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  1. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  2. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

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    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  3. Monthly spatial occurrence of phytoplankton and zooplankton in River Ogun, Abeokuta, Ogun State, southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dimowo, B.O.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the monthly spatial occurrence of phytoplankton and zooplankton in River Ogun, Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria. This was carried out for seven months between December, 2011 and June, 2012 in 4 stations. A total of 41 species of phytoplankton and 16 zooplankton species from 5 classes respectively were recorded. Zooplankton was dominated by Cladocera throughout the study period while phytoplankton was dominated by blue green algae (Cyanophyta or Cyanobacteri...

  4. High-level Multi-Resistant and Virulent Escherichia coli in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinduti, Paul Akinniyi; Aboderin, Bukola W; Oloyede, Rasaq; Ogiogwa, Joseph I; Motayo, Babatunde O; Ejilude, Oluwaseun

    2016-01-01

    Multi-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) strains co-harboring virulence genes is a cause of high morbidity in Abeokuta, Nigeria. This study was designed to determine some virulent factors among enteropathogenic E. coli in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Approximately non-repetitive 102 isolates of E. coli were recovered from clinical samples from two health facilities in Abeokuta. Biotyping using API and antibiotic susceptibility was determined, and eae and flic genes were assayed by PCR. Antibiotic resistance relatedness was performed by DendroUPGMA. Results showed that 48.0% and 52.0 % were intestinal and extra-intestinal E. coli, ampicillin recorded 100% resistance, amoxycilli/clavulanic acid 64.7%, cotrimoxazole 57.8% and 56.8% resistance against cefotaxime, at MIC >16 ug/mL, 100%, 57.8%, and 50% have MIC50 to ampicillin, tetracycline, and ceftazidime, while 74.5% and 48.0% have MIC90 to ampicillin and ceftazidime. Significant rates of 4.9%, 7.8%, and 9.8% flic, eae, and flic/eae genes were found in intestinal isolates, while 2.9%, 2.0%, and 3.9% were found in extra-intestinal (P < 0.05). Two major clades of the resistant isolates reveal significant antibiotic relatedness among intestinal and extra-intestinal isolates, at 54% resistance similarities with very high multi-antibiotic resistance index of 1.0 (MARI). A high rate of undetected virulent E. coli pathotypes with high resistance could trigger unprecedented morbidity and mortality, mostly among children and the elderly.

  5. Benchmarking parameter-free AMaLGaM on functions with and without noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, Peter A N; Grahl, Jörn; Thierens, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We describe a parameter-free estimation-of-distribution algorithm (EDA) called the adapted maximum-likelihood Gaussian model iterated density-estimation evolutionary algorithm (AMaLGaM-ID[Formula: see text]A, or AMaLGaM for short) for numerical optimization. AMaLGaM is benchmarked within the 2009 black box optimization benchmarking (BBOB) framework and compared to a variant with incremental model building (iAMaLGaM). We study the implications of factorizing the covariance matrix in the Gaussian distribution, to use only a few or no covariances. Further, AMaLGaM and iAMaLGaM are also evaluated on the noisy BBOB problems and we assess how well multiple evaluations per solution can average out noise. Experimental evidence suggests that parameter-free AMaLGaM can solve a wide range of problems efficiently with perceived polynomial scalability, including multimodal problems, obtaining the best or near-best results among all algorithms tested in 2009 on functions such as the step-ellipsoid and Katsuuras, but failing to locate the optimum within the time limit on skew Rastrigin-Bueche separable and Lunacek bi-Rastrigin in higher dimensions. AMaLGaM is found to be more robust to noise than iAMaLGaM due to the larger required population size. Using few or no covariances hinders the EDA from dealing with rotations of the search space. Finally, the use of noise averaging is found to be less efficient than the direct application of the EDA unless the noise is uniformly distributed. AMaLGaM was among the best performing algorithms submitted to the BBOB workshop in 2009.

  6. Economic burden of heart failure: investigating outpatient and inpatient costs in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria.

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    Okechukwu S Ogah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF is a deadly, disabling and often costly syndrome world-wide. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of data describing its economic impact in sub Saharan Africa; a region in which the number of relatively younger cases will inevitably rise. METHODS: Heath economic data were extracted from a prospective HF registry in a tertiary hospital situated in Abeokuta, southwest Nigeria. Outpatient and inpatient costs were computed from a representative cohort of 239 HF cases including personnel, diagnostic and treatment resources used for their management over a 12-month period. Indirect costs were also calculated. The annual cost per person was then calculated. RESULTS: Mean age of the cohort was 58.0 ± 15.1 years and 53.1% were men. The total computed cost of care of HF in Abeokuta was 76, 288,845 Nigerian Naira (US$508, 595 translating to 319,200 Naira (US$2,128 US Dollars per patient per year. The total cost of in-patient care (46% of total health care expenditure was estimated as 34,996,477 Naira (about 301,230 US dollars. This comprised of 17,899,977 Naira- 50.9% ($US114,600 and 17,806,500 naira -49.1%($US118,710 for direct and in-direct costs respectively. Out-patient cost was estimated as 41,292,368 Naira ($US 275,282. The relatively high cost of outpatient care was largely due to cost of transportation for monthly follow up visits. Payments were mostly made through out-of-pocket spending. CONCLUSION: The economic burden of HF in Nigeria is particularly high considering, the relatively young age of affected cases, a minimum wage of 18,000 Naira ($US120 per month and considerable component of out-of-pocket spending for those affected. Health reforms designed to mitigate the individual to societal burden imposed by the syndrome are required.

  7. Genotypes and phenotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC in Abeokuta, Southwestern Nigeria

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    Olowe OA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olugbenga Adekunle Olowe,1 Bukola W Aboderin,1,2 Olayinka O Idris,3 Victor O Mabayoje,4 Oluyinka O Opaleye,1 O Catherine Adekunle,1 Rita Ayanbolade Olowe,1 Paul Akinniyi Akinduti,5 Olusola Ojurongbe1 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 2Medical Microbiology Unit, Pathology Department, Federal Medical Centre, Abeokuta, Nigeria; 3Department of Microbiology, College of Sciences, Afe Babalola University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria; 4Department of Haematology, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke Akintola University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria; 5Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Ogun State, Nigeria Purpose: To characterize the prevalence of hemolytic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC with a multidrug-resistant pattern in different age groups in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Methods: Nonrepetitive E. coli isolates were collected from 202 subjects with or without evidence of diarrhea. Each isolate was biochemically identified and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. A sorbitol fermentation test of all the E. coli isolates was done and the minimum inhibitory concentration of suspected STEC was measured by the standard broth microdilution method to determine antibiotic resistance. The genotypes of stx1, stx2, and hlyA were determined by polymerase chain reaction assay. Results: The majority of subjects were aged ≥40 years (41.6% and were female (61.9%. Of the 202 subjects, 86.1% had STEC isolates (P<0.05. A high rate of STEC isolates resistant to amoxicillin (90.6%, cefotaxime (77.7%, and cefuroxime (75.7% was observed. Resistance to amoxicillin, gentamicin, and cefotaxime was demonstrated with a minimum inhibitory concentration >16 µg/mL in 13.9%, 11.4%, and 10.4% of the isolates, respectively. The prevalence of stx1, stx2, and hlyA was 13.9%, 6.9%, and 2.0%, respectively; 5.5% of

  8. Challenges of Small Ruminants Production in Selected Urban Communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

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    Okanlade Lawal-Adebowale

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production has become a common trend in urban communities whereby a number of people reared farm animals such as sheep and goats for social and economic reasons. Notwithstanding the associated advantages of livestock production, effective urban production of the small ruminants is greatly challenged by a number of factors. Based on this, the study was conducted with a view to identifying factors that challenged effective sheep and goat production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State. From the selected 12 urban communities where sheep and goats were reared, a total of 217 rearers were non-randomly selected using snow balling sampling method. A reliable and validated interview guide was used alongside field observation to obtain information on challenges to sheep and goats production in the urban areas. The results showed that the challenges were feed, health/disease, environmental, marketing and routine management related. All the respondents (100% experienced challenges such as high cost of feeding, theft of the farm animals, problem of off -season feeding and problem of sourcing feed variety for the animals. The chi-square test showed that a significant relationship exists between the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics (sex: χ2 = 21.06, df =4; age: χ2 = 43.26, df = 16; education: χ2 = 78.09, df = 12; occupation: χ2 = 62.57, df = 16; income: χ2 = 56.35, df =16 and the encountered challenges (p

  9. Agricultural Students’ Perceptions of Farm Practical Year Programme at University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

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    Abayomi Oloruntoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm Practical programme addresses the short comings in curricular of agricultural graduates enabling them to acquire knowledge and practical skills needed to become proficient in agriculture. The study contributes in providing insights into perceptions of level 400 agricultural students regarding the Farm Practical Year (FPY programme at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. A total of 261 sample students were selected through stratified sampling procedure from 11 core agricultural departments and administered with pre-tested questionnaire. Results show that the programme provided students with ‘hands-on’ experience and opportunity to apply theory learnt in classroom to a real-life fi eld situation in which students had to adapt and solve problems on daily basis. Students also felt strongly that the farm practical would contribute to their professional career and employability on graduation. However, certain perceived problems were raised by students such as lack of on-campus accommodation, delay in payment of allowances and paucity of resources. It is recommended that greater efforts are needed to mentor students to take active interest in farm practical while human and material resources strengthened to deliver this mandate.

  10. Challenges of Small Ruminants Production in Selected Urban Communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okanlade A. Lawal-adebowale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock production has become a common trend in urban communities whereby a number of people reared farm animals such as sheep and goats for social and economic reasons. Notwithstanding the associated advantages of livestock production, effective urban production of the small ruminants is greatly challenged by a number of factors. Based on this, the study was conducted with a view to identifying factors that challenged effective sheep and goat production in selected urban communities of Abeokuta, Ogun State. From the selected 12 urban communities where sheep and goats were reared, a total of 217 rearers were non-randomly selected using snow balling sampling method. A reliable and validated interview guide was used alongside field observation to obtain information on challenges to sheep and goats production in the urban areas. The results showed that the challenges were feed, health/disease, environmental, marketing and routine management related. All the respondents (100% experienced challenges such as high cost of feeding, theft of the farm animals, problem of off -season feeding and problem of sourcing feed variety for the animals. The chi-square test showed that a significant relationship exists between the respondents’ socioeconomic characteristics (sex: χ2 = 21.06, df =4; age: χ2 = 43.26, df = 16; education: χ2 = 78.09, df = 12; occupation: χ2 = 62.57, df = 16; income: χ2 = 56.35, df =16 and the encountered challenges (p < 0.05. Based on this, it was concluded that the identified challenges to urban sheep and goat production remained serious issues in the study area. It was thus recommended that conscious efforts should be put up by rearers of the small ruminants to ensure safety of their animals and good feeding routine for increased productivity and beneficial returns.

  11. Upper arm composition and nutritional status of school children and adolescents in Abeokuta, Southwest Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idowu Odunayo Senbanjo; Kazeem Adeola Oshikoya; Olisamedua Fidelis Njokanma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Upper arm composition is a reflection of body protein and calorie reserves. However, there is a paucity of data on upper arm composition of children from African countries, including Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the composition of upper arm and nutritional status of school children in Abeokuta, Nigeria and to compare with international reference standards. The sensitivity and specifi city of upper arm muscle area by height (UAMAH) as a nutritional assessment tool was also determined. Methods: Five hundred and seventy children aged 5 to 19 years were selected from seven schools using multistage random sampling. Weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and triceps skin fold thickness (TSF) were measured. Body mass index, upper arm muscle area (UAMA), upper arm fat area (UAFA), fat percentage and UAMAH were derived. Results: The TSF, UAFA and fat percentage were significantly higher in females than males at each age group. MUAC and UAMA were significantly higher in female children aged 10-14 years, whereas UAMA was significantly higher in male children aged 15-19 years. UAMA and UAFA of the children were lower than those of Americans but similar to those of Zimbabweans, and higher than those of Indians. The sensitivity and specifi city of UAMAH for detecting wasting were 80.8% and 63.9%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for stunting were 32.2% and 58.2%, respectively. Conclusions: The school children studied have a combination of poor calorie and protein reserve. UAMAH may be a valuable tool for complete evaluation of the nutritional status of school children.

  12. Assessment of Pollution Hazards of Shallow Well Water in Abeokuta and Environs, Southwest, Nigeria

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    E. O. Orebiyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Pollution of well water, either from point or non-point sources, has become a thing of health concern both in urban and rural areas. Approach: This study aim at assessing the pollution hazards of groundwater resource by sampling some shallow wells from urban and peri-urban area of Abeokuta. Collected samples were analyzed for water quality parameters using standard procedures. The parameters determined were: Static water level, color, turbidity, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, pH, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS Total Suspended Solids (TSS, Total Solids (TS, total hardness, cations {potassium (K sodium (Na, Calcium (Ca, magnesium (mg, Manganese (Mn, iron (Fe}, anions ﴾Chloride (Cl-, Nitrate (NO3, Sulphate (SO4, Phosphate (PO4}, heavy metals {lead (Pb, Zinc (Zn, Copper (Cu} and microbiological parameters {Bacteria count and Total Coliform count (TC}. Results: Results were subjected to statistical evaluations using SPSS 15.0 for descriptive statistics and Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA. The mean values of TDS, TS, EC and PO4 were higher in well water collected from urban areas compared to peri-urban areas during wet season. It was also observed that during the dry season, TDS, TSS, TS, EC, Mg, Fe, Cl-, PO4 and total hardness were also higher in samples collected from urban areas relative to peri-urban well water samples. Conclusion: Water quality parameters such as Fe, Pb, NO3, EC, Bacteria count and total coliform have mean values greater than World Health Organization maximum permissible standards for drinking water. Elevated values of these parameters are of great concern to public health when the water from these wells is consumed by people without treatment.

  13. Effectiveness and sustainability of remedial actions for land restoration in Abeokuta urban communities, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal-Adebowale, Okanlade

    2016-04-01

    Land as a major collective human property faces a great deal of threats and eventual degradation from both natural and human causal factors across the globe. But for the central role of land in human's sustenance and quality living, man cannot afford to lose its natural asset and as such takes mitigating or remedial actions to save and restore his land for sustainable use. In view of this, the study assessed the causal factors of land degradation in urban areas of Abeokuta and effectiveness and sustainability of the taken remedial actions to stem the tide of land degradation in the study area. The selected communities were purposively selected based on the observed prevalence of degraded lands in the areas. A qualitative research approach which encompasses observational techniques - participant/field observation, interactive discussion and photographic capturing, was used for collection of data on land degradation in the study area. A combination of phenomenological, inductive thematic analysis and conversation/discourse analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed land gradients/slopes, rainfall, run-offs/erosion, land-entrenched foot impacts, sand scraping/mining, poor/absence of drainage system and land covers as causal factors of land degradation in the study area. The employed remedial actions for restoration of degraded land included filling of drenches with sand bags, wood logs, bricks and stones, and sand filling. The study though observed that filling of drenches caused by erosion with rubles/stones and construction of drainage were effective remedial actions, good drainage system was presumed to be the most appropriate and sustainable remedial action for land restoration in the study area.

  14. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  15. On the evaluation of routine ultrasound screening in the third trimester for detection of light for gestational age (LGA) infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen; Kern Hansen, P; Lenstrup, C

    1987-01-01

    % of the pregnancies. The usefulness of the screening was evaluated on the remaining 36%. An attempt to diagnose light for gestational age (LGA) infants resulted in either a low sensitivity or a low predictive value of a positive test. The late third trimester screening was more sensitive than the early, indicating...... LGA as a late phenomenon in pregnancy. Knowing the result from the late scanning, the result from the early scanning contributed almost no further information about whether the infant would be LGA at birth. Basic epidemiological characteristics of other comparable investigations on high...

  16. Reliability of CGA/LGA/HDI Package Board/Assembly (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffaroam. Reza

    2014-01-01

    Package manufacturers are now offering commercial-off-the-shelf column grid array (COTS CGA) packaging technologies in high-reliability versions. Understanding the process and quality assurance (QA) indicators for reliability are important for low-risk insertion of these advanced electronics packages. The previous reports, released in January of 2012 and January of 2013, presented package test data, assembly information, and reliability evaluation by thermal cycling for CGA packages with 1752, 1517, 1509, and 1272 inputs/outputs (I/Os) and 1-mm pitch. It presented the thermal cycling (-55C either 100C or 125C) test results for up to 200 cycles. This report presents up to 500 thermal cycles with quality assurance and failure analysis evaluation represented by optical photomicrographs, 2D real time X-ray images, dye-and-pry photomicrographs, and optical/scanning electron Microscopy (SEM) cross-sectional images. The report also presents assembly challenge using reflowing by either vapor phase or rework station of CGA and land grid array (LGA) versions of three high I/O packages both ceramic and plastic configuration. A new test vehicle was designed having high density interconnect (HDI) printed circuit board (PCB) with microvia-in-pad to accommodate both LGA packages as well as a large number of fine pitch ball grid arrays (BGAs). The LGAs either were assembled onto HDI PCB as an LGA or were solder paste print and reflow first to form solder dome on pads before assembly. Both plastic BGAs with 1156 I/O and ceramic LGAs were assembled. It also presented the X-ray inspection results as well as failures due to 200 thermal cycles. Lessons learned on assembly of ceramic LGAs are also presented.

  17. On the evaluation of routine ultrasound screening in the third trimester for detection of light for gestational age (LGA) infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, Niels Jørgen; Kern Hansen, P; Lenstrup, C;

    1987-01-01

    % of the pregnancies. The usefulness of the screening was evaluated on the remaining 36%. An attempt to diagnose light for gestational age (LGA) infants resulted in either a low sensitivity or a low predictive value of a positive test. The late third trimester screening was more sensitive than the early, indicating...

  18. Surface modification of PdlLGA microspheres with gelatine methacrylate: Evaluation of adsorption, entrapment, and oxygen plasma treatment approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Abdulrahman; Rahman, Cheryl V; White, Lisa J; Scurr, David J; Qutachi, Omar; Shakesheff, Kevin M

    2017-01-16

    Injectable poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PdlLGA) microspheres are promising candidates as biodegradable controlled release carriers for drug and cell delivery applications; however, they have limited functional groups on the surface to enable dense grafting of tissue specific biocompatible molecules. In this study we have evaluated surface adsorption, entrapment and oxygen plasma treatment as three approaches to modify the surfaces of PdlLGA microspheres with gelatine methacrylate (gel-MA) as a biocompatible and photo cross-linkable macromolecule. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF SIMS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to detect and quantify gel-MA on the surfaces. Fluorescent and scanning electron microscopies (SEM) were used to image the topographical changes. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) of immortalised cell line were cultured on the surface of gel-MA modified PdlLGA microspheres and Presto-Blue assay was used to study the effect of different surface modifications on cell proliferation. Data analysis showed that the oxygen plasma treatment approach resulted in the highest density of gel-MA deposition. This study supports oxygen plasma treatment as a facile approach to modify the surface of injectable PdlLGA microspheres with macromolecules such as gel-MA to enhance proliferation rate of injected cells and potentially enable further grafting of tissue specific molecules.

  19. Particulate Systems Based on Poly(Lactic-co-Glycolic)Acid (pLGA) for Immunotherapy of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimian, Sima; Fransen, Marieke F; Kleinovink, Jan Willem; Amidi, Maryam; Ossendorp, Ferry; Hennink, Wim E

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy of cancer is a promising therapeutic approach which aims to eliminate malignancies by inducing or enhancing an immune response against the tumor. Immunotherapy, however, faces several challenges such as local immunosuppression in the tumor area leading to immunological tolerance. To overcome these challenges, particulate formulations such as nano- and microparticles containing immunotherapeutics have been developed to increase therapeutic efficacy and reduce toxicity of immunotherapy. Particulate formulations based on biodegradable aliphatic polyesters such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (pLGA) have been extensively used with promising results. In this review, we addressed the potential of pLGA-based particulate formulations for immunotherapy of cancer. The discussion was focused on cancer vaccines and delivery of immunomodulatory antibodies. Features and drawbacks of pLGA systems were discussed together with several examples of recently developed therapeutic cancer vaccines and antibody-loaded particulate systems. Various strategies to overcome the drawbacks and optimize the formulations were given. In conclusion, pLGA-based particulate systems are attractive carriers for development of clinically acceptable formulations in immunotherapy of cancer.

  20. Antigen-Specific lgA B Memory Cell Responses to Shigella Antigens Elicited in Volunteers Immunized with Live Attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a Oral Vaccine Candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    cell responses to Shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates J.K. Simona,b... Shigella ;. B cell memory; Immunoglobulin lgA; Mucosal immunity Abstract We studied the induction of antigen-specific lgA memory B cells (BM) in...volunteers who received live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a vaccines. Subjects ingested a single oral dose of 107 , 108 or 109 CFU of S. flexneri 2a with

  1. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

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    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo; C. A. Ike-Amadi; C. Ibebuike; F. U. Okike-Osissiogu; N.G. Agomoh

    2013-01-01

    A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial ...

  2. Evaluation of Immunity and Seropositivity of IgG Antibodies to Canine Parvoviruses in Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, E T; Ijaopo, O K; Okonko, I O

    2016-01-01

    Canine Parvovirus (CPV) is a very contagious and virulent viral disease affecting domestic dogs all over the world causing high morbidity and mortality in dogs, especially puppies. This study aimed at determining the seropositivity of IgG antibodies against CPV in vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs and to evaluate the immune status of dogs presented in Abeokuta. Forty-eight dogs were enrolled in this study. These dogs were presented at random for treatment, routine checkup, and vaccination at the State Veterinary Hospital and Veterinary Teaching Hospital all in Abeokuta. All the dogs were fully maintained under domestic setting. Selection for study was done based on thorough examination of the dogs and their medical records. The clients were informed of the nature of the investigation. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for anti-CPV-IgG. In principle, protective immunity correlates with high antibody titers and this was determined using a commercially available immunocomb® test kit for anti-CPV IgG antibody. Of 48 dogs sampled, 38 (79.2%) had high level of anti-CPV antibody titer and 10 (20.8%) had low level of anti-CPV antibody titer. Twenty six (54.2%) were males while 22 (45.8%) were females. Forty-five (93.75%) dogs were exotic breeds while 3 (6.25%) dogs were mongrels. Thirty (62.5%) of the dogs were less than one year old and the age range of all dogs sampled was between 7 weeks and 7 years. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sex and the level of immunity but significant differences (P canine parvovirus among dogs in Abeokuta, Nigeria. Of all variables evaluated, ages of dogs, breeds and post-vaccination period were the main correlates of the level of immunity to CPV. This study also showed agreement with previous studies in the diagnostic value of using the immunoblot ELISA assay for the rapid detection of anti-CPV IgG antibody.

  3. Association of cord blood des-acyl ghrelin with birth weight, and placental GHS-R1 receptor expression in SGA, AGA, and LGA newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Domínguez, Martha I; Lazo-de-la-Vega-Monroy, Maria-Luisa; Zaina, Silvio; Sabanero, Myrna; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Barbosa-Sabanero, Gloria

    2016-07-01

    Although ghrelin in cord blood has been associated to birth weight, its role in fetal and postnatal growth has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to analyze total ghrelin, acyl ghrelin (AG), and des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) in cord blood of newborns with idiopathic birth weight alterations, and to evaluate protein expression of placental GHS-R1, in order to investigate their correlation with birth weight and placental weight. We performed a cross-sectional comparative study in umbilical cord blood and placentas from healthy mothers of SGA, AGA, and LGA (small, adequate and large for gestational age) term newborns (n = 20 per group). Cord blood total ghrelin, AG, and DAG were measured by ELISA, and placental GHS-R1 expression was evaluated by Western blot. Cord blood DAG was higher in SGA compared to AGA newborns (902.1 ± 109.1 and 597.4 ± 58.2 pg/ml, respectively, p = 0.01) while LGA and AGA showed similar values (627.2 ± 76.4 pg/ml for LGA, p = 0.80). DAG negatively correlated with birthweight (r = -0.31, p = 0.02) and placental weight (r = -0.33, p = 0.02). No differences in AG or total ghrelin were found. GHS-R1 protein in placenta was not differentially expressed among SGA, AGA, and LGA. Our results suggest a role of DAG in intrauterine growth. Further studies are needed in order to elucidate the mechanisms by which DAG participates in fetal growth.

  4. Microbiological Assessment of Soil Contaminated with Refined Petroleum: A Case Study of Eluama in Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obiageli R. Ezeigbo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A microbiological assessment of soil polluted by refined petroleum was carried out in Eluama community, Isuikwuato LGA, Abia State, Nigeria between March and October, 2012. The aim of the study is to examine the long-term kinetics of refined petroleum oil contaminated soil in this area from pipeline vandalization in the year 2000 and to assess the extent of biodegradation with respect to length of time of the spill. The microbiological examination of the soil samples were conducted by serial diluting and then inoculating the soil samples on different growth media. Several microbiological and biochemical methods were applied in order to isolate and identify the microorganisms accustomed to the soil sample. An unpolluted farmland served as control. Results showed a decrease in microbial load of soil as distance approaches seepage area. The control has a total heterotrophic bacteria count of 22.3 x 106 CFU/ml which decreases towards the seepage area (4.1 x 106 CFU/ml. The total fungi count also decreases from the control (5.9 x 106 CFU/ml towards the seepage area (1.2 x 106 CFU/ml. Micococcus sp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were predominant in the seepage area up to 30m away from the seepage area. Other bacteria identified after this distance include Bacillus sp, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptomyces sp, Streptococcus sp and Staphylococcus aureus while the predominant fungi were Aspergillus niger and Mucor sp. The marked decrease of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the petroleum polluted area compared with the control (the unpolluted farmland shows the unsuitability of the soil for agricultural purpose, as full remediation has not taken place.

  5. Large for Gestational Age (LGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... primarily results from an abundance of nutrients. In pregnant women with diabetes, a large amount of sugar (glucose) crosses the placenta (the organ that connects the fetus to the uterus and provides nourishment to the fetus) and results ...

  6. Morphometric studies on Anopheles gambiae complex (Diptera:Culicidae) in Abeokuta,Southwest Nigeria%尼日利亚南部阿贝奥库塔地区冈比亚按蚊复合体的形态特征研究(双翅目:蚊科)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Monsuru Adebayo ADELEKE; Chiedu Felix MAFIANA; Adewunmi Babatunde IDOWU; Abiodun Ayanlayo Sarafadeen AMUSAN; Michael Femi ADEKUNLE

    2008-01-01

    对采自尼日利亚南部城市阿贝奥库塔冈比亚按蚊复合体Anopheles gambiae complex的形态特征进行了研究.依据2005年8月至2006年7月灯诱捕获的364个冈比亚按蚊复合体标本,分别对它们的触角、翅、喙、前足、中足和后足6个部位的长度进行了测量,对月平均值进行回归分析,同时利用差异系数(co-efficient of difference,CD)进行近缘分析.分析显示,各特征的长度平均值雨季大于旱季,但是回归分析表明长度变化与季节不显著相关(P>0.05).差异系数分析结果表明,仅触角长度和翅长显示此复合体为两个不同的种群(CD>1.28),而其他特征值表明为同一种群.因此,该研究结果提示触角长度及翅长对冈比亚按蚊复合体近缘种的区分有重要参考价值.%Morphometric analysis of Anopheles gambiae complex Was carried out in Abeokuta metropolis.Six characters including the antennal length,wing length,pmboscis length,fore leg length,mid leg length and hind leg length,were measured in 364 individual samples of Anopheles gambiae complex collected between August 2005 and July 2006 using light traps.The monthly mean length of each character was subject to regression analysis while co-efficient of difierence (CD) was used to determine the presence of sibling species.The results revealed that the mean length in each character was higher for the wet season population as compared with the dry season population.However,the regression analysis showed that the variation was not season specific(P>0.05).Only the antennal length and wing length indicated two distinct populations when subjected to co-efficient of difierenee(CD>1.28),while other characters indicated one population.The results therefore suggest that the antennal length and wing length may be of significant value in sorting siblings of A.gambiae complex in the study area.

  7. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    With the publication of the Manifesto for a New Nordic Cuisine in 2004, the gastronomic potentials of the Scandinavian flora and fauna became the basis for a social innovation project with ambitions far beyond fine dining and select produce. Since then New Nordic Food has become a key platform......-constitutive role in the formation of publics (Marres 2007) and the ways in which they are themselves reconfigured as ‘matters of concern’ (Latour 2003) in this process. I draw on digital cartographies and fieldwork carried out under the Carlsberg funded project Edible North: Mapping the ’New Nordic Food...

  8. CLIL in the North: finding true north?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Nienke

    2016-01-01

    CLIL teaching in the Netherlands is very popular: roughly 130 secondary schools offer CLIL education. But did you know that only nine secondary schools in the north of the Netherlands currently offer bilingual education? This means that CLIL education is still not at cycling distance for every teena

  9. Intergenerational Practice: Outcomes and Effectiveness. LGA Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kerry; Springate, Iain; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This research looked at five intergenerational projects focusing on football, arts, knife crime, living history and personal and social education. Two projects ran in schools, one in a health centre, one in a youth drop-in centre and one at a football club. Each project had its own aims, but in addition to these, the projects aimed to improve…

  10. LGA 775处理器安装指南

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kent

    2004-01-01

    从SLOT 1到Socket 370以及Socket478,CPU平台的一次次变更都伴随着处理器的一次次技术革新与升级。当Socket T架构伴随i915/925芯片组到来时,我们又该如何应对?

  11. North Korea Conundrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samore, G

    2002-07-01

    Proliferation has become an important political issue over the last decades, marked simultaneously by the nuclearization of South Asia, the strengthening of international regimes (TNP, CW, MTCR) and the discovery of fraud and trafficking. This paper presents the motivations and strategy of North Korea in violating existing agreements and developing an alternative source of weapons grade material. Then it analyses the US gradual economical and political strategy to pressure North Korea to eliminate its nuclear weapons program. The future position of the US will depend on the Iraq outcome and on the results of its pressure policy on North Korea. (J.S.)

  12. North Korean Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    other similar performing arts facilities. After visiting one ballet performance, “Kim Jong-il was deeply impressed by the Mariinsky Theater Ballet in St...Petersburg and decided to develop a ballet program in the DPRK” (Vorontsov 10). Shortly after Mr. Kim’s visit to Russia, North Korean officials...sent a letter requesting that Russia admit five North Korean students to the Mariinsky Theater’s Vaganova Ballet Academy (Vorontsov 10). As a result

  13. North Korea, Quo Vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available North Korean politics appears neither irrational nor unpredictable: the logic of its actions may at first seem opaque, but it nonetheless displays its own rationale and patterns. – North Korea: a ruthless political actor, now under the leadership of Kim Jong-Un who inherited the regime’s leadership from his father and "Supreme Leader", Kim Jong-Il, in 2011. The country’s policy is based on its ongoing political agenda of (nuclear brinkmanship, a true threat to the world – or at least that's how the Western hemisphere sees it. Yet our factual knowledge of this post-Leninist and totalitarian regime is extremely limited and relatively distorted; it is largely circumstantial evidence and judgmental speculation that accounts for our perception of this East Asian state. Northeast Asia (China, Japan, South and North Korea, Taiwan is a region dominated by the legacy of the Cold War. The North Korean leadership has indeed established its priorities, primarily its isolationist orientation, but in the long term the regime cannot survive without external stimulus. Most importantly, even in a long-term, non-violent and gradual transformation of North Korea considerable danger can ultimately result in the demise of the regime. Apart from few signs of a North Korean "civil society", currently only the army might have the resources to see through a regime change. In the meantime, the strategies of isolationism as well as tight control of the media remain as fundamental cornerstones of the regime. A close-knit network of social control has been established and access to the internet for the most part is limited to the regime’s entrusted cadre.

  14. ITS Platform North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Juhl, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the project entitled “ITS Platform North Denmark” which is used as a test platform for Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) solutions. The platform consists of a newly developed GNSS/GPRS On Board Unit (OBU) to be installed in 500 cars, a backend server and a specially...

  15. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  16. The mossy north

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateo, Rubén G.; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe

    2016-01-01

    , as predicted by theory, and whether the assembly mechanisms differ among taxonomic groups. SR increases towards the south in spermatophytes, but towards the north in ferns and bryophytes. SR patterns in spermatophytes are consistent with their patterns of beta diversity, with high levels of nestedness...

  17. North Korean Policy Elites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    North Korea allies. Yi Chong-ok Curator, Party Founding Museum, Functionary in Ministry of Post and Telecommunications Harbin Technology Institute...United Army and died in 1938, without leaving any children behind. 13 Kim Yong-ju took part in the anti-Japanese guerrilla activities in Manchuria ...27 O Guk Ryol was born in Manchuria in 1933. His father, O Chung-hup, saved Kim Il Sung’s life at the expense of his own during one of

  18. North American Regional Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    North America is an energy community fortunate to be endowed with a rich and varied resource base. It consumes about a third of the world's energy and produces about one quarter of world energy supply. North America depends on a mix of complementary energy sources that should remain competitive but not in conflict. The current supply mix varies between Canada, the United States and Mexico, but fossil fuels are dominant across the region, leaving the three member countries vulnerable to a myriad of risks associated with traditional supply sources. Energy trade between all three countries is also a major contributor to the region's economy. Thus, the impetus for collaboration across the region has grown out of the common goals of energy security and economic prosperity. The goal of the WEC regional group was to discuss avenues for advancing North American cooperation and coordination on a range of energy issues. An additional objective was to develop policy recommendations that will facilitate effective development and use of the region's energy resources. Results and recommendtaions are summarized from three forums that focused on the pertinent issues of energy trade, energy efficiency and energy diversification. The inaugural forum (Energy Trade) was held in Washington, D.C. in the fall of 2005. The following summer, the second forum (Energy Efficiency) took place in Mexico City. The third forum (Energy Diversification) was hosted in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

  19. Apollo in the North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østermark-Johansen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    with Victorian science, mythography and folklore in the texts, in an attempt to map the topicality of his fiction. Although he chose historical settings in medieval France and eighteenth-century Germany for his tales, they reflect recent debates about the disappearance of the sun and the folkloristic animalism......Walter Pater’s fascination with the Hyperborean Apollo, who according to myth resided north of the home of the northern wind, is explored in two of his pieces of short fiction, ‘Duke Carl of Rosenmold’ (1887) and ‘Apollo in Picardy’ (1893). The essay discusses some of Pater’s complex dialogue...

