillance data are lacking, even in high-income countries. Objectives To describe the trends in cholesterol and triglyceride levels in different population groups and to estimate the risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Västerbotten County, Sweden during 1990–2010. Designs and Methods Since 1990, 133,082 individuals living in Västerbotten County, Northern Sweden, invited on their 30th, 40th, 50th and 60th birthdays, participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program. Ten years after baseline data collection, 34,868 individuals were surveyed for a second time. In addition to a self-administered health questionnaire (that included information on socioeconomic status, demographics, self-reported health and lifestyle behaviours), blood cholesterol and triglyceride were examined. Results The level and prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly from 1990 to 2007, but the trends began to increase during 2008–2010 in men, women, and in all educational groups. Men had significantly higher serum triglyceride levels than women and their cholesterol levels were similar to those of the women. This study shows that those with basic education and who live in rural inlands had consistently higher triglyceride level than those who live in the city and have higher educational attainments. People with basic education are also at higher risk of developing hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia at 10-year follow-up; the risk is much higher among the older cohorts, particularly women. During 1990–2010, the proportion of participants who reported treatment with lipid

  12. The Level and Distribution of Chromosomal Aberration of Tomato Seeds at Different Penetration Depths of Carbon Ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jufang; LI Wenjian; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between the penetration depth and the level and distribution of chromosomal aberration of the root tip cells were investigated by exposure of the superposed tomato seeds to 80 MeV/u carbon ions. The results showed that on the entrance of the beam the chromosomal aberration level was low. Damage such as breaks and gaps were dominant. At the Bragg peak, the chromosomal aberration level was high. The yields of dicentrics, rings and disintegrated small chromosomes increased but the yields of breaks and gaps decreased. These results are consistent with the distribution of the physical depth dose profile of carbon ions. It is effective to deposit the Bragg peak on the seeds to induce hereditary aberration in the mutation breeding with heavy ions.

  13. Reasons for the upsetting cholesterol level during the community investigation from residents, physicians, and social aspects: the China Cholesterol Education Program (CCEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiang; Guan, Fei; Wang, Jia-Hong; Hu, Da-Yi

    2011-10-01

    The community medical center is the first barrier for lipid control. We aimed to survey the residents' cholesterol condition in the community, and pursue the reasons for the upsetting results from various aspects. Residents and physicians were recruited from four community centers. Residents completed questionnaires and a physical examination as well as biochemical analysis. Physicians were also asked to complete a questionnaire, some of which were about basic knowledge of lipids. About 37.0% male and 48.1% female had elevated cholesterol levels. Residents' blood pressure (BP), fasting glucose (FG), body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were positively associated with their low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and total cholesterol (TC). Framingham risk scoring (FRS) was strongly related to cholesterol (P education grade was positively related to a normal cholesterol condition (P education had a much higher lipid knowledge level themselves, the physicians' factors had almost no relationship with the residents' cholesterol levels. Management of hypercholesterolemia should be an important component of health strategy in Beijing. Education is imperative for residents as well as for physicians.

  14. HDL Cholesterol: How to Boost Your 'Good' Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    HDL cholesterol: How to boost your 'good' cholesterol Your cholesterol levels are an important measure of heart health. For HDL cholesterol, or "good" cholesterol, higher levels are better. By Mayo Clinic ...

  15. High levels of genomic aberrations in serous ovarian cancers are associated with better survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars O Baumbusch

    Full Text Available Genomic instability and copy number alterations in cancer are generally associated with poor prognosis; however, recent studies have suggested that extreme levels of genomic aberrations may be beneficial for the survival outcome for patients with specific tumour types. We investigated the extent of genomic instability in predominantly high-grade serous ovarian cancers (SOC using two independent datasets, generated in Norway (n = 74 and Australia (n = 70, respectively. Genomic instability was quantified by the Total Aberration Index (TAI, a measure of the abundance and genomic size of copy number changes in a tumour. In the Norwegian cohort, patients with TAI above the median revealed significantly prolonged overall survival (p<0.001 and progression-free survival (p<0.05. In the Australian cohort, patients with above median TAI showed prolonged overall survival (p<0.05 and moderately, but not significantly, prolonged progression-free survival. Results were confirmed by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses with TAI as a continuous variable. Our results provide further evidence supporting an association between high level of genomic instability and prolonged survival of high-grade SOC patients, possibly as disturbed genome integrity may lead to increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic agents.

  16. Blood glucose and cholesterol levels in adult population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, M Mostafa; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Ahmed, Jasimuddin; Talukder, Md Habibullah; Rahman, A H M Shafiqur

    2016-01-01

    A nationally representative survey was carried out to determine the distribution of blood glucose and cholesterol in adult population of Bangladesh in the absence of existing data. The study adopted a multistage and geographically clustered sampling technique of households. A total of 2610 individuals (1444 men and 1166 women) aged 25-64 years were selected from rural and urban areas. Capillary blood glucose and total cholesterol levels were measured using an overnight fasting state. The mean age of the participants was 41 years [standard deviation (SD), 11 years]. Half of them (49%) were from urban areas. Half of them (51%) had primary or higher education. Mean glucose was 74mg/dL (SD 23mg/dL). Men had higher mean glucose levels (79mg/dL) than women (67mg/dL). Age-standardized prevalence of diabetes (blood glucose level ≥126mg/dL and/or use of anti-diabetic medication) was 5.5%. In men, it was almost two-and-half times (7.6%) compared with women (2.8%). It was also double in urban areas (7.8%) compared with rural areas (3.4%). Mean cholesterol level among all participants was 167mg/dL (SD 26mg/dL). Men and women had almost similar levels (169mg/dL versus 166mg/dL, respectively). Prevalence of high cholesterol level (≥240mg/dL) was very low (1.3%) in both men (2.2%) and women (0.5%). However, the prevalence of borderline high cholesterol was substantial (5.8%) in this sample. The prevalence of high hypercholesterolemia is low, whereas there is a high prevalence of borderline high cholesterol and diabetes in the adult population of Bangladesh. This warrants population-based interventions to tackle this problem. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Malaria parasite status and cholesterol level of malaria patients in parts of the IMO River Basin of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chukwuocha UM; Eke KN

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between malaria parasite status and cholesterol level of 110consenting subjects (55patients and55controls) in parts of the Imo River Basin of Nigeria. Methods:Giemsa staining was used for malaria parasite examination while Randox cholesterol kit was used for cholesterol level estimation.Results:About49 persons (90%) with malaria had low cholesterol (<180mg/dL). Highest mean cholesterol levels were274 mg/dL for study patients and220 mg/dL for controls respectively; Lowest mean cholesterol levels were168mg/dL (patients) and138 mg/dL (controls) respectively. Low cholesterol levels (<180 mg/dL) were found in patients(84%)and controls(6%) respectively. However, 16.4% of controls and 6% of patients had borderline cholesterol level (200-239mg/dL). This study establishes a significant correlation (12.9%,P<0.01) between malaria parasite status and cholesterol level.Conclusions:These findings imply that cholesterol level estimation may be a potential concurrent and valuable diagnosis for malaria status.

  18. POSSIBILITIES FOR THE REDUCTION OF FAT AND CHOLESTEROL LEVEL IN MEAT ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Čepin

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of consumers refuse meat with higher levels of fat, because of possible association between high levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and heart disease. The meat production tries to fit consumers preferences with lowering fat content of meat. Such meat should also contain less cholesterol. In the following contribution the possibilities for reducing fat and cholesterol content and altering fatty acid composition of meat are discussed. In meat animals the estimated heritability for fat content is relatively high (between 0.3 and 0.6. This means that selection represents a powerful tool for fat reduction. Even better possibility for reducing fat and altering fatty acid composition is adequate nutrition. The decrease of animal age and weight at slaughter can also reduce carcass fat content. Also the use of transgenic animals and different growth stimulators represents a wide range of possibilities to reduce fat content in farm animals.

  19. Elevated levels of serum cholesterol are associated with better performance on tasks of episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leritz, Elizabeth C; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Milberg, William P

    2016-04-01

    We examined how serum cholesterol, an established risk factor for cerebrovascular disease (CVD), relates to cognitive function in healthy middle-older aged individuals with no neurologic or CVD history. A complete lipid panel was obtained from a cohort of one hundred twenty individuals, ages 43-85, who also underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. In order to reduce the number of variables and empirically identify broad cognitive domains, scores from neuropsychological tests were submitted into a factor analysis. This analysis revealed three explainable factors: Memory, Executive Function and Memory/Language. Three separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted using individual cholesterol metrics (total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein; LDL, high density lipoprotein; HDL, and triglycerides), as well as age, education, medication status (lipid lowering agents), ApoE status, and additional risk factors for CVD to predict neuropsychological function. The Memory Factor was predicted by a combination of age, LDL, and triglyceride levels; both age and triglycerides were negatively associated with factor score, while LDL levels revealed a positive relationship. Both the Executive and Memory/Language factor were only explained by education, whereby more years were associated with better performance. These results provide evidence that individual cholesterol lipoproteins and triglycerides may differentially impact cognitive function, over and above other common CVD risk factors and ApoE status. Our findings demonstrate the importance of consideration of vascular risk factors, such as cholesterol, in studies of cognitive aging.

  20. Impact of circulating cholesterol levels on growth and intratumoral androgen concentration of prostate tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe A Mostaghel

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PCa is the second most common cancer in men. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT leads to tumor involution and reduction of tumor burden. However, tumors eventually reemerge that have overcome the absence of gonadal androgens, termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC. Theories underlying the development of CRPC include androgen receptor (AR mutation allowing for promiscuous activation by non-androgens, AR amplification and overexpression leading to hypersensitivity to low androgen levels, and/or tumoral uptake and conversion of adrenally derived androgens. More recently it has been proposed that prostate tumor cells synthesize their own androgens through de novo steroidogenesis, which involves the step-wise synthesis of androgens from cholesterol. Using the in vivo LNCaP PCa xenograft model, previous data from our group demonstrated that a hypercholesterolemia diet potentiates prostatic tumor growth via induction of angiogenesis. Using this same model we now demonstrate that circulating cholesterol levels are significantly associated with tumor size (R = 0.3957, p = 0.0049 and intratumoral levels of testosterone (R = 0.41, p = 0.0023 in LNCaP tumors grown in hormonally intact mice. We demonstrate tumoral expression of cholesterol uptake genes as well as the spectrum of steroidogenic enzymes necessary for androgen biosynthesis from cholesterol. Moreover, we show that circulating cholesterol levels are directly correlated with tumoral expression of CYP17A, the critical enzyme required for de novo synthesis of androgens from cholesterol (R = 0.4073, p = 0.025 Since hypercholesterolemia does not raise circulating androgen levels and the adrenal gland of the mouse synthesizes minimal androgens, this study provides evidence that hypercholesterolemia increases intratumoral de novo steroidogenesis. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-fueled intratumoral androgen synthesis may accelerate the

  1. Effect of Effective Microorganisms on Growth Parameters and Serum Cholesterol Levels in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondmeneh, E.; Adey, S.; Tadelle, D.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different administration methods of effective microorganisms (EM®) on the performance and serum cholesterol level of broilers at Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. Uniform weight of mixed sex day-old-broilers of cobb-500 strain (n =

  2. Efficacy and safety of plant stanols and sterols in the control of blood cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.; Grundy, S.M.; Jones, P.J.H.; Law, M.R.; Miettinen, T.; Paoletti, R.

    2003-01-01

    Foods with plant stanol or sterol esters lower serum cholesterol levels. We summarize the deliberations of 32 experts on the efficacy and safety of sterols and stanols. A meta-analysis of 41 trials showed that intake of 2 g/d of stanols or sterols reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by 10%; higher

  3. ANALYSIS OF BILIARY CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN IRON-DEFICIENT PATIENTS OPERATED FOR GALLSTONE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kannan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal problem in day-to-day practice. The old concept that a typical gallstone sufferer is fat, fertile, flatulent female of 50. This is partially true as the disease has been found in women soon after their first delivery who are thin and underweight and in males also. Conditions that favour the formation of cholesterol gallstones are super saturation of bile with cholesterol, kinetically favourable nucleation and presence of cholesterol crystals in the gallbladder long enough to agglomerate into a stone. Recent studies have defined the role of trace elements (Fe, Ca, Zn and Cu and defective pH in the formation of gallstones. The aim of the study is to determine the association of iron deficiency in super saturation of bile. This cross-sectional study of 50 patients was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. Biliary cholesterol and serum cholesterol were compared in iron deficient and non-iron deficient patients having gallstones. A low serum iron level is a factor in bile super saturation with respect to cholesterol leading to gallstone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted over a period of 12 months in the Department of General Surgery, Kilpauk Medical College, Chennai, India. 50 patients suffering from cholelithiasis confirmed by USG were divided into two groups based on serum iron values. Group A consists of patients with normal serum iron (non-anaemic and Group B of patients with less than normal serum iron (anaemic. RESULTS Serum total cholesterol of the patients of cholelithiasis was not different among groups categorised based on serum iron levels. There were no significant variations in the serum cholesterol contents of both the groups. Also, there was no significant variation of the above parameter in the male and female patients. CONCLUSION Though, it is difficult to draw a causal

  4. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  5. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  6. Cholesterol - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor about cholesterol ... What is my cholesterol level? What should my cholesterol level be? What are HDL ("good") cholesterol and LDL ("bad") cholesterol? Does my cholesterol ...

  7. Serum Cholesterol Level Nomograms for Iranian Population; Suggestion for National Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: High cholesterol levels are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Understanding the distribution of serum cholesterol levels in each country is valuable index for use in public health planning. This study aimed to construct nomograms of total cholesterol (TC levels and establish the cut-points specific to Iranian population.Methods: Data on serum TC levels of 19,630 non-institutionalized individuals aged 25-64 years from third national survey on non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD in 2007 were used to construct cholesterol nomograms. We proposed cutoff values for borderline and high TC levels based on rounded 75th and 90th percentiles in three age groups (25-34, 35-44 and 45-64 respectively.Results: Average yearly increase of TC for males up to the age of 45 and females up to 64 were 1.15 and 1.03 mg/dl, respectively. TC levels were higher in females. In males, cutoff values for "borderline and high" TC levels were 195 and 220 mg/dl in 25-34, 210 and 240 mg/d in 35-44 and 215 and 245 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals. In women, these values were 200 and 225 mg/dl in 25-34,215 and 240 mg/dl in 35-44 and 235 and 265 mg/dl in 45-64 years old individuals respectively.Conclusion: Since TC levels are different in two sexes and change with age, we proposed different cutoffs for sex and age group. We think these cutoffs could be used in national public health planning.

  8. Evidence for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Australian indigenous peoples: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Jasmine G.; O’Dea, Kerin; Karen Z Walker

    2014-01-01

    Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are a strong, independent, but poorly understood risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although this atherogenic lipid abnormality has been widely reported in Australia’s Indigenous peoples, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders, the evidence has not come under systematic review. This review therefore examines published data for Indigenous Australians reporting 1) mean HDL-C levels for both sexes and 2) factors...

  9. Modelling approach to simulate reductions in LDL cholesterol levels after combined intake of statins and phytosterols/-stanols in humans

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    Eussen Simone RBM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects on LDL cholesterol of the combined use of statins and phytosterols/-stanols, in vivo studies and clinical trials are necessary. However, for a better interpretation of the experimental data as well as to possibly predict cholesterol levels given a certain dosing regimen of statins and phytosterols/-stanols a more theoretically based approach is helpful. This study aims to construct a mathematical model to simulate reductions in low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol in persons who combine the use of statins with a high intake of phytosterols/-stanols, e.g. by the use of functional foods. Methods and Results The proposed model includes the cholesterol pool size in the liver and serum levels of very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol. Both an additional and a multiplicative effect of phytosterol/-stanol intake on LDL cholesterol reduction were predicted from the model. The additional effect relates to the decrease of dietary cholesterol uptake reduction, the multiplicative effect relates to the decrease in enterohepatic recycling efficiency, causing increased cholesterol elimination through bile. From the model, it was demonstrated that a daily intake of 2 g phytosterols/-stanols reduces LDL cholesterol level by about 8% to 9% on top of the reduction resulting from statin use. The additional decrease in LDL cholesterol caused by phytosterol/-stanol use at the recommended level of 2 g/d appeared to be similar or even greater than the decrease achieved by doubling the statin dose. Conclusion We proposed a simplified mathematical model to simulate the reduction in LDL cholesterol after separate and combined intake of statins and functional foods acting on intestinal (reabsorption of cholesterol or bile acids in humans. In future work, this model can be extended to include more complex (regulatory mechanisms.

  10. Cholesterol-induced suppression of membrane elastic fluctuations at the atomistic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molugu, Trivikram R; Brown, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C-(2)H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of (13)C-(1)H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy. The distributions of RQC or RDC values give nearly complete profiles of the order parameters as a function of acyl segment position. Measured equilibrium properties of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids including their binary and tertiary mixtures with cholesterol show unequal mixing associated with liquid-ordered domains. The entropic loss upon addition of cholesterol to sphingolipids is less than for glycerophospholipids and may drive the formation of lipid rafts. In addition relaxation time measurements enable one to study the molecular dynamics over a wide time-scale range. For (2)H NMR the experimental spin-lattice (R1Z) relaxation rates follow a theoretical square-law dependence on segmental order parameters (SCD) due to collective slow dynamics over mesoscopic length scales. The functional dependence for the liquid-crystalline lipid membranes is indicative of viscoelastic properties as they emerge from atomistic-level interactions. A striking decrease in square-law slope upon addition of cholesterol denotes stiffening relative to the pure lipid bilayers that is diminished in the case of lanosterol. Measured equilibrium properties and relaxation rates infer opposite influences of cholesterol and detergents on collective dynamics and elasticity at an atomistic scale that potentially affects lipid raft formation in cellular membranes.

  11. Cholesterol-Induced Suppression of Membrane Elastic Fluctuations at the Atomistic Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molugu, Trivikram R.

    2017-01-01

    Applications of solid-state NMR spectroscopy for investigating the influences of lipid-cholesterol interactions on membrane fluctuations are reviewed in this paper. Emphasis is placed on understanding the energy landscapes and fluctuations at an emergent atomistic level. Solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy directly measures residual quadrupolar couplings (RQCs) due to individual C–2H labeled segments of the lipid molecules. Moreover, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) of 13C–1H bonds are obtained in separated local-field NMR spectroscopy. The distributions of RQC or RDC values give nearly complete profiles of the order parameters as a function of acyl segment position. Measured equilibrium properties of glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids including their binary and tertiary mixtures with cholesterol show unequal mixing associated with liquid-ordered domains. The entropic loss upon addition of cholesterol to sphingolipids is less than for glycerophospholipids and may drive the formation of lipid rafts. In addition relaxation time measurements enable one to study the molecular dynamics over a wide time-scale range. For 2H NMR the experimental spin-lattice (R1Z) relaxation rates follow a theoretical square-law dependence on segmental order parameters (SCD) due to collective slow dynamics over mesoscopic length scales. The functional dependence for the liquid-crystalline lipid membranes is indicative of viscoelastic properties as they emerge from atomistic-level interactions. A striking decrease in square-law slope upon addition of cholesterol denotes stiffening relative to the pure lipid bilayers that is diminished in the case of lanosterol. Measured equilibrium properties and relaxation rates infer opposite influences of cholesterol and detergents on collective dynamics and elasticity at an atomistic scale that potentially affects lipid raft formation in cellular membranes. PMID:27154600

  12. Effect of saturated and unsaturated fat on the performance, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Senthilkumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A biological trial was conducted for a period of seven weeks to study the effect of graded levels of tallow (saturated and sunflower oil (un saturated or combination of both on the production performance, carcass characteristics, serum and meat cholesterol level in broilers. Materials and Methods: The experimental feeds were prepared by the addition of tallow (2% and 4% and sunflower oil (2% and 4% either alone or in combination of both (SF oil 1% + tallow 1% and SF oil 2% + tallow 2%. Results: Neither the fat source (sunflower oil or tallow nor their combinations had influenced the growth rate, feed consumption, feed efficiency, livability and carcass characteristics in broilers. However, at 49 days of age, broilers fed with tallow alone had higher (P<0.01 abdominal fat than the rest of the treatment groups. When compared to control and tallow alone fed groups, the broilers fed with sunflower oil alone and mixture of sunflower oil and tallow had significantly (P<0.01 lower total serum and meat cholesterol level. Conclusion: The data suggest that the abdominal fat yield, serum and meat total cholesterol level of commercial broilers are inversely proportional to the level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 159-162

  13. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level and statin use among Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Laura G; Hammill, Bradley G; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Curtis, Lesley H; Jones, W Schuyler

    2016-05-01

    At the time of this study, guidelines recommended a primary goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level less than 100 mg/dL for all patients, an optional goal of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol less than 70 mg/dL for patients with overt cardiovascular disease and statins for patients with diabetes and overt cardiovascular disease and patients 40 years and older with diabetes and at least one risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study examined statin use and achievement of lipid goals among 111,730 Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 65 years and older in 2011. Three-quarters of patients met the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal of less than 100 mg/dL. Patients with cardiovascular disease were more likely to meet the goal than those without, not controlling for other differences. Patients on a statin were more likely to meet the goal. There is considerable opportunity for improvement in cholesterol management in high-risk patients with diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Comparative study of non-high density lipoproteins cholesterol level and lipid profile in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Shaheena; Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Manjunath, Nanjappa C; Firoz, C K; Kamal, Mohammad A; Khan, Mohammad S; Tabrez, Shams

    2014-04-01

    The present study compares the role and significance of non-high density lipoproteins (non-HDL) cholesterol level in pre-diabetic and diabetic patients. This study also compares non-HDL cholesterol level between males and females and with different age groups as well. An observational study was conducted among 3830 randomly selected individuals to envisage the association of non-HDL cholesterol and other lipid parameters with age, gender, and diabetic status. On the basis of health status, the subjects were classified as diabetic, pre-diabetic and normal. Fasting blood samples were collected and analyzed on Roche p-800 modular system. Total cholesterol, high density lipoproteins (HDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and fasting triglycerides were also measured. From the above mentioned parameters, the level of non-HDL cholesterol level was also calculated. Significant association was observed with non-HDL cholesterol level and all other studied lipid parameters (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides) compared with age and gender of the subjects studied. Moreover, the calculated non-HDL level, total cholesterol and triglycerides were found to be significantly co-related with diabetic status of the patients involved in the study. However, HDL and LDL values did not show any significant association with diabetic status of the patients. In this study, we found that age and gender of the studied subjects are associated with non-HDL cholesterol. Moreover, our data clearly indicates the positive association of non-HDL cholesterol level with pre-diabetic and diabetic status of the patients. Based on our study, we recommend estimation of non-HDL level in routine clinical practice to differentiate pre-diabetic and diabetic patients.

  15. Higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with moderate alcohol consumption is not related to altered plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; vanTol, A; Hoogenberg, K; vanGent, T; Scheek, LM; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1997-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) are important factors involved in HDL metabolism. Altered plasma activity levels of these factors could play a role in the increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) choles

  16. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol...... levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial......164S heterozygotes had normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, including HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, and this finding was confirmed in adenovirus-transfected mice. CONCLUSIONS: A164S is the first mutation in APOA1 to be described that predicts an increased risk of IHD, MI and total mortality...

  17. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, van B.; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  18. Effects of maximal doses of atorvastatin versus rosuvastatin on small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximal doses of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin are highly effective in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride levels; however, rosuvastatin has been shown to be significantly more effective than atorvastatin in lowering LDL cholesterol and in increasing high-density lipo...

  19. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM......). We aimed to study the postprandial levels of LDL-C in T2DM patients. Material and methods. After an overnight fast, 74 T2DM patients, mean age approximately 60 years, were served a standard fat-rich meal of 3,515 kJ containing 54 % fat, 13 % protein and 33 % carbohydrates. Only drinking water...... inhibitors; lipoproteins; low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); postprandial period; statins; ultracentrifugation...

  20. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  1. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  2. Low cell cholesterol levels increase NFkappaB activity through a p38 MAPK-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleros, Laura; Lasa, Marina; Toro, María J; Chiloeches, Antonio

    2006-12-01

    Cholesterol, p38 MAPK and NFkappaB have been shown to participate in inflammation and cellular differentiation. Here, we examined the effect of cholesterol on NFkappaB-dependent transcription and the mechanisms underlying this effect in NIH3T3 cells. We show that chronic cholesterol depletion achieved with lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) treatment resulted in a significant increase in NFkappaB-dependent transcription, NFkappaB-DNA binding, IkappaBalpha degradation and p65/NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus, and the addition of exogenous cholesterol reversed these effects. Previously, we have shown that low cell cholesterol levels activate p38 MAPK. Here, we found that inhibition of p38 MAPK with the specific inhibitor SB203580 blocked the increase in NFkappaB activity, IkappaBalpha degradation and p65/NFkappaB translocation to the nucleus induced by cholesterol depletion. Moreover, the inhibition of the p38 MAPK downstream effector MSK1 with the specific inhibitor H89, or the overexpression of a kinase defective MSK1 abrogated the NFkappaB-dependent transcription induced by cholesterol depletion. On the other hand, the transactivation potential of p65/NFkappaB depends on phosphorylation of S276 by MSK1. We observed that cholesterol depletion increased the p65/NFkappaB transactivation capacity. This effect was reversed by cell cholesterol repletion or incubation with the SB203580 inhibitor. Moreover, the expression of a p65/NFkappaB S276A mutant was insensitive to cholesterol depletion. Together, our results demonstrate that cholesterol depletion induces NFkappaB transcriptional activity, not only by affecting the IkappaBalpha degradation and the translocation of p65/NFkappaB to the nucleus, but also regulating the p65/NFkappaB transactivating potential through a p38 MAPK/MSK1 mediated pathway.

  3. Bilirubin Increases Insulin Sensitivity by Regulating Cholesterol Metabolism, Adipokines and PPARγ Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinfeng; Dong, Huansheng; Zhang, Yong; Cao, Mingjun; Song, Lili; Pan, Qingjie; Bulmer, Andrew; Adams, David B; Dong, Xiao; Wang, Hongjun

    2015-05-28

    Obesity can cause insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Moderate elevations in bilirubin levels have anti-diabetic effects. This study is aimed at determining the mechanisms by which bilirubin treatment reduces obesity and insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model. DIO mice were treated with bilirubin or vehicle for 14 days. Body weights, plasma glucose, and insulin tolerance tests were performed prior to, immediately, and 7 weeks post-treatment. Serum lipid, leptin, adiponectin, insulin, total and direct bilirubin levels were measured. Expression of factors involved in adipose metabolism including sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1), insulin receptor (IR), and PPARγ in liver were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared to controls, bilirubin-treated mice exhibited reductions in body weight, blood glucose levels, total cholesterol (TC), leptin, total and direct bilirubin, and increases in adiponectin and expression of SREBP-1, IR, and PPARγ mRNA. The improved metabolic control achieved by bilirubin-treated mice was persistent: at two months after treatment termination, bilirubin-treated DIO mice remained insulin sensitive with lower leptin and higher adiponectin levels, together with increased PPARγ expression. These results indicate that bilirubin regulates cholesterol metabolism, adipokines and PPARγ levels, which likely contribute to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in DIO mice.

  4. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblasts after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2013-02-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. mFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration.

  5. No significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations in the progeny of bystander primary human fibroblast after alpha particle irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Burong; Zhu, Jiayun; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    A major concern for bystander effects is the probability that normal healthy cells adjacent to the irradiated cells become genomically unstable and undergo further carcinogenesis after therapeutic irradiation or space mission where astronauts are exposed to low dose of heavy ions. Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells. In the present study, two irradiation protocols were performed in order to ensure pure populations of bystander cells and the genomic instability in their progeny were investigated. After irradiation, chromosomal aberrations of cells were analyzed at designated time points using G2 phase premature chromosome condensation (G2-PCC) coupled with Giemsa staining and with multiplex fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH). Our Giemsa staining assay demonstrated that elevated yields of chromatid breaks were induced in the progeny of pure bystander primary fibroblasts up to 20 days after irradiation. MFISH assay showed no significant level of inheritable interchromosomal aberrations were induced in the progeny of the bystander cell groups, while the fractions of gross aberrations (chromatid breaks or chromosomal breaks) significantly increased in some bystander cell groups. These results suggest that genomic instability occurred in the progeny of the irradiation associated bystander normal fibroblasts exclude the inheritable interchromosomal aberration. PMID:23503090

  6. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, pcholesterol synthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impaired HDL2-mediated cholesterol efflux is associated with metabolic syndrome in families with early onset coronary heart disease and low HDL-cholesterol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paavola, Timo; Kuusisto, Sanna; Jauhiainen, Matti; Kakko, Sakari; Kangas-Kontio, Tiia; Metso, Jari; Soininen, Pasi; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Bloigu, Risto; Hannuksela, Minna L.; Savolainen, Markku J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The potential of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to facilitate cholesterol removal from arterial foam cells is a key function of HDL. We studied whether cholesterol efflux to serum and HDL subfractions is impaired in subjects with early coronary heart disease (CHD) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) in families where a low HDL-cholesterol level (HDL-C) predisposes to early CHD. Methods HDL subfractions were isolated from plasma by sequential ultracentrifugation. THP-1 macrophages loaded with acetyl-LDL were used in the assay of cholesterol efflux to total HDL, HDL2, HDL3 or serum. Results While cholesterol efflux to serum, total HDL and HDL3 was unchanged, the efflux to HDL2 was 14% lower in subjects with MetS than in subjects without MetS (pHDL2 was associated with components of MetS such as plasma HDL-C (r = 0.76 in men and r = 0.56 in women, pHDL2 was reduced in men with early CHD (pHDL-C. The phospholipid content of HDL2 particles was a major correlate with the efflux to HDL2 (r = 0.70, pHDL2 to total HDL was associated with MetS (pHDL2 is a functional feature of the low HDL-C state and MetS in families where these risk factors predispose to early CHD. The efflux to HDL2 related to the phospholipid content of HDL2 particles but the phospholipid content did not account for the impaired efflux in cardiometabolic disease, where a combination of low level and poor quality of HDL2 was observed. PMID:28207870

  8. Insulin-induced glucose control improves HDL cholesterol levels but not reverse cholesterol transport in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadini, Gian Paolo; Iori, Elisabetta; Marescotti, Maria Cristina; Vigili de Kreutzenberg, Saula; Avogaro, Angelo

    2014-08-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) and HDL dysfunction. We herein tested whether lowering HbA1c affects HDL-C and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). Forty-two uncontrolled T2D patients initiating basal insulin were included. HbA1c, HDL-C and RCT were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. At baseline, HDL-C and RCT were directly correlated (r = 0.50; p HDL-C and RCT did not change. Follow-up HDL-C and RCT were still correlated (r = 0.31; p = 0.033) and ΔHDL-C correlated with ΔRCT (r = 0.32; p = 0.029). ΔHbA1c correlated with ΔHDL-C (r = 0.43, p = 0.001), but not with ΔRCT. In patients with ΔHbA1c above the median value (1.3%), HDL-C (but not RCT) increased significantly. In conclusion, glucose control correlates with increased HDL-C, but not with improved RCT. Thus, persistent HDL dysfunction despite improved HbA1c and HDL-C can contribute to residual cardiovascular risk in T2D. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasma hormones, metabolites, milk production, and cholesterol levels in Murrah buffaloes fed with Asparagus racemosus in transition and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Mehla, Ram Kumar; Singh, Mahendra

    2012-12-01

    Ten dry and pregnant Murrah buffaloes were selected to investigate the effect of Asparagus racemosus feeding on hormones, metabolites, milk yield, and plasma cholesterol levels. The treatment groups of buffaloes were fed with A. racemosus (shatavari) @ 150 g/day/animal during prepartum and @ 300 g/day/animal during the postpartum period. Blood samples collected on -6, -4, -2-week, day of parturition (0), and +2, +4, and +6-week postpartum were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), prolactin, cortisol, and blood metabolites. Milk samples collected at weekly intervals (+1, +3, +5, and 7 weeks) were analyzed for total milk fat cholesterol. Prepartum plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in treatment group over the control (P < 0.05). Mean plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels varied nonsignificantly between groups. Plasma prolactin and cortisol concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) more in treatment group than in control group. On day of parturition, plasma prolactin, cortisol, LDL, and plasma total cholesterol were higher (P < 0.01) in treatment group buffaloes in comparison to control group. A. racemosus feeding significantly (P < 0.01) increased plasma prolactin, cortisol (P < 0.01), and milk fat cholesterol (P < 0.05) without affecting total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose, and NEFA concentrations. The buffaloes of treatment group produced more milk (@ 0.526 kg/animal/day) suggesting thereby that A. racemosus is galactopoietic. It was concluded that feeding of A. racemosus increases plasma prolactin and cortisol and decreased plasma total cholesterol and LDL concentration.

  10. Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

  11. Genetically elevated apolipoprotein A-I, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundegaard, Christiane; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD).......Epidemiologically, levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and its major protein constituent, apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), are inversely related to risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD)....

  12. IL-1 regulates the Cyp7a1 gene and serum total cholesterol level at steady state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2009-02-06

    We examined the role of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1alpha/beta in serum total cholesterol homeostasis using male and female IL-1-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Serum total cholesterol level was higher in males than in females in WT and KO mice. The difference between sexes was closely correlated with the difference in gene expression level of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. No significant sex difference in gene expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was observed in WT mice. Interestingly, the gene expression level of hepatic Cyp7a1 was lower in KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice, while the serum total cholesterol level was the opposite. The present findings demonstrate that IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are positive regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene in steady-state mice and that Cyp7a1 is one of the factors that mediate the difference in serum total cholesterol level between sexes.

  13. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  14. Safety profile of subjects treated to very low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (JUPITER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Brendan M; Mora, Samia; Glynn, Robert J; MacFadyen, Jean; Ridker, Paul M

    2014-12-01

    Recent US guidelines expand the indications for high-intensity statin therapy, yet data on the safety of attaining very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are scarce. Among 16,304 participants in the Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER) with on-treatment LDL-C levels, we identified 767 who did and 7,387 who did not achieve LDL-C JUPITER, achieving LDL-C levels <30 mg/dl with high-intensity statin therapy appeared to be generally well tolerated but associated with certain adverse events, including more physician-reported diabetes, hematuria, hepatobiliary disorders, and insomnia. These data may guide the monitoring of patients on intensive statin therapy and adverse events in trials of therapies that lead to very low LDL-C levels.

  15. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: We have previously shown that rare mutations in the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) may result in not only severe hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease but also hypocholesterolemia. Despite this, common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APOB have not convincingly been...... on cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels. However, as predicted from the magnitude of the observed LDL cholesterol effects, none of these SNPs predicted risk of ischemic heart disease prospectively in the general population, in a case-control study, or as haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple common and rare...... demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN...

  16. Lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, KY, USA Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is characterized by hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and/or progressive loss of β-cell function. T2DM patients are at increased risk of micro- and macrovascular disease, and are often considered as representing an atherosclerotic coronary heart disease (CHD risk equivalent. Interventions directed at glucose and lipid level control in T2DM patients may reduce micro- and macrovascular disease. The optimal T2DM agent is one that lowers glucose levels with limited risk for hypoglycemia, and with no clinical trial evidence of worsening CHD risk. Lipid-altering drugs should preferably reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apo B and have evidence that the mechanism of action reduces CHD risk. Statins reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apo B and have evidence of improving CHD outcomes, and are thus first-line therapy for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia. In patients who do not achieve optimal lipid levels with statin therapy, or who are intolerant to statin therapy, add-on therapy or alternative therapies may be indicated. Additional available agents to treat hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM include bile acid sequestrants, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe. This review discusses the use of these alternative agents to treat hypercholesterolemia in patients with T2DM, either as monotherapy or in combination with statin therapy. Keywords: dyslipidemia, statin, colesevelam

  17. Original Research: The Effects of Red Yeast Rice Supplementation on Cholesterol Levels in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Diane; Fong, Amy; Pelt, Amanda van

    2017-08-01

    : Purpose: Red yeast rice (RYR) supplementation has become a popular alternative to statin therapy in treating hypercholesterolemia. This state-of-the-science review seeks to explore the most recent evidence on the effectiveness and safety of RYR supplementation in treating dyslipidemic adults. This review extends the time frame of a meta-analysis performed by Li and colleagues in 2014; specifically, we looked at the literature published between September 2013 and April 2016. We conducted a search of four electronic databases-PsycINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, and Scopus-using the terms red yeast rice and cholesterol. We excluded studies that included berberine or lovastatin. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Eleven articles reported on randomized controlled trials, one reported on an open-label pilot study, and one reported on an open-label clinical trial. Two articles were meta-analyses. The 13 studies involved a total of 1,246 participants, with an additional 7,467 participants reported in the two meta-analyses. Significant reductions in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol levels with RYR supplementation were observed in all trials. There were no significant changes in liver and kidney function, and 10 studies noted no significant changes in creatine kinase levels. Although RYR appears to be a safe and effective lipid-lowering agent, there is insufficient evidence to support the recommendation of RYR supplementation to patients. Further research is needed, including long-term studies, studies that include participants with comorbidities and complex medical histories, and studies that take into account the variability of formulation and dosage of RYR in the marketplace.

  18. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  19. The use of a food supplement is associated with changes in total cholesterol levels in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigues Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High levels of total cholesterol are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. An oral formulation comprised of two types of capsules was tested in adult women (n = 14 with total cholesterol values >200 mg/dL. In the first capsule were red yeast rice extract, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, pteroylglutamic acid and cyanocobalamin, and in the second, a mixture of fish oils containing docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. After four weeks of supplementation, a significant (p =0.001 decrease was observed in the mean values of total cholesterol.

  20. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels: Part 1: How accurate is the Reflotron?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, H L; Elford, R W; Shumak, S

    1991-11-01

    To assess accuracy of blood cholesterol measurements in the office, fingerprick blood cholesterol assays by a dry reagent chemistry analyzer were compared in 151 patients with simultaneous venipuncture cholesterol assays by standard laboratory methods. Compared with the laboratory assay, seven of eight analyzers had total absolute biases less than 5%. Variability in results was comparable to that of community laboratories.

  1. Detecting Elevated Cholesterol Levels: Part 1: How accurate is the Reflotron?

    OpenAIRE

    Reimer, H.L.; Elford, R.W.; Shumak, S.

    1991-01-01

    To assess accuracy of blood cholesterol measurements in the office, fingerprick blood cholesterol assays by a dry reagent chemistry analyzer were compared in 151 patients with simultaneous venipuncture cholesterol assays by standard laboratory methods. Compared with the laboratory assay, seven of eight analyzers had total absolute biases less than 5%. Variability in results was comparable to that of community laboratories.

  2. Relationships between birth weight and serum cholesterol levels in healthy Japanese late adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Sanae; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Ishida, Hiromi; Uemura, Yukari; Kodama, Momoko; Fukuoka, Hideoki

    2014-01-01

    Poor growth in utero has been suggested to be associated with adverse levels of serum cholesterol concentrations in later life. In Asia, there have only been a limited number of studies examining the relationship between fetal status and serum lipids, especially in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the relationships between birth weight and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels; adjusting for current physical status including percent body fat, physical activity and nutrient intake in healthy Japanese late adolescents. The data of 573 late adolescents with an average age of 17.6 (287 boys and 286 girls) who underwent physical examinations which included blood sampling and who had all the required data, were analyzed. Birth weight was obtained from their maternal and child health handbook. Multiple regression analysis showed that birth weight was positively associated with serum HDL in girls, independently of percent body fat or fat intake, when adjusted for current body height and weight. There were no associations between birth weight and serum HDL in boys, or serum LDL in either sex.

  3. Rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucoside fraction decreases elevated blood LDL cholesterol level in obese Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Matsuoka, Sayuri

    2015-01-01

    People who frequently consume whole grains show a lower incidence of arteriosclerotic disease than people who consume primarily refined grains. We examined whether or not rice bran extract containing the acylated steryl glucosides (ASG) fraction decreases blood LDL cholesterol levels in obese Japanese men with high blood levels of LDL cholesterol. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind design. A total of 51 subjects were randomly allocated to either a rice bran extract containing ASG fraction (RB-ASG) group or a placebo group. Subjects in the RB-ASG group received 30-50 mg/day of RB-ASG, and the placebo group took 9 capsules/day for 12 weeks. Before and after intake, height, weight, body fat percentage, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured, blood was collected, and visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, and abdominal circumference were determined based on umbilical computed tomography. Percentage decreases in blood LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, LDL/HDL ratio, abdominal circumference and subcutaneous fat area were significantly better in the RB-ASG group than in the placebo group. These findings suggest that RB-ASG fraction may reduce blood LDL cholesterol levels and the risk of arteriosclerosis in obese Japanese men with high LDL cholesterol levels.

  4. Cardiovascular disease markers responses in male receiving improved-fat meat-products vary by initial LDL-cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma Celada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is prevalent in people at high meat-product consumption. To study the effect of consuming different Pâté and Frankfurter formulations on clinical/emergent CVD biomarkers in male volunteers with different initial LDL-cholesterol levels (< and ³ 3.36 mmol/L. Method: Eighteen male volunteers with at least two CVD risk factors were enrolled in a crossover controlled study. Pork-products were consumed during 4wk: reduced-fat (RF, omega-3-enriched-RF (n-3RF, and normal-fat (NF. Pork-products were separated by 4wk washout. Lipids, lipoproteins, oxidized LDL (oxLDL, apolipoproteins (apo and their ratios, homocysteine (tHcys, arylesterase (AE, C-reactive protein (CRP, tumor necrotic factor (TNFa were tested. Results: The rate of change for AE, oxLDL, Lp(a, AE/HDL-cholesterol, LDL/apo B and AE/oxLDL ratios varied (p<0.05 among periods only in volunteers with LDLcholesterol ³3.36 mmol/L. TNFa decreased (p<0.05 among volunteers with low-normal LDL-cholesterol values while AE increased (p<0.01 in high LDL-cholesterol volunteers during the RF-period. AE increased while CRP decreased (both p<0.01 in low-normal LDL-cholesterol volunteers while AE (p<0.001 and apo B (p<0.01 increased in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the n-3RF-period. Total cholesterol (p<0.05 increased in the low/normal LDL-cholesterol group while tHcys decreased (p<0.05 in the high LDL-cholesterol group during the NF-period. Differences in response in volunteers with low-normal vs. high initial LDL-cholesterol levels to the n-3RF but not to the RF meat-products seem evident. Conclusions: Subjects with high LDL-cholesterol seem target for n-3RF products while subjects with LDL-cholesterol <3.36 mmol/L were more negatively affected by NF-products. Any generalization about functional meat product or consumption should be avoided.

  5. Dietary cholesterol does not normalize low plasma cholesterol levels but induces hyperbilirubinemia and hypercholanemia in Mdr2 P-glycoprotein-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshol, PJ; Koopen, NR; de Vree, JML; Havinga, R; Princen, HMG; Elferink, RPJO; Groen, AK; Kuipers, F

    Background/Aims: Mdr2 P-glycoprotein deficiency in mice (Mdr2((-/-))) leads to formation of cholesterol/cholesterol-depleted bile and reduced plasma HDL cholesterol. We addressed the questions: (1) does HDL in Mdr2((-/-)) mice normalize upon phospholipid and/or cholesterol feeding, and (2): is the

  6. Quantitative comparison of the efficacy of various compounds in lowering intracellular cholesterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C fibroblasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary T Wehrmann

    Full Text Available Niemann-Pick Type C disease (NPC is a lethal, autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the NPC1 and NPC2 cholesterol transport proteins. NPC's hallmark symptoms include an accumulation of unesterified cholesterol and other lipids in the late endosomal and lysosomal cellular compartments, causing progressive neurodegeneration and death. Although the age of onset may vary in those affected, NPC most often manifests in juveniles, and is usually fatal before adolescence. In this study, we investigated the effects of various drugs, many of which modify the epigenetic control of NPC1/NPC2 gene expression, in lowering the otherwise harmful elevated intracellular cholesterol levels in NPC cells. Our studies utilized a previously described image analysis technique, which allowed us to make quantitative comparisons of the efficacy of these drugs in lowering cholesterol levels in a common NPC1 mutant model. Of the drugs analyzed, several that have been previously studied (vorinostat, panobinostat, and β-cyclodextrin significantly lowered the relative amount of unesterified cellular cholesterol, consistent with earlier observations. In addition, a novel potential treatment, rapamycin, likewise alleviated the NPC phenotype. We also studied combinations of effective compounds with β-cyclodextrin; the addition of β-cyclodextrin significantly enhanced the cholesterol-lowering activity of vorinostat and panobinostat, but had mixed effects with rapamycin. Collectively, these results may provide a basis for the eventual development of improved NPC therapies.

  7. Lower levels of total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol are associated with albuminuria in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulum, T; Kolaric, B; Duvnjak, L

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested a positive association between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease, but sparse data are available on the relation of lipids and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in normoalbuminuric patients with normal renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of serum lipids, including total, LDL, HDL, HDL2, HDL3 cholesterol, and triglyceride levels with UAE in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. Study included 313 normoalbuminuric T1D patients with normal renal function and before any interventions with statins, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. Subjects were classified as low-normoalbuminuric (UAEHDL (p=0.02) and HDL3 cholesterol (p=0.01) levels were higher in low-normoalbuminuric subjects compared to high-normoalbuminuric subjects. In logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, duration of diabetes and HbA1c, lower total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels were significantly associated with risk of higher UAE in our normoalbuminuric subjects (p≤0.01), with odds ratios of 0.34 to 0.43. Elevated total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels are associated with lower UAE in normoalbuminuric T1D patients. However, whether the detection of elevated total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels in T1D patients has protective value for development of microalbuminuria needs to be assessed in further follow-up studies.