  20. Phoenix Animation Looking North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation This animation is a series of images, taken by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager, combined into a panoramic view looking north from the lander. The area depicted is beyond the immediate workspace of the lander and shows a system of polygons and troughs that connect with the ones Phoenix will be investigating in depth. The images were taken on sol 14 (June 8, 2008) or the 14th Martian day after landing. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. North Carolina surgical workforce trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poley, Stephanie T; Kasper, Elizabeth W; Walker, Elizabeth K; Lyons, Jessica C; Newkirk, Vann R; Thompson, Kristie

    2011-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2008, the number of general surgeons in North Carolina increased and shifted demographically, geographically, and by specialty. However, surgeon numbers--overall and by specialty--do not appear to have increased as quickly or to have shifted in the same ways as North Carolina's general population.

  2. Plastic in North Sea Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Gruijter, de C.; Mergia, M.T.; Franeker, van J.A.; Murk, A.J.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    To quantify the occurrence of ingested plastic in fish species caught at different geographical positions in the North Sea, and to test whether the fish condition is affected by ingestion of plastics, 1203 individual fish of seven common North Sea species were investigated: herring, gray gurnard, wh

  3. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-10

    calender -day notification period to Congress as required by U.S. law. The White House stated that North Korea would thus be removed on August 11, 2008...Congress notification of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the

  4. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-06

    he was officially notifying Congress of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after the 45 calender -day...of his intent to remove North Korea from the list of state sponsors of terrorism after 45 calender days. Under U.S. law, the President is required to

  5. Models to estimate the palm surface area of students in a tertiary institution in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Ismaila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to use palm surface area (PSA in ergonomics, burn therapy, thermal physiology, and medicine necessitated the studies on its determination. The purpose of this study was to determine the PSA of students in a tertiary institution in Nigeria, propose a model to obtain the PSA, and use the neural network to reflect the effects of age, height, and weight on PSA. A total of 400 students comprising of 185 male and 215 female students aged between 16- and 25-years old were used for the study. Nonlinear regression analysis on SPSS 16.0 statistical package was used to extract the best fit correlation for Nigerian students with PSA as the dependent variable; and height, weight, and age as independent variables. The neural network on SPSS 16.0 was used to design the multilayer perceptron to predict PSA using age, height, and weight of the students. The estimated values using the models were not statistically different from the obtained values from the study (p = 0.000. The prediction of PSA showed that the neural network can be trained with almost no significant error of the output and that there was a nonlinear relationship between the input and output variables.

  6. North Polar Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] This week we will be looking at five examples of laminar wind flow on the north polar cap. On Earth, gravity-driven south polar cap winds are termed 'catabatic' winds. Catabatic winds begin over the smooth expanse of the cap interior due to temperature differences between the atmosphere and the surface. Once begun, the winds sweep outward along the surface of the polar cap toward the sea. As the polar surface slopes down toward sealevel, the wind speeds increase. Catabatic wind speeds in the Antartic can reach several hundreds of miles per hour. In the images of the Martian north polar cap we can see these same type of winds. Notice the streamers of dust moving downslope over the darker trough sides, these streamers show the laminar flow regime coming off the cap. Within the trough we see turbulent clouds of dust, kicked up at the trough base as the winds slow down and enter a chaotic flow regime. The horizontal lines in these images are due to framelet overlap and lighting conditions over the bright polar cap. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 86.5, Longitude 64.5 East (295.5 West). 40 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen

  7. North American oil demand outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.B. [National Economic Research Associates, White Plains, NY (United States)

    1995-11-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC`s pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  8. Blogging from North Pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, C. G.; Edwards, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Sea going research expeditions provide an ideal opportunity for outreach through blogs: the finite duration limits the author's commitment; scientists are usually in a remote location with fewer distractions; and fieldwork is visual and interesting to describe. Over four weeks this winter, Katrina Edwards of USC authored a blog about her deep-sea drilling expedition to North Pond, a depression in the ocean crust in the mid-Atlantic. She emailed daily dispatches and photos to USC Media Relations, which maintained a (still accessible) blog. Written for the general public, the blog quickly attracted interest from lay readers as well as from media organizations. Scientific American carried the blog on its web site, and the National Science Foundation linked to it in its "Science 360" electronic news digest. The blog also led to a Q&A with Edwards in the widely-read "Behind the Scenes" feature of LiveScience. Interest from science bloggers and National Geographic towards the end suggests that the blog could have expanded its reach given more time: expeditions lasting between six weeks and three months, such as occur during ocean drilling expeditions, would appear to be ideal candidates for a blog. Most importantly, the blog educated readers about the importance to planetary life of what Edwards calls the "intraterrestrials": the countless microbes that inhabit the oceanic crust and influence major chemical and biological cycles. Considering that the subjects of the expedition were invisible critters in a pitch-dark place, the blog shows what can be accomplished by scientists and institutions committed to public outreach.

  9. North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol framework provides guidance for conducting surveys of North American bird populations at multiple stations within two or more regions. The BBS is a...

  10. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  11. The effects of regional economic integration in Europe of the pattern north-north and north-south

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antevski Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of regional economic integration in Europe, especially the North-North and North-South integration patterns, and how the benefits and costs of integration are divided between countries. Outcomes depend on: comparative advantages, factor endowments, factor intensities, competitive advantages, FDI flows, transfers of technology, knowledge spillovers, economies of scale, transport costs, industry/GDP ratios, and agglomeration forces. The North-North integration between high income countries tends to lead to convergence of country incomes. Contrary, the South-South integration between low income countries causes divergence. Low income countries are likely to be better served by the North-South integration.

  12. Preparing for Upheaval in North Korea: Assuming North Korean Regime Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    defense agreement between North Korea and China but also pro-Chinese North Korean elites’ requests for Chinese help are likely to justify Chinese...PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE by Kwonwoo Kim December 2013 Thesis Advisor: Wade Huntley Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE PREPARING FOR UPHEAVAL IN NORTH KOREA : ASSUMING NORTH KOREAN REGIME COLLAPSE 5

  13. Jurassic domes in the North Sea - northern North Atlantic region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surlyk, F. [Univ. of Copenhagen, Geological Inst., Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The stratigraphic and tectonic evolution of the Jurassic of East Greenland, the Norwegian Shelf and the North Sea is remarkably similar. A major Middle Jurassic unconformity occurs in all three areas. In the North Sea it is commonly termed the `Mid-Cimmerian Unconformity` and is characterized by progressive truncation of the underlying section towards a centre at the triple junction between the Central Graben, Viking Graben and Moray Firth. Strata above the unconformity show a progressive Late Aalenian-Early Kimmeridgian onlap in the same direction. These relations have been interpreted as caused by Early Jurassic uplift and of a major thermal dome in the central North Sea, followed by Medial and Late Jurassic rifting, erosion, deflation and transgression of the dome. The East Greenland unconformity shows progressive truncation of underlying strata from south to north, and Bajocian to Callovian onlap in the same direction. The same pattern seems to be developed on the conjugate Norwegian margin. This suggests the possibility that the three unconformities have similar causes for their development. It is proposed that major rift domes formed in the Central North Sea and in the Greenland-Norway seaway in Early Jurassic times. The domes were eroded and gradually deflated during Medial Jurassic times and were finally submerged by the Late Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian. They were associated with volcanism and rifting which was delayed with respect to dome initiation. Roughly contemperaneous domes were present west of Britain, north of the Porcupine Seabight, and in Scania, southern Sweden, as reflected by development of asymmetrical unconformities showing progressive truncation of underlying strata, onlap of overlying Jurassic strata, and associated intrusive and extrusive volcanism. The domes are related to impingement of the heads of transient mantle plumes at the base of the lithosphere. The associated unconformities are thus of non-eustatic nature. Domal uplift and

  14. The North Korean Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  15. Vulnerability in north- central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Nguyen, Thao Phuong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines changes in livelihood strategies in response to flooding. It does so on the basis of a household survey which was undertaken in three provinces in north central Vietnam. All households in the survey were regularly affected by flooding, but only poor households experience...

  16. SHINING STAR IN NORTH BEIJING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The area around the Asian Games Village in north Beijing has seen rapid development in recent years,boosted by the construction of Olympic stadiums,such as the National Stadium,National Aquatics Center,Olympic Hockey Field, Archery Field and Tennis Center. Equipped with complete facilities,

  17. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  18. Teacher Burnout in North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowers, Erin N.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed study dissertation was to determine if teachers in North Dakota public schools show signs of teacher burnout and the extent to which NCLB is a major stress factor. The research questions were: To what extent are teachers experiencing symptoms of burnout? What are the factors of burnout? The research hypothesis was: The…

  19. Senior Power at North Hennepin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugnet, Charles J.

    1976-01-01

    Since 1970 North Hennepin Community College in Minneapolis has enrolled 3,411 in its Seniors on Campus program for senior citizens. The key to initiation and continuing development of the program described here is involvement of senior citizens themselves in the Senior Advisory Committee. (JT)

  20. HORSE RACE IN NORTH TIBET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This annual horse race takes place in every township of the north Tibetan grassland,one by one,starting from August 1st. The principal activities are usually a horse race and a blessing by touching the foreheads of people by a Rinpoche.

  1. Approaches to integrated housing, health and social care services: case studies from North Tyneside Council and Northumbria Healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Glenda; Aitken, Dominic; Hodgson, Philip; Marston, Roy; Binks, Eleanor; Peach, Robert; McMillan, Christine; Herman, Linda; Burke, Wendy; Park, Karen; Conway, Shirley; Graham, Helen; Blood, Gail; Cossar, Paula; McKinnon, Debora

    2016-01-01

    The Care Act 2014 places a duty on local authorities to integrate services, including housing, where this could improve wellbeing by preventing, reducing and/or delaying care needs (LGA 2015). Despite calls for greater collaborative working between housing and health professionals, there are limited examples of live projects taking an integrated approach to service delivery.\\ud \\ud This case study report presents three case studies of innovative approaches to integrated working across housing...

  2. The north Sulu Sea productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Z.

    2009-12-01

    The Sulu Sea is a part of the western North Pacific. It is a closed sea for its deep water and a semi-closed sea for its upper layer. The Sulu Sea exchanges mainly surface waters with the South China Sea and the Celebes Sea. The Sulu Sea is more productive than the adjacent South China Sea (Jones, 2002). On the basis of MERIS satellite observations from 2002 to 2008, we focus on the high-chlorophyll area as an indicator of the abundance of primary productivity in the Sulu Sea. Strong chlorophyll concentration in the north Sulu Sea close to the Mindoro Strait mainly occurs from December to March and low chlorophyll concentration happens in April to November. The adjacent South China Sea on the other side of Mindoro Strait has shown persistent signs of low chlorophyll concentration. Based on 1/8° Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model, the intrusion of the South China Sea waters through the Mindoro Strait to the Sulu Sea from April to November is the main reason for the low chlorophyll concentration observed in the north Sulu Sea. During April to November, the South China Sea waters flow through the Mindoro Strait and stay on the surface of the north Sulu Sea because of their low density. The north Sulu Sea waters mix with fresher waters coming from the South China Sea without new nutrients supply. When the inflow from South China Sea to Sulu Sea ceases in December to March, the upwelling due to the summer monsoon wind becomes an important mechanism supplying deep nutrients to the surface water which lead to high chlorophyll concentration. Jones, I.S.F., 2002. Primary production in the Sulu Sea. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences-Earth and Planetary Sciences 111, 209-213.

  3. North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — We conducted a 6-year evaluation of the North Cascades Grizzly Bear Ecosystem (NCGBE) in north-central Washington to determine the suitability of the area to support...

  4. North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database (NPPSD) was created in 2005 to consolidate data on the oceanic distribution of marine bird species in the North Pacific....

  5. North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008......Proceedings of the Tenth North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles, held in Copenhagen, 14-17 May 2008...

  6. 27 CFR 9.30 - North Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Coast. 9.30 Section... Coast. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “North Coast.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the North Coast viticultural area...

  7. Quaternary Evolution of North Core Sound Sound, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsche, Andrew

    Northern Core Sound is a shallow lagoonal estuary located behind the Outer Banks barrier islands of eastern North Carolina. Thirty-two vibracores and 155 km of chirp and boomer seismic data have been used to define the geologic framework and establish the Holocene evolution of this back-barrier lagoon. Vibracores have been logged for lithology, and sampled to establish the distribution and abundance of foraminifera. The lithostratigraphy and biofacies could not be directly correlated but when related to the seismic data, apparent patterns could be recognized. The Quaternary stratigraphic framework of North Core Sound consists of five depositional sequences, comprising transgressive, highstand, and falling stage systems tracts. Seismic reflections are prominent and are correlated to the sequence stratigraphic surfaces within Pamlico Sound defined by Mallinson et al. (2010). The late Pleistocene paleotopographic surface dips slightly seaward and is characterized by two or three fluvial channels correlating to modern embayments. These channels are separated by a paleotopographic high that extends from Cedar Island seaward. The channels run northeast in the north and southwest in the south creating two different paleo-environments. The paleotopographic high may have contributed to differing foraminiferal assemblages found within Holocene unit. The Holocene unit is characterized by high salinity estuarine deposits dominated by the foraminifera Elphidium excavatum and Ammonia parkinsoniana. Three very similar biofacies were defined with more abundant Ammonia parkinsoniana where salinities may have been slightly lower. Only a salt marsh facies was significantly different. The biofacies may also represent the two paleo-environments illustrated in the seismic data as one is mainly found to the north of the paleotopographic high and the other to the south. Two seismic reflections, H30 and H60, are interpreted as tidal ravinement surfaces and divide the Holocene into three

  8. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  9. North Dakota Energy Workforce Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Drake [Bismarck State College, Bismarck, ND (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Bismarck State College, along with its partners (Williston State College, Minot State University and Dickinson State University), received funding to help address the labor and social impacts of rapid oilfield development in the Williston Basin of western North Dakota. Funding was used to develop and support both credit and non-credit workforce training as well as four major symposia designed to inform and educate the public; enhance communication and sense of partnership among citizens, local community leaders and industry; and identify and plan to ameliorate negative impacts of oil field development.

  10. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    OpenAIRE

    Mullis, C. R.; Henry, J. P.; Gioia, I. M.; Boehringer, H.; Briel, U. G.; Voges, W.; Huchra, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objec...

  11. North American Natural Gas Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group's findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  12. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  13. The North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster

    CERN Document Server

    Mullis, C R; Gioia, I M; Böhringer, H; Briel, U G; Voges, W; Huchra, J P

    2001-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT All-Sky Survey to detect a known supercluster at z=0.087 in the North Ecliptic Pole region. The X-ray data greatly improve our understanding of this supercluster's characteristics, approximately doubling our knowledge of the structure's spatial extent and tripling the cluster/group membership compared to the optical discovery data. The supercluster is a rich structure consisting of at least 21 galaxy clusters and groups, 12 AGN, 61 IRAS galaxies, and various other objects. A majority of these components were discovered with the X-ray data, but the supercluster is also robustly detected in optical, IR, and UV wavebands. Extending 129 x 102 x 67 (1/h50 Mpc)^3, the North Ecliptic Pole Supercluster has a flattened shape oriented nearly edge-on to our line-of-sight. Owing to the softness of the ROSAT X-ray passband and the deep exposure over a large solid angle, we have detected for the first time a significant population of X-ray emitting galaxy groups in a supercluster. These results demon...

  14. North-South Globalization and Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Joël Hellier

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the globalization-inequality relationship, we extend the North-South HOS model by assuming (i) that the size of the South (emerging countries) increases over time and that the North (advanced countries) and the South never stand simultaneously inside the diversification cone, (ii) several northern and southern countries with different skill endowments, and (iii) North-South technological differences, productivity catching up and technological transfers. The model generates three ph...

  15. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer program was developed for the calculation of a goid based upon a combination of satellite and surface gravity data. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia was derived by using this program.

  16. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  17. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion... Springs, Kentucky. The workers are engaged in the production of automobile parts and component parts. The... production of automobile parts at the Russell Springs, Kentucky location of Bruss North America. The...

  18. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...... for pneumonia was designed and implemented in 2010. Problem In spite of our clinical pathway for CAP we found delays in start of treatment, overuse of antibiotics and long length of stay (LOS). Mortality was nearly 20 %. Assessment of problem and analysis of its causes We established an audit group of two...... nurses and two senior doctors. Direct observations of the clinical processes revealed problems of coordination, complex disease trajectories that did not fit with the pneumonia pathway, unclear guidelines and variation in their interpretation. Intervention We designed a measurement system to monitor...

  19. Interannual variability of western North Pacific SST anomalies and its impact on North Pacific and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Heung; An, Soon-Il; Kug, Jong-Seong

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the interannual variability of sea surface temperature (SST) and its atmospheric teleconnection over the western North Pacific (WNP) toward the North Pacific/North America during boreal winter are investigated. First, we defined the WNP mode as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) mode of SST anomalies over the WNP region (100-165°E, 0-35°N), of which the principle component time-series are significantly correlated with several well-known climate modes such as the warm pool mode which is the second EOF mode of the tropical to North Pacific SST anomalies, North Pacific oscillation (NPO), North Pacific gyre oscillation (NPGO), and central Pacific (CP)-El Niño at 95% confidence level, but not correlated with the eastern Pacific (EP)-El Niño. The warm phase of the WNP mode (sea surface warming) is initiated by anomalous southerly winds through reduction of wind speed with the background of northerly mean winds over the WNP during boreal winter, i.e., reduced evaporative cooling. Meanwhile, the atmospheric response to the SST warming pattern and its diabatic heating further enhance the southerly wind anomaly, referred to the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback. Thus, the WNP mode is developed and maintained through winter until spring, when the northerly mean wind disappears. Furthermore, it is also known that anomalous upper-level divergence associated with WNP mode leads to the NPO-like structure over the North Pacific and the east-west pressure contrast pattern over the North America through Rossby wave propagation, impacting the climate over the North Pacific and North America.

  20. North Dakota Refining Capacity Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis Hill; Kurt Swenson; Carl Tuura; Jim Simon; Robert Vermette; Gilberto Marcha; Steve Kelly; David Wells; Ed Palmer; Kuo Yu; Tram Nguyen; Juliam Migliavacca

    2011-01-05

    According to a 2008 report issued by the United States Geological Survey, North Dakota and Montana have an estimated 3.0 to 4.3 billion barrels of undiscovered, technically recoverable oil in an area known as the Bakken Formation. With the size and remoteness of the discovery, the question became 'can a business case be made for increasing refining capacity in North Dakota?' And, if so what is the impact to existing players in the region. To answer the question, a study committee comprised of leaders in the region's petroleum industry were brought together to define the scope of the study, hire a consulting firm and oversee the study. The study committee met frequently to provide input on the findings and modify the course of the study, as needed. The study concluded that the Petroleum Area Defense District II (PADD II) has an oversupply of gasoline. With that in mind, a niche market, naphtha, was identified. Naphtha is used as a diluent used for pipelining the bitumen (heavy crude) from Canada to crude markets. The study predicted there will continue to be an increase in the demand for naphtha through 2030. The study estimated the optimal configuration for the refinery at 34,000 barrels per day (BPD) producing 15,000 BPD of naphtha and a 52 percent refinery charge for jet and diesel yield. The financial modeling assumed the sponsor of a refinery would invest its own capital to pay for construction costs. With this assumption, the internal rate of return is 9.2 percent which is not sufficient to attract traditional investment given the risk factor of the project. With that in mind, those interested in pursuing this niche market will need to identify incentives to improve the rate of return.

  1. 40 CFR 81.334 - North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affecting § 81.334 see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of the... County X Wayne County X Wilkes County X Wilson County X Yadkin County X Yancey County X North Carolina... County X Wayne County X Wilkes County X Wilson County X Yadkin County X Yancey County X North...

  2. Financial Flexibility in North Carolina Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Tanya M.; Polen, Deborah A.

    This paper explores educational financial flexibility with a focus on the specific issues surrounding local flexibility in North Carolina school districts. Strategies that states have used to increase local financial flexibility include waivers, reduction of budget categories, block grants, and school-based budgeting. The North Carolina system of…

  3. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  4. Live and work in North Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sascha; Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    This report is based on a survey among Expats in North Denmark, and was carried out in collaboration with 'Velkomstcentre - live and work in North Denmark'. It includes findings about the backgrounds of the Expats, their motives for coming to the region and their perceptions of the region before...

  5. Health and safety on North Carolina farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Many rural areas in North Carolina do not receive the professional health care they deserve. North Carolina Farm Bureau recognized this unfilled need and implemented its Healthy Living for a Lifetime program in 2010. This initiative is one way to help improve the health of the state's 52,000 family farmers.

  6. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  7. Põhja-Korea tõrjub nälga suure sõjaisuga / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2010-01-01

    Selgunud on, et Lõuna-Korea sõjalaeva uputas 26. märtsil Põhja-Korea torpeedo, Põhja-Korea ähvardab sanktsioonide korral sõjaga. Põhja-Korea on jõudnud näljahädani ning vajab uut sõjapaanikat, et püüda suunata rahva viha välisvaenlaste pihta

  8. Utilization of modern contraceptives among female traders in Jos South LGA of Plateau state, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Envuladu E.A; Agbo H.A; Mohammed A; Chia L; Kigbu J.H; Zoakah A.I

    2012-01-01

    Background: Contraceptive use is seen as pivotal to protecting women’s health and rights, contraception when accepted and used by majority of women in any given community has been shown to reduce unwanted pregnancy, high parity and consequently maternal mortality. Aim: The study aimed at determining the level of awareness, utilization, preferred methods of contraceptives and factors affecting contraceptive use among female traders of Jos south Local government area of Plateau state. Materials...

  9. Local Authorities' Experiences of Improving Parental Confidence in the Special Educational Needs Process. LGA Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Richard; Macleod, Shona; Jeffes, Jennifer; Atkinson, Mary

    2010-01-01

    How can we help parents to understand the special educational needs (SEN) process? What sort of information and support do they need? This report details the results of research with SEN officers (or their equivalent) in 26 local authorities, covering: (1) the referral process; (2) early identification and intervention; (3) local authority and…

  10. 75 FR 34479 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  11. 78 FR 11220 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  12. 77 FR 71820 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  13. 77 FR 39252 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  14. 76 FR 31626 - Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement; North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA)...

  15. North American tidal power prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, W. W., Jr.

    1981-07-01

    Prospects for North American tidal power electrical generation are reviewed. Studies by the US Army Corps of Engineers of 90 possible generation schemes in Cobscook Bay, ME, indicated that maximum power generation rather than dependable capacity was the most economic method. Construction cost estimates for 15 MW bulb units in a single effect mode from basin to the sea are provided; five projects were considered ranging from 110-160 MW. Additional tidal power installations are examined for: Half-Moon Cove, ME (12 MW, 18 ft tide); Cook Inlet, AK, which is shown to pose severe environmental and engineering problems due to fish migration, earthquake hazards, and 300 ft deep silt deposits; and the Bay of Fundy, Canada. This last has a 17.8 MW plant under construction in a 29 ft maximum tide area. Other tidal projects of the Maritime Provinces are reviewed, and it is noted that previous economic evaluations based on an oil price of $16/barrel are in need of revision.

  16. North American amphibians: distribution and diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    : Green, David M.; Weir, Linda A.; Casper, Gary S.; Lannoo, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some 300 species of amphibians inhabit North America. The past two decades have seen an enormous growth in interest about amphibians and an increased intensity of scientific research into their fascinating biology and continent-wide distribution. This atlas presents the spectacular diversity of North American amphibians in a geographic context. It covers all formally recognized amphibian species found in the United States and Canada, many of which are endangered or threatened with extinction. Illustrated with maps and photos, the species accounts provide current information about distribution, habitat, and conservation. Researchers, professional herpetologists, and anyone intrigued by amphibians will value North American Amphibians as a guide and reference.

  17. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    found a secret weapon that has been a hit with North Koreans: South Korean “ Choco Pies,” a snack consisting of two large round cookies covered with...chocolate with a filling of marshmallow in between much like an Oreo cookie. Choco Pies have been so popular in the lunches provided to Kaesong...North Korea,” Reuters, June 4, 2009. 26 “N.Koreans Love Choco Pie,” Chosen Ilbo, May 23, 2009, English Internet edition. . North Korea: Economic

  18. PRODUCTIVITY OF NORTH KORDOFAN CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. BUSHARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study focused on the sedentary cattle husbandry production system in North Kordofan (western Sudan. Seven farms (designated as A, B, C, D, E, F, and G around El-Obeid city were randomly selected. Recently calved cows in each farm were closely monitored through a period of 365 days. The recently calved cows were monitored for post-partum ovarian activity using milk progesterone radioimmunoassay. Days to conception were taken as non-return to oestrus. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in both days to first ovulation and days to conception. The majority of cows showed delayed post-partum activity and days to conception with longest days to resumption of ovarian activity showed by farm G (167.00±59.68days and lowest days in farm C (61.78±14.99 days. The interval to conception was longest in farm B (226.06±52.63 days and lowest in farm C (102.67±48.93 days. Cows in all farms showed gradual increase in BW from calving up to 90 days. BCS was found to decrease from calving to 60 days. Dry season showed an adverse effect on fertility compared with the rainy season. Wet season showed significant negative correlation with BWT at calving, milk yield at 30, 60 and 90 days with days to ovulation. It could be concluded that, poor reproductive performance in cows kept under extensive traditional system was due to poor management practices, which ignored high-energy supplementation during late pregnancy and early lactation, especially during the dry season when rangeland pastures deteriorate drastically. Suckling further exacerbated the effect of poor nutrition resulting in extended post-partum anoestrus and low conception rates. Controlled mating and suckling together with good feeding strategies may greatly enhance reproductive performance of cows kept under extensive systems of management.

  19. Mexico North-South Deflections (DMEX97)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 2' surface deflection of the vertical grid for Mexico, and North-Central is the DMEX97 model. The computation used about one million terrestrial and marine...

  20. Bathymetry of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetry of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors. The image was derived from the National Geophysical Data Center?s ETOPO2 elevation data,...

  1. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  2. Butterfly Surveys in North Dakota : 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The main goal of this study was to conduct inventories of butterflies and skippers on a number of prairie and wetland sites in North Dakota and determine the...

  3. North Mississippi Refuges Complex: 2001 annual narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for North Mississippi Refgues (including Dahomey NWR, Tallahatchie NWR, and Coldwater River NWR) outlines activities and accomplishments...

  4. Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes monitoring protocols for marshbirds in North America. Monitoring parameters, field procedures, survey methods, timing of surveys, recording...

  5. Libraries in North Dakota: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northdakota.html Libraries in North Dakota To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. Fargo SANFORD HEALTH SANFORD VIRTUAL LIBRARY 530 6th Ave N FARGO, ND 58102 701- ...

  6. Libraries in North Carolina: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/northcarolina.html Libraries in North Carolina To use the sharing features ... page, please enable JavaScript. Asheville Mountain AHEC (MAHEC) Library and Knowledge Services 121 Hendersonville Rd. Asheville, NC ...

  7. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NARR dataset is an extension of the NCEP Global Reanalysis which is run over the North American Region. The NARR model uses the very high resolution NCEP Eta...

  8. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  9. North Slope, Alaska ESI: NESTS (Nest Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for waterfowl, seabirds, gulls and terns for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set...

  10. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FISH (Fish Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for marine, estuarine, anadromous, and freshwater fish species for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector...

  11. North Slope, Alaska ESI: FACILITY (Facility Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains data for oil field facilities for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector points in this data set represent oil field facility locations. This data...

  12. WVSAMB Color Digital Orthophotos North Zone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital color orthophotography of the State of West Virginia (West Virginia State Plane Coordinate System North Zone). The W.V. state plane system has two...

  13. Computer codes for birds of North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Purpose of paper was to provide a more useful way to provide codes for all North American species, thus making the list useful for virtually all projects concerning...

  14. North Dakota Piping Plover Survey : 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Packet of information on conducting piping plover surveys in North Dakota for 1992. These surveys are part of a cooperative effort with other resource agencies and...

  15. Fuyao Aims for North America Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JESSY ZHANG

    2006-01-01

    @@ China's auto-part industry has grown powerful enough to shake the world. Most recently, the acquisition attempt by a Chinese autoglass maker on a North Americac project shocked competitors.Fuyao Glass, China's largest and the world's sixth largest autoglass maker, announced thatthey have now entered the final stage of acqtuiring the North American glass-making assets of Ford Motor Co. which has been struggling through a painful restructuring.

  16. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions ...

  17. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  18. The mystery of the "North of the North" in Ibsen's works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Nygaard

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an exaggeration to claim that several of the protagonists in Ibsen’s dramatic works are from the north, or have lived there. The few characters in Ibsen’s drama related to the North are, however, given a special emphasis in his works. They are, like the landscape and the light of the North, mysterious, strange, strong and untamed. Or they have been exiled, suppressed or forgotten – and then suddenly arrive unexpectedly and challenge the established order and open new tension and ambition. Ibsen only visited Northern Norway once, on a trip to North Cape in 1891. His only experience of the “North” before that was actually of Central Norway, Trondheim and Molde. The North in Ibsen’s dramas is accordingly just fiction, imagination – and an expression of the general Southern Norwegian understanding of the “others” living in the North and the “otherness” of the North. Especially people from the North of the North, such as Finnmark, who represent a mysterious, bewitching and magic power, like Rebekka West in Rosmersholm and the foreign sailor in Lady from the Sea. This is explained by the magic nature of the North, such as the midnight sun, the Polar light or the overwhelming and irresistible winter storms over the sea.  But Ibsen has also given other clues for the understanding of the mysterious characters from Finnmark, the North of the North. These clues are related to the cultural otherness of the characters as Sami and Kvääni.

  19. Alaskan North Slope petroleum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, L.B.; Lillis, P.G.; Bird, K.J.; Lampe, C.; Peters, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    Six North Slope petroleum systems are identified, described, and mapped using oil-to-oil and oil-to-source rock correlations, pods of active source rock, and overburden rock packages. To map these systems, we assumed that: a) petroleum source rocks contain 3.2 wt. % organic carbon (TOC); b) immature oil-prone source rocks have hydrogen indices (HI) >300 (mg HC/gm TOC); c) the top and bottom of the petroleum (oil plus gas) window occur at vitrinite reflectance values of 0.6 and 1.0% Ro, respectively; and d) most hydrocarbons are expelled within the petroleum window. The six petroleum systems we have identified and mapped are: a) a southern system involving the Kuna-Lisburne source rock unit that was active during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous; b) two western systems involving source rock in the Kingak-Blankenship, and GRZ-lower Torok source rock units that were active during the Albian; and c) three eastern systems involving the Shublik-Otuk, Hue Shale and Canning source rock units that were active during the Cenozoic. The GRZ-lower Torok in the west is correlative with the Hue Shale to the east. Four overburden rock packages controlled the time of expulsion and gross geometry of migration paths: a) a southern package of Early Cretaceous and older rocks structurally-thickened by early Brooks Range thrusting; b) a western package of Early Cretaceous rocks that filled the western part of the foreland basin; c) an eastern package of Late Cretaceous and Paleogene rocks that filled the eastern part of the foreland basin; and d) an offshore deltaic package of Neogene rocks deposited by the Colville, Canning, and Mackenzie rivers. This petroleum system poster is part of a series of Northern Alaska posters on modeling. The poster in this session by Saltus and Bird present gridded maps for the greater Northern Alaskan onshore and offshore that are used in the 3D modeling poster by Lampe and others. Posters on source rock units are by Keller and Bird as well as

  20. Clouds Over the North Pole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 29 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth. Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms. Like yesterday's image, the linear 'ripples' are water-ice clouds. As spring is deepening at the North Pole these clouds are becoming more prevalent. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.9, Longitude 135.5 East (224.5 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are

  1. Aestheticized politics : the workings of North Korean art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoon, Min-Kyung

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation is a study of North Korean art as a site where politics, history, and culture meet. Art in North Korea fulfills a clear purpose. This is most apparent in the depiction of historical themes in North Korean art. History serves the political legitimization of the North Korean state and

  2. 31 CFR 500.559 - Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole proprietorships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Licensing Policy § 500.559 Accounts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian or South Vietnamese sole... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounts of North Korean, North...: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  3. The Future of North Korean Nuclear Delivery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    national security policy. NORTH KOREA’S NUCLEAR FUTURES SERIES US-KOREA INSTITUTE AT SAIS The Future of North Korean Nuclear Delivery Systems JOHN...NORTH KOREA’S NUCLEAR FUTURES SERIES US-KOREA INSTITUTE AT SAIS The Future of North Korean Nuclear Delivery Systems JOHN SCHILLING HENRY KAN...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Future of North Korean Nuclear Delivery Systems 5a. CONTRACT

  4. Atmospheric transport of pollutants from North America to the North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, R. C.; Browell, E. V.; Sebacher, D. I.; Gregory, G. L.; Hinton, R. R.; Beck, S. M.; Mcdougal, D. S.; Shipley, S. T.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based measurements strongly support the hypothesis that pollutant materials of anthropogenic origin are being transported over long distances in the midtroposphere and are a significant source of acid rain, acid snow, trace metal deposition, ozone and visibility-reducing aerosols in remote oceanic and polar regions of the Norhern Hemisphere. Atmospheric sulphur budget calculations and studies of acid rain on Bermuda indicate that a large fraction of pollutant materials emitted into the atmosphere in eastern North America are advected eastwards over the North Atlantic Ocean. The first direct airborne measurements of the vertical distribution of tropospheric aerosols over the western North Atlantic is reported here. A newly developed airborne differential adsorption lidar system was used to obtain continuous, remotely sensed aerosol distributions along its flight path. The data document two episodes of long-distance transport of pollutant materials from North America over the North Atlantic Ocean.