  8. The impact of physical activity on the level of chromosome aberrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šošić Gordana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the lifetime, people are constantly exposed to the chemicals and agents of exogenic and endogenic sources, which through reaction with a molecule of DNA can cause the damage of genomes and their instability. The formation of micronuclei is a consequence of chromosomal aberrations caused by the influence of different genetic and environmental factors. Micronuclei are cytoplasmic chromatin masses that look like small nuclei and can originate from whole or parts of chromosomes. Micronucleus test ( MN test is used to detect genotoxic effects of various chemical , physical or biological mutagens, as well as the test for determination of chromosomal instability in a variety of cell types. Micronucleus frequency is directly proportional to the degree of chromosomal aberrations. It has been shown that genome damage may occur as a result of environmental exposure to genotoxins and medical procedures, due to deficiency of micronutrients and under the influence of various lifestyles and genetic factors. Unbalanced diet, lack of physical exercise, lack of sleep and overwork contribute significantly to increased frequency of micronuclei. It was also shown that strenuous exercise causes DNA damage, which results in the formation of micronuclei. As a professional athlete conduct highly Intensive physical training, these populations are at risk for the development of genomic instability and carcinogenesis. A healthy lifestyle, the optimal intake of antioxidants and regular moderate physical activity significantly reduced the frequency of micronuclei, and contribute to the stability of the genome.

  9. Effects of lifestyle interventions on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussell, Michael A; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2007-03-01

    This review summarizes intervention studies that evaluated the effects of lifestyle behaviors on high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Current diet and lifestyle recommendations beneficially affect HDL-C. Individual lifestyle interventions that increase HDL-C include: a healthful diet that is low (7-10% of calories) in saturated fat and sufficient in unsaturated fat (15-20% of calories), regular physical activity, attaining a healthy weight, with moderate alcohol consumption, and cessation of cigarette smoking. Combining a healthy diet with weight loss and physical activity can increase HDL-C 10% to 13%. When combined with interventions that beneficially affect other cardiovascular disease risk factors, this increase in HDL-C is expected to contribute to a overall reduction in cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Hemorrhagic stroke in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, L.B.; Amarenco, P.; Szarek, M.;

    2008-01-01

    risk was higher in those having a hemorrhagic stroke as the entry event (HR 5.65, 95% CI 2.82 to 11.30, p age (10 y increments, HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.74, p = 0.001). There were no statistical interactions between these factors......: Hemorrhagic stroke was more frequent in those treated with atorvastatin, in those with a hemorrhagic stroke as an entry event, in men, and increased with age. Those with Stage 2 hypertension at the last visit prior to the hemorrhagic stroke were also at increased risk. Treatment did not disproportionately......BACKGROUND: In the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) study, atorvastatin 80 mg/day reduced the risk of stroke in patients with recent stroke or TIA. Post hoc analysis found this overall benefit included an increase in the numbers of treated patients having...

  11. Dietary sphingomyelin lowers hepatic lipid levels and inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption in high-fat-fed mice.

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    Rosanna W S Chung

    Full Text Available Controlling intestinal lipid absorption is an important strategy for maintaining lipid homeostasis. Accumulation of lipids in the liver is a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. It is well-known that sphingomyelin (SM can inhibit intestinal cholesterol absorption. It is, however, unclear if dietary SM also lowers liver lipid levels. In the present study (i the effect of pure dietary egg SM on hepatic lipid metabolism and intestinal cholesterol absorption was measured with [(14C]cholesterol and [(3H]sitostanol in male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat (HF diet with or without 0.6% wt/wt SM for 18 days; and (ii hepatic lipid levels and gene expression were determined in mice given a HF diet with or without egg SM (0.3, 0.6 or 1.2% wt/wt for 4 weeks. Mice supplemented with SM (0.6% wt/wt had significantly increased fecal lipid and cholesterol output and reduced hepatic [(14C]cholesterol levels after 18 days. Relative to HF-fed mice, SM-supplemented HF-fed mice had significantly lower intestinal cholesterol absorption (-30%. Liver weight was significantly lower in the 1.2% wt/wt SM-supplemented mice (-18%. Total liver lipid (mg/organ was significantly reduced in the SM-supplemented mice (-33% and -40% in 0.6% wt/wt and 1.2% wt/wt SM, respectively, as were triglyceride and cholesterol levels. The reduction in liver triglycerides was due to inactivation of the LXR-SREBP-1c pathway. In conclusion, dietary egg SM has pronounced hepatic lipid-lowering properties in mice maintained on an obesogenic diet.

  12. Cholesterol pathways affected by small molecules that decrease sterol levels in Niemann-Pick type C mutant cells.

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    Madalina Rujoi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease is a genetically inherited multi-lipid storage disorder with impaired efflux of cholesterol from lysosomal storage organelles. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The effect of screen-selected cholesterol lowering compounds on the major sterol pathways was studied in CT60 mutant CHO cells lacking NPC1 protein. Each of the selected chemicals decreases cholesterol in the lysosomal storage organelles of NPC1 mutant cells through one or more of the following mechanisms: increased cholesterol efflux from the cell, decreased uptake of low-density lipoproteins, and/or increased levels of cholesteryl esters. Several chemicals promote efflux of cholesterol to extracellular acceptors in both non-NPC and NPC1 mutant cells. The uptake of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol is inhibited by some of the studied compounds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results herein provide the information for prioritized further studies in identifying molecular targets of the chemicals. This approach proved successful in the identification of seven chemicals as novel inhibitors of lysosomal acid lipase (Rosenbaum et al, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 2009, 1791:1155-1165.

  13. Correlation between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL) Level and Aerobic Activity Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    over a 40 day period for HDtJICholesteroll and Total Choleis- added with the "reverse" technique, This technique is only poai- tarot . The results are...Stand- tarot and Total Cholestero levels, it is beat that eet laoatr ard and a control Serum were each analyzed 10 times giving the * determinle its

  14. GRP94 Regulates Circulating Cholesterol Levels through Blockade of PCSK9-Induced LDLR Degradation

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    Steve Poirier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Clearance of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc by hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR is central for vascular health. Secreted by hepatocytes, PCSK9 induces the degradation of LDLR, resulting in higher plasma LDLc levels. Still, it remains unknown why LDLR and PCSK9 co-exist within the secretory pathway of hepatocytes without leading to complete degradation of LDLR. Herein, we identified the ER-resident GRP94, and more precisely its client-binding C-terminal domain, as a PCSK9-LDLR inhibitory binding protein. Depletion of GRP94 did not affect calcium homeostasis, induce ER stress, nor did it alter PCSK9 processing or its secretion but greatly increased its capacity to induce LDLR degradation. Accordingly, we found that hepatocyte-specific Grp94-deficient mice have higher plasma LDLc levels correlated with ∼80% reduction in hepatic LDLR protein levels. Thus, we provide evidence that, in physiological conditions, binding of PCSK9 to GRP94 protects LDLR from degradation likely by preventing early binding of PCSK9 to LDLR within the ER.

  15. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

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    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  16. Relationship between serum cholesterol levels and meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-induced cortisol responses in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, T; Nakamura, J; Yoshimura, R; Ohmori, O; Takahashi, N; Kojima, H; Soeda, S; Shinkai, T; Nakano, H; Okuno, T

    2000-10-30

    We investigated the effect of cholesterol on serotonergic receptor function in 20 healthy male and 10 healthy female subjects using cortisol responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) neuroendocrine challenge tests. M-CPP, a metabolite of the antidepressant trazodone, has been widely used in psychopharmacology research as a probe of serotonin function. In the human brain, m-CPP binds both to various serotonergic receptors, mainly 5-HT(2C), and to alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. After an overnight fast, the subjects received m-CPP (0.5 mg/kg) or identical placebo capsules orally in a randomized, double blind, crossover design. Blood was obtained for measurement of cholesterol and cortisol. In some analyses, especially in males, there were significant positive correlations between serum cholesterol levels and cortisol responses. These findings suggest the possibility that serum cholesterol levels may be positively associated with serotonergic receptor function. The existence of such an association may provide an explanation for reported increases in depression, suicide and violence in individuals with low or lowered cholesterol.

  17. Normal cholesterol levels with lovastatin (Mevinolin) therapy in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia following liver transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, C.; Grundy, S.M.; Bilheimer, D.W.

    1986-11-28

    Patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia produce no normal low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, and as a result, LDL accumulates in plasma, causing severe premature atherosclerosis. Two years ago, liver transplantation was performed in a child with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, restoring LDL receptor activity to about 60% of normal and reducing the LDL cholesterol level by 81%. However, the patient's lipoprotein levels remained significantly elevated for her age and sex. Treatment with lovastatin (mevinolin) one year after transplantation produced a marked improvement in the patient's lipoprotein profile. The total and LDL cholesterol levels fell 40% and 49%, respectively, to values within the normal range. The level of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fell 41%, and the level of total triglycerides declined 28%. While lovastatin therapy decreased the production rate of LDL by 35%, it did not affect the LDL fractional clearance rate. Thus, the combination of liver transplantation and lovastatin restored total and LDL cholesterol levels to normal in this patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.

  18. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Velayudhan, Latha; Newhouse, Stephen; Fogh, Isabella; Tsolaki, Magda; Daniilidou, Makrina; Pritchard, Megan; Kloszewska, Iwona; Soininen, Hilkka; Mecocci, Patrizia; Vellas, Bruno; Williams, Julie; Stewart, Robert; Sham, Pak; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John F

    2014-09-01

    Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD) through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD) and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD. We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578). We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs) for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol) using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013). Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at ptriglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol). Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels is not associated with elevated LOAD risk. The observed epidemiological associations between abnormal lipid levels and LOAD risk could therefore be attributed to the result of biological pleiotropy or could be secondary to LOAD. Limitations of this study include the small proportion of lipid variance explained by the GRS, biases in case-control ascertainment, and the limitations implicit to Mendelian randomization studies. Future studies should focus on larger LOAD datasets with longitudinal sampled peripheral lipid measures and other markers of

  19. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  20. Aberrant levels of natural IgM antibodies in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis patients in comparison to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tue G; McKelvey, Kelly J; March, Lyn M; Hunter, David J; Xue, Meilang; Jackson, Christopher J; Morris, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    Natural IgM antibodies (nIgM) are polyreactive autoantibodies that have diverse roles in regulating autoimmunity, systemic inflammation and removal of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL). We hypothesized that aberrant states of nIgM may exist in persons with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, we characterized and compared the levels of nIgM specific for phosphorylcholine (anti-PC), double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), and galactosyl (anti-Gal) in persons with OA, RA and healthy controls (HC). Levels of anti-PC nIgM in OA patients were significantly lower than both HC and RA patients in an age-adjusted analysis (P<0.05). In contrast, anti-Gal nIgM levels were significantly higher in RA patients than OA patients (P<0.05) and markedly increased in comparison to HC. Anti-PC nIgM significantly correlated with anti-dsDNA and anti-Gal nIgM levels in HC and RA (P<0.05) but not in OA patients. Elevated CRP levels were associated with RA conditions and old ages in general. There was no significant correlation between anti-PC nIgM and CRP or oxLDL levels. Our study highlights for the first time the evidence of aberrant state of nIgM in human OA compared to healthy individuals that implicates a deficiency in immune responses to oxLDL which may contribute to the metabolic syndromes in the development of OA.

  1. The impact of wheelchair basketball on hdl-cholesterol levels in women with spinal cord injury

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    Vera Maria da Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to Assess the impact of wheelchair basketball (WB on the lipid profile of female paraplegic patients. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and total cholesterol (TC serum levels from two groups were assessed. Both groups were enrolled in a rehabilitation program (RP. One group comprised patients who played WB (P group, (n=4 and another group was made up of patients who did not play (NP, (n=8. All patients enrolled had spinal cord injuries (SCI. Two blood samples were performed for each group. The mean interval between these samples was 11 months in the P group and 8 months to the NP group. The mean weekly duration of activity in P group was 130 minutes. Student’s t test and linear regression methods were used for statistical analysis. A p-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C baseline values exhibited no significant differences between the P and NP groups (p>0.05. In the second sample, after taking part in WB, comparing the two measurements, the mean HDL-C level in group P had increased significantly (p≤0.01, by 27.42%. It was conclude that weekly WB activity was effective for improving the lipid profile test results in paraplegic patients and may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. This improvement could have been mediated by the adoption of a higher level of daily physical activity by those exercising. Resumo O propósito do presente estudo foi objetivo avaliar o impacto da prática de basquetebol em cadeira de rodas sobre o perfil lipídico de pacientes paraplégicos do sexo feminino. Foram avaliados os níveis séricos da HDL-C, da LDL-C e do colesterol total (CT de dois grupos atendidos num programa de reabilitação. Um grupo foi formado por pacientes praticantes de basquetebol em CR (grupo PR, (n=4 e o outro por suas congêneres paraplégicas não praticantes (NPR, (n=8. Todas as pacientes foram

  2. Low level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increases hemorrhagic transformation in large artery atherothrombosis but not in cardioembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom Joon; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Ryu, Wi-Sun; Kang, Bong Su; Kim, Chi Kyung; Yoon, Byung-Woo

    2009-05-01

    Low cholesterol level is known to be associated with increased cerebral hemorrhage. However, the associations of hemorrhagic transformation (HTf) after acute ischemic stroke and the low levels of total cholesterol (TC) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) are largely undiscovered. Of the 1034 patients with acute ischemic stroke who were consecutively admitted to our hospital, 377 patients with stroke attributable to large artery atherothrombosis (LAA; n=210) or cardioembolism (n=167) were selected for this study. Demographic and clinical information was collected and HTf was evaluated through follow-up T2*-weighted gradient-echo MRI performed usually within 1 week after stroke. Measurement of lipid parameters included TC, LDLC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride. Of the 377 patients, HTf was noted in 74 patients (19.6%). When patients were divided into 4 groups according to their TC and LDLC levels, the incidence of HTf was significantly elevated in the lowest quartile of each TC (PHTf in LAA, but not in cardioembolism. There was no significant association between low levels of TC (OR, 0.63 per 1 mmol/L-increase; 95% CI, 0.35-1.15) and HTf in LAA. Low levels of LDLC, and possibly TC, are associated with greater risk of hemorrhagic transformation after acute ischemic stroke attributable to LAA.

  3. Strength of family history in predicting levels of blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, G; Paccaud, F; Vollenweider, P; Waeber, G; Mooser, V; Bochud, M

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is available on the quantitative relationship between family history and the corresponding underlying traits. We analyzed these associations for blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol levels. Data were obtained from 6,102 Caucasian participants (2,903 men and 3,199 women) aged 35-75 years using a population-based cross-sectional survey in Switzerland. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured, and the corresponding family history was self-reported using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of a positive family history (in first-degree relatives) was 39.6% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes, and 29.0% for hypercholesterolemia. Family history was not known for at least one family member in 41.8% of participants for hypertension, 14.4% for diabetes, and 50.2% for hypercholesterolemia. A positive family history was strongly associated with higher levels of the corresponding trait, but not with the other traits. Participants who reported not to know their family history of hypertension had a higher systolic blood pressure than participants with a negative history. Sibling histories had higher positive predictive values than parental histories. The ability to discriminate, calibrate, and reclassify was best for the family history of hypertension. Family history of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia was strongly associated with the corresponding dichotomized and continuous phenotypes. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Cardioprotective Effects of Tualang Honey: Amelioration of Cholesterol and Cardiac Enzymes Levels

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    Md. Ibrahim Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effects of Malaysian Tualang honey against isoproterenol- (ISO- induced myocardial infarction (MI in rats by investigating changes in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, cardiac troponin I (cTnI, triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipid peroxidation (LPO products, and antioxidant defense system combined with histopathological examination. Male albino Wistar rats (n = 40 were pretreated orally with Tualang honey (3 g/kg/day for 45 days. Subcutaneous injection of ISO (85 mg/kg in saline for two consecutive days caused a significant increase in serum cardiac marker enzymes (creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and aspartate transaminase (AST, cTnI, serum TC, and TG levels. In addition, ISO-induced myocardial injury was confirmed by a significant increase in heart lipid peroxidation (LPO products (TBARS and a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, GRx, and GST. Pretreatment of ischemic rats with Tualang honey conferred significant protective effects on all of the investigated biochemical parameters. The biochemical findings were further confirmed by histopathological examination in both Tualang-honey-pretreated and ISO-treated hearts. The present study demonstrates that Tualang honey confers cardioprotective effects on ISO-induced oxidative stress by contributing to endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity via inhibition of lipid peroxidation.

  5. Lowering plasma cholesterol levels halts progression of aortic valve disease in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Serrano, Kristine M.; Brooks, Robert M.; Berry, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, Kathy; Young, Stephen G.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of hyperlipidemia produces functional and structural improvements in atherosclerotic vessels. However, the effects of treating hyperlipidemia on the structure and function of the aortic valve has been controversial, and any effects could be confounded by pleiotropic effects of hypolipidemic treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether reducing elevated plasma lipid levels with a “genetic switch” in Reversa mice (Ldlr−/−/Apob100/100/Mttpfl/fl/Mx1Cre+/+) reduces oxidative stress, reduces proosteogenic signaling, and retards the progression of aortic valve disease. Methods and Results After 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, Reversa mice exhibited increases in superoxide, lipid deposition, myofibroblast activation, calcium deposition, and pro-osteogenic protein expression in the aortic valve. Maximum aortic valve cusp separation, as judged by echocardiography, was not altered. During an additional 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, superoxide levels, valvular lipid deposition, and myofibroblast activation remained elevated. Furthermore, calcium deposition and pro-osteogenic gene expression became more pronounced and the aortic cusp separation decreased from 0.85 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.04 mm (mean ± SE; p < 0.05). Rapid normalization of cholesterol levels at 6 months of age (by inducing expression of Cre recombinase) normalized aortic valve superoxide levels, decreased myofibroblast activation, reduced valvular calcium burden, suppressed pro-osteogenic signaling cascades, and prevented the reductions in aortic valve cusp separation. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that reducing plasma lipid levels by genetic inactivation of the mttp gene in hypercholesterolemic mice with early aortic valve disease normalizes oxidative stress, reduces pro-osteogenic signaling, and halts the progression of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:19433756

  6. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

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    Adriana Jaramillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in Colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. Methods: In this study 192 (28.4% advanced and 256 (37.8% moderate periodontitis patients were  investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8% controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: Advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher HDL and TG levels were present in periodontitis. BMI <30 and smoking were associated with increased HDL, HDL-35, LDL and TG, while glycemia >100 mg/dL associated with HDL, HDL-35 and TG. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with HDL-35 in bivariate analysis and serum IgG1 against P. gingivalis associated with HDL-35 and serum IgG1 against T. forsythia associated with TG and serum IgG2 against A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of HDL y HDL-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from Cali presented reduced HDL levels as compared to Bogotá and Medellín patients. Presence of IgG1 antibodies against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced HDL levels. Conclusion: This study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria seems to be the biological link. 

  7. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

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    Morón Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10 has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5 encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille, recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015 and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025. Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006 and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029. In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029. Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our

  8. Modulation of Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Plasmodium berghei Malarial Infection by Crude Aqueous Extract of Ganoderma lucidum

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    Olarewaju M. Oluba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, attempt is made to establish changes in serum and liver lipoprotein cholesterols accompanying Plasmodium berghei malarial infection in mice treated with aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum at 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg body weight in comparison with 15 mg/kg chloroquine (CQ. Significant increases in all the lipoprotein fractions were observed in infected untreated mice compared with normal control mice. Treatment with 100 and 250 mg/kg G. lucidum extract produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC and low-density cholesterol (LDL-C contents compared with 500 mg/kg G. lucidum and CQ. Treatment with CQ, however, produced significant reduction in hepatic TC and LDL-C compared with the extract. A dose-dependent significant increase in serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C was observed in the G. lucidum treated mice compared with normal control but significantly lower compared with CQ-treated mice. Liver HDL-C level was significantly higher in CQ-treated mice compared with normal control and significantly lower compared with G. lucidum-treated and infected untreated mice. A dose-dependent effect of the extract was observed in both serum and liver very-low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C. The implication of these results is discussed with respect to the parasite survival and proliferation in the serum and liver.

  9. PCSK9 inhibitors and their role in high-risk patients in reducing LDL cholesterol levels: evolocumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahagam, Chanukya; Goud, Aditya; Abdelqader, Abdelhai; Hendrani, Aditya; Feinstein, Matthew J; Qamar, Arman; Joshi, Parag H; Swiger, Kristopher J; Byrne, Kathleen; Quispe, Renato; Jones, Steven R; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S

    2016-03-01

    Patients with familial hypercholesterolemia or statin intolerance are especially challenging to manage since LDL cholesterol levels often remain considerably elevated despite clinicians' best efforts. With statins regarded as first-line pharmacologic therapy by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines to reduce LDL cholesterol and cardiovascular risk, there is now a critical need to determine when other agents will play a role beyond maximally tolerated statin therapy and lifestyle changes. In this review, we take a closer look at evolocumab (Repatha(®)), one of the new injectable human monoclonal antibodies to PCSK9 and its efficacy and safety properties from the results of various trials.

  10. The effect of dietary phytosphingosine on cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity in subjects with the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, M.; Sleddering, M.A.; Pijl, H.; Nieuwenhuizen, W.F.; Frölich, M.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Jazet, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sphingolipids, like phytosphingosine (PS) are part of cellular membranes of yeasts, vegetables and fruits. Addition of PS to the diet decreases serum cholesterol and free fatty acid (FFA) levels in rodents and improves insulin sensitivity.Objective:To study the effect of dietary suppleme

  11. Effects of simvastatin on bone regeneration in the mandibles of ovariectomized rats and on blood cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Juliana C; Mancini, Maria N G; Carvalho, Yasmin R; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Balducci, Ivan; Rocha, Rosilene F

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of simvastatin on guided bone regeneration in the mandibles of ovariectomized rats, and to observe their blood cholesterol levels. Seventy female rats were divided into two groups: control and treated, both groups containing normal and ovariectomized rats. A month after ovariectomy a bone defect was created in the mandible, and was covered by a polytetrafluoroethylene membrane. The treated groups received simvastatin orally for 15 or 30 days. The rats were sacrificed 15, 30 or 60 days after surgery, at which time a blood sample was extracted for blood cholesterol level analysis and the mandible was extracted for densitometric, histological and morphometric analysis. All specimens underwent analysis of variance. The ovariectomized animals had higher cholesterol levels than the treated normal animals, and no significant difference was found between the different treatment periods and the sacrifice times. The densitometric, histological and morphometric analysis showed that the treated ovariectomized animals developed more new bone than the control ovariectomized rats, but no significant difference was observed between the treatment periods. It can be concluded that the deficiency of estrogen increased the level of blood cholesterol and that the simvastatin aided new bone formation in the ovariectomized animals.

  12. Ser447stop mutation in lipoprotein lipase is associated with elevated HDL cholesterol levels in normolipidemic males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuivenhoven, J A; Groenemeyer, B E; Boer, J. M.; Reymer, P W; Berghuis, Riteke; Bruin, T; Jansen, Hans; Seidell, J C; Kastelein, J J

    This report describes the association between a frequent mutation in the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene and HDL cholesterol levels. It concerns a previously described defect that predicts a premature truncation of the LPL protein (447stop). We determined the frequency of this mutation in three groups

  13. Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungcharoenkul, Kanit; Thongnopnua, Phensri

    2011-11-01

    The impact of consuming curcuminoids containing curcumin at 500 mg/day and 6 g/day for 7 days on plasma antioxidant capacity and serum cholesterol level were determined by using vitamin E 200 IU/day consumption as a comparison. Group A and group B subjects consumed 500 mg and 6 g curcumin, respectively, but group C subjects consumed vitamin E 200 IU. By using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that plasma antioxidant capacity of group A rose from a baseline of 13% to 24% on day 1 and day 7, as against a 19-20% increase for group B. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased after curcumin treatment at 500 mg/day. By consuming vitamin E, both ORAC values and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly increased, but only very slight responses on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed. It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

  14. Enhanced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels in bulimia nervosa: relationships to psychiatric comorbidity, psychopathology and hormonal variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteleone, Palmiero; Santonastaso, Paolo; Pannuto, Marilena; Favaro, Angela; Caregaro, Lorenza; Castaldo, Eloisa; Zanetti, Tatiana; Maj, Mario

    2005-04-30

    Increased levels of cholesterol have been reported in patients with bulimia nervosa (BN), but all but one of the published studies were performed on non-fasting subjects, which limits the interpretation of this finding. Moreover, the relationships between serum lipids and comorbid psychiatric disorders or bulimic psychopathology have scarcely been investigated. We measured serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, 17beta-estradiol and thyroid hormones in 75 bulimic women and 64 age-matched healthy females after an overnight fast. Compared with healthy women, bulimic patients exhibited significantly enhanced serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides, but similar values of glucose, 17beta-estradiol, FT3 and FT4. No significant differences emerged in these variables between patients with or without comorbid depression, borderline personality disorder or lifetime anorexia nervosa. Circulating cholesterol was positively correlated to the patients' drive for thinness, ineffectiveness, enteroceptive awareness and impulse regulation sub-item scores of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. These findings confirm that BN is associated with increased levels of serum lipids. This alteration may be involved in the pathophysiology of certain psychopathological characteristics of BN and cannot be explained by the co-occurrence of other psychiatric disorders.

  15. Long-term vegetarians have low oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Cho, Sang Woon; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-04-01

    Excessive oxidative stress and abnormal blood lipids may cause chronic diseases. This risk can be reduced by consuming an antioxidant- and fiber-rich vegetarian diet. We compared biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and lipid profiles of sex- and age-matched long-term vegetarians and omnivores in Korea. Forty-five vegetarians (23 men and 22 women; mean age, 49.5 ± 5.3 years), who had maintained a vegetarian diet for a minimum of 15 years, and 30 omnivores (15 men and 15 women; mean age, 48.9 ± 3.6 years) participated in this study. Their 1-day, 24-h recall, and 2-day dietary records were analyzed. Oxidative stress was measured by the levels of diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROM). Antioxidant status was determined by the biological antioxidant potential (BAP) and levels of endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. We observed that vegetarians had a significantly lower body fat percentage (21.6 ± 6.4%) than that of omnivores (25.4 ± 4.6%; P vegetarians than those in omnivores (331.82 ± 77.96 and 375.80 ± 67.26 Carratelli units; P vegetarians and omnivores were 173.73 ± 31.42 mg/dL and 193.17 ± 37.89 mg/dL, respectively (P vegetarians and omnivores, respectively, indicating that vegetarians had significantly lower lipid levels. Thus, oxidative stress, body fat, and cholesterol levels were lower in long-term vegetarians than those in omnivores.

  16. Aberrant Levels of Hematopoietic/Neuronal Growth and Differentiation Factors in Euthyroid Women at Risk for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske T Massolt

    Full Text Available Subjects at risk for major mood disorders have a higher risk to develop autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD and vice-versa, implying a shared pathogenesis. In mood disorder patients, an abnormal profile of hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors is observed, suggesting that growth/differentiation abnormalities of these cell lineages may predispose to mood disorders. The first objective of our study was to investigate whether an aberrant profile of these hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors is also detectable in subjects at risk for AITD. A second objective was to study the inter relationship of these factors with previously determined and published growth factors/cytokines in the same subjects.We studied 64 TPO-Ab-negative females with at least 1 first- or second-degree relative with AITD, 32 of whom did and 32 who did not seroconvert to TPO-Ab positivity in 5-year follow-up. Subjects were compared with 32 healthy controls (HCs. We measured serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, Stem Cell Factor (SCF, Insulin-like Growth Factor-Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP-2, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF and IL-7 at baseline.BDNF was significantly lower (8.2 vs 18.9 ng/ml, P<0.001, while EGF (506.9 vs 307.6 pg/ml, P = 0.003 and IGFBP-2 (388.3 vs 188.5 ng/ml, P = 0.028 were significantly higher in relatives than in HCs. Relatives who seroconverted in the next 5 years had significantly higher levels of SCF than non-seroconverters (26.5 vs 16.7 pg/ml, P = 0.017. In a cluster analysis with the previously published growth factors/cytokines SCF clustered together with IL-1β, IL-6 and CCL-3, of which high levels also preceded seroconversion.Relatives of AITD patients show aberrant serum levels of 4 hematopoietic/neuronal growth factors similar to the aberrancies found in mood disorder patients, suggesting that shared growth and differentiation defects in both the hematopoietic and neuronal system may underlie thyroid autoimmunity and mood disorders. A

  17. Effect of sesamin on serum cholesterol and triglycerides levels in LDL receptor-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Peñalvo, José L.; Hopia, Anu; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2006-01-01

    Background Sesamin, a major lignan from sesame seeds has been associated with cholesterol reduction in previous reports, but recent studies suggested differences in the response to sesamin intake depending on the model studied as well as the nature of the sesamin preparation used. Aim The effect of pure sesamin epimer on serum lipids was studied in hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor-knockout mice under cholesterol fed condition. Design Animals were randomly assigned to 4 groups, fed an atherog...

  18. Significant improvement in statin adherence and cholesterol levels after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Hilde Vaiva Tonstad; Køhn, Morten Ganderup; Berget, Oline Sofie

    2012-01-01

    Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time.......Not all patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are optimally treated with statin, and their adherence to statin treatment may be inadequate. We set out to describe changes in statin treatment adherence and cholesterol values over time....

  19. miR-92a enhances recombinant protein productivity in CHO cells by increasing intracellular cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Wan Ping; Yang, Yuansheng; Lam, Kong Peng

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as promising targets for engineering of CHO cell factories to enhance recombinant protein productivity. Manipulation of miRNA levels in CHO cells have been shown to improve product yield by increasing proliferation and specific productivity (qP), resisting apoptosis and enhancing oxidative metabolism. The authors previously demonstrated that over-expressing miR-92a results in increases in qP and titer of CHO-IgG cells. However, the mechanisms by which miR-92a enhances qP in CHO cells are still uninvestigated. Here, the authors report the identification of insig1, a regulator of cholesterol biosynthesis, as a target of miR-92a using computational prediction. Both transient and stable over-expression of miR-92a decreased the expression levels of insig1. Insig1 was further validated as a target of miR-92a using 3' UTR reporter assay. Intracellular cholesterol concentration of two high-producing miR-92a clones were significantly increased by ≈30% compared to the blank-transfected pool. Relative Golgi surface area was also found to be 18-26% higher in these clones. Our findings suggest that miR-92a may affect cholesterol metabolism by repressing insig1, resulting in raised intracellular cholesterol levels and Golgi volume and hence enhanced protein secretion. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG;

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  1. Association of loss-of-function mutations in the ABCA1 gene with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and risk of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, R.; Nordestgaard, B.G.; Stene, M.C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Context Low levels of high- density lipoprotein ( HDL) cholesterol are inversely related to cardiovascular risk. Whether this is a causal effect is unclear. Objective To determine whether genetically reduced HDL cholesterol due to heterozygosity for 4 loss- of- function mutations in ABCA1 cause...... Study ( CGPS), a cross- sectional general population study ( n= 31 241; 76 heterozygotes); and the Copenhagen Ischemic Heart Disease Study ( CIHDS), a case- control study ( n= 16 623; 44 heterozygotes). End points in all 3 studies were recorded during the period of January 1, 1976, through July 9, 2007....... Main Outcome Measures Levels of HDL cholesterol in the general population, cellular cholesterol efflux, and the association between IHD and HDL cholesterol and genotype. Results Heterozygotes vs noncarriers for 4 ABCA1 mutations ( P1065S, G1216V, N1800H, R2144X) had HDL cholesterol levels of 41 mg/ d...

  2. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  3. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  4. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  5. Znf202 affects high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and promotes hepatosteatosis in hyperlipidemic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L J Vrins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The zinc finger protein Znf202 is a transcriptional suppressor of lipid related genes and has been linked to hypoalphalipoproteinemia. A functional role of Znf202 in lipid metabolism in vivo still remains to be established. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated mouse Znf202 expression vectors, the functionality of which was established in several in vitro systems. Next, effects of adenoviral znf202 overexpression in vivo were determined in normo- as well as hyperlipidemic mouse models. Znf202 overexpression in mouse hepatoma cells mhAT3F2 resulted in downregulation of members of the Apoe/c1/c2 and Apoa1/c3/a4 gene cluster. The repressive activity of Znf202 was firmly confirmed in an apoE reporter assay and Znf202 responsive elements within the ApoE promoter were identified. Adenoviral Znf202 transfer to Ldlr-/- mice resulted in downregulation of apoe, apoc1, apoa1, and apoc3 within 24 h after gene transfer. Interestingly, key genes in bile flux (abcg5/8 and bsep and in bile acid synthesis (cyp7a1 were also downregulated. At 5 days post-infection, the expression of the aforementioned genes was normalized, but mice had developed severe hepatosteatosis accompanied by hypercholesterolemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia. A much milder phenotype was observed in wildtype mice after 5 days of hepatic Znf202 overexpression. Interestingly and similar to Ldl-/- mice, HDL-cholesterol levels in wildtype mice were lowered after hepatic Znf202 overexpression. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Znf202 overexpression in vivo reveals an important role of this transcriptional regulator in liver lipid homeostasis, while firmly establishing the proposed key role in the control of HDL levels.

  6. Changes in metal levels and chromosome aberrations in the peripheral blood of patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladon, Dariusz; Doherty, Ann; Newson, Roger; Turner, Justine; Bhamra, Manjit; Case, C Patrick

    2004-12-01

    A prospective study was performed to investigate changes in metal levels and chromosome aberrations in patients within 2 years of receiving metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties. There was a statistically significant increase of cobalt and chromium concentrations, with a small increase in molybdenum, in whole blood at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. There was also a statistically significant increase of both chromosome translocations and aneuploidy in peripheral blood lymphocytes at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The changes were generally progressive with time, but the change in aneuploidy was much greater than in chromosome translocations. No statistically significant correlations were found in secondary analyses between chromosome translocation indices and cobalt or chromium concentration in whole blood. Although the clinical consequences of these changes, if any, are unknown, future epidemiological studies could usefully include direct comparisons of patients with implants of different composition.

  7. Chromosome aberration analysis in persons exposed to low-level radiation from the JCO criticality accident in Tokai-mura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, M S; Hayata, I; Kamada, N; Kodama, Y; Kodama, S

    2001-09-01

    Chromosome aberrations were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 43 persons who were exposed to low-level radiation of mixed neutrons and gamma-rays resulting from the JCO criticality accident. When the age-adjusted frequencies of dicentric and ring chromosomes were compared with the dose calibration curve established in vitro for 60Co gamma-rays as a reference radiation, a significant correlation was observed between the chromosomally estimated doses and the documented doses evaluated by physical means. The regression coefficient of the chromosomal doses against the documented doses, 1.47 +/- 0.33, indicates that the relative biological effectiveness of fission neutrons at low doses is considerably higher than that currently adopted in the radiation protection standard.

  8. Effects of rapeseed and soybean oil dietary supplementation on bovine fat metabolism, fatty acid composition and cholesterol levels in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhofer, Christian; Spornraft, Melanie; Kienberger, Hermine; Rychlik, Michael; Herrmann, Julia; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Viturro, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    The main goal of this experiment was to study the effect of milk fat depression, induced by supplementing diet with plant oils, on the bovine fat metabolism, with special interest in cholesterol levels. For this purpose 39 cows were divided in three groups and fed different rations: a control group (C) without any oil supplementation and two groups with soybean oil (SO) or rapeseed oil (RO) added to the partial mixed ration (PMR). A decrease in milk fat percentage was observed in both oil feedings with a higher decrease of -1·14 % with SO than RO with -0·98 % compared with the physiological (-0·15 %) decline in the C group. There was no significant change in protein and lactose yield. The daily milk cholesterol yield was lower in both oil rations than in control ration, while the blood cholesterol level showed an opposite variation. The milk fatty acid pattern showed a highly significant decrease of over 10 % in the amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in both oil feedings and a highly significant increase in mono (MUFA) and poly (PUFA) unsaturated fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) included. The results of this experiment suggest that the feeding of oil supplements has a high impact on milk fat composition and its significance for human health, by decreasing fats with a potentially negative effect (SFA and cholesterol) while simultaneously increasing others with positive (MUFA, PUFA, CLA).

  9. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes High Blood Cholesterol? Many factors can affect the cholesterol levels in your blood. You can control some ... but not others. Factors You Can Control Diet Cholesterol is found in foods that come from animal ...

  10. Very low levels of HDL cholesterol and atherosclerosis, a variable relationship – a review of LCAT deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Julia Savel,1,2 Marianne Lafitte,1 Yann Pucheu,1,3 Vincent Pradeau,1 Antoine Tabarin,2,3 Thierry Couffinhal1,3,41Centre d'Exploration, de Prévention et de Traitement de l'Athérosclérose, Hôpital Cardiologique, 2Service d'endocrinologie, CHU Bordeaux, Université Bordeaux Segalen, Bordeaux, France; 3Université de Bordeaux Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, 4INSERM, Adaptation cardiovasculaire à l'ischémie, U1034, Pessac, FranceAbstract: A number of epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL level is a strong inverse predictor of cardiovascular events. HDL is believed to retard the formation of atherosclerotic lesions by removing excess cholesterol from cells and preventing endothelial dysfunction. Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT plays a central role in the formation and maturation of HDL, and in the intravascular stage of reverse cholesterol transport: a major mechanism by which HDL modulates the development and progression of atherosclerosis. A defect in LCAT function would be expected to enhance atherosclerosis, by interfering with the reverse cholesterol transport step. As such, one would expect to find more atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events in LCAT-deficient patients. But this relationship is not always evident. In this review, we describe contradictory reports in the literature about cardiovascular risks in this patient population. We discuss the paradoxical finding of severe HDL deficiency and an absence of subclinical atherosclerosis in LCAT-deficient patients, which has been used to reject the hypothesis that HDL level is important in the protection against atherosclerosis. Furthermore, to illustrate this paradoxical finding, we present a case study of one patient, referred for evaluation of global cardiovascular risk in the presence of a low HDL cholesterol level, who was diagnosed with LCAT gene mutations.Keywords: atherosclerosis, LCAT function

  11. Effects of vitamin C supplementation in human volunteers with a range of cholesterol levels on biomarkers of oxygen radical-generated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, D.; Phillips, B.J.; Yu, T-W.; Edwards, A.J.; Ayesh, R.; Butterworth, K.R.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-four men and 24 women, all nonsmoking, and maintaining normal dietary habits were assigned to 3 groups of 16. Each group comprising 4 males with "low" cholesterol levels (<6 mmol/L) matched for age and build with 4 males with "high" cholesterol levels (>6 mmol/L) and 8 similarly matched femal

  12. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  13. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic Exercise Training Selectively Changes Oxysterol Levels and Metabolism Reducing Cholesterol Accumulation in the Aorta of Dyslipidemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silva Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration.Methods: Sixteen-week old male apo E KO mice fed a chow diet were included in the protocol. Animals were trained in a treadmill running, 15 m/min, 5 days/week, for 60 min (T; n = 29. A control group was kept sedentary (S; n = 32. Plasma lipids and glucose were determined by enzymatic techniques and glucometer, respectively. Cholesterol and oxysterols in aortic arch and macrophages were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined by RT-qPCR. The effect of AMPK in oxysterols metabolism was determined in J774 macrophages treated with 0.25 mM AICAR.Results: Body weight and plasma TC, TG, HDL-c, glucose, and oxysterols were similar between groups. As compared to S group, AET enhanced 7β-hydroxycholesterol (70% and reduced cholesterol (32% in aorta. In addition, exercise increased Cyp27a1 (54%, Cd36 (75%, Cat (70%, Prkaa1 (40%, and Prkaa2 (51% mRNA. In macrophages, the activation of AMPK followed by incubation with HDL2 increased Abca1 (52% and Cd36 (220% and decrease Prkaa1 (19%, Cyp27a1 (47% and 7α-hydroxycholesterol level.Conclusion: AET increases 7β-hydroxycholesterol in the aortic arch of dyslipidemic mice, which is related to the enhanced expression of Cd36. In addition, the increase

  15. Genetic-epidemiological evidence on genes associated with HDL cholesterol levels: a systematic in-depth review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Eva; Coassin, Stefan; Kollerits, Barbara; Heid, Iris M; Kronenberg, Florian

    2009-03-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles exhibit multiple antiatherogenic effects. They are key players in the reverse cholesterol transport which shuttles cholesterol from peripheral cells (e.g. macrophages) to the liver or other tissues. This complex process is thought to represent the basis for the antiatherogenic properties of HDL particles. The amount of cholesterol transported in HDL particles is measured as HDL cholesterol (HDLC) and is inversely correlated with the risk for coronary artery disease: an increase of 1mg/dL of HDLC levels is associated with a 2% and 3% decrease of the risk for coronary artery disease in men and women, respectively. Genetically determined conditions with high HDLC levels (e.g. familial hyperalphalipoproteinemia) often coexist with longevity, and higher HDLC levels were found among healthy elderly individuals. HDLC levels are under considerable genetic control with heritability estimates of up to 80%. The identification and characterization of genetic variants associated with HDLC concentrations can provide new insights into the background of longevity. This review provides an extended overview on the current genetic-epidemiological evidence from association studies on genes involved in HDLC metabolism. It provides a path through the jungle of association studies which are sometimes confusing due to the varying and sometimes erroneous names of genetic variants, positions and directions of associations. Furthermore, it reviews the recent findings from genome-wide association studies which have identified new genes influencing HDLC levels. The yet identified genes together explain only a small amount of less than 10% of the HDLC variance, which leaves an enormous room for further yet to be identified genetic variants. This might be accomplished by large population-based genome-wide meta-analyses and by deep-sequencing approaches on the identified genes. The resulting findings will probably result in a re-drawing and extension of

  16. Direct Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Glycated Albumin Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) have been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. The aim in this st...

  17. Glycated albumin and direct low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), renal failure, retinopathy, and neuropathy. Lowering glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as well as low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with a decreased risk of these complications. We evaluated the ut...

  18. HDL cholesterol levels are an important factor for determining the lifespan of erythrocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, I.; Hoekstra, M; van Wanrooij, EJA; Hildebrand, RB; Kuiper, J; Kuipers, F; Hardeman, MR; Van Berkel, TJC; Van Eck, M

    2005-01-01

    Objective. Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) is a multifunctional receptor that promotes the selective uptake of cholesteryl esters from high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Disruption of SR-BI in mice results in a dramatic increase in HDL cholesterol. Interestingly, mice lacking SR-BI also deve

  19. Fatty liver in men is associated with high serum levels of small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosoyamada Kaori

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims Our study addressed potential associations between fatty liver and small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd-LDL-C levels using a cross-sectional analysis. Methods We enrolled 476 male subjects. Serum sd-LDL-C concentrations were determined using precipitation assays. Results Subjects were divided into four groups based on triglyceride (TG and LDL-C levels: A, TG  Conclusions Fatty liver is a significant determinant of serum sd-LDL-C levels independent of the presence of obesity or hyperglycemia. Fatty liver may alter hepatic metabolism of TG and LDL-C, resulting in increased sd-LDL-C levels.

  20. Characteristics of mRNA levels of hepatic key enzymes in cholesterol metabolism of genetically gallstone-susceptible mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许国强; 赵力

    2004-01-01

    @@ Our previous study1 indicated that biliary cholesterol hypersecretion was the key pathophysiological defect of gallstone formation. Lith genes determine biliary cholesterol hypersecretion and susceptibility to cholesterol gallstone formation in C57L mice.

  1. How to Get Your Cholesterol Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How To Get Your Cholesterol Tested Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol plays a ... factors for heart disease and stroke . How is cholesterol tested? A cholesterol screening measures your level of ...

  2. The association between high levels of cumulative life stress and aberrant resting state EEG dynamics in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Amanda C; Cooper, Nicholas R

    2017-05-10

    Cumulative experienced stress produces shortcomings in old adults' cognitive performance. These are reflected in electrophysiological changes tied to task execution. This study explored whether stress-related aberrations in older adults' electroencephalographic (EEG) activity were also apparent in the system at rest. To this effect, the amount of stressful life events experienced by 60 young and 60 elderly participants were assessed in conjunction with resting state power changes in the delta, theta, alpha, and beta frequencies during a resting EEG recording. Findings revealed elevated levels of delta power among elderly individuals reporting high levels of cumulative life stress. These differed significantly from young high and low stress individuals and old adults with low levels of stress. Increases of delta activity have been linked to the emergence of conditions such as Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment. Thus, a potential interpretation of our findings associates large amounts of cumulative stress with an increased risk of developing age-related cognitive pathologies in later life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An overview on therapeutics attenuating amyloid β level in Alzheimer's disease: targeting neurotransmission, inflammation, oxidative stress and enhanced cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoling; Li, Yifei; Shi, Xiaozhe; Ma, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common underlying cause of dementia, and novel drugs for its treatment are needed. Of the different theories explaining the development and progression of AD, "amyloid hypothesis" is the most supported by experimental data. This hypothesis states that the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) leads to the formation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides that congregate with formation and deposition of Aβ plaques in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Risk factors including neurotransmitter modulation, chronic inflammation, metal-induced oxidative stress and elevated cholesterol levels are key contributors to the disease progress. Current therapeutic strategies abating AD progression are primarily based on anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors as cognitive enhancers. The AChE inhibitor, donepezil, is proven to strengthen cognitive functions and appears effective in treating moderate to severe AD patients. N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, is also useful, and its combination with donepezil demonstrated a strong stabilizing effect in clinical studies on AD. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs delayed the onset and progression of AD and attenuated cognitive dysfunction. Based upon epidemiological evidence and animal studies, antioxidants emerged as potential AD preventive agents; however, clinical trials revealed inconsistencies. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiling demonstrated pleiotropic functions of the hypolipidemic class of drugs, statins, potentially contributing towards the prevention of AD. In addition, targeting the APP processing pathways, stimulating neuroprotective signaling mechanisms, using the amyloid anti-aggregants and Aβ immunotherapy surfaced as well-tested strategies in reducing the AD-like pathology. Overall, this review covers mechanism of inducing the Aβ formation, key risk factors and major therapeutics prevalent in the AD treatment nowadays. It also delineates the need

  4. Fasting serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients intended to be treated for dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovefa D Kolovou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genovefa D Kolovou1, Katherine Anagnostopoulou1, Nektarios D Pilatis1, Klelia D Salpea1, Ioannis S Hoursalas1, Ilias Petropoulos1, Helen I Bilianou2, Dennis V Cokkinos11Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece; 2Cardiology Department, Tzanio State Hospital, Piraeus, GreeceObjective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of serum triglycerides (TG on other plasma lipids in patients to be treated for dyslipidemia.Methodology: Lipid profiles of a cohort of 801 patients (487 males and 314 females aged 57 ± 9 years (mean ± SD were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to their plasma lipid levels. They were divided into various groups on the basis of serum TG (≥ 150 or < 150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (≥ 40 or < 40 mg/dL.Results: Patients with TG ≥ 150 mg/dL had a higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C levels compared with those with TG < 150 mg/dL, (p < 0.001. Patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dL had a lower serum total cholesterol and higher TG compared with those with HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively. In all patients as well as in the subgroups, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C was found (r = –0.377, p < 0.001.Conclusions: Although, the metabolic pathway for TG and HDL-C is closely linked, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C levels seems to exist in the entire sampled population. This correlation also appears to persist in fasting patients with low levels of TG.Keywords: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dyslipidemia

  5. Primary fibroblasts of NDUFS4(-/-) mice display increased ROS levels and aberrant mitochondrial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, Federica; Grefte, Sander; Roestenberg, Peggy; Joosten-Wagenaars, Jori; Smeitink, Jan A M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H

    2013-09-01

    The human NDUFS4 gene encodes an accessory subunit of the first mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation complex (CI) and, when mutated, is associated with progressive neurological disorders. Here we analyzed primary muscle and skin fibroblasts from NDUFS4(-/-) mice with respect to reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and mitochondrial morphology. NDUFS4(-/-) fibroblasts displayed an inactive CI subcomplex on native gels but proliferated normally and showed no obvious signs of apoptosis. Oxidation of the ROS sensor hydroethidium was increased and mitochondria were less branched and/or shorter in NDUFS4(-/-) fibroblasts. We discuss the relevance of these findings with respect to previous results and therapy development.

  6. Activity of 30 different cheeses on cholesterol plasma levels and Oxidative Balance Risk Index (OBRI) in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelli, Umberto; Bondiolotti, Gianpietro; Battelli, Giovanna; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Finco, Annarosa; Recchia, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is considered to increase the total cholesterol levels (CH) due to the high-saturated fat content. New models are needed to measure the relationship between cholesterol and cheese. Thirty different cheeses produced in Val Brembana, Italy ("furmai da mut", "caprino" and "stracchino"), were added to the diet of 30 groups of 4 rats. Cheeses were analyzed to differentiate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the cholesterol content (Ch(f)). The body weight, CH, urine volume and oxidative balance were measured. Three new indexes in relation to CH were calculated: OI (oxidative index), PI (protective index) and OBRI (oxidative balance risk index). None of the cheeses increased CH. Some of the "furmai de mut" were significantly decreasing CH and improved the oxidative balance. Ch(f) was not affecting the CH levels in plasma. In terms of VOCs, the acetic acid content was correlated (p < 0.05) with the CH reduction and PI improvement. OBRI was reduced mainly in the "stracchino group". The model shows that some cheese can reduce significantly CH levels and improve the antioxidant capacity.

  7. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and blood pressure in healthy men and women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol and bl

  8. Effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and blood pressure in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the studies described in this thesis was to examine the effect of monounsaturated fatty acids on the distribution of serum cholesterol over high-density and low-density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL) and on blood pressure in healthy men and women. High levels of LDL cholesterol

  9. Modulating effect of the A-278C promoter polymorphism in the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase gene on serum lipid levels in normolipidaemic and hypertriglyceridaemic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.K.; Groenendijk, M.; Verkuijlen, P.J.J.H.; Jonkers, I.J.A.M.; Mohrschladt, M.F.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids is cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1). An A to C substitution 278 bp upstream in the promoter of the CYP7A1 gene was found to be associated with variations in serum lipid levels in normolipidaemic populations. In the pres

  10. An antibody against the C-terminal domain of PCSK9 lowers LDL cholesterol levels in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Felix; Park, John; Redemann, Norbert; Luippold, Gerd; Nar, Herbert

    2014-02-20

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia, a state of elevated levels of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol. Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia can result in severe implications such as stroke and coronary heart disease. The inhibition of PCSK9 function by therapeutic antibodies that block interaction of PCSK9 with the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A domain of LDL receptor (LDLR) was shown to successfully lower LDL cholesterol levels in clinical studies. Here we present data on the identification, structural and biophysical characterization and in vitro and in vivo pharmacology of a PCSK9 antibody (mAb1). The X-ray structure shows that mAb1 binds the module 1 of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of PCSK9. It blocks access to an area bearing several naturally occurring gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutations. Although the antibody does not inhibit binding of PCSK9 to epidermal growth factor-like repeat A, it partially reverses PCSK9-induced reduction of the LDLR and LDL cholesterol uptake in a cellular assay. mAb1 is also effective in lowering serum levels of LDL cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys in vivo. Complete loss of PCSK9 is associated with insufficient liver regeneration and increased risk of hepatitis C infections. Blocking of the CTD is sufficient to partially inhibit PCSK9 function. Antibodies binding the CTD of PCSK9 may thus be advantageous in patients that do not tolerate complete inhibition of PCSK9.

  11. Low cholesterol and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, R M; Balon, R; Arfken, C L

    1998-02-01

    The association between violent behavior and low serum total cholesterol levels was examined in a psychiatric inpatient population with diverse diagnoses. The study used a case-control design to compare the cholesterol levels of patients in a long-term psychiatric hospital who had a history of seclusion or restraints (N = 20) and those who did not (N = 20). A low cholesterol level was defined as less than 180 mg/dL. A strong association was found between low cholesterol levels and violent behavior (odds ratio = 15.49), an association that was not due to age, race, sex, or diagnosis. The finding was consistent whether mean levels or dichotomized levels of cholesterol were examined. Physical health, cholesterol-lowering medication, current alcohol use, or unusual diets could not explain the results. However, the raw frequency of episodes of seclusion or restraint as an indicator of the frequency of violent behavior was not associated with cholesterol level. Dichotomizing cholesterol levels at 180 mg/dL yielded high sensitivity (90 percent) for predicting violent behavior but at the cost of low specificity (65 percent). The results support the hypothesis that an association exists between low cholesterol and violent behavior among psychiatric patients but argue against using cholesterol level as a screening tool for predicting violent behavior.

  12. A Review on Effects of Probiotic Supplementation in Poultry Performance and Cholesterol Levels of Egg and Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn Getachew

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microbial food/feed ingredients that have a beneficial effect on health that stimulates the growth of beneficial microorganisms and reduces the amount of pathogens, thus improving the intestinal microbial balance of the host and lowering the risk of gastro-intestinal diseases. Probiotics can be harmful to debilitated and immuno-compromised populations. An accurate dosage of administration has yet to be established despite the wide-use of probiotics. Probiotics have antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, antihypertensive, anti-osteoporosis, and immunomodulatory effects. Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Leuconostoc, Enterococcus, Lactococcus, Bacillus, Saccharomyces, Aspergillus and Pediococcus species are most commonly used probiotics in poultry production. When supplemented to chicken probiotics improve feed-intake, growth performance, meat quality, egg production, egg quality and have cholesterol lowering potential in poultry products. However, some studies reported no significant effect of probiotics on feed-intake, production traits, products’ quality and cholesterol level.

  13. Lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuemei; Chen, Honglei; Miller, William C; Mailman, Richard B; Woodard, Jennifer L; Chen, Peter C; Xiang, Dong; Murrow, Richard W; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Poole, Charles

    2007-02-15

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) epsilon2 allele has been associated with both Parkinson's disease (PD) and lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We tested the hypothesis that lower LDL-C may be associated with PD. This case-control study used fasting lipid profiles obtained from 124 PD cases and 112 controls. The PD cases were recruited from consecutive cases presenting at our tertiary Movement Disorder Clinic, and the controls were recruited from the spouse populations of the same clinic. Multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated from unconditional logistic regressions, adjusting for age, gender, smoking status, and use of cholesterol-lowering agents. Lower LDL-C concentrations were associated with a higher occurrence of PD. Compared with participants with the highest LDL-C (> or =138 mg/dL), the OR was 2.2 (95% CI = 0.9-5.1) for participants with LDL-C of 115 to 137, 3.5 (95% CI = 1.6-8.1) for LDL-C of 93 to 114, and 2.6 (95% CI = 1.1-5.9) for LDL-C of < or = 92. Interestingly, use of either cholesterol-lowering drugs, or statins alone, was related to lower PD occurrence. Thus, our data provide preliminary evidence that low LDL-C may be associated with higher occurrence of PD, and/or that statin use may lower PD occurrence, either of which finding warrants further investigation.

  14. Detection of Aberrant Responding on a Personality Scale in a Military Sample: An Application of Evaluating Person Fit with Two-Level Logistic Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Person-fit assessment is used to identify persons who respond aberrantly to a test or questionnaire. In this study, S. P. Reise's (2000) method for evaluating person fit using 2-level logistic regression was applied to 13 personality scales of the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality (SNAP; L. Clark, 1996) that had been administered…

  15. Cholesterol Balance in Prion Diseases and Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaoui, Samia; Shim, Su Yeon; Cheng, Yo Ching; Corda, Erica; Gilch, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible and fatal neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals. They are characterized by the accumulation of PrPSc, an aberrantly folded isoform of the cellular prion protein PrPC, in the brains of affected individuals. PrPC is a cell surface glycoprotein attached to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane by a glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchor. Specifically, it is associated with lipid rafts, membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphinoglipids. It has been established that inhibition of endogenous cholesterol synthesis disturbs lipid raft association of PrPC and prevents PrPSc accumulation in neuronal cells. Additionally, prion conversion is reduced upon interference with cellular cholesterol uptake, endosomal export, or complexation at the plasma membrane. Altogether, these results demonstrate on the one hand the importance of cholesterol for prion propagation. On the other hand, growing evidence suggests that prion infection modulates neuronal cholesterol metabolism. Similar results were reported in Alzheimer’s disease (AD): whereas amyloid β peptide formation is influenced by cellular cholesterol, levels of cholesterol in the brains of affected individuals increase during the clinical course of the disease. In this review, we summarize commonalities of alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and discuss consequences for neuronal function and therapy of prion diseases and AD. PMID:25419621

  16. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  17. Association between apolipoprotein E promoter-219G/T polymorphism and total cholesterol level in patients with Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Xiao Sun; Jing Wang; Yan Kong; Li Cui; Xiangdang Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have suggested that apolipoprotein E (APOE) and total cholesterol metabolism are closely related with dementia. In the supposed theory, 219 site of APOE promoter region is near gene coding region, so its polymorphism may result in the abnormality of APOE gene and protein expression,and finally lead to dementia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the association between APOE promoter-219G/T polymorphisms with serum total cholesterol in patients with Alzheimer disease, and compare it with non-dementia people.DESIGN: Case-control, comparative observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital of Shenyang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five dementia patients including 27 males and 28 females aged (66±3) years and treated in the Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital were selected from January 2002 to December 2005 as the Alzheimer disease group. They all diagnosed according to the DSM- Ⅳ diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer disease instituted by American Psychiatry Association in 1994. Meanwhile, 44 none-dementia patients including 21 males and 23 females aged (66±3) years were selected from other clinical departments of Fengtian Hospital as control group. All the participants were informed the detection and agreed.METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of all subjects, then "NEST"PCR, DNA sequence and enzyme digestion were adopted to detect the expression of APOE promoter-219 polymorphism,following by biomedical statistics analysis based on the clinical total cholesterol level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polymorphism of APOEpromoter-219 G/T and total cholesterol level.RESULTS: All 55 dementia patients and 44 non-dementia ones were involved in the result analysis. ①Allele and genotype frequency: The T allele frequency of the Alzheimer disease group was significantly higher than that in the control group [88.2% (97/110), 54.5% (48/88)], while G allele frequency was remarkably lower than that in the control group [11

  18. Relationship between expression of CD40-CD40 ligand system and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严金川; 吴宗贵; 李莉; 仲人前; 孔宪涛

    2004-01-01

    @@ Hypercholesterolemia is associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Enhanced levels of thrombin, fibrinogen and factor Ⅶc directly correlate with cholesterol levels.1 Activated platelets adhere to the intact endothelium and induce inflammatory responses in the endothelium, which substantially contribute to the early phase of atherosclerosis. Emerging lines of evidence support the role of CD40-CD40L interactions in atherosclerosis, thrombosis and inflammation.2 In atherosclerosis, inhibition of the CD40-CD40L interaction in LDL receptors or ApoE-deficient mice prevents the initiation of atherosclerosis and the evolvement of established atherosclerotic lesions to more advanced lesions.

  19. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  20. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  1. Relationship of blood cholesterol and apoprotein B levels to angiographically defined coronary artery disease in young males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, D A; Talsma, P; Ardlie, N G

    1993-03-01

    Coronary heart disease is mainly caused by the effects of obstruction to blood flow in the coronary arteries from discrete mural lesions that encroach into the lumen and usually occur in arteries that are involved by atherosclerosis. Even though the level of certain lipoproteins is indisputably related to the degree of this atherosclerotic involvement of the coronary arteries, the question of whether lipoproteins are also associated with the obstructive lesions remains uncertain. This study addressed the question in 53 males (age, 44.6 +/- 4.9 y) with premature coronary heart disease and angiographically proven coronary artery disease. The cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, apoprotein B, and apoprotein A-I levels were compared by linear correlation to semiquantitative angiographic measures of coronary artery disease severity (coronary stenosis score and mean coronary stenosis score), the extent of mural involvement (coronary atheromatous score and mean coronary atheromatous score), and also the number of normal coronary artery segments, an alternative severity score (Jenkins), and left ventricular function score. Age, past and present cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoprotein B levels correlated directly with the extent of disease (r = 0.27, 0.46, 0.29, 0.26, 0.35, respectively, P Multiple regression analysis was undertaken with lipoproteins and age as independent variables and angiographic scores as dependent variables; the apoprotein B level was the most predictive of the extent of coronary artery disease (P variables entered into the regression model, only age was independently predictive of the severity of angiographic coronary artery disease. Apoprotein B levels are not predictive of coronary artery disease severity but do predict independently the extent of involvement of coronary atherosclerosis defined angiographically.

  2. A Possible Mechanism Linking Hyperglycemia and Reduced High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 严同; 赵艳; 尹凡; 胡翠宁

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the role of glucose in the biogenesis of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C).Mouse primary peritoneal macrophages were harvested and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium(DMEM) containing glucose of various concentrations.The cells were divided into 3 groups in terms of different glucose concentrations in the cultures:Control group(5.6 mmol/L glucose),high glucose concentration groups(16.7 mmol/L and 30 mmol/L glucose).ATP-binding cassette transporter A1(ABCA1) mRN...

  3. Lower low density lipid cholesterol levels are associated with Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xuemei; Chen, Honglei; Miller, William C.; Mailman, Richard B.; Woodard, Jennifer L.; Chen, Peter C.; Xiang, Dong; Murrow, Richard W.; Wang, Yi-Zhe; Poole, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε2 allele has been associated with both Parkinson’s disease (PD) and lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The study is to test the hypothesis that lower LDL-C may be associated with PD. This case-control study used fasting lipid profiles obtained from 124 PD cases and 110 controls, the PD cases recruited from consecutive cases presenting at our tertiary Movement Disorder Clinic, and controls recruited from the spouse populations of the same clinic. Mu...

  4. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  5. Effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus Isolated from Tibetan Mushrooms on the Plasma Lipids, Egg Cholesterol Level, Egg Quality and Intestinal Health of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zhong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 strain, isolated from Tibetan mushrooms, on plasma lipids, egg cholesterol level, egg quality, and intestinal health of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 160 Beijing fatty laying hens (43 weeks old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% freeze-dried K. marxianus M3 powder for four weeks. The results showed that yeast supplementation reduced serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels (p<0.01, and increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level (p<0.05. Moreover, regardless of K. marxianus M3 dietary addition level, the cholesterol content of the eggs decreased by more than 26%. When0.3% yeast was supplemented, significant differences were found in the egg weights, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit and nutrient content of the eggs (p<0.01. Finally, 0.3% yeast supplementation improved the intestinal flora conditions of the hens by decreasing the Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts (p<0.01 and increasing the Bifidobacterium count (p<0.01. The results in this work demonstrated that yeast culture supplementation to the diets deceased the serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and increased egg quality.

  6. In situ probing of cholesterol in astrocytes at the single-cell level using laser desorption ionization mass spectrometric imaging with colloidal silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdian, D C; Cha, Sangwon; Oh, Jisun; Sakaguchi, Donald S; Yeung, Edward S; Lee, Young Jin

    2010-04-30

    Mass spectrometric imaging has been utilized to localize individual astrocytes and to obtain cholesterol populations at the single-cell level in laser desorption ionization (LDI) with colloidal silver. The silver ion adduct of membrane-bound cholesterol was monitored to detect individual cells. Good correlation between mass spectrometric and optical images at different cell densities indicates the ability to perform single-cell studies of cholesterol abundance. The feasibility of quantification is confirmed by the agreement between the LDI-MS ion signals and the results from a traditional enzymatic fluorometric assay. We propose that this approach could be an effective tool to study chemical populations at the cellular level.

  7. The Expression of Estrogen Receptor is Dependent on the Estrogen Level and Associated with Cholesterol-Rich Diet in Female Rat's Heart and Vascular Endothelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴赛珠; 刘建国; 周可祥; 刘长青; 马瑞; 孙飞; 隗和明

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of estrogen level and cholesterol - rich diet on the ex-pression of estrogen receptor (ER) in cardiovasculartissues including vascular endothelial cells (VEC) offemale rats. Methods The receptor binding assay(RBA) was adopted to measure the estrogen receptorlevel in aortic wall, heart and vascular endothelialcells of female rats on a cholesterol- rich diet. A ra-dioimmunoassay was employed to measure the level ofserum estradiol. Results The number of ER signif-icantly decreased in hearts, aorta and vascular en-dothelial cells in the ovariectomized rats and the ratson a cholesterol- rich diet. In contrast, the adminis-tration of estrogen somewhat restored the expression ofER. Conclusions For female rats, the level of es-trogen affects the expression of ER in cardiovascularsystem. The number of ER decreases along with thedecrease in the level of estrogen. A cholesterol -richdiet also can decrease the expression of ER in cardio-vascular system of female rats.

  8. Increased IL18 mRNA levels in peripheral artery disease and its association with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deser, Serkan Burc; Bayoglu, Burcu; Besirli, Kazım; Cengiz, Mujgan; Arapi, Berk; Junusbekov, Yerik; Dirican, Ahmet; Arslan, Caner

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) typically refers to lower limb vessel ischemia caused by atherosclerotic stenosis of lower extremity arteries. IL18 is a pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine reported to function as an inflammatory biomarker in cardiovascular diseases. IL18 activity is balanced by high-affinity naturally occurring IL18-binding protein (IL18BP). This study aimed to determine whether IL18, IL18 BP mRNA levels and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism, which was previously associated with IL18 gene transcriptional activity, were associated with PAD etiology. IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and -137 G/C (rs187238) polymorphism were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and RT-PCR, respectively, in 55 PAD patients (26 aorta-iliac, 29 femoro-popliteal) and 61 disease-free controls. IL18 mRNA levels were increased in PAD patients compared with healthy controls (p = 0.09); however, did not reach a statistical significant level, also did not significantly differ between aorta-iliac and femoro-popliteal occlusive PAD subgroups (p = 0.285). However, IL18BP mRNA levels were significantly lower in PAD group compared with controls (p triglycerides and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients (p = 0.003, p = 0.014, respectively). HDL cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with IL18 mRNA levels in controls (p = 0.05). This report is a preliminary study to show an association between IL18, IL18BP mRNA levels and PAD and suggests that the IL18 gene may have a significant relationship with triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels in PAD patients.

  9. Association of total cholesterol and HDL-C levels and outcome in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Li, Jianfei; Yang, Jin; Li, Rongshan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with heart failure (HF). Patients who were angiographical-diagnosis of CHD and echocardiographical-diagnosis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) Hs-CRP) was observed. TC was positively correlated with BMI and albumin, and HDL-C was inversely correlated with Hs-CRP. The associations of TC level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were attenuated but consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.99). Associations of HDL-C level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were also consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with OR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90–0.98). Strength of association was attenuated prominently in model 3 after adjusted for Hs-CRP, and no change was observed after further adjusted for BMI and albumin. Higher baseline TC and HDL-C levels are associated with better outcome in CHD patients with HF. PMID:28248864

  10. Elevated levels of triglycerides and vldl-cholesterol provoke activation of nlrp1 inflammasome in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleda, Silvia; de Haro, Joaquin; Varela, Cesar; Ferruelo, Antonio; Acin, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    Soluble stimuli present in the plasma of patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are capable of directly stimulating intracellular signalling in endothelium. Oxidized-LDL (oxLDL) induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. However, it is not clear how lipid profile affect NLRP1 inflammasome gene expression in endothelial cells. In this study, the effect of cholesterol and TG of plasma of patients with PAD on NLRP1 inflammasome gene expression in human arterial endothelial cells (HAECS) was assessed. We included 113 patients with symptomatic PAD. HAECs were stimulated for 2h using the plasma samples of the study participants. The NLRP1 quantification of the transcription was carried out on the 7500 real-time PCR system using the Taqman® Universal PCR Master Mix and Assays on demand. Relative quantification of the NLRP1 expression was carried out using the ΔΔCt (threshold cycle) comparative method. Plasma from patients with elevated VLDL-cholesterol levels (>33.6mg/dL, the median value of the sample) provoked a higher expression of NLRP1 inflammasome in HAECs (RQ=1.15±0.23 vs. 1.05±0.69; p=0.045), as well as plasma from patients with elevated TGs levels (>168mg/dL, the median value of the sample) (RQ=1.15±0.23 vs. 1.05±0.69; p=0.045). A positive correlation was found between NLRP1 inflammasome expression and VLDL-cholesterol plasma levels (r=0.4; pcholesterol of patients with atherosclerosis, manifested as PAD, promote the in vitro NLRP1 inflammasome expression in HAECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Relationship between Icodextrin use and decreased level of small low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fractioned by high-performance gel permeation chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Eiichiro; Ai, Masumi; Iwamoto, Asami; Okazaki, Mitsuyo; Maeda, Yoshitaka; Sasaki, Sei; Yoshida, Masayuki

    2013-10-26

    Because of the absorption of glucose in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution, PD patients show an atherogenic lipid profile, which is predictive of poor survival in PD patients. Lipoprotein subclasses consist of a continuous spectrum of particles of different sizes and densities (fraction). In this study, we investigated the lipoprotein fractions in PD patients with controlled serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level, and evaluated the effects of icodextrin on lipid metabolism. Forty-nine PD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study in Japan. The proportions of cholesterol levels to total cholesterol level (cholesterol proportion) in 20 lipoprotein fractions were measured using an improved method of high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC). Twenty-six patients used icodextrin. Although no significant differences in cholesterol levels in LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed between the patients using icodextrin (icodextrin group) and control groups, HPGPC showed that the icodextrin group had significantly lower cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (t-test, p=0.053) and very small LDL (p=0.019), and significantly higher cholesterol proportions in the very large HDL and large HDL than the control group (p=0.037; p=0.066, respectively). Multivariate analysis adjusted for patient characteristics and statin use showed that icodextrin use was negatively associated with the cholesterol proportions in the small LDL (p=0.037) and very small LDL (p=0.026), and positively with those in the very large HDL (p=0.040), large HDL (p=0.047), and medium HDL (p=0.009). HPGPC showed the relationship between icodextrin use and the cholesterol proportions in lipoprotein fractions in PD patients. These results suggest that icodextrin may improve atherogenic lipid profiles in a manner different from statin.

  12. Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and triglyceride lipid levels and risk of Alzheimer disease: a Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petroula Proitsi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although altered lipid metabolism has been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD through cell biological, epidemiological, and genetic studies, the molecular mechanisms linking cholesterol and AD pathology are still not well understood and contradictory results have been reported. We have used a Mendelian randomization approach to dissect the causal nature of the association between circulating lipid levels and late onset AD (LOAD and test the hypothesis that genetically raised lipid levels increase the risk of LOAD.We included 3,914 patients with LOAD, 1,675 older individuals without LOAD, and 4,989 individuals from the general population from six genome wide studies drawn from a white population (total n=10,578. We constructed weighted genotype risk scores (GRSs for four blood lipid phenotypes (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-c], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-c], triglycerides, and total cholesterol using well-established SNPs in 157 loci for blood lipids reported by Willer and colleagues (2013. Both full GRSs using all SNPs associated with each trait at p<5×10-8 and trait specific scores using SNPs associated exclusively with each trait at p<5 × 10-8 were developed. We used logistic regression to investigate whether the GRSs were associated with LOAD in each study and results were combined together by meta-analysis. We found no association between any of the full GRSs and LOAD (meta-analysis results: odds ratio [OR]=1.005, 95% CI 0.82-1.24, p = 0.962 per 1 unit increase in HDL-c; OR=0.901, 95% CI 0.65-1.25, p=0.530 per 1 unit increase in LDL-c; OR=1.104, 95% CI 0.89-1.37, p=0.362 per 1 unit increase in triglycerides; and OR=0.954, 95% CI 0.76-1.21, p=0.688 per 1 unit increase in total cholesterol. Results for the trait specific scores were similar; however, the trait specific scores explained much smaller phenotypic variance.Genetic predisposition to increased blood cholesterol and

  13. Effects of plasma membrane cholesterol level and cytoskeleton F-actin on cell protrusion mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khatibzadeh

    Full Text Available Protrusions are deformations that form at the surface of living cells during biological activities such as cell migration. Using combined optical tweezers and fluorescent microscopy, we quantified the mechanical properties of protrusions in adherent human embryonic kidney cells in response to application of an external force at the cell surface. The mechanical properties of protrusions were analyzed by obtaining the associated force-length plots during protrusion formation, and force relaxation at constant length. Protrusion mechanics were interpretable by a standard linear solid (Kelvin model, consisting of two stiffness parameters, k0 and k1 (with k0>k1, and a viscous coefficient. While both stiffness parameters contribute to the time-dependant mechanical behavior of the protrusions, k0 and k1 in particular dominated the early and late stages of the protrusion formation and elongation process, respectively. Lowering the membrane cholesterol content by 25% increased the k0 stiffness by 74%, and shortened the protrusion length by almost half. Enhancement of membrane cholesterol content by nearly two-fold increased the protrusion length by 30%, and decreased the k0 stiffness by nearly two-and-half-fold as compared with control cells. Cytoskeleton integrity was found to make a major contribution to protrusion mechanics as evidenced by the effects of F-actin disruption on the resulting mechanical parameters. Viscoelastic behavior of protrusions was further characterized by hysteresis and force relaxation after formation. The results of this study elucidate the coordination of plasma membrane composition and cytoskeleton during protrusion formation.

  14. Amyloid Beta Peptides Affect Pregnenolone and Pregnenolone Sulfate Levels in PC-12 and SH-SY5Y Cells Depending on Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calan, Ozlem Gursoy; Akan, Pinar; Cataler, Aysenur; Dogan, Cumhur; Kocturk, Semra

    2016-07-01

    Increased amyloid beta (AB) peptide concentration is one of the initiating factors in the neurodegeneration process. It has been suggested that cholesterol induces the synthesis of AB peptide from amyloid precursor protein or facilitates the formation of amyloid plaque by lowering the aggregation threshold of the peptide. It is also shown that AB peptides may affect cholesterol metabolism and the synthesis of steroid hormones such as progesterone and estradiol. Pregnenolone (P) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) are the major steroids produced from cholesterol in neural tissue. In toxicity conditions, the effect of AB peptides on P and PS levels has not yet been determined. Furthermore, it has not been clearly defined how changes in cellular P and PS levels affect neuronal cell survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of AB peptides on cellular changes in P and PS levels depending on the level of their main precursor, cholesterol. Cholesterol and toxic concentrations of AB fragments (AB 25-35, AB 1-40 and AB 1-42) were applied to PC-12 and SH-SY5Y cells. Changes in cellular cholesterol, P and PS levels were determined simultaneously in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The cell viability and cell death types were also evaluated. AB peptides affected both cell viability and P/PS levels. Steroid levels were altered depending on AB fragment type and the cholesterol content of the cells. Treatment with each of the AB fragments alone increased P levels by twofold. However, combined treatment with AB peptides and cholesterol increased P levels by approximately sixfold, while PS levels were increased only about 2.5 fold in both cell lines. P levels in the groups treated with AB 25-35 were higher than those in AB 1-40 and AB 1-42 groups. The cell viabilities were significantly low in the group treated by AB and cholesterol (9 mM). The effect of AB peptides on P levels might be a result of cellular self-defense. On the other hand, the rate of P increase

  15. Effects of dietary garlic powder and {alpha}-tocopherol supplementation on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Park, W Y; Kim, Y J

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing diets with garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol on performance, serum cholesterol levels, and meat quality of chickens. Three hundred 1-d-old male broiler chicks were assigned to 5 diet treatments (0, 1, 3, and 5% garlic powder and 3% garlic powder + 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol/kg) with 3 replications of 20 birds for 35 d. There were no significant differences in broiler performance among the treatments. Moisture and crude ash contents of chicken thigh muscle were not different among all treatments, but dietary garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol supplementation resulted in significantly higher CP and lower crude fat contents in comparison with control (P garlic powder and applying garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in broiler blood (P garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. However, no significant differences in water-holding capacity or shear force values were observed among the treatments. For broiler thigh muscle color, L* (lightness) values were decreased (P garlic powder levels and the combination of garlic powder and alpha-tocopherol. In terms of fatty acid composition in thigh muscle, unlike saturated fatty acid and total saturated fatty acid, dietary garlic powder or garlic powder plus alpha-tocopherol supplementation increased unsaturated fatty acid, total unsaturated fatty acid, and total unsaturated fatty acid:total saturated fatty acid ratios. These results suggest that 5% garlic powder or 3% garlic powder plus 200 IU of alpha-tocopherol antioxidant properties were effective for enhancing lipid and color stability.

  16. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  17. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  18. Beyond high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels evaluating high-density lipoprotein function as influenced by novel therapeutic approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    deGoma, Emil M; deGoma, Rolando L; Rader, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    A number of therapeutic strategies targeting high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reverse cholesterol transport are being developed to halt the progression of atherosclerosis or even induce regression...

  19. Methyl protodioscin increases ABCA1 expression and cholesterol efflux while inhibiting gene expressions for synthesis of cholesterol and triglycerides by suppressing SREBP transcription and microRNA 33a/b levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weilie; Ding, Hang; Gong, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Yalin; Zhang, Zhizhen; Lin, Guorong

    2015-04-01

    Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) regulate homeostasis of LDL, HDL and triglycerides. This study was aimed to determine if inhibition of SREBPs by methyl protodioscin (MPD) regulates downstream gene and protein expressions of lipid metabolisms. In THP-1 macrophages, MPD increases levels of ABCA1 mRNA and protein in dose- and time-dependent manners, and apoA-1-mediated cholesterol efflux. The underlying mechanisms for the effects is that MPD inhibits the transcription of SREBP1c and SREBP2, and decreases levels of microRNA 33a/b hosted in the introns of SREBPs, which leads to reciprocally increase ABCA1 levels. In HepG2 cells, MPD shows the same effects as these observed in THP-1 macrophages. MPD also decreases the gene expressions of HMGCR, FAS and ACC for cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis. MPD further promotes LDL receptor through reducing the PCSK9 level. Collectively, the study demonstrates that MPD potentially increase HDL cholesterol while reducing LDL cholesterol and triglycerides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Serum uric acid and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are independent predictors of coronary artery disease in Asian Indian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashankar, C A; Andrews, Henley Punnen; Vijayasarathi; Pinnelli, Venkata BharatKumar; Shashidharan, Basappaji; Nithin Kumar, H N; Vemulapalli, Swaapnika

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify the predictors of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM). About fifty Asian Indian patients with type 2 DM patients aged >40 years and fifty sex- and age-matched nondiabetic controls were enrolled for this study. Following complete medical history and baseline clinical data, laboratory investigations were performed to assess fasting and postprandial plasma glucose levels, lipid profile, blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid levels. Body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, serum uric acid, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, very LDL cholesterol were significantly higher among diabetic patients compared to controls. On univariate analysis, serum LDL cholesterol (odds ratio [OR]: 29.67, P lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (OR: 21.12, P diabetes (OR: 4.65, P = 0.03) were identified as predictors of CVD among diabetic patients. On multivariate regression, only LDL cholesterol (OR: 1.51, P = 0.002) and serum uric acid (OR: 1.21, P = 0.01) were the independent predictors of CAD among diabetic patients. Significant positive correlation of serum uric acid with duration of diabetes (r = 0.38, P = 0.006), BMI (r = 0.35, P = 0.01), triglycerides (r = 0.356, P = 0.01), LDL cholesterol (r = 0.38, P = 0.007), HDL cholesterol (r = -0.514, P < 0.001), and hypertension (r = 0.524, P < 0.001) was observed. Serum LDL cholesterol and hyperuricemia may serve as independent predictors of CAD among Asian Indian subjects with type 2 DM.

  1. Unacylated Ghrelin is associated with the isolated low HDL-cholesterol obese phenotype independently of insulin resistance and CRP level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Juan-Patricio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c level is commonly present in obesity and represents an independent cardiovascular risk factor. However, obese patients are a very heterogeneous population and the factors and mechanisms that contribute to low HDL-c remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between plasma HDL-c levels and plasma hormonal profiles (insulin, adiponectin, resistin, leptin and ghrelin in subsets of class II and III obese patients. Methods Fasting plasma levels of glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, triglycerides, free fatty acids, apoproteins A-I, B-100, B-48, C-II, C-III, insulin, hs-CRP, adipocytokines (adiponectin, resistin, leptin, unacylated ghrelin, body composition (DXA and resting energy expenditure were measured in three subsets of obese patients: 17 metabolically abnormal obese (MAO with metabolic syndrome and the typical metabolic dyslipidaemia, 21 metabolically healthy obese (MHO without metabolic syndrome and with a normal lipid profile, and 21 isolated low HDL-c obese patients (LHO without metabolic syndrome, compared to 21 healthy lean control subjects. Results Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR increased gradually from MHO to LHO and from LHO to MAO patients (p p = 0.032. Conclusions These results suggest that, in class II and III obese patients with an isolated low HDL-c phenotype, unacylated ghrelin is positively associated with HDL-c level independently of insulin resistance and CRP levels, and may contribute to the highly prevalent low HDL-c level seen in obesity.

  2. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Ameri...

  3. Alpinia zerumbet potentially elevates high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Yun; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Liang, Yu-Jing; Yeh, Wan-Ting; Wang, Hui-Er; Yu, Tung-Hsi; Peng, Robert Y

    2008-06-25

    In folkloric plant medicines, Alpinia zerumbet (AZ) has been popularly recognized as an exellent hepatoprotector. To search for a good high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) elevating herbal preparation, we examined AZ for its antioxidant and hypolipidaemic bioactivities, especially its HDL-C elevating activity. AZ seeds contain 0.51% essential oils (SO), which are comprised of monoterpenoids, oxygenated monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, oxygenated sesquiterpenoids, aldehydes, acid, and esters. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicated that most of the monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes were recoverable in pentane eluent, whilst the oxygenated monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids remained in ether eluent. The high contents of rutin, quercetin, and polyphenolics in ethanolic extract of AZ seeds exhibit moderate antilipoperoxidative but potent DPPH free radical scavenging bioactivities. Conclusively, both seed powder (SP) and SO are effective hypolipidaemics with amazingly potent HDL-C elevating capabilities. On the basis of hepatoprotectivity, SP is a more feasible hypolipidemic agent as well as a promising HDL-C elevating plant medicine.

  4. Predicting survival of endoscopic gastrostomy candidates using the underlying disease, serum cholesterol, albumin and transferrin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Fonseca

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG is the gold standard for long-term enteral feeding. An adequate PEG candidate must have life expectancy longer than a few weeks. Patients surviving less than three weeks should have a nasogastric tube, and gastrostomy should be avoid. There are few studies looking to prognostic factors and fewer attempts of creating a predictor model for PEG patient's survival. Aim: The aim of this study was creating a predictive survival model for PEG candidates, using underlying disease, cholesterol, albumin and transferrin. Methods: Data was obtained from records of adult patients that underwent PEG between 1999 and 2011. Patients surviving 3 weeks were considered adequate survivors. A full logistic regression model was used to classify future cases into one of the two groups of survival. Results: An equation for the probability of future cases was generated, in order to obtain a P value. In the future, patients with a P > 0,88 will have a 64,7% probability of adequate surviving; patients with a P < 0,88 will have a 70.3% probability of short surviving. Conclusions: When clinical evaluation alone does not display a clear prognosis, this equation should be included in the evaluation of gastrostomy candidates, avoiding useless gastrostomy.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  6. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  7. The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine on cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and protein carbonylation level in rats with alimentary obesity-induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Onopchenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of N-stearoylethanolamine (NSE on liver free fatty acid composition, cholesterol content and carbonylated protein level in rats with obesity-induced insulin resistance (IR was studied in the work. The experimental insulin resistance was induced by prolonged high fat diet (58% of energy derived from fat for 6 months combined with one injection of low-dose (15 mg/kg of streptozotocin. The lipid assay showed a rise in liver free cholesterol content and a significant reduction in cholesterol esters level. Analyzing liver fatty acid composition, a decrease in polyunsaturated of fatty acid (PUFA level and an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA content was found. Fatty acid imbalance with high content of MUFA was associated with elevated level of protein carbonylation. The NSE administration (50 mg/kg of body weight for 2 weeks decreased free cholesterol content, increased cholesterol esters level and reduced free oleic fatty acid content in the liver of rats with IR. The effect of NSE on lipid imbalance led to a decrease in protein carbonylation level that may result in improvement of transmembrane protein function under obesity-induced insulin resistance state.

  8. Activity assay of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) pericarp extract for decreasing fasting blood cholesterol level and lipid peroxidation in type-2 diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husen, Saikhu Akhmad; Winarni, Dwi; Khaleyla, Firas; Kalqutny, Septian Hary; Ansori, Arif Nur Muhammad

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the activity of pericarp extract of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Mangosteen pericarp contains various active compounds which are beneficial for human health. In-vivo antioxidant assay of pericarp extract was carried out using 3-4 month male mice of strain BALB/c weighed 30-40 g. The mice were divided into two groups: normal control (KN) group and STZ-induced diabetic group. STZ induction was performed using multiple low-dose method 30 mg/kg body weight treated daily for five consecutive days. Diabetic group was separated into two subgroups: diabetic control (KD), metformin control (KM), and crude extract treatment subgroups. The fasting blood glucose and the cholesterol level were measured before and after lard treatment, we also did it on the first, seventh, and fourteenth day of mangosteen pericarp crude extract treatment. The mice were treated with mangosteen pericarp crude extract for 14 days. The MDA level of the fasting blood serum was measured. The body weight and fasting blood cholesterol level before and after lard treatment were analyzed by t-test, whereas, the fasting blood cholesterol and the MDA level were analyzed using one-way variant analysis continued with Duncan test. The correlation between the increasing body weight and the fasting blood cholesterol level was determined by Pearson correlation test. The results of the study showed that the administration of mangosteen pericarp crude extract was able to reduce the fasting blood cholesterol and the malondialdehide level significantly.

  9. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  10. Effect of fermented oatmeal soup on the cholesterol level and the Lactobacillus colonization of rat intestinal mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molin, G; Andersson, R; Ahrné, S; Lönner, C; Marklinder, I; Johansson, M L; Jeppsson, B; Bengmark, S

    1992-04-01

    Rats were fed with freeze-dried oatmeal soup fermented by six different Lactobacillus strains from rat and man; the formula is intended for enteral feeding. The serum cholesterol levels after 10 d were lower for rats eating oatmeal as compared to a commercial product, Biosorb Sond. Colonizing ability of the administered strains were evaluated in vivo. Only Lactobacillus reuteri R21c were able to, effectively, colonizing the mucosa; it represented about 30% of the Lactobacillus population 24 d after termination of the administration. L. reuteri R21c was easily recognized by the ability to produce a yellow pigment on agar plates. The identity was confirmed by carbohydrate fermentations (API 50CH), plasmid pattern and endonuclease restriction analysis of the chromosomal DNA.

  11. National Cholesterol Education Month

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-09-01

    Do you know your cholesterol numbers? Your doctor can do a simple test to check your cholesterol levels and help you make choices that lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/9/2009.

  12. Activation of the human complement system by cholesterol-rich and pegylated liposomes - Modulation of cholesterol-rich liposome-mediated complement activation by elevated serum LDL and HDL levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Hamad, I.; Bunger, R.;

    2006-01-01

    Intravenously infused liposomes may induce cardiopulmonary distress in some human subjects, which is a manifestation of "complement activation-related pseudoallergy." We have now examined liposome-mediated complement activation in human sera with elevated lipoprotein (LDL and HDL) levels, since...... level of S-protein-bound form of the terminal complex (SC5b-9). However, liposome-induced rise of SC5b-9 was significantly suppressed when serum HDL cholesterol levels increased by 30%. Increase of serum LDL to levels similar to that observed in heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia also suppressed...

  13. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol level inversely correlated with coronary flow velocity reserve in patients with Type 2 diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Yu; Jiang-Li Han; Li-Yun He; Xin-Heng Feng; Wei-Hong Li; Jie-Ming Mao; Wei Gao; Guang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the association of coronary artery endothelial function and plasma levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Methods We investigated 90 participants from our institution between October 2007 to March 2010: non-DM (n = 60) and DM (n = 30). As an indicator of coronary endothelial dysfunction, we used non-invasive Doppler echocardiography to quantify coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR) in the distal part of the left descending artery after rest and after intravenous adenosine administration. Results Plasma level of LDL-C was significantly higher in patients with DM than in non-DM (3.21 0.64 vs. 2.86 0.72 mmo/L, P < 0.05), but HDL-C level did not differ between the groups (1.01 0.17 vs. 1.05 0.19 mmo/L). Furthermore, the CFVR value was lower in DM patients than non-diabetics (2.45±0.62 vs. 2.98±0.68, P < 0.001). Plasma levels of LDL-C were negatively correlated with CFVR in all subjects (r = 0.35, P < 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.52 -C0.15) and in the non-DM (r = 0.29, P < 0.05; 95% CI: 0.51–0.05), with an even stronger negative correlation in the DM group (r = 0.42, P < 0.05; 95% CI: 0.68 –0.06). Age (β = 0.019, s = 0.007, sβ = 0.435, 95% CI: 0.033 –0.005, P = 0.008), LDL-C (β = 0.217, s = 0.105, sβ = 0.282, 95% CI: 0.428 –0.005, P = 0.045) remained independently correlated with CFVR in the DM group. However, we found no correlation between HDL-C level and CFVR in any group. Conclusions Diabetes may contribute to coronary artery disease (CAD) by inducing dysfunction of the coronary artery endothelium. Increased LDL-C level may adversely impair coronary endothelial function in DM. HDL-C may lose its endothelial-protective effects, in part as a result of pathological conditions, especially under abnormal glucose metabolism.

  14. CORRELATION OF BREAST CANCER AND SERUM HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL LEVEL: A SINGLE CENTRE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most common site specific cancer in women. Lots of etiological factors have been suggested regarding its causation. The risk is influenced by obesity, parity, exogenous and endogenous hormones, exposure to chemicals and radiation and many more. Various studies suggest that as HDL-C seems to be cardio protective, it is also protective for breast cancer. Serum HDL-C levels are found to be low in breast cancer patients. We studied this hypothesis in local population of Southern Rajasthan and nearby region to see if low serum HDL-C is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We studied serum HDL-C level in 50 female patients of breast cancer along with their menopausal status and compared it to their respective controls. We found that breast cancer patients had significantly low level of serum HDL-C and presented in advanced stage of cancer. It supports that low serum HDL-C level is associated with increased risk of breast cancer. So one should think about those dietary and lifestyle measures, which maintain high serum HDL-C level so that it might become preventive measure for breast cancer.