  5. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-01-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is 'are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?' To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls=120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for ...

  6. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  7. Geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelsen, O. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    The Marine Geology Unit of the Department of Earth Sciences organized the second Marine Geology symposium at Aarhus University, 7-8 October 1993. The intention was to bring together people working especially with the geology of the North Sea and Skagerrak. Approximately 60 people from different Danish and Norwegian institutions attended the symposium. 28 oral presentations were given and 2 posters presented. A large range of geological topics was covered, embracing biostratigraphy, sequence stratigraphy, sedimentology and structural geology. The majority of the presentations dealt with Quaternary geology and Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy, but also Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy was treated. Studies from the major part of the Danish sector were presented, spanning from Bornholm to the central North Sea, and further into the Norwegian North Sea sector. (au)

  8. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L. [Centre for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, CA (United States); Alatorre, C. [Autonomous National Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  9. North Dakota geology school receives major gift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-10-01

    Petroleum geology and related areas of study at the University of North Dakota (UND) received a huge financial boost with the announcement on 24 September of $14 million in private and public partnership funding. The university announced the naming of the Harold Hamm School of Geology and Geological Engineering, formerly a department within the College of Engineering and Mines, in recognition of $10 million provided as a gift by oilman Harold Hamm and Continental Resources, Inc. Hamm is the chair and chief executive officer of Continental, the largest leaseholder in the Bakken Play oil formation in North Dakota and Montana, and he is also an energy policy advisor to Republican presidential candidate Mitt Romney. UND also received $4 million from the Oil and Gas Research Program of the North Dakota Industrial Commission to support geology and geological engineering education and research.

  10. Deposition of nitrogen into the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeuw, G. de; Skjøth, C.A.; Hertel, O.;

    2003-01-01

    The flux of nitrogen species from the atmosphere into the ocean, with emphasis on coastal waters, was addressed during the ANICE project (Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs into the Coastal Ecosystem). ANICE focused on quantifying the deposition of atmospheric inputs of inorganic nitrogen compounds (HNO3......, NO3-, NH3 and NH4+) into the North Sea and the processes governing this deposition. The Southern North Sea was studied as a prototype. Because the physical and chemical processes are described, as opposed to empirical relations, the results can potentially be transferred to other regional seas like...... the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic continental shelf area and the Baltic. Two intensive field experiments were undertaken, centred around the offshore tower Meetpost Noordwijk and the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory in East Anglia (UK). Long-term measurements were made on a ferry sailing between Hamburg...

  11. Decadal cyclone variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luksch, U.; Blender, R.; Fraedrich, K. [Meteorological Inst., Univ. of Hamburg (Germany); Raible, C.C. [Climate and Environmental Physics, Physics Inst., Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2005-12-01

    The unstable midlatitude ocean-atmosphere coupling motivates the definition of two decadal regimes with distinct implications for the North Atlantic cyclone variability. Phases with low (high) decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which are connected with an annular (sectoral) spatial scale of the geopotential height teleconnection pattern, are identified as a hemispheric (regional) regime. In the hemispheric regime during a positive El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (warm event), the North Atlantic cyclones and the regions of enhanced precipitation shift southward while over northern Europe the cyclone activity and the rainfall are reduced. During the regional regime this impact of ENSO on the Atlantic storm track is extremely small and a clear interpretation over Europe is inhibited. (orig.)

  12. Ammonia downstream from HH 80 North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girart, Jose M.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Anglada, Guillem; Estalella, Robert; Torrelles, Jose, M.; Marti, Josep; Pena, Miriam; Ayala, Sandra; Curiel, Salvador; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto

    1994-01-01

    HH 80-81 are two optically visible Herbig-Haro (HH) objects located about 5 minutes south of their exciting source IRAS 18162-2048. Displaced symmetrically to the north of this luminous IRAS source, a possible HH counterpart was recently detected as a radio continuum source with the very large array (VLA). This radio source, HH 80 North, has been proposed to be a member of the Herbig-Haro class since its centimeter flux density, angular size, spectral index, and morphology are all similar to those of HH 80. However, no object has been detected at optical wavelengths at the position of HH 80 North, possibly because of high extinction, and the confirmation of the radio continuum source as an HH object has not been possible. In the prototypical Herbig-Haro objects HH 1 and 2, ammonia emission has been detected downstream of the flow in both objects. This detection has been intepreted as a result of an enhancement in the ammonia emission produced by the radiation field of the shock associated with the HH object. In this Letter we report the detection of the (1,1) and (2,2) inversion transitions of ammonia downstream HH 80 North. This detection gives strong suppport to the interpretation of HH 80 North as a heavily obscured HH object. In addition, we suggest that ammonia emission may be a tracer of embedded Herbig-Haro objects in other regions of star formation. A 60 micrometer IRAS source could be associated with HH 80 North and with the ammonia condensation. A tentative explanation for the far-infrared emission as arising in dust heated by their optical and UV radiation of the HH object is presented.

  13. Tender moments in the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C.

    1991-04-01

    Described is tender-assisted drilling (TAD) on the UK North Sea Gannet field. The Gannet field is developed by Shell UK Exploration and Production (Shell Expro). In March 1990, Shell Expro awarded Sedco Forex the design and engineering contract to convert the semisubmersible drilling rig Sedco 704 into the Gannet TSV (Tender Support Vessel). The only semisubmersible TSV operation so far to have completed drilling in the North Sea has been in the Norwegian sector. The Odin field, operated by Esso Norge a/s, was developed using the converted drilling rig Treasure Hunter. 1 fig., 1 ill., 3 refs.

  14. Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Prowe, Friederike;

    2013-01-01

    observational records covering the relevant levels of the NAO index, we provide evidence that the North Sea pH and CO2 system strongly responds to external and internal expressions of the NAO. Under positive NAO, the higher rates of inflow of water from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic outflow lead......[1] High biological activity causes a distinct seasonality of surface water pH in the North Sea, which is a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 via an effective shelf pump. The intimate connection between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean suggests that the variability of the CO2 system...... of the North Atlantic Ocean may, in part, be responsible for the observed variability of pH and CO2 in the North Sea. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant climate mode for the North Atlantic, in governing this variability. Based on three extensive...

  15. Nearshore processes along north Karnataka coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Raju, N.S.N.; Pathak, K.C.; Anand, N.M.

    obliquity. Also it was found that the distribution of longshore currents was not similar at all stations along the study region. The annual net sediment transport was 0.069 x 10 sup(6)/year towards north at Arge beach and 0.040 x 10 sup(6) m sup(3)/year...

  16. North American Journal of Psychology, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    "North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 1 issue 1 (June 1999) are: "Generalist Looks at His Career in Teaching: Interview with Dr. Phil Zimbardo"; "Affective Information in Videos"; "Infant Communication"; "Defining Projective…

  17. Nighttime Lights of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of the...

  18. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response t

  19. North Korea -- Still an Intelligence Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Blancke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A few years after Kim Jong Un came into office, North Korea is still attracting controversy in the headlines, and political sanctions are still in operation. Despite the harsh measures in place to isolate Pyongyang from sources of money and luxury, the rulers are able to get what they want using front companies or the help of other states. The reasons for this are deeply rooted in the North Korean political structure. A network of high ranking officials, their children, and political minions are grappling for power and wealth. Beside the powerful Kim clan there exist other families in North Korea whose loyalty must be secured with bribes. If the loyalty of the influential families is eroded, the power base of Kim Jong Un is likely to soon diminish. As a result, the North Korean government is searching for sources of money. Illicit drugs may be one solution the ruling regime find attractive to this problem, but there appears to be a twist: struggling ordinary citizens are showing signs that they too are taking part in this illegal enterprise. This is manifested by their willingness to become involved in crime in the same way as the corrupt regime.

  20. Forest health conditions in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacz, Borys [USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1601 North Kent Street, RPC7-FHP, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States)], E-mail: btkacz@fs.fed.us; Moody, Ben [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Castillo, Jaime Villa [Comision Nacional Forestal, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Fenn, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution.

  1. Introduction to Geodynamics of North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenne, Moha; Souhassou, Mustapha; Arai, Shoji

    2017-03-01

    Organized every two years since 1999, the "3MA" colloquia «Magmatism, Metamorphism and Associated Mineralizations», provide an opportunity for the geologists from all over the world to gather to review and exchange ideas on North African geology, including both fundamental knowledge as well as applied aspects particularly in the area of mineral exploration and mining.

  2. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  3. Extreme wind mapping over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    Atlases of the 50-year wind over the North Sea have been created for two heights, 10 m and 100 m. The atlases have also been made for a range of temporal resolutions, from the original time resolution of the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis of 6 hours to 1 hour and further to 10 min. Two methods were used fo...

  4. YANTAI NORTH HOME TEXTILE CO.,LTD.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Yantai North Home Textile Co.,ltd.was reformed from yantai wide width fabric mill in 2002.Now it has been integrated weaving,dyeing,printing and finishing process,with 1206 employees,possessing 102,400m2 and 340 million RMB overall assets.

  5. The North American Indian and the Eskimo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered of particular interest in the study of the North American Indian, the Eskimo, and in the fields of ethnology and anthropology. The…

  6. RCP Local School Projects in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Curriculum Project, Atlanta, GA.

    One of 6 state reports prepared in cooperation with the Regional Curriculum Project, the document discusses 4 major educational programs conducted in North Carolina since 1965. "The Story of Merger and Educational Change in Moore County" is a report relating to school redistricting; "The Mathematics Project in Greensboro"…

  7. Wind fluctuations over the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Claire Louise; Pinson, Pierre; Giebel, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    a certain class of conditions can be found. Here, the HHT is applied to create conditional spectra which demonstrate patterns in the occurrence of severe wind variability. It is shown that wind fluctuations over the North Sea are more severe for westerly flow than for easterly flow, and that severe...

  8. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  9. THE LICHENS OF NORTH CENTRAL OKLAHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARVIN WENDELL KECK

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Over 1,000 specimens of lichens were collected at 78 collecting stations in 11 counties of North Central Oklahoma during 1959 and 1960. The objectives were to identify lichens collected in the area; to establish a record of lichen distribution for each county in the area; and to analyze the ecological relationships.

  10. Environmental Assessment for North Warning System (Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-10

    providing coverage farther to the north, and thus cannot fulfill the NWS mission, because of ionospheric interference caused by the aurora borealis (the...fish, including boreal smelt, Arctic cod, cisco, char, whitefish, grayling, fourhorn sculpin, Alaska blackfish, and ninespine stickleback, seasonally

  11. North Carolina Foods and Nutrition Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This guide was developed to be used by consumer home economics teachers as a resource in planning and teaching a year-long course in foods and nutrition for high school students in North Carolina. The guide is organized in units of instruction for a first semester course and a second semester course. Each unit contains a content outline, including…

  12. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  13. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Franklin County, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  14. Waterfowl stream survey : North Dakota : 1983-84 status

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Status information on the waterfowl stream survey in North Dakota for 1983-1984. This project is designed primarily to: (1) delineate and measure streams in North...

  15. North Carolina Statewide Lidar DEM 2014 Phase 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  16. 2014 NCFMP Lidar: Statewide North Carolina (Phase 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: North Carolina Area of Interest for Sandy, covering approximately 9,396 square miles. Dataset Description: The North Carolina - Sandy LiDAR...

  17. Sampling Lake Alice NWR Fish Populations - 2014, North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The USFWS and North Dakota Game and Fish Department sampled Northern pike, walleye, yellow perch and white bass within the boundary of Lake Alice NWR in North...

  18. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, HALIFAX COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  19. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WILSON COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  20. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, EDGECOMBE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  1. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, GREENE COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  2. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, LENOIR COUNTY, NORTH CAROLINA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  3. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, Scotland County, North Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Flood Insurance Study was produced through a cooperative partnership between the State of North Carolina and FEMA. The North Carolina Floodplain Mapping...

  4. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  5. North Korean Paradoxes. Circumstances, Costs, and Consequences of Korean Unification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    paper) 1. Korean reunification question (1945- ) 2. Korea (North)-Economic policy. 3. Korea (North)--Politics and government. 4. Security, International...order@rand.org Preface This monograph, focusing on North Korea , analyzes some of the economic, political, and security issues associated with Korean ...Northeast Asia. iii iv North Korean Paradoxes This research was performed within the International Security and Defense Policy Center of the RAND National

  6. Globalisation and Education: The Case of North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Gay Garland

    1997-01-01

    Looks at North Korean education in terms of the tension that exists between globalization and educational sovereignty. Offers a brief historical background to North Korean education and provides a baseline for developing three possible scenarios for its future. Illustrates the impact of domestic and international forces on North Korean education.…

  7. Comprehensive Evaluation of Circular Economic Development in North Anhui Province

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Shuheng; Zhang, Simei; Chen, Guangzhou; Xu, Min

    2009-01-01

    In view of the characteristics of north Anhui Province, an index system was constructed for evaluating the development level of circular economy according to relevant principles, Principal Component Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process were adopted to evaluate the circular economic development in north Anhui Province, and corresponding measures were put forward to promote the circular economy in north Anhui Province.

  8. Air-sea exchange studies at the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Kunz, G.J.; Veefkind, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The North Sea can be considered as a local 'inner' sea in which many processes are quite different from these over the open ocean. The surrounding land has a major influence, being the source for man-made aerosols and gases, whereas the North Sea acts as a sink for these. At the same time the North

  9. 76 FR 69278 - Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Meeting Announcement: North American Wetlands Conservation Council AGENCY... Conservation Council will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act grant proposals for... accordance with the North American Wetlands Conservation Act (Pub. L. 101-233, 103 Stat. 1968, December...

  10. 22 CFR 120.31 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 120.31 Section 120.31 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.31 North Atlantic Treaty Organization. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)...

  11. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  12. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  13. Modernizing the North Korean System: Objectives, Method, and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Eberstadt, The End of North Korea, 1999; Kongdan Oh and Ralph Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass , 2000; Chol-Hwan Kang and Pierre Rigoulot...The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History, revised and updated ed., New York: Basic Books, 2002. Oh, Kongdan, and Ralph C. Hassig, North Korea Through the Looking Glass , Washington

  14. Pseudocollapse and rebuilding of North Sea mackerel (Scomber scombrus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Teunis

    2014-01-01

    The largest observed change in mackerel (Scomber scombrus) abundance in the North Atlantic happened when the so-called “North Sea mackerel” collapsed due to overfishing. Despite protection, it has remained in a depleted state. Central to this interpretation was that the “North Sea mackerel...

  15. On Reflexive Binding in North Sami

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Outakoski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Principle A of the Binding Theory states that an anaphor must be A-bound in the local domain containing it, its governor and an accessible subject. However, if the anaphor is contained in an infinitival complement clause, it may, in North Sami, be bound either by the clause-mate subject or by the subject of the tensed clause. Thus, it appears that there is a larger binding domain for anaphors in addition to that determined by the condition A of standard binding theory. This domain can in some languages, as in North Sami, be defined by the notion of Tense whereas in other languages this need not be case, as in English. This supports the approach that the characterization of binding domains is parameterized and that languages pick different values of the parameter.

  16. A brief analysis of North Sea physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Sündermann

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The current state of understanding the North Sea's physical system is presented. First, basic phenomena like astronomical tides and general circulation will be described and analysed with respect to their physical nature and respective interactions. There will be special focus on fundamental dynamic balances. Next, some specific topics relevant to the marine ecosystem, the economy and society will be considered: among them, spreading and transport processes, the fresh water budget, the heat budget and storm surges. A separate section is dedicated to the North Sea of Tomorrow, i.e. the prospective variations of the physical environment resulting from global changes in future decades. The statements are based on the long experience of the authors and their groups and include findings that are little known if at all. The review finishes with a list of open questions and the corresponding research demands.

  17. Distribution of Helicobacter pylori in north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Hua Gong; Ying Wang; Yuan Yuan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the distribution of virulence-associatedgenotypes of Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) in two areas of north China with different gastric cancer risk and furthermore probe into the pathogenicity of the bacterium. METHODS: Gastric biopsies were taken from 355 subjects from Zhuanghe, a high risk area of gastric cancer, and 136 subjects from Shenyang, a low risk area of gastric cancer. A total of 149 H pylori strains isolated from these patients were studied by PCR for differences in the genotypes of cagA, vac A, and iceA.RESULTS: In patients with high risk for gastric cancer, higher frequencies of vacA s1 or s1m1b genotypes were found as compared to those from the low risk area. CONCLUSION: There is significantly different distribution of H pylori genotypes between Zhuanghe and Shenyang areas in north China.

  18. Chronic liver disease in Aboriginal North Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John D Scott; Naomi Garland

    2008-01-01

    A structured literature review was performed to detail the frequency and etiology of chronic liver disease (CLD) in Aboriginal North Americans. CLD affects Aboriginal North Americans disproportionately and is now one of the most common causes of death.Alcoholic liver disease is the leading etiology of CLD,but viral hepatitis, particularly hepatitis C, is an important and growing cause of CLD. High rates of autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are reported in regions of coastal British Columbia and southeastern Alaska. Non-alcoholic liver disease is a common, but understudied, cause of CLD.Future research should monitor the incidence and etiology of CLD and should be geographically inclusive.In addition, more research is needed on the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and non-alcoholicfatty liver disease (NAFLD) in this population.

  19. Synchronous extinction of North America's Pleistocene mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler; Surovell, Todd A.

    2009-12-01

    The late Pleistocene witnessed the extinction of 35 genera of North American mammals. The last appearance dates of 16 of these genera securely fall between 12,000 and 10,000 radiocarbon years ago (≈13,800-11,400 calendar years B.P.), although whether the absence of fossil occurrences for the remaining 19 genera from this time interval is the result of sampling error or temporally staggered extinctions is unclear. Analysis of the chronology of extinctions suggests that sampling error can explain the absence of terminal Pleistocene last appearance dates for the remaining 19 genera. The extinction chronology of North American Pleistocene mammals therefore can be characterized as a synchronous event that took place 12,000-10,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Results favor an extinction mechanism that is capable of wiping out up to 35 genera across a continent in a geologic instant.

  20. Chromobacterium violaceum septicaemia from north India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Pallab; Sharma, Jyoti; Marak, Rungmei S K; Singhi, S; Taneja, Neelam; Garg, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Meera

    2004-12-01

    Though Chromobacterium violaceum is a common inhabitant of soil and water in tropical and sub-tropical regions, human infections are rare but when they do occur result in high mortality. Since the first case from Malaysia in 1927, about 150 cases have been reported in world literature. Till date 6 cases have been reported from southern and eastern parts of India. We report here a case of C. violaceum septicaemia, probably the first case from north India. The patient, a 6 and a half year old boy was admitted with high fever. The patient had anaemia, neutrophilic leucocytosis and bilateral chest infiltrates. Routine and bacteriological investigations were carried out to establish the aetiological diagnosis. C. violaceum was isolated in pure culture from blood and pus. The patient was successfully treated with ciprofloxacin and amikacin. This is probably the first documented case report of C. violaceum infection from north India and the only Indian case with septicaemia which survived.

  1. Problems and prospects in North Eastern Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulati, A.K.; Jha, M.N.

    1989-02-01

    North eastern region, very well known as land of seven sisters, comprises of the States of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Some of the minerals like oil and coal are concealed in this region in dense forests and difficult terrain. North Eastern Coalfields being directly administered by Coal India Ltd. is responsible for exploitation of coal in this region. At present all the working mines are situated in the State of Assam only. One Simsong UG project will be started this year in the State of Meghalaya and coal deposits of Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh are likely to be worked in Eighth Five Year Plan. In the remaining three States, i.e. Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura no occurrence of coal deposit has been found so far. 6 tabs.

  2. Hybrid Laminates for Application in North Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, V. V.; Oreshko, E. I.; Erasov, V. S.; Serebrennikova, N. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate as a possible material for application in structures operated in North conditions is considered. The finite-element method is used for a buckling stability analysis of hybrid panels, bars, and plates. A technique allowing one to compare the buckling stability of multilayered hybrid plates is offered. Compression tests were run on a hybrid laminate wing panel as a prototype of the top panel of TU-204SM airplane made from a high-strength B95T2 aluminum alloy. It turned out that the lighter composite panel had a higher load-carrying capacity than the aluminum one. Results of investigation into the properties the hybrid aluminum-lithium alloy/SIAL laminate and an analysis of scientific-technical data on this subject showed that this composite material could be used in the elements of airframes, including those operated in north conditions.

  3. The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Future Preemptive Strikes against North Korea ,” The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. 18, No. 4, Winter 2006, pp. 95-121. 194. Joseph S...University of California, San Diego; and Korea University. He also served as a Korean linguist in the United States Air Force. His publications have...appeared in Asian Perspective, Astropolitics, The Journal of East Asian Studies, The Korea Journal of Defense Analysis, The KNDU Review, The

  4. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  5. Peace Journalism and Gatekeeping in North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Conflicts live everywhere in the world and journalists report them. The situation in Cyprus is similar. We investigated how the media reconcile the Turkish Cypriot and Greek Cypriot communities and how the media contribute to the peace process in Cyprus. I believe that the journalists in both communities can play important roles in bringing a peaceful solution to the island. The basic aims of this paper are to look at the news selection processes of North Cyprus news media a...

  6. Discarded Victory - North Africa, 1940-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    service regulars who were exceedingly well-trained. The 7t’ Armored Division had been led by MG Percy Hobart, a premier armor officer, prior to the...Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1960), 21. 4 W.G.F. Jackson , The Battle for North Africa, 1940-43 (New York: Mason/Charter, 1975), 104-105. 5...Warfare in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1940-1945 (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1993), 5. 11 Jackson , 10. 12 Macksey, 23. 13 Alistair Home

  7. Economic Performance and North Korean Regime Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    As Cha and Anderson note, free markets have become the reliable means of survival in North Korea and these “markets create entrepreneurship , and... entrepreneurship creates an individualist way of thinking alien to the government.”9 If this case is true, the regime’s demise could very well be at...arguments on how the regime works, what has driven its survival, and the social and economic situations that have developed as a result. D. THESIS

  8. Regional Military Security Cooperation in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Forward for North American Integration by Dr. Stephen Blank, Dr. Stephanie Golob, and Dr. Guy Stanley is a Pace University, Lubin School of Business...States are “the countries that ring the Gap – Mexico, Brazil, South Africa, Morocco, Algeria, Greece, Turkey, Pakistan, Thailand, Malaysia , the... vernacular regarding globalization, I will examine the impact of globalization on the world in terms of population, natural resources, and connectivity

  9. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes.

  10. Complex molecules in W51 North region

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Jialei; Zapata, Luis A; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Zhang, Chengpeng; Peng, Yaping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) molecular line observations in two 2 GHz-wide bands centered at 217.5 and 227.5 GHz, toward the massive star forming region W51 North. We identified 84 molecular line transitions from 17 species and their isotopologues. The molecular gas distribution of these lines mainly peaks in the continuum position of W51 North, and has a small tail extending to the west, probably associated with W51 d2. In addition to the commonly detected nitrogen and oxygen-bearing species, we detected a large amount of transitions of the Acetone (CH$_3$COCH$_3$) and Methyl Formate (CH$_3$OCHO), which may suggest that these molecules are present in an early evolutionary stage of the massive stars. We also found that W51 North is an ethanol-rich source. There is no obvious difference in the molecular gas distributions between the oxygen-bearing and nitrogen-bearing molecules. Under the assumption of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE), with the XCLASS tool, the molecular column densities, and rota...

  11. Categorical representation of North American precipitation projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Seager, Richard

    2016-04-01

    We explore use of the familiar tercile framework of seasonal forecasting for the characterization of 21st-century precipitation projections over North America. Consistent with direct analyses of modeled precipitation change, in a superensemble of CMIP5 simulations an unambiguous pattern of shifted tercile population statistics develops as the globe warms. Expressed categorically, frequencies for the low (i.e., dry) tercile increase in the southwestern United States and southward into Mexico and decrease across the northern tier of North America, while counts for the high tercile shift in the opposite sense. We show that as the 21st-century proceeds, changes become statistically significant over wide regions in the pointwise sense, and also when considered as projections on model-specific climate change “fingerprints”. Background noise in the superensemble, against which significance is established, comprises both structural model uncertainty and natural climate variability. The robustness of these findings makes a compelling case for long-range planning for a dryer future in the American Southwest and southward, and wetter one to the north and especially northeast, while communication is facilitated by widespread user familiarity with the tercile format.

  12. Hydrographic Features of North Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.C. S. Rao

    1965-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical distribution of temperature, salinity and density in the first 500 meters of the north Indian ocean water has been discussed here. Vertical sections for each parameter are drawn to identity different types of water masses. Spatial distribution of these water masses in relation to the existing surface currents is also described. Two types of water masses are present to the north of the equator. The water from bay of Bengal with its characteristic low salinity (32.60-34.00% is found upto 5 degree N and is spreading in all directions . To the south of 5 degree N the water mass is found with solinity between 35.00-35.20%. This water is existing upto 300 meters with uniform salinity along the equator. The sub-tropical salinity maximum which occurs in a thin layer just above the thermocline is observed to the north and south of equator, similar to the one encountered by defant in the atlantic ocean. The sub-tropical salinity maximum along the equator has been found to be well defined.

  13. The North American ALMA Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Carol J.; Hibbard, J. E.; Staff, NAASC

    2010-01-01

    The North American ALMA Science Center at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, NRAO, in Charlottesville, Virginia, in partnership with the Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics in Victoria, Canada, will support the North American community in their observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array, ALMA. Our goal is to promote successful observations with ALMA for both novice users, with no experience in either interferometry or millimeter astronomy, and experts alike. We will describe the services that the Science Center will provide for the community, from education about the capabilities of ALMA, though proposal preparation to data analysis. The Science Center will host a website with a Helpdesk that includes FAQs and a growing knowledgebase of ALMA expertise, and will support extensive demos and tutorials on observation preparation and data reduction with ALMA. The Science Center also promotes science-themed meetings. The staff of the Science Center will provide expert assistance for observers at all stages of development and execution of their program. There are visitor and postdoc opportunities at the Science Center. The North American ALMA Science Center is one of three regional centers around the globe that will support ALMA observations. Our partners are the European ALMA Regional Center at ESO in Garching, Germany, and the East Asian ALMA Region Center in Tokyo, Japan.

  14. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  15. Satellite Data, Women Defectors and Black Markets in North Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Maximilian; Jurowetzki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - This paper investigates the origins of the high numbers of female North Korean defectors arriving in South Korea in the first decade of the 21st century. Design / Methodology/ Approach - This paper uses night-time lights satellite imagery to measure the luminosity emitted by North Koreans......, at the Chinese border. Since luminosity of markets can be assumed as a proxy for market activity, the conclusion can be made that the reason for the high number of North Korean women arriving in South Korea is related to their higher mobility due to their leading role on the North Korean markets. Practical...... Implications - the evinced correlation of North Korean market activity along the Chinese border and the number of arrivals of North Koreans, and especially North Korean women, in South Korea may serve as a primer for further research that either uses the same methodology, i.e. satellite images, or other...

  16. Energy Relations between the European Union and North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kilpeläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses European Union (EU-North Africa energy relations with a special focus on renewables in North Africa, arguing that the research so far has not taken due account of North African perceptions of EU external energy policy. It is argued that current research on EU-North African relations has not taken sufficient note of the multidimensionality of energy or addressed the inconsistent nature of EU policy making. However, addressing these issues is vital in approaching EU-North Africa energy relations and EU policy towards North Africa in general. The study of perceptions is introduced as one way to develop research further, to give further impetus on understanding how EU-North African energy relations develop and to understand energy relations in their complexity.

  17. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of the Neoarchean North Liaoning tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses of the North China Craton, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Maojiang; Liu, Shuwen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Kang; Yan, Ming; Guo, Boran; Bai, Xiang; Guo, Rongrong

    2016-12-01

    Tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic (TTG) gneisses are dominant lithological assemblages in Archean high grade metamorphic terranes in the world. These TTG gneisses preserve important information in formation and evolution of Archean continental crust. Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock in North Liaoning Province (NLP) is one of the major Neoarchean metamorphic basement terranes in the northeastern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock is composed mainly of Neoarchean tonalitic-trondhjemitic (TT) gneisses, subordinate granodioritic to monzogranitic association (GMA) and minor supracrustal rocks. The tonalitic-trondhjemitic gneisses are divided into high MgO Group (HMG) and low MgO Group (LMG) based on their chemical compositions. Detailed petrogenetic investigations suggest that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were derived from partial melting of subducted slabs and contaminated by the overlying mantle wedge during its ascent; whereas, magmatic precursors of the LMG samples were derived from the juvenile lower crust. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb isotopic dating analyses reveal that the magmatic precursors of the HMG samples were formed at 2553-2531 Ma. An older HMG tonalitic gneiss sample was discovered at Sandaoguan in the southmost of the studied area, with its magmatic precursor emplaced at 2680 Ma. The magmatic precursors of the LMG samples emplaced at 2595-2583 Ma. Combined with previous credible chronological data, our newly obtained zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopic data indicate that three episodes of magmatism at ∼2700-2680 Ma, ∼2600-2570 Ma and ∼2550-2510 Ma occurred in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock, and the TT gneisses in this microblock were subjected to generally amphibolite-facies metamorphism at ∼2520-2470 Ma. Based on the above Neoarchean crust-mantle thermal-dynamic processes, we propose that the Neoarchean magmatism and metamorphism in the Tangtu-Majuanzi microblock of North Liaoning Province occurred in

  18. Variability of North Sea pH and CO2 in response to North Atlantic Oscillation forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Prowe, A. E. Friederike; Borges, Alberto V.; Bozec, Yann; Baar, Hein J. W.

    2013-12-01

    biological activity causes a distinct seasonality of surface water pH in the North Sea, which is a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 via an effective shelf pump. The intimate connection between the North Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean suggests that the variability of the CO2 system of the North Atlantic Ocean may, in part, be responsible for the observed variability of pH and CO2 in the North Sea. In this work, we demonstrate the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the dominant climate mode for the North Atlantic, in governing this variability. Based on three extensive observational records covering the relevant levels of the NAO index, we provide evidence that the North Sea pH and CO2 system strongly responds to external and internal expressions of the NAO. Under positive NAO, the higher rates of inflow of water from the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic outflow lead to a strengthened north-south biogeochemical divide. The limited mixing between the north and south leads to a steeper gradient in pH and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) between the two regions in the productive period. This is exacerbated further when coinciding with higher sea surface temperature, which concentrates the net community production in the north through shallower stratification. These effects can be obscured by changing properties of the constituent North Sea water masses, which are also influenced by NAO. Our results highlight the importance of examining interannual trends in the North Sea CO2 system with consideration of the NAO state.

  19. NorthAm Fest : fostering a North American continent approach to countering terrorism.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerdes, Dick (North American Institute, Santa Fe, NM); Moore, Judy Hennessey; Whitley, John B.; Turnley, Jessica Glicken (Galisteo Consulting Group, Inc., Albuquerque, NM); Oborotova, Marina (Center for International Studies of El Colegio de Mexico)

    2004-12-01

    On September 14-16, 2004, the Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories in conjunction with the University of Texas at El Paso and the North American Institute hosted a workshop (fest) designed to explore the concept of a North American continental approach to countering terrorism. The fest began with the basic premise that the successful defense of North America against the threat of terrorism will require close collaboration among the North American allies--Canada, Mexico and the U.S.--as well as a powerful set of information collection and analysis tools and deterrence strategies. The NorthAm Fest recast the notion of ''homeland defense'' as a tri-national effort to protect the North American continent against an evolving threat that respects no borders. This is a report of the event summarizing the ideas explored. The fest examined the uniqueness of dealing with terrorism from a tri-national North American viewpoint, the role and possible features of joint security systems, concepts for ideal continental security systems for North America, and the challenges and opportunities for such systems to become reality. The following issues were identified as most important for the advancement of this concept. (1) The three countries share a set of core values--democracy, prosperity and security--which form the basis for joint interactions and allow for the development of a culture of cooperation without affecting the sovereignty of the members. (2) The creation of a continental defensive strategy will require a set of strategic guidelines and that smart secure borders play a pivotal role. (3) Joint security systems will need to operate from a set of complementary but not identical policies and procedures. (4) There is a value in joint task forces for response and shared information systems for the prevention of attacks. (5) The private sector must play a critical role in cross-border interactions. Finally, participants envisioned a

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Stefania; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela; Boulos, Dina N K; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Jaouadi, Imen; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    The share of North African immigrants in Europe is growing continuously. In this review, we aimed to systematically analyse and describe the literature on weight status and physical activity in North African adults, both in their home country and after immigration to Europe. Existing data on North African residents and on North African immigrants in Europe were analysed by a systematic search on PUBMED. There is a wide variation among countries in the prevalence of overweight/obesity, with immigrants showing higher values. The overall results revealed a higher prevalence of overweight and obesity in females than in males in North African residents. Females also show higher levels of obesity among immigrants. In particular, literature reports indicate that 1.3-47.8% of North African residents and 3.6-49.4% of North African immigrants in adult age are overweight or obese. Physical inactivity is higher than 20% in males and 40% in females in North African residents. The highest frequency of physically inactive or lightly active people among immigrants was observed in first-generation Sudanese and Moroccans in Amsterdam (males: 57.1%; females: 74.2%), with increasing rates in second-generation females. The results underline a higher health risk in North African immigrants than in residents. Specific public health strategies should be adopted in various populations of North African origin to control the obesity epidemic.

  1. Arsenic in North Carolina: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Alison P; Messier, Kyle P; Shehee, Mina; Rudo, Kenneth; Serre, Marc L; Fry, Rebecca C

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic is a known human carcinogen and relevant environmental contaminant in drinking water systems. We set out to comprehensively examine statewide arsenic trends and identify areas of public health concern. Specifically, arsenic trends in North Carolina private wells were evaluated over an eleven-year period using the North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services database for private domestic well waters. We geocoded over 63,000 domestic well measurements by applying a novel geocoding algorithm and error validation scheme. Arsenic measurements and geographical coordinates for database entries were mapped using Geographic Information System techniques. Furthermore, we employed a Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) geostatistical framework, which accounts for geocoding error to better estimate arsenic values across the state and identify trends for unmonitored locations. Of the approximately 63,000 monitored wells, 7712 showed detectable arsenic concentrations that ranged between 1 and 806μg/L. Additionally, 1436 well samples exceeded the EPA drinking water standard. We reveal counties of concern and demonstrate a historical pattern of elevated arsenic in some counties, particularly those located along the Carolina terrane (Carolina slate belt). We analyzed these data in the context of populations using private well water and identify counties for targeted monitoring, such as Stanly and Union Counties. By spatiotemporally mapping these data, our BME estimate revealed arsenic trends at unmonitored locations within counties and better predicted well concentrations when compared to the classical kriging method. This study reveals relevant information on the location of arsenic-contaminated private domestic wells in North Carolina and indicates potential areas at increased risk for adverse health outcomes.

  2. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  3. Antidote Stocking at Hospitals in North Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansam F. Sawalha

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the availability and adequacy of antidote stocking at hospitals in north Palestine based on published guidelines for antidote stocking.Methodology: This study is a cross sectional survey of all hospitals at north Palestine (n=11 using a questionnaire which was completed by the director of the pharmacy department at each hospital. The questionnaire was divided into 2 parts. The first part contained a list of 25 antidotes while the second part contained a list of 12 antidotes. This classification is based on the guideline proposed by the British Association for Emergency Medicine (BAEM. The net antidote stock results were compared with the American guidelines as well.Result: The overall availability of each antidote in the first list varied widely from zero for glucagon to 100% for atropine. The number antidotes of the first list that were stocked in the 11 hospitals ranged from 5 to 12 antidotes but none of the hospitals stocked all the 25 antidotes. Additionally, availability of antidotes in the second list varied widely from zero for polyethylene glycol to 100% for dobutamine. The number of antidotes stocked ranged from 5 to 9 but none of the hospitals stocked all the 12 antidotes.Discussion and Conclusion: hospitals in north Palestine do not have adequate stock of antidotes. Raising awareness of the importance of antidotes by education, regular review of antidote storage, distribution plans, and appropriate legislation might provide solutions. Coordination between Palestinian hospitals and the PCDIC at An-Najah National University is also important.

  4. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  5. The North Anatolian Fault: a New Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šengör, A. M. C.; Tüysüz, Okan; Imren, Caner; Sakinç, Mehmet; Eyidoǧan, Haluk; Görür, Naci; Le Pichon, Xavier; Rangin, Claude

    2005-01-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) is a 1200-km-long dextral strike-slip fault zone that formed by progressive strain localization in a generally westerly widening right-lateral keirogen in northern Turkey mostly along an interface juxtaposing subduction-accretion material to its south and older and stiffer continental basements to its north. The NAF formed approximately 13 to 11 Ma ago in the east and propagated westward. It reached the Sea of Marmara no earlier than 200 ka ago, although shear-related deformation in a broad zone there had already commenced in the late Miocene. The fault zone has a very distinct morphological expression and is seismically active. Since the seventeenth century, it has shown cyclical seismic behavior, with century-long cycles beginning in the east and progressing westward. For earlier times, the record is less clear but does indicate a lively seismicity. The twentieth century record has been successfully interpreted in terms of a Coulomb failure model, whereby every earthquake concentrates the shear stress at the western tips of the broken segments leading to westward migration of large earthquakes. The August 17 and November 12, 1999, events have loaded the Marmara segment of the fault, mapped since the 1999 earthquakes, and a major, M 7.6 event is expected in the next half century with an approximately 50% probability on this segment. Currently, the strain in the Sea of Marmara region is highly asymmetric, with greater strain to the south of the Northern Strand. This is conditioned by the geology, and it is believed that this is generally the case for the entire North Anatolian Fault Zone. What is now needed is a more detailed geological mapping base with detailed paleontology and magnetic stratigraphy in the shear-related basins and more paleomagnetic observations to establish shear-related rotations.

  6. North American migratory bird management issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M.H.; Ryan, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    As human population and industry have grown in North America, land-use practices have greatly altered the landscape. As a result of this changed landscape, several migratory bird populations have declined in recent years. For waterbirds, there have been several milestones: the 1986 North American Waterfowl Management Plan (NAWMP) and the 1989 North American Wetlands Conservation Act. As a result, the United States and Canada have established 12 habitat and 2 species joint ventures. The primary emphasis of waterfowl management in Canada-U.S. has been land purchase and lease, wetland restoration, and coordination of harvest rates. Because of its different biological and cultural context, Mexico has established other conservation priorities. Mexico has had a long-standing concern to conserve its biodiversity and, in addition, conservation of Mexican resources goes hand in hand with human community development. Unlike Canada-U.S., wetland conservation projects in'Mexico include information gathering, environmental education, and management planning for its 32 priority wetlands. For migratory landbirds' scientists attribute declines in several migrant populations to forest fragmentation on the breeding grounds, deforestation on the wintering grounds, pesticide poisoning, or the cumulative effects of habitat changes. In 1990, the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, commonly known as Partners in Flight-Aves de las Americas-was initiated. The next step that is being proposed is the formation of a habitat conservation plan for landbirds modeled after the NAWMP. Management of migratory birds requires a strong international approach in order to coordinate actions for the benefit of migratory birds, their habitats, and the uses they provide.

  7. 200 North Aggregate Area source AAMS report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of an aggregate area management study (AAMS) for the 200 North Aggregate Area in the 200 Areas of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site in Washington State. This scoping level study provides the basis for initiating Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) activities under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) or Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigations (RFI) and Corrective Measures Studies (CMS) under RCRA. This report also integrates select RCRA treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) closure activities with CERCLA and RCRA past practice investigations.

  8. Parabolic dunes in north-eastern Brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Duran, O; Bezerra, L J C; Herrmann, H J; Maia, L P

    2007-01-01

    In this work we present measurements of vegetation cover over parabolic dunes with different degree of activation along the north-eastern Brazilian coast. We are able to extend the local values of the vegetation cover density to the whole dune by correlating measurements with the gray-scale levels of a high resolution satellite image of the dune field. The empirical vegetation distribution is finally used to validate the results of a recent continuous model of dune motion coupling sand erosion and vegetation growth.

  9. Overview of North American Hydrogen Sensor Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Kathleen [SRA International, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO (United States); Lopez, Hugo [UL LLC, Chicago, IL (United States); Cairns, Julie [CSA Group, Cleveland, OH (United States); Wichert, Richard [Professional Engineering, Inc.. Citrus Heights, CA (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-11

    An overview of the main North American codes and standards associated with hydrogen safety sensors is provided. The distinction between a code and a standard is defined, and the relationship between standards and codes is clarified, especially for those circumstances where a standard or a certification requirement is explicitly referenced within a code. The report identifies three main types of standards commonly applied to hydrogen sensors (interface and controls standards, shock and hazard standards, and performance-based standards). The certification process and a list and description of the main standards and model codes associated with the use of hydrogen safety sensors in hydrogen infrastructure are presented.

  10. Dipleurozoa from lower silurian of north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H; Fox, S K

    1968-10-04

    In a problematical fauna discovered in Australia, 152 meters below diagnostic Lower Cambrian species, are fossilized remains belonging in the phylum Coelenterata. These jellyfish-like fossils were defined as a new class(Dipleurozoa) by Harrington and Moore because of their strong bilateral symmetry and differentiated extremities. The class was not reported elsewhere before many specimens were discovered recently in the Shawangunk (Tuscarora) formation at Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania. Three new species belonging to a new genus can be recognized, the indication being that the class ranges stratigraphically from the infra-Cambrian to at least the Lower Silurian, and geographically from Australia to eastern North America.

  11. Geological history of the Western north pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, A G; Heezen, B C; Boyce, R E; Bury, D; Douglas, R G; Garrison, R E; Kling, S A; Krasheninnikov, V; Lisitzin, A P; Pimm, A C

    1970-06-05

    A considerable portion of the abyssal floor of the western North Pacific was already receiving pelagic sediment in late Jurassic time. Carbonate sediments were later replaced by abyssal clays as the basin deepened and bottom waters became more aggressive. The resulting facies boundary, which can be recognized on seismic profiles, is broadly transgressive; it ranges in age from mid-Cretaceous in the western Pacific to Oligocene in the central Pacific. Cherts are encountered at and below the major facies boundary and appear to have been formed by postdepositional processes.

  12. North American Natural Gas Markets. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report summarizes die research by an Energy Modeling Forum working group on the evolution of the North American natural gas markets between now and 2010. The group`s findings are based partly on the results of a set of economic models of the natural gas industry that were run for four scenarios representing significantly different conditions: two oil price scenarios (upper and lower), a smaller total US resource base (low US resource case), and increased potential gas demand for electric generation (high US demand case). Several issues, such as the direction of regulatory policy and the size of the gas resource base, were analyzed separately without the use of models.

  13. Sandy desertification in the north of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Tao(王涛); ZHU; Zhenda(朱震达); WU; Wei(吴薇)

    2002-01-01

    With the economic and social development, desertification exerted increasingly pro-found influences on natural environment and social development and attracted widespread atten-tion of international communities, China, as one of the countries facing severe desertificationproblems, has witnessed some progress in understanding and combating the process of desertifi-cation through many years of hard work. Based on the experiences and research achievements,this paper briefly discusses the causes, developmental processes, damage assessment and con-trol mechanism of desertification in the north of China so as to provide some basic experiences forthe further study of desertification.

  14. Elastic behaviour of North Sea chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gommesen, Lars; Fabricius, Ida Lykke; Mukerji, T.

    2007-01-01

    We present two different elastic models for, respectively, cemented and uncemented North Sea chalk well-log data. We find that low Biot coefficients correlate with anomalously low cementation factors from resistivity measurements at low porosity and we interpret this as an indication of cementation...... to logging data than the Gassmann prediction for the far, virgin zone. We thus conclude that the Gassmann approach predicts hydrocarbons accurately in chalk in the sonic-frequency domain, but the fluid effects as recorded by the acoustic tool are significantly affected by invasion of mud filtrate...

  15. North American poisonous bites and stings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Critters and creatures can strike fear into anyone who thinks about dangerous animals. This article focuses on the management of the most common North American scorpion, arachnid, hymenoptera, and snake envenomations that cause clinically significant problems. Water creatures and less common animal envenomations are not covered in this article. Critical care management of envenomed patients can be challenging for unfamiliar clinicians. Although the animals are located in specific geographic areas, patients envenomed on passenger airliners and those who travel to endemic areas may present to health care facilities distant from the exposure.

  16. North Pacific atmospheric rivers and their influence on western North America at the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, Juan M.; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Risi, Camille; Tripati, Aradhna E.

    2017-01-01

    Southwestern North America was wetter than present during the Last Glacial Maximum. The causes of increased water availability have been recently debated, and quantitative precipitation reconstructions have been underutilized in model-data comparisons. We investigate the climatological response of North Pacific atmospheric rivers to the glacial climate using model simulations and paleoclimate reconstructions. Atmospheric moisture transport due to these features shifted toward the southeast relative to modern. Enhanced southwesterly moisture delivery between Hawaii and California increased precipitation in the southwest while decreasing it in the Pacific Northwest, in agreement with reconstructions. Coupled climate models that are best able to reproduce reconstructed precipitation changes simulate decreases in sea level pressure across the eastern North Pacific and show the strongest southeastward shifts of moisture transport relative to a modern climate. Precipitation increases of ˜1 mm d-1, due largely to atmospheric rivers, are of the right magnitude to account for reconstructed pluvial conditions in parts of southwestern North America during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  17. Response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre to persistent North Atlantic oscillation like forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Katja; Bentsen, Mats [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Drange, Helge [Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center, Bergen (Norway); Bjerknes Center for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute, Bergen (Norway); Nansen-Zhu International Research Center, Beijing (China)

    2009-02-15

    The response of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre (SPG) to a persistent positive (or negative) phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) is investigated using an ocean general circulation model forced with idealized atmospheric reanalysis fields. The integrations are analyzed with reference to a base-line integration for which the model is forced with idealized fields representing a neutral state of the NAO. In the positive NAO case, the results suggest that the well-known cooling and strengthening of the SPG are, after about 10 years, replaced by a warming and subsequent weakening of the SPG. The latter changes are caused by the advection of warm water from the subtropical gyre (STG) region, driven by a spin-up of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the effect of an anomalous wind stress curl in the northeastern North Atlantic, which counteracts the local buoyancy forcing of the SPG. In the negative NAO case, however, the SPG response does not involve a sign reversal, but rather shows a gradual weakening throughout the integration. The asymmetric SPG-response to the sign of persistent NAO-like forcing and the different time scales involved demonstrate strong non-linearity in the North Atlantic Ocean circulation response to atmospheric forcing. The latter finding indicates that analysis based on the arithmetic difference between the two NAO-states, e.g. NAO+ minus NAO-, may hide important aspects of the ocean response to atmospheric forcing. (orig.)

  18. 31 CFR 500.554 - Gifts of North Korean, North Vietnamese, Cambodian, or South Vietnamese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gifts of North Korean,...

  19. STUDENT POLITICS IN URBAN TERNATE, NORTH MALUKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Amin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines student politics articulated by university students in contemporary Ternate, North Maluku. The involvement of students in the political arena in the region is mostly organized through regional (ethnic organizations.The larger context of such political process is decentralisation, which make religional resource  resources dominated by the state. At the same time competition among local elites and ethnic groups flourish. This is the main background of a new formation of group interests in local level –-including local university students-- to gain group advantages. The case of Ternate, North Maluku, is an example of how groups of students organize their practical interests in the arena of politics by exploiting youth associations and ethnic organizations. Artikel ini mengkaji tentang politik yang diartikulasikan oleh kalangan mahasiswa dalam percaturan politik lokal di Ternate, Maluku Utara. Keterlibatan mahasiswa dalam arena kekuasaan di kawasan ini lebih banyak dilakukan melalui instrumen organisasi kedaerahan (etnis. Konteks besar yang menjadi landasan dari proses sosial ini adalah desentralisasi yang menempatkan sedemikian rupa sumberdaya pembangunan lebih banyak didominasi oleh negara, tapi pada saat yang sama perkembangan politik etnis terus menyertai persaingan kelompok dan elit lokal. Kasus Maluku Utara adalah sebuah contoh bagaimana kaum muda memainkan kepentingannya sendiri dalam percaturan kekuasaan dan dalam hal memanfaatkan kesempatan-kesempatan praktis untuk mereka.

  20. Atopy and alopecia areata in North Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Sukhjot

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken with the aim of evaluating the effect of associated atopy on severity and age at onset of alopecia areata in north Indians. Presence of atopy was elicited by detailed history, examination and intracutaneous tests. Chisquare test was carried out to evaluate statistical significance. One hundred patients (76 males and 24 females with alopecia areata were evaluated. Historical evidence of atopywas present in 50 including patients alone (23, patients and first degree relatives (11 and first degree relatives alone (16. Intracutaneous tests were positive in 23 out of 50 patients tested randomly. There was a trend towards increasing frequency of severe alopecia as evidence of atopy became stronger e.g. both patient and first degree relatives with atopy or positive intracutaneous test but the results did not attain statistical significance. Similarly the age at onset and duration of alopecia areata was not significantly related to the presence of atopy. It is concluded that in north Indians with alopecia areata, the presence of atopy is not significantly associated with severe alopecia or onset at younger age.

  1. Phytoplankton Bloom in North Sea off Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The northern and western highlands of Scotland were still winter-brown and even dusted with snow in places, but the waters of the North Sea were blooming with phytoplankton on May 8, 2008, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the region and captured this image. The tiny, plant-like organisms swirled in the waters off the country's east coast, coloring the shallow coastal waters shades of bright blue and green. Phytoplankton are tiny organisms--many are just a single cell--that use chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light for photosynthesis. Because these pigments absorb sunlight, they change the color of the light reflected from the sea surface back to the satellite. Scientists have used observations of 'ocean color' from satellites for more than 20 years to track worldwide patterns in phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton are important to the Earth system for a host of reasons, including their status as the base of the ocean food web. In the North Sea, they are the base of the food web that supports Scotland's commercial fisheries, including monkfish and herring. As photosynthesizers, they also play a crucial role in the carbon cycle, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Some oceanographers are concerned that rising ocean temperatures will slow phytoplankton growth rates, harming marine ecosystems and causing carbon dioxide to accumulate more rapidly in the atmosphere.

  2. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  3. North Yemen has expectation on petroleum development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Toshiaki

    1988-12-10

    Petroleum was first discovered in the inland area of North Yemen by an American Oil Company in 1984. Petroleum development is expected to work as a driving force for the economic and social development in this very poor country whose mainstay industry is extensive agriculture. And the development is being pushed forward in a high pitch. With the agreement and cooperation of North Yemen Government which had a strong expectation on petroleum explorations, Hunt Oil Company drilled the first exploratory well in an unexplored area and struck an oil field of commercial quantity. First, a domestic petroleum refinery was constructed to reduce foreign defrayments on imported petroleum products. Next, a very difficult laying work of pipe lines was completed at a record speed. Thus, the crude oil exporting facility was completed. Produced crude oil excluding cost oil and royalty is divided between the company and the government. Present production amount is 175 thousand barrels a day. The probable reserve is 850 million barrels. The government's contract sales amount for 1988 was 18.6 million barrels. 5 tabs.

  4. The enigmatic whale: the North Atlantic humpback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim D Smith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We know more about the North Atlantic humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae than we do for virtually any other cetacean, yet attempts to use this information to describe the status of the populations in this ocean basin have not proven satisfactory. The North Atlantic humpback has been the subject of extensive research over the past few decades, resulting in a substantial amount of knowledge about what has proven to be a species with a very complex life history and population structure. While several population models have been developed to integrate the available information, the data overall are not well described by any of the models. This has left considerable uncertainty about population status, and has raised questions about the interpretation of some of the data. We describe 7 specific areas where puzzling or ambiguous observations have been made; these require closer attention if population status is to be determined. These areas raise several fundamental questions, including: How many breeding populations are there? How much do the populations mix on the feeding grounds? How has the distribution of animals on both feeding and breeding grounds changed? We identify additional research needed to address the 7 areas and these questions in particular, so that population status might be determined.

  5. Education challenges in the North Sea area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrotoy, Jean Paul

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces the North Sea as a fast evolving coastal ecosystem. The variability of natural conditions relates to the global climatic change and to human disturbances, which originate regionally. Education is an integral part of the strategy to improve environmental awareness. Considering contemporary challenges for educating the wider public about the main issues of environmental concern, attention is paid to various plans, which are being developed in North-Western Europe from primary schools to universities. "Learning for life" relies on an opening of the vocation of traditional universities and on the creation of a European university. Sharing resources in a competitive environment is one response given by British universities in the framework of a Discipline Network in Coastal Sciences and Management in 1996-2000. Networking is truly the key to a fast evolving teaching and learning context, notably in relation to ever developing information and communication technologies. The dissemination of scientific information is primordial in this context; a case study relating to the European project "Marine biodiversity in Europe" (BIOMARE) demonstrates the need for an elaborated strategy leading to socio-economic considerations. Empowering communities and governance are the main possible outcomes of such an enlarged approach to education, involving teachers, students, researchers, professionals, and volunteers. Proposals are made for amplifying the involvement of non-scientists into scientific research and its applications to management. Finally, a case is made for facilitating the mobility of all concerned, with a view to annihilate language and cultural barriers.

  6. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  7. North Korean Counterfeiting of U.S. Currency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    Korean diplomats.15 Counterfeiting of foreign currency is apparently a phenomenon that is not new to the government of North Korea . Seoul’s War...Adventurism: North Korea’s Military-Diplomatic Campaigns,” Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. XVI, No.2, Fall 2004. Note that the term “Soprano State... Korean National Intelligence Service (NIS) Report to the effect that North Korea forges and circulates U.S. $100 banknotes worth $15 million a year

  8. The Future of Soviet-North Korean Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Unclassified - sea winempo .m Approved for Public Release; Distribucion Unlimited EDTIC I. 011ay"OTOS~ ?,was aww" as* M= = DE V. 2 18 USSR NORTH KOREA...be judged to be minimal. The area with the most practical potential for change from North Korea’s perspective concerns the objective of reunification...effectively halted the process of modernizing North Korean weapon systems in certain key areas where Pyongyang can neither produce advanced tech

  9. Compression of the North Hemisphere derived from space geodesy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金双根; 朱文耀

    2003-01-01

    The convergent and divergent velocities of active plate boundaries in the North Hemisphere are obtained with space geodetic data. The relative motions of adjacent plates in north-south direction are almost convergent; the spreading rates of the north mid-Atlantic ridge are smaller than the south mid-Atlantic ridge; the closed differences of the baseline length rates between stations on different plates along the latitudinal circle of 7.7(, 23.3o, 34.8o, 42.0o and 51.0o are all negative. All these show that the North Hemisphere is a compressive hemisphere.

  10. Decadal variability in the Eastern North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köllner, Manuela; Klein, Birgit; Kieke, Dagmar; Klein, Holger; Rhein, Monika; Roessler, Achim; Denker, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The strong warming and salinification of the Eastern North Atlantic starting in the mid 1990s has been attributed to a westward contraction of the subpolar gyre and stronger inflow of waters from the subtropical gyre. Temporal changes in the shape and strength of the two gyres have been related to the major mode of atmospheric variability in the Atlantic sector, the NAO. Hydrographic conditions along the Northwest European shelf are thus the result of different processes such as variations in transports, varying relative contributions of water masses from the two gyres and property trends in the source water masses. We examine the decadal variability in the eastern North Atlantic based on Argo data from 2000-2015 and have constructed time series for four water masses (Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), Intermediate Water (IW), upper Labrador Sea Water (uLSW) and deep Labrador Sea Water (dLSW)) at selected locations along the Northwest European shelf. Data from the Rockall Trough and the Iceland Basin are chosen to represent advective pathways in the subpolar gyre at two major branches of the North Atlantic Current towards the Nordic Seas and the Arctic Ocean. Temporal variability of subtropical waters transported northward along the eastern boundary is studied at Goban Spur around 48°N. The Argo data are extended in time with long-term hydrographic observations such as the Extended Ellet Line data and other climatological sources in the region. For the study of transport fluctuations time series from the RACE (Regional circulation and Global change) program (2012-2015) and predecessor programs have been used. These programs have monitored the subpolar gyre in the western basin and provide time series of transports and hydrographic anomalies from moored instruments at the western flank of the Mid Atlantic Ridge (MAR). First results show that the temperatures and salinities remained at high levels for the upper waters (SPMW and IW) until 2010 and have been decreasing since

  11. Oral literary traditions in North Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Brakel-Papenhuyzen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with traditional literature of the Pakpak-Dairi and Karo peoples in North Sumatra, who are speakers of closely related Batak languages and have many common features in their language and culture. Their traditional life-style, based on agriculture and the use of forest products, requires the regular performance of community rituals featuring songs, dance, music and other oral traditions including storytelling. The songs, prayers, and stories belonging to their literary tradition have characteristic features that are intimately connected with the social context in which they are created and performed. Karo and Pakpak-Dairi oral genres often contain information about the natural environment, local customs and religious concepts. They may also reflect perceptions of relationships with neighbouring groups, such as the Minangkabau and the Malays who live in the coastal areas.

  12. Atmospheric transmission of North Atlantic Heinrich events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, S.W.; Clark, P.U.; Bartlein, P.J.; Mix, A.C.; Pisias, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    We model the response of the climate system during Heinrich event 2 (H2) by employing an atmospheric general circulation model, using boundary conditions based on the concept of a "canonical" Heinrich event. The canonical event is initialized with a full-height Laurentide ice sheet (LIS) and CLIMAP sea surface temperatures (SSTs), followed by lowering of the LIS, then warming of North Atlantic SSTs. Our modeled temperature and wind fields exhibit spatially variable responses over the Northern Hemisphere at each stage of the H2 event. In some regions the climatic responses are additive, whereas in other regions they cancel or are of opposite sign, suggesting that Heinrich event climatic variations may have left complex signatures in geologic records. We find variations in the tropical water balance and the mass balance of ice sheets, and implications for variations in terrestrial methane production from the contraction of northern permafrost regions and the expansion of tropical wetlands. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pagan...... origins, showing how an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend can be found in works by several familiar writers including Jordanes, Bede, ‘Fredegar’, Paul the Deacon, Freculph, and Æthelweard. The book investigates how legends of northern warriors were first created in classical texts and since re-calibrated to fit...... different medieval understandings of identity and ethnicity. Among other things, the ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ tale was exploited to promote a legacy of ‘barbarian’ vigor that could withstand the negative cultural effects of Roman civilization. This volume employs a variety of perspectives cutting across...

  14. Fire and amphibians in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 2005 the North American Solar Challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Eberle

    2008-12-22

    In July 2005 the North American Solar Challenge (NASC) featured university built solar powered cars ran across the United States into Canada. The competition began in Austin, Texas with stops in Weatherford, Texas; Broken Arrow, Oklahoma; Topeka, Kansas; Omaha, Nebraska; Sioux Falls, South Dakota, Fargo, North Dakota; Winnipeg, Manitoba; Brandon, Manitoba; Regina, Saskatchewan; Medicine Hat, Alberta; mainly following U.S. Highway 75 and Canadian Highway 1 to the finish line in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, for a total distance of 2,500 miles. NASC major sponsors include the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Natural Resources Canada and DOEs National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The event is designed to inspire young people to pursue careers in science and engineering. NASCs predecessors, the American Solar Challenge and Sunrayce, generally have been held every two years since 1990. With each race, the solar cars travel faster and further with greater reliability. The NASC promotes: -Renewable energy technologies (specifically photovoltaic or solar cells) -Educational excellence in science, engineering and mathematics -Creative integration of technical and scientific expertise across a wide-range of disciplines -Hands-on experience for students and engineers to develop and demonstrate their technical and creative abilities. Safety is the first priority for the NASC. Each team put its car through grueling qualifying and technical inspections. Teams that failed to meet the requirements were not allowed participate. During the race, each team was escorted by lead and chase vehicles sporting rooftop hazard flashers. An official observer accompanied each solar car team to keep it alert to any safety issues.

  16. Stature in Holocene foragers of North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukacs, John R; Pal, J N; Nelson, Greg C

    2014-03-01

    The Ganga Plain of North India provides an archaeological and skeletal record of semi-nomadic Holocene foragers in association with an aceramic Mesolithic culture. Prior estimates of stature for Mesolithic Lake Cultures (MLC) used inappropriate equations from an American White reference group and need revision. Attention is given to intralimb body proportions and geo-climatic provenance of MLC series in considering the most suitable reference population. Regression equations from ancient Egyptians are used in reconstructing stature for MLC skeletal series from Damdama (DDM), Mahadaha (MDH), and Sarai Nahar Rai (SNR). Mean stature is estimated at between 174 (MDH) and 178 cm (DDM and SNR) for males, and between 163 cm (MDH) and 179 cm (SNR) for females. Stature estimates based on ancient Egyptian equations are significantly shorter (from 3.5 to 7.1 cm shorter in males; from 3.2 to 7.5 cm shorter in females) than estimates using the American White reference group. Revised stature estimates from tibia length and from femur + tibia more accurately estimate MLC stature for two reasons: a) these elements are highly correlated with stature and have lower standard estimates of error, and b) uncertainty regarding methods of measuring tibia length is avoided. When compared with Holocene samples of native Americans and Mesolithic Europeans, MLC series from North India are tall. This aspect of their biological variation confirms earlier assessments and results from the synergistic influence of balanced nutrition from broad-spectrum foraging, body-proportions adapted to a seasonally hot and arid climate, and the functional demands of a mobile, semi-nomadic life-style.

  17. Penile anthropometry in North Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilal Bhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians frequently encounter questions by parents regarding the normal size of a child′s penis. We evaluated normal variations of penile dimensions, correlation of penile length with height, weight, and body mass index (BMI of boys and analyzed the differences in penile dimensions from those reported from other countries. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at our institution during October 2012-December 2012. A total of 250 subjects (birth to 10 years were evaluated and divided into 10 groups with 1-year interval taking 25 children in each. Penile dimensions measured twice by a single observer with Vernier calipers included the length of flaccid penis fully stretched and diameters at mid-shaft and corona. Diameters were multiplied by pi (π = 3.14 to calculate circumferences. Mean, standard deviation, and range were calculated. Height, weight, and BMI were noted and statistically correlated with the penile length using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Data were compared with similar studies reported on other populations in the past and individually evaluated with every study using Student′s t-test. Results: The mean values for the penile length, mid-shaft circumference, and coronal circumference were 3.34, 3.05, 3.29 cm during infancy, 4.28, 3.86, 4.11 cm during 4-5 years, and 5.25, 4.78, 5.05 cm during 9-10 years, respectively. The penile length increased with advancing age in successive age groups, but it did not have a direct correlation with either height, weight, or BMI. Penile dimensions in North Indian children were found to be statistically smaller in comparison with most studies from other countries. Conclusion: We provide the normal range and variations of penile dimensions in North Indian children.

  18. Soil indigenous knowledge in North Central Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and classifying soils is part of an important learning process to improve soil management practices, soil quality and increase productivity. In order to assess soil quality improvement related to an ongoing land reform in North-Central Namibia, the characteristics that determine soil quality in the local land use context were determined in this study. To do so, we collated the indigenous soil knowledge in North-Central Namibia where the Ovakwanyama cultivate pearl millet for centuries. Local soil groups are defined mostly based on their productivity potential, which varies depending on the rainfall pattern. The morphological criteria used by the farmers to differentiate the soil groups (colour, consistence) were supported by a conventional analysis of soil physical and chemical properties. Now, they can be used to develop a soil quality assessment toolbox adapted to the regional use. The characteristics of the tool box do not directly indicate soil quality, but refer to local soils groups. The quality of these groups is relatively homogenous at the local scale. Our results show that understanding of indigenous soil knowledge has great potential to improve soil quality assessment with regards to land use. The integration of this knowledge with the conventional soil analysis improves the local meaning of such a "scientific" assessment and thus facilitates dialog between farmers and agronomists, but also scientists working in different regions of the world, but in similar conditions. Overall, the integration of indigenous knowledge in international classification systems (e.g. WRB) as attempted in this study has thus a major potential to improve soil mapping in the local context.

  19. 75 FR 21692 - Denial of Airlines' Temporary Exemption Requests from DOT's Tarmac Delay Rules for JFK, EWR, LGA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... exceptions for safety, security, or Air Traffic Control (ATC) related reasons. The requests cover operations... travelers. 74 FR 68983. One of these provisions, which takes effect April 29, 2010, requires U.S... airport creates ripple effects throughout the NY/NJ/PHL airspace. US Airways supports the grant of...

  20. Kas Ansip arvab tõesti, et 63 800 krooni jätab nälga? / Lauri Birkan

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Birkan, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    Peaminister Andrus Ansip avaldas arvamust, et kui riigikogu liikmete palk külmutatakse ja see inflatsiooni tõttu alanema peaks, ei tule saadikud enam pere toitmisega toime. Vt. samas: Küsimused, millele valitsus vastamast keeldus

  1. Eastern tropical North Pacific coral radiocarbon reveals North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafter, Patrick A.; Sanchez, Sara C.; Ferguson, Julie; Carriquiry, Jose D.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.; Villaescusa, J. A.; Southon, John R.

    2017-03-01

    Fluctuations in oceanic circulation and upwelling associated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) are the largest source of salinity and nutrient concentration variability across the Pacific basin. Recent observations suggest NPGO-like variability is intensifying, but longer, "pre-instrumental" records are required to improve our understanding of NPGO amplitude and phase change. Here, using measurements of coral skeletal chemistry from San Benedicto Island in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP), we assess this region's suitability for reconstructing NPGO behavior. We find that coral geochemical proxy measurements of ETNP salinity and dissolved inorganic carbon radiocarbon (Δ14C) content reflect NPGO-driven gyre circulation and regional coastal upwelling. These results provide the basis for reconstructing NPGO-related ocean conditions hundreds of years prior to the modern observational record.

  2. 75 FR 64691 - North Central Idaho Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Forest Service North Central Idaho Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The North Central Idaho RAC will meet in Potlatch, Idaho. The committee is.... (PST). ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Potlatch Public Library, 1010 Onaway Road,...

  3. 36 CFR 7.66 - North Cascades National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false North Cascades National Park. 7.66 Section 7.66 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.66 North Cascades National Park....

  4. North Carolina's nursing workforce: planning today for a reformed tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraher, Erin P; Jones, Cheryl B

    2011-01-01

    Nurses are the single largest component of North Carolina's health workforce, and nursing jobs are an essential driver of the state's economic recovery. We propose 5 recommendations for creating a nursing workforce system that, if implemented, would position the state to meet the future health care needs of North Carolinians.