  15. Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans - A Quantitative Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid an

  16. GALNT2 effect on HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides levels in humans: Evidence of pleiotropy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, R; Marucci, A; Trischitta, V

    2017-04-01

    A wide range of studies both in humans and animal models point GALNT2 as a shaper of serum HDL-C and TG levels. Available data in humans indicate that, while under conditions of extreme GALNT2 loss-of-function HDL-C is the main target, a fine-tuning of GALNT2 changes is mostly associated with TG levels. Understanding whether different degrees of GALNT2 change do modulate different serum lipid fractions and, if so, addressing the mechanisms underlying such pleiotropic effects has the potential not only to improve our understanding of HDL-C and TG metabolism, but also to make GALNT2 becoming a target for treating atherogenic dyslipidemia and related clinical events. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling of environmental effects in genome-wide association studies identifies SLC2A2 and HP as novel loci influencing serum cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Igl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified 38 larger genetic regions affecting classical blood lipid levels without adjusting for important environmental influences. We modeled diet and physical activity in a GWAS in order to identify novel loci affecting total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. The Swedish (SE EUROSPAN cohort (N(SE = 656 was screened for candidate genes and the non-Swedish (NS EUROSPAN cohorts (N(NS = 3,282 were used for replication. In total, 3 SNPs were associated in the Swedish sample and were replicated in the non-Swedish cohorts. While SNP rs1532624 was a replication of the previously published association between CETP and HDL cholesterol, the other two were novel findings. For the latter SNPs, the p-value for association was substantially improved by inclusion of environmental covariates: SNP rs5400 (p(SE,unadjusted = 3.6 x 10(-5, p(SE,adjusted = 2.2 x 10(-6, p(NS,unadjusted = 0.047 in the SLC2A2 (Glucose transporter type 2 and rs2000999 (p(SE,unadjusted = 1.1 x 10(-3, p(SE,adjusted = 3.8 x 10(-4, p(NS,unadjusted = 0.035 in the HP gene (Haptoglobin-related protein precursor. Both showed evidence of association with total cholesterol. These results demonstrate that inclusion of important environmental factors in the analysis model can reveal new genetic susceptibility loci.

  18. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K W; Macfarlane, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  19. Cholesterol transport in model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula

    2010-03-01

    Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.

  20. Effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice with and without the influence of fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Dong, Hang; Guo, Bao-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in mice. In the present study, the effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice without and with the influence of fenofibrate were investigated. Parameters on hepatic index (the ratio of liver weight to body weight × 100) were also analyzed. Mice were intragastrically treated with schisandrin B at a single dose of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 g/kg, without or with fenofibrate pretreatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 4 days, p.o.). Twenty-four hours after schisandrin B treatment, serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were measured. Schisandrin B treatment dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels as well as hepatic index in mice. In contrast, hepatic total cholesterol levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in schisandrin B-treated mice. Data obtained from effective kinetics analysis indicated that the action of schisandrin B on serum triglyceride had a higher specificity than those on hepatic total cholesterol and hepatic index. While fenofibrate pretreatment inhibited the schisandrin B-induced elevation in serum triglyceride levels, it completely abrogated the elevation of hepatic triglyceride levels in schisandrin B-treated mice. The combined treatment with schisandrin B and fenofibrate decreased hepatic total cholesterol level and increased the hepatic index in an additive or semi-additive manner, respectively. In conclusion, the results of effective kinetics analysis indicated that the schisandrin B-induced hypertriglyceridemia was competitively inhibited by fenofibrate. Schisandrin B may offer the prospect of setting up a mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver for screening triglyceride-lowering drug candidates.

  1. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing-Qing; Chen, Yan; Liu, Zhi-Jun; Sun, Yi-Min; Yang, Ping; Lu, Shen-Ji; Xu, Miao; Dong, Qin-Yun; Yang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Zhi-Ying

    2014-01-01

    To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population. There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1) E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2); (2) E3/3 (APOE E3); and (3) E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4). Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed. E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (Pcholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223-2.334, Ptriglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759-1.429, P=0.800). A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides.

  2. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  3. Less but better: cardioprotective lipid profile of patients with GCK-MODY despite lower HDL cholesterol level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendler, Wojciech; Rizzo, Manfredi; Borowiec, Maciej; Malachowska, Beata; Antosik, Karolina; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Banach, Maciej; Urbanska-Kosinska, Malgorzata; Szopa, Magdalena; Malecki, Maciej; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2014-08-01

    Patients with diabetes caused by single-gene mutations generally exhibit an altered course of diabetes. Those with mutations of the glucokinase gene (GCK-MODY) show good metabolic control and low risk of cardiovascular complications despite paradoxically lowered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In order to investigate the matter, we analyzed the composition of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and HDL subpopulations in such individuals. The LipoPrint(©) system (Quantimetrix, USA) based on non-denaturing, linear polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to separate and measure LDL and HDL subclasses in fresh-frozen serum samples from patients with mutations of glucokinase or HNF1A, type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and healthy controls. Fresh serum samples from a total of 37 monogenic diabetes patients (21 from GCK-MODY and 16 from HNF1A-MODY), 22 T1DM patients and 15 healthy individuals were measured in this study. Concentrations of the small, highly atherogenic LDL subpopulation were similar among the compared groups. Large HDL percentage was significantly higher in GCK-MODY than in control (p = 0.0003), T1DM (p = 0.0006) and HNF1A-MODY groups (p = 0.0246). Patients with GCK-MODY were characterized by significantly lower intermediate HDL levels than controls (p = 0.0003) and T1DM (p = 0.0005). Small, potentially atherogenic HDL content differed significantly with the GCK-MODY group showing concentrations of that subfraction from control (p = 0.0096), T1DM (p = 0.0193) and HNF1A-MODY (p = 0.0057) groups. Within-group heterogeneity suggested the existence of potential gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. GCK-MODY is characterized by a strongly protective profile of HDL cholesterol subpopulations. A degree of heterogeneity within the groups suggests the existence of interactions with other genetic or clinical factors.

  4. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  5. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  6. Characterization of vitamin E and total cholesterol levels in meat of lamb produced in the south of Sonora State, México by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The higher cholesterol content in some meat species has been associated in many scientific papers with degenerative and cardiovascular illness. Nonetheless, there are no specific studies on Sonora’s lamb meat vitamin E and cholesterol content. The use of analytical techniques to determinate meat quality and healthiness are important as routine food analysis. The objective of this work was to characterize cholesterol and vitamin E levels in lamb meat produced in Sonora using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC as a precise analytical technique. Samples (15 from criollo race Longissimus dorsi muscle, 35-40 kg live weight produced in a stabled system feed with corn was lyophilized to determinate -tocopherol and cholesterol via HPLC. Results shown that the average concentration were 2.3±1.06 mg/mL and 135.62±31.4 mg/mL in 100 g of meat for α-tocopherol and cholesterol, respectively. The characterization of these analites is important to provide the necessary purchase information to consumer, increasing lamb meat added value.

  7. Spreads enriched with three different levels of vegetable oil sterols and the degree of cholesterol lowering in normocholesterolaemic and mildly hypercholesterolaemic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, H.F.J.; Weststrate, J.A.; Vliet, T. van; Meijer, G.W.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the dose-response relationship between cholesterol lowering and three different, relatively low intake levels of plant sterols (0.83, 1.61, 3.24 g/d) from spreads. To investigate the effects on lipid-soluble (pro)vitamins. Design: A randomized double-blind placebo

  8. The bold and the fearless among us: elevated psychopathic traits and levels of anxiety and fear are associated with specific aberrant driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, Georgia

    2015-06-01

    In spite of the well-documented connection between personality traits like impulsivity, sensation seeking and fearlessness with aberrant driving behaviors, scarce research exists to examine the association between risky and aggressive driving and psychopathic characteristics, which encompass the above traits. The present investigation examines in two studies the association between specific sub-types of driving misconduct, i.e., unintentional mistakes and deliberate rule violations with psychopathic characteristics, with a focus on the role of levels of fear and anxiety in aberrant driving. Findings support the hypotheses that fearlessness, i.e., the bold, unemotional aspect of psychopathic traits, characterizes drivers who engage in frequent deliberate driving code violations, whereas the more impulsive/antisocial aspect of psychopathy, associated with higher levels of fear and anxiety, is more characteristic of drivers who engage in unintentional mistakes. Fearless features are also associated with higher self-reported driving misconduct and accidents. Study 2 conceptually replicated this finding by showing that mistakes are positively related to high sensitivity to punishment, while violations are negatively related to it. Findings are discussed in light of psychopathy theory and in relation to prevention and intervention.

  9. Effect of tomato consumption on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas-Ramos D

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Cuevas-Ramos,1 Paloma Almeda-Valdés,1 Emma Chávez-Manzanera,1 Clara Elena Meza-Arana,2 Griselda Brito-Córdova,1 Roopa Mehta,1 Oscar Pérez-Méndez,3 Francisco J Gómez-Pérez1 1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Department of Molecular Biology, Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that tomato-based products could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. One of the main cardiovascular risk factors is low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. This study aimed to prospectively evaluate the effect of tomato consumption on HDL-C levels. Subject and methods: We conducted a randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. We screened 432 subjects with a complete lipid profile. Those individuals with low HDL-C (men 40 mg/dL. A linear regression model that adjusted for those parameters that impact HDL-C levels (age, gender, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting triglyceride concentration, simple sugars, alcohol, physical activity, and omega-3 consumption showed an independent association between tomato consumption and the increase in HDL-C (r2 = 0.69; P > 0.0001. Conclusion: Raw tomato consumption produced a favorable effect on HDL-C levels in overweight women. Keywords: lycopene, hypoalphalipoproteinemia, dyslipidemia, overweight, cardiovascular diseases

  10. Necroptosis-like Neuronal Cell Death Caused by Cellular Cholesterol Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Takeshi; Aki, Toshihiko; Tajiri, Masateru; Unuma, Kana; Uemura, Koichi

    2016-11-25

    Aberrant cellular accumulation of cholesterol is associated with neuronal lysosomal storage disorders such as Niemann-Pick disease Type C (NPC). We have shown previously that l-norephedrine (l-Nor), a sympathomimetic amine, induces necrotic cell death associated with massive cytoplasmic vacuolation in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. To reveal the molecular mechanism underling necrotic neuronal cell death caused by l-Nor, we examined alterations in the gene expression profile of cells during l-Nor exposure. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the gene levels for cholesterol transport (LDL receptor and NPC2) as well as cholesterol biosynthesis (mevalonate pathway enzymes) are increased after exposure to 3 mm l-Nor for ∼6 h. Concomitant with this observation, the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol homeostasis, SREBP-2, is activated by l-Nor. The increase in cholesterol uptake as well as biosynthesis is not accompanied by an increase in cholesterol in the plasma membrane, but rather by aberrant accumulation in cytoplasmic compartments. We also found that cell death by l-Nor can be suppressed by nec-1s, an inhibitor of a regulated form of necrosis, necroptosis. Abrogation of SREBP-2 activation by the small molecule inhibitor betulin or by overexpression of dominant-negative SREBP-2 efficiently reduces cell death by l-Nor. The mobilization of cellular cholesterol in the presence of cyclodextrin also suppresses cell death. These results were also observed in primary culture of striatum neurons. Taken together, our results indicate that the excessive uptake as well as synthesis of cholesterol should underlie neuronal cell death by l-Nor exposure, and suggest a possible link between lysosomal cholesterol storage disorders and the regulated form of necrosis in neuronal cells. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target in the French general population according to levels of cardiovascular risk: Insights from the MONA LISA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongard, Vanina; Dallongeville, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Amouyel, Philippe; Wagner, Aline; Ferrières, Jean

    2013-02-01

    Controlling low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration is of tremendous importance to reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the attainment of LDL-cholesterol targets recommended in French and European guidelines on cardiovascular prevention, according to levels of cardiovascular risk. Participants aged 35 to 74 years (n=4609) were randomly selected from the general population of three French regions. A standardized data collection was performed to assess cardiovascular risk as described in the French and European guidelines. Overall, 17.5% of participants were considered to be at high risk and 25.4% at high or very high risk, according to the French and European guidelines, respectively. Only 1.2% of participants with no cardiovascular risk factors according to the French guidelines had an LDL-cholesterol concentration above the recommended target, whereas 82.5% of high-risk subjects did not attain their goal (70.8% among high-risk subjects receiving lipid-lowering therapy). Among untreated people, the median reduction in LDL-cholesterol needed to reach target ranged from 6.6% (lowest-risk groups) to 36.0% (highest-risk subjects). When risk was classified according to the European guidelines, the majority of participants did not reach the recommended LDL-cholesterol targets, irrespective of their level of risk or lipid-lowering therapy. In a majority of primary prevention candidates with multiple risk factors and in most high-risk subjects, LDL-cholesterol targets recommended by French guidelines are not being achieved, either because of insufficient treatment or because subjects are not recognized as being at risk. More stringent targets proposed by the European guidelines are not being achieved in most cases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the e...

  13. Translocator protein-mediated pharmacology of cholesterol transport and steroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Vassilios; Aghazadeh, Yasaman; Fan, Jinjiang; Campioli, Enrico; Zirkin, Barry; Midzak, Andrew

    2015-06-15

    Steroidogenesis begins with cholesterol transfer into mitochondria through the transduceosome, a complex composed of cytosolic proteins that include steroidogenesis acute regulatory protein (STAR), 14-3-3 adaptor proteins, and the outer mitochondrial membrane proteins Translocator Protein (TSPO) and Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel (VDAC). TSPO is a drug- and cholesterol-binding protein found at particularly high levels in steroid synthesizing cells. Its aberrant expression has been linked to cancer, neurodegeneration, neuropsychiatric disorders and primary hypogonadism. Brain steroids serve as local regulators of neural development and excitability. Reduced levels of these steroids have been linked to depression, anxiety and neurodegeneration. Reduced serum testosterone is common among subfertile young men and aging men, and is associated with depression, metabolic syndrome and reduced sexual function. Although testosterone-replacement therapy is available, there are undesired side-effects. TSPO drug ligands have been proposed as therapeutic agents to regulate steroid levels in the brain and testis.

  14. Common and rare alleles in apolipoprotein B contribute to plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M.; Stene, Maria Charlotte Aslaug; Nordestgaard, Børge;

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. Design......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. Setting: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. Participants: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. Main Outcome Measures: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic...... (0.21), R3611Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g > t, T2488Tc > t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4 + 171c > a, A591V, Ivs18 + 379a > c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  15. Availability of self-recorded axillary temperature for assessment of thermic effects of food: relationship between HDL-cholesterol level and postprandial thermoregulation in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, S; Nishio, S-i; Ishii, H; Sato, A; Takeda, T; Komatsu, M

    2012-02-01

    The present study was performed to develop a simple procedure for assessment of body temperature and to determine whether postprandial thermoregulation is related to metabolic regulation in diabetic patients. We examined 101 male and female subjects with diabetes. Axillary temperature was measured prior to and after all meals (3 meals per day) and self-recorded for 1 week. The averages were calculated. Positive postprandial thermoregulation (PPT) was defined as a pattern in which each of 3 average postprandial temperatures was higher than the corresponding 3 preprandial temperatures. Negative postprandial thermoregulation (NPT) was defined as the pattern except for PPT. A significant increase in postprandial temperature was observed. With the exception of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels, there were no relationships between the categorized postprandial thermoregulation and other factors, including age, sex, body mass index, thyroid function, HbA1c, diabetic complications, lipid metabolism, and calorie intake. Logistic analysis indicated an independent positive relation between HDL-cholesterol and PPT. A simple method for measurement of body temperature indicated that HDL-cholesterol level was predominantly associated with thermic effects of food in diabetic patients, while other metabolic factors showed no such relations. HDL-cholesterol may affect the postprandial regulation of body temperature in diabetic patients. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Associations between apolipoprotein E genotypes and serum levels of glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao QQ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Qing-Qing Tao,1,* Yan Chen,2,3,* Zhi-Jun Liu,1 Yi-Min Sun,1 Ping Yang,1 Shen-Ji Lu,1 Miao Xu,1 Qin-Yun Dong,1 Jia-Jun Yang,2 Zhi-Ying Wu11Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Department of Neurology, Sixth People’s Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 3Department of Medicine, Shanghai Fengxian District Central Hospital, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To determine the associations between apolipoprotein E (APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides in a cognitively normal aging Han Chinese population.Methods: There were 1,003 cognitively normal aging subjects included in this study. APOE genotypes were analyzed and biochemical parameters were tested. All the subjects were divided into three groups according to APOE genotypes: (1 E2/2 or E2/3 (APOE E2; (2 E3/3 (APOE E3; and (3 E2/4, E3/4, or E4/4 (APOE E4. Correlations of serum levels of glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides with APOE genotypes were assessed.Results: E2, E3, and E4 allele frequencies were found to be 6.2%, 82.1%, and 11.7%, respectively. Serum levels of total cholesterol were higher in the APOE E4 group (P<0.05. A higher level of total cholesterol was associated with the E4 allele (adjusted odds ratio 1.689, 95% confidence interval 1.223–2.334, P<0.01. However, no association was found between APOE status and serum levels of glucose (adjusted odds ratio 0.981, 95% confidence interval 0.720–1.336, P=0.903 or total triglycerides (adjusted odds ratio 1.042, 95% confidence interval 0.759–1.429, P=0.800.Conclusion: A higher serum level of total cholesterol was significantly correlated with APOE E4 status in a cognitively normal, nondiabetic aging population. However, there was no correlation between APOE genotypes and serum levels of glucose or total triglycerides

  17. A 90 minute soccer match decreases triglyceride and low density lipoprotein but not high-density lipoprotein and cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader - Rahnama

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: The association between the lipid profiles level and the incidence and severity of coronary heart disease (CHD is very pronounced in epidemiological studies, and an inverse relation between physical fitness and the incidence of coronary heart disease has been observed in many studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a soccer match on lipid parameters of professional soccer players.
    • METHODS: Twenty two professional soccer players participated in the study. Blood (10ml for determination of lipid profiles was obtained at rest and immediately after a 90 minute soccer match. Lipid parameters were measured using Boehringer Mannheim kits and Clinilab and BioMerieux analyser.
    • RESULTS: The results of this study showed that the triglyceride was significantly higher before the match than afterwards (159.09 ± 58.2 vs. 88.63 ± 34.1 mg/dl, p < 0.001, whereas the low-density lipoprotein (LDL was lower before the match than after it (98.04 ± 28.9 vs. 112.31 ± 30.5 mg/dl. Moreover, there were no significant differences in cholesterol concentration (171.4 ± 30.28 mg/dl vs. 173.18 ± 32.75 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration (34.04 ± 5.58 mg/dl vs. 34.4 ± 4.6 mg/dl between before and after the match.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although the soccer competitive match has no favourable acute effect on lipid

    • Coexistence of High Fibrinogen and Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Predicts Recurrent Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Xin Ma; Xun-Ming Ji; Paul Fu; Yu-Chuan Ding; Qiang Xue; Yue Huang

      2015-01-01

      Background:Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) may lead to serious neurological disorders;however,little is known about the risk factors for recurrent CVT.Our aim was to determine the association between elevated fibrinogen and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with recurrent CVT.Methods:This retrospective cohort study included participants if they had a first episode of objectively defined CVT and were admitted to Xuan Wu Hospital,Capital Medical University from August 2005 to September 2009.Demographic and clinical variables were collected,as well as laboratory parameters,including plasma fibrinogen and HDL-C.Patients with CVT were followed for recurrent symptomatic CVT.Follow-up was through the end of September 2010.Potential predictors of recurrence were analyzed using Cox survival analysis.Results:At the end of the follow-up,95 patients were eligible for the study.Twelve of 95 patients (12.6%) had recurred CVT.The median time of recurrence was 7 months (range:1-39 months).Eight of these 12 (66.7%) experienced recurrence within the first 12 months after their initial CVT.The recurrence rate of CVT was 2.76 per 100 patient-years.Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the coexistence of high fibrinogen (>4.00 g/L) and low HDL-C (<1.08 mmol/L) levels at baseline was the only independent predictor for recurrent CVT (hazard ratio:4.69;95% confidence interval:1.10-20.11;P < 0.05).Of the twelve patients with recurrent CVT in our study,7 (58.3%) had high fibrinogen plus low HDL-C levels.All 7 of these patients took warfarin for 3-12 months,and 6 of 7 had recurrent CVT after the discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment.Conclusions:Concomitant high fibrinogen and low HDL-C levels may be associated with recurrence of CVT.The effect of potential risk factors related to atherothrombosis on recurrent CVT should be closely monitored.

    • Effect of the consumption of a new symbiotic shake on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Moroti Camila

      2012-02-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group, aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 108 UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 108 UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. Results The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05 in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P P Conclusion The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00123456

    • The Effects of Eight-Week Treatment with High Dose Vitamin E on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Level of Patients with Schizophrenia on Olanzapine: A Placebo Controlled Study

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Firoozeh Raisi

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available "n  "n Objective: To study the effects of a high dose alpha-tocopherol on serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and the high density lipoprotein (HDL levels of patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine. "nMethod: Thirty six adults diagnosed with schizophrenia based on DSM-IV who were taking olanzapine for a minimum of thirty days entered this eight-week, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive alpha-tocopherol 400IU or placebo capsules twice a day for 2 weeks, then three times a day for 6 more weeks. Fasting total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride(TG,and HDL levels were measured at the baseline and weeks 4 and 8. "nResults: "nTC, TG and HDL levels did not change significantly during this study. There were no significant differences in TC, TG and HDL levels between the two groups at the baseline and weeks 4 and 8. "nConclusion: High-dose vitamin may not improve triglyceride and cholesterol levels in patients who are already on olanzapine. Further studies with greater number of patients and for a longer duration are needed.

  1. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  2. Cancer risk in humans predicted by increased levels of chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes: Nordic study group on the health risk of chromosome damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmar, L; Brøgger, A; Hansteen, I L;

    1994-01-01

    Cytogenetic assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have been used extensively to survey the exposure of humans to genotoxic agents. The conceptual basis for this has been the hypothesis that the extent of genetic damage in PBL reflects critical events for carcinogenic processes in target...... tissues. Until now, no follow-up studies have been performed to assess the predictive value of these methods for subsequent cancer risk. In an ongoing Nordic cohort study of cancer incidence, 3182 subjects were examined between 1970 and 1988 for chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchange.......0009) in CA strata with regard to subsequent cancer risk. The point estimates of the standardized incidence ratio in the three CA strata were 0.9, 0.7, and 2.1, respectively. Thus, an increased level of chromosome breakage appears to be a relevant biomarker of future cancer risk....

  3. Impact of physiological levels of chenodeoxycholic acid supplementation on intestinal and hepatic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in Cyp7a1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ryan D; Lopez, Adam M; Tong, Ernest Y; Posey, Kenneth S; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Repa, Joyce J; Turley, Stephen D

    2015-01-01

    Mice deficient in cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1) have a diminished bile acid pool (BAP) and therefore represent a useful model for investigating the metabolic effects of restoring the pool with a specific BA. Previously we carried out such studies in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed physiological levels of cholic acid (CA) and achieved BAP restoration, along with an increased CA enrichment, at a dietary level of just 0.03% (w/w). Here we demonstrate that in Cyp7a1(-/-) mice fed chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) at a level of 0.06% (w/w), the BAP was restored to normal size and became substantially enriched with muricholic acid (MCA) (>70%), leaving the combined contribution of CA and CDCA to be Cyp7a1 deficiency such as an elevated rate of intestinal sterol synthesis, an enhanced level of mRNA for Cyp8b1 in the liver, and depressed mRNA levels for Ibabp, Shp and Fgf15 in the distal small intestine. When Cyp7a1(-/-) and matching Cyp7a1(+/+) mice were fed a diet with added cholesterol (0.2%) (w/w), either alone, or also containing CDCA (0.06%) (w/w) or CA (0.03%) (w/w) for 18days, the hepatic total cholesterol concentrations (mg/g) in the Cyp7a1(-/-) mice were 26.9±3.7, 16.4±0.9 and 47.6±1.9, respectively, vs. 4.9±0.4, 5.0±0.7 and 6.4±1.9, respectively in the corresponding Cyp7a1(+/+) controls. These data affirm the importance of using moderate levels of dietary BA supplementation to elicit changes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism through shifts in BAP size and composition.

  4. The reduced form of coenzyme Q10 mediates distinct effects on cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional and metabolite level in SAMP1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Constance; Okun, Jürgen G; Haas, Dorothea; Higuchi, Keiichi; Sawashita, Jinko; Mori, Masayuki; Döring, Frank

    2010-11-01

    Studies in humans and mice indicate a role for coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) in gene expression. To analyze this function in relation to metabolism, SAMP1 mice were supplemented with the reduced (ubiquinol) or oxidized (ubiquinone) form of CoQ(10) (500 mg/kg BW/d) for 14 months. Microarray analyses in liver tissues of SAMP1 mice identified 946 genes as differentially expressed between ubiquinol-treated and control animals (≥1.5-fold, P < 0.05). Text mining analyses revealed for a part of the ubiquinol-regulated genes, a functional connection in PPARα and LXR/RXR signalling pathways. Because these pathways are involved in cholesterol homeostasis, relevant metabolites were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). We found a significant increase of desmosterol (2.0-fold, P < 0.001) in the liver of ubiquinol-supplemented SAMP1 mice when related to control animals. In agreement, cholesterol concentrations were also distinctly increased (1.3-fold, P = 0.057). The Q(10)H(2)-induced PPARα and LXR/RXR gene expression signatures and effects on cholesterol metabolism were not apparent for the oxidized form of CoQ(10). In conclusion, the reduced form of CoQ(10) mediates distinct effects on cholesterol metabolism at the transcriptional and metabolite level in SAMP1 mice.

  5. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol associates with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes beyond circulating levels of triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Stuart B; Mulvey, Claire K; Ferguson, Jane F; Rickels, Michael R; Bhatt, Anish B; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-10-01

    While recent genomic studies have focused attention on triglyceride (TG) rich lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) relationship with atherosclerosis and CVD. We examined, in a high-risk type-2 diabetic population, the association of plasma VLDL-C with coronary artery calcification (CAC). The Penn Diabetes Heart Study (PDHS) is a cross-sectional study of CVD risk factors in type-2 diabetics (n = 2118, mean age 59.1 years, 36.5% female, 34.1% Black). Plasma lipids including VLDL-C were calculated (n = 1879) after ultracentrifugation. In Tobit regression, VLDL-C levels were positively associated with increasing CAC after adjusting for age, race, gender, Framingham risk score, body mass index, C-reactive protein, exercise, medication and alcohol use, hemoglobin A1c, and diabetes duration [Tobit ratio (TR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 (0.12-0.65), P = 0.005] and even after inclusion of apolipoprotein B data [TR 0.31 (0.03-0.58), P = 0.030]. Approximately 3-fold stronger effect was observed in women [TR 0.75 (0.16-1.34), P = 0.013] than men [TR 0.20 (-0.10-0.50), P = 0.189; gender interaction P = 0.034]. Plasma VLDL-C was related more strongly to CAC scores than TG levels (e.g., Akaike information criteria of 7263.65 vs. 7263.94) and had stronger CAC association in individuals with TGs >150 mg/dl (TR 0.80, P = 0.010) vs. those with TGs <150 mg/dl (TR 0.27, P = 0.185). In PDHS, VLDL-C is associated with CAC independent of established CVD risk factors, particularly in women, and may have value even beyond apolipoprotein B levels and in patients with elevated TGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  7. Reductions in serum levels of LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides and lipoprotein(a) in hypercholesterolaemic patients treated with the liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist eprotirome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Bo; Kristensen, Jens D; Eriksson, Mats; Carlsson, Bo; Klein, Irwin; Olsson, Anders G; Chester Ridgway, E; Ladenson, Paul W

    2015-03-01

    Liver-selective thyromimetic agents could provide a new approach for treating dyslipidaemia. We performed a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of eprotirome, a liver-selective thyroid hormone receptor agonist, in 98 patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia. After previous drug wash-out and dietary run-in, patients received 100 or 200 μg day(-1) eprotirome or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary end-point was change in serum LDL cholesterol; secondary end-points included changes in other lipid parameters and safety measures. Eprotirome treatment at 100 and 200 μg daily reduced serum LDL cholesterol levels by 23 ± 5% and 31 ± 4%, respectively, compared with 2 ± 6% for placebo (P cholesterol and apolipoprotein (apo) B, whereas serum levels of HDL cholesterol and apo A-I were unchanged. There were also considerable reductions in serum triglycerides and lipoprotein(a), in particular in patients with elevated levels at baseline. There was no evidence of adverse effects on heart or bone and no changes in serum thyrotropin or triiodothyronine, although the thyroxine level decreased. Low-grade increases in liver enzymes were evident in most patients. In hypercholesterolaemic patients, the liver-selective thyromimetic eprotirome decreased serum levels of atherogenic lipoproteins without signs of extra-hepatic side effects. Selective stimulation of hepatic thyroid hormone receptors may be an attractive way to modulate lipid metabolism in hyperlipidaemia. © 2014 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  8. Polymorphism of rs1044925 in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 gene and serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ting-Ting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1 gene and serum lipid profiles is not well known in different ethnic groups. Bai Ku Yao is a special subgroup of the Yao minority in China. The present study was carried out to clarify the association of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene and several environmental factors with serum lipid levels in the Guangxi Bai Ku Yao and Han populations. Methods A total of 626 subjects of Bai Ku Yao and 624 participants of Han Chinese were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of rs1044925 polymorphism in the ACAT-1 gene was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Results The levels of serum total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, apolipoprotein (Apo AI and ApoB were lower in Bai Ku Yao than in Han (P P P P P P Conclusions These results suggest that the polymorphism of rs1044925 in the ACAT-1 gene is mainly associated with female serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels in the Bai Ku Yao population. The C allele carriers had lower serum TC, LDL-C and ApoB levels than the C allele noncarriers.

  9. Levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, LDL, HDL and glucose in patients with schizophrenia, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysokiński, Adam; Strzelecki, Dominik; Kłoszewska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate differences in triglycerides (TGA), cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL and glucose (FPG) levels in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Results for 2305 Caucasian patients were included in the study (1377 women, 59.7%; mean age 45.6). Mean TGA level was: schizophrenia: 139.9±90.6 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.4±70.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 141.1±81.9 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 147.7±82.8 mg/dL mg/dL, bipolar mania: 120.2±76.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean TC level was: schizophrenia: 188.5±40.4 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 198.8±50.7 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 194.4±48.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 198.9±48.8 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 180.1±43.8 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean HDL level was: schizophrenia: 45.3±13.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 48.1±14.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 45.4±15.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 45.1±15.4 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 46.4±15.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean LDL level was: schizophrenia: 115.4±34.7 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.7±44.1 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 120.9±42.1 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 124.5±43.1 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 109.3±36.9 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean FPG level was: schizophrenia: 95.9±24.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 94.8±22.9 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 97.2±24.4 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 98.3±25.3 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 93.9±21.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were not significant (p=0.08). Odds ratios for glucose and lipids abnormalities, correlations with age, sex distribution in diagnostic groups for normal ranges of glucose and lipids, differences in glucose and lipids levels between the age groups were also calculated. Our results confirm that there is a high prevalence of lipid and glucose abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders (both unipolar and

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of patients with low levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in northern Denmark: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt SA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir Schmidt,1 Uffe Heide-Jørgensen,1 Angelika D Manthripragada,2 Vera Ehrenstein1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Center for Observational Research, Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA, USA Background: With the emergence of new lipid-lowering therapies, more patients are expected to achieve substantial lowering of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C. However, there are limited data examining the clinical experience of patients with low (<1.3 mmol/L or very low (<0.65 mmol/L levels of LDL-C. To provide information on patients with low LDL-C, we identified and characterized persons with low LDL-C using data from Danish medical databases. Methods: Using a population-based clinical laboratory database, we identified adults with at least one LDL-C measurement in northern Denmark between 1998 and 2011 (population approximately 1.5 million persons. Based on the lowest measurement during the study period, we divided patients into groups with low (<1.3 mmol/L, moderate (1.3–3.3 mmol/L, or high (>3.3 mmol/L LDL-C. We described their demographic characteristics, entire comorbidity history, and 90-day prescription history prior to the lowest LDL-C value measured. Finally, we further restricted the analysis to individuals with very low LDL-C (<0.65 mmol/L. Results: Among 765,503 persons with an LDL-C measurement, 23% had high LDL-C, 73% had moderate LDL-C, and 4.8% had low LDL-C. In the latter group, 9.6% (0.46% of total had very low LDL-C. Compared with the moderate and high LDL-C categories, the low LDL-C group included more males and older persons with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease, ulcer disease, and obesity, as measured by hospital diagnoses or relevant prescription drugs for these diseases. Cancer and use of psychotropic drugs were also more prevalent. These patterns of distribution became even more pronounced when

  11. Effect of animal and industrial trans fatty acids on HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in humans--a quantitative review.

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    Ingeborg A Brouwer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trans fatty acids are produced either by industrial hydrogenation or by biohydrogenation in the rumens of cows and sheep. Industrial trans fatty acids lower HDL cholesterol, raise LDL cholesterol, and increase the risk of coronary heart disease. The effects of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids from ruminant animals are less clear. We reviewed the literature, estimated the effects trans fatty acids from ruminant sources and of conjugated trans linoleic acid (CLA on blood lipoproteins, and compared these with industrial trans fatty acids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched Medline and scanned reference lists for intervention trials that reported effects of industrial trans fatty acids, ruminant trans fatty acids or conjugated linoleic acid on LDL and HDL cholesterol in humans. The 39 studies that met our criteria provided results of 29 treatments with industrial trans fatty acids, 6 with ruminant trans fatty acids and 17 with CLA. Control treatments differed between studies; to enable comparison between studies we recalculated for each study what the effect of trans fatty acids on lipoprotein would be if they isocalorically replaced cis mono unsaturated fatty acids. In linear regression analysis the plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio increased by 0.055 (95%CI 0.044-0.066 for each % of dietary energy from industrial trans fatty acids replacing cis monounsaturated fatty acids The increase in the LDL to HDL ratio for each % of energy was 0.038 (95%CI 0.012-0.065 for ruminant trans fatty acids, and 0.043 (95% CI 0.012-0.074 for conjugated linoleic acid (p = 0.99 for difference between CLA and industrial trans fatty acids; p = 0.37 for ruminant versus industrial trans fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Published data suggest that all fatty acids with a double bond in the trans configuration raise the ratio of plasma LDL to HDL cholesterol.

  12. Effect of plant extract of Tribulus terrestris and probiotics on the reproductive performance, total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare between the effects of tribulus terrestris extract and probiotics on scrotal circumference, testicular volume, reaction time, semen characteristics, serum total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams. The study was carried out from February to July 2013 on eight sexually mature Rahmani rams. The eight rams were used as control group for one month before treatment (weekly assessment for all the parameters). Rams were divided into two...

  13. Estimation of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transferase and cholesterol levels in prolonged (30 years) daily consumption coffee in people

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sudha Rani; D. S. S. K. Raju

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although prolonged (30years) coffee consumption has been associated with reduced or increased frequency of liver (SGOT, SGPT, GGT) enzymes and cholesterol levels, it is unclear whether the effect is from coffee or caffeine. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire ascertained lifestyle characteristics, including alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, Diabetes mellitus and Dietary habits. As for drinking habit, examinees were first asked about their current drinking frequency...

  14. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. THE EFFECT OF ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS (PHENOBARBITAL AND VALPROIC ACID ON THE SERUM LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDE, LIPOPROTEIN AND LIVER ENZYMES IN CONVULSIVE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHIOMRAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStudies on the effect of various antiepileptic drugs on serum lipids show contradictory results. We aimed to find the effect of Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate monotherapy on serum lipid profile and liver function tests in epileptic children.Materials & MethodsThis cohort study was conducted in Amirkola Children Hospital. One hundred and ten children with epilepsy were included in this study. Children with hepatic or renal disease, those receiving medications which could alter liver function tests or serum lipid profile were excluded from the study. Patients were allocated into two groups. The first group, including 63 patients, received Phenobarbital and the second group, including 47 patients, received Sodium Valproate, both in divided doses. A venous blood sample was collected after overnight fasting to evaluate serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and liver function tests. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 17.ResultsIn children receiving Phenobarbital, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, ALP, SGOT and SGPT increased significantly after treatment, but TG level showed no significant changes. In children receiving Sodium Valproate, HDL, ALP, SGOT, SGPT significantly increased after treatment but there were no statistically significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL and TG. In our study, the plasma levels of LPa elevated significantly after treatment with Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate (P Value=0.0001. This increase was more significant in patients receiving Sodium Valproate.ConclusionOur results suggested a need for monitoring serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG levels in patients receiving Phenobarbital and Valproic Acid.Keywords: Seizure, Phenobarbital, Sodium Valproate.

  16. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  17. Chicago aberration correction work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, V D

    2012-12-01

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system.

  18. Formation of cholesterol bilayer domains precedes formation of cholesterol crystals in cholesterol/dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine membranes: EPR and DSC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainali, Laxman; Raguz, Marija; Subczynski, Witold K

    2013-08-01

    Saturation-recovery EPR along with DSC were used to determine the cholesterol content at which pure cholesterol bilayer domains (CBDs) and cholesterol crystals begin to form in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) membranes. To preserve compositional homogeneity throughout the membrane suspension, lipid multilamellar dispersions were prepared using a rapid solvent exchange method. The cholesterol content increased from 0 to 75 mol %. With spin-labeled cholesterol analogues, it was shown that the CBDs begin to form at ~50 mol % cholesterol. It was confirmed by DSC that the cholesterol solubility threshold for DMPC membranes is detected at ~66 mol % cholesterol. At levels above this cholesterol content, monohydrate cholesterol crystals start to form. The major finding is that the formation of CBDs precedes formation of cholesterol crystals. The region of the phase diagram for cholesterol contents between 50 and 66 mol % is described as a structured one-phase region in which CBDs have to be supported by the surrounding DMPC bilayer saturated with cholesterol. Thus, the phase boundary located at 66 mol % cholesterol separates the structured one-phase region (liquid-ordered phase of DMPC with CBDs) from the two-phase region where the structured liquid-ordered phase of DMPC coexists with cholesterol crystals. It is likely that CBDs are precursors of monohydrate cholesterol crystals.

  19. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  20. Chicago aberration correction work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, V.D., E-mail: vnlbeck@earthlink.net [1 Hobby Drive, Ridgefield, CT 06877-01922 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The author describes from his personal involvement the many improvements to electron microscopy Albert Crewe and his group brought by minimizing the effects of aberrations. The Butler gun was developed to minimize aperture aberrations in a field emission electron gun. In the 1960s, Crewe anticipated using a spherical aberration corrector based on Scherzer's design. Since the tolerances could not be met mechanically, a method of moving the center of the octopoles electrically was developed by adding lower order multipole fields. Because the corrector was located about 15 cm ahead of the objective lens, combination aberrations would arise with the objective lens. This fifth order aberration would then limit the aperture of the microscope. The transformation of the off axis aberration coefficients of a round lens was developed and a means to cancel anisotropic coma was developed. A new method of generating negative spherical aberration was invented using the combination aberrations of hexapoles. Extensions of this technique to higher order aberrations were developed. An electrostatic electron mirror was invented, which allows the cancellation of primary spherical aberration and first order chromatic aberration. A reduction of chromatic aberration by two orders of magnitude was demonstrated using such a system. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crewe and his group made significant advances in aberration correction and reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A deeper understanding of the quadrupole octopole corrector was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A scheme to correct spherical aberration using hexapoles was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromatic aberration was corrected using a uniform field mirror.

  1. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide modification, Lewis antigen expression, and gastric colonization are cholesterol-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGee David J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori specifically takes up cholesterol and incorporates it into the bacterial membrane, yet little is currently known about cholesterol's physiological roles. We compared phenotypes and in vivo colonization ability of H. pylori grown in a defined, serum-free growth medium, F12 with 1 mg/ml albumin containing 0 to 50 μg/ml cholesterol. Results While doubling times were largely unaffected by cholesterol, other overt phenotypic changes were observed. H. pylori strain SS1 grown in defined medium with cholesterol successfully colonized the stomach of gerbils, whereas SS1 grown without cholesterol failed to colonize. H. pylori lipopolysaccharide often displays Lewis X and/or Y antigens. Expression of these antigens measured by whole-cell ELISA was markedly enhanced in response to growth of strain SS1, 26695, or G27 in cholesterol. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of lipopolysaccharide in wild type G27 and in mutants lacking the O-chain revealed structural changes within the oligosaccharide core/lipid A moieties. These responses in Lewis antigen levels and in lipopolysaccharide profiles to cholesterol availability were highly specific, because no changes took place when cholesterol was substituted by β-sitosterol or bile salts. Disruption of the genes encoding cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase or lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase had no effect on Lewis expression, nor on lipopolysaccharide profiles, nor on the cholesterol responsiveness of these properties. Disruption of the lipid A 1-phosphatase gene eliminated the effect of cholesterol on lipopolysaccharide profiles but not its effect on Lewis expression. Conclusions Together these results suggest that cholesterol depletion leads to aberrant forms of LPS that are dependent upon dephosphorylation of lipid A at the 1-position. A tentative model for the observed effects of cholesterol is discussed in which sequential steps of lipopolysaccharide biogenesis

  2. Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide modification, Lewis antigen expression, and gastric colonization are cholesterol-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ellen; McGee, David J

    2009-12-14

    Helicobacter pylori specifically takes up cholesterol and incorporates it into the bacterial membrane, yet little is currently known about cholesterol's physiological roles. We compared phenotypes and in vivo colonization ability of H. pylori grown in a defined, serum-free growth medium, F12 with 1 mg/ml albumin containing 0 to 50 mug/ml cholesterol. While doubling times were largely unaffected by cholesterol, other overt phenotypic changes were observed. H. pylori strain SS1 grown in defined medium with cholesterol successfully colonized the stomach of gerbils, whereas SS1 grown without cholesterol failed to colonize. H. pylori lipopolysaccharide often displays Lewis X and/or Y antigens. Expression of these antigens measured by whole-cell ELISA was markedly enhanced in response to growth of strain SS1, 26695, or G27 in cholesterol. In addition, electrophoretic analysis of lipopolysaccharide in wild type G27 and in mutants lacking the O-chain revealed structural changes within the oligosaccharide core/lipid A moieties. These responses in Lewis antigen levels and in lipopolysaccharide profiles to cholesterol availability were highly specific, because no changes took place when cholesterol was substituted by beta-sitosterol or bile salts. Disruption of the genes encoding cholesterol alpha-glucosyltransferase or lipid A phosphoethanolamine transferase had no effect on Lewis expression, nor on lipopolysaccharide profiles, nor on the cholesterol responsiveness of these properties. Disruption of the lipid A 1-phosphatase gene eliminated the effect of cholesterol on lipopolysaccharide profiles but not its effect on Lewis expression. Together these results suggest that cholesterol depletion leads to aberrant forms of LPS that are dependent upon dephosphorylation of lipid A at the 1-position. A tentative model for the observed effects of cholesterol is discussed in which sequential steps of lipopolysaccharide biogenesis and, independently, presentation of Lewis antigen at

  3. [Retrospective Cytogenetic Dose Evaluation. I. Chromosome Aberration Levels in Remote Periods after Acute External Exposure in Different Situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugs, V Yu; Khvostunov, I K; Goloub, E V; Kozlova, M G; Nadejina, N M; Galstian, I A

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 22 persons was performed in remote terms after acute external γ-, γ-β- or γ-neutron irradiation as a result of various accidents using the classical me- thod. The initial dose estimates were obtained using physical calculations, the method of measuring the EPR signal in tooth enamel, according to haematological and/or cytogenetic parameters. The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence about the state of the lymphocyte chromosome apparatus of people approxi- mately 17-50 years after an accidental radiation exposure. In general, elevated levels of chromosome aberra- tions were detected. An average correlation was observed between the atypical chromosome frequency and absorbed dose. It is proposed to use the obtained results in the future to explore the possibility of retrospective dose evaluation on the basis of a special computer program.

  4. Applying the Rasch sampler to identify aberrant responding through person fit statistics under fixed nominal α-level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Christian; Fleischer, Jens; Leutner, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Testing hypotheses on a respondent's individual fit under the Rasch model requires knowledge of the distributional properties of a person fit statistic. We argue that the Rasch Sampler (Verhelst, 2008), a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for sampling binary data matrices from a uniform distribution, can be applied for simulating the distribution of person fit statistics with the Rasch model in the same way as it used to test for other forms of misfit. Results from two simulation studies are presented which compare the approach to the original person fit statistics based on normalization formulas. Simulation 1 shows the new approach to hold the expected Type I error rates while the normalized statistics deviate from the nominal alpha-level. In Simulation 2 the power of the new approach was found to be approximately the same or higher than for the normalized statistics under most conditions.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of L-Carnitine on the Productive Performance, Egg Quality, Blood Parameters and Egg Yolk Cholesterol in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazemi-Fard M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of L-carnitine on productive performance, egg quality and blood parameters in laying hens. Forty-eight Hy-Line W-36 egg Layers were weighed at 90 weeks of age and randomly allocated into 16 cages (three hens per cage. Four dietary treatments were prepared by supplementing L-carnitine (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of diet to corn-soybean meal diet and offered ad libitum to hens. After two weeks of acclimatization, the eggs were weighed daily and feed intake as well as egg quality traits were measured biweekly. At the end of the experiment, two hens from each cage were selected to determine blood parameters and two eggs from each replicate were collected for cholesterol analysis. Results showed that L-carnitine supplementation at 100 and 150 mg/kg significantly increased egg production and egg mass, but decreased yolk cholesterol content. Laying hens receiving diet containing 50 mg/kg L-carnitine had significantly higher Hough unit, but lower progesterone than the hens fed control diet (P < 0.05. The results of this study showed that supplementing hens' diet with L-carnitine had beneficial effects on productive performance and decreased yolk cholesterol concentration; so it can be used as an effective supplement in the diet of laying hens.