  5. Accessibility and Usage of Technology by North Carolina Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Maegen R.; Warner, Wendy J.; Flowers, James L.; Croom, D. Barry

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the integration of technology into the instructional process in North Carolina agricultural education classrooms. The study used survey research methodology to collect information on the availability of instructional technology and the frequency of instructional technology use by North Carolina agriculture teachers. The study…

  6. Constitutionalism and conflict in Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Allegedly the oldest in Indonesia, and to some even beyond, the constitution treasured in the Kedaton (traditional palace) of the Sultan of Ternate (North Maluku, Indonesia) constitutes a dividing line between North and South Ternate in terms of government, ethnicity, and, spirituality. Moreover, it

  7. Coastal zone management around the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillen, R.; Van de Wetering, B.G.M.; Verhagen, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Southern North Sea is bordered by Great-Britain, France, Belgium, The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark. The North Sea basin and its adjacent shorelines are intensively used. Management of the basin and the coastal zone is therefore essential. Because of the small scale of the area, the dense pop

  8. Difference between south and north in Chinese traditional dwelling houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单梦宸

    2014-01-01

    For china enjoys a large area of island, there are so many different kinds of culture. Because of different elements of culture, north and south folk houses in china are real y different. this paper takes coutyard and Yeshi resident for an example to compare south folk house with north folk house.

  9. Knowledge Organisation Systems in North American Digital Library Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Ali; Chase-Kruszewski, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report an investigation into the types of knowledge organisation systems (KOSs) utilised in North American digital library collections. Design/methodology/approach: The paper identifies, analyses and deep scans online North American hosted digital libraries. It reviews the literature related to the…

  10. North Carolina Teacher Working Conditions Survey Interim Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Eric; Emerick, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Since 2002, North Carolina, under the leadership of Governor Mike Easley and the North Carolina Professional Teaching Standards Commission, has worked to improve understanding of a critical factor in student learning and teacher retention: the conditions under which teachers work. In 2006, 66 percent (more than 75,000) school-based licensed…

  11. Offshore Wind Energy Analysis of Cyclone Xaver over North Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Varlas, George; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclone Xaver (5 December 2013; North Sea) was an extreme weather event which affected northern Europe, yielding a record of wind power generation. The most striking aspects of this atmospheric phenomenon were the gale-force winds and the upcoming abrupt increase of the wind power over the North Sea

  12. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit One: Coastal Geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Presented are teaching materials designed to supplement North Carolina's course of study plans in earth science for the intermediate grades and junior high schools. This manual is one of a collection produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under a Sea Grant project entitled "Man and the Seacoast." Included are 27…

  13. Marine proxy evidence linking decadal North Pacific and Atlantic climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzinger, S. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); Halfar, J. [University of Toronto Mississauga, CPS-Department, Mississauga, ON (Canada); Mecking, J.V.; Keenlyside, N.S. [Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel (Germany); University of Bergen, Geophysical Institute and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen (Norway); Kronz, A. [University of Goettingen, Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum, Goettingen (Germany); Steneck, R.S. [University of Maine, Darling Marine Center, Walpole, ME (United States); Adey, W.H. [Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany, Washington, DC (United States); Lebednik, P.A. [ARCADIS U.S. Inc., Walnut Creek, CA (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Decadal- to multidecadal variability in the extra-tropical North Pacific is evident in 20th century instrumental records and has significant impacts on Northern Hemisphere climate and marine ecosystems. Several studies have discussed a potential linkage between North Pacific and Atlantic climate on various time scales. On decadal time scales no relationship could be confirmed, potentially due to sparse instrumental observations before 1950. Proxy data are limited and no multi-centennial high-resolution marine geochemical proxy records are available from the subarctic North Pacific. Here we present an annually-resolved record (1818-1967) of Mg/Ca variations from a North Pacific/Bering Sea coralline alga that extends our knowledge in this region beyond available data. It shows for the first time a statistically significant link between decadal fluctuations in sea-level pressure in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. The record is a lagged proxy for decadal-scale variations of the Aleutian Low. It is significantly related to regional sea surface temperature and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index in late boreal winter on these time scales. Our data show that on decadal time scales a weaker Aleutian Low precedes a negative NAO by several years. This atmospheric link can explain the coherence of decadal North Pacific and Atlantic Multidecadal Variability, as suggested by earlier studies using climate models and limited instrumental data. (orig.)

  14. Duck viral enteritis (duck plague) in North American Waterfowl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Leibovitz, L.; Herman, C.M.; Walker, J.W.

    1968-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the status of DVE among wild waterfowl in North America and describes some of the characteristic lesions associated with this disease. The paper also mentions some of the work which has been undertaken to learn more about the status of DVE in North America.

  15. A phenomenological study on the experience of North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Kyoung; Lee, Ok Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore the experience of North Korean refugees living in South Korea. From the analysis of the participants' comments, six essences were identified: entrance to a new world after struggling for survival, unexpected shock and chaos, reconsidering the reasons for leaving North Korea, recovery from trauma, rebuilding meaning, and posttraumatic growth.

  16. Community College Laws of North Carolina, 1987 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    This publication contains the laws governing the community college system of North Carolina (Chapter 115D of the General Statutes of North Carolina, and other relevant statutes in Chapters 115, 115B, and 116). Chapter 115D contains provisions applying to state administration, local administration, financial support, budgeting, accounting, and…

  17. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  18. Preparing for upheaval in North Korea: assuming North Korean regime collapse

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwonwoo

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis will attempt to provide the optimal policy prescription for the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army on how to disarm, demobilize and reintegrate (DDR) the North Korean people in the case of their regime collapse. It is important to know how the likelihood of environment in which post-conflict reconstruction efforts will be implemented. The viability of any contingency plan should be assessed, based on an assumption about the envi...

  19. The North Atlantic Oscillation: variability and interactions with the North Atlantic ocean and Artic sea ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, T.

    2000-07-01

    The North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic region and describes the strengthening and weakening of the midlatitude westerlies. In this study, variability of the NAO during wintertime and its relationship to the North Atlantic ocean and Arctic sea ice is investigated. For this purpose, observational data are analyzed along with integrations of models for the Atlantic ocean, Arctic sea ice, and the coupled global climate system. From a statistical point of view, the observed NAO index shows unusually high variance on interdecadal time scales during the 20th century. Variability on other time scales is consistent with realizations of random processes (''white noise''). Recurrence of wintertime NAO anomalies from winter-to-winter with missing signals during the inbetween nonwinter seasons is primarily associated with interdecadal variability of the NAO. This recurrence indicates that low-frequency changes of the NAO during the 20th century were in part externally forced. (orig.)

  20. Ice Jams on the Little Missouri River, North Dakota and North Platte River, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, B. P.; Brookman, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    During the winter months, rivers in the north central United States have a phenomenon occurring, which is known as "ice jams". The initial melting of the river ice causes broken ice buildup, which acts as a quasi-dam restricting the natural flow. Ice jams severely impact ecosystems and are known to cause extensive damage to the channels, as well as man-made structures. The focus of this paper is on ice jams on the Little Missouri River in North Dakota and the North Platte River in Nebraska. Previous investigations done on the Lower Platte River valley, as well as the Missouri River basin, have shown that the primary cause of ice jams on these rivers is due to the spring thaw. The initial portion of the paper will discuss the pattern of ice jams on these rivers, as well as some mitigation strategies for control of these ice jams. The second section will deal with the modeling of ice jams on these river systems using HEC-RAS. This model will be comprised of both two and three-dimensional aspects of the rivers.

  1. Nephrolithiasis in free-ranging North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) in North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemuth, Jennifer N; Sanders, Charles W; Mooney, Charles B; Olfenbuttel, Colleen; DePerno, Christopher S; Stoskopf, Michael K

    2014-03-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) serves as an indicator species for environmental monitoring, is prized as a valuable furbearer, and is a popular display animal in zoologic collections. Nephrolithiasis has been reported as a frequent problem in other free-ranging and captive otter species but is rarely reported in North American river otters. In this study, we compared the prevalence of nephrolithiasis diagnosed using routine gross pathologic examination techniques with the use of computed tomography (CT) of excised kidneys. We also evaluated whether otter nephroliths could be accurately classified by their CT densities, and we examined the renal tissue uric acid concentrations in free-ranging otters in North Carolina, USA. Kidneys were collected from carcasses of legally trapped, free-ranging animals. Nephroliths were observed in 16.2% of the individuals (n = 229). Associations were found between age and nephrolith status and between capture location and nephrolith status (P = 0.026 and < 0.001, respectively). Computed tomography Hounsfield unit density measurements were not useful in determining nephrolith chemical composition in this study. Renal tissue uric acid concentrations were similar across genders, age groups, and stone status. The chemical composition of the nephroliths was determined by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to be calcium phosphate in the carbonate form.

  2. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  3. A synthesis of Cenozoic sedimentation in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Rasmussen, E.S.

    2012-01-01

    margins have undergone. While the North Sea has been mapped locally, we present the first regional mapping of the Cenozoic sedimentary strata. Our study provides a new regional sub-division of the main seismic units in the North Sea together with maps of depocentres, influx direction and source areas. Our......The North Sea Basin contains an almost complete record of Cenozoic sedimentation, separated by clear regional unconformities. The changes in sediment characteristics, rate and source, and expression of the unconformities reflect the tectonic, eustatic and climatic changes that the North Sea and its...... characteristics of many unconformities indicate that they were generated by eustatic sea-level fall, often in conjunction with other processes. Early Cenozoic unconformities, however, relate to tectonism associated with the opening of the North Atlantic. From observation on a regional scale, we infer...

  4. Diversity of Pseudo-nitzschia from the western North Pacific

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stonik, Inna V; Orlova, Tatiana Yu; Lundholm, Nina

    2011-01-01

    Asurvey focusing on species belonging to the diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia was conducted in the western North Pacific (the northwestern Sea of Japan and the Sea of Okhotsk). Light and electron microscopic examination of 314 phytoplankton field samples collected from 1995 to 2006 revealed...... are provided for all 11 Pseudo-nitzschia taxa. The study presents a taxonomical baseline investigation of Pseudo-nitzschia from the western North Pacific and provides distributional data from an area otherwise not thoroughly examined earlier. Morphological deviation from the current description of P. cf...... to the northern hemisphere where it occurs in the North Atlantic Ocean exclusively. The current study, however, documents that P. seriata is found in the North Pacific and hence is widespread in the northern hemisphere. One species, P. cf. caciantha, is a new record for the western North Pacific, whereas two...

  5. 78 FR 13139 - Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Additional Designation of A North Korean Entity and Two North Korean Individuals Pursuant to Executive Order 13382 AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Designation of the Korean Committee for Space Technology... the Attorney General, has determined that the Korean Committee for Space Technology, as well as...

  6. Height System Unification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak

    2015-04-01

    GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good

  7. The Outer Banks of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Robert; Lins, Harry; Smith, Jodi Jones

    2016-12-27

    The Outer Banks of North Carolina are excellent examples of the nearly 300 barrier islands rimming the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. These low, sandy islands are among the most dynamic natural landscapes occupied by man. Beach sands move offshore, onshore, and along the shore in the direction of the prevailing longshore currents. In this way, sandy coasts continuously adjust to different tide, wave, and current conditions and to rising sea level that causes the islands to migrate landward.Despite such changes, barrier islands are of considerable environmental importance. The Outer Banks are home to diverse natural ecosystems that are adapted to the harsh coastal environment. Native species tend to be robust and many are specifically adapted to withstand salt spray, periodic saltwater flooding, and the islands’ well-drained sandy soil. The Outer Banks provide an important stopover for birds on the Atlantic flyway, and many species inhabit the islands year round. In addition, Outer Banks beaches provide an important nesting habitat for five endangered or threatened sea turtle species.European explorers discovered North Carolina’s barrier islands in the 16th century, although the islands were not permanently settled until the middle 17th century. By the early 19th century, shipbuilding and lumber industries were among the most successful, until forest resources were depleted. Commercial fishing eventually followed, and it expanded considerably after the Civil War. By the Great Depression, however, little industry existed on the Outer Banks. In response to the effects of a severe hurricane in 1933, the National Park Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps proposed a massive sand-fixation program to stabilize the moving sand and prevent storm waves from sweeping across the entire width of some sections of the islands. Between 1933 and 1940, this program constructed sand fencing on 185 kilometers (115 miles) of beach and planted grass seedlings

  8. 77 FR 43077 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; North Carolina Sales Tax Certification AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning North Carolina sales tax certification. Public...: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0059, North Carolina Sales Tax...

  9. 78 FR 33857 - Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical Migratory Bird...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...; 91100-3740-GRNT 7C] Meeting Announcements: North American Wetlands Conservation Council; Neotropical... meetings. SUMMARY: The North American Wetlands Conservation Council (Council) will meet to select North American Wetlands Conservation Act (NAWCA) grant proposals for recommendation to the Migratory...

  10. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  11. Water quality of North Carolina streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas; Meyer, Dann

    1983-01-01

    Interpretation of water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the North Carolina Department of Natural Resources and Community Development, for the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system, has identified water quality variations, characterized the current condition of the river in reference to water quality standards, estimated the degree of pollution caused by man, and evaluated long-term trends in concentrations of major dissolved constituents. Three stations, Yadkin River at Yadkin College (02116500), Rocky River near Norwood (02126000), and Pee Dee River near Rockingham (02129000) have been sampled over different periods of time beginning in 1906. Overall, the ambient water quality of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River system is satisfactory for most water uses. Iron and manganese concentrations are often above desirable levels, but they are not unusually high in comparison to other North Carolina streams. Lead concentrations also periodically rise above the recommended criterion for domestic water use. Mercury concentrations frequently exceed, and pH levels fall below, the recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life. Dissolved oxygen levels, while generally good, are lowest at the Pee Dee near Rockingham, due to the station 's location not far downstream from a lake. Suspended sediment is the most significant water quality problem of the Yadkin-Pee Dee River. The major cation in the river is sodium and the major anions are bicarbonate and carbonate. Eutrophication is currently a problem in the Yadkin-Pee Dee, particularly in High Rock Lake. An estimated nutrient and sediment balance of the system indicates that lakes along the Yadkin-Pee Dee River serve as a sink for sediment, ammonia, and phosphorus. Pollution makes up approximately 59% of the total dissolved solids load of the Yadkin River at Yadkin College, 43% for the Rocky River near Norwood, and 29% for the Pee Dee River near Rockingham. Statistically significant trends show a pattern of increasing

  12. Wildlife values of North American ricelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadie, J.M.; Elphick, C.S.; Reinecke, K.J.; Miller, M.R.; Manley, Scott W.

    2008-01-01

    Ricelands have become an indispensable component of waterbird habitat and a leading example of integrating agricultural and natural resource management in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, Gulf Coast, and Central California. Residual rice, weed seeds, and invertebrates provide food for many avian species during fall and winter. In North America, considerable information exists on the use of ricefields by wintering waterbirds, the value of ricelands as breeding habitat for birds, and the effects of organic chemicals on birds that- feed in ricefields. Recent research has also examined the influence of field management practices, such as winter flooding and post-harvest straw manipulation, on the suitability of ricefields for wildlife. Whereas early studies focused on detrimental effects of wildlife on rice production (e.g., crop depredation), it has become apparent that waterbirds may benefit producers by enhancing straw decomposition, reducing weed and pest pressure, and providing additional income through hunting and wildlife viewing opportunities. A comprehensive evaluation of agronomic and environmental issues is needed to meet the challenges of producing food and sustaining wildlife in twenty-first-century rice lands. Changes in agricultural markets, pressures of increased urban development, conflicting needs for limited resources such as water, endangered species constraints, and concerns over water quality must be addressed in developing a sustainable, mutually beneficial partnership among the rice industry, wildlife, and environmental interests. Research is also needed to evaluate potential reductions in the wildlife carrying capacity of ricelands resulting from new harvest and field management techniques, crop conversion, or loss of rice acreage. Key uncertainties include: (1) changes in waste grain abundance and availability due to various harvest and post-harvest management practices; (2) evaluating food depletion by birds feeding in rice6elds and

  13. Unification strategy for North and South Korea the most prudent U.S. policy option to solve the North Korean nuclear crisis

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The North Korean nuclear issue reached a dangerous impasse in the recent months as North Korea continues to resist international pressure to halt its nuclear weapons and missile programs. North Korea watchers and nuclear experts estimate that North Korea could have up to six or seven plutonium-based nuclear bombs by now. Indeed, North Korea announced to the world in October 2003 that they now have the capability of "nuclear deterrence....

  14. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  15. The microbiome of North Sea copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdts, G.; Brandt, P.; Kreisel, K.; Boersma, M.; Schoo, K. L.; Wichels, A.

    2013-12-01

    Copepods can be associated with different kinds and different numbers of bacteria. This was already shown in the past with culture-dependent microbial methods or microscopy and more recently by using molecular tools. In our present study, we investigated the bacterial community of four frequently occurring copepod species, Acartia sp., Temora longicornis, Centropages sp. and Calanus helgolandicus from Helgoland Roads (North Sea) over a period of 2 years using DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and subsequent sequencing of 16S-rDNA fragments. To complement the PCR-DGGE analyses, clone libraries of copepod samples from June 2007 to 208 were generated. Based on the DGGE banding patterns of the two years survey, we found no significant differences between the communities of distinct copepod species, nor did we find any seasonality. Overall, we identified 67 phylotypes (>97 % similarity) falling into the bacterial phyla of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The most abundant phylotypes were affiliated to the Alphaproteobacteria. In comparison with PCR-DGGE and clone libraries, phylotypes of the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the clone libraries, whereas Alphaproteobacteria were most abundant in the PCR-DGGE analyses.

  16. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in North Africa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North African countries, cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission has been increasing since the 1980s, with a significant increase in the incidence of cases and a spread of the geographical distribution. The disease currently represents a major public health problem with a productivity gap and an impediment for development, which results in dramatic socioeconomic and psycho-sanitary impacts. The incidence is more than thousands of cases every year in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. In Egypt, only a few dozen cases per year are reported, mainly in the Sinai Peninsula. Three Leishmania species, associated with distinct eco-epidemiological and clinical patterns, are involved, namely Leishmania infantum, L. major, and L. tropica. However, L. major is by far the most frequent in Algeria, Libya, and Tunisia, with more than 90% of the registered cases. It is mainly encountered in rural areas under semi-arid, arid and Saharan climates. Leishmania tropica is more prevalent in Morocco, reaching 30–40% of isolates in some districts. Much data is still missing concerning the risk factors of the infection and the lesion development, as well as vector and reservoir ecology and behavior. The knowledge of such parameters, following multidisciplinary and integrated approaches, is crucial for better management and control of the disease, that also faces a lack of resources and efficient control measures.

  17. Childhood urolithiasis in north-western Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, M Ben; Bash-Agha, I; Elfituri, O; Turki, M; Hawas, A

    2012-01-01

    The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW) Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001) and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%), gross hematuria (22%), associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%), and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05). Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%), hydronephrosis (34%), systemic hypertension (8%), and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%), uric acid (10%), carbapatite (7%), and cystine (3.5%). Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  18. Species longevity in North American fossil mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prothero, Donald R

    2014-08-01

    Species longevity in the fossil record is related to many paleoecological variables and is important to macroevolutionary studies, yet there are very few reliable data on average species durations in Cenozoic fossil mammals. Many of the online databases (such as the Paleobiology Database) use only genera of North American Cenozoic mammals and there are severe problems because key groups (e.g. camels, oreodonts, pronghorns and proboscideans) have no reliable updated taxonomy, with many invalid genera and species and/or many undescribed genera and species. Most of the published datasets yield species duration estimates of approximately 2.3-4.3 Myr for larger mammals, with small mammals tending to have shorter species durations. My own compilation of all the valid species durations in families with updated taxonomy (39 families, containing 431 genera and 998 species, averaging 2.3 species per genus) yields a mean duration of 3.21 Myr for larger mammals. This breaks down to 4.10-4.39 Myr for artiodactyls, 3.14-3.31 Myr for perissodactyls and 2.63-2.95 Myr for carnivorous mammals (carnivorans plus creodonts). These averages are based on a much larger, more robust dataset than most previous estimates, so they should be more reliable for any studies that need species longevity to be accurately estimated.

  19. Radioxenon Atmospheric Measurements in North Las Vegas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Cooper, Matthew W.; Lidey, Lance S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Hayes, James C.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Karr, L.; Shafer, David S.; Tappen, J.

    2007-09-25

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) deployed the Automated Radioxenon Sampler/Analyzer (ARSA) in North Las Vegas for two weeks in February and March 2006 for the purpose of measuring the radioxenon background at a level of sensitivity much higher than previously done in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The measurements establish what might be expected if future measurements are taken at NTS itself and investigate improved methods of environmental monitoring of NTS for test site readiness. Also, such radioxenon measurements have not previously been performed in a United States location considered to be as remote from nuclear reactors. A second detector, the Portable Environmental Monitoring Station (PEMS), built and operated by the Desert Research Institute (DRI), was deployed in conjunction with the ARSA and contained a pressure ion chamber, aerosol collection filters, and meteorological sensors. Some of the radioxenon measurements detected 133Xe at levels up to 3 mBq/m3. This concentration of radioxenon is consistent with the observation of low levels of radioxenon emanating from distance nuclear reactors. Previous measurements in areas of high nuclear reactor concentration have shown similar results, but the western US, in general, does not have many nuclear reactors. Measurements of the wind direction indicate that the air carrying the radioxenon came from south of the detector and not from the NTS.

  20. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  1. Childhood urolithiasis in North-Western Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ben Halim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study reviews causes of urolithiasis and its manifestations in North-West (NW Libya. Libyan childhood urolithiasis accounted for 3.6% of nephrology out-patient work load. There were 59 children with urolithiasis, including 34 boys and 25 girls with a mean age of 2.8 ± 2.42 years. Urolithiasis was more common among younger age groups (P = 0.001 and in boys with primary oxaluria and infective etiology. The causes of urolithiasis included metabolic stones in 64%, infective in 26%, and it was idiopathic in 10%. Overall, family history of renal stone disease was elicited in 59%; it was 92% in patients with primary oxaluria. The main presenting features were abdominal pain (27%, gross hematuria (22%, associated urinary tract infection (UTI; 24%, and stone release in 19%. Stone location was bilateral in 64%, multiple in 68%, and in the upper tract in 93% (P = 0.05. Important complications encountered included chronic renal failure (13%, hydronephrosis (34%, systemic hypertension (8%, and rickets in 17%. Calcium oxalate was the most prominent constituent, seen in 41% of the calculi, followed by struvite (21%, uric acid (10%, carbapatite (7%, and cystine (3.5%. Diagnostically helpful findings were family history, age at presentation, UTI by urease producing organisms, rickets, imaging and chemical analysis of calculi. Early detection and prompt treatment helps in preventing long-term sequelae in patients with urolithiasis.

  2. Multidecadal Variability of the North Brazil Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D.; McPhaden, M.

    2009-04-01

    The North Brazil Current (NBC) flowing northward in the tropical south Atlantic is one of the strongest western boundary currents in the world ocean. It's unique location, straddling the tropical Atlantic where currents are predominately zonal, suggests that it is a major component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Fritz Schott was one of the first to suggest using the NBC as an index for AMOC transport, which is difficult to simulate accurately in models and data assimilation systems due to a lack of observational constraints. Here, we calculate an NBC transport time series based on five decades of historical ocean observations near the western boundary off the coast of Brazil between 6° and 11°S. Results reveal a large magnitude NBC variation on multidecadal time scales that is coherent with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation in sea surface temperature, multidecadal swings in Sahel Drought and Atlantic hurricane activity, as well as the subtropical and subpolar upper ocean salinity anomalies. All of these multidecadal variations have been linked to the AMOC in a number of modelling studies, suggesting that our observed multidecadal NBC variability is an useful indicator of the AMOC. Concerning the possible slowdown of AMOC under global warming and the debate about whether a slowdown has already occurred, our NBC transport time series shows no significant trend over the last half century. The results provide important constraints on climate models used for climate change projections and decadal time scale climate predictions.

  3. Bioluminescence patterns among North American Armillaria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Jeanne D

    2015-06-01

    Bioluminescence is widely recognized among white-spored species of Basidiomycota. Most reports of fungal bioluminescence are based upon visual light perception. When instruments such as photomultipliers have been used to measure fungal luminescence, more taxa have been discovered to produce light, albeit at a range of magnitudes. The present studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of bioluminescence among North American Armillaria species. Consistent, constitutive bioluminescence was detected for the first time for mycelia of Armillaria calvescens, Armillaria cepistipes, Armillaria gemina, Armillaria nabsnona, and Armillaria sinapina and confirmed for mycelia of Armillaria gallica, Armillaria mellea, Armillaria ostoyae, and Armillaria tabescens. Emission spectra of mycelia representing all species had maximum intensity in the range 515-525 nm confirming that emitted light was the result of bioluminescence rather than chemiluminescence. Time series analysis of 1000 consecutive luminescence measurements revealed a highly significant departure from random variation. Mycelial luminescence of eight species exhibited significant, stable shifts in magnitude in response to a series of mechanical disturbance treatments, providing one mechanism for generating observed luminescence variation.

  4. Arboviruses in North Dakota, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John F; Main, Andy J; Armstrong, Philip M; Andreadis, Theodore G; Ferrandino, Francis J

    2015-02-01

    To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively.

  5. Contact, Incorporation, and the North American Southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley A. Hollis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The broadening of the world-system, which involves the geographic expansion into previously external areas and integration of new economies into its network of economic relationships, is represented in world-system scholarship by two competing views. On the one hand, Wallerstein and his associates treat incorporation as being specifically contingent on the routine and systematic economic exchange for durable goods produced in the previously external area to the benefit of the core. In contrast, Hall and Chase-Dunn contend that incorporation is a synchronous process that takes different forms depending onthe relative locations within the hierarchical world-economy of both the previously external areas and the “incorporating” area. Using the sixteenth-century North American Southeast as an episode of incorporation, this study examines the contact relationship between early European explorers and the indigenous groups in the formerly external area. My goal is to illuminate more fully how contact may permanently alter the social organization and relations within the region and, consequently, the form taken by subsequent integration into the world-system.

  6. The Polaris Project / NorthStar implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, L. A.; Bennett, D. H.; Engelhaupt, T.

    2001-12-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web opens new opportunities for education; it also changes the environment within which we teach. As Marshall McLuhan said many years ago: "The medium is the message". What kind of medium is the Web, and how is it best harnessed for use in astronomy education? We are developing a sequence of one-credit web-based courses covering basic astronomical topics as a means of exploring what the web can and cannot do. Our first course, NorthStar, deals with coordinates, sky motions, and navigation by the stars. It has been through "beta testing" and is being offered as an experimental course for spring. Our second course, EveningStar, is under development. The course materials are open and may be used as a supplement to any course, or for independent study; the homework, discussion group, and other human-intervention features require a student to register for the course. We invite people to make use of our open materials and, in exchange, to provide us with feedback about how well it works. We acknowledge support for this project from NASA (NAG 58465) and the Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University.

  7. North America: US activity is unprecedented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-15

    For overall drilling activity in 1981, North America is expected to post a 20.9% increase over 1980 figures for a total of 90,347 wells. The growth is due solely to a 28.6% increase in US activity; Canada and Mexico show declines of 31.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Mid-year reports for the US included 36,776 wells, 7078 of them gas wells; of 7526 wildcats, 840 were gas-productive. The success rate for mid-year was 25.5%. The downturn in Canadian activity reflects the decrease in investments caused by the restructuring of the Canadian industry. Exploration is continuing, however, particularly in the east coast offshore region, the Beaufort Sea, and the Arctic Islands. The outlook in Mexico is highly promising: new fields are being discovered regularly in Campeche Bay, the Mesozoic region of Tabasco and Chiapas, the Sabinas Gulf region, and Chicontepec Paleocanyon. Since 1976, Petroleos Mexicanos has successfully reduced natural-gas flaring to less than 2% of production. Gas production increased by 22% in 1980, reaching 3.723 billion CF/day by December. Other drilling activity occurred in the West Indies and Caribbean Sea and parts of Central America.

  8. North Korea and Support to Terrorism: An Evolving History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce E. Bechtol, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DPRK's (Democratic People's Republic of Korea or North Korea support for terrorism began as an ideologically-based policy financed by the Soviet Union that eventually led to a policy designed to put money into the coffers of the elite in Pyongyang—in short, a "proliferation for hire" policy. This article articulates a brief history of the North Korean regime, the rise to power of Kim Il-sung and his son, Kim Jong-il, and North Korea's persistent support to terrorist groups around the globe.

  9. Greenhouse gas issues in the North American trucking industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, P. [Center for Data and Analysis in Transportation CDAT, Departement d' economique, Universite Laval, 1025 Avenue des sciences sociales, Quebec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, we examine some of the issues associated with reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the North American trucking industry. We review some basic descriptive statistics to apprehend the basic conditions in the three countries of North America and describe the North American trucking industry and the changes in its GHG performance. We also present some of the policies that have been either implemented or are being considered to reduce trucking GHG emissions. We then discuss some of the issues involved in choosing instruments to reduce trucking emissions. Specifically, we discuss the following instruments: incentives and standard to improve truck fuel efficiency, a tax on CO2, and tradable permits systems.

  10. Bringing Home the Japanese Abductees from North Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITO, Takuya

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the official and unofficial attitude of former Japanese prime minister Abe Shinzo towards the abductions of Japanese people by North Korea. Officially, Abe displayed an aggressive attitude towards the problem. However, unofficially, he possessed an ingratiating attitude. A Japanese weekly magazine reported that he had been in regular negotiations with North Korea surreptitiously. Abe's ingratiating attitude may be explained by his alleged connection with the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity—which preaches the establishment of a harmonious relationship with North Korea. Abe's dual attitude confounded the families of the abductees as they were unable to ascertain which of his attitudes was genuine.

  11. North American Water Program (NAWP): A Vision to Address North America's Freshwater Sustainability Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belvedere, D. R.; Houser, P. R.; Schiffer, R. A.; Entin, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    Dramatically changing climates has had an indelible impact on North America's water crisis; the rapid melting of glaciers has profound implications for the sustainability of Canada's rivers. However, projective increases in water demand from increasing population, industrial energy, and agriculture needs may have four times more impact on the water supply-demand imbalance than climate change. Reliable prediction of hydrologic change and extremes is of critical importance for policy and decision makers to adapt to these future water challenges. However, the models that we use to understand and forecast water availability, flooding, and drought are simply not up to the task of addressing our most pressing societal issues and national security. We need a decisive and coordinative effort to systematically improve water cycle prediction skill, coupled with reliable methodologies to translate those predictions into actionable water supply and quality information to support sustainable water management - this is a primary motivation for the proposed North American Water Program (NAWP). To decisively address these challenges, we recommend that NAWP coalesce an interdisciplinary, international and interagency effort to make significant contributions to continental-to-decision-scale hydroclimate science and solutions. By entraining, integrating and coordinating the vast array of interdisciplinary observationable and prediction resources available, NAWP will significantly advance skill in predicting, assessing, and managing variability and changes in North American water resources, as an integral part of the global climate system. We adopt three challenges to organize NAWP efforts. The first deals with developing a scientific basis and tools for mitigating and adapting to changes in the water supply-demand balance. The second challenge is benchmarking; to use incomplete and uncertain observations to assess water storage and quality dynamics, and to characterize the

  12. A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    A geochemical atlas of North Carolina, U.S.A., was prepared using National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) stream-sediment data. Before termination of the NURE program, sampling of nearly the entire state (48,666 square miles of land area) was completed and geochemical analyses were obtained. The NURE data are applicable to mineral exploration, agriculture, waste disposal siting issues, health, and environmental studies. Applications in state government include resource surveys to assist mineral exploration by identifying geochemical anomalies and areas of mineralization. Agriculture seeks to identify areas with favorable (or unfavorable) conditions for plant growth, disease, and crop productivity. Trace elements such as cobalt, copper, chromium, iron, manganese, zinc, and molybdenum must be present within narrow ranges in soils for optimum growth and productivity. Trace elements as a contributing factor to disease are of concern to health professionals. Industry can use pH and conductivity data for water samples to site facilities which require specific water quality. The North Carolina NURE database consists of stream-sediment samples, groundwater samples, and stream-water analyses. The statewide database consists of 6,744 stream-sediment sites, 5,778 groundwater sample sites, and 295 stream-water sites. Neutron activation analyses were provided for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, Dy in groundwater and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in stream sediments. Supplemental analyses by other techniques were reported on U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn for 4,619 stream-sediment samples. A small subset of 334 stream samples was analyzed for gold. The goal of the atlas was to make available the statewide NURE data with minimal interpretation to enable prospective users to modify and manipulate the data for their end use. The atlas provides only

  13. Array Analysis of North Atlantic Microseisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Möllhoff, Martin; Donne, Sarah; Lokmer, Ivan; Le Pape, Florian

    2016-04-01

    Oceans generate persistent low frequency background seismic signals known as microseisms through a mechanical coupling with the Earth's crust. Microseism energy originates as regions of low barometric pressure (depressions) over the oceans where it is transmitted to the sea-floor and propagates as elastic energy in the Earths crust. Consequently microseisms carry important meteorological information relating to both the atmosphere and the hydrosphere. The significance of microseisms as climate indicators has previously been investigated in several studies (Essen et al., 1999; Aster et al., 2010) and to estimate ocean wave parameters using onshore seismometer data (Bromirski et al., 1999). Also many modern seismological methods make use of microseism signals, for example "noise tomography" (Shapiro et al., 2005); spectral ratio techniques ; and cross-correlation techniques (Wapenaar et al., 2011; Brenguier et al., 2014). The continental shelf near Ireland is a known generation are for microseisms and an important region for European weather forecasting and climate studies. There has also been seismometers in the region since the 1960s. There is a single station in Valentia observatory in south-west Ireland and a small scale seismic array in Scotland which offer potential climate records for the region. To make use of this information it is first necessary to understand how microseisms recorded in Ireland relate to the local ocean wavefield. The WAVEOBS project was set established with three primary goals; to get a better fundamental understanding of microseism sources; to investigate the use of ocean generated microseisms as real time ocean wave height data; and to investigate their use as a climate proxy. Using spectral analysis and array methods the microseism wavefield in the North-East Atlantic near Ireland is described with reference to the ocean wavefield.