  6. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  7. Alcohol Dehydrogenase-1B (rs1229984 and Aldehyde Dehydrogenase-2 (rs671 Genotypes Are Strong Determinants of the Serum Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels of Japanese Alcoholic Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yokoyama

    Full Text Available Elevated serum triglyceride (TG and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels are common in drinkers. The fast-metabolizing alcohol dehydrogenase-1B encoded by the ADH1B*2 allele (vs. ADH1B*1/*1 genotype and inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 encoded by the ALDH2*2 allele (vs. ALDH2*1/*1 genotype modify ethanol metabolism and are prevalent (≈90% and ≈40%, respectively in East Asians. We attempted to evaluate the associations between the ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes and lipid levels in alcoholics.The population consisted of 1806 Japanese alcoholic men (≥40 years who had undergone ADH1B and ALDH2 genotyping and whose serum TG, total cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in the fasting state had been measured within 3 days after admission.High serum levels of TG (≥150 mg/dl, HDL-C (>80 mg/dl, and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C calculated by the Friedewald formula ≥140 mg/dl were observed in 24.3%, 16.8%, and 15.6%, respectively, of the subjects. Diabetes, cirrhosis, smoking, and body mass index (BMI affected the serum lipid levels. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of the ADH1B*2 allele and the active ALDH2*1/*1 genotype increased the odds ratio (OR; 95% confidence interval for a high TG level (2.22 [1.67-2.94] and 1.39 [0.99-1.96], respectively, and decreased the OR for a high HDL-C level (0.37 [0.28-0.49] and 0.51 [0.37-0.69], respectively. The presence of the ADH1B*2 allele decreased the OR for a high LDL-C level (0.60 [0.45-0.80]. The ADH1B*2 plus ALDH2*1/*1 combination yielded the highest ORs for high TG levels and lowest OR for a high HDL-C level. The genotype effects were more prominent in relation to the higher levels of TG (≥220 mg/dl and HDL-C (≥100 mg/dl.The fast-metabolizing ADH1B and active ALDH2, and especially a combination of the two were strongly associated with higher serum TG levels and lower serum HDL-C levels of alcoholics. The fast-metabolizing ADH1B was associated with lower serum LDL

  8. Aberrant plasma IL-7 and soluble IL-7 receptor levels indicate impaired T-cell response to IL-7 in human tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lundtoft

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available T-cell proliferation and generation of protective memory during chronic infections depend on Interleukin-7 (IL-7 availability and receptivity. Regulation of IL-7 receptor (IL-7R expression and signalling are key for IL-7-modulated T-cell functions. Aberrant expression of soluble (s and membrane-associated (m IL-7R molecules is associated with development of autoimmunity and immune failure in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS patients. Here we investigated the role of IL-7/IL-7R on T-cell immunity in human tuberculosis. We performed two independent case-control studies comparing tuberculosis patients and healthy contacts. This was combined with follow-up examinations for a subgroup of tuberculosis patients under therapy and recovery. Blood plasma and T cells were characterised for IL-7/sIL-7R and mIL-7R expression, respectively. IL-7-dependent T-cell functions were determined by analysing STAT5 phosphorylation, antigen-specific cytokine release and by analysing markers of T-cell exhaustion and inflammation. Tuberculosis patients had lower soluble IL-7R (p < 0.001 and higher IL-7 (p < 0.001 plasma concentrations as compared to healthy contacts. Both markers were largely independent and aberrant expression normalised during therapy and recovery. Furthermore, tuberculosis patients had lower levels of mIL-7R in T cells caused by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Functional in vitro tests indicated diminished IL-7-induced STAT5 phosphorylation and impaired IL-7-promoted cytokine release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4+ T cells from tuberculosis patients. Finally, we determined T-cell exhaustion markers PD-1 and SOCS3 and detected increased SOCS3 expression during therapy. Only moderate correlation of PD-1 and SOCS3 with IL-7 expression was observed. We conclude that diminished soluble IL-7R and increased IL-7 plasma concentrations, as well as decreased membrane-associated IL-7R expression in T cells, reflect impaired T

  9. ApoE polymorphism may determine low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in association with obesity and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duck-Joo; Kim, Kwang-Min; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Kim, Kyu-Nam; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2011-05-01

    We investigated how serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level is related to various isoforms of apolipoprotein (ApoE) polymorphism in association with obesity and metabolic syndrome. We gathered total 332 sample of postmenopausal Korean women and analyzed ApoE isoforms, serum lipid level including LDL, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and anthropometry. The relationship between ApoE isoforms and serum lipid level, metabolic syndrome, and obesity was investigated. Six ApoE isoforms were found, ApoE2 [E2/2 (n=1), E2/3 (n=54), E2/4 (n=14)], ApoE3 (E3/3, n=200), ApoE4 [E3/4 (n=55), and E4/4 (n=8)]. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity showed higher ApoE3 isoform than that of other isoforms. In additon, ApoE3 isoform was related to higher serum LDL and total cholesterol level than to ApoE2 isoform. The odds ratio of having the highest LDL cholesterol quartile in ApoE3 with obesity, compared to ApoE2 without obesity, was 3.46 [95% confidence interval (CI); 1.07-11.14, p=0.037], and odds ratio of ApoE3 with metabolic syndrome compared to ApoE2 without metabolic syndrome was 5.06 (95% CI; 1.14-22.29, p=0.037). Serum LDL cholesterol was positively associated with obesity or metabolic syndrome in ApoE3 isoform. This study suggests that obesity or metabolic syndrome risk should be effectively managed in ApoE3 isomform groups to reduce serum LDL in postmenopausal Korean women.

  10. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  11. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-07-15

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 x 10(-11)) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations.

  12. Knowledge-driven analysis identifies a gene-gene interaction affecting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in multi-ethnic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Brautbar, Ariel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Sing, Charles F; Clark, Andrew G; Keinan, Alon

    2012-01-01

    Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are among the most important risk factors for coronary artery disease. We tested for gene-gene interactions affecting the level of these four lipids based on prior knowledge of established genome-wide association study (GWAS) hits, protein-protein interactions, and pathway information. Using genotype data from 9,713 European Americans from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, we identified an interaction between HMGCR and a locus near LIPC in their effect on HDL-C levels (Bonferroni corrected P(c) = 0.002). Using an adaptive locus-based validation procedure, we successfully validated this gene-gene interaction in the European American cohorts from the Framingham Heart Study (P(c) = 0.002) and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA; P(c) = 0.006). The interaction between these two loci is also significant in the African American sample from ARIC (P(c) = 0.004) and in the Hispanic American sample from MESA (P(c) = 0.04). Both HMGCR and LIPC are involved in the metabolism of lipids, and genome-wide association studies have previously identified LIPC as associated with levels of HDL-C. However, the effect on HDL-C of the novel gene-gene interaction reported here is twice as pronounced as that predicted by the sum of the marginal effects of the two loci. In conclusion, based on a knowledge-driven analysis of epistasis, together with a new locus-based validation method, we successfully identified and validated an interaction affecting a complex trait in multi-ethnic populations.

  13. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  14. HDL Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  15. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  16. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  17. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

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    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  18. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  19. The tumor-selective over-expression of the human Hsp 70 gene is attributed to the aberrant controls at both initiation and elongation levels of transcription

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The tumor selective over-expression of the human Hsp70 gene has been well documented in human tumors, linked to the poor prognosis, being refractory to chemo- and radio-therapies as well as the advanced stage of tumorous lesions in particular. However, both the nature and details of aberrations in the control of the Hsp70 expression in tumor remain enigmatic. By comparing various upstream segments of the Hsp70gene for each's ability to drive the luciferase reporter genes in the context of the tumor cell lines varying in their p53 status and an immortal normal liver cell line, we demonstrated in a great detail the defects in the control mechanisms at the both initiation and elongation levels of transcription being instrumental to the tumor selective profile of its expression. Our data should not only offer new insights into our understanding of the tumor specific over-expression of the human Hsp70 gene, but also paved the way for the rational utilization of the tumor selective mechanism with the Hsp70 at the central stage for targeting the therapeutic gene expression to human tumors.

  20. Dietary levels of chia: influence on yolk cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid composition for two strains of hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayerza, R; Coates, W

    2000-05-01

    Four hundred fifty H&N laying hens, half white and half brown, were fed for 90 d to compare a control diet to diets containing 7, 14, 21, and 28% chia (Salvia hispanica L.) seed. Cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition of the yolks were determined 30, 43, 58, 72, and 90 d from the start of the trial. Significantly less cholesterol was found in the egg yolks produced by the hens fed the diets with 14, 21, and 28% chia compared with the control, except at Day 90. Palmitic fatty acid content and total saturated fatty acid content decreased as chia percentage increased and as the trial progressed. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was significantly greater (P < 0.05) for both strains for all chia diets compared with the control diet. Total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of the yolks from the chia diets was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than from the control diet. Generally, total PUFA content tended to be highest in the yolks of the white hens.

  1. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for total and HDL cholesterol does not require fasting. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL ... triglyceride level include: Overweight and obesity Lack of physical activity Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol use A very high ...

  2. New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165942.html New Cholesterol Fighting Meds Target Key Gene Two trials show ... New gene-based therapies appear to significantly decrease cholesterol levels in people, and could even cut down ...

  3. Ethanol Extract of Fructus Schisandrae Decreases Hepatic Triglyceride Level in Mice Fed with a High Fat/Cholesterol Diet, with Attention to Acute Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Yuan Pan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the ethanol extract of Fructus Schisandrae (EtFSC on serum and liver lipid contents were investigated in mice fed with high fat/cholesterol (HFC diet for 8 or 15 days. The induction of hypercholesterolemia by HFC diet caused significant increases in serum and hepatic total cholesterol (TC levels (up to 62% and 165%, resp. and hepatic triglyceride (TG levels (up to 528% in mice. EtFSC treatment (1 or 5 g/kg/day for 7 days; from Day 1 to 7 or from Day 8 to 14, i.g. significantly decreased the hepatic TG level (down to 35% and slightly increased the hepatic index (by 8% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Whereas fenofibrate treatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 7 days, i.g. significantly lowered the hepatic TG level (by 61%, it elevated the hepatic index (by 77% in hypercholesterolemic mice. Acute toxicity test showed that EtFSC was relatively non-toxic, with an LD50 value of 35.63 ± 6.46 g/kg in mice. The results indicate that EtFSC treatment can invariably decrease hepatic TG in hypercholesterolemic mice, as assessed by both preventive and therapeutic protocols, suggesting its potential use for fatty liver treatment.

  4. High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audiences Contact The Health Information Center High Blood Cholesterol: What You Need To Know Table of Contents ... Lifestyle Changes (TLC) Drug Treatment Resources Why Is Cholesterol Important? Your blood cholesterol level has a lot ...

  5. The Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Glycyrrhizaglabra L. (licorice Root on Serum Level of Glucose, Triglyceride and Cholesterol in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Letrozole in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Barazesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrine disorder which effects 15.6 %  of women in Iran. Licorice (Glycyrrhizaglabra L. has phytoestrogenic and anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydro-alcoholic Licorice root extract on blood sugar, triglycerides and cholesterol in the rats with PCOS. Methods: In the present experimental study, 50 female puber Sprague dawley (180±20 gr rats with regular sexual cycle were entered in the study.  Studied groups included: first, the Normal group, receiving carrier (normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 21 days. Then, the letrozole group which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days and then normal saline (2 ml/kg daily orally for 30 days. The last groups, Treatment groups 1 and 2, which received letrozole (1 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg for 21 days then hydroalcoholic extract of Licorice root (200 and 400 mg/kg dissolved in normal saline (2 ml/kg daily, orally for 30 days respectively. To conclude, blood samples were collected from the heart and also the serum level of blood sugar, triglyceride and cholesterol was measured. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (p< 0.05. Results: The mean serum level of blood sugar increased in the Letrozole group compared to the normal group and decreased in the treatment groups compared to Letrozole group (p< 0.05. No statistically significant differences were seen in mean of serum level of triglyceride and cholesterol between all groups. Conclusion: The licoricecan extract improved the adverse side-effects caused by diabetese in polycystic ovary syndrome However, its effect on dyslipidemia in patients requiring further investigations.

  6. Phenotypic factors influencing the variation in response of circulating cholesterol level to personalised dietary advice in the Food4Me study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirwan, Laura; Walsh, Marianne C; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Livingstone, Katherine M; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Fallaize, Rosalind; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Kolossa, Silvia; Daniel, Hannelore; Moschonis, George; Manios, Yannis; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Gibney, Mike J; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Saris, Wim H M; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine

    2016-12-01

    Individual response to dietary interventions can be highly variable. The phenotypic characteristics of those who will respond positively to personalised dietary advice are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to compare the phenotypic profiles of differential responders to personalised dietary intervention, with a focus on total circulating cholesterol. Subjects from the Food4Me multi-centre study were classified as responders or non-responders to dietary advice on the basis of the change in cholesterol level from baseline to month 6, with lower and upper quartiles defined as responder and non-responder groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between demographic and anthropometric profiles of the groups. Furthermore, with the exception of alcohol, there was no significant difference in reported dietary intake, at baseline. However, there were marked differences in baseline fatty acid profiles. The responder group had significantly higher levels of stearic acid (18 : 0, P=0·034) and lower levels of palmitic acid (16 : 0, P=0·009). Total MUFA (P=0·016) and total PUFA (P=0·008) also differed between the groups. In a step-wise logistic regression model, age, baseline total cholesterol, glucose, five fatty acids and alcohol intakes were selected as factors that successfully discriminated responders from non-responders, with sensitivity of 82 % and specificity of 83 %. The successful delivery of personalised dietary advice may depend on our ability to identify phenotypes that are responsive. The results demonstrate the potential use of metabolic profiles in identifying response to an intervention and could play an important role in the development of precision nutrition.

  7. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  8. Study of the lipidemic profile of diabetic patients. Negative correlation of cholesterol levels of diabetes type I patients with serum amylase concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Phaedra; Tseka, Eros; Varaga, Evagelia; Nasiou, Margarita; Sampanis, Christos; Zografou, Ioanna; Oulorgia, Jensila; Damontsidou, Katerina; Zaimi, Terpsithea; Markou, Helen-Irene; Varsamidis, Kostantinos; Petrou, Christos; Limberaki, Eugenia; Ganou, Christina-Joulia

    2014-01-01

    , triglyceride values were within normal range in both cases (123.7±63.2mg/dL in DM1 and 168.1±76.0mg/dL in DM2 patients). Cortisol levels were elevated in both cases with higher values observed in Diabetes type I (280.5±162.9ng/mL in DM1 and 248.5±100.1ng/mL in DM2), while total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced compared to healthy individuals, 1.470mM, with lower values observed in Diabetes type I (0.680±0.116mM in DM1 and 0.849±0.126mM in DM2). Amylase determination revealed a mean amylase value, 81.7U/ml, within normal range and a negative correlation between cholesterol levels and amylase (r=-0.770) in DM1 patients. No correlation was observed between the determined values or the presence of autoantibodies and antibodies against Neu5Gc in the samples. In conlusion, the lipidemic profile and overall atherogenic and cardiovascular risk factors were worse in Diabetes I compared to Diabetes II patients. Most interestingly, cholesterol levels exhibited a negative correlation with serum amylase values. Since, amylase is not known to be involved in lipid metabolism, cholesterol levels and serum amylase activity may have a common modulator related to Diabetes development.

  9. Ubiquinol-induced gene expression signatures are translated into altered parameters of erythropoiesis and reduced low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Constance; Niklowitz, Petra; Okun, Jürgen G; Haas, Dorothea; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Studies in vitro and in mice indicate a role for Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10) ) in gene expression. To determine this function in relationship to physiological readouts, a 2-week supplementation study with the reduced form of CoQ(10) (ubiquinol, Q(10) H(2) , 150 mg/d) was performed in 53 healthy males. Mean CoQ(10) plasma levels increased 4.8-fold after supplementation. Transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches identified a gene-gene interaction network in CD14-positive monocytes, which functions in inflammation, cell differentiation, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-signaling. These Q(10) H(2) -induced gene expression signatures were also described previously in liver tissues of SAMP1 mice. Biochemical and NMR-based analyses showed a reduction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol plasma levels after Q(10) H(2) supplementation. This effect was especially pronounced in atherogenic small dense LDL particles (19-21 nm, 1.045 g/L). In agreement with gene expression signatures, Q(10) H(2) reduces the number of erythrocytes but increases the concentration of reticulocytes. In conclusion, Q(10) H(2) induces characteristic gene expression patterns, which are translated into reduced LDL cholesterol levels and altered parameters of erythropoiesis in humans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Importance of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia: A 2-year survey of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Koichiro; Hayashi, Toshio; Araki, Atsushi; Kawashima, Seinosuke; Sone, Hirohito; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ohrui, Takashi; Yokote, Koutaro; Takemoto, Minoru; Kubota, Kiyoshi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Noto, Hiroshi; Ding, Qun-Fang; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Ze-Yun; Yoon, Byung-Koo; Nomura, Hideki; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for ischemic heart disease (IHD) or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in elderly diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia are not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between lipid levels and IHD and CVA in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia. The Japan Cholesterol and Diabetes Mellitus Study is a prospective cohort study of 4014 type 2 diabetic patients (1936 women; age 67.4 ± 9.5 years). The primary end-points were the onset of IHD or CVA. Lipid and glucose levels, and other factors were investigated in relation to the occurrence of IHD or CVA. A total of 462 participants were included in the group of patients with type IIb dyslipidemia. The 462 diabetic participants with type IIb dyslipidemia were divided into those who were aged 75 years (n=168, 190 and 104, respectively). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/HDL-C were significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged HDL-C and diastolic blood pressure was significantly associated with cardiovascular events in patients aged 65-74 years. Non-HDL-C was not significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower HDL-C was significantly associated with the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged HDL-C was an important risk factor for cardiovascular events in diabetic individuals with type IIb dyslipidemia who were aged <75 years. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Cholesterol Depletion from a Ceramide/Cholesterol Mixed Monolayer: A Brewster Angle Microscope Study

    KAUST Repository

    Mandal, Pritam

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is crucial to the mechanical properties of cell membranes that are important to cells’ behavior. Its depletion from the cell membranes could be dramatic. Among cyclodextrins (CDs), methyl beta cyclodextrin (MβCD) is the most efficient to deplete cholesterol (Chol) from biomembranes. Here, we focus on the depletion of cholesterol from a C16 ceramide/cholesterol (C16-Cer/Chol) mixed monolayer using MβCD. While the removal of cholesterol by MβCD depends on the cholesterol concentration in most mixed lipid monolayers, it does not depend very much on the concentration of cholesterol in C16-Cer/Chol monolayers. The surface pressure decay during depletion were described by a stretched exponential that suggested that the cholesterol molecules are unable to diffuse laterally and behave like static traps for the MβCD molecules. Cholesterol depletion causes morphology changes of domains but these disrupted monolayers domains seem to reform even when cholesterol level was low.

  12. The potential influence of genetic variants in genes along bile acid and bile metabolic pathway on blood cholesterol levels in the population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Y.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Müller, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    The liver is currently known to be the major organ to eliminate excess cholesterol from our body. It accomplishes this function in two ways: conversion of cholesterol molecules into bile acids (BAs) and secretion of unesterified cholesterol molecules into bile. BAs are synthesized in the hepatocytes

  13. Suppression of calcific fibrous-fatty plaque formation in rabbits by agents not affecting elevated serum cholesterol levels. The effect of thiophene compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C T; Wells, H; Kramsch, D M

    1978-07-01

    We tested the suppressive effect of antihypercalcemic-hyperphosphatemic agents on atherogenesis. We studied five groups of rabbits for 8 weeks, one control group and four groups on a fibrogenic atherogenic diet. One group received the atherogenic diet alone, and the remaining three atherogenic groups were treated simultaneously with 2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (ThCA), 5-methyl-2-thiophenecarboxylic acid (5-CH3-ThCA), and 5-bromo-2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde (5-Br-ThCA). Rabbits receiving the atherogenic diet alone developed: (1) elevations of serum cholesterol, calcium, and phosphorus; (2) massive fibrous-fatty aortic plaques with excessive accumulation of aortic collagen, elastin, and lipids; (3) marked deposition of calcium and phosphorus in both aortic tissue and elastin; and (4) severe lipid infiltration of the liver. Treatment with all three drugs normalized the elevated serum calcium but not the cholesterol levels, and effectively inhibited all aspects of the atherosclerotic process as determined morphologically and biochemically. The order of effectiveness was: 5-CH3-ThCa greater than 5-Br-ThCA greater than ThCA. No bone resorption occurred in the treated groups. The normalizing effects of the thiophene compounds on serum phosphorus levels were not significant at the dosages used.

  14. Effect of different dietary levels of Yucca schidigera powder on the performance, blood parameters and egg yolk cholesterol of laying quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S; Erdogan, Z; Erdogan, S

    2003-02-01

    A total of 135 laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), 9 weeks old, were divided into three dietary treatment groups. Three replicates were assigned to each treatment group consisting of 15 birds per cage. The diet was supplemented with 0, 100 and 200 ppm Yucca schidigera powder and given ad libitum to the quails for a period of 14 weeks. Body weight, egg production, feed consumption and feed efficiency were not different due to dietary treatments among the groups. Increased egg weight was determined in the control group. Yucca powder supplementation decreased serum glucose, cholesterol triglyceride level in laying quails. Serum total protein concentration was not changed by dietary treatments but albumin level was decreased in quails fed 100 ppm yucca powder. Egg yolk cholesterol concentration was not significantly different among the groups but tended to decline (11.5%) as a result of yucca supplementation. Red Blood Cell (RBC) and White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, packed cell volume (PCV), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) were not affected by supplementation of yucca powder. However, haemoglobin (HB) concentration was slightly increased and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was significantly increased by 200 ppm yucca powder supplementation to the diet.

  15. Impact of diabetes, high triglycerides and low HDL cholesterol on risk for ischemic cardiovascular disease varies by LDL cholesterol level: a 15-year follow-up of the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Wei; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jiayi; Liu, Jun; Li, Yan; Qi, Yue; Wu, Zhaosu; Zhao, Dong

    2012-05-01

    A large proportion of ischemic cardiovascular disease occur in people without hypercholesterolemia. We aimed to investigate whether risk factors other than low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) have different impacts on cardiovascular risk in people with low verses high LDL-C levels. A total of 30,378 participants (35-64 years) were followed for 15 years in the Chinese Multi-provincial Cohort Study. Associations of coronary heart disease (CHD) and ischemic stroke with risk factors other than LDL-C were assessed in participants with low (triglycerides predicted CHD (HR=1.74, 95% CI 1.25-2.42, P=0.001), and low HDL-C predicted ischemic stroke (HR=1.54, 95% CI 1.18-2.03, P=0.002) only in participants with low LDL-C. Diabetes predicted CHD in participants with high LDL-C (HR=2.38, 95% CI 1.31-4.34, P=0.005), but not in those with low LDL-C. Older age, male, hypertension, central obesity, and smoking had similar effects on the risk in both groups. Triglycerides and low HDL-C should be addressed in the management of dyslipidemia in people with low LDL-C. When LDL-C is high, tighter management of glycemia and LDL-C is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of variants identified in caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Riba, Laura; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria L; Rodriguez-Guillen, Rosario; Cantor, Rita M; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-02-01

    Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased predisposition to low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels in the Mexican population, Mexicans have not been included in any of the previously reported genome-wide association studies for lipids. We investigated 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with triglycerides, 7 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 1 with both triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in recent Caucasian genome-wide association studies in Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia families and hypertriglyceridemia case-control study samples. These variants were within or near the genes ABCA1, ANGPTL3, APOA5, APOB, CETP, GALNT2, GCKR, LCAT, LIPC, LPL (2), MMAB-MVK, TRIB1, and XKR6-AMAC1L2. We performed a combined analysis of the family-based and case-control studies (n=2298) using the Z method to combine statistics. Ten of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant and 5 were significant after Bonferroni correction (P=2.20 x 10(-3) to 2.6 x 10(-11)) for the number of tests performed (APOA5, CETP, GCKR, and GALNT2). Interestingly, our strongest signal was obtained for triglycerides with the minor allele of rs964184 (P=2.6 x 10(-11)) in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region that is significantly more common in Mexicans (27%) than in whites (12%). It is important to confirm whether known loci have a consistent effect across ethnic groups. We show replication of 5 Caucasian genome-wide association studies lipid associations in Mexicans. The remaining loci will require a comprehensive investigation to exclude or verify their significance in Mexicans. We also demonstrate that rs964184 has a large effect (odds ratio, 1.74) and is more frequent in the Mexican population, and thus it may contribute to the high predisposition to dyslipidemias in Mexicans.

  17. Aberration Corrected Emittance Exchange

    CERN Document Server

    Nanni, Emilio A

    2015-01-01

    Full exploitation of emittance exchange (EEX) requires aberration-free performance of a complex imaging system including active radio-frequency (RF) elements which can add temporal distortions. We investigate the performance of an EEX line where the exchange occurs between two dimensions with normalized emittances which differ by orders of magnitude. The transverse emittance is exchanged into the longitudinal dimension using a double dog-leg emittance exchange setup with a 5 cell RF deflector cavity. Aberration correction is performed on the four most dominant aberrations. These include temporal aberrations that are corrected with higher order magnetic optical elements located where longitudinal and transverse emittance are coupled. We demonstrate aberration-free performance of emittances differing by 4 orders of magnitude, i.e. an initial transverse emittance of $\\epsilon_x=1$ pm-rad is exchanged with a longitudinal emittance of $\\epsilon_z=10$ nm-rad.

  18. Contribution of education level and dairy fat sources to serum cholesterol in Russian and Finnish Karelia: results from four cross-sectional risk factor surveys in 1992–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paalanen Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food habits vary by socio-economic group and geographic area. Data on socio-economic differences in food habits and in serum total cholesterol concentration from Russia are scarce. Our aim was to examine changes and educational differences in serum total cholesterol and in the consumption of major sources of saturated fat in two geographically neighbouring areas, Russian and Finnish Karelia, and to examine whether the foods associated with serum total cholesterol are different in the two areas. Methods Data from cross-sectional risk factor surveys from years 1992, 1997, 2002 and 2007 in the district of Pitkäranta, the Republic of Karelia, Russia (n = 2672, and North Karelia, Finland (n = 5437, were used. The analyses included two phases. 1 To examine the differences in cholesterol by education, the means and 95% confidence intervals for education groups were calculated for each study year. 2 Multivariate linear regression analysis was employed to examine the role of butter in cooking, butter on bread, fat-containing milk and cheese in explaining serum total cholesterol. In these analyses, the data for all four study years were combined. Results In Pitkäranta, serum total cholesterol fluctuated during the study period (1992–2007, whereas in North Karelia cholesterol levels declined consistently. No apparent differences in cholesterol levels by education were observed in Pitkäranta. In North Karelia, cholesterol was lower among subjects in the highest education tertile compared to the lowest education tertile in 1992 and 2002. In Pitkäranta, consumption of fat-containing milk was most strongly associated with cholesterol (β=0.19, 95% CI 0.10, 0.28 adjusted for sex, age, education and study year. In North Karelia, using butter in cooking (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.04, 0.15 and using butter on bread (β=0.09, 95% CI 0.02, 0.15 had a significant positive association with cholesterol. Conclusions In the two geographically

  19. [The real measurement of non-HDL-cholesterol: Atherogenic cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Jesús; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Ascaso, Juan F; Blasco, Mariano; Brea, Angel; Díaz, Ángel; González-Santos, Pedro; Mantilla, Teresa; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Pintó, Xavier

    Lowe density lipoproteins (LDL) are the causal agent of cardiovascular diseases. In practice, we identify LDL with cholesterol transported in LDL (cLDL). So, cLDL has become the major target for cardiovascular prevention. Howewer, we have progressive evidences about the role of triglycerides rich lipoproteins, particularly those very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) in promotion and progression of atherosclerosis, that leads cholesterol in VLDL and its remanents as a potential therapeutic target. This feature is particularly important and of a great magnitude, in patients with hypertiglyceridemia. We can to considere, that the non-HDL cholesterol -cLDL+cVLDL+c-remmants+Lp(a)- is the real measurement of atherogenic cholesterol. In addition, non-HDL-cholesterol do not show any variations between postprandial states. In fact, non-HDL-cholesterol should be an excellent marker of atherogenic cholesterol, and an major therapeutic target in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. According with different clinical trials and with the epidemiological and mendelian studies, in patients with high cardiovascular risk, optimal level of cLDL will be under 70mg/dl, and under 100 ng/dl for non-HDL-cholesterol; and in high risk patients, 100mg/dl and 130mg/dl, respectively. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  20. Public health aspects of serum cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Houterman (Saskia)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn the beginning of this century Anitschkow and De Langen started pioneering work concerning the relation between cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Both showed that there was a possible relation between cholesterol in the diet, blood cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis. It took

  1. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG

    2008-01-01

    heart disease and myocardial infarction were measured. The hypothesis was formulated before genotyping. RESULTS: We genotyped 9185 individuals for APOB T71I (minor allele frequency: 0.33), Ivs4+171c>a (0.14), A591V (0.47), Ivs18+379a>c (0.30), Ivs18+1708g>t (0.45), T2488Tc>t (0.48), P2712L (0.21), R3611......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  2. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol Print A A A ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  3. What Is Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cholesterol KidsHealth > For Teens > Cholesterol A A A What's ... High Cholesterol? en español ¿Qué es el colesterol? Cholesterol Is a Fat in the Blood Cholesterol (kuh- ...

  4. Weight loss herbal intervention therapy (W-LHIT) a non-appetite suppressing natural product controls weight and lowers cholesterol and glucose levels in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nan; Chung, Danna; Liu, Changda; Liang, Banghao; Li, Xiu-Min

    2014-07-23

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing in industrialized countries. Obesity increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes. Unfortunately, conventional obesity drug treatment is often associated with adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel natural formula, Weight loss herbal intervention therapy (W-LHIT), developed from traditional Chinese medicine, for weight control in a high-fat-diet (HFD) induced obesity murine model. Two sets of experiments were performed. In experiment 1, 14-week-old C57BL/6 J male mice were fed with HFD for 21 days and then separated into 3 weight-matched groups. One group continued on the HFD as obese-controls. Two groups were switched from HFD to normal fat level diet (NFD) and sham or W-LHIT treated. In experiment 2, 25-week-old obese mice, following 2 weeks acclimatization, received either W-LHIT or sham treatment while maintained on HFD. In both sets of experiments, NFD fed, age matched normal weight mice served as normal controls. Body weight and food intake were recorded. Epididymal fat pad weight, serum glucose and cholesterol levels, as well as PPARγ and FABP4 gene expression in epididymal fat tissue were analyzed at the end of the experiment. In experiment 1, W-LHIT treated obese mice lost body weight 12.2 ± 3.8% whereas sham treated mice lost 5.5 ± 2.8% by day 10 after switching from the HFD to the NFD, without reduction of chow consumption. In experiment 2, W-LHIT treated obese mice maintained on the HFD had significantly lower body weight (8 fold less) than the sham treated mice. W-LHIT treatment also reduced epididymal fat pad weight, blood cholesterol and glucose levels versus sham treated mice without reduced chow consumption. In addition, significantly increased PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ) and FABP4 (fatty acid binding protein 4) gene expression were found in epdidymal fat tissues. Liver and kidney function and

  5. A pooled analysis of the association of isolated low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with cardiovascular mortality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Takumi; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Shin-Ya; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Okayama, Akira; Iso, Hiroyasu; Irie, Fujiko; Sairenchi, Toshimi; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Michiko; Ishikawa, Shizukiyo; Miura, Katsuyuki; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2016-10-05

    Low levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) have been shown to be associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, because this is usually observed in the context of other lipid abnormalities, it is not known whether isolated low serum HDL-C levels are an independent risk factor for CHD. We performed a large pooled analysis in Japan using data from nine cohorts with 41,206 participants aged 40-89 years who were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline. We divided participants into three groups: isolated low HDL-C, non-isolated low HDL-C, and normal HDL-C. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for death due to CHD, ischemic stroke, and intracranial cerebral hemorrhage; during a 12.9-year follow-up, we observed 355, 286, and 138 deaths, respectively, in these groups. Non-isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with increased risk of CHD compared with normal HDL-C (HR 1.37, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.80); however, isolated low HDL-C was not. Although isolated low HDL-C was significantly associated with decreased risk of CHD (HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89) in women, it was significantly associated with increased risk of intracranial cerebral hemorrhage in all participants (HR 1.62, 95 % CI 1.04-2.53) and in men (HR 2.00, 95 % CI 1.04-3.83). In conclusion, isolated low HDL-C levels are not associated with increased risk of CHD in Japan. CHD risk may, therefore, be more strongly affected by serum total cholesterol levels in this population.

  6. Cholesterol Worships a New Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ira G. Schulman

    2009-01-01

    The growing worldwide epidemic of cardiovascular disease suggests that new therapeutic strategies are needed to complement statins in the lowering of cholesterol levels. In a recent paper in Science, Tontonoz and colleagues have identified Idol as a protein that can control cholesterol levels by regulating the stability of the low-density lipoprotein receptor; inhibiting the activity of Idol could provide novel approaches for the treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Epididymis cholesterol homeostasis and sperm fertilizing ability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabrice Saez; Aurélia Ouvrier; Jo(e)l R Drevet

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol, being the starting point of steroid hormone synthesis, is a long known modulator of both female and male reproductive physiology especially at the level of the gonads and the impact cholesterol has on gametogenesis. Less is known about the effects cholesterol homeostasis may have on postgonadic reproductive functions. Lately, several data have been reported showing how imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect the post-testicular events of sperm maturation that lead to fully fertile male gametes. This review will focus on that aspect and essentially centers on how cholesterol is important for the physiology of the mammalian epididymis and spermatozoa.

  8. VARIABILITY IN LEVELS OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL IN PATIENTS WITH FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA DEPENDING ON AGE AND SEX AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF THIS DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. А. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the ranges of low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol depending on the age and gender of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC by an example of a sample of patients living in the Republic of Karelia.Material and methods. Parameters of lipid spectrum of 219 patients (aged 52.5±1.7 years; males 38.3% with heterozygous FHC were studied before the start of statin therapy. Definite FHC was diagnosed in 102 patients. Lipid profile was estimated by enzymatic calorimetric method. The diagnosis of FHC was established according to the criteria of The Dutch Lipid Clinic Network.  Genetic analysis was performed in 102 patients (46.6%; pathogenic mutation in the LDL receptor was identified in 21 patients. The control group consisted of 539 people with the excluded diagnosis of FHC (aged 46.8±0.8 years; males 53.8%.Results. We determined the level of LDL cholesterol (LDLC associated with increased frequency of mutations of the LDL receptor in patients with definite FHC; mutation frequency was 3 times higher when LDLC level was more than 6.5 mmol/L. We revealed the following characteristic intervals of the LDLC levels in patients with a definite FHC: up to 20 years old – 4.8-6.2 mmol/l; in patients of 20-29 years old – 5.9-8.2 mmol/l; in the age range of 30-39 years the upper value of the LDLC levels reached 9.6 mmol/l; in individuals of 40-49 years old a stabilization, "plateau", was observed – LDLC level did not differ significantly compared to the previous decade, and was 5.4-9.0 mmol/l. In the age range  of 50-59 years the upper LDLC level was up to 11.4 mmol/l. Similar indicators were identified in patients aged 60-69 years. Patients older than 70 years with a definite FHC an upper level of LDLC was higher and reached 12.5 mmol/l. Tendency to increase in the characteristic values of LDLC with age was observed both in men and in women. Specific age-related trends  for men (an increase from a plateau by the age of 50

  9. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  10. Effect of yogurt and bifidus yogurt fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey and lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey on serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beena, A; Prasad, V

    1997-08-01

    The possible hypocholesterolaemic properties of milk and fermented milk products have been investigated in groups of albino rats given a basal diet, basal diet plus cholesterol, and basal diet plus cholesterol together with whole milk or standard or bifidus yogurt. The yogurts were fortified with skim milk powder, condensed whey or lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey. After 30 d, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were measured in serum. Whole milk and ordinary yogurt had no hypocholesterolaemic effect, but standard yogurt containing lactose-hydrolysed condensed whey and all bifidus yogurts lowered serum cholesterol. In general, yogurts changed HDL-cholesterol little, but tended to raise triacylglycerols. There was marked lowering of LDL-cholesterol in rats given either type of yogurt fortified with whey proteins. This study has demonstrated in a rat model that bifidus yogurts and yogurts fortified with whey proteins can reduce total and LDL-cholesterol, and suggests that if they have the same effect in human subjects they have potential value in cholesterol-lowering diets.

  11. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol target achievement in patients on lipid-lowering drugs and stratified by triglyceride levels in the Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hashmi, Khamis; Al-Zakwani, Ibrahim; Al Mahmeed, Wael; Arafah, Mohammed; Al-Hinai, Ali T; Shehab, Abdullah; Al Tamimi, Omer; Al Awadhi, Mahmoud; Al Herz, Shorook; Al Anazi, Faisal; Al Nemer, Khalid; Metwally, Othman; Alkhadra, Akram; Fakhry, Mohammed; Elghetany, Hossam; Medani, Abdel Razak; Yusufali, Afzal Hussein; Al Jassim, Obaid; Al Hallaq, Omar; Baslaib, Fahad Omar Ahmed S; Amin, Haitham; Santos, Raul D; Al-Waili, Khalid; Al-Rasadi, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Atherogenic dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in the Arabian Gulf. Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) reduction has been proposed as an additional goal to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Data on non-HDL-C goal attainment in patients with high triglycerides (TGs) on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) in the region is scarce. Evaluate non-HDL-C target attainment according to the National Lipid Association in patients on LLDs stratified by TG (200 [2.26] mg/dL [mmol/L]) levels in the Arabian Gulf. Overall, 4383 patients on LLD treatment from 6 Middle Eastern countries participating in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the Undertreatment of Hypercholesterolemia study were evaluated. Patients were classified according to TG levels and ASCVD risk. The overall non-HDL-C goal attainment was 41% of the subjects. Non-HDL-C goal was less likely attained in patients with high TGs (12% vs 27% vs 55%; P < .001). Very high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs attained less their non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TG levels (8% vs 23% vs 51%; P < .001). Similarly, high ASCVD risk patients with high TGs also failed more in attaining non-HDL-C targets compared with those with lower TGs (26% vs 42% vs 69%; P < .001). In addition, those with high TG also succeeded less in attaining LDL-C and apolipoprotein B goals (P < .001). A large proportion of very high and high ASCVD patients on LLDs in the Arabian Gulf are not at recommended non-HDL-C targets and hence remain at a substantial residual risk. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cholesterol Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  13. Get Your Cholesterol Checked

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Checked Print This Topic En español Get Your Cholesterol Checked Browse Sections The Basics Overview Cholesterol Test ... How often do I need to get my cholesterol checked? The general recommendation is to get your ...

  14. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  15. Causes of High Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes of High Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 If you have high ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • HDL, LDL, and Triglycerides • Causes ...

  16. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Prevention and Management of High LDL Cholesterol: What You Can Do Recommend on ... like eating a healthy diet, can help prevent high cholesterol. High low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol increases ...

  17. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Jul 5,2017 How ... do you know about cholesterol? Here are some common misconceptions — and the truth. High cholesterol isn’t ...

  18. Cholesterol lowering, low cholesterol, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, J C

    1993-10-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  19. Brain cholesterol in normal and pathological aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanmierlo Tim

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Aberrations in cerebral cholesterol homeostasis can lead to severe neurological diseases. Recent findings strengthen the link between brain cholesterol metabolism and factors involved in synaptic plasticity, a process essential for learning and memory functions, as well as regeneration, which are affected in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Cholesterol homeostasis within the brain is independent of that in the rest of the body and needs to be strictly regulated for optimal brain functioning. In contrast with what was initially assumed brain cholesterol homeostasis can be modulated by extra-cerebral factors. We have found that enhancement of the cholesterol-turnover in the brain by administration of the synthetic activator of liver x receptos (LXRs, T0901317, leads to restoration of memory functions in an AD mouse-model.Memory in C57Bl6NCrl mice was not further improved by the same treatment. Moreover, it was found that in contrast with cholesterol, the structurally very similar dietary derived plant sterols can enter the brain. Plant sterols may be natural activators of LXRs. Evidence is provided suggesting that brassicasterol may be a novel additional biomarker in cerebrospinal fluid of AD patients. Insight into the regulation of cerebral cholesterol homeostasis will provide possibilities to modulate the key steps involved and may lead to the development of therapies for the prevention as well as treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.

  20. Fine mapping of the insulin-induced gene 2 identifies a variant associated with LDL cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ron; Bailey, Swneke D; Paré, Guillaume; Montpetit, Alexandre; Desbiens, Katia; Hudson, Thomas J; Yusuf, Salim; Bouchard, Claude; Gaudet, Daniel; Pérusse, Louis; Anand, Sonia; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Pastinen, Tomi; Engert, James C

    2010-10-01

    In a whole-genome scan, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs7566605) upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was shown to influence body mass index and obesity in the Framingham Heart Study, with replication of these results in an additional 4 of 5 studies. However, other studies could not replicate the association. Because INSIG2 plays an important role in cholesterol biosynthesis, we hypothesized that human INSIG2 variants might play a role in the regulation of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. We selected tagging SNPs spanning >100 kb of INSIG2 locus and sequenced 18 434 base pairs to discover novel SNPs. Thirty-two SNPs were genotyped in 645 individuals from the Quebec Family Study. Two SNPs (rs10490626 and rs12464355) were associated with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (PJean, Quebec (P=0.040 for LDL-C, P=0.044 for apoB), 3247 Europeans (P=0.028 for LDL-C, P=0.030 for apoB), and 1695 South Asians (P=0.0036 for LDL-C, P=0.034 for apoB) from the INTERHEART study (for LDL-C, the combined 2-sided P=6.2×10⁻⁵ and for total apoB, P=0.0011). Furthermore, we identified a variant in the human sorbin and SH(3)-domain-containing-1 gene that was associated with INSIG2 mRNA levels, and this SNP was shown to act in combination with rs10490626 to affect LDL-C (P=0.022) in the Quebec Family Study and in INTERHEART South Asians (P=0.019) and Europeans (P=0.052). These results suggest that INSIG2 genetic variants may have a more direct role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism than in obesity.

  1. Cholesterol testing on a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncescu, Vlad; Mancuso, Matthew; Erickson, David

    2014-02-21

    Home self-diagnostic tools for blood cholesterol monitoring have been around for over a decade but their widespread adoption has been limited by the relatively high cost of acquiring a quantitative test-strip reader, complicated procedure for operating the device, and inability to easily store and process results. To address this we have developed a smartphone accessory and software application that allows for the quantification of cholesterol levels in blood. Through a series of human trials we demonstrate that the system can accurately quantify total cholesterol levels in blood within 60 s by imaging standard test strips. In addition, we demonstrate how our accessory is optimized to improve measurement sensitivity and reproducibility across different individual smartphones. With the widespread adoption of smartphones and increasingly sophisticated image processing technology, accessories such as the one presented here will allow cholesterol monitoring to become more accurate and widespread, greatly improving preventive care for cardiovascular disease.

  2. Mechanism of Resistance to Dietary Cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey R. Boone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alterations in expression of hepatic genes that could contribute to resistance to dietary cholesterol were investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats, which are known to be resistant to the serum cholesterol raising action of dietary cholesterol. Methods. Microarray analysis was used to provide a comprehensive analysis of changes in hepatic gene expression in rats in response to dietary cholesterol. Changes were confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. Western blotting was employed to measure changes in hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase protein. Results. Of the 28,000 genes examined using the Affymetrix rat microarray, relatively few were significantly altered. As expected, decreases were observed for several genes that encode enzymes of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The largest decreases were seen for squalene epoxidase and lanosterol 14α demethylase (CYP 51A1. These changes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. LDL receptor expression was not altered by dietary cholesterol. Critically, the expression of cholesterol 7α hydroxylase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in bile acid synthesis, was increased over 4-fold in livers of rats fed diets containing 1% cholesterol. In contrast, mice, which are not resistant to dietary cholesterol, exhibited lower hepatic cholesterol 7α hydroxylase (CYP7A1 protein levels, which were not increased in response to diets containing 2% cholesterol.

  3. Knowledge-driven multi-locus analysis reveals gene-gene interactions influencing HDL cholesterol level in two independent EMR-linked biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Stephen D; Berg, Richard L; Linneman, James G; Peissig, Peggy L; Crawford, Dana C; Denny, Joshua C; Roden, Dan M; McCarty, Catherine A; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Wilke, Russell A

    2011-05-11

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are routinely being used to examine the genetic contribution to complex human traits, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Although HDL-C levels are highly heritable (h(2)∼0.7), the genetic determinants identified through GWAS contribute to a small fraction of the variance in this trait. Reasons for this discrepancy may include rare variants, structural variants, gene-environment (GxE) interactions, and gene-gene (GxG) interactions. Clinical practice-based biobanks now allow investigators to address these challenges by conducting GWAS in the context of comprehensive electronic medical records (EMRs). Here we apply an EMR-based phenotyping approach, within the context of routine care, to replicate several known associations between HDL-C and previously characterized genetic variants: CETP (rs3764261, p = 1.22e-25), LIPC (rs11855284, p = 3.92e-14), LPL (rs12678919, p = 1.99e-7), and the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 locus (rs964184, p = 1.06e-5), all adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status. By using a novel approach which censors data based on relevant co-morbidities and lipid modifying medications to construct a more rigorous HDL-C phenotype, we identified an association between HDL-C and TRIB1, a gene which previously resisted identification in studies with larger sample sizes. Through the application of additional analytical strategies incorporating biological knowledge, we further identified 11 significant GxG interaction models in our discovery cohort, 8 of which show evidence of replication in a second biobank cohort. The strongest predictive model included a pairwise interaction between LPL (which modulates the incorporation of triglyceride into HDL) and ABCA1 (which modulates the incorporation of free cholesterol into HDL). These results demonstrate that gene-gene interactions modulate complex human traits, including HDL cholesterol.