  14. Carboniferous coprolites from Qinhuangdao of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Here we reported the coprolites that are preserved in the dark grey silty shale of the Carboniferous Benxi Formation from Shimenzhai,Qinhuangdao,North China.The coprolites occur in a sinusoidal and ribbon-like aggregate.A coprolite granule is sesame-shaped,roundish at the terminals,equidimensional and equimorphic.It is 2.2 mm long and 0.6 mm wide.Its ventral surface appears flat,and its dorsal surface is slightly convex and has an axial furrow consisting of a string of bead-shaped pits.The coprolite granule has a directional arrangement and general equality in distribution within the aggregate.Its long axis is commonly perpendicular to the margins of the aggregate.The undigested food remains of animals and plants and the organomineral calcites with heteromorphology can be seen within the coprolite granule under photomicroscope and SEM.We deduced that a tracemaker of coprolites may be a tiny polyphagia animal similar to a modern loach or a tiny fish and that the tracemaker defecated and moved in synchronization below the interface between water and sediment.The coprolites may have a high viscidity and intensity while they were defecated.Diagenesis of feces may take place earlier and quicker than the host strata because of microbes.The lagersttte of coprolites described herein may result from the combination of many factors,such as the high content of oxygen in the Carboniferous atmosphere,the brackish lagoon in humid and tropic climate background,the low water energy,and the anoxic taphonomic environment that was lack of other animals.Further we suggested that the deoxidized color (dark grey) of host strata of coprolites may be formed in the sedimentary environment rich in oxygen and the early anoxic diagenetic environment.

  15. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  16. 1988 waterfowl production survey for South Dakota and North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the Waterfowl Production and Habitat Survey for North and South Dakota during 1988. The primary purpose of the survey is to provide...

  17. Classification of Forest Fragmentation in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The map layer is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest...

  18. Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  19. Passive Acoustic Studies of North Atlantic Right Whales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Passive acoustic monitoring buoys have been deployed in shallow waters between North Carolina and Northern Florida since 2003. These units are bottom mounted...

  20. Status of marine mammals in the eastern North Pacific Ocean

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the status or marine mammals in the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Species covered are: sea otter, northern, Guadalupe fur seals, stellar,...

  1. Regional air quality modeling: North American and European perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steyn, D.; Builtjes, P.; Schaap, M.; Yarwood, G.

    2013-01-01

    An overview of regional-scale quality modeling practices and perspectives in North America and Europe, highlighting the differences and commonalities in how regional-scale air quality modeling systems are being used and evaluated across both continents

  2. Annual Habitat Work Plan, North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual habitat work plan outlines tasks to be completed in FY 2011 on Dahomey, Tallhatchie, Coldwater River Refuges and the Henson FSA Tract of the North MS Refuge...

  3. Annual Habitat Work Plan, North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual habitat work plan outlines tasks to be completed in FY 2005 on Dahomey, Tallhatchie, Coldwater River Refuges of the North MS Refuge Complex. Report also...

  4. Annual Habitat Work Plan, North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual habitat work plan outlines tasks to be completed in FY 2008 on Dahomey, Tallhatchie, Coldwater River Refuges of the North MS Refuge Complex. Report also...

  5. NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), for 1979 to Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Project is a reanalysis of historical observations using a 32-km version of the National Centers for Environmental...

  6. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  7. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  8. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Daily North Arctic Oscillation Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated Principal...

  9. Carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the North Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Jayakumar, D.A.; George, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; DeSousa, S.N.

    The understanding of biogeochemical cycling of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in the oceans is essential for predicting the fate of anthropogenically emitted components. The North Indian Ocean, with its diverse regimes, provides us with a natural...

  10. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: North Dakota Wetland Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Dakota Wetland Management Districts for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the...

  11. Comprehensive Conservation Plan: North Dakota National Wildlife Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Dakota NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the refuges' vision and...

  12. Morehead City, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Morehead City, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  13. Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cape Hatteras, North Carolina Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  14. North American Land Cover Characteristics ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an Arc/INFO grid map of land cover characteristics for North America, excluding Hawaii, and including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The nominal...

  15. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geoform

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  16. Environmental Assessment : Hunting Plan : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Environmental Assessment is to evaluate the feasibility of opening the North Platte National Wildlife Refuge to limited hunting on previously...

  17. One of the Helium Liquifiers in the North Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    Several Helium Liquifiers were installed in the North Area to cool superconducting magnets used in the experiments. At center top is M.Dykes, at bottom right J.Dozio. See CERN Annual Report 1979 p.82.

  18. [1980 Midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the midwinter waterfowl and eagle survey conducted January 2-8, 1980 across North Dakota.

  19. Inventory of Atlantic White Cedar Remnant Stands in North Carolina.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This inventory was commissioned by the U.S. Air Force to identify the location and condition of extant remnant Atlantic white cedar groves and stands in North...

  20. North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The goal of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) is to construct quality-controlled, and spatially and temporally consistent, land-surface model...

  1. Boundaries - 1997 Red River of the North Flood

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — Digital outline of the 1997 flood event. 1997 flooded outline extends from Emerson, Manitoba to Wahpeton, North Dakota. Delineations exist for the entire main stem...

  2. North Park Basin, Colorado, for 1999 National Coal Resource Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This ArcView shapefile contains a polygon representing the extent of the North Park coal basin boundary. This theme was created specifically for the National Coal...

  3. North Slope, Alaska ESI: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for whales, seals, walruses, and polar bears for the North Slope of Alaska. Vector polygons in this data...

  4. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Biotic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  5. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Substrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  6. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation of Bogue Sound, North Carolina 1992 Geodatabase

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During 1992, 1:20,000 scale aerial photography for Bogue Sound, North Carolina was collected as part of an effort to map submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in...

  7. EAARL Coastal Topography--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced...

  8. Sport hunting decision document package : North Platte National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes limited hunting opportunities at North Platte NWR. Hunting activities will be permitted, but administratively limited to...

  9. Annual Habitat Work Plan, North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual habitat work plan outlines tasks to be completed in FY 2012 on Dahomey, Tallhatchie, Coldwater River Refuges of the North MS Refuge Complex. Report also...

  10. Freshwater mussels of North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuge Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A literature search of the distribution of freshwater mussels anticipated to be found on refuges assoicated with the North Mississippi Refuges Cjomplex and museum...

  11. Development of a North American survey for monitoring shorebird populations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to investigate the feasibility of a survey for North American shorebird populations that will provide reliable annual indices to...

  12. [1983 midwinter bald eagle survey summary : North Dakota

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Memorandum containing summary data of bird observations for the fifth midwinter bald eagle survey conducted January 6-7, 1983 across North Dakota.

  13. Grayscale North America Shaded Relief ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale North America shaded relief data were derived from the GTOPO30 elevation data. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid...

  14. HATTERAS_INDEX - Hatteras Island, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  15. Wind regime and wind power in North Patagonia, Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palese, C.; Laessig, J.L.; Cogliati, M.G.; Bastanski, M.A. [Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Facultad de Ingenieria

    2000-07-01

    The present paper discusses wind and wind power characteristics in a region north of 40{sup o}S (North Patagonia, Argentina) as well as wind power projects sustainability. Extreme wind episodes influence most economic and social regional activities. Mean flow pattern was studied in three North Patagonia sites: Neuquen, Mari Menuco and Cutral-Co, by sampling analysis of wind direction and intensity during a year. Gusts were quantified and strong winds were studied. Available meteorological power was also estimated. It was observed that North Patagonia is a place of great wind power potential. However, the energy available, which is related to prevailing strong winds, is also associated to high gust occurrence which certainly restricts exploitation. (Author)

  16. Stillwater Wildlife Management Area : Grasslands Management Plan : North Marsh Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan is designed to serve as the initial Fish and Wildlife Service habitat management proposal for the North Marsh grazing unit of Stillwater National Wildlife...

  17. Sino-U.S. Cooperation in North Korean Nuclear Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and the United States have cooperated closely in resolving the second North Korean nuclear crisis.China and the United States have worked together with South Korea, Russia and Japan to prevent the North Korean nuclear issue from spiraling out of control, and they have also tried to make progress in the six-party talks. Despite differences over the issue, both sides are maintaining the momentum of cooperation with increasing mutual understanding and trust. The current U.S.-North Korea rapprochement has progressed quickly, adding a new factor in Sino-U.S. cooperation. Apart from bilateral contact with North Korea, the United States is insisting on a multilateral approach, continuing to persuade China to share responsibility for a nuclear-free Peninsula, and jointly advancing the process in the second phase set forth in the February 13 Agreement on Initial Actions. China's role,therefore, remains indispensable.

  18. Wind Powering America: The Next Steps in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, Jennifer L. [North Carolina Solar Center; Scanlin, Dennis [Appalachian State University; Quinlan, Paul [North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association

    2013-06-18

    The goal of this project is to apply the WPA’s proactive outreach strategy to the problem of educating the public about the likely transmission infrastructure developments concomitant to the significant development of wind energy resources in North Carolina. Given the lead time to develop significant new transmission infrastructure (5-10 years), it is critical to begin this outreach work today, so that wind resources can be developed to adequately meet the 20% by 2030 goal in the mid- to long-term (10-20 years). The project team planned to develop a transmission infrastructure outreach campaign for North Carolina by: (1) convening a utility interest group (UIG) of the North Carolina Wind Working Group (NC WWG) consisting of electric utilities in the state and the Southeast; and (2) expanding outreach to local and state government officials in North Carolina.

  19. North Slope, Alaska ESI: T_MAMMAL (Terrestrial Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for brown bears, caribou, and muskoxen for the North Slope, Alaska. Vector polygons in this data set...

  20. Norwegian North Polar Expedition 1893-1896: Oceanographic Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains water depth, temperature, specific gravity, salinity, and density measurements from the North Polar Basin and the Barents Sea, gathered by...

  1. North Mississippi National Wildlife Refuges Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Mississippi NWRs Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  2. Imperiled Freshwater and Diadromous Fishes of North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — List of imperiled freshwater and diadromous fishes of North America as determined by the 2008 American Fisheries Society (AFS) Endangered Species Committee (ESC) on...

  3. Annual Habitat Work Plan, North Mississippi Refuges Complex 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual habitat work plan outlines tasks to be completed in FY 2004 on Dahomey, Tallhatchie, Coldwater River Refuges of the North MS Refuge Complex. Report also...

  4. North Slope, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrography Lines and Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vector lines and polygons representing coastal hydrography used in the creation of the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) for the North...

  5. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Daily Pacific North American Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Pacific-North American pattern (PNA) is one of the leading teleconnection patterns in the Northern Hemisphere circulation. It is calculated as a Rotated...

  6. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  7. North Platte National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on North Platte NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and...

  8. North Koreans in China in need of international protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Cohen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of continuing persecution of North Koreans who are forcibly returned to their country of origin by China, the international community needs to reconsider how it might better work towards securing protection for North Koreans. Some may be political refugees, others ‘refugees sur place’: they may not have been refugees when they left their country but become refugees because they have a valid fear of persecution upon return.

  9. Strategic Implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Follow-on bilateral agreements with the United States brought investment and swift growth in exports. When Carlos Salinas de Gortari was elected...Free Trade Agreement (FTA), 5 President Salinas , joined Canadian Prime Minister Mulroney and U.S. President Bush in formally proposing the North...Mexico had completed negotiation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. President Bush, Prime Minister Mulroney, and President Salinas signed the

  10. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati; Mu'minatus Sholichah

    2011-01-01

    Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major...

  11. Design and Construct of the North Switching Magnet of BRIF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI; Su-min; LI; Ming; ZHENG; Xia

    2013-01-01

    For the 100 MeV proton beam transport system of BRIF,the proton beam extracted from the north extract port is transported into a common beam line,then allot to two beam lines(ISOL and Isotope)by using a±30o switching magnet,called north switching magnet.The magnet is capable to bending the proton beam(75-100 MeV)up to 30o.

  12. Productivity and openness in North Africa: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Bouoiyour, Jamal

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines, within the framework of a panel data model's, the relation between the commercial opening, the foreign direct investment and the growth of the productivity of the North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) from 1970 to 2001. The results suggest a significant effect of the human capital, foreign investment and research-development on the productivity of North Africa, but a negative effect of the imports.

  13. Chromite Enrichment in the Recent Fluviatile Sediments, North Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al Juboury, Ali I. [علي الجبوري; Ismail, Sabah A.; Ghazal, Mohsin M.

    1999-01-01

    The Recent sediments from North Iraq are characterized by a higher content of chromite. This paper deals with the mineralogy and geochemistry of chromite in the heavy mineral assemblages from Recent fluvial sediments in an attempt to elucidate its distribution and source rock. The heavy fraction is composed of iron oxides and chromite forming about 50% of the total heavies. Chromite forms up to 80% of the opaque minerals at some areas in North Iraq. The non-opaque heavy minerals are composed ...

  14. The New North African Syndrome: A Fanonian Commemoration

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Nigel C.

    2011-01-01

    What better way to celebrate, commemorate, critically reflect on, and think through Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth fifty years after its publication with a new North African syndrome: Revolution—or at least a series of revolts that continue to rock regimes across North Africa and the region.  Fanon begins The Wretched writing of decolonization as a program of complete disorder, an overturning of order—often against the odds—willed from the bottom up. Witho...

  15. North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the United States, and International Legitimacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    8. 42Following the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, the Albanian State was created but with only one-half of the Albanian population...NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION, THE UNITED STATES, AND INTERNATIONAL LEGITIMACY A Monograph by MAJ Mark Van Gelder...North Atlantic Treaty Organization, The United States, and International Legitimacy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  16. University of North Carolina's experience with state medical assistance teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, Jeff; Murtaugh, Lisa; Hoffman, Randy

    2010-01-01

    Events in the last several years have shown a clear need for better preparation regarding disaster management. In an effort to improve this preparation, North Carolina implemented state medical assistant teams to provide alternative care facilities, decontamination facilities, and shelter assistance during times of disaster. This article explores these teams from the perspective of the University of North Carolina, which serves as a lead agency for one of these teams. Key components of the team, training provided, and lessons learned will be discussed.

  17. Arctic Sovereignty Disputes: International Relations Theory in the High North

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Sea USGS United States Geological Service xii THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express...Osica, “The High North as a New Area of Cooperation and Rivalry,” Nowa Europa Special Issue, vol. 1, no. 4, 2010. 16 Northwest Passage indicates...Osica, Olaf. “The High North as a New Area of Cooperation and Rivalry.” Nowa Europa Special Issue, vol. I, no. 4, 2010. Regjeringen Norway. “Joint

  18. United States’ Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    counter view supports economic engagement with North Korea, like South Korea’s now defunct “ Sunshine Policy.” Economic engagement strategies are...Korean territorial waters in August 2003. Both governments dismissed these incidents and continued on the sunshine path. In 2003, North Korea...as General Secretary of the Korean Workers Party. The post of President was eternal , but Kim Jong-il also became the Chairman of the National

  19. Influence of the North Atlantic on simulated atmospheric variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. X. Li

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available An atmospheric general circulation model is used to investigate the influence of the North Atlantic Ocean on atmospheric variability. The study covers the period from 1950 to 1994. The observed sea surface temperature and sea ice extension are used to force the atmospheric model. Several configurations of the oceanic boundary conditions were made to isolate the role of the North Atlantic and to study its non-linear interaction with forcings from other oceanic basins. The multi-realization character of the experiments distinguishes between the internal random part and the external forced part of the total variability. The potential predictability can thus be evaluated. The response of the atmosphere is also studied with a modal approach in terms of hemispheric teleconnection patterns. The North Atlantic Ocean has a direct influence on both the Northern Hemisphere annular mode and the Pacific-North-America pattern, leading to a weak predictability. However the direct response is largely modulated by forcings from other oceanic basins. The non-linearity of the system compensates the predictable component of the annular mode induced by the North Atlantic forcing. Furthermore it reduces the forced component of the Pacific-North-America pattern, increasing its chaoticity.

  20. Interdecadal change of atmospheric stationary waves and North China drought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xin-Gang; Fu Cong-Bin; Wang Ping

    2005-01-01

    The inderdecadal change of atmospheric stationary waves (ATW) has been investigated for the two periods 1956-77 and 1978-99. The trough of ATW in the middle and low layer of the troposphere over the Asian continent has experienced a significant weakening during the past two decades, which exerts a great influence on the North China climate. The ATW in 200 hPa has also exhibited some changes since 1977, as a stationary ridge appeared over the northwestern China while a stationary trough appeared above North China. This leads to an increasing of the upward motion above northwestern China and a decreasing above North China. A west-east section of the stationary waves at 40°N shows that the ATW above North China tilted westward for the period 1956-77, but was almost upright during 1978-99. The composite analysis confirms that the climate mean ATW pattern after 1977 is similar to the dry pattern for North China, while the rainy pattern is similar to that before 1977. In consequence, the North China drought is partly due to the interdecadal change of the ATW over boreal Asia in the recent two decades.

  1. Recent Decadal Trend in the North Atlantic Wind Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wei Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the climatic trend of the North Atlantic wind energy using cross-calibrated, multiplatform (CCMP wind data for the period 1988–2011. Results show the following. (1 The North Atlantic WPD exhibited a significant increasing trend of 4.45  (W/m2/yr over the past 24 years. (2 The variation in the North Atlantic Ocean WPD shows a noticeable regional difference. More than half of the North Atlantic Ocean has a significantly increasing trend in WPD. The increasing trend in the mid-high latitudes is stronger than that in the low latitudes, and the trend is stronger in the west than in the east. The area with the strongest increasing trend is located along the southern coast of Greenland of 35 (W/m2/yr. (3 There is a noticeable seasonal difference in the variation of WPD. The strongest increasing trend occurs in December-January-February (DJF, followed by September-October-November (SON and March-April-May (MAM, and the weakest occurs in June-July-August (JJA. The increasing trend in different areas is dominated by different seasons. (4 There is no leading or lagging correlation between WPD and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. However, there is a noticeable negative correlation between the Niño3 index and WPD in most of the North Atlantic.

  2. Origin of Quasi-decadal North Atlantic Oscillation Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintges, Annika; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2015-04-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is the leading mode of internal atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic sector. It depicts significant quasi-decadal variability that is well documented, but the underlying mechanism is still under discussion. Other quantities in the North Atlantic sector such as sea surface temperature (SST) exhibit variability on a similar timescale. Here we present results from a global climate model which simulates the quasi-decadal NAO and North Atlantic SST variability consistent with observations. The quasi-decadal NAO variability is suggested to originate from large-scale air-sea interactions, where the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) basically sets the timescale. Wind-driven ocean circulation changes provide a fast positive feedback on North Atlantic SST through anomalous Ekman currents and the establishment of an "intergyre" gyre. A delayed negative feedback on SST is accomplished through surface heat flux-driven changes of the AMOC and associated heat transport. The results stress the importance of both wind-induced and thermohaline-induced changes in the ocean circulation for quasi-decadal climate variability in the North Atlantic sector.

  3. Reorganization of the North Atlantic Oscillation during early Holocene deglaciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Jasper A.; Dietrich, Stephan; Fietzke, Jan; Fohlmeister, Jens; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Scholz, Denis; Richter, Detlev K.; Sabaoui, Abdellah; Spötl, Christoph; Lohmann, Gerrit; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2016-08-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation is the dominant atmospheric pressure mode in the North Atlantic region and affects winter temperature and precipitation in the Mediterranean, northwest Europe, Greenland, and Asia. The index that describes the sea-level pressure difference between Iceland and the Azores is correlated with a dipole precipitation pattern over northwest Europe and northwest Africa. How the North Atlantic Oscillation will develop as the Greenland ice sheet melts is unclear. A potential past analogue is the early Holocene, during which melting ice sheets around the North Atlantic freshened surface waters, affecting the strength of the meridional overturning circulation. Here we present a Holocene rainfall record from northwest Africa based on speleothem δ18O and compare it against a speleothem-based rainfall record from Europe. The two records are positively correlated during the early Holocene, followed by a shift to an anti-correlation, similar to the modern record, during the mid-Holocene. On the basis of our simulations with an Earth system model, we suggest the shift to the anti-correlation reflects a large-scale atmospheric and oceanic reorganization in response to the demise of the Laurentide ice sheet and a strong reduction of meltwater flux to the North Atlantic, pointing to a potential sensitivity of the North Atlantic Oscillation to the melting of ice sheets.

  4. Water Security Problem in North China: Research and Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; LIU Meng-Yu; JIA Shao-Feng

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the emergence of water security problems in North China with the aim of highlighting key water resources management and water security issues for the long-term development of North China. Three key problems related to water resources and security issues in North China in the 21st century are addressed, namely 1) the water cycle under environmental change, 2) agricultural water saving, and 3) water security. Development of international research related to these issues is also reviewed. The research plan developed recently by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) is discussed and suggestions on research and development of water resources science in North China are presented.Thanks to focus on experimental catchments and dedicated research stations, a detailed knowledge of the water cycle on North China farmland has been compiled. A range of techniques that include isotope tracers has been used to acquire hydrologic data. Much research has been devoted to developing distributed hydrological models at different scales. In the well irrigation district, five different water saving irrigation regimes have been investigated, and these regimes have had widespread application, and reduced water use 60-150 mm while they increased water use efficiency (WUE) by 20%-30%.Furthermore, preventing water pollution is the most essential step to ensure North China's water security.

  5. Additions and corrections to the check list of the Noctuoidea (Insecta, Lepidoptera) of North America north of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, J Donald; Schmidt, B Christian

    2011-01-01

    A total of 115 additions and corrections are listed and discussed for the check list of the Noctuoidea of North America north of Mexico published in 2010. Thirty-two of these are changes in authorship and/or date of publication or spelling. Taxonomic changes are 33 new or revised synonymies, three new combinations, and six revisions in status from synonymy to valid species.

  6. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  7. South Cascade (USA/North Cascades)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, William R.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has closely monitored this temperate mountain glacier since the late 1950s. During 1958-2007, the glacier retreated about 0.7 km and shrank in area from 2.71 to 1.73 km2, although part of the area change was due to separation of contributing ice bodies from the main glacier. Maximum and average glacier thicknesses are about 170 and 80 m, respectively. Year-to-year variations of snow accumulation amounts on the glacier are largely attributable to the regional maritime climate and fluctuating climate conditions of the North Pacific Ocean. Long-term-average precipitation is about 4500 mm and most of that falls as snow during October through May. Average annual air temperature at 1,900 m altitude (the approximate ELA0) was estimated to be 1.6°C during 2000-2009. Mass balances are computed yearly by the direct glaciological method. Mass balances measured at selected locations are used in an interpolation and extrapolation procedure that computes the mass balance at each point in the glacier surface altitude grid. The resulting mass balance grid is averaged to obtain glacier mass balances. Additionally, the geodetic method has been applied to compute glacier net balances in 1970, 1975, 1977, 1979-80, and 1985-97. Winter snow accumulation on the glacier during 2007/08 and 2008/09 was larger than the long-term (1959-2009) average. The 2007/08 preliminary summer balance (-3510 mm w.e.) was slightly more negative than the long-term average and this yielded a preliminary 2007/08 net balance (-290 mm w.e.), which was less negative than the average for the period of record (-600 mm w.e.). Summer 2009 was uncommonly warm and the preliminary 2008/09 summer balance (-4980 mm w.e.) was more negative than any on record for the glacier. The 2008/09 glacier net balance (-1860 mm w.e.) was among the 10 most negative for the period of net balance record (1953-2009). Material presented here is preliminary in nature and presented prior to final review. These

  8. 31 CFR 500.586 - Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... concerning certain North Korean property. 500.586 Section 500.586 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Authorization of new transactions concerning certain North Korean property. (a) Subject to the limitations in... interest in the property of North Korea or a North Korean national arises on or after June 19, 2000....

  9. The North Sea - A shelf sea in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeis, Kay-Christian; van Beusekom, Justus; Callies, Ulrich; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kannen, Andreas; Kraus, Gerd; Kröncke, Ingrid; Lenhart, Hermann; Lorkowski, Ina; Matthias, Volker; Möllmann, Christian; Pätsch, Johannes; Scharfe, Mirco; Thomas, Helmuth; Weisse, Ralf; Zorita, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Global and regional change clearly affects the structure and functioning of ecosystems in shelf seas. However, complex interactions within the shelf seas hinder the identification and unambiguous attribution of observed changes to drivers. These include variability in the climate system, in ocean dynamics, in biogeochemistry, and in shelf sea resource exploitation in the widest sense by societies. Observational time series are commonly too short, and resolution, integration time, and complexity of models are often insufficient to unravel natural variability from anthropogenic perturbation. The North Sea is a shelf sea of the North Atlantic and is impacted by virtually all global and regional developments. Natural variability (from interannual to multidecadal time scales) as response to forcing in the North Atlantic is overlain by global trends (sea level, temperature, acidification) and alternating phases of direct human impacts and attempts to remedy those. Human intervention started some 1000 years ago (diking and associated loss of wetlands), expanded to near-coastal parts in the industrial revolution of the mid-19th century (river management, waste disposal in rivers), and greatly accelerated in the mid-1950s (eutrophication, pollution, fisheries). The North Sea is now a heavily regulated shelf sea, yet societal goals (good environmental status versus increased uses), demands for benefits and policies diverge increasingly. Likely, the southern North Sea will be re-zoned as riparian countries dedicate increasing sea space for offshore wind energy generation - with uncertain consequences for the system's environmental status. We review available observational and model data (predominantly from the southeastern North Sea region) to identify and describe effects of natural variability, of secular changes, and of human impacts on the North Sea ecosystem, and outline developments in the next decades in response to environmental legislation, and in response to

  10. North Slope (Wahluke Slope) expedited response action cleanup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this action is to mitigate any threat to public health and the environment from hazards on the North Slope and meet the expedited response action (ERA) objective of cleanup to a degree requiring no further action. The ERA may be the final remediation of the 100-I-3 Operable Unit. A No Action record of decision (ROD) may be issued after remediation completion. The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns or administers approximately 140 mi{sup 2} (about 90,000 acres) of land north and east of the Columbia River (referred to as the North Slope) that is part of the Hanford Site. The North Slope, also commonly known as the Wahluke Slope, was not used for plutonium production or support facilities; it was used for military air defense of the Hanford Site and vicinity. The North Slope contained seven antiaircraft gun emplacements and three Nike-Ajax missile positions. These military positions were vacated in 1960--1961 as the defense requirements at Hanford changed. They were demolished in 1974. Prior to government control in 1943, the North Slope was homesteaded. Since the initiation of this ERA in the summer of 1992, DOE signed the modified Hanford Federal Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) with the Washington Department of Ecology (Ecology) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in which a milestone was set to complete remediation activities and a draft closeout report by October 1994. Remediation activities will make the North Slope area available for future non-DOE uses. Thirty-nine sites have undergone limited characterization to determine if significant environmental hazards exist. This plan documents the results of that characterization and evaluates the potential remediation alternatives.

  11. North Pacific Decadal Variability: Insights from a Biennial ENSO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuthavarier, Deepthi; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Vikhliaev, Yury V.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the mechanisms of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO) in the NASA GEOS-5 general circulation model (GCM). Similar to several other state-of-the-art GCMs, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) simulated by the GEOS-5 has a strong biennial periodicity. Since this is a model bias that precludes a strong role of ENSO, it provides a unique environment to assess the other leading mechanisms of North Pacific decadal variability. Despite the biennial ENSO periodicity, the model simulates a realistic PDO pattern in the North Pacific that is resolved as the first empirical orthogonal function (EOF) of winter mean sea surface temperature (SST). The spectrum of the PDO indicates no preferred periodicity. The SST anomalies associated with the PDO, particularly its basin wide structure, are primarily forced by the Aleutian low through Ekman transport. The slow geostrophic transport in association with the meridional adjustment of the subtropical gyre is limited to a narrow region in the Kuroshio-Oyashio extension, north of 40degN. The atmosphere's response to the PDO, while weak, projects onto the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), a meridional dipole in sea level pressure. Both the lack of preferred periodicity and the weak atmospheric response indicate an air-sea coupled oscillation is an unlikely mechanism in this model. In agreement with recent studies, the NPO is correlated with the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation, which is another leading EOF of North Pacific SST variability. The results emphasize the role of atmospheric variability in the North Pacific SST modes, thereby bringing into question the potential for their predictability.

  12. Quality Control Methodology Of A Surface Wind Observational Database In North Eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Eceiza, Etor E.; Fidel González-Rouco, J.; Navarro, Jorge; Conte, Jorge; Beltrami, Hugo

    2016-04-01

    This work summarizes the design and application of a Quality Control (QC) procedure for an observational surface wind database located in North Eastern North America. The database consists of 526 sites (486 land stations and 40 buoys) with varying resolutions of hourly, 3 hourly and 6 hourly data, compiled from three different source institutions with uneven measurement units and changing measuring procedures, instrumentation and heights. The records span from 1953 to 2010. The QC process is composed of different phases focused either on problems related with the providing source institutions or measurement errors. The first phases deal with problems often related with data recording and management: (1) compilation stage dealing with the detection of typographical errors, decoding problems, site displacements and unification of institutional practices; (2) detection of erroneous data sequence duplications within a station or among different ones; (3) detection of errors related with physically unrealistic data measurements. The last phases are focused on instrumental errors: (4) problems related with low variability, placing particular emphasis on the detection of unrealistic low wind speed records with the help of regional references; (5) high variability related erroneous records; (6) standardization of wind speed record biases due to changing measurement heights, detection of wind speed biases on week to monthly timescales, and homogenization of wind direction records. As a result, around 1.7% of wind speed records and 0.4% of wind direction records have been deleted, making a combined total of 1.9% of removed records. Additionally, around 15.9% wind speed records and 2.4% of wind direction data have been also corrected.

  13. Durham, North Carolina, Students Study Martian Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of the wall of a graben a depressed block of land between two parellel faults in Tyrrhena Terra, in Mars' ancient southern highlands, was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) at 0914 UTC (4:14 a.m. EST) on February 6, 2008, near 17.3 degrees south latitude, 95.5 degrees east longitude. CRISM's image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 35 meters (115 feet) across. The region covered is just over 10 kilometers (6.2 miles) wide at its narrowest point. This image was part of an investigation planned by students in four high schools in Durham, North Carolina. The students are working with the CRISM science team in a project called the Mars Exploration Student Data Teams (MESDT), which is part of NASA's Mars Public Engagement Program and Arizona State University's Mars Education Program. Starting with a medium-resolution map of the area, taken as part of CRISM's 'multispectral survey' campaign to map Mars in 72 colors at 200 meters (660 feet) per pixel, the students identified a key rock outcrop to test their hypothesis that the irregular depression was formed by Martian volcanism. They provided the coordinates of the target to CRISM's operations team, who took a high-resolution image of the site. The Context Imager (CTX) accompanied CRISM with a 6 meter (20 feet) per pixel, high-resolution image to sharpen the relationship of spectral variations to the underlying surface structures. The Durham students worked with a mentor on the CRISM team to analyze the data, and presented their results at the 39th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, held in League City, Texas, on March 10-14, 2008. The upper panel of the image shows the location of the CRISM data and the surrounding, larger CTX image, overlain on an image mosaic taken by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on Mars Odyssey. The mosaic has been color-coded for elevation using data from the Mars Orbiter Laser

  14. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  15. High resolution modelling of the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Logemann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The northward inflow of Atlantic Water through Denmark Strait – the North Icelandic Irminger Current (NIIC – is simulated with a numerical model of the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. The model uses the technique of adaptive grid refinement which allows a high spatial resolution (1 km horizontal, 10 m vertical around Iceland. The model is used to assess time and space variability of volume and heat fluxes for the years 1997–2003. Passive tracers are applied to study origin and composition of NIIC water masses. The NIIC originates from two sources: the Irminger Current, flowing as part of the sub-polar gyre in 100–500 m depth along the Reykjanes Ridge and the shallow Icelandic coastal current, flowing north-westward on the south-west Icelandic shelf. The ratio of volume flux between the deep and shallow branch is around 2:1. The NIIC continues as a warm and saline branch northward through Denmark Strait where it entrains large amounts of polar water due to the collision with the southward flowing East Greenland Current. After passing Denmark Strait, the NIIC follows the coast line eastward being an important heat source for north Icelandic waters. At least 60% of the temporal temperature variability of north Icelandic waters is caused by the NIIC. The NIIC volume and heat transport is highly variable and depends strongly on the wind field north-east of Denmark Strait. Daily means can change from 1 Sv eastward to 2 Sv westward within a few days. Highest monthly mean transport rates occur in summer when winds from north are weak, whereas the volume flux is reduced by around 50% in winter. Summer heat flux rates can be even three times higher than in winter. The simulation also shows variability on the interannual scale. In particular weak winds from north during winter 2002/2003 combined with mild weather conditions south of Iceland led to anomalous high NIIC volume (+40% and heat flux (+60% rates. In this period, simulated north Icelandic

  16. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on air pollution transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christoudias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO on the atmospheric dispersion of pollution by computing the emission, transport and removal of idealized insoluble gaseous and water-soluble aerosol tracers, tagged by the continent of origin. We simulated a period of 50 yr (1960–2010, using the ECHAM5/MESSy1 atmospheric chemistry (EMAC general circulation model. The model accounts for anthropogenic, biogenic and biomass burning sources, removal of trace gases through OH oxidation, and precipitation, sedimentation and deposition of aerosols. The model is shown to reproduce the observed spatial features of the NAO, moisture transports and precipitation. During high NAO phase seasons the axis of maximum westerly North American trace gas transports extends relatively far to the north and east over Europe. The NAO phase is significantly correlated with North American insoluble gas and soluble aerosol tracer concentrations over the northwestern Atlantic Ocean and across northern Europe, and with European trace gases and aerosols over Africa and north of the Arctic circle. We find a strong anti-correlation between the phase of the NAO and European pollutant gas concentration over western and central Europe.

  17. LNG : its potential impact on North American markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, B. [Benjamin Schlesinger and Associates Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is expected to play a greater role in North American gas supplies and markets due to the decrease in conventional natural gas production in North America accompanied by an increase in demand for energy. It is expected that the overall share of the LNG gas market will rise from about 1.4 per cent in 2002 to more than 5 per cent by 2020, and potentially up to 15 per cent by that year. The construction of at least 15 new LNG receiving terminals has been proposed for location in the U.S., Canada, and Mexico. In addition, El Paso has proposed a novel offshore LNG receiving concept involving offshore gas pipelines and on-board-ship regasification. As trading of LNG increases in the Atlantic, markets in eastern United States and Canada will benefit from improved gas supplies, but pricing patterns are expected to change. Basis differentials along the Atlantic coastline will probably diminish, potentially reducing the value of Sable Island gas and the pipeline system that runs north to south along the eastern coast of North America. It was noted that Middle Eastern suppliers of LNG will play an important potential role in North American markets. 19 figs.

  18. Tissue parasitic helminthiases are prevalent at Cheongjin, North Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chenghua; Li, Shunyu; Zheng, Shanzi; Choi, Min Ho; Bae, Young Mee; Hong, Sung Tae

    2007-06-01

    We investigated a small-scale serological survey to screen tissue-parasitic helminthiases of North Koreans as one of research programs for re-unification of Korea. Soil-transmitted helminthiases were found highly prevalent among North Korean residents at the border with China. ELISA using 4 tissue-parasitic helminth antigens was applied to 137 residents living in Cheongjin-shi, Hamgyeongbuk-do, North Korea and 133 female refugees in South Korea in 2004-2005. Among a total of 270 samples, 31 (11.5%), 25 (9.3%), and 11 (4.1%) were positive for specific IgG antibodies to antigens of Clonorchis sinensis, Taenia solium metacestode, and sparganum, respectively. The overall positive rate was 21.5%; 38.2% in males and 15.8% in females. The present finding suggests that tissue parasites, such as C. sinensis, T. solium metacestode and sparganum are highly prevalent in some limited areas of North Korea. These foodborne tissue-parasitic helminthiases should be considered for future control measures of parasitic diseases in North Korea.

  19. Mesozoic basins and associated palaeogeographic evolution in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Qing Liu; Hong-Wei Kuang; Nan Peng; Huan Xu; Peng Zhang; Neng-Sheng Wang; Wei An

    2015-01-01

    In North China, the Mesozoic terrestrial basins, sedimentary palaeogeography and tectonic settings involved ifve evolutionary stages:(1) the Early-Middle Triassic, (2) the Late Triassic to Early-Middle Jurassic, (3) the Late Jurassic to early Early Cretaceous, (4) the middle-late Early Cretaceous and (5) the Late Cretaceous. The regional punctuated tectonic events occurred during these evolutionary stages. During the Early-Middle Triassic (stage 1), the Xingmeng Orogenic Belt (XMOB, i.e., east-ern part of Central Asia Orogenic Belt, CAOB) of the northern North China was settled in the transition of tectonic environment from syn-orogenic compression to post-orogenic extension with intensive uplifting. It is a main provenance in the uniifed Ordos-North China Basin.The united continental plate of China and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogenic Belt formed due to convergence and collision between the North China Plate and the Yangtze Plate along two suture zones of the Mianlue and the Shangdan in the terminal Middle Triassic. During the Late Triassic to the Early-Middle Jurassic (stage 2), the Late Triassic maifc or alkaline rocks and intrusions occurred on the northern and southern margins of North China Craton (NCC) and XMOB, implying that intensiifed extension happened all over the North China (early phase of stage 2). Additionally, in the late phase of stage 2, the basic volcanic-iflling faulted basins were widely distributed in the northeastern North China during the Early-Middle Jurassic, including a series of small-to medium-sized basins with coal-bearing strata and some volcanic rocks in other areas of North China, which was the result of subduction of the Palaeo-Paciifc Plate during the Early-Middle Jurassic. An active continental margin with accretionary complex developed in the eastern Heilongjiang of China, Japan and the Far East of Russia at that time. However, in the end of the Early-Middle Jurassic, because of the Yan-shanian orogeny characterized by

  20. North and northeast Greenland ice discharge from satellite radar interferometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rignot, E.J.; Gogineni, S.P.; Krabill, W.B.;

    1997-01-01

    Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier...... front, because basal melting is extensive at the underside of the floating glacier sections. The results suggest that the north and northeast parts of the Greenland ice sheet may be thinning and contributing positively to sea-level rise.......Ice discharge from north and northeast Greenland calculated from satellite radar interferometry data of 14 outlet glaciers is 3.5 times that estimated from iceberg production. The satellite estimates, obtained at the grounding line of the outlet glaciers, differ from those obtained at the glacier...

  1. Toxaphene in minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from the North Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouteux, B; Muir, D C G; Backus, S; Born, E W; Dietz, R; Haug, T; Metcalfe, T; Metcalfe, C; Øien, N

    2008-05-01

    Toxaphene contamination of minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) from North Atlantic waters was examined for the first time. Total toxaphene and SigmaCHB (sum of 11 chlorobornanes) concentrations in blubber samples ranged from 170+/-110 and 41+/-39 ng/g lipid weight (l.w.) for female minke whales from southeastern Greenland to 5800+/-4100 and 1100+/-780 ng/g l.w. for males from the North Sea, respectively. Very large variations in toxaphene concentrations among sampling areas were observed suggesting a spatial segregation of minke whales. However, much of the apparent geographical discrimination was explained by the seasonal fluctuation of animal fat mass. Patterns of CHBs in males revealed that recalcitrant CHBs were in higher proportions in animals from the more easterly areas than in animals from the more westerly areas. This trend may be influenced by the predominance of the US, over the European, input of toxaphene to North Atlantic waters.

  2. FISHERMEN ALLEVIATION POVERTY MODEL IN THE NORTH COASTAL EAST JAVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roziana Ainul Hidayati

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is a multidimensional problem that the approach to eradicate poverty must also be multidimensional. The study aims to formulate a model of poverty alleviation in coastal fishing in the North Coast of East Java. Grounded research approach used to determine the causes, impacts and implications of poverty fishermen. The results showed that the main cause of poverty that occurred in the three districts in East Java's north coast is different from one another. In Gresik district, the major cause of poverty is law enforcements that do not support fishermen and overfishing. While Lamongan more due to low fish prices and capital problems. While in Tuban fishermen due to limited infrastructure and lazy and extravagant lifestyle of the fishermen. These differences lead to different coping strategies so that later can form a concept model of poverty alleviation North Coast fishermen in East Java.

  3. The Potential for Wave Energy in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H. C.; Chozas, Julia Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    The North Sea has not yet been regarded as prime area for wave energy development in Europe except in Denmark, Benelux and Germany. The reason is the relatively low intensity of waves (12-17kW/m) compared to the Atlantic with a wave climate of 24-48kW/m. Further on the design wave load is almost...... approach using very modest assumptions about how to establish a first generation of wave energy producing devices connected at a national level; and a trans-national cooperation approach taking into account the existence of a grid connecting several wind farms in the North Sea area. The former approach...... is resulting in a prediction of a yearly production of 23TWh; the latter is estimating a yearly production of 77TWh. This equals to 6% of the electricity demand around the North Sea, where the annual electricity consumption is about 1,300TWh....

  4. Ice flux divergence anomalies on 79north Glacier, Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seroussi, H.; Morlighem, M.; Rignot, E.;

    2011-01-01

    The ice flux divergence of a glacier is an important quantity to examine because it determines the rate of temporal change of its thickness. Here, we combine high-resolution ice surface velocity observations of Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden (79north) Glacier, a major outlet glacier in north Greenland......, with a dense grid of ice thickness data collected with an airborne radar sounder in 1998, to examine its ice flux divergence. We detect large variations, up to 100 m/yr, in flux divergence on grounded ice that are incompatible with what we know of the glacier surface mass balance, basal mass balance...... onto a regular grid using a scheme (here block kriging) that does not conserve mass or ice flux. This problem is not unique to 79north Glacier but is common to all conventional ice thickness surveys of glaciers and ice sheets; and fundamentally limits the application of ice thickness grids to high...

  5. [Endemic goiter in the extreme North of West Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzina, I G; Suplotova, L A; Osadchenko, G A

    1998-01-01

    Random examinations covering 8-60-year-old 4345 citizens of 12 settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic Territory discovered goiter endemia throughout the territory but most evident the endemy manifested in the Far North. The prevalence of endemic goiter among schoolchildren made up 52.8% (enlargement of the goiter of the 1st and 2nd degree), among adults-49.2%. By ultrasound investigation, the above percentages were 29 and 26.4%, respectively. This corresponds to moderate endemia. The median of urinary iodine excretion averaged in the territory 5.1 micrograms%, while overall iodine insufficiency (number of children with urinary iodine < 10 micrograms%) was 81.9%. In the Far North iodine excretion was less but goiter incidence was higher than normal. Thus, in the Far North goiter endemia is rather serious.

  6. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  7. Well data summary sheets. Vol. 30. North Sea wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This thirtieth volume of the `Well Data Summary sheets` includes data from three recently released offshore wells from the North Sea. The two wells Amalie-1/1A and Skarv-1 are situated in the Danish Central Graben area. The Ida-1 well is one of a number of Danish North Sea wells situated outside the Central Graben (se also Volume 25). Minor corrections have been made since the first edition. The `Complete index of released wells` had been updated. Volume 27, 28 and 29 are regional volumes; volume 27 includes well data from Southern Jutland; volumes 28 and 29 cover well data from Northern Jutland. All data from released Danish North Sea wells are included in volumes 17-26 and 30. Data references are made to the revised volumes and not to the original published reference. (au)

  8. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  9. Tropical Pacific impacts on cooling North American winters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmond, Michael; Fyfe, John C.

    2016-10-01

    The North American continent generally experienced a cooling trend in winter over the early 2000s. This cooling trend represented a significant deviation from expected anthropogenic warming and so requires explanation. Previous studies indicate that climate variations in the tropical Pacific contributed to many mid-latitude climate variations over the early twenty-first century. Here we show using large ensembles of fully coupled, partially coupled and uncoupled model simulations that in northwest North America the winter cooling was primarily a remote response to climate fluctuations in the tropical Pacific. By contrast, in central North America the winter cooling appears to have resulted from a relatively rare fluctuation in mid-latitude circulation that was unrelated to the tropical Pacific. Our results highlight how decadal climate signals--both remote and local in origin--can together offset anthropogenic warming to produce continental-scale cooling.

  10. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  11. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  12. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  13. Extinction rates in North American freshwater fishes, 1900-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, Noel M.

    2012-01-01

    Widespread evidence shows that the modern rates of extinction in many plants and animals exceed background rates in the fossil record. In the present article, I investigate this issue with regard to North American freshwater fishes. From 1898 to 2006, 57 taxa became extinct, and three distinct populations were extirpated from the continent. Since 1989, the numbers of extinct North American fishes have increased by 25%. From the end of the nineteenth century to the present, modern extinctions varied by decade but significantly increased after 1950 (post-1950s mean = 7.5 extinct taxa per decade). In the twentieth century, freshwater fishes had the highest extinction rate worldwide among vertebrates. The modern extinction rate for North American freshwater fishes is conservatively estimated to be 877 times greater than the background extinction rate for freshwater fishes (one extinction every 3 million years). Reasonable estimates project that future increases in extinctions will range from 53 to 86 species by 2050.

  14. Modes of winter precipitation variability in the North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorita, E. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Hydrophysik; Saenz, J.; Fernandez, J.; Zubillaga, J. [Bilbao Univ. (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    The modes of variability of winter precipitation in the North Atlantic sector are identified by Empirical Orthogonal Functions Analysis in the NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis data sets. These modes are also present in a gridded precipitation data set over the Western Europe. The large-scale fields of atmospheric seasonal mean circulation, baroclinic activity, evaporation and humidity transport that are connected to the rainfall modes have been also analyzed in order to investigate the physical mechanisms that are causally linked to the rainfall modes. The results indicate that the leading rainfall mode is associated to the North Atlantic oscillation and represents a meridional redistribution of precipitation in the North Atlantic through displacements of the storm tracks. The second mode is related to evaporation anomalies in the Eastern Atlantic that precipitate almost entirely in the Western Atlantic. The third mode seems to be associated to meridional transport of water vapor from the Tropical Atlantic. (orig.)

  15. Solar Influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation - Initial Results

    CERN Document Server

    Dacie, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Some initial investigations into various atmospheric phenomena and the influence of the solar cycle on weather have been made. Strongly negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) indices, which cause cold and dry winter weather in North West Europe, rarely occur during periods of high solar activity. Coupling between the troposphere and stratosphere is discussed, particularly in the context of Polar-night jet oscillation events (defined by Hitchcock et al., 2013) and the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. The energy of North Atlantic hurricanes (as indicated by the Accumulated Cyclone Energy Index, ACE) is also linked to solar activity, via UV heating at the tropopause (Elsner et al., 2010), and is suggested as a possible mechanism through which solar activity could influence the NAO. Finally the lack of solar influence on the NAO before $\\sim$ 1950 is addressed, with a possible cause being the smaller solar cycle amplitudes. This short report contains several ideas, which may be worth pursuing further.

  16. Changes in size and trends of North American sea duck populations associated with North Pacific oceanic regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-scale multi-species declines in populations of North American sea ducks for unknown reasons is cause for management concern. Oceanic regime shifts have been associated with rapid changes in ecosystem structure of the North Pacific and Bering Sea. However, relatively little is known about potential effects of these changes in oceanic conditions on marine bird populations at broad scales. I examined changes in North American breeding populations of sea ducks from 1957 to 2011 in relation to potential oceanic regime shifts in the North Pacific in 1977, 1989, and 1998. There was strong support for population-level effects of regime shifts in 1977 and 1989, but little support for an effect of the 1998 shift. The continental-level effects of these regime shifts differed across species groups and time. Based on patterns of sea duck population dynamics associated with regime shifts, it is unclear if the mechanism of change relates to survival or reproduction. Results of this analysis support the hypothesis that population size and trends of North American sea ducks are strongly influenced by oceanic conditions. The perceived population declines appear to have halted >20 years ago, and populations have been relatively stable or increasing since that time. Given these results, we should reasonably expect dramatic changes in sea duck population status and trends with future oceanic regime shifts.

  17. Phytoplankton biomass, production and potential export in the North Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bert; LeBlanc, Bernard; Mei, Zhi-Ping; Beret, Rachel; Michaud, Josée; Mundy, C.-J.; von Quillfeldt, Cecilie H.; Garneau, Marie-Ève; Roy, Suzanne; Gratton, Yves; Cochran, J. Kirk; Bélanger, Simon; Larouche, Pierre; Pakulski, J. Dean; Rivkin, Richard B.; Legendre, Louis

    The seasonal patterns of phytoplankton biomass and production were determined in the North Water, located between Greenland and Ellesmere Island (Canadian Arctic), in August 1997, April-July 1998, and August-September 1999. The patterns differed among the four defined regions of this large polynya, i.e. North (>77.5°N), East (>75°W), West (5 μm) fraction dominated the biomass and production during the bloom. During July, August, and September, biomass and production decreased over the whole region, with the highest biomass, dominated by large cells, occurring in the North. The annual particulate and dissolved phytoplankton production were the highest ever reported for the high Arctic, reaching maximum values of 254 and 123 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively, in the East. Rates in the North and West were considerably lower than in the East (ca. two- and three-fold, respectively). The f-ratios (i.e. ratio of new to total production), derived from the size structure of phytoplankton, were high north of 76°N (0.4-0.7). Regionally, this indicated a high potential export of particulate organic carbon ( EPOC) from the phytoplankton community to other trophic compartments and/or downwards in the East (155 g C m -2 yr -1), with lower values in the North and West (i.e. 77 and 42 g C m -2 yr -1, respectively). The seasonal and spatial patterns of EPOC were consistent with independent estimates of potential carbon export. Phytoplankton biomass and production were generally dominated by the large size fraction, whereas EPOC seemed to be dominated by the large size fraction early in the season and by the small size fraction (<5 μm) from June until the end of the growing season.

  18. Agricultural Decision Making Using North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyuz, F.; Mullins, B.; Morlock, D.; Carcoana, R.

    2010-09-01

    The North Dakota Agricultural Weather Network (NDAWN) consists of 72 automated weather stations spread across agricultural locations of North Dakota, the Red River Valley, and border regions of surrounding states. The NDAWN Center is a part of the Department of Soil Science, North Dakota State University. The NDAWN stations measure wind speed and direction, air temperature, rainfall, solar radiation, pressure (31 stations), atmospheric moisture and soil temperatures under bare and turf at 10 cm (4 inch) depth. The center provides daily summaries consisting of maximums and minimums as well as time of occurrence, and various totals or averages for all variables in English or metric units. Measured and calculated variables along with complete descriptions are available. The NDAWN Center web site: http://ndawn.ndsu.nodak.edu/ allows direct access to NDAWN data in various special and temporal scales. The voice modem accommodates those who do not have internet access. The NDAWN Center has assisted many North Dakotans in making weather critical decisions concerning their crops, livestock, and livelihood. The stations provide weather data, which was instrumental in developing various agricultural models including but not limited to the late blight model, degree day and growth stage models for barley, corn, canola, potato, sugarbeet, sunflower, wheat and other small grains, irrigation scheduling, crop water use, sugarbeet root maggot, and insect development models. Late blight model, for example, predicts when leaf disease can occur in potato plants. Late blight doesn't occur in North Dakota every year and is prevalent during cool and moist periods of weather. In 1993-94, this model predicted that late blight would occur and growers were able to use fungicide applications to prevent the disease. Another direct benefit of NDAWN data is that it provides universities and the National Weather Service with an additional database for research and forecasting applications

  19. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  20. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  1. Decadal fluctuations in North Atlantic water inflow in the North Sea between 1958-2003: impacts on temperature and phytoplankton populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Attrill

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The circulation of Atlantic water along the European continental slope, in particular the inflow into the North Sea, influences North Sea water characteristics with consequent changes in the environment affecting plankton community dynamics. The long-term effect of fluctuating oceanographic conditions on the North Sea pelagic ecosystem is assessed. It is shown that (i there are similar regime shifts in the inflow through the northern North Sea and in Sea Surface Temperature, (ii long-term phytoplankton trends are influenced by the inflow only in some North Sea regions, and (iii the spatial variability in chemicophysical and biological parameters highlight the influence of smaller scale processes.

  2. Model for Formation of Dunes at the North Martian Pole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; CHEN Chu-Xin

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera(MOC)took images of a series of strange horseshoe-shaped dunes at the North Martian pole in 2004.These dunes would be formed due to the strong Martian winds whose pattern is different from that on the Earth.We study the cause of the formation of these dunes and make a model for them.In this model,wind speed near the north Martian pole can be evaluated based on the shape of the dunes.We also estimate the surpassing speed of dunes of different sizes.

  3. New Eclipidrilus species (Annelida, Clitellata, Lumbriculidae) from southeastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fend, Steven V.; Lenat, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Lumbriculidae from southeastern North America are attributed to Eclipidrilus Eisen. All are small worms (diameter 0.2–0.5 mm), having semi-prosoporous male ducts with the atria in X, and spermathecae in IX. Eclipidrilus breviatriatus n. sp. and E. microthecus n. sp. have crosshatched atrial musculature, similar to some E. (Eclipidrilus) species, but they differ from congeners in having small, compact spermathecal ampullae. Eclipidrilus macphersonae n. sp. has a single, median atrium and spermatheca. The new species have been collected only in Sandhills and Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain streams of North Carolina.

  4. The desert as territorial representation of Mexico’s North

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Rajchenberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The northern region of Mexico presented a challenge for colonization since colonial times, both because of its physical features and for its indiegenous inhabitants. Is because of the former that the representations crafted in the central part of the country about the North always referred it as a dangerous, fearsome desert. For the US inhabitants, who wanted that same territory since the beginning of the XIX century, its inhabitants were the personified racial degeneration. This article analyses this two-sided architecture of the territorial representations with which the North of Mexico was symbolized during the XIX century, and that is still reproduced nowadays.

  5. [Rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khankevich, Iu R; Myznikov, I L; Askerko, I V; Sil'chenko, E S; Matochkina, A A

    2012-07-01

    Statistics of the rate of injuries in military men of the North Fleet during 2002-2010 is analyzed. Over the specified period rate of injuries, poisonings and consequences of influence of other external actions was 30,06% among the conscripts, 30,23% among the contract military men. The authors analyzed reasons and circumstances of injuries, prevention measures, and orgnisation of military physician expertise and indemnity insurance for the military men injured during the service. Ways of improvement of the system of injury prevention on the North Fleet are suggested.

  6. Sunnyboy of the North; Sunnyboy im hohen Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    Parking tickets, handball, North Sea, Baltic Sea: This is what most Germans know about Flensburg. Hardly anyone will associate solar energy in conjunction with this small town on the Danish border. This is an error, as the insolation values of the German coastal regions are quite near those of Freiburg, Germany's number one solar city in the Black Forest. Kai Lippert, director and founder of the EWS company, was aware of this quite early and constructed his PV business in the extreme North. (orig.)

  7. Well data summary sheets. Vol. 18. Danish North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This eighteenth volume of Well Data Summary Sheets includes data from five North Sea wells: Jeppe-1, Ravn-2, Gert-3, Elly-2, N-22/22A (Deep Gorm). Minor corrections have been made since the first edition. The `Complete index of released wells` has been updated. Volume 27, 28 and 29 are regional volumes; volume 27 includes well data from Southern Jutland; volume 28 and 29 cover well data from Northern Jutland. All data from released Danish North Sea wells are included in volumes 17-26 and 30. Data references are made to the revised volumes and not to the original published reference. (au)

  8. A detailed gravimetric geoid from North America to Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S. F.; Strange, W. E.; Marsh, J. G.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of the United States, North Atlantic, and Eurasia, which was computed from a combination of satellite derived and surface gravity data, is presented. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 to + or - 3 m in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 m in those areas where data is sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rapp, Fischer, and Rice for the United States, Bomford in Europe, and Heiskanen and Fischer in India are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, and Europe.

  9. LOWER NORTH BATTERY - DEFENDED PORT OF SIMON'S TOWN

    OpenAIRE

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-01-01

    In 1975 Mr H. C. Willis suggested to the present writer that the SA Navy should mount a bronze plaque similar to those commissioned by the Simon's Town Historical Society and displayed on certain historical buildings in the town at Lower North Battery to make people more aware of its long and fascinating history. Although a number of the Simon's Town Port Record Books have been traced, that for Lower North Battery still cannot be found and important gaps in our knowledge of the battery's hist...

  10. Criminal Sovereignty: Understanding North Korea’s Illicit International Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    of the contraband. The overhead for the smuggling of these “fake” cigarettes is very low. According to former State Department official David Asher ...stories/macau. north.korea/index.html. 11. Jay Solomon and Hae Won Choi, “Money Trail: In North Korea, Secret Cash Hoard Props Up Regime,” Wall Street...Times, April 6, 2006, available from www.latimes.com/news/ printedition/la-fg-macao6apr06,1,7483991.story. 15. Spaeth. 16. Jay Solomon and Jason

  11. Periodicities in the north-south asymmetry of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizoso, G.; Ballester, J. L.

    1989-09-01

    A Blackman-Tukey power spectrum is performed on the values of the north-south asymmetry in the sudden disappearance of solar prominences, and the results are reported. The findings confirm the proposed existence of a periodicity of around 11 years and fails to confirm another short periodicity of around 2.3 years. The results of the power spectrum performed using values of the flare number and flare index north-south asymmetry provide a significant peak of 3.1-3.2 years. This short periodicity could be related to those found by Ramanuja Rao (1973) in several indices of solar activity.

  12. Analysis on a Regional Heavy Rainstorm Process in North Henan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional heavy rainstorm process in North Henan.[Method] Based on routine weather chart,rainfall station in county and town,satellite cloud chart,etc.,by using synoptic diagnostic method,formation reason of the regional heavy rainstorm weather in North Henan during 18-19 August,2010 was analyzed initially from large-scale circulation background,influence system,physical quantity field and terrain influence.[Result] The strong precipitation had obvious meso-scale c...

  13. Mental health and PTSD in female North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gisoo; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify mental health status, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychophysiological change in female North Korean refugees. Data were collected using questionnaires and symptom checklists that measured PTSD and the psychosomatic state of the subjects. As many as 97 subjects, who had settled in and around Seoul, South Korea, were selected by snowball sampling. Mental health and PTSD levels of the participants were above a moderate level. We conclude that health care professionals need to provide female North Korean defectors with services to improve mental health and make the sociocultural transition successfully.

  14. Lithosphere types in North China: Evidence from geology and geophysics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU; Ruizhao; DENG; Jinfu; ZHOU; Su; LI; Jinfa; XIAO; Qingh

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of the characteristics of geology and geophysics in North China, three types of lithosphere, namely, the cratonic, the orogenic and the rift lithospheres can be classified. In terms of petrological method (based on the information from Precambrian rock assemblages, igneous activities, deep-seated enclaves, etc.) and the relationship between seismic velocity and rock compositions, the crust-mantle petrological and chemical structure models can be set up. Researching results indicate that the geology and geophysics of North China platform bears the similar characteristics in comparison with those of the global typical cratons. The Eerduosi(Ordos) block located in the west of the North China Platform is a remnant of cratonic lithosphere after the North China platform had undergone "activation" in Mesozoic and "reconstruction" in Cenozoic times. The continental crust consists mainly of TTG rock assemblage while the subcontinental lithosphere mantle mainly consists of strongly depleted harzburgite. The craton was finally formed in late Archaean and early Proterozoic, and has been kept in stability up to present; its crustal-mantle petrological structures of lithosphere can be set up as a reference for the study of North China craton and even Sino-Korean craton. In the Mesozoic period, the middle and east areas of North China platform were activated in the Yanshanian orogenic process, the continental crust was reformed by material and heat-transfer of convective mantle and the original crustal TTG component was reconstructed to be granitic crust, and the subcontinental lithosphere mantle was replaced by the Yanshanian harzburgite-lherzolite. The Yanshan-Taihang Mountains were the remnants of orogenic lithosphere after the rifting in eastern North China in Cenozoic. The present thickness of continental crust and lithosphere in the Yanshan-Taihang Mountains is not equal to their thickness during the Yanshanian orogenic movement because they had undergone the

  15. Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Parfenov, Leonid M.; Monger, James W.H.; Norton, Ian O.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Stone, David B.; Scotese, Christopher R.; Scholl, David W.; Fujita, Kazuya

    2000-01-01

    The Phanerozoic tectonic evolution of the Circum-North Pacific is recorded mainly in the orogenic collages of the Circum-North Pacific mountain belts that separate the North Pacific from the eastern part of the North Asian Craton and the western part of the North American Craton. These collages consist of tectonostratigraphic terranes that are composed of fragments of igneous arcs, accretionary-wedge and subduction-zone complexes, passive continental margins, and cratons; they are overlapped by continental-margin-arc and sedimentary-basin assemblages. The geologic history of the terranes and overlap assemblages is highly complex because of postaccretionary dismemberment and translation during strike-slip faulting that occurred subparallel to continental margins.We analyze the complex tectonics of this region by the following steps. (1) We assign tectonic environments for the orogenic collages from regional compilation and synthesis of stratigraphic and faunal data. The types of tectonic environments include cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental-margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, seamount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic. (2) We make correlations between terranes. (3) We group coeval terranes into a single tectonic origin, for example, a single island arc or subduction zone. (4) We group igneous-arc and subduction- zone terranes, which are interpreted as being tectonically linked, into coeval, curvilinear arc/subduction-zone complexes. (5) We interpret the original positions of terranes, using geologic, faunal, and paleomagnetic data. (6) We construct the paths of tectonic migration. Six processes overlapping in time were responsible for most of the complexities of the collage of terranes and overlap assemblages around the Circum-North Pacific, as follows. (1) During the Late Proterozoic, Late Devonian, and Early Carboniferous, major periods of rifting occurred along

  16. Elastic thickness estimates at north east passive margin of North America and its implications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R T Ratheesh Kumar; Tanmay K Maji; Suresh Ch Kandpal; D Sengupta; Rajesh R Nair

    2011-06-01

    Global estimates of the elastic thickness (Te) of the structure of passive continental margins show wide and varying results owing to the use of different methodologies. Earlier estimates of the elastic thickness of the North Atlantic passive continental margins that used flexural modelling yielded a Te value of ∼20–100 km. Here, we compare these estimates with the Te value obtained using orthonormalized Hermite multitaper recovered isostatic coherence functions. We discuss how Te is correlated with heat flow distribution and depth of necking. The E–W segment in the southern study region comprising Nova Scotia and the Southern Grand Banks show low Te values, while the zones comprising the NE–SW zones, viz., Western Greenland, Labrador, Orphan Basin and the Northern Grand Bank show comparatively high Te values. As expected, Te broadly reflects the depth of the 200–400°C isotherm below the weak surface sediment layer at the time of loading, and at the margins most of the loading occurred during rifting. We infer that these low Te measurements indicate Te frozen into the lithosphere. This could be due to the passive nature of the margin when the loads were emplaced during the continental break-up process at high temperature gradients.

  17. Campanian Climatic Change: Isotopic Evidence from Far East, North America, North Atlantic and Western Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Paleoclimatic settings have been reconstructed for the Campanian using original oxygenisotopic analyses of well-preserved molluskan and foraminifera shells from Russian Far East,Hokkaido, USA, Belgium and some DSDP holes (95, 98, 102, 390A, and 392A) in North Atlantic. Early Early Campanian climatic optimum has been recognized from data on high bottom shelf water paleotemperatures in middle latitudes of both the western circum-Pacific (to 24.2℃) and the eastern circum-Pacific (to 26.4℃) areas and high bottom shallow water paleotemperatures in high latitudes of the Koryak Upland (22.4-25.5℃), which agrees with the data on the Campanian Barykovskaya flora in high latitudes (Golovneva and Herman, 1998) and Jonker flora and its equivalents in middle latitudes. Judging from the data on comparatively high bottom shallow water paleotemperature values in high latitudes, South Alaska (19.4℃) and the Koryak Upland (22.4-25.5℃), we also expect Latest Campanian temperature maximum, which has not been confirmed, however, for low and middle latitudes by neither of isotopic nor paleobotanic data now. Main climatic tendency during the Campanian (with the exception of Latest Campanian) has been learned from isotopic composition of Campanian aragonitic ammonoid shells from the Hokkaido-South Sakhalin (Krilyon) marine basin.In contrary to Huber's et al. (2002) assumption, we expect warm greenhouse conditions during the most part of the Campanian.

  18. Internationalization in German Academic Libraries: Moving beyond North American Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Karen; Rauchmann, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how internationalization is understood and experienced in German academic libraries. Its main purpose is to move the discussion of internationalization in academic libraries beyond the boundaries of English-speaking North America by investigating a European perspective. Its secondary purpose is to investigate the role of…

  19. The deep structure of the North Anatolian Fault Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtner, A.; Saygin, E.; Taymaz, T.; Cupillard, P.; Capdeville, Y.; Trampert, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-scale full waveform inversion of complete continental- and regional-scale seismograms reveals the crustal and upper-mantle signature of the North Anatolian Fault Zone which shapes the neotectonics of Turkey and the eastern Mediterranean. Within the crust, the fault zone is mostly bounded by se

  20. 75 FR 35443 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX01 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management Council's Scientific and Statistical Committee (SSC), and Groundfish Plan Team members will hold a... determining annual catch limits (ACLs) for Tier 6 groundfish stocks. See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION. DATES:...

  1. North-east India’s forgotten IDPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monirul Hussain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Misguided policies have displaced millions in the seven states of north-east India. The needs of environmental, development and conflict-induced IDPs have been ignored. India lacks a national IDP policy and the government systematically refers to internally displaced persons as ‘migrants’.

  2. The internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salt, S.; Thomas, H.; Bozec, Y.; Borges, A.V.; de Baar, H.J.W

    2016-01-01

    In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three paramete

  3. Soccer: Moulding the Middle East and North Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorsey, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowhere in the world has sports in general and soccer in particular played such a key role in the development of a region than in the Middle East and North Africa. Yet, the nexus of sports, politics and society is one area that Middle East studies with few exceptions have ignored. Similarly, sports

  4. North Atlantic-Fennoscandian Holocene climate trends and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejrup, Hans Petter; Seppä, Heikki; McKay, Nicholas P.; Kaufman, Darrell S.; Geirsdóttir, Áslaug; de Vernal, Anne; Renssen, Hans; Husum, Katrine; Jennings, Anne; Andrews, John T.

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the mechanisms behind Holocene regional climate trends from north of 58°N in the North Atlantic-Fennoscandian region Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed and a temperature anomaly stack produced from 81 proxy derived summer temperature time series from 74 sites. The PC results show distinctly different trends for near-surface versus surface temperatures, demonstrating the importance of handling these separately. The first PC of weighted sea surface summer temperature time series and continental time series explains 45 ± 8% of the variance, where the uncertainty is the standard deviation of the distribution of variance explained across the 1000 age-uncertain ensemble members. PC1 has a relatively uniform expression over the whole region, closely following the summer insolation at 65°N. The second PC explains 22 ± 4% of the variance and shows a non-uniform expression, with loadings in opposite directions in the northern and southeastern parts of the region. Comparing the PC time series with model runs and with the timing of the demise of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS), suggest that this pattern reflects both topographic and albedo effects of the LIS as well as release of meltwater into the North Atlantic and Arctic Oceans. Comparing the stack of gridded records with published global stacks reveals an unusual Holocene temperature development in the North Atlantic-Fennoscandian region most likely resulting from the location relative to the decaying LIS.