  4. Coexistence of High Fibrinogen and Low High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels Predicts Recurrent Cerebral Venous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Concomitant high fibrinogen and low HDL-C levels may be associated with recurrence of CVT. The effect of potential risk factors related to atherothrombosis on recurrent CVT should be closely monitored.

  5. Quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism by promoting cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and cholesterol efflux in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Xie, Zongkai; Gao, Weina; Pu, Lingling; Wei, Jingyu; Guo, Changjiang

    2016-03-01

    Quercetin, a common member of the flavonoid family, is widely present in plant kingdom. Despite that quercetin is implicated in regulating cholesterol metabolism, the molecular mechanism is poorly understood. We hypothesized that quercetin regulates cholesterol homeostasis through regulating the key enzymes involved in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we compared the profile of key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the hepatic cholesterol metabolism in rats with or without quercetin supplementation. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control and quercetin-supplemented groups. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total bile acids in feces and bile were measured. Hepatic enzymatic activities were determined by activity assay kit and high-performance liquid chromatography-based analyses. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions were determined by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses, respectively. The results showed that the activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, a critical enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was significantly elevated by quercetin. The expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase, as well as liver X receptor α, an important transcription factor, was also increased at both mRNA and protein levels by quercetin. However, quercetin exposure had no impact on the activity of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. We also found that quercetin treatment significantly increased ATP binding cassette transporter G1 mRNA and protein expression in the liver, suggesting that quercetin may increase hepatic cholesterol efflux. Collectively, the results presented here indicate that quercetin regulates hepatic cholesterol metabolism mainly through the pathways that promote cholesterol-to-bile acid conversion and

  6. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error - Reply ( letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality d

  7. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality d

  8. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error - Reply ( letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality

  9. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality d

  10. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error - Reply ( letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality d

  11. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  12. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  13. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  14. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; de Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Jukema, J. Wouter; van der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; van Ommen, Gert-Jan B.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (similar to 35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference pan

  15. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; Van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; Van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; De Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; De Craen, Anton J M; Uh, Hae Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Jukema, J. Wouter; Van Der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; Van Ommen, Gert Jan B; De Bakker, Paul I W; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Elbers, Clara C.; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Peer, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.; Van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F J; Stoneking, Mark; De Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.; Van Den Berg, Leonard H.; Byelas, Heorhiy; Den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Van Der Velde, K. Joeri; Van Setten, Jessica; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Van Schaik, Barbera D C; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created

  16. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); J. Deelen (Joris); A. Isaacs (Aaron); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); H. Mbarek; A. Kanterakis (Alexandros); S. Trompet (Stella); D. Postmus (Douwe); N. Verweij (Niek); D. van Enckevort (David); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); C.C. White (Charles); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); A. Manichaikul (Ani); P.K. Joshi (Peter); G.M. Peloso (Gina); P. Deelen (Patrick); F. van Dijk (F.); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); L.C. Francioli (Laurent); A. Menelaou (Androniki); S.L. Pulit (Sara); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A. Hofman (Albert); B.A. Oostra (Ben); O.H. Franco (Oscar); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M. Beekman (Marian); A.J. de Craen (Anton); H.-W. Uh (Hae-Won); H. Trochet (Holly); L.J. Hocking (Lynne); D.J. Porteous (David J.); N. Sattar (Naveed); C.J. Packard (Chris J.); B.M. Buckley (Brendan M.); J. Brody (Jennifer); J.C. Bis (Joshua); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); J.C. Mychaleckyj (Josyf); H. Campbell (Harry); Q. Duan (Qing); L.A. Lange (Leslie); J.F. Wilson (James F); C. Hayward (Caroline); O. Polasek (Ozren); V. Vitart (Veronique); I. Rudan (Igor); A. Wright (Alan); S.S. Rich (Stephen S.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P.M. Kearney (Patricia M.); D.J. Stott (David. J.); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); P. van der Harst (Pim); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Swertz (Morris); G.-J.B. Van Ommen (Gert-Jan B.); P.I.W. de Bakker (Paul); P. Eline Slagboom; D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); C. Wijmenga (Cisca); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); P.B.T. Neerincx (Pieter B T); C.C. Elbers (Clara); P.F. Palamara (Pier Francesco); I. Peer (Itsik); M. Abdellaoui (Mohammed); W.P. Kloosterman (Wigard); M. van Oven (Mannis); M. Vermaat (Martijn); M. Li (Mingkun); J.F.J. Laros (Jeroen F.); M. Stoneking (Mark); P. de Knijff (Peter); M.H. Kayser (Manfred); J.H. Veldink (Jan); L.H. van den Berg (Leonard); H. Byelas (Heorhiy); J.T. den Dunnen (Johan); M.K. Dijkstra; N. Amin (Najaf); K.J. Van Der Velde (K. Joeri); J. van Setten (Jessica); V.M. Kattenberg (Mathijs); F.D.M. Van Schaik (Fiona D.M.); J.J. Bot (Jan); I.J. Nijman (Isaac ); H. Mei (Hailiang); V. Koval (Vyacheslav); K. Ye (Kai); E.-W. Lameijer (Eric-Wubbo); H. Moed (Heleen); J. Hehir-Kwa (Jayne); R.E. Handsaker (Robert); S.R. Sunyaev (Shamil); M. Sohail (Mashaal); F. Hormozdiari (Fereydoun); T. Marschall (Tanja); A. Schönhuth (Alexander); V. Guryev (Victor); H.E.D. Suchiman (Eka); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); I. Platteel (Inge); S.J. Pitts (Steven); S. Potluri (Shobha); D.R. Cox (David R.); Q. Li (Qibin); Y. Li (Yingrui); Y. Du (Yuanping); R. Chen (Ruoyan); H. Cao (Hongzhi); N. Li (Ning); S. Cao (Sujie); J. Wang (Jun); J.A. Bovenberg (Jasper)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractVariants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference p

  17. Genome of the Netherlands population-specific imputations identify an ABCA6 variant associated with cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Deelen, Joris; Isaacs, Aaron; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Mbarek, Hamdi; Kanterakis, Alexandros; Trompet, Stella; Postmus, Iris; Verweij, Niek; Van Enckevort, David J.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; White, Charles C.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Bartz, Traci M.; Manichaikul, Ani; Joshi, Peter K.; Peloso, Gina M.; Deelen, Patrick; Van Dijk, Freerk; Willemsen, Gonneke; De Geus, Eco J.; Milaneschi, Yuri; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Francioli, Laurent C.; Menelaou, Androniki; Pulit, Sara L.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A.; Franco, Oscar H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Beekman, Marian; De Craen, Anton J M; Uh, Hae Won; Trochet, Holly; Hocking, Lynne J.; Porteous, David J.; Sattar, Naveed; Packard, Chris J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Bis, Joshua C.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Harry; Duan, Qing; Lange, Leslie A.; Wilson, James F.; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Wright, Alan F.; Rich, Stephen S.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Kearney, Patricia M.; Stott, David J.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Jukema, J. Wouter; Van Der Harst, Pim; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Swertz, Morris A.; Van Ommen, Gert Jan B; De Bakker, Paul I W; Eline Slagboom, P.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Neerincx, Pieter B T; Elbers, Clara C.; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Peer, Itsik; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Kloosterman, Wigard P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304076953; Van Oven, Mannis; Vermaat, Martijn; Li, Mingkun; Laros, Jeroen F J; Stoneking, Mark; De Knijff, Peter; Kayser, Manfred; Veldink, Jan H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266575722; Van Den Berg, Leonard H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/288255216; Byelas, Heorhiy; Den Dunnen, Johan T.; Dijkstra, Martijn; Amin, Najaf; Van Der Velde, K. Joeri; Van Setten, Jessica|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345493990; Kattenberg, Mathijs; Van Schaik, Barbera D C; Bot, Jan; Nijman, Isaäc J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185967833; Mei, Hailiang; Koval, Vyacheslav; Ye, Kai; Lameijer, Eric Wubbo; Moed, Matthijs H.; Hehir-Kwa, Jayne Y.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Sohail, Mashaal; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Marschall, Tobias; Schönhuth, Alexander; Guryev, Victor|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/343083132; Suchiman, H. Eka D; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.; Platteel, Mathieu; Pitts, Steven J.; Potluri, Shobha; Cox, David R.; Li, Qibin; Li, Yingrui; Du, Yuanping; Chen, Ruoyan; Cao, Hongzhi; Li, Ning; Cao, Sujie; Wang, Jun; Bovenberg, Jasper A.; de Bakker, Paul I W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/342957082

    2015-01-01

    Variants associated with blood lipid levels may be population-specific. To identify low-frequency variants associated with this phenotype, population-specific reference panels may be used. Here we impute nine large Dutch biobanks (∼35,000 samples) with the population-specific reference panel created

  18. Serum apolipoprotein(a) levels and its effect on the measured values of low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Serum low density lipoprotein cholesterl (LDL-C) and lipoprotein(a)[Lp(a)]levels were analyzed in 1032 sequential cases on routine physical check up, with special attention to the effect of Lp(a) on the LDL-C values. Since the determination of LDL-C by various

  19. Effect of dietary trans fatty acids on high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Katan, M.B.

    1990-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Fatty acids that contain a trans double bond are consumed in large amounts as hydrogenated oils, but their effects on serum lipoprotein levels are unknown. METHODS. We placed 34 women (mean age, 26 years) and 25 men (mean age, 25 years) on three mixed natural diets of identical nutrient

  20. Cooking for Lower Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cooking for Lower Cholesterol Updated:Oct 28,2016 A heart-healthy eating ... content was last reviewed on 04/21/2014. Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  1. Switching from atorvastatin to rosuvastatin lowers small, dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Yukihiro; Toyama, Hitomi; Kanehara, Hideo; Hisada, Azusa; Okafuji, Kazuhiro; Toya, Daisyu; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    This open-label, randomized, parallel-group comparative study compared the efficacy of rosuvastatin (5mg/day) and atorvastatin (10mg/day) for reduction of small dense low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sd LDL-C) levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with T2DM and hypercholesterolemia with detectable sd LDL-C after receiving 10mg/day atorvastatin for ≥ 24 weeks were randomly assigned to receive rosuvastatin (5mg/day; switched treatment) or atorvastatin (10mg/day; continued treatment) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoints were changes in sd LDL-C levels and sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio evaluated using the LipoPhor AS(®) system. There were no significant percent changes from baseline for LDL-C levels between the switched (n=55) and the continued treatment group (n=56). However, the former group exhibited a statistically significant reduction from baseline of sd LDL-C levels, sd LDL-C/total LDL-C ratio compared with the latter group (-3.8 mg/dL vs. -1.4 mg/dL, p=0.014; -2.3% vs. -0.6%, p=0.004, respectively). Multiple regression analysis among all subjects revealed that independent factors contributing to the reduction in sd LDL-C levels were a change in LDL-C (p=0.003) and triglyceride (TG) levels (p=0.006), treatment group (the switched group=1, the continued group=0; standard coefficient=-1.2, p=0.034) and baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p=0.045), respectively. Switching from 10mg atorvastatin to 5mg rosuvastatin may be a useful therapeutic option to reduce sd LDL-C levels in Japanese hypercholesterolemic patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The ratio of monocyte frequency to HDL cholesterol level as a predictor of asymptomatic organ damage in patients with primary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Emel; Ates, Ihsan; Fettah Arikan, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Dede, Fatih

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between the ratio of monocyte frequency to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level (the monocyte/HDL ratio (MHR)) and asymptomatic organ damage (AOD) in primary hypertension (PHT). A total of 366 participants were enrolled in the study, including 275 cases currently being followed up after a diagnosis of PHT in our clinic and 91 healthy volunteers. The MHR was higher in patients with PHT than in individuals in the control group. In the PHT group, the MHR was higher in patients with AOD (AOD+) than in patients without AOD (AOD-). In the correlation analyses performed in the PHT group, there were positive correlations between the MHR and the following AOD indicators: carotid intima media thickness, left ventricular mass index, urinary protein levels and urinary albumin levels. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, the MHR was found to be an independent risk factor associated with these indicators of AOD. In conclusion, our study shows that MHR is associated with AOD in patients with PHT.

  3. Apolipoprotein A-II influences apolipoprotein E-linked cardiovascular disease risk in women with high levels of HDL cholesterol and C-reactive protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Corsetti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects and high (designated as HR2 subjects levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C. To assess whether apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II plays a role in apoE-associated risk in the two female groups. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Outcome event mapping, a graphical data exploratory tool; Cox proportional hazards multivariable regression; and curve-fitting modeling were used to examine apoA-II influence on apoE-associated risk focusing on HDL particles with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I without apoA-II (LpA-I and HDL particles with both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I:A-II. Results of outcome mappings as a function of apoE levels and the ratio of apoA-II to apoA-I revealed within each of the two populations, a high-risk subgroup characterized in each situation by high levels of apoE and additionally: in HR1, by a low value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio; and in HR2, by a moderate value of the apoA-II/apoA-I ratio. Furthermore, derived estimates of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II levels revealed for high-risk versus remaining subjects: in HR1, higher levels of LpA-I and lower levels of LpA-I:A-II; and in HR2 the reverse, lower levels of LpA-I and higher levels of LpA-I:A-II. Results of multivariable risk modeling as a function of LpA-I and LpA-I:A-II (dichotomized as highest quartile versus combined three lower quartiles revealed association of risk only for high levels of LpA-I:A-II in the HR2 subgroup (hazard ratio 5.31, 95% CI 1.12-25.17, p = 0.036. Furthermore, high LpA-I:A-II levels interacted with high apoE levels in establishing subgroup risk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that apoA-II plays a significant role in apoE-associated risk of incident CVD in women with high levels of HDL-C and CRP.

  4. Hepatic aberrant glycosylation by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V accelerates HDL assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Kida, Sachiho; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Hashimoto, Chikako; Kimura, Akihiro; Sato, Motoya; Fujii, Hironobu; Sobajima, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Akiko; Ebisutani, Yusuke; Takamatsu, Shinji; Shinzaki, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Yuichi; Yamada, Makoto; Nagasaka, Hironori; Takehara, Tetsuo; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-11-01

    Glycosylation is involved in various pathophysiological conditions. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase V (GnT-V), catalyzing β1-6 branching in asparagine-linked oligosaccharides, is one of the most important glycosyltransferases involved in cancer and the immune system. Recent findings indicate that aberrant N-glycan structure can modify lipid metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of aberrant glycosylation by GnT-V on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) assembly. We used GnT-V transgenic (Tg) mice and GnT-V Hep3B cell (human hepatoma cell line) transfectants. The study also included 96 patients who underwent medical health check-ups. Total serum cholesterol levels, particularly HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, were significantly increased in Tg vs. wild-type (WT) mice. Hepatic expression of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) and ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), two important factors in HDL assembly, were higher in Tg mice compared with WT mice. ApoAI and ABCA1 were also significantly elevated in GnT-V transfectants compared with mock-transfected cells. Moreover, ApoAI protein in the cultured media of GnT-V transfectants was significantly increased. Finally, we found a strong correlation between serum GnT-V activity and HDL-C concentration in human subjects. Multivariate logistic analyses demonstrated that GnT-V activity was an independent and significant determinant for serum HDL-C levels even adjusted with age and gender differences. Further analyses represented that serum GnT-V activity had strong correlation especially with the large-size HDL particle concentration. These findings indicate that enhanced hepatic GnT-V activity accelerated HDL assembly and could be a novel mechanism for HDL synthesis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Reverse cholesterol transport revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid; E; van; der; Velde

    2010-01-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport was originally described as the high-density lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol flux from the periphery via the hepatobiliary tract to the intestinal lumen, leading to fecal excretion. Since the introduction of reverse cholesterol transport in the 1970s, this pathway has been intensively investigated. In this topic highlight, the classical reverse cholesterol transport concepts are discussed and the subject reverse cholesterol transport is revisited.

  6. Cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA mixture does not change body composition, induces insulin resistance and increases serum HDL cholesterol level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Mariana Macedo; de Souza, Yamara Oliveira; Dutra Luquetti, Sheila Cristina Potente; Sabarense, Céphora Maria; do Amaral Corrêa, José Otávio; da Conceição, Ellen Paula Santos; Lisboa, Patrícia Cristina; de Moura, Egberto Gaspar; Andrade Soares, Sara Malaguti; Moura Gualberto, Ana Cristina; Gameiro, Jacy; da Gama, Marco Antônio Sundfeld; Ferraz Lopes, Fernando César; González Garcia, Raúl Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic supplements of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) containing 50:50 mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers have been commercialized in some places for reducing body fat. However the safety of this CLA mixture is controversial and in some countries the CLA usage as food supplement is not authorized. Changes in insulinemic control and serum lipids profile are potential negative effects related to consumption of CLA mixture. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of a diet containing mixture of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA on prevention of obesity risk as well as on potential side effects such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia in Wistar rats. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following dietary treatments (n=10/group), for 60 days: Normolipidic Control (NC), diet containing 4.0% soybean oil (SO); High Fat-Control (HF-C), diet containing 24.0% SO; High Fat-synthetic CLA (HF-CLA), diet containing 1.5% of an isomeric CLA mixture (Luta-CLA 60) and 22.5% SO. Luta-CLA 60 (BASF) contained nearly 60% of CLA (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA at 50:50 ratio). The HF-CLA diet contained 0.3% of each CLA isomer. HF-CLA diet had no effect on dietary intake and body composition. HF-CLA-fed rats had lower levels of PPARγ protein in retroperitoneal adipose tissue, hyperinsulinemia compared to HF-C-fed rats, hyperglycemia compared to NC-fed rats while no differences in glycemia were observed between NC and HF-C groups, increased HOMA index and higher levels of serum HDL cholesterol. Thus, feeding rats with a high fat diet containing equal parts of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA isomers had no effect on body composition and induced insulin resistance. Despite HF-CLA-fed rats had increased serum HDL cholesterol levels, caution should be taken before synthetic supplements containing cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 CLA are recommended as a nutritional strategy for weight management.

  7. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3.

  8. Cholesterol metabolism and serum non-cholesterol sterols: summary of 13 plant stanol ester interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallikainen, Maarit; Simonen, Piia; Gylling, Helena

    2014-04-27

    The efficacy and safety of plant stanols added to food products as serum cholesterol lowering agents have been demonstrated convincingly, but their effects on cholesterol metabolism and on serum non-cholesterol sterols is less evaluated. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of serum non-cholesterol sterols and squalene as bioindices of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, and to examine how the individual serum non-cholesterol sterols respond to consumption of plant stanols. We collected all randomized, controlled plant stanol ester (STAEST) interventions in which serum cholestanol, plant sterols campesterol and sitosterol, and at least two serum cholesterol precursors had been analysed. According to these criteria, there was a total of 13 studies (total 868 subjects without lipid-lowering medication; plant stanol doses varied from 0.8 to 8.8 g/d added in esterified form; the duration of the studies varied from 4 to 52 weeks). Serum non-cholesterol sterols were assayed with gas-liquid chromatography, cholesterol synthesis with the sterol balance technique, and fractional cholesterol absorption with the dual continuous isotope feeding method. The results demonstrated that during the control and the STAEST periods, the serum plant sterol/cholesterol- and the cholestanol/cholesterol-ratios reflected fractional cholesterol absorption, and the precursor sterol/cholesterol-ratios reflected cholesterol synthesis. Plant sterol levels were dose-dependently reduced by STAEST so that 2 g of plant stanols reduced serum campesterol/cholesterol-ratio on average by 32%. Serum cholestanol/cholesterol-ratio was reduced less frequently than those of the plant sterols by STAEST, and the cholesterol precursor sterol ratios did not change consistently in the individual studies emphasizing the importance of monitoring more than one surrogate serum marker. Serum non-cholesterol sterols are valid markers of cholesterol absorption and synthesis even during cholesterol

  9. Prosopis farcta beans increase HDL cholesterol and decrease LDL cholesterol in ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Ansari nik, Hossein; Ghazaghi, Mahmood

    2013-02-01

    Ten blue-neck male ostriches (Struthio camelus) were fed Prosopis farcta beans throughout a 30-day experiment. Blood samples were collected from ostriches on days 0 and 30 to measure levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, total serum protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). From days 0 to 30, HDL cholesterol, total protein, and globulins levels increased significantly whereas LDL cholesterol, inorganic phosphorus, and γ-GT activity decreased significantly.

  10. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K

    2015-10-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  11. Black pepper and piperine reduce cholesterol uptake and enhance translocation of cholesterol transporter proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangjai, Acharaporn; Ingkaninan, Kornkanok; Praputbut, Sakonwun; Limpeanchob, Nanteetip

    2013-04-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) lowers blood lipids in vivo and inhibits cholesterol uptake in vitro, and piperine may mediate these effects. To test this, the present study aimed to compare actions of black pepper extract and piperine on (1) cholesterol uptake and efflux in Caco-2 cells, (2) the membrane/cytosol distribution of cholesterol transport proteins in these cells, and (3) the physicochemical properties of cholesterol micelles. Piperine or black pepper extract (containing the same amount of piperine) dose-dependently reduced cholesterol uptake into Caco-2 cells in a similar manner. Both preparations reduced the membrane levels of NPC1L1 and SR-BI proteins but not their overall cellular expression. Micellar cholesterol solubility of lipid micelles was unaffected except by 1 mg/mL concentration of black pepper extract. These data suggest that piperine is the active compound in black pepper and reduces cholesterol uptake by internalizing the cholesterol transporter proteins.

  12. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials.

  13. Use of Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry to Demonstrate Decreased Serum Statin Levels after Extracorporeal LDL-Cholesterol Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bláha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Using our statin analysis method, it was possible to uncover a significant drop in statin levels (atorvastatin, simvastatin, and metabolites after extracorporeal LDL-cholesterol elimination (EE in severe familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. The purpose of this work was to identify the mechanism underlying this drop and its clinical significance as well as to propose measures to optimize a pharmacotherapeutical regimen that can prevent the loss of statins. Methods. Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC connected to the triple quadrupole MS/MS system was used. Patients. A group of long-term treated patients (3–12 years of treatment with severe FH (12 patients and treated regularly by LDL-apheresis (immunoadsorption or haemorheopheresis (cascade filtration were included in this study. Results. After EE, the level of statins and their metabolites decreased (atorvastatin before/after LDL-apheresis: 8.83/3.46 nmol/l; before/after haemorheopheresis: 37.02/18.94 nmol/l. A specific loss was found (concentration of atorvastatin for LDL-apheresis/haemorheopheresis: 0.28/3.04 nmol/l in washing fluids; 11.07 nmol/l in filters. To prevent substantial loss of statin concentrations, a pharmacotherapeutic regimen with a longer time interval between the dose of statins and EE is recommended (15 hours. Conclusions. A specific loss of statins was found in adsorbent columns and filters. The decrease can be prevented by the suggested dosage scheme.

  14. Identification of Sequence Variation in the Apolipoprotein A2 Gene and Their Relationship with Serum High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandarian, Fatemeh; Daneshpour, Maryam Sadat; Hedayati, Mehdi; Naseri, Mohsen; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein A2 (APOA2) is the second major apolipoprotein of the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The study aim was to identify APOA2 gene variation in individuals within two extreme tails of HDL-C levels and its relationship with HDL-C level. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on participants from Tehran Glucose and Lipid Study (TLGS) at Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Tehran, Iran from April 2012 to February 2013. In total, 79 individuals with extreme low HDL-C levels (≤5th percentile for age and gender) and 63 individuals with extreme high HDL-C levels (≥95th percentile for age and gender) were selected. Variants were identified using DNA amplification and direct sequencing. Results: Screen of all exons and the core promoter region of APOA2 gene identified nine single nucleotide substitutions and one microsatellite; five of which were known and four were new variants. Of these nine variants, two were common tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and seven were rare SNPs. Both exonic substitutions were missense mutations and caused an amino acid change. There was a significant association between the new missense mutation (variant Chr.1:16119226, Ala98Pro) and HDL-C level. Conclusion: None of two common tag SNPs of rs6413453 and rs5082 contributes to the HDL-C trait in Iranian population, but a new missense mutation in APOA2 in our population has a significant association with HDL-C. PMID:26590203

  15. Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels on the Risk of Asymptomatic Intracranial Arterial Stenosis: A Result from the APAC Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianwei; Wang, Anxin; Li, Xin; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial arterial stenosis (ICAS) is an important cause of ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA), and the correlation between the plasma non-high density cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels and ICAS, especially asymptomatic ICAS (AICAS) is not clear. The Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities Community(APAC) study is a community-based, prospective, long-term follow-up observational study. 3387 participants were enrolled in this study. The diagnosis of AICAS was made by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. The participants were then divided into 3 groups based on their non-HDLC levels. The cox regression was used to analyze the correlation between the non-HDLC level and the incidence of AICAS.9.98% of the participants were diagnosed with AICAS during 2 years following up. Multivariate analysis showed that non-HDL-C is an independent indicator for the incidence of AICAS (HR = 1.22, 95%CI: 1.06–1.40), The incidence of AICAS gradually increase with the increasing non-HDLC level. Compared with subgroup(non-HDLC < 3.4 mmol/l), incidence of AICAS was significantly higher in the subgroups(non-HDLC 3.4–4.1 mmol/l and non-HDLC ≥ 4.1 mmol/l) after adjustment for the confounding factors (HR = 1.32, 95%CI:1.02–1.73; HR = 1.46, 95%CI: 1.10–1.94, respectively). In conclusions, our findings suggest that elevated non-HDLC levels a significant risk factor for the development of AICAS in the APAC study. PMID:27857223

  16. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  17. Association of monocyte to HDL cholesterol level with contrast induced nephropathy in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağ, Saim; Yıldız, Abdülmecit; Aydin Kaderli, Aysel; Gül, Bülent Cuma; Bedir, Ömer; Ceğilli, Ercan; Özdemir, Bülent; Can, Fatma Ezgi; Aydınlar, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) has been proven to be a clinical condition related to adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In recent studies, the monocyte to high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has been postulated as a novel parameter associated with adverse renal and cardiovascular outcomes. In this study we investigated the association of MHR with CIN in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Consecutive STEMI patients treated with primary PCI were prospectively recruited. Subjects were categorized into two groups; as patients who developed CIN (CIN+) and patients who did not develop CIN (CIN-) during hospitalization. CIN was defined as either a 25% increase in serum creatinine from baseline or 44.20 µmol/L increase in absolute value, within 72 h of intravenous contrast administration. A total number of 209 patients were included in the study. Thirty-two patients developed CIN (15.3%). In the CIN (+) patients, monocytes were higher [1.02 (0.83-1.39) vs. 0.69 (0.53-0.90) 109/L, pMHR was significantly higher in the CIN (+) group [1.16 (0.89-2.16) vs. 0.72 (0.53-0.95) 109/mmol, pMHR, Mehran score, AGEF score and CV/eGFR were independently correlated with CIN. Higher MHR levels may predict CIN development after primary PCI in STEMI patients.

  18. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janine K Kruit; Albert K Groen; Theo J van Berkel; Folkert Kuipers

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis,clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor to high density lipoprotein (HDL; good cholesterol) formation. The liver has a central position in the classical definition of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway by taking up peripheryderived cholesterol from lipoprotein particles followed by conversion into bile acids or its direct secretion into bile for eventual removal via the feces. During the past couple of years, however, an additional important role of the intestine in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of plasma cholesterol levels has become apparent. Firstly, molecular mechanisms of cholesterol absorption have been elucidated and novel pharmacological compounds have been identified that interfere with the process and positively impact plasma cholesterol levels. Secondly, it is now evident that the intestine itself contributes to fecal neutral sterol loss as a cholesterol-secreting organ. Finally, very recent work has unequivocally demonstrated that the intestine contributes significantly to plasma HDL cholesterol levels.Thus, the intestine is a potential target for novel antiatherosclerotic treatment strategies that, in addition to interference with cholesterol absorption, modulate direct cholesterol excretion and plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

  19. Construction of special eye models for investigation of chromatic and higher-order aberrations of eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yi; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhaoqi; Liu, Yongji; Zhang, Lin; He, Yuanqing; Chang, Shengjiang

    2014-01-01

    An achromatic element eliminating only longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA) while maintaining transverse chromatic aberration (TCA) is established for the eye model, which involves the angle formed by the visual and optical axis. To investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations on vision, the actual data of higher-order aberrations of human eyes with three typical levels are introduced into the eye model along visual axis. Moreover, three kinds of individual eye models are established to investigate the impacts of higher-order aberrations, chromatic aberration (LCA+TCA), LCA and TCA on vision under the photopic condition, respectively. Results show that for most human eyes, the impact of chromatic aberration on vision is much stronger than that of higher-order aberrations, and the impact of LCA in chromatic aberration dominates. The impact of TCA is approximately equal to that of normal level higher-order aberrations and it can be ignored when LCA exists.

  20. Coronary heart disease risk in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease: findings from the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Sillesen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    management. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial included patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known CHD regardless of the presence of carotid atherosclerosis. We evaluated the risk of developing clinically recognized CHD in SPARCL patients....

  1. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years ...

  2. Effect of macrophage-derived mouse ApoE, human ApoE3-Leiden, and human ApoE2 (Arg158→Cys) on cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis in ApoE- deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eck, M. van; Herijgers, N.; Dijk, K.W. van; Havekes, L.M.; Hofker, M.H.; Groot, P.H.E.; Berkel, T.J.C. van

    2000-01-01

    The effect of monocyte/macrophage-derived wild-type mouse apolipoprotein E (apoE), human apoE3-Leiden, and human apoE2 on serum cholesterol levels and the development of atherosclerosis in apoE-deficient (apoe-/-) mice was investigated by using bone marrow transplantation (BMT). At 4 weeks after

  3. Risk of stroke and cardiovascular events after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack in patients with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome: secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callahan, Alfred; Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B

    2011-01-01

    To perform a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial, which tested the effect of treatment with atorvastatin in reducing stroke in subjects with a recent stroke or transient ischemic attack, to explore the effects of treatment...... in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome (MetS)....

  4. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein TaqIB variant, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, cardiovascular risk, and efficacy of pravastatin treatment : individual patient meta-analysis of 13,677 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekholdt, S M; Sacks, F M; Jukema, J W; Shepherd, J; Freeman, D J; McMahon, A D; Cambien, F; Nicaud, V; de Grooth, G J; Talmud, P J; Humphries, S E; Miller, G J; Eiriksdottir, G; Gudnason, V; Kauma, H; Kakko, S; Savolainen, M J; Arca, M; Montali, A; Liu, S; Lanz, H J; Zwinderman, A H; Kuivenhoven, J A; Kastelein, J J P

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have reported that the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) TaqIB gene polymorphism is associated with HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), but the results are inconsistent. In addition, an interaction has been implicated betw

  5. In vivo exposure of young adult male rats to methoxychlor reduces serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation and cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murono, Eisuke P; Derk, Raymond C; Akgul, Yucel

    2006-02-01

    Methoxychlor (MC) was developed as a replacement for the banned pesticide DDT. After in vivo administration, it is metabolized in the liver to 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (HPTE), which is proposed to be the active agent. Both MC and HPTE have been shown to exhibit weak estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities, and they are thought to exert their effects through estrogen and androgen receptors, respectively. Although in vitro studies using cultured rat Leydig cells have reported that HPTE inhibits both basal and hCG-stimulated testosterone formation, the response of circulating testosterone levels to in vivo MC has been more variable. Therefore, the current studies evaluated whether the daily in vivo administration of MC (0, 5, 40 and 200 mg/kg body weight) for a short duration (days 54-60 of age) by gavage altered serum testosterone levels and ex vivo Leydig cell testosterone formation in young adult male rats. These results demonstrate that both fluid-retained and fluid-expressed seminal vesicle weights declined to 44 and 60% of control, respectively, in the 200 mg/kg MC-exposed animals. Similarly, serum testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone levels declined to 41 and 45% of control, respectively, in the 200 mg/kg MC-exposed animals; however, serum LH and FSH levels were unaffected. Ex vivo Leydig cell basal testosterone formation over 4h declined to 49% of control in animals exposed to 200 mg/kg MC, and ex vivo Leydig cell P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity declined to 79 and 50% of control in animals exposed to 40 and 200 mg/kg of MC, respectively, supporting previous in vitro studies which demonstrated the sensitivity of this step to MC.

  6. Atom lens without chromatic aberrations

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Maxim A; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-01-01

    We propose a lens for atoms with reduced chromatic aberrations and calculate its focal length and spot size. In our scheme a two-level atom interacts with a near-resonant standing light wave formed by two running waves of slightly different wave vectors, and a far-detuned running wave propagating perpendicular to the standing wave. We show that within the Raman-Nath approximation and for an adiabatically slow atom-light interaction, the phase acquired by the atom is independent of the incident atomic velocity.

  7. Remnant cholesterol as a cause of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on remnant cholesterol as a causal risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD), on its definition, measurement, atherogenicity, and levels in high risk patient groups; in addition, present and future pharmacological approaches to lowering remnant cholesterol levels...... are considered. Observational studies show association between elevated levels of remnant cholesterol and increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even when remnant cholesterol levels are defined, measured, or calculated in different ways. In-vitro and animal studies also support the contention that elevated...... levels of remnant cholesterol may cause atherosclerosis same way as elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, by cholesterol accumulation in the arterial wall. Genetic studies of variants associated with elevated remnant cholesterol levels show that an increment of 1mmol/L (39mg...

  8. PCSK9 R46L, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and risk of ischemic heart disease: 3 independent studies and meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grande, Peer

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PCSK9 R46L on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and mortality.......The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PCSK9 R46L on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD), and mortality....

  9. Cholesterol and late-life cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Peter

    2012-01-01

    High cholesterol levels are a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but their role in dementia and cognitive decline is less clear. This review highlights current knowledge on the role of cholesterol in late-life cognitive function, cognitive decline, and dementia. When measured in midlife, high cholesterol levels associate with an increased risk of late-life dementia and cognitive decline. However, when measured in late-life, high cholesterol levels show no association with cognitive function, or even show an inverse relation. Although statin treatment has been shown to associate with a lower risk of dementia and cognitive decline in observational studies, randomized controlled trials show no beneficial effect of statin treatment on late-life cognitive function. Lowering cholesterol levels may impair brain function, since cholesterol is essential for synapse formation and maturation and plays an important role in the regulation of signal transduction through its function as a component of the cell membrane. However, membrane cholesterol also plays a role in the formation and aggregation of amyloid-β. Factors that influence cholesterol metabolism, such as dietary intake, are shown to play a role in late-life cognitive function and the risk of dementia. In conclusion, cholesterol associates with late-life cognitive function, but the association is strongly age-dependent. There is no evidence that treatment with statins in late-life has a beneficial effect on cognitive function.

  10. Impact of low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol level on 2-year clinical outcomes after acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Cho, Sang-A; Hong, Soon Jun; Hur, Seung-Ho; Bae, Jang-Ho; Choi, Dong-Ju; Ahn, Young-Keun; Park, Jong-Seon; Choi, Rak-Kyeong; Choi, Donghoon; Kim, Joon-Hong; Han, Kyoo-Rok; Park, Hun-Sik; Choi, So-Yeon; Yoon, Jung-Han; Kwon, Hyeon-Cheol; Rha, Seung-Woon; Hwang, Kyung-Kuk; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Oh, Seok-Kyu; Lee, Jae-Hwan; Shin, Eun-Seok; Kim, Kee-Sik; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-11-18

    It is still unclear whether low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) affects cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI), especially in patients with diabetes mellitus. A total of 984 AMI patients with diabetes mellitus from the DIabetic Acute Myocardial InfarctiON Disease (DIAMOND) Korean multicenter registry were divided into two groups based on HDL-C level on admission: normal HDL-C group (HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL, n = 519) and low HDL-C group (HDL-C risk factors, Cox proportional hazards analysis suggested that low HDL-C was an independent risk predictor for MACE (hazard ratio [HR] 3.075, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.034-9.144, p = 0.043). In patients with diabetes mellitus, low HDL-C remained an independent risk predictor for MACE after adjusting for multiple risk factors during 2-year follow-up of AMI. This study was the sub-analysis of the prospective multi-center registry of DIAMOND (Diabetic acute myocardial infarction Disease) in Korea. This is the observational study supported by Bayer HealthCare, Korea. Study number is 15614. First patient first visit was 02 April 2010 and last patient last visit was 09 December 2013.

  11. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, their relationship with baseline functional and cognitive status, and their utility in predicting mortality in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Chivite, David; Pinto, Xavier; Cuerpo, Sandra; Pujol, Ramón

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the role of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in oldest-old subjects. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between HDL-C levels and physical and cognitive performance indicators in nonagenarians, and also to determine the influence of HDL-C levels on the 3-year mortality risk. The data analyzed were taken from the NonaSantfeliu Study. Functional status was determined by the Lawton-Brody Index (LI) for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and the Barthel Index (BI) for basic activities (BADL). Cognition was assessed using the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC). The sample consisted of 49 women (79%) and 13 men, aged 94.3 ± 2.6 years. Mean HDL-C levels were 60 ± 16 mg/dL, and 16 subjects (25.8%) had low HDL-C values. HDL-C levels did correlate with BI (r = 0.28, P = 0.02) and LI (r = 0.32, P = 0.01), but not with MEC (r = 0.18, P = 0.15). Normal HDL-C levels at baseline were significantly associated with higher BI scores (P < 0.006, odds ratio [OR] = 1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-1.05) and a lower number of prescription drugs used (P < 0.04, OR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.49-0.99). Baseline HDL-C levels were significantly lower among the group of nonagenarians who died within the 3 years of follow up (P = 0.02). However, after adjusting for potential confounders, the association between HDL-C and mortality lost significance. Higher levels of HDL-C correlate with better functional status and less use of prescribed drugs in nonagenarians. However, the relationship between low HDL-C levels and long-term mortality in this population remains unclear. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Cholesterol levels in panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and major depression Níveis de colesterol no transtorno de pânico, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada e depressão maior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ACIOLY L.T. LACERDA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum plasma total cholesterol levels were measured in 85 male or female outpatients with panic disorder (PD; N=41, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; N=23 and major depression (MD; N=21 according to DSM-IV criteria. All the patients had a mean cholesterol level within the normal range; males (N=22 and females (N=63 had approximately the same serum cholesterol levels (p > .05. No significant differences in cholesterol levels emerged between PD, GAD and MD patient groups. Both female PD and female GAD subjects had a mean cholesterol level similar to their male counterparts (p>.05. It is concluded that both Hayward and colleagues and Bajwa et al. findings could not be replicated by our study.Foram medidos os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total em 85 pacientes ambulatoriais com transtorno de pânico (TP; N = 41, transtorno de ansiedade generalizada (TAG; N = 23 e depressão maior (DM; N = 21, diagnosticados de acordo com os critérios do DSM-IV. O grupo de pacientes apresentou média do nível de colesterol dentro da faixa normal; homens (N = 22 e mulheres (N = 63 tiveram aproximadamente os mesmos níveis séricos de colesterol (p > 0,05. Não foram observadas diferenças nos níveis de colesterol entre os grupos de pacientes com TP, TAG e DM. Mulheres com TP e as com TAG apresentaram média dos níveis de colesterol semelhante aos seus pares masculinos (p > 0,05. Conclui-se que os resultados obtidos por Hayward et al. e por Bajwa et al. não foram replicados neste estudo.

  13. Effects of a New Nutraceutical Formulation (Berberine, Red Yeast Rice and Chitosan on Non-HDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals with Dyslipidemia: Results from a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Spigoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Increased non high-density lipoprotein (HDL/low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels are independent risk factors for cardiovascular (CV mortality with no documented threshold. A new combination of nutraceuticals (berberine 200 mg, monacolin K 3 mg, chitosan 10 mg and coenzyme Q 10 mg with additive lipid-lowering properties has become available. The aim of the study is to test the efficacy of the nutraceutical formulation (one daily in lowering non-HDL cholesterol vs. placebo at 12 weeks in individuals with non-HDL-cholesterol levels ≥160 mg/dL. 39 subjects (age 52 ± 11 years; 54% females; body mass index 27 ± 4 kg/m2 were randomized (3:1 in a double blind phase II placebo-controlled study. At baseline, 4 and 12 weeks main clinical/biohumoral parameters, pro-inflammatory cytokines, (gut-hormones, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 levels and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC number were assessed. Baseline characteristics were comparable in the two groups. The intervention significantly decreased non-HDL cholesterol (−30 ± 20 mg/dL; p = 0.012, LDL cholesterol (−31 ± 18 mg/dL, p = 0.011 and apolipoprotein (Apo B (−14 ± 12 mg/dL, p = 0.030 levels compared to the placebo. Pro-inflammatory, hormonal, PCSK9 and EPC levels remained stable throughout the study in both groups. The intervention was well tolerated. Three adverse events occurred: Epstein Barr virus infection, duodenitis and asymptomatic but significant increase in creatine phosphokinase (following intense physical exercise which required hospitalization. The tested nutraceutical formulation may represent a possible therapeutic strategy in dyslipidemic individuals in primary prevention.

  14. Aspirin Increases the Solubility of Cholesterol in Lipid Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Richard; Barrett, Matthew; Zheng, Sonbo; Dies, Hannah; Rheinstadter, Maikel

    2014-03-01

    Aspirin (ASA) is often prescribed for patients with high levels of cholesterol for the secondary prevention of myocardial events, a regimen known as the Low-Dose Aspirin Therapy. We have recently shown that Aspirin partitions in lipid bilayers. However, a direct interplay between ASA and cholesterol has not been investigated. Cholesterol is known to insert itself into the membrane in a dispersed state at moderate concentrations (under ~37.5%) and decrease fluidity of membranes. We prepared model lipid membranes containing varying amounts of both ASA and cholesterol molecules. The structure of the bilayers as a function of ASA and cholesterol concentration was determined using high-resolution X-ray diffraction. At cholesterol levels of more than 40mol%, immiscible cholesterol plaques formed. Adding ASA to the membranes was found to dissolve the cholesterol plaques, leading to a fluid lipid bilayer structure. We present first direct evidence for an interaction between ASA and cholesterol on the level of the cell membrane.

  15. Dieta vegetariana e níveis de colesterol e triglicérides Vegetarian diet and cholesterol and triglycerides levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Grigoletto De Biase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os valores de triglicérides (TG, colesterol total (CT, lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL entre indivíduos vegetarianos e onívoros. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras sangüíneas de 76 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, que foram separados em quatro grupos de dieta: onívoro, ovolacto, lacto e vegetariano restrito (ou "vegan". Foram dosados: CT, LDL, HDL e TG. RESULTADOS: Para as taxas de CT, LDL e TG, observa-se diferença significante entre as amostras, sendo o maior valor nos onívoros, havendo decréscimo nos vegetarianos, de acordo com o grau de restrição de produtos de origem animal, sendo a menor taxa observada nos "vegans". A média e o desvio padrão do CT foram de 208,09 ± 49,09 mg/dl no grupo de onívoros, e 141,06 ± 30,56 mg/dl no de vegan (p OBJECTIVE: Compare levels of triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL among vegetarians and omnivores. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 76 individuals - both males and females - separated in four different diet groups: omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians, and restricted vegetarians (or vegans. Dosing was done for: TC, LDL, HDL and TG. RESULTS: Significant difference was reported for TC, LDL and TG levels among the samples. Higher levels were reported by omnivores, with decreased levels for vegetarians as animal products were restricted, with lowest levels having been reported by vegans. Mean and standard deviation for TC were 208.09 ± 49.09 mg/dl in the group of omnivores, and 141.06 ± 30.56 mg/dl in the group of vegans (p < 0.001. LDL values for omnivores and vegans were respectively: 123.43 ± 42.67 mg/dl and 69.28 ± 29.53 mg/dl (p < 0.001. As for TG, those values were 155.68 ± 119.84 mg/dl and 81.67 ± 81.90 mg/dl (p < 0.01. As for HDL level no difference was reported between the samples, but HDL/TC ratio was significantly higher in

  16. Cholesterol testing and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol test results; LDL test results; VLDL test results; HDL test results; Coronary risk profile results; Hyperlipidemia- ... Some cholesterol is considered good and some is considered bad. Different blood tests can be done to measure each ...

  17. Controlling Cholesterol with Statins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Controlling Cholesterol with Statins Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... not, the following tips can help keep your cholesterol in check: Talk with your healthcare provider about ...

  18. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  19. Cholesterol and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRosa, J C

    1994-08-01

    Cholesterol lowering in both primary and secondary prevention has been clearly demonstrated to lower coronary morbidity and, in secondary prevention, to lower coronary mortality as well. Putative dangers of cholesterol lowering remain unproven. Population studies linking low cholesterol to noncoronary mortalities do not demonstrate cause-and-effect relations. In fact, based on current studies, the opposite is more likely to be the case. Neither gender nor age should automatically exclude persons from cholesterol screening. Drug intervention, however, should be used conservatively, particularly in young adults and the elderly. Drugs should be used only after diet and lifestyle interventions have failed. The evidence linking high blood cholesterol to coronary atherosclerosis and cholesterol lowering to its prevention is broad-based and definitive. Concerns about cholesterol lowering and spontaneously low cholesterols should be pursued but should not interfere with the implementation of current public policies to reduce the still heavy burden of atherosclerosis in Western society.

  20. REDUCTION DEGREE OF LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ACCORDING TO DIFFERENT DOSES OF STATINS; ITS EFFECT ON THE RISK OF ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE ACUTE EPISODES DEPENDING ON TREATMENT DURATION; AND RISK OF ISCHEMIC AND THROMBOEMBOLIC STROKE. COMMENT ON THE PAPER OF LAW M.R., WALD N.J., RUDNICKA A.R. QUANTIFYING EFFECT OF STATINS ON LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, ISCHAEMIC HEART DISEASE, AND STROKE: SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS. BMJ 2003; 326:1423-1427

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Perova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative dose-dependent ability of different statins to lower serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol was determined in three large meta-analysis. Besides, it was found that standardized decrease in LDL cholesterol levels on 1.0 or 1.8 mmol/l leads to rate reduction in ischemic heart disease acute episodes as well as stroke depending on treatment duration. Effect of LDL cholesterol reduction on stroke occurrence was more significant in studies, which included a major share of patients with vascular disease, because these patients have a higher risk of thromboembolic stroke (rather than haemorrhagic stroke in comparison with the general population.

  1. Relationship between Serum Albumin Level and Monocyte-to-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio with Saphenous Vein Graft Disease in Coronary Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akboga, Mehmet Kadri; Yayla, Cagri; Balci, Kevser Gulcihan; Ozeke, Ozcan; Maden, Orhan; Kisacik, Halil; Temizhan, Ahmet; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2017-06-01

    Background Previous studies proposed that inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired endothelial dysfunction have a crucial role in occurrence of saphenous vein graft (SVG) disease (SVGD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between monocyte-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (MHR) and serum albumin (SA) level as readily available inflammatory and oxidative stress markers with the presence of SVGD in patients with a coronary bypass. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study, a total of 257 patients (n = 112 SVGD [+] [mean age was 65.3 ± 8.4 years, 75.0% males] and n = 145 SVGD [-] [mean age was 66.5 ± 10.1 years, 74.5% males]) were enrolled. At least one SVG with ≥ 50% stenosis was defined as SVGD. Independent predictors of SVGD were determined by logistic regression analysis. Results White blood cell, neutrophil, monocyte, the age of SVG, and MHR were significantly higher, whereas SA level was significantly lower in patients with SVGD. In regression analysis, neutrophil, age of SVG, SA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.232 [0.156-0.370], p MHR (OR: 1.122 [1.072-1.174], p MHR (r = 0.238, p MHR has a 71.4% sensitivity and 60.0% specificity for prediction of SVGD. Conclusion Consequently, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing a significant and independent association between SA and MHR with SVGD. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  3. Imbalanced cholesterol metabolism in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-shan, Zhao; Juan, Peng; Qi, Wu; Zhong, Ren; Li-hong, Pan; Zhi-han, Tang; Zhi-sheng, Jiang; Gui-xue, Wang; Lu-shan, Liu

    2016-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex and multifactorial neurodegenerative disease that is mainly caused by β-amyloid accumulation. A large number of studies have shown that elevated cholesterol levels may perform a function in AD pathology, and several cholesterol-related gene polymorphisms are associated with this disease. Although numerous studies have shown the important function of cholesterol in AD pathogenesis and development, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. To further elucidate cholesterol metabolism disorder and AD, we first, review metabolism and regulation of the cholesterol in the brain. Second, we summarize the literature stating that hypercholesterolemia is one of the risk factors of AD. Third, we discuss the main mechanisms of abnormal cholesterol metabolism that increase the risk of AD. Finally, the relationships between AD and apolipoprotein E, PCSK9, and LRP1 are discussed in this article.

  4. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak.

  5. Cholesterol oxidation products and their biological importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulig, Waldemar; Cwiklik, Lukasz; Jurkiewicz, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The main biological cause of oxysterols is the oxidation of cholesterol. They differ from cholesterol by the presence of additional polar groups that are typically hydroxyl, keto, hydroperoxy, epoxy, or carboxyl moieties. Under typical conditions, oxysterol concentration is maintained at a very low...... and precisely regulated level, with an excess of cholesterol. Like cholesterol, many oxysterols are hydrophobic and hence confined to cell membranes. However, small chemical differences between the sterols can significantly affect how they interact with other membrane components, and this in turn can have...

  6. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  7. Cholesterol efflux is differentially regulated in neurons and astrocytes: implications for brain cholesterol homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Kusumo, Handojo; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated with neurological, neurodegenerative, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The CNS is a closed system with regard to cholesterol homeostasis, as cholesterol-delivering lipoproteins from the periphery cannot pass the blood-brain-barrier and enter the brain. Different cell types in the brain have different functions in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis, with astrocytes producing and releasing apolipoprotein E and lipoproteins, and neurons metabolizing cholesterol to 24(S)-hydroxycholesterol. We present evidence that astrocytes and neurons adopt different mechanisms also in regulating cholesterol efflux. We found that in astrocytes cholesterol efflux is induced by both lipid-free apolipoproteins and lipoproteins, while cholesterol removal from neurons is triggered only by lipoproteins. The main pathway by which apolipoproteins induce cholesterol efflux is through ABCA1. By upregulating ABCA1 levels and by inhibiting its activity and silencing its expression, we show that ABCA1 is involved in cholesterol efflux from astrocytes but not from neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest that ABCG1 is involved in cholesterol efflux to apolipoproteins and lipoproteins from astrocytes but not from neurons, while ABCG4, whose expression is much higher in neurons than astrocytes, is involved in cholesterol efflux from neurons but not astrocytes. These results indicate that different mechanisms regulate cholesterol efflux from neurons and astrocytes, reflecting the different roles that these cell types play in brain cholesterol homeostasis. These results are important in understanding cellular targets of therapeutic drugs under development for the treatments of conditions associated with altered cholesterol homeostasis in the CNS. PMID:23010475

  8. Blood cholesterol level and risk of stroke in community-based or worksite cohort studies: a review of Japanese cohort studies in the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Taichiro; Okamura, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    Evidence of the causal relationship between hypercholesterolemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) has been established worldwide. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia and stroke, despite stroke being the most common cardiovascular disease in Japan. We therefore reviewed cohort studies that investigated this relationship in the Japanese population over the past 20 years, and compared their findings with clinical trials and cohort studies in Western countries. Fourteen cohort studies were carried out in Japan during this period. The number of subjects in the studies ranged from 1621 to 91,219 and the mean follow-up period ranged from 7.6 to 32 years. The majority of studies showed no association between hypercholesterolemia and total stroke. However, one report showed a positive association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and atherothrombotic cerebral infarction. The relationship between hypercholesterolemia and cerebral infarction may be modified by the proportion of atherothrombotic infarctions in the population surveyed. Randomized controlled trials on statins have shown a substantial reduction in cerebral infarction, and so the discrepancy between cohort studies and clinical trials requires further study. However, some studies have reported that subjects with low blood cholesterol are more susceptible to intracerebral hemorrhage. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain this association between low cholesterol and intracerebral hemorrhage. First, low blood cholesterol may induce angionecrosis, possibly in combination with hypertension, and second, low blood cholesterol may reflect a poor nutritional status. Either way, further continuous research in various fields of medical science is required to clarify the overall effect of blood cholesterol on stroke in humans.

  9. Higher prevalence of smoking and lower BMI, waist circumference, cholesterol and triacylglyceride levels in Prague's homeless compared to a majority of the Czech population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambousková Jolana

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Homeless people have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. Research has shown that cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in older homeless adults. This study was undertaken to describe the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in the homeless population in Prague. Methods Data was obtained from a cross-sectional study carried out in 2003. Body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerides (TAG and smoking habits were assessed. The homeless participants in the study were recruited from a homeless center run by a Prague charitable organization called Naděje ("Hope" and at Prague's main railway station. Most participants were assessed at the Naděje center (134 persons while the rest were assessed at Prague's Bulovka University Hospital (67 persons. Results A total of 201 homeless (174 males and 27 females aged 19 – 70 years were examined. Mean values of BMI, WC, TC and TAG in homeless men and women were within normal limits. Compared with the majority of the Czech population, the homeless had significantly lower mean levels of TC and TAG and lower BMI and WC values. When compared to the majority of the Czech population, the incidence of smoking among the homeless was significantly higher. Among smokers in both populations, no differences were found in the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Conclusion Classical cardiovascular risk factors such as TC, TAG, BMI and WC, are significantly lower in Prague's homeless minority than in the majority of the Czech population. However, the prevalence of smoking is much higher in the homeless population.

  10. Effects of Kefir on Serum Cholesterol Level in Mice%开菲尔对小鼠血清胆固醇水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国立东; 刘倩; 刘爱芳; 刘晓艳; 于纯淼

    2014-01-01

    开菲尔是一种饮用历史悠久的功能性发酵乳制品,为探讨开菲尔对小鼠血清胆固醇水平的影响,将小鼠随机分成3组:对照组、高脂模型组和开菲尔组。对照组饲喂基础饲料,高脂模型组和开菲尔组饲喂高脂饲料,开菲尔组每日灌胃开菲尔发酵乳,对照组和高脂模型组给予无菌蒸馏水,连续灌胃28 d。结果表明,开菲尔组与高脂模型组相比,小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)含量明显降低(P0.05),动脉粥样硬化指数(AI)极显著降低(P0.05) differences.After kefir administration,the atherosclerotic index(AI) significantly(P<0.01)decreased,and antiatherosclerotic index(AAI)significantly(P<0.01)increased.These results suggested that kefir may be effectively in reducing serum cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemia mice.

  11. Regulation of reverse cholesterol transport - a comprehensive appraisal of available animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are strongly inversely correlated to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A major recognized functional property of HDL particles is to elicit cholesterol efflux and consequently mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). T

  12. Cholesterol confusion and statin controversy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert; Du; Broff; Michel; de; Lorgeril

    2015-01-01

    The role of blood cholesterol levels in coronary heart disease(CHD) and the true effect of cholesterollowering statin drugs are debatable. In particular,whether statins actually decrease cardiac mortality and increase life expectancy is controversial. Concurrently,the Mediterranean diet model has been shown to prolong life and reduce the risk of diabetes,cancer,and CHD. We herein review current data related to both statins and the Mediterranean diet. We conclude that the expectation that CHD could be prevented or eliminated by simply reducing cholesterol appears unfounded. On the contrary,we should acknowledge the inconsistencies of the cholesterol theory and recognize the proven benefits of a healthy lifestyle incorporating a Mediterranean diet to prevent CHD.

  13. Relative and cumulative effects of lipid and blood pressure control in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Messig, Michael

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The relative contributions of on-treatment low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C), triglycerides, and blood pressure (BP) control on the risk of recurrent stroke or major cardiovascular events in patients with stroke is not well defined. METHODS: We...

  14. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  15. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was

  16. All-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes in association with achieved hemoglobin A(1c, systolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Hsien Chiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To identify the ranges of hemoglobin A(1c (HbA1c, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels which are associated with the lowest all-cause mortality. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 12,643 type 2 diabetic patients (aged ≥18 years were generated from 2002 to 2010, in Far-Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei city, Taiwan. Patients were identified to include any outpatient diabetes diagnosis (ICD-9: 250, and drug prescriptions that included any oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin prescribed during the 6 months following their first outpatient visit for diabetes. HbA1c, SBP, and LDL-C levels were assessed by the mean value of all available data, from index date to death or censor date. Deaths were ascertained by matching patient records with the Taiwan National Register of Deaths. RESULTS: Our results showed general U-shaped associations, where the lowest hazard ratios occurred at HbA1c 7.0-8.0%, SBP 130-140 mmHg, and LDL-C 100-130 mg/dL. The risk of mortality gradually increases if the patient's mean HbA1c, SBP, or LDL-C during the follow-up period was higher or lower than these ranges. In comparison to the whole population, the adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI for patients with HbA1c 7.0-8.0%, SBP 130-140 mmHg, and LDL-C 100-130 mg/dL were 0.69 (0.62-0.77, 0.80 (0.72-0.90, and 0.68 (0.61-0.75, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our type 2 diabetic cohort, the patients with HbA1c 7.0-8.0%, SBP 130-140 mmHg, or LDL-C 100-130 mg/dL had the lowest all-cause mortality. Additional research is needed to confirm these associations and to further investigate their detailed mechanisms.

  17. A VOYAGER Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Statin Therapy on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, defined by the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel as a TG level of 177 to 885 mg/dl (2.0 to 10.0 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction remains the primary treatment goal. Using data from the indiVidual patient meta-analysis Of statin therapY in At risk Groups: Effects of Rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin (VOYAGER) meta-analysis, we analyzed LDL-C and TG reductions in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Least squares mean percentage change from baseline in LDL-C and TG was compared using 15,800 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 5 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 10 to 80 mg, and simvastatin 10 to 80 mg in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Comparisons were made using mixed-effects models with data only from studies directly comparing treatments by randomized design. Mean LDL-C reductions ranged from -26.9% to -55.5%. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater LDL-C reductions than equal or double doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (p <0.05). Mean TG reductions ranged from -15.1% to -31.3%. Rosuvastatin 10 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than atorvastatin 10 mg (p <0.05). Rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg resulted in TG reductions similar to those with equal doses of atorvastatin. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than equal or double doses of simvastatin (p <0.05). In conclusion, in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, LDL-C reduction was substantial and dependent on the choice and dose of statin. TG reduction was numerically less than for LDL-C, and additional TG-lowering therapy may be considered to further reduce residual cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cellular Cholesterol Regulates Ubiquitination and Degradation of the Cholesterol Export Proteins ABCA1 and ABCG1*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Victar; Kim, Mi-Jurng; Gelissen, Ingrid C.; Brown, Andrew J.; Sandoval, Cecilia; Hallab, Jeannette C.; Kockx, Maaike; Traini, Mathew; Jessup, Wendy; Kritharides, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of cholesterol in post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein expression. Using CHO cell lines stably expressing human ABCA1 or ABCG1, we observed that the abundance of these proteins is increased by cell cholesterol loading. The response to increased cholesterol is rapid, is independent of transcription, and appears to be specific for these membrane proteins. The effect is mediated through cholesterol-dependent inhibition of transporter protein degradation. Cell cholesterol loading similarly regulates degradation of endogenously expressed ABCA1 and ABCG1 in human THP-1 macrophages. Turnover of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is strongly inhibited by proteasomal inhibitors and is unresponsive to inhibitors of lysosomal proteolysis. Furthermore, cell cholesterol loading inhibits ubiquitination of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Our findings provide evidence for a rapid, cholesterol-dependent, post-translational control of ABCA1 and ABCG1 protein levels, mediated through a specific and sterol-sensitive mechanism for suppression of transporter protein ubiquitination, which in turn decreases proteasomal degradation. This provides a mechanism for acute fine-tuning of cholesterol transporter activity in response to fluctuations in cell cholesterol levels, in addition to the longer term cholesterol-dependent transcriptional regulation of these genes. PMID:24500716

  19. Tissue storage and control of cholesterol metabolism in man on high cholesterol diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintão, E C; Brumer, S; Stechhahn, K

    1977-03-01

    The possibility of accumulation of tissue cholesterol in human beings submitted to high cholesterol feeding was investigated in liver biopsies and through fecal sterol balance studies. Feeding to 10 individuals 3.1 to 3.4 g/day of cholesterol for 3 weeks raised the mean serum level from 293 to 349 mg/100 ml, namely 19%, whereas the liver cholesterol content was 417 mg/100 g of wet weight. In 10 control cases eating 0.1--0.4 g/day of cholesterol serum cholesterol remained stable throughout the experimental period and the liver cholesterol content was 256 mg/100 g. Difference of liver colesterol level between the two groups was 62%. In 7 patients submitted to two periods of balance investigation on a cholesterol-free synthetic formula diet respectively prior to (PI) and after (PIII) eating the high cholesterol solid food from 4 to 15 weeks (PII), fecal steroid excretion in PIII exceeded PI in 3 patients. Such data are a direct evidence for the existence of an efficient system to release acutely stored cholesterol. In one patient bile acid excretion accounted for the difference between PIII and PI.

  20. Cholesterol homeostasis: How do cells sense sterol excess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Vicky; Sharpe, Laura J; Alexopoulos, Stephanie J; Kunze, Sarah V; Chua, Ngee Kiat; Li, Dianfan; Brown, Andrew J

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is vital in mammals, but toxic in excess. Consequently, elaborate molecular mechanisms have evolved to maintain this sterol within narrow limits. How cells sense excess cholesterol is an intriguing area of research. Cells sense cholesterol, and other related sterols such as oxysterols or cholesterol synthesis intermediates, and respond to changing levels through several elegant mechanisms of feedback regulation. Cholesterol sensing involves both direct binding of sterols to the homeostatic machinery located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and indirect effects elicited by sterol-dependent alteration of the physical properties of membranes. Here, we examine the mechanisms employed by cells to maintain cholesterol homeostasis.

  1. The Role of Dietary Cholesterol in Lipoprotein Metabolism and Related Metabolic Abnormalities: A Mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapourchali, Fatemeh Ramezani; Surendiran, Gangadaran; Goulet, Amy; Moghadasian, Mohammed H

    2016-10-25

    Cholesterol plays a vital role in cell biology. Dietary cholesterol or "exogenous" cholesterol accounts for approximately one-third of the pooled body cholesterol, and the remaining 70% is synthesized in the body (endogenous cholesterol). Increased dietary cholesterol intake may result in increased serum cholesterol in some individuals, while other subjects may not respond to dietary cholesterol. However, diet-increased serum cholesterol levels do not increase the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (LDL/HDL) cholesterol ratio, nor do they decrease the size of LDL particles or HDL cholesterol levels. Elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, reduced HDL cholesterol levels, and small, dense LDL particles are independent risk factors for coronary artery disease. Dietary cholesterol is the primary approach for treatment of conditions such as the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Recent studies have highlighted mechanisms for absorption of dietary cholesterol. These studies have help understand how dietary and/or pharmaceutical agents inhibit cholesterol absorption and thereby reduce LDL cholesterol concentrations. In this article, various aspects of cholesterol metabolism, including dietary sources, absorption, and abnormalities in cholesterol metabolism, have been summarized and discussed.

  2. 最小低阶混杂混合水平(2γ)2n因子设计的一些结果%Some Results on Minimum Aberration Mixed-level (2γ)2n Factorial Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史成堂; 张丹; 陈宝亭; 李玉凯

    2007-01-01

    Mukerjee and Wu(2001) employed projective geometry theory to find the wordlength pattern of a regular mixed factorial design in terms of its complementary set,but only for the numbers of words of length 3 or 4. In this paper, by introducing a concept of consulting design and based on the connection between factorial design theory and coding theory, we obtain some combinatorial identities that relate the wordlength pattern of a regular mixed-level (2γ)2n factorial design to that of its consulting design. Consequently, a general rule for identifying minimum aberration (2γ)2n factorial designs through their consulting designs is established. It is an improvement and generalization of the related result in Mukerjee and Wu(2001).

  3. Efficacy of rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia: an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional and observational study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth N; Arneja, Jaspal

    2013-10-01

    Asian Indians with dyslipidaemia should be treated as aggressively as if they had a CHD risk equivalent-similar to the treatment of patients with diabetes or heart disease. To evaluate efficacy of Rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia, but without known coronary artery disease. The study was an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional, observational study in India involving T2DM patients who require statin therapy to control dyslipidaemia. Data were collected at baseline, interim (8 weeks) and subsequently at 16 weeks of Rosuvastatin (10 and 20 mg) therapy. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by evaluating whether subjects reached target LDL and total cholesterol levels according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-nine patients completed the study. Out of 4369, 1115 (25.52%) have achieved a target LDL level of cholesterol target and 50.06% achieved triglyceride target. The adverse events reported were generally mild. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that Rosuvastatin safely and beneficially alters the entire spectrum of lipoproteins in Indian patients.

  4. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wulp, Mariëtte Y M; Verkade, Henkjan J; Groen, Albert K

    2013-04-10

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-coding RNA's. The last two decades insight into underlying mechanisms has increased vastly but there are still a lot of unknowns, particularly regarding intracellular cholesterol transport. After decades of concentration on the liver, in recent years the intestine has come into focus as an important control point in cholesterol homeostasis. This review will discuss current knowledge of cholesterol physiology, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and new (possible) therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  5. Use of Moderate-Intensity Statins for Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Level above 190 mg/dL at Baseline in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Lee, Hyeseon; Lee, Sue Hyun; Jeong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tong Min; Yang, So Jung; Baik, Sun Jung; Kim, Hyunah; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Cho, Jae Hyoung; Choi, In-Young; Yoon, Kun-Ho; Kim, Ju Han

    2017-10-01

    The ACC/AHA 2013 guideline recommends high-intensity statin therapy for a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level by >50% among patients with baseline values of ≥190 mg/dL (approximately 4.872 mmol/L); however, this value should be modified before applying it to Korean populations. We investigated the statin-specific LDL-C-lowering effects in Korean patients with baseline LDL-C value ≥4.872 mmol/L. Data of patients prescribed a statin for the first time from January 2009 to December 2013 were assessed. In patients with baseline LDL-C value ≥4.872 mmol/L, laboratory data for a maximum of 6 months from the date of first statin prescription were collected. Among 33,721 patients who were prescribed a statin for the first time, 655 patients had a baseline LDL-C value ≥4.872 mmol/L (1.9%). Of these, 179 patients were analysed. Patients receiving moderate-intensity statins were divided into two groups based on LDL-C reduction rate (p = 0.0002), defined as moderate-high-intensity (atorvastatin 20 mg, rosuvastatin 10 mg, simvastatin 20 mg) and moderate-low-intensity (atorvastatin 10 mg, pitavastatin 2 mg, pravastatin 40 mg) statin groups. LDL-C reduction rates did not significantly differ between the moderate-high- and high-intensity statin groups (p = 0.4895). We found that some moderate-intensity statins demonstrated a LDL-C-lowering effect of more than 50% in Korean patients with a baseline LDL-C value ≥4.872 mmol/L. Our results reflect the need of a large-scale, randomized, controlled trial on partial reclassification of statins for patients with baseline LDL-C value ≥4.872 mmol/L before adopting ACC/AHC guidelines in Korea. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  6. Relationship between the Cholesterol Level in Children with Asthma and Susceptibility of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae%哮喘患儿血清胆固醇水平与易感肺炎支原体的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长娟; 段全纪; 周清霞

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)患儿血清胆固醇水平与易感肺炎支原体( MP )的关系。方法60例哮喘患儿分为哮喘组,40例健康儿童被分为正常对照组,检测两组血清总胆固醇水平,并进行1年的随访,记录随访期内肺炎支原体感染的次数。结果哮喘患儿血清总胆固醇水平及随访期内哮喘患儿肺炎支原体感染次数明显高于对照组,( P<0.05)。结论哮喘患儿存在血清胆固醇水平升高,其可致哮喘患儿更易感染肺炎支原体。%[ ABSTRACT] Objective To discuss the relationship between the cholesterol level in children with asthma and susceptibility of Mycoplasma pneumonia ( MP ) .Methods Sixty children with asthma were divided into the asthma group,and 40 healthy volunteers were divided into the healthy control group,then the cholesterol level was contrasted be-tween the two groups.Children with asthma and healthy volunteers were followed up for 1 year,and the number of MP in-fection during the follow-up period was recorded.Results The cholesterol level and the number of MP infection in the asthma group were significantly higher than those in the healthy control group.Conclusion High cholesterol exists in children with asthma and it can make children with asthma more vulnerable to infection MP.

  7. Alcohol consumption stimulates early stemps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.S.; Tol, van A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  8. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol pathw

  9. Alcohol consumption stimulates early steps in reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Tol, A. van; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Scheek, L.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increased HDL cholesterol levels, which may indicate stimulated reverse cholesterol transport. The mechanism is, however, not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on the first two steps of the reverse cholesterol

  10. Assessment of modes of action and efficacy of plasma cholesterol-lowering drugs : measurement of cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis and turnover using novel stable isotope techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert

    2005-01-01

    Several processes are involved in control of plasma cholesterol levels, e.g., intestinal cholesterol absorption, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and transport and bile acid synthesis. Adaptation of either of these processes allows the body to adapt to changes in dietary cholesterol intake. Disturba

  11. Assessment of modes of action and efficacy of plasma cholesterol-lowering drugs : measurement of cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis and turnover using novel stable isotope techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert

    Several processes are involved in control of plasma cholesterol levels, e.g., intestinal cholesterol absorption, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and transport and bile acid synthesis. Adaptation of either of these processes allows the body to adapt to changes in dietary cholesterol intake.

  12. The type 2 diabetes and insulin-resistance locus near IRS1 is a determinant of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels among diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajani; Prudente, Sabrina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Powers, Christine; Mannino, Gaia; Bacci, Simonetta; Gervino, Ernest V; Hauser, Thomas H; Succurro, Elena; Mercuri, Luana; Goheen, Elizabeth H; Shah, Hetal; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Sesti, Giorgio; Doria, Alessandro

    2011-05-01

    SNP rs2943641 near the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) gene has been found to be associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and insulin-resistance in genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether this SNP is associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic individuals. SNP rs2943641 was typed in 2133 White T2D subjects and tested for association with BMI, serum HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, hypertension history, and CAD risk. HDL cholesterol decreased by 1mg/dl (p = 0.004) and serum triglycerides increased by 6 mg/dl (p = 0.016) for each copy of the insulin-resistance allele. Despite these effects, no association was found with increased CAD risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.88-1.13). The insulin-resistance and T2D locus near the IRS1 gene is a determinant of lower HDL cholesterol among T2D subjects. However, this effect is small and does not translate into a detectable increase in CAD risk in this population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bad cholesterol and good mood: exploring the link

    OpenAIRE

    Yashaswi Gupta

    2016-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that high cholesterol increases the risks of heart disease. Hence, physicians actively encourage cholesterol-lowering interventions using medications and lifestyle modifications. However, there is considerable evidence that aggressive lowering of cholesterol is associated with depression, bipolar disorders, violent behaviour, and suicidal ideation. It has been hypothesised that low cholesterol leads to low levels of serotonin, a chemical that is responsible for maintai...

  14. Peripheral cholesterol, metabolic disorders and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Maria Dolores; Dotti, Carlos Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    Strong correlations have been made between high levels of blood cholesterol and the risk to suffer Alzheimer's disease (AD). The question arises on how a peripheral event contributes to a disease that so severely affects the integrity and function of the Central Nervous System. Hypercholesterolemia has been also associated to peripheral metabolic disorders like diabetes, obesity or atherosclerosis that, in turn, predispose to AD. Here we review data, which point to alterations in blood cholesterol levels as a link between these metabolic disorders and AD. We describe and discuss common, cholesterol-related, molecular mechanisms and strategies to fight these conditions that, altogether, constitute a major cause of death in our societies.

  15. Wheat alkylresorcinols reduce micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro and increase cholesterol excretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Kazumasa; Hashimoto, Chiaki; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Makita, Miki; Fukudome, Shin-Ichi; Okita, Kimiko; Wada, Naoyuki; Oishi, Katsutaka

    2017-03-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that the consumption of whole grains can reduce risk for metabolic disorders. We recently showed that chronic supplementation with wheat alkylresorcinols (ARs) prevents glucose intolerance and insulin resistance with hepatic lipid accumulation induced in mice by a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFHSD). This study examines the effects of ARs on the micellar solubility of cholesterol in vitro, as well as the effects of transient AR supplementation on faecal lipid excretion and plasma lipid levels in mice. We found that ARs formed bile micelles with taurocholate independently of phospholipids, and dose-dependently decreased the micellar solubility of cholesterol in a biliary micelle model. Transient AR supplementation with HFHSD increased faecal cholesterol and triglyceride contents and decreased plasma cholesterol concentrations. These suggest that one underlying mechanism through which ARs suppress diet-induced obesity is by interfering with the micellar cholesterol solubilisation in the digestive tract, which subsequently decreases cholesterol absorption.

  16. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. ... and raise your HDL cholesterol level. People gain health benefits from as little as 60 minutes of moderate- ...

  17. HDL Cholesterol and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Christiane L; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    Observationally, low levels of HDL cholesterol are consistently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Therefore, plasma HDL cholesterol increasing has been suggested as a novel therapeutic option to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether levels of HDL cholesterol are causally...... associated with type 2 diabetes is unknown. In a prospective study of the general population (n = 47,627), we tested whether HDL cholesterol-related genetic variants were associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and, in turn, with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. HDL cholesterol-decreasing gene scores...... and allele numbers associated with up to -13 and -20% reductions in HDL cholesterol levels. The corresponding theoretically predicted hazard ratios for type 2 diabetes were 1.44 (95% CI 1.38-1.52) and 1.77 (1.61-1.95), whereas the genetic estimates were nonsignificant. Genetic risk ratios for type 2 diabetes...

  18. The hedgehog receptor patched is involved in cholesterol transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Bidet

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling plays a crucial role in growth and patterning during embryonic development, and also in stem cell maintenance and tissue regeneration in adults. Aberrant Shh pathway activation is involved in the development of many tumors, and one of the most affected Shh signaling steps found in these tumors is the regulation of the signaling receptor Smoothened by the Shh receptor Patched. In the present work, we investigated Patched activity and the mechanism by which Patched inhibits Smoothened. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the well-known Shh-responding cell line of mouse fibroblasts NIH 3T3, we first observed that enhancement of the intracellular cholesterol concentration induces Smoothened enrichment in the plasma membrane, which is a crucial step for the signaling activation. We found that binding of Shh protein to its receptor Patched, which involves Patched internalization, increases the intracellular concentration of cholesterol and decreases the efflux of a fluorescent cholesterol derivative (BODIPY-cholesterol from these cells. Treatment of fibroblasts with cyclopamine, an antagonist of Shh signaling, inhibits Patched expression and reduces BODIPY-cholesterol efflux, while treatment with the Shh pathway agonist SAG enhances Patched protein expression and BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. We also show that over-expression of human Patched in the yeast S. cerevisiae results in a significant boost of BODIPY-cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, we demonstrate that purified Patched binds to cholesterol, and that the interaction of Shh with Patched inhibits the binding of Patched to cholesterol. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that Patched may contribute to cholesterol efflux from cells, and to modulation of the intracellular cholesterol concentration. This activity is likely responsible for the inhibition of the enrichment of Smoothened in the plasma membrane, which is an important step in Shh pathway

  19. Inhibiting cholesterol degradation induces neuronal sclerosis and epileptic activity in mouse hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chali, Farah; Djelti, Fathia; Eugene, Emmanuel; Valderrama, Mario; Marquer, Catherine; Aubourg, Patrick; Duykaerts, Charles; Miles, Richard; Cartier, Nathalie; Navarro, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Elevations in neuronal cholesterol have been associated with several degenerative diseases. An enhanced excitability and synchronous firing in surviving neurons are among the sequels of neuronal death in these diseases and also in some epileptic syndromes. Here, we attempted to increase neuronal cholesterol levels, using a short hairpin RNA to suppress expression of the enzyme cytochrome P450 family 46, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 gene (CYP46A1). This protein hydroxylates cholesterol and so facilitates transmembrane extrusion. A short hairpin RNA CYP46A1construction coupled to the adeno-associated virus type 5 was injected focally and unilaterally into mouse hippocampus. It was selectively expressed first in neurons of the cornu ammonis (hippocampus) (CA)3a region. Cytoplasmic and membrane cholesterol increased, and the neuronal soma volume increased and then decreased before pyramidal cells died. As CA3a pyramidal cells died, interictal electroencephalographic (EEG) events occurred during exploration and non-rapid eye movement sleep. With time, neuronal death spread to involve pyramidal cells and interneurons of the CA1 region. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with a delayed local expression of phosphorylated tau. Astrocytes were activated throughout the hippocampus and microglial activation was specific to regions of neuronal death. CA1 neuronal death was correlated with distinct aberrant EEG activity. During exploratory behaviour and rapid eye movement sleep, EEG oscillations at 7-10 Hz (theta) could accelerate to 14-21 Hz (beta) waves. They were accompanied by low-amplitude, high-frequency oscillations of peak power at ~300 Hz and a range of 250-350 Hz. Although episodes of EEG acceleration were not correlated with changes in exploratory behaviour, they were followed in some animals by structured seizure-like discharges. These data strengthen links between increased cholesterol, neuronal sclerosis and epileptic behaviour.

  20. Physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling functions. At an organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor for all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones and vitamin D, all of which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the precursor for bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy and glucose metabolic regulation. Importantly, complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the disregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these diseases has been demonstrated by diverse genetic and pharmacologic animal models that are commented in this review.

  1. Aberration Correction in Electron Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald H

    2005-01-01

    The resolution of conventional electron microscopes is limited by spherical and chromatic aberrations. Both defects are unavoidable in the case of static rotationally symmetric electromagnetic fields (Scherzer theorem). Multipole correctors and electron mirrros have been designed and built, which compensate for these aberrations. The principles of correction will be demonstrated for the tetrode mirror, the quadrupole-octopole corrector and the hexapole corrector. Electron mirrors require a magnetic beam separator free of second-order aberrations. The multipole correctors are highly symmetric telescopic systems compensating for the defects of the objective lens. The hexapole corrector has the most simple structure yet eliminates only the spherical aberration, whereas the mirror and the quadrupole-octopole corrector are able to correct for both aberrations. Chromatic correction is achieved in the latter corrector by cossed electric and magnetic quadrupoles acting as first-order Wien filters. Micrographs obtaine...

  2. Camera processing with chromatic aberration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneliussen, Jan Tore; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2014-10-01

    Since the refractive index of materials commonly used for lens depends on the wavelengths of light, practical camera optics fail to converge light to a single point on an image plane. Known as chromatic aberration, this phenomenon distorts image details by introducing magnification error, defocus blur, and color fringes. Though achromatic and apochromatic lens designs reduce chromatic aberration to a degree, they are complex and expensive and they do not offer a perfect correction. In this paper, we propose a new postcapture processing scheme designed to overcome these problems computationally. Specifically, the proposed solution is comprised of chromatic aberration-tolerant demosaicking algorithm and post-demosaicking chromatic aberration correction. Experiments with simulated and real sensor data verify that the chromatic aberration is effectively corrected.

  3. LXR driven induction of HDL-cholesterol is independent of intestinal cholesterol absorption and ABCA1 protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannisto, Kristina; Gåfvels, Mats; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Slätis, Katharina; Hu, Xiaoli; Jorns, Carl; Steffensen, Knut R; Eggertsen, Gösta

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether: (1) liver X receptor (LXR)-driven induction of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and other LXR-mediated effects on cholesterol metabolism depend on intestinal cholesterol absorption; and (2) combined treatment with the LXR agonist GW3965 and the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe results in synergistic effects on cholesterol metabolism that could be beneficial for treatment of atherosclerosis. Mice were fed 0.2 % cholesterol and treated with GW3965+ezetimibe, GW3965 or ezetimibe. GW3965+ezetimibe treatment elevated serum HDL-C and Apolipoprotein (Apo) AI, effectively reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased the excretion of faecal neutral sterols. No changes in intestinal ATP-binding cassette (ABC) A1 or ABCG5 protein expression were observed, despite increased mRNA expression, while hepatic ABCA1 was slightly reduced. The combined treatment caused a pronounced down-regulation of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and reduced hepatic and intestinal cholesterol levels. GW3965 did not affect the intestinal cholesterol absorption, but increased serum HDL-C and ApoAI levels. GW3965 also increased Apoa1 mRNA levels in primary mouse hepatocytes and HEPA1-6 cells. Ezetimibe reduced the intestinal cholesterol absorption, ABCA1 and ABCG5, but did not affect the serum HDL-C or ApoAI levels. Thus, the LXR-driven induction of HDL-C and ApoAI was independent of the intestinal cholesterol absorption and increased expression of intestinal or hepatic ABCA1 was not required. Inhibited influx of cholesterol via NPC1L1 and/or low levels of intracellular cholesterol prevented post-transcriptional expression of intestinal ABCA1 and ABCG5, despite increased mRNA levels. Combined LXR activation and blocked intestinal cholesterol absorption induced effective faecal elimination of cholesterol.

  4. Measurement of Intestinal and Peripheral Cholesterol Fluxes by a Dual-Tracer Balance Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronda, Onne A H O; van Dijk, Theo H; Verkade, H J; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice.

  5. Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000787.htm Bile acid sequestrants for cholesterol To use the sharing features on this page, ... are medicines that help lower your LDL (bad) cholesterol . Too much cholesterol in your blood can stick ...

  6. A church-based cholesterol education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, W H; Flack, J M

    1990-01-01

    The leading cause of death among black people in the United States is coronary heart disease, accounting for about 25 percent of the deaths. The Task Force on Black and Minority Health formed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services in 1985 subsequently recommended increased efforts to reduce risk factors for coronary heart disease in the black population. A stated focus of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's National Cholesterol Education Program has been that of reaching minority groups. This report describes a pilot cholesterol education program conducted in black churches by trained members of those churches. Cholesterol screening, using a Reflotron, and other coronary heart disease risk factor screening was conducted in six churches with predominantly black members and at a neighborhood library. A total of 348 persons with cholesterol levels of 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg per dl) or higher were identified. At the time of screening, all were provided brief counseling on lowering their cholesterol and were given a copy of the screening results. Half of those identified, all members of one church, were invited to attend a 6-week nutrition education class of 1 hour each week about techniques to lower blood cholesterol. Information about cholesterol was also mailed to them. They were designated as the education group. Persons in the church were trained to teach the classes. A report of the screening results was sent to the personal physicians of the remaining 174 people in other churches who had cholesterol levels of 200 mg per dl or higher. This group served as a usual care comparison group.Six months after the initial screening, members of both groups were invited for followup screening.Among the 75 percent of the education group who returned for followup screening there was a 23.4 mg per dl (10 percent) decrease in the mean cholesterol level. Thirty-six percent of the usual care group returned for followup screening; their mean cholesterol

  7. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Elevated Cholesterol in the Coxiella burnetii Intracellular Niche Is Bacteriolytic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulye, Minal; Samanta, Dhritiman; Winfree, Seth; Heinzen, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen and a significant cause of culture-negative endocarditis in the United States. Upon infection, the nascent Coxiella phagosome fuses with the host endocytic pathway to form a large lysosome-like vacuole called the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). The PV membrane is rich in sterols, and drugs perturbing host cell cholesterol homeostasis inhibit PV formation and bacterial growth. Using cholesterol supplementation of a cholesterol-free cell model system, we found smaller PVs and reduced Coxiella growth as cellular cholesterol concentration increased. Further, we observed in cells with cholesterol a significant number of nonfusogenic PVs that contained degraded bacteria, a phenotype not observed in cholesterol-free cells. Cholesterol had no effect on axenic Coxiella cultures, indicating that only intracellular bacteria are sensitive to cholesterol. Live-cell microscopy revealed that both plasma membrane-derived cholesterol and the exogenous cholesterol carrier protein low-density lipoprotein (LDL) traffic to the PV. To test the possibility that increasing PV cholesterol levels affects bacterial survival, infected cells were treated with U18666A, a drug that traps cholesterol in lysosomes and PVs. U18666A treatment led to PVs containing degraded bacteria and a significant loss in bacterial viability. The PV pH was significantly more acidic in cells with cholesterol or cells treated with U18666A, and the vacuolar ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin blocked cholesterol-induced PV acidification and bacterial death. Additionally, treatment of infected HeLa cells with several FDA-approved cholesterol-altering drugs led to a loss of bacterial viability, a phenotype also rescued by bafilomycin. Collectively, these data suggest that increasing PV cholesterol further acidifies the PV, leading to Coxiella death. PMID:28246364

  9. Sex Differences in the Hepatic Cholesterol Sensing Mechanisms in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar Björkhem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is linked to many multifactorial disorders, including different forms of liver disease where development and severity depend on the sex. We performed a detailed analysis of cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways at the level of genes and metabolites combined with the expression studies of hepatic cholesterol uptake and transport in female and male mice fed with a high-fat diet with or without cholesterol. Lack of dietary cholesterol led to a stronger response of the sterol sensing mechanism in females, resulting in higher expression of cholesterogenic genes compared to males. With cholesterol in the diet, the genes were down-regulated in both sexes; however, males maintained a more efficient hepatic metabolic flux through the pathway. Females had higher content of hepatic cholesterol but this was likely not due to diminished excretion but rather due to increased synthesis and absorption. Dietary cholesterol and sex were not important for gallbladder bile acids composition. Neither sex up-regulated Cyp7a1 upon cholesterol loading and there was no compensatory up-regulation of Abcg5 or Abcg8 transporters. On the other hand, females had higher expression of the Ldlr and Cd36 genes. These findings explain sexual dimorphism of cholesterol metabolism in response to dietary cholesterol in a high-fat diet in mice, which contributes to understanding the sex-basis of cholesterol-associated liver diseases.

  10. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and

  11. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can I make to reduce my risk of cardiovascular disease? • Is there medication that can help reduce my cholesterol ... It also helps your body make vitamin D and produces the bile that helps you ...

  12. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibition of Lassa Virus Infection through Aberrant GP1 Glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava-Ranjan, Punya; Bergeron, Éric; Chakrabarti, Ayan K; Albariño, César G; Flint, Mike; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2016-12-20

    Lassa virus (LASV) infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatment. The interferon-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H) encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC). 25HC is involved in regulating cholesterol biosynthesis and has recently been identified as a potent antiviral targeting enveloped virus entry. Here, we show a previously unrecognized role of CH25H in inhibiting LASV glycoprotein glycosylation and the production of infectious virus. Overexpression of CH25H or treatment with 25HC decreased LASV G1 glycoprotein N-glycan maturation and reduced the production of infectious LASV. Depletion of endogenous CH25H using small interfering RNA (siRNA) enhanced the levels of fully glycosylated G1 and increased infectious LASV production. Finally, LASV particles produced from 25HC-treated cells were found to be less infectious, to incorporate aberrantly glycosylated GP1 species, and to be defective in binding alpha-dystroglycan, an attachment and entry receptor. Our findings identify a novel role for CH25H in controlling LASV propagation and indicate that manipulation of the expression of CH25H or the administration of 25HC may be a useful anti-LASV therapy.

  13. 25-Hydroxycholesterol Inhibition of Lassa Virus Infection through Aberrant GP1 Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lassa virus (LASV infection is a major public health concern due to high fatality rates and limited effective treatment. The interferon-stimulated gene cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC. 25HC is involved in regulating cholesterol biosynthesis and has recently been identified as a potent antiviral targeting enveloped virus entry. Here, we show a previously unrecognized role of CH25H in inhibiting LASV glycoprotein glycosylation and the production of infectious virus. Overexpression of CH25H or treatment with 25HC decreased LASV G1 glycoprotein N-glycan maturation and reduced the production of infectious LASV. Depletion of endogenous CH25H using small interfering RNA (siRNA enhanced the levels of fully glycosylated G1 and increased infectious LASV production. Finally, LASV particles produced from 25HC-treated cells were found to be less infectious, to incorporate aberrantly glycosylated GP1 species, and to be defective in binding alpha-dystroglycan, an attachment and entry receptor. Our findings identify a novel role for CH25H in controlling LASV propagation and indicate that manipulation of the expression of CH25H or the administration of 25HC may be a useful anti-LASV therapy.

  14. Phase aberration effects in elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, T; Bilgen, M; Ophir, J

    2001-06-01

    In sonography, phase aberration plays a role in the corruption of sonograms. Phase aberration does not have a significant impact on elastography, if statistically similar phase errors are present in both the pre- and postcompression signals. However, if the phase errors are present in only one of the pre- or postcompression signal pairs, the precision of the strain estimation process will be reduced. In some cases, increased phase errors may occur only in the postcompression signal due to changes in the tissue structure with the applied compression. Phase-aberration effects increase with applied strain and may be viewed as an image quality derating factor, much like frequency-dependent attenuation or undesired lateral tissue motion. In this paper, we present a theoretical and simulation study of the effects of phase aberration on the elastographic strain-estimation process, using the strain filter approach.

  15. Historical aspects of aberration correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Harald H

    2009-06-01

    A brief history of the development of direct aberration correction in electron microscopy is outlined starting from the famous Scherzer theorem established in 1936. Aberration correction is the long story of many seemingly fruitless efforts to improve the resolution of electron microscopes by compensating for the unavoidable resolution-limiting aberrations of round electron lenses over a period of 50 years. The successful breakthrough, in 1997, can be considered as a quantum step in electron microscopy because it provides genuine atomic resolution approaching the size of the radius of the hydrogen atom. The additional realization of monochromators, aberration-free imaging energy filters and spectrometers has been leading to a new generation of analytical electron microscopes providing elemental and electronic information about the object on an atomic scale.

  16. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail: John.Katsaras@nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Norbert.Kucerka@nrc.gc.ca

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  17. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  18. Effects of saturated and unsaturated fats given with and without dietary cholesterol on hepatic cholesterol synthesis and hepatic lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, W; Rodgers, J B

    1978-01-27

    Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was studied in rats after consuming diets of varying neutral lipid and cholesterol content. Cholesterol synthesis was evaluated by measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase and by determining the rate of 3H-labeled sterol production from [3H]mevalonate. Results were correlated with sterol balance data and hepatic lipid content. Hepatic cholesterol synthesis was relatively great when cholesterol was excluded from the diet. The source of neutral dietary lipids, saturated vs. unsaturated, produced no change in hepatic sterol synthesis. Values for fecal sterol outputs and hepatic cholesterol levels were also similar in rats consuming either saturated or unsaturated fats. When 1% cholesterol was added to the diet, hepatic cholesterol synthesis was suppressed but the degree of suppression was greater in rats consuming unsaturated vs. saturated fats. This was associated with greater accumulation of cholesterol in livers from rats consuming unsaturates and a reduction in fecal neutral sterol output in this group as opposed to results from rats on saturated fats. Cholesterol consumption also altered the fatty acid composition of hepatic phospholipids producing decreases in the percentages of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is concluded that dietary cholesterol alters cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism in the liver and that this effect is enhanced by dietary unsaturated fats.