  5. One Health training, research, and outreach in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Stroud

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The One Health (OH concept, formerly referred to as ‘One Medicine’ in the later part of the 20th century, has gained exceptional popularity in the early 21st century, and numerous academic and non-academic institutions have developed One Health programs. Objectives: To summarize One Health training, research, and outreach activities originating in North America. Methods: We used data from extensive electronic records maintained by the One Health Commission (OHC (www.onehealthcommission.org/ and the One Health Initiative (www.onehealthinitiative.com/ and from web-based searches, combined with the corporate knowledge of the authors and their professional contacts. Finally, a call was released to members of the OHC's Global One Health Community listserv, asking that they populate a Google document with information on One Health training, research, and outreach activities in North American academic and non-academic institutions. Results: A current snapshot of North American One Health training, research, and outreach activities as of August 2016 has evolved. Conclusions: It is clear that the One Health concept has gained considerable recognition during the first decade of the 21st century, with numerous current training and research activities carried out among North American academic, non-academic, government, corporate, and non-profit entities.

  6. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  7. 77 FR 56250 - North Carolina Disaster #NC-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION North Carolina Disaster NC-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  8. North African populations carry the signature of admixture with Neandertals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Sánchez-Quinto

    Full Text Available One of the main findings derived from the analysis of the Neandertal genome was the evidence for admixture between Neandertals and non-African modern humans. An alternative scenario is that the ancestral population of non-Africans was closer to Neandertals than to Africans because of ancient population substructure. Thus, the study of North African populations is crucial for testing both hypotheses. We analyzed a total of 780,000 SNPs in 125 individuals representing seven different North African locations and searched for their ancestral/derived state in comparison to different human populations and Neandertals. We found that North African populations have a significant excess of derived alleles shared with Neandertals, when compared to sub-Saharan Africans. This excess is similar to that found in non-African humans, a fact that can be interpreted as a sign of Neandertal admixture. Furthermore, the Neandertal's genetic signal is higher in populations with a local, pre-Neolithic North African ancestry. Therefore, the detected ancient admixture is not due to recent Near Eastern or European migrations. Sub-Saharan populations are the only ones not affected by the admixture event with Neandertals.

  9. Rangeland degradation in North China : Perceptions of pastoralists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Peter; Azadi, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    Rangeland degradation, a worldwide problem, is serious in China, especially in the Northern provinces. To assess the pastoralists' perceptions toward rangeland trend and degradation, a survey was conducted in Ningxia, North China. Data were collected from a total of 284 pastoralists in six Ningxia c

  10. Clinical characteristics of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC or transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome is an acute cardiac syndrome characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities extending beyond a single epicardial vessel in the absence of significant obstructive coronary artery disease. Aim: This study was to describe the clinical characteristics of TC in North America. Materials and Methods: We identified 10 patients who met the Mayo Clinic criteria for TC using our Electronic Medical Records. We also conducted a systematic review of case series of TC that were done in North America by searching the MEDLINE database. We identified 11 case series that met our eligibility criteria. Results: Our systematic review included 620 patients. Chest pain and ST segment elevation were the cardinal features of this syndrome, but the prevalence was lower than in the European and Asian cohort (50% and 39% as compared with 80% and 70%, respectively. Classic precipitating emotional or physical stress was described in > 80% of patients. Cardiac biomarkers were found to be elevated in >90% of our patients. Conclusions : TC is a worldwide problem and clinical presentation appears to be similar in North American, European, and Asian countries. However, fewer patients in our cohort presented with typical chest pain and electrocardiography (ECG changes, which might suggest ethnic variations in the syndrome or perhaps a more aggressive diagnostic approach in North American countries.

  11. Social Stratification: The Digital Divide In North Carolina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Wilson

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite efforts to provide access to the internet in rural areas, in most areas of information technology the gap between urban and rural areas is growing. Urban residents are far more likely to have access to computer services than their rural counterparts. Whites much more likely to have access to the internet at home compared to African Americans in North Carolina.

  12. Classification of 3 DES supernovae by Gemini-North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Y.-C.; Foley, R. J.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.

    2015-11-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 3 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey. The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using GMOS on Gemini-North. Object classification was performed using SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and superfit (Howell et al, 2005, ApJ, 634, 119), the details of which are reported in the table below.

  13. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  14. Instructor's Field Manual: North Carolina Outward Bound School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outward Bound, Morganton, NC.

    A supplement to the North Carolina Outward Bound School's Instructor's Handbook, this field manual presents useful, but not required, information gleaned from old timers and resource books which may enable the instructor to conduct a better course. Section one considers advantages and disadvantages and provides directions and topographical maps…

  15. Perspectives in Applied Linguistics: A North American View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, William

    2004-01-01

    This overview focuses on the work of Applied Linguistics in North America with an emphasis on publications in the past 6 years. Follow a brief interpretive section on the nature and status of Applied Linguistics, the article reviews a number of major areas of research in Applied Linguistics. These areas include second language acquisition (and its…

  16. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  17. Psychiatry in former socialist countries: implications for north korean psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong; Kim, Seog Ju

    2014-10-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea.

  18. 77 FR 59901 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... potential management measures, using the status quo management measures of one fish less than 45 inches or... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC259 North Pacific Fishery Management Council... Management Council (Council) Charter Management Implementation Committee will convene via a conference...

  19. 78 FR 70018 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... fish with a maximum size limit; and (4) Status quo management of one fish less than 45 inches or greater than 68 inches. For Regulatory Area 3A: (1) Status quo management of a bag limit of two fish, with... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC990 North Pacific Fishery Management...

  20. Evolutionary impact assessment of the north sea plaice fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollet, Fabian M.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Dieckmann, Ulf; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that fishing causes evolution in life-history traits that affect the productivity of fish stocks. Here we explore the impact of fisheries-induced evolution (FIE) on the productivity of North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) using an ecogenetic, individual-based model b

  1. Predicting the occurrence of sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Henriët H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sand banks have a wavelength between 1 and 10 km, and they are up to several tens of meters high. Also, sand banks may have an impact on large-scale human activities that take place in the North Sea like sand mining, shipping, offshore wind farms, etc. Therefore, it is important to know where sand b

  2. 77 FR 14350 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Hilton Hotel, 500 West 3rd Avenue, King Salmon/Illiamna Room, Anchorage, AK. Council address: North... INFORMATION CONTACT: Jane DiCosimo, Council staff; telephone: (907) 271-2809. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  3. 78 FR 16660 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ...; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... Hilton Hotel, Dillingham/Katmai Room, 500 West 3rd Avenue, Anchorage, AK. Council address: North Pacific... CONTACT: Diana Evans, Council staff, telephone: (907) 271-2809. ] SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  4. North Pacific Process Study (JGOFS) (NODC Accession 0001873)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NPPS Data Set is comprised of JGOFS data set obtained during the JGOFS NPPS as well as the JGOFS related data sets in the North Pacific. All of these data were...

  5. Analysis of North Sea Offshore Wind Power Variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buatois, A.; Gibescu, M.; Rawn, B.G.; Van der Meijden, M.A.M.M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper evaluates, for a 2030 scenario, the impact on onshore power systems in terms of the variability of the power generated by 81 GW of offshore wind farms installed in the North Sea. Meso-scale reanalysis data are used as input for computing the hourly power production for offshore wind farms

  6. Are North Atlantic Multidecadal SST Anomalies Westward Propagating?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Qingyi; Dijkstra, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    The westward propagation of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies is one of the main characteristics of one of the theories of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Here we use techniques from complex network modeling to investigate the existence of the westward propagation in the North Atlantic

  7. Reading Interest of North Ridgeville High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Shirley

    A study surveyed 449 seniors and sophomores at North Ridgeville (Ohio) High School to determine their reading interests. The survey of 18 questions revealed the following findings: (1) favorite type of novel was horror; (2) favorite author was Stephen King; (3) favorite magazines were "Seventeen" and "Sports Illustrated"; (4)…

  8. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  9. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  10. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  11. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    USAID contributed significant funds to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization ( FAO ) and Catholic Relief Services (CRS) to distribute farm equipment...World Vision report, Pawns of Politics: The north has suffered insecurity , manifested by violence against civilians, abductions and displacement. This... insecurity has resulted in death, loss of property, and disruption of development activities. Children are losing vital educational opportunities

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC RIGHT WHALE SPRING FEEDING HABITAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Great South Channel region of the southwestern Gulf of Maine, between George's Bank and Cape Cod, is the primary spring feeding ground for the western North Atlantic population of the I northern right whale, E. glacialis .Since this whale is so endangered, it is critical to i...

  13. Annually resolved North Atlantic marine climate over the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, D. J.; Scourse, J. D.; Halloran, P. R.; Nederbragt, A. J.; Wanamaker, A. D.; Butler, P. G.; Richardson, C. A.; Heinemeier, J.; Eiríksson, J.; Knudsen, K. L.; Hall, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    Owing to the lack of absolutely dated oceanographic information before the modern instrumental period, there is currently significant debate as to the role played by North Atlantic Ocean dynamics in previous climate transitions (for example, Medieval Climate Anomaly-Little Ice Age, MCA-LIA). Here we present analyses of a millennial-length, annually resolved and absolutely dated marine δ18O archive. We interpret our record of oxygen isotope ratios from the shells of the long-lived marine bivalve Arctica islandica (δ18O-shell), from the North Icelandic shelf, in relation to seawater density variability and demonstrate that solar and volcanic forcing coupled with ocean circulation dynamics are key drivers of climate variability over the last millennium. During the pre-industrial period (AD 1000-1800) variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic leads changes in Northern Hemisphere surface air temperatures at multi-decadal timescales, indicating that North Atlantic Ocean dynamics played an active role in modulating the response of the atmosphere to solar and volcanic forcing.

  14. Regional year-round sypply of vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Wijk, van M.S.; Pham Van Hoi,

    2008-01-01

    A discussion is presented about the patterns in the present year-round supply of vegetables to large cities in the Red River Delta in North Vietnam. Especially during the hot summer season, vegetables are supplied from Dalat in South Vietnam or from Kunming Province in China. Generally speaking, imp

  15. Competitive interactions between two fishing fleets in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sys, Klaas; Poos, Jan Jaap; Meensel, van Jef; Polet, Hans; Buysse, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    We examine whether the landing rates of Belgian beam trawlers in the Southern Bight of the North Sea were affected through competitive interactions with the Dutch beam trawler fleet and whether the development of a pulse trawler fleet has altered competitive interactions between both fleets. Effe

  16. North Carolina Tales Fly with Fourth Grade Tellers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Gretchen Daub

    2008-01-01

    In fourth grade, North Carolina students are required to write their own personal narratives. The teachers felt that telling a story would be a great stepping stone toward writing one. Rather than focusing on grammar and the mechanics of writing, students could focus on story development and creativity. In this article, the author describes how…

  17. Phytogeography of the tropical north-east African mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Friis

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical north-east African mountains are tentatively divided into four phytochoria, the formal rank of which is not defined. The division is based on patterns of distribution and endemism in the region. The recognition of a distinct Afromontane phytochorion is now well established (Chapman & White, 1970; Werger, 1978; White, 1978. However, there is still very little information on the phytogeography of the individual mountains or mountain systems. This study hopes to fill a little of the gap by analysing distribution patterns and patterns of endemism in the flora of the tropical north-east African mountains. The north-east African mountain system is the largest in tropical Africa (see e.g. map in White, 1978. At the core of this system is the large Ethiopian massif, around which are located various mountains and mountain chains. These include the Red Sea Hills in the Sudan, the mountain chain in northern Somalia, the south-west Arabian mountains, and the Imatong mountains of south-east Sudan. The latter are often referred to the East African mountain system (White, 1978 but. as I will point out later, they also have a close connection with the south-west highlands of Ethiopia. The paper presents some results of my study of the mountain flora of tropical north-east Africa, particularly the forest species. Where no source is indicated, the data are from my own unpublished studies.

  18. Stratigraphic guide to the Rogaland Group, Norwegian North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunstad, H.; Gradstein, F.; Lie, J.E.; Hammer, O.; Munsterman, D.K.; Ogg, G.; Hollerbach, M.

    2013-01-01

    This guide provides a major revision and update of the lithostratigraphy of the Rogaland Group for the Norwegian North Sea. An abundance of recent well and seismic data sheds new light on lithology, biostratigraphy, provenance, geographic distribution and terminology of all Rogaland rock units, used

  19. The Spanish Borderlands of North America: A Historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an historiographic overview of the North American Spanish borderlands, focusing on changes and various topics, such as defending or attacking missionaries. Addresses what teachers can do who are in search of a point of entry into the borderlands literature. (CMK)

  20. North Alaska petroleum analysis: the regional map compilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, Richard W.; Bird, Kenneth J.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey initiated an effort to model north Alaskan petroleum systems. The geographic and geologic basis for modeling systems is provided by a set of regional digital maps that allow evaluation of the widest possible extent of each system. Accordingly, we laid out a rectangular map grid 1300 km (800 miles) east-west and 600 km (375 miles) north-south. The resulting map area extends from the Yukon Territory of Canada on the east to the Russian-U.S. Chukchi Sea on the west and from the Brooks Range on the south to the Canada basin-Chukchi borderland on the north. Within this map region, we combined disparate types of publicly available data to produce structure contour maps. Data types range from seismic-based mapping as in the National Petroleum Reserve to well penetrations in areas of little or no seismic data where extrapolation was required. With these types of data, we produced structure contour maps on three horizons: top of pre-Mississippian (basement), top of Triassic (Ellesmerian sequence), and top of Neocomian (Beaufortian sequence). These horizons, when combined with present-day topography and bathymetry, provide the bounding structural/stratigraphic surfaces of the north Alaskan petroleum province that mark major defining moments of the region's geologic history and allow regional portrayal of preserved sediment accumulations.

  1. Musharraf calls for North-South cooperation: Science and technology

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "President Gen Pervez Musharraf has called for improved North-South cooperation in scinece and technology and said it would enable millions of people in the developing countries to realize the goal of rapid socio-economic progress" (1.5 page)

  2. Cultural Resource Investigation of the Goose River Basin, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-12

    Upper Knife-Heart District, North Dakota. Plains Anthropologist, Vol. 17, No. 56, pp. 91-100. 1975, Brain Size and Hominid Evolution. Proceedings of...Scholarships: Associated Women Students of New Mexico State University (1976) Language Competency: Fair in reading, speaking, and writing Spanish Honors

  3. The Hermit Crabs (Crustacea Decapoda, Paguridea) of Northwestern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic study has been made of the Paguridea (exclusive of the Lithodidae) from northwestern North America. In addition to the redescriptions of all known species, two subgenera are herein raised to generic rank and a new genus is described. Several systematic problems have been resolved, and h

  4. Discoveries to make North and South Yemen crude exporters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vielvoye, R.

    1987-08-24

    This article reports that North and South Yemen, two of the poorest and most remote countries on the Arabian Peninsula, are on course to join the ranks of oil exporters. A major oil field at Alif in North Yemen, currently under development by Yemen Hunt Oil Co., is expected to provide first exports towards year-end. Production from North Yemen could reach 400,000 b/d in the early 1990s. In South Yemen, a Soviet oil company also has found oil. Industry sources think production will be sufficient to allow a modest level of exports. The two discoveries have brought explorationists back to a part of the Arabian Peninsula that for decades remained in the shadow of the prolific producers along the Persian Gulf coast. North Yemen attracted its first oil explorers in 1953. During the next 20 years six different groups took acreage. But activity was restricted to the more accessible coastal areas, and most groups did only preliminary geophysical work.

  5. North Carolina's Higher Education System: Success or Failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Andrew; Vedder, Richard

    2008-01-01

    North Carolina has long prided itself on what many perceive to be one of the finest systems of higher education in the country. Aside from having a number of nationally recognized private schools of distinction (e.g., Duke, Wake Forest, Davidson), the state has invested aggressively with public funds. State government appropriations for higher…

  6. Pulmonary Function Tests In Young Healthy Subjects Of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Rastogi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study Objectives : The diagnosis of disease done by skiagram can be substantiated by pulmonary function tests. Substantial data of Indians on PFTs is not available. The present study therefore has been planned on young healthy north Indians.Setting : 119 males and 49 female medical students of North India.Measurements : PFT's, T.V. FEV1, FVC, FER and PEFR were measured. P<0.05 was considered as significant.Results : In North Indian males, mean T. V was 437.56 ± 65.83 ml, FEV1 3.26 ±041 L, FVC 3.82 ± 0.48 L, FER 85.09 ± 2.42% and PEFR was 495.42 ± 101.82 L / min. In North Indian females, average T. V was 386.12 ± 37.90 ml, FEV1 2.39 ± 0.38 L, FVC 2.79 ± 0.43 L, FER 85.38 ± 257% and PEFR was 307.12 ± 75.74 L / min.Conclusions: Males in comparison to females had more value of PFTs. All the PFTs showed positive correlation with Height, Weight and Surface area except Tidal Volume and FER.

  7. North Korean Aesthetic Theory: Aesthetics, Beauty, and "Man"

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-West, Alzo

    2013-01-01

    Aesthetics is not a subject usually associated with North Korea in Western scholarship, the usual tropes being autocracy, counterfeiting, drugs, human-rights abuse, famine, nuclear weapons, party-military dictatorship, Stalinism, and totalitarianism. Where the arts are concerned, they are typically seen as crude political propaganda. One British…

  8. CISRI Competes for Light Rare Earth in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>In the light rare earth market of north China,REHT,the largest rare earth enterprise in the world,has to face a bitter rival in competition.As 3 SOEs(CHINALCO,Minmetals and CNMC)are vying for the medium and heavy rare earth market of South China,a smaller SOE,i.e.,China Iron & Steel Research

  9. 76 FR 13360 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    .../approve salmon excluder EFP; review discussion paper on AFA impacts on Bering Sea cod trawlers. 10. Staff... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Hotel, 500 West 3rd Avenue, Anchorage, AK. Council address: North Pacific Fishery Management...

  10. Predicted geographic ranges for North American sylvatic Trichinella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of a lack of comprehensive surveys, the geographic distributions of the North American species of Trichinella (T. nativa and its variant T6, T. murrelli, and T. spiralis) are poorly characterized. These species are potentially zoonotic, and biogeographical information is critical to monitori...

  11. 75 FR 20985 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., Girdwood, AK, Room Columbia A - May 10-13 and Portage Board Room - May 14. Council address: North Pacific... presentations on patterns of larval snow crab and a snow crab spatial model, review draft stock assessments and... revised Annual Catch Limits and Snow crab rebuilding plan analysis and provide recommendations;...

  12. Municipal Broadband in Wilson, North Carolina: A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Boyle, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Relatively little empirical attention has been paid to the political economy of publicly-retailed fiber-optic broadband internet service. To address this gap in the literature, this dissertation examines the history, dynamics and trends in the municipal broadband movement. In specific, Wilson, North Carolina's Greenlight service is examined in…

  13. Climate change in the North and the oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rottem, Svein Vigeland; Moe, Arild

    2007-11-15

    How will climate change affect oil industry operations in the High North? The report analyses impacts in the North that are different from, or come in addition to, the impacts felt globally, from two angles: One outlining climate-related changes in nature and their impacts on oil industry operations, and the second discussing actual and possible policy responses and their impact. Forecasts and scenarios developed by climate scientists indicate that the situation is volatile. The climate and weather will be less predictable. Although the long term tendency is clear, there will be large variations in ice from year to year, with some seasons colder and with more ice than what has been 'normal' in recent years. The industry cannot count on areas remaining ice-free, and when it comes to fixed installations it will have to prepare for a situation in 2030 with maximum ice not much different than today. Climate policies are not likely to have a strong direct impact on the operations of oil companies in the north, but the climate development in the North is likely to impact other political processes, public opinion and consumers. In turn they may affect the conditions for oil industry operations. (author). 49 refs., 7 figs

  14. Multi-dimensional migration challenges in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van der Klaauw

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Facing tighter European border controls, increasing numbers of refugees and asylum seekers from sub-Saharan countries find themselves stranded in North Africa. In the absence of functioning state asylum structures and with a growing caseload of asylum seekers, UNHCR is working to strengthen regional protection capacity, particularly in Morocco.

  15. Personality, Demographics, and Acculturation in North American Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smither, Robert; Rodriquez-Giegling, Marta

    This study predicts willingness of refugees to acculturate to North American society based on selected demographic and psychological variables. The hypothesis is that most previous research on refugee adaptation has overemphasized sociological variables such as age, time in the country, and level of education and underemphasized psychological…

  16. Summertime Subtropical Countercurrent on isopycnals in the western North Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Circulations on isopycnals (σrθ) in the western North Pacific were investigated by using P-vector method;the data were taken from the U.S. Navy's climatological temperature and salinity dataset (public domain) with 1/2°×1/2° resolution. Results not only show the main circulation systems on isopycnals in the western North Pacific such as the North Equatorial Current (NEC), Kuroshio and Kuroshio Countercurrent, but also reveal the Subtropical Countercurrent (STCC) clearly. In this note we pay attention to discussing the distribution of STCC in summer (in June).The STCC flows eastward along a winding road; on shallow isopycnals, the STCC originates from the area east of Bashi Strait at about 122.5°E; with the isopycnals increasing, the origin and flow core of STCC move to north and east, but the main part of STCC is still between 18° and 23.5°N, i.e.near the Tropic of Cancer. There exists STCC on all isopycnals between the sea surface and 25.8 σθThe current vectors of STCC on isopycnais are shown for the first time, and the distribution of the potential vorticity indicates that STCC is just overlying the southern boundary of the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW).``

  17. Temporal Variation of Iodine Isotopes in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran;

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring temporal variability of 129I in the North Sea, a relatively large reservoir of radioactive discharges from the nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, is vital for the environmental situation in the region. New information on concentration levels and distribution of 129I and 127I and the...

  18. North Korea, Nuclear Weapons, and No Good Options?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael David

    2013-01-01

    How would Pyongyang’s development of the capability to target the United States with nuclear weapons influence North Korea’s foreign policy? I argue that it would cause more dangerous crises than those of the last decade, and predict that these crises would eventually cause Kim Jong Un and his se...

  19. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kate E.; Howell, David G.; Vigil, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain (1:8,000,000 scale) is a product of the US Geological Survey in the I-map series (I-2781). This map was prepared in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales. This cartographic Tapestry is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. The large map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America, while four smaller maps show the distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic. This map expands the original concept of the 2000 Tapestry of Time and Terrain, by Jose F. Vigil, Richard J. Pike and David G. Howell, which covered the conterminous United States. The U.S. Tapestry poster and website have been popular in classrooms, homes, and even the Google office building, and we anticipate the North America Tapestry will have a similarly wide appeal, and to a larger audience.

  20. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  1. Student Achievement and Size of District in North Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manahan, Jerry

    This study examined the relationship between student achievement on the Texas Assessment of Basic Skills (TABS) test and the total student population in 206 school districts in North Texas. Regression analyses results indicated that average student performance on the TABS was positively affected by local expenditures, negatively affected as the…

  2. Cenozoic uplift and subsidence in the North Atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Ingrid Anna Margareta; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina

    2009-01-01

    , time and amplitude (where possible) of topographic changes in the North Atlantic region during the Cenozoic (65-0 Ma). Our compilation is based on published results from reflection seismic studies, AFT (apatite fission track) studies, VR (vitrinite reflectance) trends, maximum burial, sediment supply...

  3. Psychiatry in Former Socialist Countries: Implications for North Korean Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Su; Park, Sang Min; Jun, Jin Yong

    2014-01-01

    Very little information is available regarding psychiatry in North Korea, which is based on the legacy of Soviet psychiatry. This paper reviews the characteristics of psychiatry in former socialist countries and discusses its implications for North Korean psychiatry. Under socialism, psychiatric disorders were attributed primarily to neurophysiologic or neurobiological origins. Psychosocial or psychodynamic etiology was denied or distorted in line with the political ideology of the Communist Party. Psychiatry was primarily concerned with psychotic disorders, and this diagnostic category was sometimes applied based on political considerations. Neurotic disorders were ignored by psychiatry or were regarded as the remnants of capitalism. Several neurotic disorders characterized by high levels of somatization were considered to be neurological or physical in nature. The majority of "mental patients" were institutionalized for a long periods in large-scale psychiatric hospitals. Treatment of psychiatric disorders depended largely on a few outdated biological therapies. In former socialist countries, psychodynamic psychotherapy was not common, and psychiatric patients were likely to experience social stigma. According to North Korean doctors living in South Korea, North Korean psychiatry is heavily influenced by the aforementioned traditions of psychiatry. During the post-socialist transition, the suicide rate in many of these countries dramatically increased. Given such mental health crises in post-socialist transitional societies, the field of psychiatry may face major challenges in a future unified Korea. PMID:25395966

  4. Nine decades of North Sea sole and plaice distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, G.H.; Pinnegar, J.K.; Kell, L.T.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies based mainly on research survey data suggest that within the North Sea, sole Solea solea and plaice Pleuronectes platessa have exhibited distribution shifts in recent decades—on average southward for sole and northward to deeper waters for plaice. Various hypotheses may account for su

  5. Flu Resistance to Antiviral Drug in North Carolina

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-12-19

    Dr. Katrina Sleeman, Associate Service Fellow at CDC, discusses resistance to an antiviral flu drug in North Carolina.  Created: 12/19/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/19/2011.

  6. Reciprocal Borrowing Patterns in the North Suburban Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Able Consultants, DeKalb, IL.

    During a 5-day period in 1990, a total of 1,401 reciprocal borrowers in the North Suburban Library System (NSLS) received questionnaires asking about their choice of library and other aspects of borrowing behavior to provide data on the reciprocal borrowing characteristics and patterns within the system. This survey was designed to identify the…

  7. North Dakota Leadership Training Boosts Confidence and Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flage, Lynette; Hvidsten, Marie; Vettern, Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    Effective leadership is critical for communities as they work to maintain their vitality and sustainability for years to come. The purpose of the study reported here was to assess confidence levels and community engagement of community leadership program participants in North Dakota State University Extension programs. Through a survey…

  8. Nomads, Pilgrims, Tourists: Women Teachers in the Canadian North

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Helen

    2004-01-01

    Drawing on notions of the modern pilgrim and postmodern tourist, this paper explores the discursive resources concerning women, travel, and transience as they apply to female teachers working in the Canadian north. In particular, it traces the discourses evident in the talk of twenty-five women teachers currently working in northern First Nations…

  9. Quaternary evolution of the North Sea and the English Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbard, P.L.; Cohen, K.M.

    2015-01-01

    The island of Britain is surrounded by a ‘moat’ of water, of which the English Channel and the North Sea are two major components. This talk described some major events that occurred to shape these seaways and, in particular, the evidence preserved on the Channel seabed. Here a system of valleys occ

  10. Early Pleistocene occurrence of Acheulian technology in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Ao, Hong; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Shan; Huang, Weiwen; Hou, Yamei; Zhang, Weihua; An, Zhisheng

    2017-01-01

    Acheulian tools with their associated level of cognizance heralded a major threshold in the evolution of hominin technology, culture and behavior. Thus, unraveling occurrence ages of Acheulian technology across different regions worldwide constitutes a key aspect of understanding the archeology of early human evolution. Here we present a magneto-cyclochronology for the Acheulian assemblage from Sanmenxia Basin, Loess Plateau, North China. Our results place a sequence of stable normal and reversed paleomagnetic polarities within a regional lithostratigraphic context. The Acheulian assemblage is dated to be older than the Matuyama-Brunhes boundary at 0.78 Ma, and is found in strata that are probably equivalent to a weak paleosol subunit within loess layer L9 in the Chinese loess-paleosol sequence, which corresponds to marine isotope stage (MIS) 23, a relatively subdued interglacial period with age range of ∼0.89-0.92 Ma. This age of ∼0.9 Ma implies that Acheulian stone tools were unambiguously present in North China during the Early Pleistocene. It distinctly enlarges the geographic distribution of Acheulian technology and brings its occurrence in North China back into the Early Pleistocene, which is contemporaneous with its first emergence in Europe. Combined with other archeological records, the larger area over which Acheulian technology existed in East Asia during the terminal Early Pleistocene has important implications for understanding early human occupation of North China.

  11. On the Politics of Exhibiting North Korean Art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shim, David

    2011-01-01

    This essay was written in reaction to the international symposium "Exploring North Korean Arts," which was held on the occasion of the art exhibition "Flowers for Kim Il Sung—Art and Architecture from the DPR Korea," in Vienna on September 3 and 4, 2010. The essay argues that scholars must recognize

  12. IPM of specialty crops and community gardens in north Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pests post serious challenges to specialty crops (vegetables, fruits and nut crops) and community gardens in North Florida. The major vegetable pests include silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia argentifolii; the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae; southeastern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula; brown s...

  13. Planktonic coelenterates collected in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1973-01-01

    This short faunistic note contains a report on the species of Scyphozoa, Hydromedusae, Siphonophora and Ctenophora that were collected by OWS “Cirrus” and “Cumulus”, R.V. “Tridens” and HMS “Snellius” in the North Atlantic Ocean between 22° N and 66° N. In all, 61 species have been captured. New reco

  14. Retaining Physical Therapists in North Carolina Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    The intent of this research was to describe school-based physical therapists in North Carolina (NC) and examine relationships between personality traits of this group, their job satisfaction and their perception of factors that influence decisions to remain at or leave their jobs. School-based physical therapists across NC (n=97) anonymously…

  15. Proceedings of the 2013 sorghum improvement conference of north america

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2013 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the International Cultural Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, from August 28-30, 2013. The meeting attracted a large group of participants from a wide spectrum of the sorghum research community, represe...

  16. Jurassic Tectonics of North China: A Synthetic View

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yueqiao; DONG Shuwen; ZHAO Yue; ZHANG Tian

    2008-01-01

    This paper gives a synthetic view on the Jurassic tectonics of North China, with an attempt to propose a framework for the stepwise tectonic evolution history. Jurassic sedimentation, deformation and magmatism in North China have been divided into three stages. The earliest Jurassic is marked by a period of magmatism quiescence (in 205-190 Ma) and regional uplift, which are considered to be the continuation of the "Indosinian movement" characterized by continent-continent collision between the North and South China blocks. The Early to Middle Jurassic (in 190-170 Ma) was predominated by weak lithospheric extension expressed by mantle-derived plutonism and volcanism along the Yanshan belt and alongside the Tan-Lu fault zone, normal faulting and graben formation along the Yinshan-Yanshan tectonic belt, depression and resuming of coal-bearing sedimentation in vast regions of the North China block (NCB). The Middle to Late Jurassic stage started at 165,.5 Ma and ended up before 136 Ma; it was dominated by intensive intraplate deformation resulting from multi-directional compressions. Two major deformation events have been identified. One is marked by stratigraphic unconformity beneath the thick Upper Jurassic molasic series in the foreland zones of the western Ordos thrust-fold belt and along the Yinshan-Yanshan belt; it was predated 160 Ma. The other one is indicated by stratigraphic unconformity at the base of the Lower Cretaceous and predated 135 Ma. During this last stage, two latitudinal tectonic belts, the Yinshan-Yanshan belt in the north and the Qinling-Dabie belt in the south, and the western margin of the Ordos basin were all activated by thrusting; the NCB itself was deformed by the NE to NNE-trending structural system involving thrusting, associated folding and sinistral strike-slip faulting, which were spatially partitioned. Foliated S-type granitic plutons aged 160-150 Ma were massively emplaced in the Jiao-Liao massif east of the Tan-Lu fault zone and

  17. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzimiri Nduna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Results Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42% and H3 (13%. The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 ± 2 ky and H3 (11 ± 4 ky in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. Conclusion The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously

  18. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  19. Closing the North American Carbon Budget: Continental Margin Fluxes Matter!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Benway, H. M.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Boyer, E. W.; Cai, W. J.; Coble, P. G.; Cross, J. N.; Friedrichs, M. A.; Goni, M. A.; Griffith, P. C.; Herrmann, M.; Lohrenz, S. E.; Mathis, J. T.; McKinley, G. A.; Pilskaln, C. H.; Smith, R. A.; Alin, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, continental margins are regions of intense carbon and nutrient processing, export and exchange, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical cycles. In response to recommendations for regional synthesis and carbon budget estimation for North America put forth in the North American Continental Margins workshop report (Hales et al., 2008), the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program and North American Carbon Program (NACP) began coordinating a series of collaborative, interdisciplinary Coastal CARbon Synthesis (CCARS) research activities in five coastal regions of North America (Atlantic Coast, Pacific Coast, Gulf of Mexico, Arctic, Laurentian Great Lakes) to improve quantitative assessments of the North American carbon budget. CCARS workshops and collaborative research activities have resulted in the development of regional coastal carbon budgets based on recent literature- and model-based estimates of major carbon fluxes with estimated uncertainties. Numerous peer-reviewed papers and presentations by involved researchers have highlighted these findings and provided more in-depth analyses of processes underlying key carbon fluxes in continental margin systems. As a culminating outcome of these synthesis efforts, a comprehensive science plan highlights key knowledge gaps identified during this synthesis and provides explicit guidance on future research and observing priorities in continental margin systems to help inform future agency investments in continental margins research. This presentation will provide an overview of regional and flux-based (terrestrial inputs, biological transformations, sedimentary processes, atmospheric exchanges, lateral carbon transport) synthesis findings and key recommendations in the science plan, as well as a set of overarching priorities and recommendations on observations and modeling approaches for continental margin systems.

  20. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.