  19. Effect of Moderate Alcohol Consumption on Parameters of Reverse Cholesterol Transport in Postmenopausal Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierksma, A.; Vermunt, S.H.F.; Lankhuizen, I.M.; Gaag, M.S. van der; Scheek, L.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; Tol, A. van; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. One of the main antiatherogenic functions of HDL is reverse cholesterol transport. Three early steps of reverse cholesterol transport are (1) cellular cholesterol efflux, (2) plasma choles

  20. Non-cholesterol sterols and cholesterol metabolism in sitosterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Rgia A; Myrie, Semone B; Jones, Peter J H

    2013-12-01

    Sitosterolemia (STSL) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, manifested by extremely elevated plant sterols (PS) in plasma and tissue, leading to xanthoma and premature atherosclerotic disease. Therapeutic approaches include limiting PS intake, interrupting enterohepatic circulation of bile acid using bile acid binding resins such as cholestyramine, and/or ileal bypass, and inhibiting intestinal sterol absorption by ezetimibe (EZE). The objective of this review is to evaluate sterol metabolism in STSL and the impact of the currently available treatments on sterol trafficking in this disease. The role of PS in initiation of xanthomas and premature atherosclerosis is also discussed. Blocking sterols absorption with EZE has revolutionized STSL patient treatment as it reduces circulating levels of non-cholesterol sterols in STSL. However, none of the available treatments including EZE have normalized plasma PS concentrations. Future studies are needed to: (i) explore where cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols accumulate, (ii) assess to what extent these sterols in tissues can be mobilized after blocking their absorption, and (iii) define the factors governing sterol flux.

  1. Cholesterol through the Looking Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiana, Ika; Luu, Winnie; Stevenson, Julian; Cartland, Sian; Jessup, Wendy; Belani, Jitendra D.; Rychnovsky, Scott D.; Brown, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    How cholesterol is sensed to maintain homeostasis has been explained by direct binding to a specific protein, Scap, or through altering the physical properties of the membrane. The enantiomer of cholesterol (ent-cholesterol) is a valuable tool in distinguishing between these two models because it shares nonspecific membrane effects with native cholesterol (nat-cholesterol), but not specific binding interactions. This is the first study to compare ent- and nat-cholesterol directly on major molecular parameters of cholesterol homeostasis. We found that ent-cholesterol suppressed activation of the master transcriptional regulator of cholesterol metabolism, SREBP-2, almost as effectively as nat-cholesterol. Importantly, ent-cholesterol induced a conformational change in the cholesterol-sensing protein Scap in isolated membranes in vitro, even when steps were taken to eliminate potential confounding effects from endogenous cholesterol. Ent-cholesterol also accelerated proteasomal degradation of the key cholesterol biosynthetic enzyme, squalene monooxygenase. Together, these findings provide compelling evidence that cholesterol maintains its own homeostasis not only via direct protein interactions, but also by altering membrane properties. PMID:22869373

  2. Mitochondrial cholesterol: mechanisms of import and effects on mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laura A; Kennedy, Barry E; Karten, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria require cholesterol for biogenesis and membrane maintenance, and for the synthesis of steroids, oxysterols and hepatic bile acids. Multiple pathways mediate the transport of cholesterol from different subcellular pools to mitochondria. In steroidogenic cells, the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) interacts with a mitochondrial protein complex to mediate cholesterol delivery to the inner mitochondrial membrane for conversion to pregnenolone. In non-steroidogenic cells, several members of a protein family defined by the presence of a StAR-related lipid transfer (START) domain play key roles in the delivery of cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes. Subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), termed mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), form membrane contact sites with mitochondria and may contribute to the transport of ER cholesterol to mitochondria, either independently or in conjunction with lipid-transfer proteins. Model systems of mitochondria enriched with cholesterol in vitro and mitochondria isolated from cells with (patho)physiological mitochondrial cholesterol accumulation clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial cholesterol levels affect mitochondrial function. Increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels have been observed in several diseases, including cancer, ischemia, steatohepatitis and neurodegenerative diseases, and influence disease pathology. Hence, a deeper understanding of the mechanisms maintaining mitochondrial cholesterol homeostasis may reveal additional targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we give a brief overview of mitochondrial cholesterol import in steroidogenic cells, and then focus on cholesterol trafficking pathways that deliver cholesterol to mitochondrial membranes in non-steroidogenic cells. We also briefly discuss the consequences of increased mitochondrial cholesterol levels on mitochondrial function and their potential role in disease pathology.

  3. Wide-angle chromatic aberration corrector for the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benny, Yael; Manzanera, Silvestre; Prieto, Pedro M; Ribak, Erez N; Artal, Pablo

    2007-06-01

    The human eye is affected by large chromatic aberration. This may limit vision and makes it difficult to see fine retinal details in ophthalmoscopy. We designed and built a two-triplet system for correcting the average longitudinal chromatic aberration of the eye while keeping a reasonably wide field of view. Measurements in real eyes were conducted to examine the level and optical quality of the correction. We also performed some tests to evaluate the effect of the corrector on visual performance.

  4. Evidence for condensed complexes of cholesterol in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, Maria K.

    Although cholesterol is a predominant lipid in the eukaryotic plasma membrane, its interactions with other lipids are still not well understood. Insights into the nature of lipid assembly can be gained from examining lipid-cholesterol interaction using model systems. A key observation was the discovery of liquid-liquid phase diagrams with two critical points in the binary mixtures of cholesterol and lipids. The shape of the phase diagrams can be explained by a thermodynamic model of "condensed complexes". In our quest to characterize cholesterol-lipid interactions, we determined phase diagrams of cholesterol and phospholipids that point to the existence of condensed complexes. This complex formation hypothesis was further supported by experiments involving cholesterol removal by cyclodextrin, grazing x-ray diffraction and x-ray reflectivity studies and isothermal calorimetry. Our study aimed at establishing a correlation (or the lack of) between domain formation and complex formation, as well as determining the mode of cholesterol association with different lipids based on their structural and physical properties. We established a displacement assay by which we were able to probe cholesterol-lipid interactions by perturbing them in the presence of an intercalator that competes with cholesterol for association with lipids. Our data support the condensed complex model between cholesterol and lipids, and cholesterol when complexed with lipids shows low activity whereas free, uncomplexed cholesterol exhibits high activity. We were successful in modulating cholesterol activity by varying the level of intercalator while keeping the cholesterol content fixed. In this thesis, not only have we shown that cholesterol can be displaced by intercalators in model systems, we have further established that such displacement can take place in membranes of live cell.

  5. [Prostate cancer dependance upon cholesterol, statins and diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilch, Paweł; Radziszewski, Piotr; Maciukiewicz, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work is to analyze the influence of higher cholesterol and LDL level on risk of prostate cancer. The work is based on the available literature in that field. The metabolism of cholesterol is mainly regulated by the statins, which may thus inhibit prostate cancer growth. Keeping the appropriate body mass and level of cholesterol by proper diet and physical exercises may be the prophylaxis of prostate cancer.

  6. Studies on PCSK9 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma cholesterol, mainly in low density lipoproteins (LDL), are a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The level of plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is largely dependent on the number of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs). Increased number of LDLRs leads to higher uptake of LDL particles and lower concentration of plasma LDL-C. Proprotein convertase subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel key regulator in cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 reduces the numbe...

  7. MCPIP is induced by cholesterol and participated in cholesterol-caused DNA damage in HUVEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da, Jingjing; Zhuo, Ming; Qian, Minzhang

    2015-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for atherosclerosis and cholesterol treatment would cause multiple damages, including DNA damage, on endothelial cells. In this work, we have used human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (HUVEC) to explore the mechanism of cholesterol induced damage. We have found that cholesterol treatment on HUVEC could induce the expression of MCPIP1. When given 12.5 mg/L cholesterol on HUVEC, the expression of MCPIP1 starts to increase since 4 hr after treatment and at 24 hr after treatment it could reach to 10 fold of base line level. We hypothesis this induction of MCPIP1 may contribute to the damaging process and we have used siRNA of MCPIP1 in further research. This MCPIP1 siRNA (siMCPIP) could down regulate MCPIP1 by 73.4% and when using this siRNA on HUVECs, we could see the cholesterol induced DNA damage have been reduced. We have detected DNA damage by γH2AX foci formation in nuclear, γH2AX protein level and COMET assay. Compare to cholesterol alone group, siMCPIP group shows much less γH2AX foci formation in nuclear after cholesterol treatment, less γH2AX protein level in cell and also less tail moment detected in COMET assay. We have also seen that using siMCPIP1 could result in less reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cell after cholesterol treatment. We have also seen that using siMCPIP could reduce the protein level of Nox4 and p47(phox), two major regulators in ROS production. These results suggest that MCPIP1 may play an important role in cholesterol induced damage.

  8. Dietary cholesterol, heart disease risk and cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Donald J

    2014-05-01

    In the 1960s, the thesis that dietary cholesterol contributes to blood cholesterol and heart disease risk was a rational conclusion based on the available science at that time. Fifty years later the research evidence no longer supports this hypothesis yet changing the dietary recommendation to limit dietary cholesterol has been a slow and at times contentious process. The preponderance of the clinical and epidemiological data accumulated since the original dietary cholesterol restrictions were formulated indicate that: (1) dietary cholesterol has a small effect on the plasma cholesterol levels with an increase in the cholesterol content of the LDL particle and an increase in HDL cholesterol, with little effect on the LDL:HDL ratio, a significant indicator of heart disease risk, and (2) the lack of a significant relationship between cholesterol intake and heart disease incidence reported from numerous epidemiological surveys. Over the last decade, many countries and health promotion groups have modified their dietary recommendations to reflect the current evidence and to address a now recognised negative consequence of ineffective dietary cholesterol restrictions (such as inadequate choline intake). In contrast, health promotion groups in some countries appear to suffer from cognitive dissonance and continue to promote an outdated and potentially hazardous dietary recommendation based on an invalidated hypothesis. This review evaluates the evidence for and against dietary cholesterol restrictions and the potential consequences of such restrictions.

  9. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  10. The relationship of physical activity to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level in a sample of community-dwelling older adults from Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Élvio R; Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Freitas, Duarte L; Jurema, Jefferson; Tinôco, Maria A; Odim, Angeany; Machado, Floramara T; Muniz, Bárbara R; Antunes, António A; Ornelas, Rui T; Gouveia, Bruna R

    2017-08-10

    (1) To study the relation of physical activity (PA) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and (2) to investigate if the strength of these associations holds after adjustments for sex, age, and other key correlates. This study included 550 older adults from Amazonas. HDL-C was derived from fasting blood samples. PA at sport and leisure, smoking, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) were interviewed. Waist circumference (WACI) was assessed. HDL-C was positively related to PA sport, PA leisure, and SES (0.22≤r≤0.34; p≤0.001) and negatively related to smoking and WACI (r≤-0.10; p<0.05). Controlling for sex and age did not affect these relationships. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that the relation of HDL-C to PA sport and leisure remained significant when controlling for all other investigated correlates (0.14≤β≤0.24; p≤0.001). In order to prevent low HDL-C in older adults, promoting PA seems to be an important additional component besides common recommendations concerning weight reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholesterol and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R

    2012-12-01

    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  12. Cholesterol and myelin biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saher, Gesine; Simons, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Myelin consists of several layers of tightly compacted membranes wrapped around axons in the nervous system. The main function of myelin is to provide electrical insulation around the axon to ensure the rapid propagation of nerve conduction. As the myelinating glia terminally differentiates, they begin to produce myelin membranes on a remarkable scale. This membrane is unique in its composition being highly enriched in lipids, in particular galactosylceramide and cholesterol. In this review we will summarize the role of cholesterol in myelin biogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system.

  13. Orbitofrontal cholesterol granuloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, L P; McNab, A A

    2005-02-01

    Cholesterol granuloma of the orbital bones is a rare but readily recognisable condition. It is an osteolytic lesion with a granulomatous reaction surrounding cholesterol crystals, old haemorrhage and a fibrous capsule. There is a male preponderance and it usually occurs in young or middle-aged men. It is treatable with drainage and curettage via an orbitotomy, and craniotomy or wide bone removal is almost never required. Six cases of this condition were reviewed to highlight the typical clinical presentation, computed tomography and magnetic resonance results, and surgical management.

  14. Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome produced in rats with AY 9944 treated by intravenous injection of lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, C M; McLean, M P; Ness, G C

    1997-01-31

    A limitation to treating Smith-Lemli-Opitz infants by giving dietary cholesterol is their impaired ability to absorb cholesterol due to a deficiency of bile acids. Since intravenously administered lipoprotein cholesterol should not require bile acids for uptake into tissues, we tested the effects of this form of cholesterol on tissue cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol levels in an animal model of SLO, created by feeding rats 0.02% AY 9944. Intravenous administration of 15 mg of bovine cholesterol supertrate twice daily increased serum cholesterol levels from 11 to over 250 mg/dl. This treatment increased liver cholesterol levels from 309 to over 900 micrograms/g and lowered hepatic 7-dehydrocholesterol levels from 1546 to 909 micrograms/g. A combination of iv cholesterol and 2% dietary cholesterol was most effective as it raised hepatic cholesterol levels to 1950 micrograms/g, which is 50% above normal. 7-Dehydrocholesterol levels were decreased to 760 micrograms/g. Similar responses were seen for heart, lung, kidney, and testes. Brain sterol levels were not significantly affected. AY 9944 caused a modest increase in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity. Administration of dietary cholesterol together with iv cholesterol lowered hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activity to barely detectable levels. The data indicate that the combination of iv and dietary cholesterol was most effective in raising cholesterol levels, lowering 7-dehydrocholesterol levels, and inhibiting de novo cholesterol biosynthesis.

  15. CHOLESTEROL ASSIMILATION BY COMMERCIAL YOGHURT STARTER CULTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ziarno

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to in vitro cholesterol level reduction in laboratory media has been shown for numerous strains of lactic acid bacteria, but not for all strains of lactic bacteria used in the dairy industry. The aim of this work was the determination of the ability of selected thermophilic lactic acid bacteria to cholesterol assimilation during 24 h culture in MRS broth. Commercial starter cultures showed various ability to cholesterol assimilation from laboratory medium. In case of starter cultures used for production of traditional yoghurt, consisting of Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, the quantity of assimilated cholesterol did not exceed 27% of its initial contents (0.7 g in 1 dm3. Starter cultures used for bioyoghurt production, containing also probiotic strains (came from Lactobacillus acidophilus species or Bifidobacterium genus assimilated from almost 18% to over 38% of cholesterol. For one monoculture of Lb. acidophilus, cholesterol assimilation ability of 49-55% was observed, despite that the number of bacterial cells in this culture was not different from number of bacteria in other cultures.

  16. Cholesterol content in meat of some Cyprinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Dragić L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine cholesterol content in meat of five Cyprinidae species: white bream (Bllica bjoerkna L, carp bream (Abramis brama L, baltic vimba (Vimba vimba carinata Pallas, zope (Abramis balerus L and crucian carp (Carassius carassius gibelio Bloch from the river Danube. Cholesterol content was examined in the function of season factor and individual weight. Cholesterol concentration in meat of white bream carp bream, baltic vimba, zope and crucian carp is on average level below 20 mg/100 g of meat, which makes meat of these fish species nutritively very valuable. Cholesterol content is variable during the season. Its concentration in meat and in lipids is lowest during spring, during summer it increases and during autumn decreases, except in meat of white bream. Body weight has influence on cholesterol content when its concentration is expressed as % of cholesterol in lipids. Its content in lipids decreases with increasing of individual weight, except in meat of carp bream.

  17. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  18. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. LDL cholesterol still a problem in old age?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postmus, Iris; Deelen, Joris; Sedaghat, Sanaz

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in older subjects have shown no or inverse associations between cholesterol levels and mortality. However, in old age plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) may not reflect the lifetime level due to reverse causality, and hence the risk may...

  20. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B; Benn, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population. A total of 7,579 women and 6,372 men from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with measurements of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol at baseline in 1976-1978 were followed for up to 33 years; of these, 837 women and 837 men developed ischemic stroke during follow-up, which was 100% complete. The fluctuation of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol over 15 years was similar. In both women and men, stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Compared to women with triglycerides triglyceride levels of 1.00-1.99 mmol/liter to 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) for triglyceride levels ≥ 5 mmol/liter (trend: p cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke except in men with cholesterol levels ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter vs triglycerides were associated with increasing risk of ischemic stroke while increasing cholesterol levels were not. In men, these results were similar except that cholesterol ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  1. Cholesterol is essential for mitosis progression and its deficiency induces polyploid cell formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Carlos; Lobo Md, María del Val T; Gómez-Coronado, Diego; Lasunción, Miguel A

    2004-10-15

    As an essential component of mammalian cell membranes, cells require cholesterol for proliferation, which is either obtained from plasma lipoproteins or synthesized intracellularly from acetyl-CoA. In addition to cholesterol, other non-sterol mevalonate derivatives are necessary for DNA synthesis, such as the phosphorylated forms of isopentane, farnesol, geranylgeraniol, and dolichol. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of cholesterol in mitosis. For this, human leukemia cells (HL-60) were incubated in a cholesterol-free medium and treated with SKF 104976, which inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis by blocking sterol 14alpha-demethylase, and the expression of relevant cyclins in the different phases of the cell cycle was analyzed by flow cytometry. Prolonged cholesterol starvation induced the inhibition of cytokinesis and the formation of polyploid cells, which were multinucleated and had mitotic aberrations. Supplementing the medium with cholesterol completely abolished these effects, demonstrating they were specifically due to cholesterol deficiency. This is the first evidence that cholesterol is essential for mitosis completion and that, in the absence of cholesterol, the cells fail to undergo cytokinesis, entered G1 phase at higher DNA ploidy (tetraploidy), and then progressed through S (rereplication) into G2, generating polyploid cells.

  2. Intestinal cholesterol transport: Measuring cholesterol absorption and its reverse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, L.

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal cholesterol transport might serve as an attractive future target for cardiovascular disease reduction, provided that underlying molecular mechanisms are more extensively elucidated, combined with improved techniques to measure changes in cholesterol fluxes and their possible anti-atherosc

  3. Significance of the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Kenji; Kuwano, Takashi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Tomohiko; Shiga, Yuhei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Miyase, Yuiko; Adachi, Sen; Nakamura, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux capacity is more useful than the lipid profile as a marker of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated the associations between the presence and the severity of CAD and both the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity and the lipid profile including the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The subjects consisted of 204 patients who were clinically suspected to have CAD and underwent CTA. We isolated HDL from plasma by ultracentrifugation and measured the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophage cells and calculated total cholesterol efflux capacity as follows: the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity/100× HDL-C levels. While the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity was not associated with the presence or the severity of CAD, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. In addition, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C, but not the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity, significantly decreased as the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis increased. Total cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity showed only weak association. In a logistic regression analysis, the presence of CAD was independently associated with total cholesterol efflux capacity, in addition to age and gender. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the areas under the curves for total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C were similar. In conclusion, the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using the fixed amount of isolated HDL was not associated with CAD. On the other hand, the calculated total

  4. Transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Astrid E.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is a complex interplay of a multitude of metabolic pathways situated in different organs. The liver plays a central role and has received most attention of the research community. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the understanding

  5. Cholesterol: Up in Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raloff, Janet

    1991-01-01

    Discussed is the contribution cooked meat makes to air pollution. The dozens of compounds, including cholesterol, that are released when a hamburger is grilled are described. The potential effects of these emissions on humans and the urban environment are discussed. (KR)

  6. Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wulp, Mariette Y. M.; Verkade, Henkjan J.; Groen, Albert K.

    2013-01-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is caused by a disturbed balance between cholesterol secretion into the blood versus uptake. The pathways involved are regulated via a complex interplay of enzymes, transport proteins, transcription factors and non-codin

  7. Reduction in intestinal cholesterol absorption by various food components: mechanisms and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Jeffrey S; Kamili, Alvin; Wat, Elaine; Chung, Rosanna W S; Tandy, Sally

    2010-06-01

    A number of different food components are known to reduce plasma and LDL-cholesterol levels by affecting intestinal cholesterol absorption. They include: soluble fibers, phytosterols, saponins, phospholipids, soy protein and stearic acid. These compounds inhibit cholesterol absorption by affecting cholesterol solubilization in the intestinal lumen, interfering with diffusion of luminal cholesterol to the gut epithelium and/or inhibiting molecular mechanisms responsible for cholesterol uptake by the enterocyte. Cholesterol content of intestinal chylomicrons is subsequently reduced, less cholesterol is transported to the liver within chylomicron remnants, hepatic LDL-receptor activity is increased and plasma levels of LDL-cholesterol are decreased. Reduced hepatic VLDL production and less conversion of VLDL to LDL also contribute to lower LDL levels. Certain food components may also affect intestinal bile acid metabolism. Further investigation of the way in which these functional ingredients affect intestinal lipid metabolism will facilitate their use and application as cardiovascular nutraceuticals.

  8. Raising HDL cholesterol in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J Eapen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Danny J Eapen1, Girish L Kalra1, Luay Rifai1, Christina A Eapen2, Nadya Merchant1, Bobby V Khan11Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2University of South Florida School of Medicine, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration is essential in the determination of coronary heart disease (CHD risk in women. This is especially true in the postmenopausal state, where lipid profiles and CHD risk mimic that of age-matched men. Thus, interventions designed to reduce CHD risk by raising HDL-C levels may have particular significance during the transition to menopause. This review discusses HDL-C-raising therapies and the role of HDL in the primary prevention of CHD in women. Lifestyle-based interventions such as dietary change, aerobic exercise regimens, and smoking cessation are initial steps that are effective in raising HDL-C, and available data suggest women respond similarly to men with these interventions. When combined with pharmacotherapy, the effects of these lifestyle alterations are further amplified. Though studies demonstrating gender-specific differences in therapy are limited, niacin continues to be the most effective agent in raising HDL-C levels, especially when used in combination with fibrate or statin therapy. Emerging treatments such as HDL mimetic therapy show much promise in further raising HDL-C levels and improving cardiovascular outcomes.Keywords: high-density lipoprotein, HDL, women, cholesterol, heart disease

  9. Patterns of cholesterol metabolism: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for dyslipidemias and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupattelli, G; De Vuono, S; Mannarino, E

    2011-09-01

    Investigating cholesterol metabolism, which derives from balancing cholesterol synthesis and absorption, opens new perspectives in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemias and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Cholesterol metabolism is studied by measuring plasma levels of campesterol, sitosterol and cholestanol, that is, plant sterols which are recognised as surrogate cholesterol-absorption markers and lathosterol or squalene, that is, cholesterol precursors, which are considered surrogate cholesterol-synthesis markers. This article presents current knowledge on cholesterol synthesis and absorption, as evaluated by means of cholesterol precursors and plant sterols, and discusses patterns of cholesterol balance in the main forms of primary hyperlipidaemia and MS. Understanding the mechanism(s) underlying these patterns of cholesterol synthesis and absorption will help to predict the response to hypolipidemic treatment, which can then be tailored to ensure the maximum clinical benefit for patients.

  10. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol is a favorable prognostic factor and negatively correlated with C-reactive protein level in non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Dong Chi

    Full Text Available Although the alterations of lipid profile in lung cancer have been documented, the prognostic value of serum HDL-C level and its correlation with inflammation in NSCLC remain unknown.Levels of preoperative serum lipid concentrations (including HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TG and the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein level (CRP were retrospectively analyzed in 228 patients with NSCLC and in 300 healthy controls. The serum lipid levels in these two populations were compared. Univariate and multivariate cox hazards analyses were performed to investigate the prognostic value of serum lipid levels in NSCLC. The correlation between CRP and lipid profile were also analyzed.Compared with those in normal controls, the serum HDL-C, LDL-C, and TC levels were statistically decreased and the TG levels were significantly increased in 228 NSCLC patients. The patients with decreased levels of HDL-C had significantly lower 5-year survival rates than those with normal HDL-C, not only in the whole NSCLC cohort but also in the subgroups stratified according to the disease T, N classifications, and metastasis, whereas the other lipid components were not independent prognostic factors for NSCLC. Of the lipid components, a lower HDL-C level was observed more often in patients with a high CRP level than in those with a normal CRP level. Spearman's rank correlation analysis revealed that the HDL-C level presented a negative correlation with the CRP level (r = -0.360, p<0.001.A decreased level of preoperative HDL-C was found to be associated with poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Serum HDL-C level may be a clinical prognosis factor for NSCLC patients. In addition, a negative correlation was present between the levels of HDL-C and CRP, the well-known inflammation biomarker.

  11. Effects of dietary fucoxanthin on cholesterol metabolism in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beppu Fumiaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fucoxanthin is a xanthophyll present in brown seaweeds and has several beneficial effects, including anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects. However, we and another group previously observed that fucoxanthin increases serum cholesterol levels in rodents. Cholesterol is an important component of cell membranes and biosynthesis of bile acids. Serum cholesterol levels are also closely associated with atherosclerosis. Therefore, we sought to identify the mechanism underlying the increase in serum cholesterol levels by fucoxanthin. Methods Diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice were fed a diet containing 0.2% fucoxanthin for 4 weeks. The mice were sacrificed, and total blood samples were collected for the measurement of serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels. Cholesterol content in tissues was also analyzed. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to determine hepatic mRNA and protein expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism, respectively. Results Dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased serum HDL and non-HDL cholesterol levels, and reduced hepatic cholesterol content. In liver, the expression of SREBP1, SREBP2 and their target genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis significantly increased and tended to increase in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively. In contrast, hepatic levels of LDLR and SR-B1 proteins which is important factors for LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol uptake in the liver from serum, decreased to 60% and 80% in the fucoxanthin-fed mice, respectively, compared with the control mice. Further, we found that dietary fucoxanthin significantly increased the mRNA expression of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9, which enhances intracellular degradation of LDLR in lysosomes. Conclusions Fucoxanthin increased HDL-cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels in KK-Ay mice by inducing SREBP expression and reduced cholesterol uptake in the liver via

  12. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  13. Influence of infant and juvenile diets on serum cholesterol, lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein concentrations in juvenile baboons (Papio sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, G E; McMahan, C A; Kelley, J L; Farley, C M; McGill, H C

    1982-11-01

    The long-term effects of infant diet (breast milk or formula containing 2, 30, or 60 mg/dl cholesterol) and subsequent dietary cholesterol (1 mg/kcal) and fat (saturated or unsaturated) on serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations were estimated using 82 juvenile baboons 4-6 years of age. A significant interaction of infant diet (breast vs formula) with type of fat (saturated vs unsaturated) at 4-6 years of age was observed on HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) concentrations. That is, animals breast-fed as infants had higher HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations when fed unsaturated fat from weaning to 4-6 years of age than those fed saturated fat (77 vs 68 mg/dl). In contrast, animals fed formulas in infancy followed by a diet containing unsaturated fat had lower HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations at 4-6 years of age than did those fed saturated fat (67 vs 78 mg/dl). However, breast feeding or feeding formulas containing various levels of cholesterol for 3 months during infancy did not result in statistically significant differences in total serum cholesterol, VLDL + LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B (apoB) concentrations. Dietary cholesterol after infancy significantly increased serum total cholesterol, VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol, apoA-I and apoB concentrations. All of these response variables also were higher in animals fed saturated fat compared to those fed unsaturated fat on the same level of cholesterol. At 4-6 years of age, regardless of diet, females had significantly higher serum VLDL + LDL cholesterol (57 vs 43 mg/dl) and apoB concentrations (39 vs 30 mg/dl) than did males.

  14. Retracted: Advances in the physiological and pathological implications of cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Victor A; Busso, Dolores; Mardones, Pablo; Maiz, Alberto; Arteaga, Antonio; Nervi, Flavio; Rigotti, Attilio

    2013-11-01

    Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signalling, and endocrine functions in animal systems. At the cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signalling functions. At the organismal level, cholesterol is the precursor of all steroid hormones, including gluco- and mineralo-corticoids, sex hormones, and vitamin D, which regulate carbohydrate, sodium, reproductive, and bone homeostasis, respectively. This sterol is also the immediate precursor of bile acids, which are important for intestinal absorption of dietary lipids as well as energy homeostasis and glucose regulation. Complex mechanisms maintain cholesterol within physiological ranges and the dysregulation of these mechanisms results in embryonic or adult diseases, caused by either excessive or reduced tissue cholesterol levels. The causative role of cholesterol in these conditions has been demonstrated by genetic and pharmacological manipulations in animal models of human disease that are discussed herein. Importantly, the understanding of basic aspects of cholesterol biology has led to the development of high-impact pharmaceutical therapies during the past century. The continuing effort to offer successful treatments for prevalent cholesterol-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders, warrants further interdisciplinary research in the coming decades. © 2013 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2013 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  15. Control of Angiogenesis by AIBP-mediated Cholesterol Efflux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longhou; Choi, Soo-Ho; Baek, Ji Sun; Liu, Chao; Almazan, Felicidad; Ulrich, Florian; Wiesner, Philipp; Taleb, Adam; Deer, Elena; Pattison, Jennifer; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús; Li, Andrew C.; Miller, Yury I.

    2013-01-01

    Cholesterol is a structural component of the cell, indispensable for normal cellular function, but its excess often leads to abnormal proliferation, migration, inflammatory responses and/or cell death. To prevent cholesterol overload, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate cholesterol efflux from the cells to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and to the ApoA-I-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL)1-3. Maintaining efficient cholesterol efflux is essential for normal cellular function4-6. However, the role of cholesterol efflux in angiogenesis and the identity of its local regulators are poorly understood. Here we show that ApoA-I binding protein (AIBP) accelerates cholesterol efflux from endothelial cells (EC) to HDL and thereby regulates angiogenesis. AIBP/HDL-mediated cholesterol depletion reduces lipid rafts, interferes with VEGFR2 dimerization and signaling, and inhibits VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and mouse aortic neovascularization ex vivo. Remarkably, Aibp regulates the membrane lipid order in embryonic zebrafish vasculature and functions as a non-cell autonomous regulator of zebrafish angiogenesis. Aibp knockdown results in dysregulated sprouting/branching angiogenesis, while forced Aibp expression inhibits angiogenesis. Dysregulated angiogenesis is phenocopied in Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos, and cholesterol levels are increased in Aibp-deficient and Abca1/Abcg1-deficient embryos. Our findings demonstrate that secreted AIBP positively regulates cholesterol efflux from EC and that effective cholesterol efflux is critical for proper angiogenesis. PMID:23719382

  16. Overactivation of Intestinal SREBP2 in Mice Increases Serum Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Vinay; Hedroug, Omar; Annaba, Fadi; Dudeja, Amish; Shen, Le; Turner, Jerrold R.; Khramtsova, Ekaterina A.; Saksena, Seema; Dudeja, Pradeep K.; Gill, Ravinder K.; Alrefai, Waddah A.

    2014-01-01

    Sterol Response Element Binding Protein 2 (SREBP2) transcription factor is a master regulator of cholesterol homeostasis. Treatment with statins, inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis, activates intestinal SREBP2, which may hinder their cholesterol-lowering effects. Overactivation of SREBP2 in mouse liver was shown to have no effect on plasma cholesterol. However, the influence of activating intestinal SREBP2 on plasma cholesterol is not known. We have generated a novel transgenic mouse model with intestine specific overexpression of active SREBP2 (ISR2) driven by villin promoter. ISR2 mice showed overexpression of active SREBP2 specifically in the intestine. Microarray analysis of jejunal RNA from ISR2 mice showed a significant increase in genes involved in fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. Cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) in jejunum and liver (mg/g protein) were significantly increased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. Serum Cholesterol was significantly increased in VLDL and LDL fractions whereas the level of serum triglycerides was decreased in ISR2 vs wild type mice. In conclusion, activation of intestinal SREBP2 alone seems to be sufficient to increase plasma cholesterol, highlighting the essential role of intestine in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in the body. PMID:24465397

  17. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years......: The 32% of trial participants 70 years or older accrued 49% (n = 194) of the 393 confirmed primary end points. The rates of the primary end point in this age group were 1.22 and 1.99 per 100 person-years of follow-up in the rosuvastatin and placebo groups, respectively ( hazard ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0...... greater in older persons. The relative rate of any serious adverse event among older persons in the rosuvastatin versus placebo group was 1.05 ( CI, 0.93 to 1.17). Limitation: Effect estimates from this exploratory analysis with age cut-point chosen after trial completion should be viewed in the context...

  18. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J.W.H. Kappelle; G.M. Dallinga-Thie; R.P.F. Dullaart

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  19. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  20. Atorvastatin treatment lowers fasting remnant-like particle cholesterol and LDL subfraction cholesterol without affecting LDL size in type 2 diabetes mellitus : Relevance for non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B guideline targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, Paul J.W.H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which atorvastatin treatment affects LDL size, LDL subfraction levels and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) was determined in type 2 diabetes. We also compared LDL size and RLP-C in relation to guideline cut-off values for LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein

  1. The progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels in Guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) and Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J; Dangarembizi, R; Mtetwa, B; Madziva, M T; Erlwanger, K H

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the progressive effects of a high-fat diet on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, growth performance and serum lipid concentrations in Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks, 36 Guinea fowl and 36 Muscovy ducks were divided into two groups, for each species, and fed either a standard (STD = commercial poultry feed) or high-fat diet (HFD = commercial poultry feed with 20% palm oil and 2% lard) for up to 12 weeks. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks on the diets, six birds from each group were euthanized and blood samples collected. Osmotic fragility was assessed by measuring the haemoglobin released by erythrocytes placed in serially diluted solutions of phosphate-buffered saline, spectrophotometrically. Serum triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations were also determined. Fragiligrams from erythrocytes from both species of birds on the HFD were not different to those on the STD. However, Muscovy duck erythrocytes were more resistant to haemolysis compared with Guinea fowl erythrocytes. Final body mass and serum triglyceride levels were not significantly different (p > 0.05, anova) between the birds in the HFD and STD groups, for both species of birds. In contrast, serum cholesterol levels were significantly higher in birds on the HFD compared with those on the STD, after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of feeding, for both species of birds. Feeding Guinea fowl and Muscovy ducks a high-fat diet for up to 12 weeks resulted in hypercholesterolaemia but had no effect on final body mass, erythrocyte osmotic fragility or serum triglyceride concentrations in either bird species.

  2. Lipoproteins, cholesterol homeostasis and cardiac health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler F. Daniels, Karen M. Killinger, Jennifer J. Michal, Raymond W. Wright Jr., Zhihua Jiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is an essential substance involved in many functions, such as maintaining cell membranes, manufacturing vitamin D on surface of the skin, producing hormones, and possibly helping cell connections in the brain. When cholesterol levels rise in the blood, they can, however, have dangerous consequences. In particular, cholesterol has generated considerable notoriety for its causative role in atherosclerosis, the leading cause of death in developed countries around the world. Homeostasis of cholesterol is centered on the metabolism of lipoproteins, which mediate transport of the lipid to and from tissues. As a synopsis of the major events and proteins that manage lipoprotein homeostasis, this review contributes to the substantial attention that has recently been directed to this area. Despite intense scrutiny, the majority of phenotypic variation in total cholesterol and related traits eludes explanation by current genetic knowledge. This is somewhat disappointing considering heritability estimates have established these traits as highly genetic. Thus, the continued search for candidate genes, mutations, and mechanisms is vital to our understanding of heart disease at the molecular level. Furthermore, as marker development continues to predict risk of vascular illness, this knowledge has the potential to revolutionize treatment of this leading human disease.

  3. Anterior corneal and internal contributions to peripheral aberrations of human eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A.

    2004-03-01

    Anterior corneal and internal component contributions to overall peripheral aberrations of five human eyes were determined, based on corneal topography and overall aberration measurements. Anterior corneal position and orientation (tilt) were referenced to the line of sight. Ray tracing was performed through the anterior cornea for 6-mm-diameter pupils at angles out to 40° in both the temporal and the nasal visual fields. In general, both component and overall Zernike aberrations were greater for the nasal than for the temporal visual field. In general, the anterior corneal aberration components were considerably higher than the overall aberrations across the visual field and were balanced to a considerable degree by the internal ocular aberration components. The component and overall levels of Zernike third-order aberrations showed linear trends away from the fixation axis, and the component levels of Zernike fourth-order aberrations showed quadratic trends away from the fixation axis. The second-order, but not higher-order, aberration components were susceptible to the choice of image radius of curvature, while disregarding corneal position and orientation affected second- and higher-order aberration components.

  4. Cholesterol as a co-solvent and a ligand for membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanli; Kenworthy, Anne K; Sanders, Charles R

    2014-01-01

    As of mid 2013 a Medline search on “cholesterol” yielded over 200,000 hits, reflecting the prominence of this lipid in numerous aspects of animal cell biology and physiology under conditions of health and disease. Aberrations in cholesterol homeostasis underlie both a number of rare genetic disorders and contribute to common sporadic and complex disorders including heart disease, stroke, type II diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. The corresponding author of this review and his lab stumbled only recently into the sprawling area of cholesterol research when they discovered that the amyloid precursor protein (APP) binds cholesterol, a topic covered by the Hans Neurath Award lecture at the 2013 Protein Society Meeting. Here, we first provide a brief overview of cholesterol-protein interactions and then offer our perspective on how and why binding of cholesterol to APP and its C99 domain (β-CTF) promotes the amyloidogenic pathway, which is closely related to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24155031

  5. Intestinal SR-BI does not impact cholesterol absorption or transintestinal cholesterol efflux in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bura, Kanwardeep S; Lord, Caleb; Marshall, Stephanie; McDaniel, Allison; Thomas, Gwyn; Warrier, Manya; Zhang, Jun; Davis, Matthew A; Sawyer, Janet K; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D; Dikkers, Arne; Tietge, Uwe J F; Collet, Xavier; Rudel, Lawrence L; Temel, Ryan E; Brown, J Mark

    2013-06-01

    Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) can proceed through the classic hepatobiliary route or through the nonbiliary transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE) pathway. Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) plays a critical role in the classic hepatobiliary route of RCT. However, the role of SR-BI in TICE has not been studied. To examine the role of intestinal SR-BI in TICE, sterol balance was measured in control mice and mice transgenically overexpressing SR-BI in the proximal small intestine (SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg)). SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels compared with wild-type controls, yet SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice had normal fractional cholesterol absorption and fecal neutral sterol excretion. Both in the absence or presence of ezetimibe, intestinal SR-BI overexpression had no impact on the amount of cholesterol excreted in the feces. To specifically study effects of intestinal SR-BI on TICE we crossed SR-BI(hApoCIII-ApoAIV-Tg) mice into a mouse model that preferentially utilized the TICE pathway for RCT (Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 liver transgenic), and likewise found no alterations in cholesterol absorption or fecal sterol excretion. Finally, mice lacking SR-BI in all tissues also exhibited normal cholesterol absorption and fecal cholesterol disposal. Collectively, these results suggest that SR-BI is not rate limiting for intestinal cholesterol absorption or for fecal neutral sterol loss through the TICE pathway.

  6. Inhibiting Cholesterol Absorption During Lactation Programs Future Intestinal Absorption of Cholesterol in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Lidiya G; de Boer, Jan Freark; Plantinga, Josee; Plösch, Torsten; Hoekstra, Menno; Verkade, Henkjan J; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2017-08-01

    In nematodes, the intestine senses and integrates early life dietary cues that lead to lifelong epigenetic adaptations to a perceived nutritional environment-it is not clear whether this process occurs in mammals. We aimed to establish a mouse model of reduced dietary cholesterol availability from maternal milk and investigate the consequences of decreased milk cholesterol availability, early in life, on the metabolism of cholesterol in adult mice. We blocked intestinal absorption of cholesterol in milk fed to newborn mice by supplementing the food of dams (for 3 weeks between birth and weaning) with ezetimibe, which is secreted into milk. Ezetimibe interacts with the intestinal cholesterol absorption transporter NPC1l1 to block cholesterol uptake into enterocytes. Characterization of these offspring at 24 weeks of age showed a 27% decrease in cholesterol absorption (P cholesterol transporters, in the proximal small intestine. We observed increased histone H3K9me3 methylation at positions -423 to -607 of the proximal Npc1l1 promoter in small intestine tissues from 24-week-old offspring fed ezetimibe during lactation, compared with controls. These findings show that the early postnatal mammalian intestine functions as an environmental sensor of nutritional conditions, responding to conditions such as low cholesterol levels by epigenetic modifications of genes. Further studies are needed to determine how decreased sterol absorption for a defined period might activate epigenetic regulators; the findings of our study might have implications for human infant nutrition and understanding and preventing cardiometabolic disease. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ceramide displaces cholesterol from lipid rafts and decreases the association of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Cuijuan; Alterman, Michail; Dobrowsky, Rick T

    2005-08-01

    Addition of exogenous ceramide causes a significant displacement of cholesterol in lipid raft model membranes. However, whether ceramide-induced cholesterol displacement is sufficient to alter the protein composition of caveolin-enriched lipid raft membranes is unknown. Therefore, we examined whether increasing endogenous ceramide levels with bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) depleted cholesterol and changed the protein composition of caveolin-enriched membranes (CEMs) isolated from immortalized Schwann cells. bSMase increased ceramide levels severalfold and decreased the cholesterol content of detergent-insoluble CEMs by 25-50% within 2 h. To examine the effect of ceramide on the protein composition of the CEMs, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis using stable isotope labeling of cells in culture and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Although ceramide rapidly depleted lipid raft cholesterol, the levels of the cholesterol binding protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) decreased by 25% only after 8 h. Importantly, replenishing the cells with cholesterol rapidly reversed the loss of Cav-1 from the CEMs. Ceramide-induced cholesterol depletion increased the association of 5'-nucleotidase and ATP synthase beta-subunit with the CEMs but had a minimal effect on changing the abundance of other lipid raft proteins, such as flotillin-1 and G-proteins. These results suggest that the ceramide-induced loss of cholesterol from CEMs may contribute to altering the lipid raft proteome.

  8. Apolipoprotein A-II Influences Apolipoprotein E-Linked Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Women with High Levels of HDL Cholesterol and C-Reactive Protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsetti, James P.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Sparks, Charles E.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In a previous report by our group, high levels of apolipoprotein E (apoE) were demonstrated to be associated with risk of incident cardiovascular disease in women with high levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the setting of both low (designated as HR1 subjects) and high (designated as

  9. Cholesterol Assimilation by Lactobacillus Probiotic Bacteria: An In Vitro Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess cholesterol is associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD, an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current CVD therapeutic measures, lifestyle and dietary interventions, and pharmaceutical agents for regulating cholesterol levels are inadequate. Probiotic bacteria have demonstrated potential to lower cholesterol levels by different mechanisms, including bile salt hydrolase activity, production of compounds that inhibit enzymes such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A, and cholesterol assimilation. This work investigates 11 Lactobacillus strains for cholesterol assimilation. Probiotic strains for investigation were selected from the literature: Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 11951, L. reuteri NCIMB 701359, L. reuteri NCIMB 702655, L. reuteri NCIMB 701089, L. reuteri NCIMB 702656, Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221, L. fermentum NCIMB 8829, L. fermentum NCIMB 2797, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 GG, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 314, and Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 14917. Cholesterol assimilation was investigated in culture media and under simulated intestinal conditions. The best cholesterol assimilator was L. plantarum ATCC 14917 (15.18 ± 0.55 mg/1010 cfu in MRS broth. L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 assimilated over 67% (2254.70 ± 63.33 mg/1010 cfu of cholesterol, the most of all the strains, under intestinal conditions. This work demonstrates that probiotic bacteria can assimilate cholesterol under intestinal conditions, with L. reuteri NCIMB 701089 showing great potential as a CVD therapeutic.

  10. Cholesterol crystal embolism (atheroembolism)

    Science.gov (United States)

    VENTURELLI, CHIARA; JEANNIN, GUIDO; SOTTINI, LAURA; DALLERA, NADIA; SCOLARI, FRANCESCO

    2006-01-01

    Cholesterol crystal embolism, known as atheroembolic disease, is caused by showers of cholesterol crystals from an atherosclerotic plaque that occludes small arteries. Embolization can occur spontaneously or as an iatrogenic complication from an invasive vascular procedure (angiography or vascular surgery) and after anticoagulant therapy. The atheroembolism can give rise to different degrees of renal impairment. Some patients show a moderate loss of renal function, others severe renal failure requiring dialysis. Renal outcome can be variable: some patients deteriorate or remain on dialysis, some improve and some remain with chronic renal impairment. Clinically, three types of atheroembolic renal disease have been described: acute, subacute or chronic. More frequently a progressive loss of renal function occurs over weeks. Atheroembolization can involve the skin, gastrointestinal system and central nervous system. The diagnosis is difficult and controversial for the protean extrarenal manifestations. In the past, the diagnosis was often made post-mortem. In the last 10 yrs, awareness of atheroembolic renal disease has improved. The correct diagnosis requires the clinician to be alert. The typical patient is a white male aged >60 yrs with a history of hypertension, smoking and arterial disease. The presence of a classic triad (precipitating event, renal failure and peripheral cholesterol crystal embolization) suggests the diagnosis. This can be confirmed by a biopsy of the target organs. A specific treatment is lacking; however, it is an important diagnosis to make because an aggressive therapeutic approach can be associated with a more favorable clinical outcome. PMID:21977265

  11. Genetic variation in the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol catabolism (cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase) influences the progression of atherosclerosis and risk of new clinical events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.K.; Princen, H.M.G.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Jukema, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    CHD (coronary heart disease) is a complex disorder which is, in part, related to serum cholesterol levels. The rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of cholesterol into bile acids is CYP7A1 (cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase). The effect of the CYP7A1 A-278C promoter polymorphism on the progression of

  12. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh