Sample records for abe midex mission

  1. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space

    Sandford, S. A.


    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission is one of four selected for Phase A Concept Study in NASA's current call for MIDEX class missions. ABE is a cooled space telescope equipped with spectrographs covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral range. The ABE mission is devoted to the detection and identification of organic and related molecular species in space. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace.

  2. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)


    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approx. 7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approx. 1.5 year mission lifetime.

  3. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space

    Sandford, Scott A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas


    One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR telescopic and laboratory studies have shown that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species but the distribution, abundance and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials and address outstanding problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. ABE's core science program includes observations of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System objects, and galaxies, and lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cross-dispersed R-2000 spectrometers that share a single common slit. Each spectrometer measures one spectral octave and together cover the entire 2.5-20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art InSb and Si:As 1024x1024 pixel detectors. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

  4. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission

    Sandford, S. A.


    Introduction: Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5- 16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Furthermore, the presence of D-enriched organics in meteorites suggests that a portion of these materials survives incorporation into protosolar nebulae. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials in space nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are currently well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to use infrared spectroscopy to address outstanding problems in Astrochemistry which are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and are amenable to astronomical observation. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE was selected for Phase A study during the last MIDEX AO round, but has yet to be selected for flight.

  5. RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex (AMM) Mission star tracker

    Riis, Troels; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif;


    This document is in response to the John Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission star tracker.It describes the functionality, the requirements and the performance of the ASC Star Tracker.......This document is in response to the John Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission star tracker.It describes the functionality, the requirements and the performance of the ASC Star Tracker....

  6. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept

    Sandford, Scott A.


    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study by a team of partners: NASA's Ames Research Center, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) The evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) The chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) The distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) The nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) The nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

  7. The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift MIDEX Mission

    Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Fenimore, E E; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; Palmer, D M; Parsons, A; Sato, G; Suzuki, M; Takahashi, T; Tashiro, M; Tüller, J


    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) is one of 3 instruments on the Swift MIDEX spacecraft to study gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The BAT first detects the GRB and localizes the burst direction to an accuracy of 1-4 arcmin within 20 sec after the start of the event. The GRB trigger initiates an autonomous spacecraft slew to point the two narrow field-of-view (FOV) instruments at the burst location within 20-70 sec so to make follow-up x-ray and optical observations. The BAT is a wide-FOV, coded-aperture instrument with a CdZnTe detector plane. The detector plane is composed of 32,768 pieces of CdZnTe (4x4x2mm), and the coded-aperture mask is composed of approximately 52,000 pieces of lead (5x5x1mm) with a 1-m separation between mask and detector plane. The BAT operates over the 15-150 keV energy range with approximately 7 keV resolution, a sensitivity of approximately 10E-8 erg*cm^-2*s^-1, and a 1.4 sr (half-coded) FOV. We expect to detect >100 GRBs/yr for a 2-year mission. The BAT also performs an all-sky hard x-ray s...

  8. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.


    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  9. Mapping Dark Matter and Large Scale Structure with a MIDEX mission

    Jahoda, K.; Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Gendreau, K.; White, N. E.


    We present a MIDEX mission concept, on behalf of an international collaboartion, with the capability of answering numerous fundamental questions about the dark matter which dominates the gravitational mass of the universe, including: How much dark matter is there? What is its spatial distribution? Is the large scale structure that is observed today the result of gravitational instabilities (as assumed by all current theories)? The basis of our concept is an X-ray survey of π sr with the following characteristics: 0.5-10 keV bandpass, 10 arc-sec angular resolution, and (50 photon) flux limit 5 x 10-14 erg/s/cm2 (0.5-2 keV band). The X-ray data will be of sufficient quality to separate the primary dark matter tracers - clusters of galaxies - from the background population of AGN; the mission observation strategy will minimize the time required to measure the third dimension, redshift, by concentrating on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey region, thus performing a large fraction of the optical "follow-up" in advance. Based on the observed log N-log S distribution for clusters, we expect to detect substantially more than 104 clusters of galaxies.

  10. Empowering Adult Learners. NIF Literacy Program Helps ABE Accomplish Human Development Mission.

    Hurley, Mary E.


    The National Issues Forum's Literacy Program uses study circles and group discussion to promote empowerment and enhance adult literacy through civic education. The program has helped the Westonka (Minnesota) Adult Basic Education project accomplish its mission and has expanded the staff's view of adult learning. (SK)

  11. Profile of Shinzo Abe


    Shinzo Abe, 52, was born into a distinguished political family. His father, Shintaro Abe, was former secretary general of the LDP and former foreign minister, and his grandfather was former Prime Minister Nobusuke Kishi. Following graduation from the Department of Political

  12. Abe's Political Views


    Abe discussed much about his views of politics and diplomacy in his election program, showing that he means to be a tough party president and prime minister. First, on the issue of constitutional revision and collective self-defense right, Abe strongly advocates completely revising the Constitution to remove the limit that Japan can only exercise military power in self-defense. At the same time, by enacting a law, Japan would be able to send its self-defense forces overseas at any time. Abe claims that J...

  13. Effective ABE Programming: Nine Case Studies.

    Sjogren, Douglas; Jacobson, Larry

    The document presents an indepth study of nine selected exemplary adult basic education (ABE) programs in Region 8: Volunteers Clearing House, Fort Collins, Colorado; Utah Navajo Development Council, Blanding, Utah; Adult Education Tutorial Program, Denver, Colorado; Project SAVE, Lemmon, South Dakota; Gates Rubber Company, Denver, Colorado;…

  14. The Variable Coefficient ABE-I Method and Its Stability%变系数ABE-I方法及其稳定性

    吕桂霞; 马富明


    The ABE-I (Alternating Block Explicit-Implicit) method for diffusion problem is extended to solve the variable coefficient problem and the unconditional stability of the ABE-I method is proved by the energy method.

  15. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Keikhosro Karim


    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  16. Kidney Dialysis Patients Discover New Hope through ABE Program.

    Amonette, Linda; And Others

    A program was developed to provide adult basic education (ABE) to kidney patients while they are receiving dialysis treatment. The program, which relies on an individualized learning approach, involved the coordinated efforts of the following parties: West Virginia Dialysis Facilities, Inc.; the Charleston Renal Group; and the Kanawha County Adult…

  17. National Issues Forums in an ABE Setting. Final Report.

    Molek, Carol

    National Issues Forums (NIFs) were conducted for adult basic education (ABE) students in a Pennsylvania adult education and job training center. The forums provide a process of sharing thoughts and opinions about areas of pressing national concerns in an open exchange of everyone's opinion. After instructors participated in NIFs, they developed a…

  18. Enhancing clostridial acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production and improving fuel properties of ABE-enriched biodiesel by extractive fermentation with biodiesel.

    Li, Qing; Cai, Hao; Hao, Bo; Zhang, Congling; Yu, Ziniu; Zhou, Shengde; Chenjuan, Liu


    The extractive acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentations of Clostridium acetobutylicum were evaluated using biodiesel as the in situ extractant. The biodiesel preferentially extracted butanol, minimized product inhibition, and increased production of butanol (from 11.6 to 16.5 g L⁻¹) and total solvents (from 20.0 to 29.9 g L⁻¹) by 42% and 50%, respectively. The fuel properties of the ABE-enriched biodiesel obtained from the extractive fermentations were analyzed. The key quality indicators of diesel fuel, such as the cetane number (increased from 48 to 54) and the cold filter plugging point (decreased from 5.8 to 0.2 °C), were significantly improved for the ABE-enriched biodiesel. Thus, the application of biodiesel as the extractant for ABE fermentation would increase ABE production, bypass the energy intensive butanol recovery process, and result in an ABE-enriched biodiesel with improved fuel properties.

  19. Combining Experimentation and Theory A Hommage to Abe Mamdani

    Bonissone, Piero; Magdalena, Luis; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    The unexpected and premature passing away of Professor Ebrahim H. "Abe" Mamdani on January, 22, 2010, was a big shock to the scientific community, to all his friends and colleagues around the world, and to his close relatives. Professor Mamdani was a remarkable figure in the academic world, as he contributed to so many areas of science and technology. Of great relevance are his latest thoughts and ideas on the study of language and its handling by computers. The fuzzy logic community is particularly indebted to Abe Mamdani (1941-2010) who, in 1975, in his famous paper An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller, jointly written with his student Sedrak Assilian, introduced the novel idea of fuzzy control. This was an elegant engineering approach to the modeling and control of complex processes for which mathematical models were unknown or too difficult to build, yet they could effectively and efficiently be controlled by human operators. This ground-breaking idea has found innumerable a...

  20. Development of Teaching Aids for ABE/ESL Adult Education Programs. Final Report.

    Berna, Joan; Alkasab, Helen

    The purpose of Special Project E-109A, Development of Teaching Aids for Adult Basic Education/English (Second Language) (ABE/ESL) Adult Education Programs, was to develop skill packets consisting of visual materials, teacher manuals, and student work sheets for statewide use in ABE/ESL classes in Illinois. The project was conducted cooperatively…

  1. Genome shuffling of Clostridium acetobutylicum CICC 8012 for improved production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE).

    Gao, Xiaofeng; Zhao, Hai; Zhang, Guohua; He, Kaize; Jin, Yanling


    Genome shuffling was applied to increase ABE production of the strict anaerobe C. acetobutylicum CICC 8012. By using physical and chemical mutagenesis, strains with superior streptomycin sulfate, 2-deoxy-D-glucose and butanol tolerance levels were isolated. These strains were used for genome shuffling. The best performing strain F2-GA was screened after two rounds of genome shuffling. With 55 g glucose/l as carbon source, F2-GA produced 22.21 g ABE/l in 72 h and ABE yield reached 0.42 g/g which was about 34.53 % improvement compared to the wild type. Fermentation parameters and gene expression of several key enzymes in ABE metabolic pathways were varied significantly between F2-GA and the wild type. These results demonstrated the potential use of genome shuffling to microbial breeding which were difficult to deal with traditional methods.

  2. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016,

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  3. 高掺比ABE/柴油混合燃料的喷雾与燃烧特性%Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Diesel Blend with High ABE Ratio

    吴晗; 林亦律; 肖国炜; Lee Timothy; 李佳峰; 张春化


    The acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE)/diesel blend with high ABE ratio as alternative fuel was studied and the experiments were conducted in a pre-combustion type constant volume chamber.ABE solution with typical volu-metric ratios of 30%, acetone,60%, butanol,and 10%, ethanol was blended with diesel at 80%, volume and was tested.The ambient temperature was set to be 1,100,K and 900,K,which represent normal temperature combustion mode and low temperature combustion mode,respectively,andthe ambient oxygen concentrations were set to be 21%,,16%, and 11%,,respectively,which represent different EGR conditions for diesel engine.In-cylinder pres-sure was recorded by using a pressure transducer and the time-resolved Mie-scattering image and natural flame lumi-nosity were captured by using a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser as a light source.The results show that,due to the high percentage of ABE in the blend,the liquid penetration and intensity of natural flame lu-minosity are reduced significantly,which indicates a high potential to reduce soot level when it is used as an alterna-tive fuel for internal combustion engine.Furthermore,a soot-free combustion is achieved by combing the low tem-perature combustion with blended fuel with a high percentage of ABE.Hence,in terms of soot emission,high ABE ratio blends are a very promising alternative fuel which can be directly used in diesel engines.%针对丙酮-丁醇-乙醇(ABE)/柴油混合燃料的喷雾蒸发和燃烧过程展开了试验研究.试验在预燃加热式定容燃烧弹中进行,燃料为体积分数80%的ABE和20%,的柴油混合物,且ABE溶液中丙酮、丁醇、乙醇的体积分数分别为30%,、60%,和10%,.试验过程中燃烧弹内喷雾环境温度分别控制在1,100,K和900,K以代表普通燃烧模式和低温燃烧模式,环境氧体积分数分别控制在21%,、16%,和11%,以对应发动机不同的 EGR 工况.由高速摄相机配合激光束的使用,拍摄喷雾

  4. Thesis: A Combined-light Mission For Exoplanet Molecular Spectroscopy

    Deroo, Pieter; Swain, M. R.; Tinetti, G.; Griffith, C.; Vasisht, G.; Deming, D.; Henning, T.; Beaulieu, J.


    THESIS, the Transiting Habitable-zone Exoplanet Spectroscopy Infrared Spacecraft, is a concept for a MIDEX/Discovery class exoplanet mission. Building on the recent Spitzer and Hubble successes in exoplanet characterization and molecular spectroscopy, THESIS would extend these types of measurements to a large population of planets including non-transiting planets and super-Earths. The ability to acquire high-stability, spectroscopic data from the near-visible to the mid-infrared is a unique aspect of THESIS. A strength of the THESIS concept is simplicity low technical risk, and modest cost. By enabling molecular spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres, THESIS mission has the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of conditions on extrasolar worlds while serving as a stepping stone to more ambitious future missions.

  5. Effects of nutritional enrichment on the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) by Clostridium acetobutylicum.

    Choi, Sung Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, In Ho


    Clostridium acetobutylicum is an industrially important organism that produces acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE). The main objective of this study was to characterize the effects of increased cell density on the production of ABE during the phase transition from acidogenesis to solventogenesis in C. acetobutylicum. The increased ABE productivity of C. acetobutylicum was obtained by increasing the cell density using a newly designed medium (designated C. a cetobutylicum medium 1; CAM1). The maximum OD(600) value of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 strain obtained with CAM1 was 19.7, which is 1.8 times higher than that obtained with clostridial growth medium (CGM). The overall ABE productivity obtained in the CAM1-fermetation of the ATCC 824 strain was 0.83 g/L/h, which is 1.5 times higher than that (0.55 g/L/h) obtained with CGM. However, the increased productivity obtained with CAM1 did not result in an increase in the final ABE titer, because phase transition occurred at a high titer of acids.

  6. Securing Peace : article 9 and security policy under Koizumi Junichiro and Abe Shinzo

    Hovi, Mira


    Tarkastelen maisterintutkielmassani Japanin perustuslain sodan ja sotajoukkojen kieltävää 9. pykälää sekä Japanin turvallisuuspolitiikkaa kahden japanilaisen pääministerin, Koizumi Junichiron ja Abe Shinzon, puheissa. Tutkimuksen tehtävänä on selvittää, miten Koizumi ja Abe perustelevat 9. pykälän tulkinnan ja turvallisuuspolitiikan muutoksia heidän kausillaan sekä verrata tästä syntyviä tuloksia. Tutkimukseni monipuoliseen teoreettiseen viitekehykseen kuuluvat turvallisuus, kansainvälinen yh...

  7. The Space Missions WAXS/WFXT and SWIFT New Targets for the VLT

    Chincarini, G L


    At OAB we were, during the year 1998, deeply involved in planning two important space missions for which very large ground based telescopes, VLT in particular, would play a very large and important role in the optical followup. The study of the first mission, Wide Angle X-ray Survey using a Wide Field X-ray Telescope, was coordinated by the Observatory of Brera, involved mainly Italian industries and resulted in a proposal to the Italian Space Agency under the Small Satellite Program. The second mission, SWIFT, has been coordinated and directed by the Goddard Space Flight Center and resulted in the submission of a proposal to NASA under the MIDEX program. The science goal of this mission is the detection and study of the Gamma-ray bursts.

  8. Adult Basic Education Curriculum Guide for ABE Programs Serving Psychiatrically Ill Adult Students.

    Collier, Ezma V.

    This curriculum guide is designed for use in adult basic education (ABE) programs serving psychiatrically ill adult students. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: personal hygiene and grooming, nutrition and health, money and money management, transportation and safety, government and law, values clarification, and…

  9. The Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA) Mission

    Jones, D. L.; MacDowall, R.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M.; Reiner, M.; Demaio, L.; Weiler, K.; Kasper, J.; Bale, S.; Howard, R.


    The Solar Imaging Radio Array will be proposed to NASA as a Medium Explorer (MIDEX) mission by a team of investigators at GSFC, JPL, NRL, MIT, and UC Berkeley. The main science goal of the mission is imaging and tracking of solar radio bursts, particularly those associated with coronal mass ejections, and understanding their evolution and influence on Earth's magnetosphere. Related goals are mapping the 3-dimensional morphology of the interplanetary magnetic field and improving the prediction of geomagnetic storms. A number of topics in galactic and extragalactic astrophysics will also be addressed by SIRA. The mission concept is a free-flying array of about 16 small, inexpensive satellites forming an aperture synthesis interferometer in space. By observing from above the ionosphere, and far from terrestrial radio interference, SIRA will cover frequencies between a few tens of kHz up to 15 MHz. This wide spectral window is essentially unexplored with high angular resolution. Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  10. Reactor design for the ABE fermentation using cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum immobilized by adsorption onto bonechar

    Qureshi, N.; Maddox, I.S.


    Cells of Clostridium acetobutylicum were immobilized by adsorption onto bonechar, and used for the production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate. When the process was performed in packed bed reactors operated in a vertical or inclined mode, solvent productivities approximating 6kg/(m/sup 3/h) were obtained. However, the systems suffered from blockage due to excess biomass production and gas hold-up. These problems were less apparent when a partially-packed bed reactor was operated in the horizontal mode. A fluidized bed reactor proved to be the most stable of the systems investigated, and a productivity of 4.8 kg/(m/sup 3/h) was maintained over a period of 2000 h of operation. The results demonstrate that this type of reactor may have a useful future role in the ABE fermentation.

  11. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates.

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa


    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media.

  12. Efficient production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava by a fermentation-pervaporation coupled process.

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun; Luo, Jianquan; Zhang, Yuming; Su, Yi; Wan, Yinhua


    Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) from cassava was investigated with a fermentation-pervaporation (PV) coupled process. ABE products were in situ removed from fermentation broth to alleviate the toxicity of solvent to the Clostridium acetobutylicum DP217. Compared to the batch fermentation without PV, glucose consumption rate and solvent productivity increased by 15% and 21%, respectively, in batch fermentation-PV coupled process, while in continuous fermentation-PV coupled process running for 304 h, the substrate consumption rate, solvent productivity and yield increased by 58%, 81% and 15%, reaching 2.02 g/Lh, 0.76 g/Lh and 0.38 g/g, respectively. Silicalite-1 filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) membrane modules ensured media recycle without significant fouling, steadily generating a highly concentrated ABE solution containing 201.8 g/L ABE with 122.4 g/L butanol. After phase separation, a final product containing 574.3g/L ABE with 501.1g/L butanol was obtained. Therefore, the fermentation-PV coupled process has the potential to decrease the cost in ABE production.

  13. Defending against Key Abuse Attacks in KP-ABE Enabled Broadcast Systems

    Yu, Shucheng; Ren, Kui; Lou, Wenjing; Li, Jin

    Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic primitive which enables fine-grained access control over sensitive data. However, key abuse attacks in KP-ABE may impede its wide application especially in copyright-sensitive systems. To defend against this kind of attacks, this paper proposes a novel KP-ABE scheme which is able to disclose any illegal key distributor’s ID when key abuse is detected. In our scheme, each bit of user ID is defined as an attribute and the user secret key is associated with his unique ID. The tracing algorithm fulfills its task by tricking the pirate device into decrypting the ciphertext associated with the corresponding bits of his ID. Our proposed scheme has the salient property of black box tracing, i.e., it traces back to the illegal key distributor’s ID only by observing the pirate device’s outputs on certain inputs. In addition, it does not require the pirate device’s secret keys to be well-formed as compared to some previous work. Our proposed scheme is provably secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption and the Decisional Linear (DL) assumption.

  14. The Swift Mission and the REM Telescope

    Gehrels, N.; Chincarini, G.; Giommi, P.; Mason, K. O.; Nousek, J. A.; Wells, A. A.; White, N. E.; Barthelemy, S. D.; Burrow, D. N.; Hurley, K. C.


    Following a description of the science drive which originated the Swift Mission, this is US NASA MIDEX Mission with the collaboration of Italy and the UK, we will describe the status of the hardware and the observing strategy. The telemetry is carried out via the TDRSS satellite for those communications that need immediate response. The data transfer and the scheduled uploading of routine commands will be done through the ASI Malindi station in Kenia. Both in the US and in Europe a large effort will be done to follow the bursts with the maximum of efficiency and as soon as possible after the alert. We will describe how the ESO VLT telescopes are able to respond to the alert. To address the problematic of the dark bursts and to immediately follow up all of the bursts also in the Near Infrared we designed and built a 60 cm NIR Robotic telescope, REM, to be located on the ESO ground at Cerro La Silla. The instrumentation includes also a low dispersion spectrograph with the capability of multi wavelength optical photometry.

  15. Recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions via membrane distillation

    Banat, F.A.; Al-Shannag, M. [Jordan Univ. of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering


    The simultaneous recovery of dilute acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) solvents from aqueous solutions by air gap membrane distillation was theoretically assessed. A previously developed and validated Stefan-Maxwell based mathematical model was used for this purpose. It was found that membrane distillation could successfully be used for the recovery of these solvents. Interestingly it was found that butanol could be separated with the highest selectivity and flux though it has the highest boiling point. The effect of operating conditions such as feed and cooling surface temperatures, air gap width, and individual component concentration on the flux and selectivity of these solvents was examined and discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  16. The Right to Collective Self-Defense and Prime Minister Shinzo Abe

    瀬端, 孝夫; SEBATA, Takao


    This paper examines Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s attempt to exercise the right to collective self-defense. In the past, the Japanese Government had interpreted that Japan would not be able to exercise the right to collective self-defense although she had such a right as a state and a member of the United Nations. It was because exercising such a right would go beyond the level of the necessary and minimum self-defense and therefore, would infringe on Article 9 of Japan’s Constitution. Abe chal...

  17. Continuous Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) Fermentation with in Situ Solvent Recovery by Silicalite-1 Filled PDMS/PAN Composite Membrane

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun


    The pervaporation (PV) performance of a thin-film silicalite-1 filled PDMS/PAN composite membrane was investigated in the continuous acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) production by a fermentation–PV coupled process. Results showed that continuous removal of ABE from the broth at three different...

  18. Effect of cellulosic sugar degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii P260

    Studies were performed to identify chemicals present in wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) that enhance acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) productivity. These chemicals were identified as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Control experiment resulted in the production of 21.09-21.66 gL**-1 ABE with a ...

  19. Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA): a multispacecraft mission

    MacDowall, R. J.; Bale, S. D.; Demaio, L.; Gopalswamy, N.; Jones, D. L.; Kaiser, M. L.; Kasper, J. C.; Reiner, M. J.; Weiler, K. W.


    The Solar Imaging Radio Array (SIRA) is a mission to perform aperture synthesis imaging of low frequency solar, magnetospheric, and astrophysical radio bursts. The primary science targets are coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which drive shock waves that may produce radio emission. A space-based interferometer is required, because the frequencies of observation (SIRA will require a 12 to 16 microsatellite constellation to establish a sufficient number of baselines with separations on the order of kilometers. The microsats will be located quasi-randomly on a spherical shell, initially of diameter 10 km or less. The baseline microsat, as presented here, is 3-axis stabilized with a body-mounted, earth-directed high gain antenna and an articulated solar array; this design was developed by the Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). A retrograde orbit at a distance of ~500,000 km from Earth was selected as the preferred orbit because the 8 Mbps downlink requirement is easy to meet, while keeping the constellation sufficiently distant from terrestrial radio interference. Also, the retrograde orbit permits imaging of terrestrial magnetospheric radio sources from varied perspectives. The SIRA mission serves as a pathfinder for space-based satellite constellations and for spacecraft interferometry at shorter wavelengths. It will be proposed to the NASA MIDEX proposal opportunity in mid-2005.

  20. The effect of a Variable Yield Function on the profitability of an integrated ABE fermentation product recovery system

    Tanner, R.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Hunkeler, D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Qureshi, N. [Department of Process and Environmental Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Maddox, I.S. [Department of Process and Environmental Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand)


    A published process for the fermentative production and recovery of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) has been modelled and analysed. Postulation of a Variable Yield Function has led to an unexpected Value Function. Given a desired ABE production range of 1.6 x 10{sup 6} kg per year to 32 x 10{sup 6} kg per year, and a typical fixed (or variable) cost term, {gamma}, of $0.4 per kg ABE, the process has been shown to be unprofitable in the range 2 x 10{sup 6} kg per year to 18 x 10{sup 6} kg per year. Profitability is achieved at low production values (less than 2 x 10{sup 6} kg per year), and at high production values (greater than 18 x 10{sup 6} kg per year). Conversely, profitability is achieved for the comparable fixed yield case, for {gamma}=$0.4 per kg ABE, for all production values, with the profitability increasing linearly with production. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Village Literacy Programming in Pakistan: A Comparative ABE Study with Guidelines. Monographs on Comparative and Area Studies in Adult Education.

    Hesser, Florence E.

    Ten literacy pilot programs developed by the Adult Basic Education Society (ABES) of Pakistan in Gujranwala, Pakistan, between 1963 and 1973 were analyzed and evaluated to evolve a series of adult literacy program development guidelines. The programs were evaluated on the basis of an eleven-category evaluation system developed by Cyril Houle in…

  2. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Abe's mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei (Teleostei, Gobiidae).

    Huang, Shih-Pin; Shen, Chia-Ning; Chen, I-Shiung


    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Abe's mangrove goby Mugilogobius abei has been amplified. Mugilogobius abei is widely contributed species in Northeast to East Asia. The complete mitogenome is 16,483 base pairs (bp) in total length, had the typical vertebrate mitochondrial gene arrangement, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 1 control region (CR). The overall base composition of M. abei is 27.7% for A, 27.0% for T, 28.6% for C, 16.7% for G, with higher AT content of 54.7%. This study will contribute for understanding the phylogenetic approach in genus Mugilogobius and related gobiid genera.

  3. Production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate by continuous fermentation in a membrane bioreactor

    Ennis, B.M.; Maddox, I.S.


    A continuous bioreactor where cells were recycled using a cross-flow microfiltration (CFM) membrane plant was investigated for the production of solvents (ABE fermentation) from whey permeate using Clostridium acetobutylicum P262. A tubular CFM membrane plant capable of being backflushed was used. The continuous fermentations were characterized by cyclic solventogenic and acidogenic behaviour, and ultimately degenerated to an acidogenic state. Steady-state solvent production was obtained for only short periods. This degeneration is attributed to the complex morphological behaviour of this strain of organism on this substrate. It is postulated that to achieve steady-state solvent production over extended periods of time, it is necessary to maintain a balance among the various morphological cell forms, i.e. acid-producing vegetative cells, solvent-producing clostridial cells, and inert forms, e.g. spores.

  4. In Vitro Longitudinal Relaxivity Profile of Gd(ABE-DTTA, an Investigational Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent.

    Akos Varga-Szemes

    Full Text Available MRI contrast agents (CA whose contrast enhancement remains relatively high even at the higher end of the magnetic field strength range would be desirable. The purpose of this work was to demonstrate such a desired magnetic field dependency of the longitudinal relaxivity for an experimental MRI CA, Gd(ABE-DTTA.The relaxivity of 0.5mM and 1mM Gd(ABE-DTTA was measured by Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion (NMRD in the range of 0.0002 to 1T. Two MRI and five NMR instruments were used to cover the range between 1.5 to 20T. Parallel measurement of a Gd-DTPA sample was performed throughout as reference. All measurements were carried out at 37°C and pH 7.4.The relaxivity values of 0.5mM and 1mM Gd(ABE-DTTA measured at 1.5, 3, and 7T, within the presently clinically relevant magnetic field range, were 15.3, 11.8, 12.4 s-1mM-1 and 18.1, 16.7, and 13.5 s-1mM-1, respectively. The control 4 mM Gd-DTPA relaxivities at the same magnetic fields were 3.6, 3.3, and 3.0 s-1mM-1, respectively.The longitudinal relaxivity of Gd(ABE-DTTA measured within the presently clinically relevant field range is three to five times higher than that of most commercially available agents. Thus, Gd(ABE-DTTA could be a practical choice at any field strength currently used in clinical imaging including those at the higher end.

  5. Application of Monte-Carlo Analyses for the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Mission

    Mesarch, Michael A.; Rohrbaugh, David; Schiff, Conrad; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)


    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) is the third launch in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) a Medium Class Explorers (MIDEX) program. MAP will measure, in greater detail, the cosmic microwave background radiation from an orbit about the Sun-Earth-Moon L2 Lagrangian point. Maneuvers will be required to transition MAP from it's initial highly elliptical orbit to a lunar encounter which will provide the remaining energy to send MAP out to a lissajous orbit about L2. Monte-Carlo analysis methods were used to evaluate the potential maneuver error sources and determine their effect of the fixed MAP propellant budget. This paper will discuss the results of the analyses on three separate phases of the MAP mission - recovering from launch vehicle errors, responding to phasing loop maneuver errors, and evaluating the effect of maneuver execution errors and orbit determination errors on stationkeeping maneuvers at L2.

  6. "Enne diskussiooni võta 100 g (40°-80°)!" : Gustav Naani kolm kirja Abe Liebmanile / Gustav Naan ; kommentaarinud Helen Lausma-Saar

    Naan, Gustav, 1919-1994


    Kirjad pakuvad lisateavet selle kohta, kuidas kujunes marksistlik-leninlik-stalinlik Eesti ajaloo kontseptsioon. Annavad võimaluse heita pilgu Gustav Naani mõttemaailma ja ridade vahelt saab aimu Abe Liebmani rollist ajalooteaduse ümbermõtestamisel

  7. Oil palm empty fruit bunch to biofuels and chemicals via SO2-ethanol-water fractionation and ABE fermentation.

    Sklavounos, Evangelos; Iakovlev, Mikhail; Survase, Shrikant; Granström, Tom; van Heiningen, Adriaan


    A process has been developed for conversion of spent liquor produced by SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) fractionation of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibers to biofuels by ABE fermentation. The fermentation process utilizes Clostridia bacteria that produce butanol, ethanol and acetone solvents at a total yield of 0.26 g/g sugars. A conditioning scheme is developed, which demonstrates that it is possible to utilize the hemicellulose sugars from this agricultural waste stream by traditional ABE fermentation. Fractionation as well as sugar hydrolysis in the spent liquor is hindered by the high cation content of OPEFB, which can be partly removed by acidic leaching suggesting that a better deashing method is necessary. Furthermore, it is inferred that better and more selective lignin removal is needed during conditioning to improve liquor fermentability.

  8. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Th-Pb dating of separated clasts from the Abee E4 chondrite

    Bogard, D.D.; Unruh, D.M.; Tatsumoto, M.


    Determinations of 40Ar/39Ar and U-Th-Pb are reported for three clasts from the Abee (E4) enstatite chondrite, which has been the object of extensive consortium investigations. The clasts give 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages and/or maximum ages of 4.5 Gy, whereas two of the clasts give average ages of 4.4 Gy. Within the range of 4.4-4.5 Gy these data do not resolve any possible age differences among the three clasts. 206Pb measured in these clasts is only ???1.5-2.5% radiogenic, which leads to relatively large uncertainties in the Pb isochron age and in the 207Pb/206Pb model ages. The Pb data indicate that the initial 207Pb/206Pb was no more than 0.08??0.07% higher than this ratio in Can??on Diablo troilite. The U-Th-Pb data are consistent with the interpretation that initial formation of these clasts occurred 4.58 Gy ago and that the clasts have since remained closed systems, but are contaminated with terrestrial Pb. The 40Ar/39Ar ages could be gas retention ages after clast formation or impact degassing ages. The thermal history of Abee deduced from Ar data appears consistent with that deduced from magnetic data, and suggests that various Abee components experienced separate histories until brecciation no later than 4.4 Gy ago, and experienced no appreciable subsequent heating. ?? 1983.

  9. Investigations into the perplexing interrelationship of the Genus Takifugu Abe, 1949 (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae)


    The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Takifugu Abe, 1949 (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae) remain unresolved. Because of the use of Takifugu as model organisms, the resolution of these relationships is crucial for the interpretation of evolutionary trends in biology. Pufferfishes of this genus are comprised of a comparatively small number of species and are mainly distributed along the coastal region of the western part of the Sea of Japan and the coastline of China. Mitochondrial gene sequences were employed to test the phylogenetic hypotheses within the genus. Seventeen species of the genus were examined. Molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our hypothesis of internal relationships within the genus differs from previous hypotheses. Our results indicate that (1) the genus Takifugu is a monophyletic assemblage; (2) the genus is divided into 6 subgroups based on the molecular data; and (3) there is low genetic diversity among the species within this genus. In addition,speciation within Takifugu appears to be driven by hybridization and isolation by distribution. Our resuits also suggested that the taxonomy in the genus should be clarified based on both molecular and morphological data.

  10. Gas mission; Mission gaz



    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  11. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor.

    Park, C H; Okos, M R; Wankat, P C


    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was successfully carried out in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor. The reactor was composed of two serial columns packed with Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 entrapped on the surface of natural sponge segments at a cell loading in the range of 2.03-5.56 g dry cells/g sponge. The average cell loading was 3.58 g dry cells/g sponge. Batch experiments indicated that a critical pH above 4.2 is necessary for the initiation of cell growth. One of the media used during continuous experiments consisted of a salt mixture alone and the other a nutrient medium containing a salt mixture with yeast extract and peptone. Effluent pH was controlled by supplying various fractions of the two different types of media. A nutrient medium fraction above 0.6 was crucial for successful fermentation in a trickle bed reactor. The nutrient medium fraction is the ratio of the volume of the nutrient medium to the total volume of nutrient plus salt medium. Supplying nutrient medium to both columns continuously was an effective way to meet both pH and nutrient requirement. A 257-mL reactor could ferment 45 g/L glucose from an initial concentration of 60 g/L glucose at a rate of 70 mL/h. Butanol, acetone, and ethanol concentrations were 8.82, 5.22, and 1.45 g/L, respectively, with a butanol and total solvent yield of 19.4 and 34.1 wt %. Solvent productivity in an immobilized cell trickle bed reactor was 4.2 g/L h, which was 10 times higher than that obtained in a batch fermentation using free cells and 2.76 times higher than that of an immobilized CSTR. If the nutrient medium fraction was below 0.6 and the pH was below 4.2, the system degenerated. Oxygen also contributed to the system degeneration. Upon degeneration, glucose consumption and solvent yield decreased to 30.9 g/L and 23.0 wt %, respectively. The yield of total liquid product (40.0 wt %) and butanol selectivity (60.0 wt %) remained almost constant. Once the cells were degenerated

  12. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang


    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  13. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation and gas production under slight pressure in a membrane bioreactor.

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Linyuan; Xiao, Guoqing; Liu, Yucheng; Xiao, Zeyi; Deng, Qing; Yao, Peina


    Two rounds of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation under slight pressure were carried out in the continuous and closed-circulating fermentation (CCCF) system. Spores of the clostridium were observed and counted, with the maximum number of 2.1 × 10(8) and 2.3 × 10(8)ml(-1) separately. The fermentation profiles were comparable with that at atmospheric pressure, showing an average butanol productivity of 0.14 and 0.13 g L(-1)h(-1). Moreover, the average gas productivities of 0.28 and 0.27 L L(-1)h(-1) were obtained in two rounds of CCCF, and the cumulative gas production of 52.64 and 25.92 L L(-1) were achieved, with the hydrogen volume fraction of 41.43% and 38.08% respectively. The results suggested that slight pressures have no obvious effect on fermentation performance, and also indicated the significance and feasibility of gas recovery in the continuous ABE fermentation process.

  14. Direct in situ butanol recovery inside the packed bed during continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    Wang, Yin-Rong; Chiang, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Po-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Li, Si-Yu


    In this study, the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process was coupled with continuous ABE fermentation using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. At the same time, oleyl alcohol was cocurrently flowed into the packed bed reactor with the fresh medium and then recycled back to the packed bed reactor after removing butanol in the stripper. A high glucose consumption of 52 g/L and a high butanol productivity of 11 g/L/h were achieved, resulting in a high butanol yield of 0.21 g-butanol/g-glucose. This can be attributed to both the high bacterial activity for solvent production as well as a threefold increase in the bacterial density inside the packed bed reactor. Also reported is that 64 % of the butanol produced can be recovered by the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process. A high butanol productivity and a high glucose consumption were simultaneously achieved.

  15. El-AbedOroub, Unprotected: Palestinians in Egypt since 1948, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies / Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2009, 253 p.

    Françoise de Bel-Air


    Full Text Available L’ouvrage proposé par Oroub El-Abed sur les Palestiniens d’Égypte comble un manque : cette communauté n’avait, en effet, encore jamais fait l’objet d’une étude scientifique de grande ampleur telle que celle entreprise par l’auteur sous les auspices du programme Forced Migration and Refugee Studies de l’Université américaine au Caire. L’ambition initiale de Oroub El-Abed et de son équipe était de réaliser une enquête de terrain portant sur un échantillon de 300 ménages répartis dans 15 gouvern...

  16. Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE) production in fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed cassava flour by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 and solvent separation.

    Lépiz-Aguilar, Leonardo; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E; Arias, María Laura; Lutz, Giselle


    Cassava constitutes an abundant substrate in tropical regions. The production of butanol in ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii BA101 using cassava flour (CF) was scaled-up to bioreactor level (5 L). Optimized fermentation conditions were applied; that is, 40℃, 60 g/l CF, and enzymatic pretreatment of the substrate. The batch fermentation profile presented an acidogenic phase for the first 24 h and a solventogenic phase afterwards. An average of 37.01 g/l ABE was produced after 83 h, with a productivity of 0.446 g/l/h. Butanol production was 25.71 g/l with a productivity of 0.310 g/l/h, high or similar to analogous batch processes described for other substrates. Solvent separation by different combinations of fractioned and azeotropic distillation and liquid-liquid separation were assessed to evaluate energetic and economic costs in downstream processing. Results suggest that the use of cassava as a substrate in ABE fermentation could be a cost-effective way of producing butanol in tropical regions.

  17. Production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) in direct fermentation of cassava by Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4.

    Thang, Vu Hong; Kanda, Kohzo; Kobayashi, Genta


    In this work, acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.

  18. A first principles study of structural stability, electronic structure and mechanical properties of ABeH{sub 3} (A = Li, Na)

    Santhosh, M.; Rajeswarapalanichamy, R.; Priyanga, G. Sudha; Murugan, A. [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N college, Madurai, Tamilnadu-625019 (India); Kanagaprabha, S. [Department of Physics, Kamaraj College, Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu 628 003 (India); Iyakutti, K. [Department of physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Chennai, Tamilnadu-603203 (India)


    Ab initio calculations are performed to investigate the structural stability, electronic structure and mechanical properties of ABeH{sub 3} (A = Li, Na) for three different crystal structures, namely orthorhombic (Pnma), monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/c) and triclinic (P-1) phase. Among the considered structures monoclinic (P2{sub 1}/c) phase is found to be the most stable one for all the three hydrides at ambient condition. The electronic structure reveals that these materials are wide band gap semiconductors. The calculated elastic constants indicate that these materials are mechanically stable at ambient condition.

  19. The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer - An optical, astrometric survey mission

    Horner, S. D.; Germain, M. E.; Greene, T. P.; Harris, F. H.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, M. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Monet, D. G.; Murison, M. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Urban, S. E.; Vassar, R. H.


    The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) is a NASA MIDEX mission scheduled for launch in 2004. It will perform an all sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will determine the positions, parallaxes, proper motions, and photometry of 40,000,000 stars with visual band magnitudes 5 DSS colors. FAME will enable a wide range of scientific investigations using its large, rich database of information on stellar properties. It will: * Calibrate the zero point of the extragalactic distance scale to 1% * Determine absolute luminosities of a wide range of spectral types * Detect a meaningful statistical sample of companion stars, brown dwarfs, and giant planets * Enable studies of the kinematics of our galaxy, including the effect of dark matter in the disk * Characterize stellar variability of a large sample of stars at the 0.1% level * Define a rigid optical reference frame for future scientific endeavors FAME is evolved from design concepts from the Hipparcos mission, using current CCD technology to observe more and fainter stars. Like Hipparcos, FAME has a compound mirror consisting of two flats angled relative to each other. The compound mirror feeds the two fields of view separated by the ``basic angle'' into a common telescope. The two fields of view are used to control the growth of stochastic errors in determining the relative separations of stars. FAME is a joint development effort of the U.S. Naval Observatory, the Naval Research Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Advanced Technology Center, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Funding for FAME is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science through the Explorer program managed by Goddard Space Flight Center. Additional funding has been provided by the U.S. Navy.

  20. Abe Cabinet in Danger


    Scandals in Shinzo Abe’s government have tarnished the LDP’s image and jeopardized its chances of winning the next parliamentary electionsS hinzo Abe’sjob is on the line. During the past seven months sev-eral members of Japanese prime minister’s cabinet

  1. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 and in situ recovery by PDMS/ceramic composite membrane.

    Wu, Hao; Chen, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Gong-Ping; Jiang, Min; Guo, Ting; Jin, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping; Zhu, Da-Wei


    PDMS/ceramic composite membrane was directly integrated with acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium acetobutylicum XY16 at 37 °C and in situ removing ABE from fermentation broth. The membrane was integrated with batch fermentation, and approximately 46 % solvent was extracted. The solvent in permeates was 118 g/L, and solvent productivity was 0.303 g/(L/h), which was approximately 33 % higher compared with the batch fermentation without in situ recovery. The fed-batch fermentation with in situ recovery by pervaporation continued for more than 200 h, 61 % solvent was extracted, and the solvent in penetration was 96.2 g/L. The total flux ranged from 0.338 to 0.847 kg/(m(2)/h) and the separation factor of butanol ranged from 5.1 to 27.1 in this process. The membrane was fouled by the active fermentation broth, nevertheless the separation performances were partially recovered by offline membrane cleaning, and the solvent productivity was increased to 0.252 g/(L/h), which was 19 % higher compared with that in situ recovery process without membrane cleaning.

  2. The enhancement of butanol production by in situ butanol removal using biodiesel extraction in the fermentation of ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol).

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Wang, Yi-Cheng


    High butanol accumulation is due to feedback inhibition which leads to the low butanol productivity observed in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The aim of this study is to use biodiesel as an extractant for the in situ removal of butanol from the broth. The results indicate that adding biodiesel as an extractant at the beginning of fermentation significantly enhances butanol production. No significant toxicity of biodiesel on the growth of Clostridium acetobutylicum is observed. In the fed-batch operation with glucose feeding, the maximum total butanol obtained is 31.44 g/L, as compared to the control batch (without the addition of biodiesel) at 9.85 g/L. Moreover, the productivity obtained is 0.295 g/L h in the fed-batch, which is higher than that of 0.185 g/L h for the control batch. The in situ butanol removal by the addition of biodiesel has great potential for commercial ABE production.

  3. An Analysis of Japan’ s Active Pacifism of Abe Type%日本“安倍式积极和平主义”剖析

    徐万胜; 王强


    “安倍式积极和平主义”,是日本安倍晋三内阁推行国家安全保障及外交战略的基本理念,带有安倍本人浓厚的个人色彩。安倍内阁提出的“积极和平主义”并非一蹴而就,它力主日本在安全保障领域实现“主体地位”“多元手段”与“全球视野”,与和平学研究中的“积极和平主义”内涵完全相悖,其实质是修宪主义、大国主义与修正主义。%Active Pacifism of Abe Type, implemented by Shinzo Abe Cabinet, is the basic concept of Japan’ s national security and diplomatic strategy. The strategy, with a strong personal characteristics, holds that Japan should achieve dominant position, multiple measures and global vision in the field of national security, but it is not easy to be achieved. It is totally contrary to the essence of peace studies. Its essence is actually constitutional amendment, great-power chauvinism and revisionism.

  4. Missions and Moral Judgement.

    Bushnell, Amy Turner


    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  5. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  6. Application of salt substitute ABE to reactive pad dyeing of cotton fabric%代盐剂ABE在棉活性轧染中的应用

    王进武; 奚道荣; 毋淑纬; 何鹰


    采用代盐剂ABE和精练酶ESF对纯棉机织物进行复合前处理,然后进行活性轧染染色.代盐剂ABE复合前处理的优化工艺条件为:代盐剂ABE 15 g/L,精练酶ESF 20 g/L,30%过氧化氢30 g/L,轧余率100%,汽蒸时间45 min.代盐剂ABE工艺可以减少工序,节约能源,尽管前处理效果稍逊于传统工艺,但处理织物的染色深度高于传统工艺,各项牢度与传统工艺相当.

  7. Threads of Mission Success

    Gavin, Thomas R.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  8. Mission operations management

    Rocco, David A.


    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  9. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.


    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  10. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    Coppin, Ann


    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  11. The STEREO Mission


    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  12. Industrial culture media optimization for acetrobutilic Fermentation Optimización de un medio de cultivo industrial para la fermentación acetobutilica (abe

    Ramos J.


    Full Text Available The industrial culture media for butanol-ethanol-acetone fermentation (ABE was optimized by experimental design. A butanol resistant mutant isolated from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1732 was used. This mutant produced 15.5 g/1 of total solvents, 30% more than the wild strain solvent production. Mutant strain resists a concentration of 2,5% v/v meanwhile the type strain resists 1 % v/v butanol concentration. Molasses of sugar cane as carbon source were used. The molasses concentration was determined based on the necessary glucose concentration for producing 15 g/1 of butanol as limit product in the ABE fermentation. The nutrients were calculated in according lo literature reports and lo highest biomasse production on vegetative medium 3.8g/l. For determining which variables have significant effect on the total solvent production, the PLAKET-BURMAN method was used. The final concentrations of the culture medium were determined by EVOP-Simplex method. A liter of optimized industrial medium is composed by: molasses 130 g, biotin 4.0 mg, PAB A 3.0 mg, KH2PO41.8 g, yeast extract 3.0 g, minerals stock 4 ml and distilled water lo complete 1 liter; pH 6.1 before sterilization. Using this medium the total solvents production was 24,6 g/1. The production increment is equivalent lo 58,7%, compared lo the mutant strain before the medium was optimized. En el presente trabajo se optimizó un medio de cultivo industrial para la fermentación acetobutilica (ABE mediante la aplicación de diseño de experimentos. Se empleó una mutante espontánea resistente al butanol aislada de la cepa de Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1732 la cual tolera una concentración de butanol de 2.5% v/v. La mutante produce 15.5 g/1 de solventes totales que representan 30% más que la cepa silvestre. Para diseñar el medio se empleó como fuente de carbono, melazas de caña. Los nutrientes se calcularon de acuerdo con la máxima cantidad de biomasa obtenida en medio vegetativo (3

  13. Índices de calidad ambiental de aguas del Arroyo Caañabe mediante tests microbiológicos y ecotoxicológico

    Tomás López Arias


    Full Text Available El Arroyo Caañabe, es un curso de agua que corre a través de los Departamentos Central y Paraguarí (República del Paraguay. Las descargas de origen agropecuario, urbano e industrial contaminan sus aguas. En este trabajo se evalúa la calidad del arroyo mediante sus características fisicoquímicas, ecotoxicológicas, microbiológicas y se la comparan con la legislación vigente. Se colectaron muestras en los meses de Julio y Setiembre del año 2014. Se estudiaron tres sitios denominados S1, ubicado en aguas arriba de la Ciudad de Carapegua; S2 en la intersección del arroyo con la Ruta 1, y S3, en la zona límite de las ciudades de Carapegua y Nueva Italia. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda con Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa, y alevines de Danio rerio; además de ensayos crónicos en Tetradesmus wisconsinenesis, D. rerio y Allium cepa. Se evaluaron los grupos y especies microbianos siguientes: aerobios mesófilos, enterobacterias, coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, E. coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, mohos y levaduras; además se determinaron índices de calidad y de contaminación. Los resultados indican que las aguas del arroyo presentaron características de clase II y de clase III según el padrón establecido por la Secretaría del Ambiente del Paraguay. El índice de calidad de agua (ICA arrojó valores comprendidos entre 52 y 62 lo que otorga la clasificación de "regular"; mientras que el índice de contaminación trófica (ICOTRO presentó valores entre 0,12 y 0.26, indicando "eutrofización". Los recuentos de coliformes fueron superiores en el segundo muestreo, aunque dentro lo establecido por la norma. La presencia de P. aeruginosa en los tres puntos constituye un riesgo para la salud. Ensayos ecotoxicológicos agudos mostraron que las aguas presentan escasos efectos letales, no obstante los ensayos crónicos en A. cepa y el test de micronúcleos en D. rerio indican potenciales efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos de las

  14. Mission Medical Information System

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.


    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  15. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  16. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn


    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks...

  17. The SPICA mission

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.; Simon, R.; Schaaf, R.; Stutzki, J,


    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 yea

  18. The Rosetta mission

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu


    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  19. Delivering community benefits acts as insurance for the survival of small protected areas such as the Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Susan J. Taylor


    Full Text Available The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve (ABNR in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is largely unknown and offers little to attract visitors. The biological integrity of the ABNR is challenged by the urban poverty in Khutsong, the reserve’s immediate neighbour. Relations between Khutsong and the nature reserve had been hostile for decades as a result of the ‘fortress’ style of conservation protection used for the ABNR. However, this situation provided the Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation with an opportunity to experiment with identifying and transferring benefits to the community, as well as establishing an effective buffer zone between the nature reserve and the informal settlements of Khutsong. Following an initial rapid rural appraisal and ongoing liaison through specifically appointed project managers, an outreach programme containing two natural resource-based projects was developed. As a result, better relations were established between the ABNR and its neighbouring community for the first time since the nature reserve was established in 1977. This acted as ‘insurance’ during violent public protests and vandalism in the Khutsong border demarcation dispute (2005–2007, but may not be enough to secure the nature reserve into the future. Conservation implications: Small protected areas may not be effective in ensuring their biological integrity in the long term, but working cooperatively with existing and future neighbours is an essential strategy to optimise conservation activities in small reserves such as the ABNR.

  20. Mine Drop Experiment II With Operational Mine Shapes (MIDEX II)


    2.1903 -67.9889 0.496 2.7639 -1.9614 -62.7716 1.4591 -0.6823 2.115 -1.4342 -55.3192 3.4127 -2.4886 -70.2241 237 Rock2 time pos(x) pos(y...16.3498 -155.3165 0.7855 -2.6082 36.3949 -13.2558 -149.23 25.9154 -19.4438 -161.403 238 Rock2 time pos(x) pos(y) pos(z) el az x1 y1 z1 x2...197.3717 7.692 -31.1541 -188.3244 2.608 13.3479 -25.8661 -193.37 -0.6035 -2.5237 18.6324 -22.1101 -197.8391 8.0634 -29.6222 -188.9009 239 Rock2

  1. Recce mission planning

    York, Andrew M.


    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  2. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.


    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  3. Towards A Shared Mission

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... in the context of universities. Although the economic aspects of value are important and cannot be ignored, we argue for a much richer interpretation of value that captures the many and varied results from universities. A shared mission is a prerequisite for university management and leadership. It makes......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...

  4. Autonomous Mission Operations Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spaceflight missions will occur with crews and spacecraft at large distances, with long communication delays, to the Earth. The one-way light-time delay...

  5. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.


    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  6. Uganda Mission PRS

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  7. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  8. Galileo Mission Science Briefing


    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  9. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran


    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  10. Bering Mission Navigation Method


    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part...

  11. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    McNamara, Paul


    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  12. KuaFu Mission

    XIA Lidong; TU Chuanyi; Schwenn Rainer; Donovan Eric; Marsch Eckart; WANG Jingsong; ZHANG Yongwei; XIAO Zuo


    The KuaFu mission-Space Storms, Aurora and Space Weather Explorer-is an "L1+Polar" triple satellite project composed of three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at L1 and have instruments to observe solar EUV and FUV emissions, and white-light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field,and high-energy particles. KuaFuB1 and KuaFu- B2 will bein polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous 24 hours a day observation of the north polar Aurora Oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch in about 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.

  13. The Hinode Mission

    Sakurai, Takashi


    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  14. The PROBA-3 Mission

    Zhukov, Andrei


    PROBA-3 is the next ESA mission in the PROBA line of small technology demonstration satellites. The main goal of PROBA-3 is in-orbit demonstration of formation flying techniques and technologies. The mission will consist of two spacecraft together forming a giant (150 m long) coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun). The bigger spacecraft will host the telescope, and the smaller spacecraft will carry the external occulter of the coronagraph. ASPIICS heralds the next generation of solar coronagraphs that will use formation flying to observe the inner corona in eclipse-like conditions for extended periods of time. The occulter spacecraft will also host the secondary payload, DARA (Davos Absolute RAdiometer), that will measure the total solar irradiance. PROBA-3 is planned to be launched in 2019. The scientific objectives of PROBA-3 will be discussed in the context of other future solar and heliospheric space missions.

  15. Athena Mission Status

    Lumb, D.


    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  16. Magellan: mission summary.

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H


    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  17. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim


    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  18. STS-65 Mission Insignia


    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-65 insignia features the International Microgravity Lab (IML)-2 mission and its Spacelab module which flew aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. IML-2 is reflected in the emblem by two gold stars shooting toward the heavens behind the IML lettering. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted orbiting the logo and reaching off into space, with Spacelab on an international quest for a better understanding of the effects of space flight on materials processing and life sciences.

  19. MIV Project: Mission scenario

    Ravazzotti, Mariolina T.; Jørgensen, John Leif; Thuesen, Gøsta;


    Under the ESA contract #11453/95/NL/JG(SC), aiming at assessing the feasibility of Rendez-vous and docking of unmanned spacecrafts, a msiision scenario was defined. This report describes the secquence of manouvres and task allocations for such missions....

  20. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  1. Robust UAV mission planning

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    Unmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissance

  2. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    L. Evers (Lanah); T.A.B. Dollevoet (Twan); A.I. Barros (Ana); H. Monsuur (Herman)


    textabstractUnmanned Areal Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a re

  3. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  4. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime


    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  5. Mission from Mars

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer


    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  6. Mission from Mars:

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer


    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...

  7. EOS Aura Mission Status

    Guit, William J.


    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  8. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.


    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  9. The Lobster Mission

    Barthelmy, Scott


    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  10. Mission Operations Assurance

    Faris, Grant


    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  11. The Gaia mission

    Collaboration, Gaia; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J. -L; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J. -M; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J. -B; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F. -X; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I. -C; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H. -H; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P. -M; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A. -M; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D. -W; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A. -T; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J. -M; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.


    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by Euro

  12. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.


    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  13. The OCO-3 MIssion

    Eldering, A.; Kaki, S.; Crisp, D.; Gunson, M. R.


    For the OCO-3 mission, NASA has approved a proposal to install the OCO-2 flight spare instrument on the International Space Station (ISS). The OCO-3 mission on ISS will have a key role in delivering sustained, global, scientifically-based, spaceborne measurements of atmospheric CO2 to monitor natural sources and sinks as part of NASA's proposed OCO-2/OCO-3/ASCENDS mission sequence and NASA's Climate Architecture. The OCO-3 mission will contribute to understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle through enabling flux estimates at smaller spatial scales and through fluorescence measurements that will reduce the uncertainty in terrestrial carbon flux measurements and drive bottom-up land surface models through constraining GPP. The combined nominal missions of both OCO-2 and OCO-3 will likely span a complete El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, a key indicator of ocean variability. In addition, OCO-3 may allow investigation of the high-frequency and wavenumber structures suggested by eddying ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics models. Finally, significant growth of urban agglomerations is underway and projected to continue in the coming decades. With the city mode sampling of the OCO-3 instrument on ISS we can evaluate different sampling strategies aimed at studying anthropogenic sources and demonstrate elements of a Greenhouse Gas Information system, as well as providing a gap-filler for tracking trends in the fastest-changing anthropogenic signals during the coming decade. In this presentation, we will describe our science objectives, the overall approach of utilization of the ISS for OCO-3, and the unique features of XCO2 measurements from ISS.

  14. Artificial symbiosis for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs by co-culture of Clostridium beijerinckii and Clostridium cellulovorans


    Background Butanol is an industrial commodity and also considered to be a more promising gasoline substitute compared to ethanol. Renewed attention has been paid to solvents (acetone, butanol and ethanol) production from the renewable and inexpensive substrates, for example, lignocellulose, on account of the depletion of oil resources, increasing gasoline prices and deteriorating environment. Limited to current tools for genetic manipulation, it is difficult to develop a genetically engineered microorganism with combined ability of lignocellulose utilization and solvents production. Mixed culture of cellulolytic microorganisms and solventogenic bacteria provides a more convenient and feasible approach for ABE fermentation due to the potential for synergistic utilization of the metabolic pathways of two organisms. But few bacteria pairs succeeded in producing biobutanol of high titer or high productivity without adding butyrate. The aim of this work was to use Clostridium cellulovorans 743B to saccharify lignocellulose and produce butyric acid, instead of adding cellulase and butyric acid to the medium, so that the soluble sugars and butyric acid generated can be subsequently utilized by Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to produce butanol in one pot reaction. Results A stable artificial symbiotic system was constructed by co-culturing a celluloytic, anaerobic, butyrate-producing mesophile (C. cellulovorans 743B) and a non-celluloytic, solventogenic bacterium (C. beijerinckii NCIMB 8052) to produce solvents by consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) with alkali extracted deshelled corn cobs (AECC), a low-cost renewable feedstock, as the sole carbon source. Under optimized conditions, the co-culture degraded 68.6 g/L AECC and produced 11.8 g/L solvents (2.64 g/L acetone, 8.30 g/L butanol and 0.87 g/L ethanol) in less than 80 h. Besides, a real-time PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence was performed to study the dynamics of the abundance of each strain

  15. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    Anderson, C.


    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  16. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin


    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  17. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  18. Multi-Mission SDR Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...

  19. The THEMIS Mission

    Burch, J. L


    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  20. The Euclid mission design

    Racca, Giuseppe D; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean Christophe; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Criado, Gonzalo Saavedra; Venancio, Luis Gaspar; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Boenke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jerome; Berthe, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha


    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the sc...

  1. The Sentinel-3 Mission

    Berruti, B.; Mavrocordatos, C.


    The Sentinel-3 Operational Mission is part of the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) initiative, which was established to support Europe's goals regarding sustainable development and global governance of the environment by providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. The first launch is expected in 2013. Currently half way through the development phase of the project, this paper presents the consolidated Sentinel-3 design and expected performances related to the different mission objectives (ocean colour, altimetry, surface temperature, land). The operational concept and key system performances are also addressed, as well as the satellite and instruments design. Finally, the schedule for the remaining development is presented.

  2. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies


    Technology applications 12 5 VMs allow one host to belong to multiple VLANs 14 6 Asset recommendation system mockup 15 7 Perturbative mapping may...extended list of critical assets based on communications patterns and software dependencies. Once vulnerabilities have been assessed, AMMO produces a...status of not just network machines, but also software tools, network connections, server room conditions, and many other mission parameters. From this

  3. Deep Blue Mission


    The Chinese Navy dispatches ships to the Gulf of Aden on a second escort mission, marking its growing strength in the face of more diverse challenges Elarly in the morning of April 23, crew- imembers from the Chinese Navy’s second escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden Igathered on deck and saluted to the east, paying their respects to the motherland in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Navy. This fleet,

  4. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    Chesley, Steven


    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  5. Space VLBI Mission: VSOP

    Murata, Yasuhiro; Hirabayashi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Umemoto, Tomofumi; Edwards, P. G.


    We succeeded in performing space VLBI observations using the VLBI satellite HALCA (VSOP satellite), launched in February, 1997 aboard the first M-V rocket developed by ISAS. The mission is led by ISAS and NAO, with the collaborations from CRL, NASA, NRAO, and other institutes and observatories in Europe, Australia, Canada, South-Africa, and China, We succeeded to make a lot of observations and to get the new features from the active galaxies, the cosmic jets, and other astronomical objects.

  6. A Somalia mission experience.

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah


    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  7. A Mars 1984 mission


    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  8. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.


    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  9. The Juno Mission

    Bolton, S. J.


    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  10. The Gaia mission

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.


    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page.

  11. Landsat Data Continuity Mission



    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  12. Solar sail mission design

    Leipold, M.


    The main subject of this work is the design and detailed orbit transfer analysis of space flight missions with solar sails utilizing solar pressure for primary propulsion. Such a sailcraft requires ultra-light weight, gossamer-like deployable structures and materials in order to effectively utilize the transfer of momentum of solar photons. Different design concepts as well as technological elements for solar sails are considered, and an innovative design of a deployable sail structure including new methods for sail folding and unfolding is presented. The main focus of this report is on trajectory analysis, simulation and optimization of planetocentric as well as heliocentric low-thrust orbit transfers with solar sails. In a parametric analysis, geocentric escape spiral trajectories are simulated and corresponding flight times are determined. In interplanetary space, solar sail missions to all planets in our solar system as well as selected minor bodies are included in the analysis. Comparisons to mission concepts utilizing chemical propulsion as well as ion propulsion are included in order to assess whether solar sailing could possibly enhance or even enable this mission. The emphasis in the interplanetary mission analysis is on novel concepts: a unique method to realize a sun-synchronous Mercury orbiter, fast missions to the outer planets and the outer heliosphere applying a ''solar photonic assist'', rendezvous and sample return missions to asteroids and comets, as well as innovative concepts to reach unique vantage points for solar observation (''Solar Polar Orbiter'' and ''Solar Probe''). Finally, a propellant-less sailcraft attitude control concept using an external torque due to solar pressure is analyzed. Examples for sail navigation and control in circular Earth orbit applying a PD-control algorithm are shown, illustrating the maneuverability of a sailcraft. (orig.) [German] Gegenstand dieser

  13. NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft mission operations

    Holdridge, Mark E.


    On 12 February 2001, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker became the first spacecraft to land on a small body, 433 Eros. Prior to that historic event, NEAR was the first-ever orbital mission about an asteroid. The mission presented general challenges associated with other planetary space missions as well as challenges unique to an inaugural mission around a small body. The NEAR team performed this operations feat with processes and tools developed during the 4-year-long cruise to Eros. Adding to the success of this historic mission was the cooperation among the NEAR science, navigation, guidance and control, mission design, and software teams. With clearly defined team roles, overlaps in responsibilities were minimized, as were the associated costs. This article discusses the processes and systems developed at APL that enabled the success of NEAR mission operations.

  14. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    Golombek, M. P.


    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  15. Enabling the human mission

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  16. The CHEOPS Mission

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin


    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  17. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.


    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  18. The ARTEMIS mission

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis


    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  19. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene


    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  20. The Gaia mission



    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We...

  1. Calvin and mission

    Jacobus (Kobus P. Labuschagne


    Full Text Available It has often been stated or implied that John Calvin and the Reformers in general were indifferent to or even against mission. The aim of this study is to point out that this understanding is not a true version of the facts. A thorough examination of the theology and actions of John Calvin, evaluated against the background of his times and world, reveals that he was firmly committed to spreading the Gospel of Jesus Christ, the Lord. Also the theological insights of Calvin and the Reformers not only provided the crucial theological basis to support the future massive missionary expansion of Protestant churches, but necessitate for all times Church mission as a sure consequence of their theology. Calvin’s theology can indeed be described as an ‘essentially missionary theology’. In the heart of Calvin’s theological thinking clearly features the doctrine of justifi cation – because medieval man’s concern for salvation needed to be answered.

  2. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    Showstack, Randy


    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  3. The SPICA mission

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.


    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  4. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case

    Hughes, Steven P.


    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  5. STS-78 Mission Insignia


    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  6. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    Domingue, D. L


    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  7. Phobos Sample Return mission

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  8. The Planck mission

    Bouchet, François R


    These lecture from the 100th Les Houches summer school on "Post-planck cosmology" of July 2013 discuss some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We announced our findings a few months ago, on March 21$^{st}$, 2013. I describe some of the relevant steps we took to obtain these results, sketching the measurement process, how we processed the data to obtain full sky maps at 9 different frequencies, and how we extracted the CMB temperature anisotropies map and angular power spectrum. I conclude by describing some of the main cosmological implications of the statistical characteristics of the CMB we found. Of course, this is a very much shortened and somewhat biased view of the \\Planck\\ 2013 results, written with the hope that it may lead some of the students to consult the original papers.

  9. SOHO Mission Science Briefing


    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  10. Swarming UAVs mission design strategy

    Lin, Kuo-Chi


    This paper uses a behavioral hierarchy approach to reduce the mission solution space and make the mission design easier. A UAV behavioral hierarchy is suggested, which is derived from three levels of behaviors: basic, individual and group. The individual UAV behavior is a combination of basic, lower level swarming behaviors with priorities. Mission design can be simplified by picking the right combination of individual swarming behaviors, which will emerge the needed group behaviors. Genetic Algorithm is used in both lower-level basic behavior design and mission design.

  11. STS-40 Mission Insignia


    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  12. Disruptive Propulsive Technologies for European Space Missions


    Advanced space technologies have been reviewed and analysed in view of heavy interplanetary missions of interest for Europe and European industry capabilities. Among the missions of interest: o Heavy robotic missions to outer planets, o Asteroid deflection missions, o Interplanetary manned mission (at longer term). These missions involve high speed increments, generally beyond the capability of chemical propulsion (except if gravitational swing-by can be used). For missions bey...

  13. Simulation of Mission Phases

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury


    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  14. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  15. Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin.

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.


    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this issue includes two articles relevant to East Texas history. "Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin," (Moss Heaton and others) is a summary of material presented by Professor James Corbin about the early Spanish presence in East Texas. The first attempt at setting up a mission was in 1690…

  16. Mission Assurance: Issues and Challenges


    JFQ), Summer 1995. [9] Alberts , C.J. & Dorofee, A.J., “Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP): Assessing Risk in Complex Environments... CAMUS : Automatically Mapping Cyber Assets to Missions and Users,” Proc. of the 2010 Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2009), 2009. [23

  17. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    Robbins, Jane B.


    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  18. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  19. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  20. Draft Mission Plan Amendment



    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  1. UNAIDS: mission and roles.


    The UN has responded to the ongoing AIDS crisis by creating a new Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS is the AIDS program of six UN agencies (UNICEF; the Development Programme; the Population Fund; the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank). The mission of UNAIDS is to lead a multisectoral effort to prevent HIV transmission, provide care and support, alleviate the impact of the epidemic, and reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Thus, UNAIDS will operate in the areas of policy development and research, technical support, and advocacy. UNAIDS has had an executive director since January 1995, and a formal review of its strategic plan was scheduled for November 1995. At the country level, country representatives of the various agencies that make up UNAIDS will meet regularly to plan, program, and evaluate their HIV/AIDS activities. UNAIDS staff will be available to aid the country efforts. While UNAIDS will assume most of the global-level activities of its six cosponsor agencies, each agency will integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into their ongoing efforts.

  2. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.


    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  3. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.


    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  4. The Advanced Compton Telescope Mission

    Boggs, S E; Ryan, J; Aprile, E; Gehrels, N; Kippen, M; Leising, M; Oberlack, U; Wunderer, C; Zych, A; Bloser, P; Harris, M; Hoover, A; Klimenk, A; Kocevski, D; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Novikova, E I; Phlips, B; Polsen, M; Sturner, S; Tournear, D; Weidenspointner, G; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Bildsten, L; Dermer, C; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Starrfield, S; Boggs, Steven E.; Kurfess, James; Ryan, James; Aprile, Elena; Gehrels, Neil; Kippen, Marc; Leising, Mark; Oberlack, Uwe; Wunderer, Cornelia; Zych, Allen; Bloser, Peter; Harris, Michael; Hoover, Andrew; Klimenk, Alexei; Kocevski, Dan; Connell, Mark Mc; Milne, Peter; Novikova, Elena I.; Phlips, Bernard; Polsen, Mark; Sturner, Steven; Tournear, Derek; Weidenspointner, Georg; Wulf, Eric; Zoglauer, Andreas; Baring, Matthew; Beacom, John; Bildsten, Lars; Dermer, Charles; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; Smith, David; Starrfield, Sumner


    The Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT), the next major step in gamma-ray astronomy, will probe the fires where chemical elements are formed by enabling high-resolution spectroscopy of nuclear emission from supernova explosions. During the past two years, our collaboration has been undertaking a NASA mission concept study for ACT. This study was designed to (1) transform the key scientific objectives into specific instrument requirements, (2) to identify the most promising technologies to meet those requirements, and (3) to design a viable mission concept for this instrument. We present the results of this study, including scientific goals and expected performance, mission design, and technology recommendations.

  5. The Ulysses mission: An introduction

    Marsden, R.G. [Space Science Dept. of ESA, Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands)


    On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active.

  6. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios


    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  7. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) Mathematical Specifications

    Hughes, Steve


    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development.

  8. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can you ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare facility ...

  9. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert


    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  10. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)


    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  11. 适合云存储的访问策略可更新多中心CP-AB E方案%Multi-Authority CP-ABE with Policy Update in Cloud Storage



    云存储作为一种新型的数据存储体系结构,近年来得到越来越广泛的应用。大多数用户为了降低本地存储开销、实现数据共享选择将自己的数据上传到云服务器存储。然而,云存储系统存在的安全隐患也引发了社会越来越多的担忧。例如,不完全可信的云服务提供商可能会窃取用户的数据或让未授权的其他用户访问数据等。因此,对用户数据进行加密并实现数据的访问控制是确保云存储中数据安全的有效方法。基于密文的属性加密(CP‐ABE)方案则能够很好地实现安全云存储目标,它允许一个发送者加密数据并设置访问控制结构,只有符合条件的用户才能对数据进行解密。但是,传统CP‐ABE方案中存在的密钥泄露等问题制约了属性加密在云存储系统中的应用。针对上述的问题,提出了一个多授权机构支持策略更新的CP‐ABE方案,该方案与之前的方案相比,不仅可以通过多授权机构避免密钥泄露问题,同时将策略更新及密文更新过程交给服务器执行,有效地降低了本地的计算开销和数据传输开销,充分利用云存储的优势提供一个高效、灵活的安全数据存储方案,对所提方案进行了安全性证明,并对方案进行了效率分析。%Cloud storage ,as a novel data storage architecture ,has been widely used to provide services for data draw to store and share their data in cloud .However ,the security concerns of cloud storage also draw much attention of the whole society .Since some cloud service providers are not trustworthy ,the data stored in their cloud servers could be stolen or accessed by unauthorized users .Ciphertext‐policy attribute based encryption (CP‐ABE) can be used to solve such security problems in cloud ,w hich can encrypt data under a specified access policy thus to maintain data confidentiality as well as access control .Unfortunately

  12. KEPLER Mission: development and overview.

    Borucki, William J


    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  13. Rosetta mission operations for landing

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente


    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  14. Urinary albumin in space missions

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina


    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  15. Social Tagging of Mission Data

    Norris, Jeffrey S.; Wallick, Michael N.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Powell, Mark W.; Torres, Recaredo J.; Mittman, David S.; Abramyan, Lucy; Crockett, Thomas M.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Fox, Jason M.; Pyrzak, Guy; Vaughn, Michael B.


    Mars missions will generate a large amount of data in various forms, such as daily plans, images, and scientific information. Often, there is a semantic linkage between images that cannot be captured automatically. Software is needed that will provide a method for creating arbitrary tags for this mission data so that items with a similar tag can be related to each other. The tags should be visible and searchable for all users. A new routine was written to offer a new and more flexible search option over previous applications. This software allows users of the MSLICE program to apply any number of arbitrary tags to a piece of mission data through a MSLICE search interface. The application of tags creates relationships between data that did not previously exist. These tags can be easily removed and changed, and contain enough flexibility to be specifically configured for any mission. This gives users the ability to quickly recall or draw attention to particular pieces of mission data, for example: Give a semantic and meaningful description to mission data; for example, tag all images with a rock in them with the tag "rock." Rapidly recall specific and useful pieces of data; for example, tag a plan as"driving template." Call specific data to a user s attention; for example, tag a plan as "for:User." This software is part of the MSLICE release, which was written in Java. It will run on any current Windows, Macintosh, or Linux system.

  16. Implementation of secure data retrieval schema in cloud storage by using ABE technology%云存储中利用属性基加密技术的安全数据检索方案

    杜朝晖; 朱文耀


    针对传统方法在对云存储的加密数据进行检索时效率不高的问题,提出了一种利用属性基加密(ABE)技术的安全数据检索方案。利用 ABE 提供丰富的索引词表达能力,从而确保数据安全性,通过平衡云服务提供商运行开销和其他用户参与基于云存储的信息检索服务,使用加密运算替代穷尽搜索,使得搜索过程与现存数据库管理系统机制更加兼容。分析结果表明,相比其他几种较新的方案,方案在访问控制和快速搜索中具有更好的性能,且能在数据检索过程中确保数据安全性和用户隐私,适合应用于具有大量数据的云存储系统。%To solve the poor performance of traditional method in retrieving encrypted data in cloud storage,this paper pro-posed an efficient data retrieval method using attributed-based encryption.Firstly,it used rich expressiveness of index terms by exploiting ABE to provide data security.Then,it enhanced the searching efficiency by balancing operational overhead a-mong the CSP and other users involved in the cloud storage-based information retrieval service.The results show that proposed schema performances are better than other newly schemes in access control and fast searches,and the data security and user privacy can be guaranteed during the data retrieval process,which indicates that proposed schema is suitable for cloud storage systems with huge data.

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  18. 代盐剂ABE在棉织物活性低盐染色中的应用%Application of a salt substitute ABE to low-salt reactive dyeing of cotton fabric

    房莉; 陈英; 张迎春; 何鹰


    将棉织物煮漂与代盐剂ABE预处理进行一浴一步法前处理,探讨了代盐剂种类及用量、中温型练染酶LS用量、双氧水(30%)用量、处理温度及时间对棉织物低盐活性染料染色效果的影响.通过正交试验获得的优化工艺为:代盐剂ABE 7 g/L,碱剂EH1 g/L,LS酶3.5 g/L,双氧水(30%)3 g/L,处理温度98℃,时间30 min,浴比1:50;结果表明,相比传统的活性染料染色,织物经一步法前处理后,再经低盐染色碱S固色,可减少无机盐用量50%~75%,染色织物得色均匀,皂洗牢度和耐摩擦牢度均达到服用要求.

  19. 安倍晋三再执政以来的中日关系困境探析%An Analysis on the Dilemma of Sino-Japanese Relations Since Shinzo Abe Taking Office

    马修松; 刘健


    中日两国关系自安倍晋三再执政以来陷入了困境,不利于两国经济的发展,也不利于东亚地区的稳定和发展。造成中日关系的紧张局面有其深刻的历史原因。由于政治上的互不信任、经济上的竞争、军事上的对抗、冷战思维的延续等因素,中日两国面临着安全困境。中日两国需要采取实际行动来改善中日关系,走出困境。%The relations between China and Japan have got into dilemma since Shinzo Abe took office. This situation is not good for the stability and development of East Asia.There are profound historical rea-sons which are made this intension situation.China and Japan have to face security dilemma because of the political mutual trust,economic competition,military confrontation,cold war thinking extension and other factors.Therefore,the two countries should take action to improve relations,and that would help improve the relations between China and Japan .

  20. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.


    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  1. SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization


    SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization Andrew Nicholas, Ted Finne, Ivan Galysh, Anthony Mai, Jim Yen Naval Research Laboratory, Washington...mission overview, ground truth characterization and unique SSA observation opportunities of the mission. 1. MISSION CONCEPT The Naval Research...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SpinSat Mission Ground Truth Characterization 5a. CONTRACT

  2. No Mission, No Money: No Money, No Mission

    Durel, John W.


    Museum leaders around the country are in the midst of examining and changing their business models in response to new economic realities. Museum educators have an opportunity to play a leading role in this endeavor. To do so educators must understand the relationship between money and mission. For too long there has been a belief that the…

  3. The WAXS/WFXT Mission

    Chincarini, G L


    I present the science goals and give a brief summary of the Wide Angle X-ray survey with a Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WAXS/WFXT) mission proposal (Phase A) which will be submitted to the Italian Space Agency (ASI) following the call for proposal under the Small Satellite program. The text points out the uniqueness of the mission for the study of the evolution of clusters of galaxies and of the Large-Scale Structure at large redshifts and for the study of the Milky Way. I present, furthermore, the successful result of the metrology of the first wide field X-ray optics ever made.

  4. The ASTRO-H Mission

    高橋, 忠幸; Takahashi, Tadayuki; 満田, 和久; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Kelley, Richard; ASTRO-H team


    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) The planned launch date is 2014. ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, highthroughput spectroscopy with moderate spatial resolution over the 0.3 - 600 keV energy range. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, f...

  5. The NeXT Mission

    Takahashi, T.; Kelley, R; Mitsuda, K.; Kunieda, H.; Petre, R.; White, N; Dotani, T.; Fujimoto, R.; Fukazawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Ishida, M.; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M.; Makishima, K.; K. Koyama


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will a...

  6. Gravitational-wave Mission Study

    Mcnamara, Paul; Jennrich, Oliver; Stebbins, Robin T.


    In November 2013, ESA selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as L3, under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. ESA is considering a 20% participation by an international partner, and NASA's Astrophysics Division has indicated an interest in participating. We have studied the design consequences of a NASA contribution, evaluated the science benefits and identified the technology requirements for hardware that could be delivered by NASA. The European community proposed a strawman mission concept, called eLISA, having two measurement arms, derived from the well studied LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) concept. The US community is promoting a mission concept known as SGO Mid (Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory Mid-sized), a three arm LISA-like concept. If NASA were to partner with ESA, the eLISA concept could be transformed to SGO Mid by the addition of a third arm, augmenting science, reducing risk and reducing non-recurring engineering costs. The characteristics of the mission concepts and the relative science performance of eLISA, SGO Mid and LISA are described. Note that all results are based on models, methods and assumptions used in NASA studies

  7. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.


    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  8. 75 FR 6178 - Mission Statement


    ..., solar, and energy efficiency sectors. The mission will focus on helping U.S. companies already doing... growth of Indonesia, making it one of the world's fastest growing economies in 2009. Energy needs have... solar, biomass, ``clean coal'' technology such as gasification or wet coal enhancement, and...

  9. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others


    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  10. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.


    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  11. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.


    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is definition, highlighting trade-offs for mission implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

  12. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at

  13. Trajectory Design Considerations for Exploration Mission 1

    Dawn, Timothy F.; Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Batcha, Amelia L.


    Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will be the first mission to send an uncrewed Orion vehicle to cislunar space in 2018, targeted to a Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO). Analysis of EM-1 DRO mission opportunities in 2018 help characterize mission parameters that are of interest to other subsystems (e.g., power, thermal, communications, flight operations, etc). Subsystems request mission design trades which include: landing lighting, addition of an Orion main engine checkout burn, and use of auxiliary thruster only cases. This paper examines the evolving trade studies that incorporate subsystem feedback and demonstrate the feasibility of these constrained mission trajectory designs and contingencies.

  14. Multiple Space Debris Collecting Mission -- Optimal Mission Planning

    Cerf, Max


    This paper addresses the problem of planning successive Space Debris Collecting missions so that they can be achieved at minimal cost by a generic vehicle. The problem mixes combinatorial optimization to select and order the debris among a list of candidates, and continuous optimization to fix the rendezvous dates and to define the minimum fuel orbital maneuvers. The solution method proposed consists in three stages. Firstly the orbital transfer problem is simplified by considering a generic transfer strategy suited either to a high thrust or a low thrust vehicle. A response surface modelling is built by solving the reduced problem for all pairs of debris and for discretized dates, and storing the results in cost matrices. Secondly a simulated annealing algorithm is applied to find the optimal mission planning. The cost function is assessed by interpolation on the response surface based on the cost matrices. This allows the convergence of the simulated algorithm in a limited computation time, yielding an opti...

  15. Mission Operations Control Room Activities during STS-2 mission


    Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) activities during STS-2 mission. Overall view of the MOCR in the Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. At far right is Eugene F. Kranz, Deputy Director of Flight Operations. At the flight director console in front of Kranz's FOD console are Flight Directors M.P. Frank, Neil B. Hutchinson and Donald R. Puddy as well as others (39506); Wide-angle view of flight controllers in the MOCR. Clifford E. Charlesworth, JSC Deputy Director, huddles with several flight directors for STS-2 at the flight director console. Kranz, is at far right of frame (39507); Dr. Christopher C. Kraft, Jr., JSC Director, center, celebrates successful flight and landing of STS-2 with a cigar in the MOCR. He is flanked by Dr. Maxime A Faget, left, Director of Engineering and Development, and Thomas L. Moser, of the Structures and Mechanics Division (39508); Flight Director Donald R. Puddy, near right, holds replica of the STS-2 insignia. Insignias on the opposite wall

  16. The Analysis of “Female Flash Society”in Abe Cabinet%日本安倍内阁“女性闪光社会”政策浅析

    孙惠俊; 李鹏飞


    Japanese government is facing social crises such as the aging problem. Shinzo Abe preaches“Female Flashing Society”after he came to power again to solve social crisis and to improve social economic situation. Bur since there is the deep-rooted“man superior idea”in Japan, and Japanese government has to overcome a series of problems together with the women themselves, their spouse and even their companies to create a sound social environment. There is a long way to go before realizing this prospect.%由于日本面临着老龄化少子化等社会现象带来的危机,日本首相安倍晋三再次组阁后为了化解社会危机、改善社会经济形势,高调倡导女性经济学,提出了“女性闪光社会”政策。但是,由于日本“男尊女卑”的现象根深蒂固,要实现“女性闪光社会”,不仅需要女性自身、伴侣、公司、社会等的支持,更需要政府克服一系列的难题,创造一个良好的社会环境。要实现构建“女性闪光社会”,可谓困难重重。

  17. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  18. Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox is designed to significantly reduce the resources and time spent on designing missions in multi-body gravitational...

  19. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff


    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  20. Mission design for LISA Pathfinder

    Landgraf, M; Kemble, S


    Here we describe the mission design for SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder. The best trade-off between the requirements of a low-disturbance environment and communications distance is found to be a free-insertion Lissajous orbit around the first co-linear Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth system L1, 1.5x 10^6 km from Earth. In order to transfer SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder from a low Earth orbit, where it will be placed by a small launcher, the spacecraft carries out a number of apogee-raise manoeuvres, which ultimatively place it to a parabolic escape trajectory towards L1. The challenges of the design of a small mission are met, fulfilling the very demanding technology demonstration requirements without creating excessive requirements on the launch system or the ground segment.

  1. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  2. Skylab mission report, third visit


    An evaluation is presented of the operational and engineering aspects of the third Skylab visit, including information on the performance of the command and service module and the experiment hardware, the crew's evaluation of the visit, and other visit-related areas of interest such as biomedical observations. The specific areas discussed are contained in the following: (1) solar physics and astrophysics investigations; (2) Comet Kohoutek experiments; (3) medical experiments; (4) earth observations, including data for the multispectral photographic facility, the earth terrain camera, and the microwave radiometer/scattermometer and altimeter; (5) engineering and technology experiments; (6) food and medical operational equipment; (7) hardware and experiment anomalies; and (8) mission support, mission objectives, flight planning, and launch phase summary. Conclusions discussed as a result of the third visit to Skylab involve the advancement of the sciences, practical applications, the durability of man and systems in space, and spaceflight effectiveness and economy.

  3. The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer Mission

    Bookbinder, Jay


    The Solar Spectroscopy Explorer (SSE) concept is conceived as a scalable mission, with two to four instruments and a strong focus on coronal spectroscopy. In its core configuration it is a small strategic mission ($250-500M) built around a microcalorimeter (an imaging X-ray spectrometer) and a high spatial resolution (0.2 arcsec) EUV imager. SSE puts a strong focus on the plasma spectroscopy, balanced with high resolution imaging - providing for break-through imaging science as well as providing the necessary context for the spectroscopy suite. Even in its smallest configuration SSE provides observatory class science, with significant science contributions ranging from basic plasma and radiative processes to the onset of space weather events. The basic configuration can carry an expanded instrument suite with the addition of a hard X-ray imaging spectrometer and/or a high spectral resolution EUV instrument - significantly expanding the science capabilities. In this configuration, it will fall at the small end...

  4. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G


    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  5. White Label Space GLXP Mission

    Barton, A.


    This poster presents a lunar surface mission concept and corresponding financing approach developed by the White Label Space team, an official competitor in the Google Lunar X PRIZE. The White Label Space team's origins were in the European Space Agency's ESTEC facility in the Netherlands. Accordingly the team's technical headquarters are located just outside ESTEC in the Space Business Park. The team has active partners in Europe, Japan and Australia. The team's goal is to provide a unique publicity opportunity for global brands to land on the moon and win the prestigious Google Lunar X PRIZE. The poster presents the main steps to achieve this goal, the cost estimates for the mission, describes the benefits to the potential sponsors and supporters, and details the progress achieved to date.

  6. New ESA Earth Explorer Missions

    Herland, E.


    The European Space Agency has recently selected a set of six mission candidates for its next Earth Explorer Core mission. This mission will be launched in the beginning of the next decade, and will contribute significantly to Earth science in addition to the already approved six missions in the programme. The scientific priorities for the call for proposals were the global water cycle, the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry and the human element in the Earth system. The presentation will outline the scientific objectives of each of the six mission proposals, and in particular address the potential contribution to the water and energy cycle research and CEOP. The six mission proposals are: BIOMASS global measurements of forest biomass. The measurement is accomplished by a space-borne P-band synthetic aperture polarimetric radar. The technique is mainly based on the measurement of the cross- polar backscattering coefficient, from which forest biomass is directly retrieved. Also uses multipolarization measurements and interferometry. The studies for this mission will include comparative studies to measure terrestrial biomass using P- or L-band and consideration of alternative implementations using L-band. TRAQ TRopospheric composition and Air Quality: Monitoring of air quality and long-range transport of air pollutants. A new synergistic sensor concept for process studies, particularly with respect to aerosol-cloud interactions. Focus on the rate of air quality change on regional and global scales, the strength and distribution of sources and sinks of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols influencing air quality, and the role of tropospheric composition in global change. Carries imaging spectrometers in the range from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared. PREMIER PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation: Aims at understanding processes that link trace gases, radiation, chemistry and climate in the atmosphere

  7. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    Antonucci, F; Cavalleri, A; Congedo, G [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, 38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Armano, M [European Space Astronomy Centre, European Space Agency, Villanueva de la Canada, 28692 Madrid (Spain); Audley, H; Bogenstahl, J; Danzmann, K [Albert-Einstein-Institut, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik und Universitaet Hannover, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Auger, G; Binetruy, P [APC UMR7164, Universite Paris Diderot, Paris (France); Benedetti, M [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dei Materiali e Tecnologie Industriali, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Boatella, C [CNES, DCT/AQ/EC, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse, Cedex 9 (France); Bortoluzzi, D; Bosetti, P; Cristofolini, I [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Strutturale, Universita di Trento and INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Trento, Mesiano, Trento (Italy); Caleno, M; Cesa, M [European Space Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Chmeissani, M [IFAE, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Ciani, G [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States); Conchillo, A [ICE-CSIC/IEEC, Facultat de Ciencies, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Cruise, M, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)


    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  8. [Issues of biomedical support of explorations missions].

    Potapov, A N; Sinyak, Yu E; Petrov, V M


    Sine qua non for piloted exploration missions is a system of biomedical support. The future system will be considerably different from the analogous systems applied in current orbital missions. The reason is the challenging conditions in expeditions to remote space. In a mission to Mars, specifically, these are high levels of radiation, hypomagnetic environment, alternation of micro- and hypogravity, very long mission duration and autonomy. The paper scrutinizes the major issues of medical support to future explorers of space.

  9. Exploration Missions to Host Small Payloads

    Cirtain, Jonathan; Pelfrey, Joseph


    The next-generation heavy launch vehicle, the Space Launch System (SLS), will provide the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the exploration mission trajectory. We will describe the payload mission concept of operations, the payload capacity for the SLS, and the payload requirements. Exploration Mission 1, currently planned for launch in December 2017, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS.

  10. DARWIN mission proposal to ESA

    Leger, Alain


    The discovery of extra-solar planets is one of the greatest achievements of modern astronomy. There are now more than 200 such objects known, and the recent detection of planets with masses approximately 5 times that of Earth demonstrates that extra-solar planets of low mass exist. In addition to providing a wealth of scientific information on the formation and structure of planetary systems, these discoveries capture the interest of both scientists and the wider public with the profound prospect of the search for life in the Universe. We propose an L-type mission, called Darwin, whose primary goal is the study of terrestrial extrasolar planets and the search for life on them. By its very nature, Darwin advances the first Grand Theme of ESA Cosmic Vision. Accomplishing the mission objectives will require collaborative science across disciplines ranging from planet formation and atmospheres to chemistry and biology, and these disciplines will reap profound rewards from their contributions to the Darwin mission...

  11. Tandem-X Mission Status

    Zink, M.


    TanDEM-X (TerraSAR-X add-on for Digital Elevation Measurements) is an innovative formation flying radar mission that opens a new era in spaceborne radar remote sensing. Its primary objective is the acquisition of a global Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with unprecedented accuracy (12 m horizontal resolution and 2 m relative height accuracy). This goal is achieved by extending the TerraSAR-X synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission by a second TerraSAR-X like satellite, TanDEM-X (TDX). Both satellites fly in close orbit formation of a few hundred meters distance, and the resulting large single-pass SAR interferometer features flexible baseline selection enabling the acquisition of highly accurate cross-track interferograms not impacted by temporal decorrelation and atmospheric disturbances. Beyond the global DEM, several secondary mission objectives based on along-track interferometry as well as new bistatic and multistatic SAR techniques have been defined. Since 2010 both satellites have been operated in close formation to map all land surfaces at least twice and difficult terrain even up to four times. While data acquisition for the DEM generation will be concluded by the end of 2014 it is expected to complete the processing of the global DEM in the second half of 2016.

  12. The ASTRO-H Mission

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki


    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  13. The ASTRO-H Mission

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Felix; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Mark; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brown, Greg; Chernyakova, Maria; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; Cottam, Jean; Crow, John; de Plaa, Jelle; de Vries, Cor; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gandhi, Poshak; Gendreau, Keith; Gilmore, Kirk; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naoki; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Katagiri, Hideaki; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangaluyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Kotani, Taro; Koyama, Katsuji; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Koji; Mori, Hideyuki; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nakagawa, Yujin; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Parmer, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Porter, Scott; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sambruna, Rita; Sato, Goro; Sato, Yoichi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Miyako; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Watanabe, Shin; White, Nicholas; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa


    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral reso...

  14. The Van Allen Probes mission

    Burch, James


    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  15. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.


    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  16. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission

    Cho, Young-Min


    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  17. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.


    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  18. The Trojans' Odyssey space mission

    Lamy, P.; Vernazza, P.; Groussin, O.; Poncy, J.; Martinot, V.; Hinglais, E.; Bell, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Helbert, J.; Marzari, F.; Morbidelli, A.; Rosenblatt, P.


    In our present understanding of the Solar System, small bodies (asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, comets and TNOs) are the most direct remnants of the original building blocks that formed the planets. Jupiter Trojan and Hilda asteroids are small primitive bodies located beyond the "snow line", around respectively the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter at 5.2 AU (Trojans) and in the 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Jupiter near 3.9 AU (Hildas). They are at the crux of several outstanding and still conflicting issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. They hold the potential to unlock the answers to fundamental questions about planetary migration, the late heavy bombardment, the formation of the Jovian system, the origin and evolution of trans-neptunian objects, and the delivery of water and organics to the inner planets. The proposed Trojans' Odyssey mission is envisioned as a reconnaissance, multiple flyby mission aimed at visiting several objects, typically five Trojans and one Hilda. It will attempt exploring both large and small objects and sampling those with any known differences in photometric properties. The orbital strategy consists in a direct trajectory to one of the Trojan swarms. By carefully choosing the aphelion of the orbit (typically 5.3 AU), the trajectory will offer a long arc in the swarm thus maximizing the number of flybys. Initial gravity assists from Venus and Earth will help reducing the cruise to 7 years as well as the ?V needed for injection thus offering enough capacity to navigate among Trojans. This solution further opens the unique possibility to flyby a Hilda asteroid when leaving the Trojan swarm. During the cruise phase, a Main Belt Asteroid could be targeted if requiring a modest ?V. The specific science objectives of the mission will be best achieved with a payload that will perform high-resolution panchromatic and multispectral imaging, thermal-infrared imaging/ radiometry, near- and mid-infrared spectroscopy

  19. The Europa Clipper mission concept

    Pappalardo, Robert; Lopes, Rosaly

    Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Galileo spacecraft data suggest that an ocean most likely exists beneath Europa’s icy surface and that the “ingredients” necessary for life (liquid water, chemistry, and energy) could be present within this ocean today. Because of the potential for revolutionizing our understanding of life in the solar system, future exploration of Europa has been deemed an extremely high priority for planetary science. A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon’s surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite’s ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from these science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces

  20. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Queloz D.


    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  1. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates


    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates... Commercial Service is organizing a Trade Mission to Bogot and Cartagena, Colombia and Panama City, Panama... The mission will stop in Bogot , and Cartagena, Colombia, and Panama City, Panama. In each...

  2. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.


    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and, usi

  3. Project Prometheus and Future Entry Probe Missions

    Spilker, Thomas R.


    A viewgraph presentation on project Prometheus and future entry probe missions is shown. The topics include: 1) What Is Project Prometheus?; 2) What Capabilities Can Project Prometheus Offer? What Mission Types Are Being Considered?; 3) Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO); 4) How Are Mission Opportunities Changing?; 5) Missions Of Interest a Year Ago; 6) Missions Now Being Considered For Further Study; 7) Galileo-Style (Conventional) Probe Delivery; 8) Galileo-Style Probe Support; 9) Conventional Delivery and Support of Multiple Probes; 10) How Entry Probe Delivery From an NEP Vehicle Is Different; and 11) Concluding Remarks.

  4. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments

    Donahue, Benjamin


    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  5. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.


    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  6. Crew Transportation System Design Reference Missions

    Mango, Edward J.


    Contains summaries of potential design reference mission goals for systems to transport humans to andfrom low Earth orbit (LEO) for the Commercial Crew Program. The purpose of this document is to describe Design Reference Missions (DRMs) representative of the end-to-end Crew Transportation System (CTS) framework envisioned to successfully execute commercial crew transportation to orbital destinations. The initial CTS architecture will likely be optimized to support NASA crew and NASA-sponsored crew rotation missions to the ISS, but consideration may be given in this design phase to allow for modifications in order to accomplish other commercial missions in the future. With the exception of NASA’s mission to the ISS, the remaining commercial DRMs are notional. Any decision to design or scar the CTS for these additional non-NASA missions is completely up to the Commercial Provider. As NASA’s mission needs evolve over time, this document will be periodically updated to reflect those needs.

  7. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  8. Mission and ethics in Galatians

    Jacobus Kok


    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated how the concepts identity, ethics and ethos interrelate, and how the ethics of the Pauline communities in Galatians functioned against the background of the missionary context of the early church. The author argued that the missionary dimension originated in the context of the missio Dei, and that God called Paul as a missionary to be taken up in the latter. The missionary process did not end with Paul, but was designed to be carried further by believers who should be, by their very nature, missionary. In the process, the author investigated how the transformation of identity (the understanding of self, God and others leads to the creation of ethical values and how it is particularised in different socioreligious and cultural contexts in the development of the early church. The author argued that there is an implicit missionary dimension in the ethics of Paul in Galatians. In the process, it is argued that those who want to speak of ethics should make something of mission, and those who speak of mission in Galatians, should speak about the role of identity, ethics and ethos in the letter.

  9. Global Precipitation Mission Visualization Tool

    Schwaller, Mathew


    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) software provides graphic visualization tools that enable easy comparison of ground- and space-based radar observations. It was initially designed to compare ground radar reflectivity from operational, ground-based, S- and C-band meteorological radars with comparable measurements from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite's precipitation radar instrument. This design is also applicable to other groundbased and space-based radars, and allows both ground- and space-based radar data to be compared for validation purposes. The tool creates an operational system that routinely performs several steps. It ingests satellite radar data (precipitation radar data from TRMM) and groundbased meteorological radar data from a number of sources. Principally, the ground radar data comes from national networks of weather radars (see figure). The data ingested by the visualization tool must conform to the data formats used in GPM Validation Network Geometry-matched data product generation. The software also performs match-ups of the radar volume data for the ground- and space-based data, as well as statistical and graphical analysis (including two-dimensional graphical displays) on the match-up data. The visualization tool software is written in IDL, and can be operated either in the IDL development environment or as a stand-alone executable function.

  10. DUAL Gamma-Ray Mission

    Boggs, S; von Ballmoos, P; Takahashi, T; Gehrels, N; Tueller, J; Baring, M; Beacom, J; Diehl, R; Greiner, J; Grove, E; Hartmann, D; Hernanz, M; Jean, P; Johnson, N; Kanbach, G; Kippen, M; Knödlseder, J; Leising, M; Madejski, G; McConnell, M; Milne, P; Motohide, K; Nakazawa, K; Oberlack, U; Phlips, B; Ryan, J; Skinner, G; Starrfield, S; Tajima, H; Wulf, E; Zoglauer, A; Zych, A


    Gamma-ray astronomy presents an extraordinary scientific potential for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. In order to take full advantage of this potential, the next generation of instrumentation for this domain will have to achieve an improvement in sensitivity over present technologies of at least an order of magnitude. The DUAL mission concept takes up this challenge in two complementary ways: a very long observation of the entire sky, combined with a large collection area for simultaneous observations of Type Ia SNe. While the Wide-Field Compton Telescope (WCT) accumulates data from the full gamma-ray sky (0.1-10 MeV) over the entire mission lifetime, the Laue-Lens Telescope (LLT) focuses on 56Co emission from SNe Ia (0.8-0.9 MeV), collecting gamma-rays from its large area crystal lens onto the WCT. Two separated spacecraft flying in formation will maintain the DUAL payloads at the lens' focal distance.

  11. The NeXT Mission

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  12. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  13. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  14. Comet nucleus and asteroid sample return missions


    Three Advanced Design Projects have been completed this academic year at Penn State. At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into eight groups and given their choice of either a comet nucleus or an asteroid sample return mission. Once a mission had been chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These were evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into three separate mission plans, including a comet nucleus same return (CNSR), a single asteroid sample return (SASR), and a multiple asteroid sample return (MASR). To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form three mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission so that communication and information exchange would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Johnson Space Center Human/Robotic Spacecraft Office. Robotic sample return missions are widely considered valuable precursors to manned missions in that they can provide details about a site's environment and scientific value. For example, a sample return from an asteroid might reveal valuable resources that, once mined, could be utilized for propulsion. These missions are also more adaptable when considering the risk to humans visiting unknown and potentially dangerous locations, such as a comet nucleus.

  15. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan


    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  16. Mission objectives and scientific rationale for the magnetometer mission.

    Langel, R. A.


    Based on a review of the characteristics of the geomagnetic field, objectives for the magnetic portion of the ARISTOTELES mission are: (1) To derive a description of the main magnetic field and its secular variation. (2) To investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field and variations in the length of day. (3) To study properties of the fluid core. (4) To study the conductivity of the mantle. (5) To model the state and evolution of the crust and upper lithosphere. (6) To measure and characterize field aligned currents and ionospheric currents and to understand their generation mechanisms and their role in energy coupling in the interplanetary-magnetospheric-ionospheric systems. Procedures for these investigations are outlined.

  17. CMBPol Mission Concept Study: A Mission to Map our Origins

    Baumann, Daniel; Dodelson, Scott; Dunkley, Joanna; Fraisse, Aurélien A; Jackson, Mark G; Kogut, Al; Krauss, Lawrence M; Smith, Kendrick M; Zaldarriaga, Matias


    Quantum mechanical metric fluctuations during an early inflationary phase of the universe leave a characteristic imprint in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The amplitude of this signal depends on the energy scale at which inflation occurred. Detailed observations by a dedicated satellite mission (CMBPol) therefore provide information about energy scales as high as $10^{15}$ GeV, twelve orders of magnitude greater than the highest energies accessible to particle accelerators, and probe the earliest moments in the history of the universe. This summary provides an overview of a set of studies exploring the scientific payoff of CMBPol in diverse areas of modern cosmology, such as the physics of inflation, gravitational lensing and cosmic reionization, as well as foreground science and removal .

  18. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions

    Pace, R. E., Jr.


    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  19. TerraSAR-X mission

    Werninghaus, Rolf


    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  20. Space Mission : Y3K


    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  1. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.


    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  2. The Scots abroad: migration and mission

    Ross, Kenneth R.


    Kenneth Ross’s essay begins with an overview of the migration of the Scots round the world in the age of colonialism. He then examines this more closely, exploring the relationship between migration and missions in the diaspora church. Beginning with mission-migrant relations in Malawi, Ross then points to more general, more deeply-rooted tensions arising in the Scottish diaspora, reflected in the conflicting interests of expatriate churches and mission agencies. Publisher PDF

  3. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization

    Kelly, Michael P.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  4. Component Verification and Certification in NASA Missions

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Penix, John; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Software development for NASA missions is a particularly challenging task. Missions are extremely ambitious scientifically, have very strict time frames, and must be accomplished with a maximum degree of reliability. Verification technologies must therefore be pushed far beyond their current capabilities. Moreover, reuse and adaptation of software architectures and components must be incorporated in software development within and across missions. This paper discusses NASA applications that we are currently investigating from these perspectives.

  5. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    FI Department


    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  6. I satelliti della missione EROS

    Stefano De Corso


    Full Text Available EROS mission satellitesThe EROS (Earth Remote Observation Satellite constellation is property of ImageSat International N.V. an international company and a commercial provider of high-resolution, satellite earth-imagery collected by its Earth Remote Observation Satellite. EROS A is equipped with a camera whose focal plane of CCD (Charge Coupled Device detectors produces a standard image resolution of 1.9 meters. EROS B slightly larger and similar in appearance to EROS A, the new satellite has superior capabilities, including a larger camera of CCD/ TDI type (Charge Coupled Device/Time Delay Integration, with standard panchromatic resolution of 0.70 m at an altitude of about 500 km, a larger on-board recorder, improved pointing accuracy and a faster data communication link.

  7. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission

    Price, H. W.


    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  8. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission

    Jackson, Gail


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  9. An Imaging X-Ray Polarimetry Mission

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bellazini, Ronaldo; Costa, Enrico; Ramsey, Brian; O'Dell, Steve; Elsner, Ronald; Pavlov, George; Matt, Giorgio; Kaspi, Victoria; Tennant, Allyn; Coppi, Paolo; Wu, Kinwah; Siegmund, Oswald


    Technical progress both in x-ray optics and in polarization-sensitive x-ray detectors, which our groups have pioneered, enables a scientifically powerful---yet inexpensive---dedicated mission for imaging x-ray polarimetry. Such a mission is sufficiently sensitive to measure x-ray (linear) polarization for a broad range of cosmic sources --particularly those involving neutron stars, stellar black holes, and supermassive black holes (active galactic nuclei). We describe the technical elements, discuss a mission concept, and synopsize the important physical and astrophysical questions such a mission would address.

  10. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.


    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  11. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Rieck, R.H.


    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  12. Autolanding for Sample Return Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA and commercial missions will increasingly target destinations with challenging topography and limited communication including unmapped asteroids, comets,...

  13. ESPA for Lunar and Science Missions Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA mission planning in the next decade includes small spacecraft and secondary flight opportunities on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), specifically...

  14. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve


    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  15. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing, and...

  16. NASA's Missions for Exoplanet Exploration

    Unwin, Stephen


    Exoplanets are detected and characterized using a range of observational techniques - including direct imaging, astrometry, transits, microlensing, and radial velocities. Each technique illuminates a different aspect of exoplanet properties and statistics. This diversity of approach has contributed to the rapid growth of the field into a major research area in only two decades. In parallel with exoplanet observations, major efforts are now underway to interpret the physical and atmospheric properties of exoplanets for which spectroscopy is now possible. In addition, comparative planetology probes questions of interest to both exoplanets and solar system studies. In this talk I describe NASA's activities in exoplanet research, and discuss plans for near-future missions that have reflected-light spectroscopy as a key goal. The WFIRST-AFTA concept currently under active study includes a major microlensing survey, and now includes a visible light coronagraph for exoplanet spectroscopy and debris disk imaging. Two NASA-selected community-led teams are studying probe-scale (spectroscopy. These concepts complement existing NASA missions that do exoplanet science (such as transit spectroscopy and debris disk imaging with HST and Spitzer) or are under development (survey of nearby transiting exoplanets with TESS, and followup of the most important targets with transit spectroscopy on JWST), and build on the work of ground-based instruments such as LBTI and observing with HIRES on Keck. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2014. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.


    Mario Bertaina


    Full Text Available The JEM-EUSO mission explores the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs above 50EeV and explores the limits of the fundamental physics, through the observations of their arrival directions and energies. It is designed to open a new particle astronomy channel. This superwide-field (60 degrees telescope with a diameter of about 2.5m looks down from space onto the night sky to detect near UV photons (330 ÷ 400nm, both fluorescent and Cherenkov photons emitted from the giant air showers produced by EECRs. The arrival direction map with more than five hundred events will tell us the origin of the EECRs and allow us to identify the nearest EECR sources with known astronomical objects. It will allow them to be examined in other astronomical channels. This is likely to lead to an  nderstanding of the acceleration mechanisms perhaps producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The comparison of the energy spectra among the spatially resolved individual sources will help to clarify the acceleration/emission mechanism, and also finally confirm the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuz’min process for the validation of Lorentz invariance up to γ ~ 1011. Neutral components (neutrinos and gamma rays can also be detected as well, if their fluxes are high enough. The JEM-EUSO mission is planned to be launched by a H2B rocket about 2017 and transferred to ISS by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV. It will be attached to the Exposed Facility external experiment platform of “KIBO”.

  18. The Kronos Hardware and Software

    Polidan, Ronald S.


    The current status of the Kronos Medium Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission concept is reviewed with particular emphasis on instrument performance and mission design with respect to observations of stellar systems. In addition, key mission and science instrument trades, issues, and concerns will be present for discussion.

  19. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF)?a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  20. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike


    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  1. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.


    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  2. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.


    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  3. Evaluating Mission Drift in Microfinance: Lessons for Programs with Social Mission

    Hishigsuren, Gaamaa


    The article contributes to a better understanding of implications of scaling up on the social mission of microfinance programs. It proposes a methodology to measure the extent, if any, to which a microfinance program with a poverty alleviation mission drifts away from its mission during rapid scaling up and presents findings from a field research…

  4. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions

    Campola, Michael J.


    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  5. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.


    In this article, a mission planner of field coverage operations for an autonomous agricultural tractor is presented. Missions for a particular autonomous tractor are defined using an XML (extendible markup language) formatted file that can be uploaded to the tractor through the user interface...

  6. Optimal parking orbits for manned Mars missions

    Cupples, Michael L.; Nordwall, Jill A.

    This paper summarizes a Mars parking orbit optimization effort. This parking orbit study includes the selection of optimal elliptic Mars parking orbits that meet mission constraints and that include pertinent apsidal misalignment losses. Mars missions examined are for the opportunity years of 2014, 2016, and 2018. For these mission opportunities, it is shown that the optimal parking orbits depend on the year that the mission occurs and are coupled with the outbound, Mars stay, and return phases of the mission. Constraints included in the parking orbit optimization process are periapsis lighting angle (related to a daylight landing requirement), periapsis latitude (related to a landing latitude range requirement) and the vehicle Trans-Earth-Injection stage mass. Also, effects of mission abort requirements on optimal parking orbits are investigated. Off-periapsis maneuvers for Mars orbit capture were found to be cost effective in reducing the mission delta-V for the 2016 abort from Mars capture scenario. The total capture and departure delta-V was `split' between the capture maneuver and the departure maneuver to reduce the 2016 Mars departure delta-V to below the level of the corresponding stage of the 2014 baseline mission. Landing results are provided that show Mars landing site access from the optimal elliptic parking orbits for Mars excursion vehicles with low (0.2) and high (1.3 and 1.6) lift to drag ratio.

  7. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Acree, C.D.


    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  8. The Ballerina experiment on the Romer mission

    Brandt, Søren Kristian


    The Romer mission has recently been approved as the next mission within the Danish Small Satellite Program. The scientific payload will consist of two separate experiments, the MONS and the Ballerina payloads. The primary objective of Ballerina is to provide accurate, real-time positions relayed...

  9. The Nexus of Military Missions and Means


    is being published to formally record the state of the Missions and Means Framework (MMF) circa 2002. However, since that time, the MMF has...continued to evolve and has been presented in updated forms at various conferences. See, for example, the "Military Missions and Means Framework " paper

  10. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai;


    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe...

  11. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino


    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  12. Mission to Very Early Earth

    Hutcheon, I D; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J; Smith, J B; Aleon, J; Ryerson, F J; Harrison, T M; Cavosie, A J; Valley, J W


    The Hadean Earth is often viewed as an inhospitable and, perhaps, unlikely setting for the rise of primordial life. However, carbonaceous materials supplied by accreting meteorites and sources of chemical energy similar to those fueling life around modern deep-sea volcanic vents would have been present in abundance. More questionable are two other essential ingredients for life - liquid water and clement temperatures. Did the Hadean Earth possess a hydrosphere and temperate climate compatible with the initiation of biologic activity? If so, the popular model of an excessively hot planetary surface characterized by a basaltic crust, devoid of continental material is invalid. Similarly, establishment of an Hadean hydrosphere prior to the cessation of heavy asteroid bombardment may mean that primitive life could have evolved and then been extinguished, only to rise again. The most effective means of determining the environmental conditions on this young planet is through geochemical analysis of samples retrieved from the Early Earth. While rocks older than 4 billion years (4 Ga) have not been found, individual zircon grains, the detritus of rocks long since eroded away, have been identified with ages as old as 4.4 Ga - only {approx}160 million years younger than the Earth itself. If we can use the geochemical information contained in these unique samples to infer the nature of their source rocks and the processes that formed them, we can place constraints on the conditions prevailing at the Earth's surface shortly after formation. This project utilizes a combined analytical and experimental approach to gather the necessary geochemical data to determine the parameters required to relate the zircons to their parent materials. Mission to Early Earth involves dating, isotopic and chemical analyses of mineral and melt inclusions within zircons and of the zircons themselves. The major experimental activity at LLNL focused on the partitioning of trace elements between

  13. Basic Connotations and Adjustment Trend of Abe s Cabinet s National Security Strategy%安倍内阁国家安保战略的基本内涵与调整动向



    Since his second term of office, Japan�s prime minister Shinzo Abe has promoted the transition of national security strategy at full stretch and a relatively complete new security strategy which has been estab⁃lished in terms of national, regional and global planes. Japan�s new security strategy is aimed at safeguard⁃ing its national security interests more effectively. Specifically speaking, the national security interests are secured by Japan�s self-defense forces and Japan-US military alliance, the regional security interests are sustained by bilateral or multilateral cooperation between Japan and South Korea, Australia, ASEAN and India, and the global security interests are largely maintained by cooperation with international communities and active engagement of international security affairs. Japan�s adjustment to its national security strategy has been made in a systematic way, preluding an all-out transformation of its national defense from the de⁃fensive to the offensive, which means reinforcing the self-defense capacities and Japan-US alliance, build⁃ing up the regional security cooperation networks, and enhancing the involvement of the international secur⁃ity affairs. Thus we must keep a close eye on Japan�s series of moves in the security field and deal with its negative effects appropriately.%安倍二次执政以来,全力推动日本国家安保战略转型,在国家、地区及全球三个层面构建起结构相对完善的新安保战略。日本制定新安保战略旨在更有效地保障本国安全利益,具体而言,国家层面的安全利益依赖日本自身的防卫力量与日美军事同盟来保障;地区层面的安全利益由日本与韩国、澳大利亚、东盟、印度的双边或多边安全合作共同维系;全球层面的安全利益主要通过与国际社会开展合作、积极参与国际安全事务来维护。安倍内阁对国家安保战略的调整具有系统性,它全面拉开了

  14. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  15. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen


    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  16. The Method of Mission Oriented Maintenance


    In a real application, equipment in good condition sometimes have to be repairedbecause the equipment does not satisfy the requirements of the mission; However, it is notnecessary to repair some equipment with failures because the failures do not affect the mission completion. In these cases, maintenance activity guided by present maintenance methodsmay sometimes affect the mission completion in time or bring about extra maintenance. To overcome the shortage of present maintenance methods, we propose an idea and method of missionoriented maintenance (MOM) to deal with the maintenance policy on these kinds of problems. This method can work out different maintenance policies corresponding to differentmissions with full consideration of missions and mission requirements for the equipment.

  17. Human Mars Mission Contamination Issues

    Lupisella, M. L.


    A potential challenge for a human Mars mission is that while humans are by most measures the obvious best way to search for life on Mars, we may also be the most problematic in that we could unduly compromise the search for life by contaminating relevant environments and/or possibly adversely and irreversibly affecting indigenous life. Perhaps more problematic is the fundamental epistemic challenge of the "one data point" limitation which could decrease confidence in applying terrestrially based research to extraterrestrial life issues in general. An informal decision tree is presented as one way to begin thinking about contamination issues. There are many sub-questions and distinctions not shown such as biological vs. nonbiological (but biologically relevant) contamination, viable vs. dead organisms, masking indigenous organisms vs. merely making the search more difficult, and independent origin vs. panspermia distinctions. While it may be unlikely that terrestrial microbes could survive on Mars, let alone reproduce and unduly compromise the search for life, the unpredictable potential for microbial life to survive, grow exponentially, evolve and modify (and sometimes destroy) environments, warrants focusing carefully on biologically relevant contamination as we prepare to send humans to the first planet that may have indigenous life-forms.

  18. NICER: Mission Overview and Status

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.


    NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission will explore the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through soft X-ray (0.2-12 keV) timing and spectroscopy. An external attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS), NICER is manifested on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight, with launch scheduled for late 2016. The NICER payload is currently in final integration and environmental testing. Ground calibration has provided robust performance measures of the optical and detector subsystems, demonstrating that the instrument meets or surpasses its effective area, timing resolution, energy resolution, etc., requirements. We briefly describe the NICER hardware, its continuing testing, operations and environment on ISS, and the objectives of NICER's prime mission—including precise radius measurements for a handful of neutron stars to constrain the equation of state of cold, ultra-dense matter. Other contributions at this meeting address specific scientific investigations that are enabled by NICER, for neutron stars in their diverse manifestations as well as for broader X-ray astrophysics through a brief, approved Guest Observer program beginning in 2018.

  19. The Jem-Euso Mission

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki


    JEM-EUSO is a space science mission to explore extreme energies and physics of the Universe. Its instrument will watch the dark-side of the earth and will detect UV photons emitted from the extensive air shower caused by an Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs above 10^18 eV), or Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray (EHECR) particle (e.g., above about 10^20 eV). Such a high-rigidity particles as the latter arrives almost in a straight-line from its origin through the magnetic fields of our Milky Way Galaxy and is expected to allow us to trace the source location by its arrival direction. This nature can open the door to the new astronomy with charged particles. In its five years operation including the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will detect at least 1,000 events with E>7x10^19 eV with the GZK cutoff spectrum. It can determine the energy spectrum and source locations of GZK to super-GZK regions with a statistical accuracy of several percent. JEM-EUSO is planned to be deployed by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and will be a...

  20. 12 CFR 940.2 - Mission of the Banks.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mission of the Banks. 940.2 Section 940.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MISSION CORE MISSION ACTIVITIES § 940.2 Mission of the Banks. The mission of the Banks is to provide to their members' and...

  1. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward


    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  2. MMPM - Mars MetNet Precursor Mission

    Harri, A.-M.; Schmidt, W.; Pichkhadze, K.; Linkin, V.; Vazquez, L.; Uspensky, M.; Polkko, J.; Genzer, M.; Lipatov, A.; Guerrero, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Haukka, H.; Savijarvi, H.; Kauhanen, J.


    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. Prototyping of the payload instrumentation with final dimensions was carried out in 2003-2006.This huge development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development. To understand the behavior and dynamics of the Martian atmosphere, a wealth of simultaneous in situ observations are needed on varying types of Martian orography, terrain and altitude spanning all latitudes and longitudes. This will be performed by the Mars MetNet Mission. In addition to the science aspects the

  3. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As




    Full Text Available The mission is generic expression of reason for the existence of an organization. Organizational mission ensure continuity of existence beyond the objectives and targets of activities. It is the expression of an organization's responsibilities towards the environment in which it belongs. As the organization grows and its activities or environmental conditions change, managers adapt their strategies, but stated mission will remain valid for a period of time or unchanged throughout the life of the organization. All managerial elements of the organization are aligned with stated mission, starting from the organization structure, management behavior or specific business processes. The focus of the mission of an higher education institution on a need or several integrated needs, on customers who manifest this need and on how they can be met, that really means defining of its strategic domanin, as a sphere of influence of the organization in their environment. In this sphere of influence, three components integrate on three levels of the mission: to establish needs; identify the customer type to which an organization adress and key competencies that differentiate it from the rest competitors. To that context identifies four specific forms of academic institutions starting from their mission and strategic area: autocratic academic institutions, meritocrate academic institutions, democratic academic institutions, bureaucrats academic institutions.

  5. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky


    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  6. Understanding NEOs: The Role of Characterization Missions

    Morrison, David


    NEOs are important from multiple perspectives, including science, hazard mitigation, space resources, and as targets for human missions. Much can be learned from ground-based studies, especially with radar, but the unique value of in situ investigation has been shown by missions such as NEAR-Shoemaker and Hayabusa to asteroids Eros and Itokawa, and Deep Impact and Stardust to comets. The next mission targets are likely to be NEAs in the subkilometer size range. Because these smaller objects are much more numerous, they are the objects we most need to understand from a defense perspective, and they are also the most likely targets for early human missions. However, there are unique challenges in sending spacecraft to investigate sub-km asteroids. Reconnaissance flybys are of little use, orbiting requires active control, and landing on such a low-gravity surface is perhaps better described as docking. Yet we need to operate close to the target, and probably to land, to obtain crucial information about interior structure. This paper deals primarily with small landers like the Near Earth Asteroid Trailblazer Mission (NEAT) studied at Ames Research Center. The NEAT objectives are to provide global reconnaissance (shape, mass, density, dynamical state), in situ surface characterization, and long-term precision tracking. Alternative approaches use deep-penetrating radar and electromagnetic sounding to probe interior structure. A third class of missions is ballistic impactors such as the ESA Don Quijote, which test one of the technologies for deflecting small asteroids. If the targets are selected for their accessibility, such missions could be implemented with low-cost launchers such as Pegasus, Falcon, or Minotaur. Such missions will have high science return. But from the perspective of defense, we have not yet developed a consensus strategy for the role of such characterization missions.

  7. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Lipset, Mark A.; Lemery, Jay; Polk, J. D.; Hamilton, Douglas R.


    Background: A long-duration exploration class mission is fraught with numerous medical contingency plans. Herein, we explore the challenges of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) occurring during an exploration class mission. The actions and resources required to ameliorate the situation, including the availability of appropriate pharmaceuticals, monitoring devices, treatment modalities, and communication protocols will be investigated. Challenges of Atrial Fibrillation during an Exploration Mission: Numerous etiologies are responsible for the initiation of AF. On Earth, we have the time and medical resources to evaluate and determine the causative situation for most cases of AF and initiate therapy accordingly. During a long-duration exploration class mission resources will be severely restricted. How is one to determine if new onset AF is due to recent myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, fluid overload, thyrotoxicosis, cardiac structural abnormalities, or CO poisoning? Which pharmaceutical therapy should be initiated and what potential side effects can be expected? Should anti-coagulation therapy be initiated? How would one monitor the therapeutic treatment of AF in microgravity? What training would medical officers require, and which communication strategies should be developed to enable the best, safest therapeutic options for treatment of AF during a long-duration exploration class mission? Summary: These questions will be investigated with expert opinion on disease elucidation, efficient pharmacology, therapeutic monitoring, telecommunication strategies, and mission cost parameters with emphasis on atrial fibrillation being just one illustration of the tremendous challenges that face a long-duration exploration mission. The limited crew training time, medical hardware, and drugs manifested to deal with such an event predicate that aggressive primary and secondary prevention strategies be developed to protect a multibillion-dollar asset like the

  8. Autonomy requirements engineering for space missions

    Vassev, Emil


    Advanced space exploration is performed by unmanned missions with integrated autonomy in both flight and ground systems. Risk and feasibility are major factors supporting the use of unmanned craft and the use of automation and robotic technologies where possible. Autonomy in space helps to increase the amount of science data returned from missions, perform new science, and reduce mission costs.Elicitation and expression of autonomy requirements is one of the most significant challenges the autonomous spacecraft engineers need to overcome today. This book discusses the Autonomy Requirements Eng

  9. Mars MetNet Mission Payload Overview

    Harri, A.-M.; Haukka, H.; Alexashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.


    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is being developed in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission [1] is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide crucial scientific data about the Martian atmospheric phenomena.

  10. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    For almost 15 years, ESA is providing atmospheric chemistry and composition information to the user community. In 1995, this commitment started with the GOME instrument on-board ERS-2. This mission was continued and extended with the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments on-board of ENVISAT launched in 2002. ESA is prepared to continue Envisat through 2013 in the frame of the mission extension. To respond to GMES requirements, ESA develops the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission to be launched in 2014, to continue and improve the European measurement capabilities initiated with GOME and SCIAMACHY, and continued with EUMETSAT's GOME-2 and the Dutch OMI instrument on the NASA Aura platform. In addition the Sentinel 4 and 5 missions are prepared, further improving the monitoring capabilities with geostationary observation capabilities and continuing the Low Earth Orbit Sentinel 5 Precursor well beyond 2025. At the same time, ESA is preparing two atmospheric Earth Explorer Missions. With ADM-Aeolus, a novel lidar system for the retrieval of wind speed vectors from space is being developed and planned to be launched in 2012. EarthCARE will investigate the Clouds-Aerosol-radiation-interaction with a lidar, cloud radar (provided by JAXA), multi-spectral imager and broad band radiometric instruments collocated on one platform. A major goal is the development of synergistic retrievals exploiting information from different sensors in one algorithm. The mission is planned to start in 2014. In parallel the Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 are ongoing. One of the three candidate missions is PREMIER, an infrared limb-imaging spectrometer and millimetre-wave limb-sounder planned to be launched in 2016. In addition the call of ideas for the Earth Explorer 8 has been published and the corresponding Letters of Intend have been received, including a number of proposals for mission in the atmospheric composition and dynamics domain. At the same time, the access to ESA Third

  11. Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.


    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five

  12. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S


    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  13. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Green, James


    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  14. Astronaut Judith Resnik in the Shuttle mission simulator


    Astronaut Judith A. Resnik, 41-D mission specialist, prepares to climb some steps leading to the flight deck portion of JSC's Shuttle mission simulator (SMS) in preparation for training for her 41-D mission.

  15. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  16. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.


    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  17. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  18. The Transformational Mission of a Diocesan University

    Galligan-Stierle, Michael; Casale, Franklyn M.


    This article advances the concept that the mission of a diocesan Catholic college / university is found in its geographic relationship with the local church and area community. Examples of this interaction and collaboration are cited.

  19. Enterprise Information Architecture for Mission Development

    Dutra, Jayne


    This slide presentation reviews the concept of an information architecture to assist in mission development. The integrate information architecture will create a unified view of the information using metadata and the values (i.e., taxonomy).

  20. Solar Electric Propulsion for Future NASA Missions

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; Mercer, Carolyn R.


    Use of high-power solar arrays, at power levels ranging from approximately 500 KW to several megawatts, has been proposed for a solar-electric propulsion (SEP) demonstration mission, using a photovoltaic array to provide energy to a high-power xenon-fueled engine. One of the proposed applications of the high-power SEP technology is a mission to rendezvous with an asteroid and move it into lunar orbit for human exploration, the Asteroid Retrieval mission. The Solar Electric Propulsion project is dedicated to developing critical technologies to enable trips to further away destinations such as Mars or asteroids. NASA needs to reduce the cost of these ambitious exploration missions. High power and high efficiency SEP systems will require much less propellant to meet those requirements.

  1. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    Cannon, Howard N.


    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  2. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment

    Fredrickson, Steven


    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  3. DOE and NASA joint Dark Energy mission


    "DOE and NASA announced their plan for a Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) on October 23, 2003, at the NASA Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe Subcommittee (SEUS) meeting" (1 paragraph).

  4. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan


    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  5. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission

    Lipsett, Mark; Hamilton, Douglas; Lemery, Jay; Polk, James


    This slide presentation reviews a possible scenario of an astronaut having Atrial Fibrillation during a Mars Mission. In the case review the presentation asks several questions about the alternatives for treatment, medications and the ramifications of the decisions.

  6. Mission design considerations for nuclear risk mitigation

    Stancati, Mike; Collins, John


    Strategies for the mitigation of the nuclear risk associated with two specific mission operations are discussed. These operations are the safe return of nuclear thermal propulsion reactors to earth orbit and the disposal of lunar/Mars spacecraft reactors.

  7. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    Sibeck, David G.


    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  8. Multi-Mission MicroSDR Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon proposes to develop a low-power and compact reconfigurable radio specifically targeted to NASA mission needs. We envision the radio to be well matched to small...

  9. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission: 1978-1980

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NASA's Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) project collected Earth data in the visible and thermal bands between April 1978 and September 1980. This was an...

  10. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)


    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  11. Creative Analytics of Mission Ops Event Messages

    Smith, Dan


    Historically, tremendous effort has been put into processing and displaying mission health and safety telemetry data; and relatively little attention has been paid to extracting information from missions time-tagged event log messages. Todays missions may log tens of thousands of messages per day and the numbers are expected to dramatically increase as satellite fleets and constellations are launched, as security monitoring continues to evolve, and as the overall complexity of ground system operations increases. The logs may contain information about orbital events, scheduled and actual observations, device status and anomalies, when operators were logged on, when commands were resent, when there were data drop outs or system failures, and much much more. When dealing with distributed space missions or operational fleets, it becomes even more important to systematically analyze this data. Several advanced information systems technologies make it appropriate to now develop analytic capabilities which can increase mission situational awareness, reduce mission risk, enable better event-driven automation and cross-mission collaborations, and lead to improved operations strategies: Industry Standard for Log Messages. The Object Management Group (OMG) Space Domain Task Force (SDTF) standards organization is in the process of creating a formal standard for industry for event log messages. The format is based on work at NASA GSFC. Open System Architectures. The DoD, NASA, and others are moving towards common open system architectures for mission ground data systems based on work at NASA GSFC with the full support of the commercial product industry and major integration contractors. Text Analytics. A specific area of data analytics which applies statistical, linguistic, and structural techniques to extract and classify information from textual sources. This presentation describes work now underway at NASA to increase situational awareness through the collection of non

  12. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  13. The INTEGRAL Mission: Status and Science

    Sturner, Steven J.


    Since its launch on October 17, 2002, the INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) mission has been producing exciting scientific results. I will present a brief overview of the INTEGRAL mission including its complement of scientific instruments and its current operational status. This will set the stage for the scientific talks that follow. I will then discuss opportunities for US investigator participation including the NASA INTEGRAL Guest Investigator Program and support services available through the US INTEGRAL Guest Observer Facility.

  14. NASA reschedules Mars mission for 2018

    Gwynne, Peter


    NASA has announced that its next mission to Mars will be launched in May 2018 following the discovery of a leak in a key scientific instrument. The mission - Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) - was originally scheduled to launch last month and reach Mars later this year, but the new launch window means it will now not land on the red planet until November 2018.

  15. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Acree, C.D.


    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  16. MetNet - Martian Network Mission

    Harri, A.-M.


    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars - MetNet in situ observation network based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called the Met-Net Lander (MNL). The actual practical mission development work started in January 2009 with participation from various countries and space agencies. The scientific rationale and goals as well as key mission solutions will be discussed. The eventual scope of the MetNet Mission is to deploy some 20 MNLs on the Martian surface using inflatable descent system structures, which will be supported by observations from the orbit around Mars. Currently we are working on the MetNet Mars Precursor Mission (MMPM) to deploy one MetNet Lander to Mars in the 2009/2011 launch window as a technology and science demonstration mission. The MNL will have a versatile science payload focused on the atmospheric science of Mars. Detailed characterization of the Martian atmospheric circulation patterns, boundary layer phenomena, and climatology cycles, require simultaneous in-situ measurements by a network of observation posts on the Martian surface. The scientific payload of the MetNet Mission encompasses separate instrument packages for the atmospheric entry and descent phase and for the surface operation phase. The MetNet mission concept and key probe technologies have been developed and the critical subsystems have been qualified to meet the Martian environmental and functional conditions. This development effort has been fulfilled in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), the Russian Lavoschkin Association (LA) and the Russian Space Research Institute (IKI) since August 2001. Currently the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial) from Spain is also participating in the MetNet payload development.

  17. Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa

    In order to meet the requirements of Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as well as to continue the ADEOS and ADEOS2 missions, JAXA is now planning the GCOM mission which is composed of a series of satellites. There are two series of satellites, and they are now called GCOM-W and GCOM-C satellites. Both series are composed of 3 satellites with 5 years lifetime. Hence, 13 years of continuous observation can be assured with 1 year overlaps. The first satellite of GCOM-W will be launched in fiscal 2011 while the first one of GCOM-C will be launched in fiscal 2013. In regard to global warming, the GCOM intends the measurement of most factors involved in the energy and water cycle and material cycle, which are the main mechanisms determining climate change, and also analysis of the relevant processes. Within the material cycle, measurement of the carbon cycle is a key subject. In this particular field, the GCOM aims at estimating the primary production as well as carbon flux based on measurement data on land vegetation and phytoplankton. In regard to changes of the land environment, the measuring subjects are tropical forests and the global distribution of vegetation and its changes. In regard to the cryosphere, the sea ice concentration and snow coverage are measured and their interaction with the climate is analyzed. GCOM-W1 will carry AMSR2 (AMSR F/O). AMSR2 will be very similar to AMSR on ADEOS2 and AMSR-E on EOS-Aqua with some modifications. The aperture of AMSR2 is 2m, and AMSR2 will have more accurate hot load than AMSR. Two kinds of modification are intro-duced. One is to use an actively controlled thermal reflector over the hot load. This reflector is called a temperature controlled plate (TCP). Another modification is to shield the ambient emissions. GCOM-C1 will carry GLI F/O (called the second generation GLI : SGLI). The SGLI will be rather different from GLI on ADEOS2. The main targets of SGLI are atmospheric aerosols, coastal zone and land

  18. Planet Detection: The Kepler Mission

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Smith, Jeffrey C.; Tenenbaum, Peter; Twicken, Joseph D.; Van Cleve, Jeffrey


    The search for exoplanets is one of the hottest topics in astronomy and astrophysics in the twenty-first century, capturing the public's attention as well as that of the astronomical community. This nascent field was conceived in 1989 with the discovery of a candidate planetary companion to HD114762 [35] and was born in 1995 with the discovery of the first extrasolar planet 51 Peg-b [37] orbiting a main sequence star. As of March, 2011, over 500 exoplanets have been discovered* and 106 are known to transit or cross their host star, as viewed from Earth. Of these transiting planets, 15 have been announced by the Kepler Mission, which was launched into an Earth-trailing, heliocentric orbit in March, 2009 [1,4,6,15,18,20,22,31,32,34,36,43]. In addition, over 1200 candidate transiting planets have already been detected by Kepler [5], and vigorous follow-up observations are being conducted to vet these candidates. As the false-positive rate for Kepler is expected to be quite low [39], Kepler has effectively tripled the number of known exoplanets. Moreover, Kepler will provide an unprecedented data set in terms of photometric precision, duration, contiguity, and number of stars. Kepler's primary science objective is to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets transiting their Sun-like host stars in the habitable zone, that range of orbital distances for which liquid water would pool on the surface of a terrestrial planet such as Earth, Mars, or Venus. This daunting task demands an instrument capable of measuring the light output from each of over 100,000 stars simultaneously with an unprecedented photometric precision of 20 parts per million (ppm) at 6.5-h intervals. The large number of stars is required because the probability of the geometrical alignment of planetary orbits that permit observation of transits is the ratio of the size of the star to the size of the planetary orbit. For Earth-like planets in 1-astronomical unit (AU) orbits† about sun-like stars

  19. LCROSS: A High Return, Small Satellite Mission

    Andrews, Daniel R.


    Early in 2006, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) held a competition for NASA Centers to propose innovative ideas for a secondary payload mission to launch with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to the Moon. The successful proposal could cost no more than $80 million dollars (less was preferred), would have to be ready to launch with the LRO in 31 months, could weigh no more than 1000 kg (fuelled), and would be designated a risk-tolerant "Class D" mission. In effect, NASA was offering a fixed-price contract to the winning NASA team to stay within a cost and schedule cap by accepting an unusually elevated risk position. To address this Announcement of Opportunity to develop a cost-and-schedule-capped secondary payload mission to fly with LRO, NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in Moffett Field, CA, USA embarked on a brainstorming effort termed "Blue Ice" in which a small team was asked to explore a number of mission scenarios that might have a good chance for success and still fit within the stated programmatic constraints. From this work, ARC developed and submitted six of the nineteen mission proposals received by ESMD from throughout the Agency, one of which was LCROSS - a collaborative effort between ARC and its industrial partner, Northrop-Grumman (NG) in Redondo Beach, CA, USA.

  20. Software engineering processes for Class D missions

    Killough, Ronnie; Rose, Debi


    Software engineering processes are often seen as anathemas; thoughts of CMMI key process areas and NPR 7150.2A compliance matrices can motivate a software developer to consider other career fields. However, with adequate definition, common-sense application, and an appropriate level of built-in flexibility, software engineering processes provide a critical framework in which to conduct a successful software development project. One problem is that current models seem to be built around an underlying assumption of "bigness," and assume that all elements of the process are applicable to all software projects regardless of size and tolerance for risk. This is best illustrated in NASA's NPR 7150.2A in which, aside from some special provisions for manned missions, the software processes are to be applied based solely on the criticality of the software to the mission, completely agnostic of the mission class itself. That is, the processes applicable to a Class A mission (high priority, very low risk tolerance, very high national significance) are precisely the same as those applicable to a Class D mission (low priority, high risk tolerance, low national significance). This paper will propose changes to NPR 7150.2A, taking mission class into consideration, and discuss how some of these changes are being piloted for a current Class D mission—the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS).

  1. Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth, Jr.


    This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10(exp 8) in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (near infinity G2) of light deflection resulting from gravity s intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J(sub 2), and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, as well as the expected performance of this proposed mission. LATOR will lead to very robust advances in the tests of Fundamental physics: this mission could discover a violation or extension of general relativity, or reveal the presence of an additional long range interaction in the physical law. There are no analogs to the LATOR experiment; it is unique and is a natural culmination of solar system gravity experiments.

  2. Exploration Mission Benefits From Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Schlesinger, Thilini; Ewert, Michael K.


    Technologies that reduce logistical mass, volume, and the crew time dedicated to logistics management become more important as exploration missions extend further from the Earth. Even modest reductions in logical mass can have a significant impact because it also reduces the packing burden. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems' Logistics Reduction Project is developing technologies that can directly reduce the mass and volume of crew clothing and metabolic waste collection. Also, cargo bags have been developed that can be reconfigured for crew outfitting and trash processing technologies to increase habitable volume and improve protection against solar storm events are under development. Additionally, Mars class missions are sufficiently distant that even logistics management without resupply can be problematic due to the communication time delay with Earth. Although exploration vehicles are launched with all consumables and logistics in a defined configuration, the configuration continually changes as the mission progresses. Traditionally significant ground and crew time has been required to understand the evolving configuration and locate misplaced items. For key mission events and unplanned contingencies, the crew will not be able to rely on the ground for logistics localization assistance. NASA has been developing a radio frequency identification autonomous logistics management system to reduce crew time for general inventory and enable greater crew self-response to unplanned events when a wide range of items may need to be located in a very short time period. This paper provides a status of the technologies being developed and there mission benefits for exploration missions.

  3. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.


    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  4. TandEM: Titan and Enceladus mission

    Coustenis, A.; Atreya, S.K.; Balint, T.; Brown, R.H.; Dougherty, M.K.; Ferri, F.; Fulchignoni, M.; Gautier, D.; Gowen, R.A.; Griffith, C.A.; Gurvits, L.I.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Leese, M.R.; Lunine, J.I.; McKay, C.P.; Moussas, X.; Muller-Wodarg, I.; Neubauer, F.; Owen, T.C.; Raulin, F.; Sittler, E.C.; Sohl, F.; Sotin, C.; Tobie, G.; Tokano, T.; Turtle, E.P.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Waite, J.H.; Baines, K.H.; Blamont, J.; Coates, A.J.; Dandouras, I.; Krimigis, T.; Lellouch, E.; Lorenz, R.D.; Morse, A.; Porco, C.C.; Hirtzig, M.; Saur, J.; Spilker, T.; Zarnecki, J.C.; Choi, E.; Achilleos, N.; Amils, R.; Annan, P.; Atkinson, D.H.; Benilan, Y.; Bertucci, C.; Bezard, B.; Bjoraker, G.L.; Blanc, M.; Boireau, L.; Bouman, J.; Cabane, M.; Capria, M.T.; Chassefiere, E.; Coll, P.; Combes, M.; Cooper, J.F.; Coradini, A.; Crary, F.; Cravens, T.; Daglis, I.A.; de Angelis, E.; De Bergh, C.; de Pater, I.; Dunford, C.; Durry, G.; Dutuit, O.; Fairbrother, D.; Flasar, F.M.; Fortes, A.D.; Frampton, R.; Fujimoto, M.; Galand, M.; Grasset, O.; Grott, M.; Haltigin, T.; Herique, A.; Hersant, F.; Hussmann, H.; Ip, W.; Johnson, R.; Kallio, E.; Kempf, S.; Knapmeyer, M.; Kofman, W.; Koop, R.; Kostiuk, T.; Krupp, N.; Kuppers, M.; Lammer, H.; Lara, L.-M.; Lavvas, P.; Le, Mouelic S.; Lebonnois, S.; Ledvina, S.; Li, J.; Livengood, T.A.; Lopes, R.M.; Lopez-Moreno, J. -J.; Luz, D.; Mahaffy, P.R.; Mall, U.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Marty, B.; McCord, T.; Salvan, C.M.; Milillo, A.; Mitchell, D.G.; Modolo, R.; Mousis, O.; Nakamura, M.; Neish, C.D.; Nixon, C.A.; Mvondo, D.N.; Orton, G.; Paetzold, M.; Pitman, J.; Pogrebenko, S.; Pollard, W.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Rannou, P.; Reh, K.; Richter, L.; Robb, F.T.; Rodrigo, R.; Rodriguez, S.; Romani, P.; Bermejo, M.R.; Sarris, E.T.; Schenk, P.; Schmitt, B.; Schmitz, N.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Selig, A.; Sicardy, B.; Soderblom, L.; Spilker, L.J.; Stam, D.; Steele, A.; Stephan, K.; Strobel, D.F.; Szego, K.; Szopa,


    TandEM was proposed as an L-class (large) mission in response to ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Call, and accepted for further studies, with the goal of exploring Titan and Enceladus. The mission concept is to perform in situ investigations of two worlds tied together by location and properties, whose remarkable natures have been partly revealed by the ongoing Cassini-Huygens mission. These bodies still hold mysteries requiring a complete exploration using a variety of vehicles and instruments. TandEM is an ambitious mission because its targets are two of the most exciting and challenging bodies in the Solar System. It is designed to build on but exceed the scientific and technological accomplishments of the Cassini-Huygens mission, exploring Titan and Enceladus in ways that are not currently possible (full close-up and in situ coverage over long periods of time). In the current mission architecture, TandEM proposes to deliver two medium-sized spacecraft to the Saturnian system. One spacecraft would be an orbiter with a large host of instruments which would perform several Enceladus flybys and deliver penetrators to its surface before going into a dedicated orbit around Titan alone, while the other spacecraft would carry the Titan in situ investigation components, i.e. a hot-air balloon (Montgolfi??re) and possibly several landing probes to be delivered through the atmosphere. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008.

  5. Modelling UV sky for future UV missions

    Sreejith, A. G.; Safanova, M.; Mohan, R.; Murthy, Jayant

    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse galactic light, is dependent on various factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day, zodiacal light on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic, and diffuse UV emission depends on the look direction. To provide a full description of any line of sight, we have also added stars. The diffuse UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely impact space telescopes viewing directions due to over brightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a simple web-based tool, can be applied to separate missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example used for two UV missions: the UVIT instrument on the Indian ASTROSAT mission to be launched in the next year and a prospective wide-field mission to search for transients in the UV.

  6. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)


    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  7. Lessons learned from planetary entry probe missions

    Niemann, Hasso; Atreya, Sushil K.; Kasprzak, Wayne

    Probing the atmospheres and surfaces of the planets and their moons with fast moving entry probes has been a very useful and essential technique to obtain in situ or quasi in situ scientific data (ground truth) which could not otherwise be obtained from fly by or orbiter only missions and where balloon, aircraft or lander missions are too complex and too costly. Planetary entry probe missions have been conducted successfully on Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Titan after having been first demonstrated in the Earth's atmosphere. Future planetary missions should also include more entry probe missions back to Venus and to the outer planets. The success of and science returns from past missions, the need for more and unique data, and a continuously advancing technology generate confidence that future missions will be even more successful with respect to science return and technical performance. There are, however, unique challenges associated with entry probe missions and with building instruments for an entry probe, as compared to orbiters, landers, or rovers. Conditions during atmospheric entry are extreme. There are operating time constraints due to the usually short duration of the probe descent, and the instruments experience rapid environmental changes in temperature and pressure. In addition, there are resource limitations, i.e. mass, power, size and bandwidth. Because of the protective heat shield and the high acceleration the probe experiences during entry, the ratio of payload to total probe mass is usually much smaller than in other missions. Finally, the demands on the instrument design are determined in large part by conditions (pressure, temperature, composition) unique to the particular body under study, and as a result, there is no one-size-fits-all instrument for an atmospheric probe. Many of these requirements are more easily met by miniaturizing the probe instrumentation and consequently reducing the required size of the probe. Improved heat shield

  8. MNSM - A Future Mars Network Science Mission

    Chicarro, A. F.


    Following ESA' s successful Mars Express mission, European efforts in Mars Exploration are now taking place within the joint ESA-NASA Mars Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with the Trace Gases Orbiter (TGO) focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane, and with the Entry and Descent Module (EDM). In 2018, a joint NASA-ESA rover will perform sample caching as well as geological, geochemical and exobiological measurements of the surface and the subsurface of Mars. A number of missions for 2020 and beyond are currently under study. Among those, a possible candidate is a Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM) of 3-6 surface stations, to investigate the interior of the planet, its rotational parameters and its atmospheric dynamics. These important science goals have not been fully addressed by Mars exploration so far and can only be achieved with simultaneous measurements from a number of landers located on the surface of the planet such as a Mars Network mission. In addition, the geology, mineralogy and astrobiological significance of each landing site would be addressed, as three new locations on Mars would be reached. Such Mars Network Science Mission has been considered a significant priority by the planetary science community worldwide for the past two decades. In fact, a Mars Network mission concept has a long heritage, as it was studied a number of times by ESA, NASA and CNES (e.g., Marsnet, Intermarsnet, Netlander and MarsNEXT mission studies) since 1990. Study work has been renewed in ESA recently with MNSM Science and Engineering Teams being set up to update the scientific objectives of the mission and to evaluate its technical feasibility, respectively. The current mission baseline includes three ESA-led small landers with a robotic arm to be launched with a Soyuz rocket and direct communications to Earth (no need of a dedicated orbiter). However, a larger network could be put in place through international collaboration, as several

  9. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.


    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  10. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  11. Operational Lessons Learned from NASA Analog Missions

    Arnold, Larissa S.


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) efforts in human space flight are currently focused on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) programs, with efforts beginning on the future exploration opportunities. Both the Space Shuttle and ISS programs are important to the development of a capability for human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS provides extensive research capabilities to determine how the human body reacts to long duration stays in space. Also, the ISS and Shuttle can serve as a limited testbed for equipment or entire systems that may be used on missions to the Moon, Mars, or to a near-Earth asteroid. It has been nearly 35 years since the Apollo astronauts visited the Moon. Future space explorers will have to re-learn how to work and live on planetary surfaces, and how to do that for extended periods of time. Exploration crews will perform a wide assortment of scientific tasks, including material sampling and emplacement of automated instruments. Surface mission operations include the activities of the crew living and working, mission support from the Earth, and the operation of robotic and other remotely commanded equipment on the surface and in planetary orbit. Other surface activities will include the following: exploring areas surrounding a habitat; using rovers to collect rock and soil samples; setting up experiments on the surface to monitor the radiation environment and any seismic or thermal activity; and conducting scientific analyses and experiments inside a habitat laboratory. Of course, the astronauts will also have to spend some of their surface time "doing chores" and maintaining their habitat and other systems. In preparation for future planetary exploration, NASA must design the answers to many operational questions. What will the astronauts do on the surface? How will they accomplish this? What tools will they require for their tasks? How will robots and astronauts work together? What

  12. CEO Sites Mission Management System (SMMS)

    Trenchard, Mike


    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade its science site database management tool, which at the time was integrated with the Automated Mission Planning System (AMPS) originally developed for Earth Observations mission planning in the 1980s. Although AMPS had been adapted and was reliably used by CEO for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations support, the database structure was dated, and the compiler required for modifications would not be supported in the Windows 7 64-bit operating system scheduled for implementation the following year. The Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) is now the tool used by CEO to manage a heritage Structured Query Language (SQL) database of more than 2,000 records for Earth science sites. SMMS is a carefully designed and crafted in-house software package with complete and detailed help files available for the user and meticulous internal documentation for future modifications. It was delivered in February 2012 for test and evaluation. Following acceptance, it was implemented for CEO mission operations support in April 2012. The database spans the period from the earliest systematic requests for astronaut photography during the shuttle era to current ISS mission support of the CEO science payload. Besides logging basic image information (site names, locations, broad application categories, and mission requests), the upgraded database management tool now tracks dates of creation, modification, and activation; imagery acquired in response to requests; the status and location of ancillary site information; and affiliations with studies, their sponsors, and collaborators. SMMS was designed to facilitate overall mission planning in terms of site selection and activation and provide the necessary site parameters for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE), which is used by CEO operations to perform daily ISS mission planning. The CEO team

  13. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission: Overview and Status

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Brophy, John; Mazanek, Dan; Muirhead, Brian

    A major element of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) new Asteroid Initiative is the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). This concept was first proposed in 2011 during a feasibility study at the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS)[1] and is under consideration for implementation by NASA. The ARM involves sending a high-efficiency (ISP 3000 s), high-power (40 kW) solar electric propulsion (SEP) robotic vehicle that leverages technology developed by NASA’s Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) to rendezvous with a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and return asteroidal material to a stable lunar distant retrograde orbit (LDRO)[2]. There are two mission concepts currently under study, one that captures an entire 7 - 10 meter mean diameter NEA[3], and another that retrieves a 1 - 10 meter mean diameter boulder from a 100+ meter class NEA[4]. Once the retrieved asteroidal material is placed into the LDRO, a two person crew would launch aboard an Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic SEP vehicle. After docking, the crew would conduct two extra-vehicular activities (EVA) to collect asteroid samples and deploy instruments prior to Earth return. The crewed portion of the mission is expected to last approximately 25 days and would represent the first human exploration mission beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program. The ARM concept leverages NASA’s activities in Human Exploration, Space Technology, and Planetary Defense to accomplish three primary objectives and several secondary objectives. The primary objective relevant to Human Exploration is to gain operational experience with vehicles, systems, and components that will be utilized for future deep space exploration. In regard to Space Technology, the ARM utilizes advanced SEP technology that has high power and long duration capabilities that enable future missions to deep space destinations, such as the Martian system. With respect to Planetary Defense, the ARM

  14. Robustness of mission plans for unmanned aircraft

    Niendorf, Moritz

    This thesis studies the robustness of optimal mission plans for unmanned aircraft. Mission planning typically involves tactical planning and path planning. Tactical planning refers to task scheduling and in multi aircraft scenarios also includes establishing a communication topology. Path planning refers to computing a feasible and collision-free trajectory. For a prototypical mission planning problem, the traveling salesman problem on a weighted graph, the robustness of an optimal tour is analyzed with respect to changes to the edge costs. Specifically, the stability region of an optimal tour is obtained, i.e., the set of all edge cost perturbations for which that tour is optimal. The exact stability region of solutions to variants of the traveling salesman problems is obtained from a linear programming relaxation of an auxiliary problem. Edge cost tolerances and edge criticalities are derived from the stability region. For Euclidean traveling salesman problems, robustness with respect to perturbations to vertex locations is considered and safe radii and vertex criticalities are introduced. For weighted-sum multi-objective problems, stability regions with respect to changes in the objectives, weights, and simultaneous changes are given. Most critical weight perturbations are derived. Computing exact stability regions is intractable for large instances. Therefore, tractable approximations are desirable. The stability region of solutions to relaxations of the traveling salesman problem give under approximations and sets of tours give over approximations. The application of these results to the two-neighborhood and the minimum 1-tree relaxation are discussed. Bounds on edge cost tolerances and approximate criticalities are obtainable likewise. A minimum spanning tree is an optimal communication topology for minimizing the cumulative transmission power in multi aircraft missions. The stability region of a minimum spanning tree is given and tolerances, stability balls

  15. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)


    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  16. The SENTINEL-3 Mission: Overview and Status

    Benveniste, J.; Mecklenburg, S.


    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  17. Antimatter Driven Sail for Deep Space Missions

    Howe, Steven D.; Jackson, Gerald P.


    The concept of the Antimatter Driven Sail (ADS) has been examined in three major areas: Mission Architecture, Subsystem Technologies, and a Technology Roadmap. The Mission Architecture effort has focused on developing an integrated systems model to evaluate the performance of the entire spacecraft for a mission. The Subsystem Technologies investigation examined 1) the fundamental reactions between the antiprotons and the sail material and the subsequent momentum transfer, 2) a concept for storing antihydrogen at high densities, and 3) an entirely new concept for electrical power production. The new electrical-power concept may have applicability to nearer-term space missions as a power supply if the availability of antiprotons becomes common. In developing the Technology Roadmap, we examined the potential 1) for using recent developments in antiproton storage and antihydrogen formation to create a path to ultra-high density antihydrogen storage, and 2) for increasing production of antiprotons by modifying the existing Fermilab facility. Our system analysis indicates that a 10 kg instrument pay load could be sent to 250 AU in 10 years using 30 milligrams of antihydrogen. This amount of antimatter is clearly within the production potential of the US within the next 40 years using currently accepted accelerator technologies. Major aspects of the architecture remain to be investigated but the first-cut assessment of the mission profile, the subsystem technologies, and the technology development path have all been identified. The antimatter driven sail may in-fact allow humanity to consider sending probes to the stars.

  18. Predicting UV sky for future UV missions

    Safonova, M.; Mohan, R.; Sreejith, A. G.; Murthy, Jayant


    Software simulators are now widely used in all areas of science, especially in application to astronomical missions: from instrument design to mission planning, and to data interpretation. We present a simulator to model the diffuse ultraviolet sky, where the different contributors are separately calculated and added together to produce a sky image of the size specified by the instrument requirements. Each of the contributors to the background, instrumental dark current, airglow, zodiacal light and diffuse Galactic light, depends on different factors. Airglow is dependent on the time of day; zodiacal light depends on the time of year, angle from the Sun and from the ecliptic; diffuse UV emission depends on the line of sight. To provide a full description of the sky along any line of sight, we have also added stars. The UV background light can dominate in many areas of the sky and severely limit viewing directions due to overbrightness. The simulator, available as a downloadable package and as a web-based tool, can be applied to preparation of real space missions and instruments. For demonstration, we present the example use for the two near-future UV missions: UVIT instrument on the Indian Astrosat mission and a new proposed wide-field (∼1000 square degrees) transient explorer satellite.

  19. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce


    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  20. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.


    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  1. Scheduling Algorithm for Mission Planning and Logistics Evaluation (SAMPLE). Volume 2: Mission payloads subsystem description

    Dupnick, E.; Wiggins, D.


    The scheduling algorithm for mission planning and logistics evaluation (SAMPLE) is presented. Two major subsystems are included: The mission payloads program; and the set covering program. Formats and parameter definitions for the payload data set (payload model), feasible combination file, and traffic model are documented.

  2. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis


    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  3. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.


    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  4. Using the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    Hughes, Steven P.; Conway, Darrel J.; Parker, Joel


    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT). These slides will be used to accompany the demonstration. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. This talk is a combination of existing presentations and material; system user guide and technical documentation; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project. Slides for navigation and optimal control are borrowed from system documentation and training material.

  5. The geophysical impact of the Aristoteles mission

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Klingele, E.; Sabadini, R.; Tinti, S.; Zerbini, Suzanna


    The importance of a precise, high resolution gradiometric and magnetometric mission in some topics of geophysical interest is stressed. Ways in which the planned Aristoteles mission can allow the geophysical community to improve the knowledge and the physical understanding of several important geodynamical processes involving the coupled system consisting of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and upper mantle are discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the inversion of anomalous density structures in collision and subduction zones by means of the joint use of gradiometric and seismic tomographic data. Some modeling efforts accomplished to study the capability of the mission to invert the rheological parameters of the lithosphere and upper mantle through the gravimetric signals of internal and surface density anomalies are described.

  6. Missionêre perspektiewe op Teologiese opleiding

    J.J. Kritzinger


    Full Text Available In the light of the transformation in society and in tertiary education, renewed attention should be given to the church, its mission, and the mission of its theological schools. If it were true that the church is the Body of Christ, called to continually be involved in God's outreach to his world, then the training of missionaries and the place of mission in the theological curriculum should also receive renewed attention. The author re-iterates the need for both a focused Missiology and the development of a true missionary theology in the theological faculty. He also indicates a need for academic Missiology to become involved in the training of missionaries.

  7. Mars MetNet Precursor Mission Status

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Guerrero, H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.


    We are developing a new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  8. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.


    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  9. SWARM - An earth Observation Mission investigating Geospace

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.;


    The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at higher altitude. The measured magnetic field is the sum of many contributions including both magnetic fields and currents in the Earth's interior and electrical currents in Geospace. In order to separate all these sources electric field and plasma measurements...... will also be made to complement the primary magnetic field measurements. Together these will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured. The completeness of the measurements on each satellite and the constellation aspect...

  10. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    Maccone, Claudio


    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  11. All Sky Survey Mission Observing Scenario Strategy

    Spangelo, Sara C; Unwin, Stephen C; Bock, Jamie J


    This paper develops a general observing strategy for missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible such that targeted observations and variable coverage requirements can be achieved. This paper focuses on missions operating in Low Earth Orbit, where the thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in interacting and dynamic constraints. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based high-level strategy is presented for scheduling throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based...

  12. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management


    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  13. Minimally disruptive schedule repair for MCM missions

    Molineaux, Matthew; Auslander, Bryan; Moore, Philip G.; Gupta, Kalyan M.


    Mine countermeasures (MCM) missions entail planning and operations in very dynamic and uncertain operating environments, which pose considerable risk to personnel and equipment. Frequent schedule repairs are needed that consider the latest operating conditions to keep mission on target. Presently no decision support tools are available for the challenging task of MCM mission rescheduling. To address this capability gap, we have developed the CARPE system to assist operation planners. CARPE constantly monitors the operational environment for changes and recommends alternative repaired schedules in response. It includes a novel schedule repair algorithm called Case-Based Local Schedule Repair (CLOSR) that automatically repairs broken schedules while satisfying the requirement of minimal operational disruption. It uses a case-based approach to represent repair strategies and apply them to new situations. Evaluation of CLOSR on simulated MCM operations demonstrates the effectiveness of case-based strategy. Schedule repairs are generated rapidly, ensure the elimination of all mines, and achieve required levels of clearance.

  14. Introductory remarks to the mission and system aspects session

    Bonnefoy, Rene; Schuyer, M.


    A brief history of the measurement of Earth potential fields is presented. The scientific objectives of the Aristoteles mission are summarized. Cooperation between NASA and ESA in developing the Aristoteles mission constraints are presented in tabular form. Correspondence between major mission and technical constraints is discussed. Program status of the Aristoteles mission and the mission baseline are described. The planned configuration of the Aristoteles satellite is shown in diagrammatic form.

  15. A Look Inside the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Grammier, Richard S.


    Juno, the second mission within the New Frontiers Program, is a Jupiter polar orbiter mission designed to return high-priority science data that spans across multiple divisions within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Juno's science objectives, coupled with the natural constraints of a cost-capped, PI-led mission and the harsh environment of Jupiter, have led to a very unique mission and spacecraft design.

  16. Hydrologic Research for the SWOT Mission

    Alsdorf, Doug; Mognard, Nelly; Cretaux, Jean-Francois; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Andreadis, Kostas; Schumann, Guy


    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT, is designed to measure the elevations of the world's water surfaces including both terrestrial surface waters and the oceans. CNES, NASA, and the CSA are partners in the mission, which is now in Phase A with a launch date of 2020. The mission teams have already made exciting advances, most notably the formation of the Science Definition Team. The SDT consists of three-dozen lead investigators and their research teams, spanning Europe and the U.S. and across oceanography and hydrology. The group will address hydrologic issues such as: What are the spatial resolutions, temporal samplings, and height accuracies required to address SWOT's hydrologic science questions? Can these be relaxed or improved from preliminary designs and thus what are the expected impacts on mission power requirements? To help address these issues, an airborne platform called "AirSWOT" has been developed. While AirSWOT flights are still in the planning stages, it is hoped that measurements will occur over several U.S. and French rivers, including some braided Alaskan rivers and some tropical rivers. These various hydrogeomorphic regimes will provide different settings in which to test discharge algorithms. Based on the results of a workshop held in June 2012, it is thought that river reaches, rather than river cross-sections, are optimum for SWOT estimates of discharge. As the SDT works through these important mission design issues, they will also help to further refine the mission hydrologic goals. For example, reservoirs around the world impact the water cycle via storage and release. Yet, a global comprehensive understanding of these changes remains unknown. What role will SWOT have in solving this problem, e.g., what are the fluvial geomorphic environments best suited for SWOT measurements of reservoirs?

  17. Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph for the ACCESS Mission

    Trauger, J.; ACCESS Science and Engineering Team


    We report the design and fabrication of hybrid focal-plane masks for Lyot coronagraphy, supported this year by NASA's Technology Demonstration for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program. These masks are composed of thickness-profiled metallic and dielectric thin films, and manufactured by vacuum deposition on a glass substrate. Hybrid masks are in principle band-limited in both the real and imaginary parts of the complex amplitude characteristics, providing the theoretical basis for mathematically perfect starlight suppression. Together with a deformable mirror for control of wavefront phase, these masks achieve contrast levels of 2e-10 at inner working angles of 3 lambda/D, over spectral bandwidths of 20% or more, and with throughput efficiencies of 60%. We evaluate the science potential of these coronagaph masks in the context of ACCESS, a representative exoplanet mission concept. ACCESS is one of four medium-class concepts studied in 2008-2009 under NASA's Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concepts Study program. In a nutshell, the ACCESS study seeks the most capable medium-class coronagraphic mission that is possible with high-readiness telescope, instrument, and spacecraft technologies available today. The ACCESS study compared the performance of four major coronagraph architectures. It defined a conceptual space observatory platform as the "level playing field" for comparisons among coronagraph types. And it used laboratory validation of the representative coronagraph types as a second "level playing field" for assessing coronagraph hardware readiness. ACCESS identifies a class of scientifically compelling mission concepts built upon mature (TRL6+) subsystem technologies, and evaluates science reach of a medium-class coronagraph mission. Using current high-TRL technologies, the ACCESS minimum science program surveys the nearest 120+ AFGK stars for exoplanet systems, and surveys the majority of those for exozodiacal dust to the level of 1 zodi at 3 AU. Discoveries are

  18. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)


    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  19. Supportability for Beyond Low Earth Orbit Missions

    Crillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Aaseng, Gordon; Stromgren, Chel; Maxwell, Andrew J.


    Exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) presents many unique challenges that will require changes from current Supportability approaches. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is supported and maintained through a series of preplanned resupply flights, on which spare parts, including some large, heavy Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), are delivered to the ISS. The Space Shuttle system provided for a robust capability to return failed components to Earth for detailed examination and potential repair. Additionally, as components fail and spares are not already on-orbit, there is flexibility in the transportation system to deliver those required replacement parts to ISS on a near term basis. A similar concept of operation will not be feasible for beyond LEO exploration. The mass and volume constraints of the transportation system and long envisioned mission durations could make it difficult to manifest necessary spares. The supply of on-demand spare parts for missions beyond LEO will be very limited or even non-existent. In addition, the remote nature of the mission, the design of the spacecraft, and the limitations on crew capabilities will all make it more difficult to maintain the spacecraft. Alternate concepts of operation must be explored in which required spare parts, materials, and tools are made available to make repairs; the locations of the failures are accessible; and the information needed to conduct repairs is available to the crew. In this paper, ISS heritage information is presented along with a summary of the challenges of beyond LEO missions. A number of Supportability issues are discussed in relation to human exploration beyond LEO. In addition, the impacts of various Supportability strategies will be discussed. Any measure that can be incorporated to reduce risk and improve mission success should be evaluated to understand the advantages and disadvantages of implementing those measures. Finally, an effort to model and evaluate

  20. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank


    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  1. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) mission concept

    Miller, Richard S.


    The hard X-ray sky has tremendous potential for future discoveries and is one of the last electromagnetic regimes without a sensitive all-sky survey. A new approach to such a survey is to utilize the Moon as an occulting disk. The Lunar Occultation Observer (LOCO) mission concept, based on this Lunar Occultation Technique (LOT) and incorporating advanced inorganic scintillators as a detection medium, represents a sensitive and cost effective option for NASA's Beyond Einstein Black Hole Finder Probe or a future Explorer-class mission. We present the motivating factors for the LOT, outline developmental details and simulation results, as well as give preliminary estimates for source detection sensitivity.

  2. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew


    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  3. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert


    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  4. Mars MetNet Mission Status

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri


    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  5. Sentinel-1 Mission Overview and Implementation Status

    Davidson, M.; Attema, E.; Snoeij, P.; Levrini, G.


    Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band consisting of a constellation of two satellites aimed at providing continuity of all-weather day-and-night supply of imagery for user services. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA's GMES service elements program and on projects funded by the European Union Framework Programmes. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - Monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment - Surveillance of marine environment - Monitoring land surface motion risks - Mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture - Mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. The Sentinel 1 space segment will be designed and built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. Data products from current and previous ESA missions including ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services. Consequently Sentinel-1 data maintain data quality levels of the Agency‘s previous SAR missions in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, polarization and wavelength. Nonetheless, the Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) constellation represents a completely new approach to SAR mission design by ESA in direct response to the operational needs for SAR data expressed under the EU-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The Sentinel-1 constellation is expected to provide near daily coverage over Europe and Canada, global coverage all independent of weather with delivery of radar data within 1 hour of acquisition - all vast improvements with respect to the existing SAR systems. The continuity of C-band SAR data combined with the greatly improved data provision is

  6. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: Clasp for the Proposed DESDynI Mission

    Knight, Russell; McLaren, David; Hu, Steven


    Mission design and analysis present challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, our approach is to use automated planning tools that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. We have applied this approach to DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) mission design concept using the CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduler/Planner) planning system [7], but since this adaptation many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP and the DESDynI mission concept has undergone drastic changes, including that it has been renamed the Earth Radar Mission. Over the past two years, we have run more than fifty simulations with the CLASP-DESDynI adaptation, simulating different mission scenarios with changing parameters including targets, swaths, instrument modes, and data and downlink rates. We describe the evolution of simulations through the DESDynI MCR (Mission Concept Review) and afterwards.

  7. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy


    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  8. Mission Architecture and Technology Options for a Flagship Class Venus In Situ Mission

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kwok, Johnny H.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Cutts, James A.; Senske, David A.


    Venus, as part of the inner triad with Earth and Mars, represents an important exploration target if we want to learn more about solar system formation and evolution. Comparative planetology could also elucidate the differences between the past, present, and future of these three planets, and can help with the characterization of potential habitable zones in our solar system and, by extension, extrasolar systems. A long lived in situ Venus mission concept, called the Venus Mobile Explorer, was prominently featured in NASA's 2006 SSE Roadmap and supported in the community White Paper by the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Long-lived in situ missions are expected to belong to the largest (Flagship) mission class, which would require both enabling and enhancing technologies beside mission architecture options. Furthermore, extreme environment mitigation technologies for Venus are considered long lead development items and are expected to require technology development through a dedicated program. To better understand programmatic and technology needs and the motivating science behind them, in this fiscal year (FY08) NASA is funding a Venus Flaghip class mission study, based on key science and technology drivers identified by a NASA appointed Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT). These mission drivers are then assembled around a suitable mission architecture to further refine technology and cost elements. In this paper we will discuss the connection between the final mission architecture and the connected technology drivers from this NASA funded study, which - if funded - could enable a future Flagship class Venus mission and potentially drive a proposed Venus technology development program.

  9. Tobias, Rudolf: Jonah's Mission / Warrack, John

    Warrack, John


    Uuest heliplaadist "Tobias, Rudolf: Jonah's Mission. Pille Lill (sop), Urve Tauts (mez), Peter Svensson (ten), Raimo Laukka (bar), Mati Palm (bass); Tallinn Boys' Choir, Estonian Philharmonic Chamber Choir, Oratorio Choir, Estonian State Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" BIS CD 731/2 (two discs: 114 minutes: DDD)

  10. Euclid mission: building of a reference survey

    Amiaux, J.; Scaramella, R.; Mellier, Y.; Altieri, B.; Burigana, C.; Da Silva, Antonio; Gomez, P.; Hoar, J.; Laureijs, R.; Maiorano, E.; Magalhães Oliveira, D.; Renk, F.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Tereno, I.; Auguères, J. L.; Brinchmann, J.; Cropper, M.; Duvet, L.; Ealet, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gondoin, P.; Guzzo, L.; Hoekstra, H.; Holmes, R.; Jahnke, K.; Kitching, T.; Meneghetti, M.; Percival, W.; Warren, S.


    Euclid is an ESA Cosmic-Vision wide-field-space mission which is designed to explain the origin of the acceleration of Universe expansion. The mission will investigate at the same time two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (in particular Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, BAO). The extreme precision requested on primary science objectives can only be achieved by observing a large number of galaxies distributed over the whole sky in order to probe the distribution of dark matter and galaxies at all scales. The extreme accuracy needed requires observation from space to limit all observational biases in the measurements. The definition of the Euclid survey, aiming at detecting billions of galaxies over 15 000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky, is a key parameter of the mission. It drives its scientific potential, its duration and the mass of the spacecraft. The construction of a Reference Survey derives from the high level science requirements for a Wide and a Deep survey. The definition of a main sequence of observations and the associated calibrations were indeed a major achievement of the Definition Phase. Implementation of this sequence demonstrated the feasibility of covering the requested area in less than 6 years while taking into account the overheads of space segment observing and maneuvering sequence. This reference mission will be used for sizing the spacecraft consumables needed for primary science. It will also set the framework for optimizing the time on the sky to fulfill the primary science and maximize the Euclid legacy.

  11. Fundamentals of the TianQin mission

    Mei, Jianwei; Wang, Yan


    This talk adds more detail to the proposed TianQin mission \\cite{TQ}. The response of TianQin to a binary source is an important problem for the experiment. Here we present the detail of the response function of an equal-arm Michelson interferometer to the gravitation waves of a binary source with a circular orbit.

  12. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    Boerema, Albert J.


    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  13. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.


    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  14. Mission analysis report - deactivation facilities at Hanford

    Lund, D.P.


    This document examines the portion of the Hanford Site Cleanup Mission that deals with facility deactivation. How facilities get identified for deactivation, how they enter EM-60 for deactivation, programmatic alternatives to perform facility deactivation, the deactivation process itself, key requirements and objectives associated with the deactivation process, and deactivation planning are discussed.

  15. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    Tereno, I.; Carvalho, C. S.; Dinis, J.; Scaramella, R.; Amiaux, J.; Burigana, C.; Cuillandre, J. C.; da Silva, A.; Derosa, A.; Maiorano, E.; Maris, M.; Oliveira, D.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gomez-Alvarez, P.; Meneghetti, M.; Wachter, S.; Wachter


    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  16. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    Tereno, I; Dinis, J; Scaramella, R; Amiaux, J; Burigana, C; Cuillandre, J C; da Silva, A; Derosa, A; Maiorano, E; Maris, M; Oliveira, D; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gomez-Alvarez, P; Meneghetti, M; Wachter, S


    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  17. The LOFT mission concept: a status update

    Feroci, M.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Hernanz, M.; van der Klis, M.; Liu, L. -P; Orleanski, P.; Pohl, M.; Santangelo, A.; Schanne, S.; Stella, L.; Takahashi, T.; Tamura, H.; Watts, A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.; Zhang, S. -N; Bhattacharyya, S.; Agudo, I.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Albertus, C.; Alford, M.; Alpar, A.; Altamirano, D.; Alvarez, L.; Amati, L.; Amoros, C.; Andersson, N.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Artigue, R.; Artigues, B.; Atteia, J. -L; Azzarello, P.; Bakala, P.; Ballantyne, D.; Baldazzi, G.; Baldo, M.; Balman, S.; Barbera, M.; van Baren, C.; Barret, D.; Baykal, A.; Begelman, M.; Behar, E.; Behar, O.; Belloni, T.; Bernardini, F.; Bertuccio, G.; Bianchi, S.; Bianchini, A.; Binko, P.; Blay, P.; Bocchino, F.; Bode, M.; Bodin, P.; Bombaci, I.; Bonnet Bidaud, J. -M; Boutloukos, S.; Bouyjou, F.; Bradley, L.; Braga, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Brown, E.; Buballa, M.; Bucciantini, N.; Burderi, L.; Burgay, M.; Bursa, M.; Budtz-Jørgensen, C.; Cackett, E.; Cadoux, F.; Cais, P.; Caliandro, G. A.; Campana, R.; Campana, S.; Cao, X.; Capitanio, F.; Casares, J.; Casella, P.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Cavazzuti, E.; Cavechi, Y.; Celestin, S.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Chakrabarty, D.; Chamel, N.; Château, F.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.; Chenevez, J.; Chernyakova, M.; Coker, J.; Cole, R.; Collura, A.; Coriat, M.; Cornelisse, R.; Costamante, L.; Cros, A.; Cui, W.; Cumming, A.; Cusumano, G.; Czerny, B.; D'Aı, A.; D'Ammando, F.; D'Elia, V.; Dai, Z.; Del Monte, E.; De Luca, A.; De Martino, D.; Dercksen, J. P. C.; De Pasquale, M.; De Rosa, A.; Del Santo, M.; Di Cosimo, S.; Degenaar, N.; den Herder, J. W.; Diebold, S.; Di Salvo, T.; Dong, Y.; Donnarumma, I.; Doroshenko, V.; Doyle, G.; Drake, S. A.; Durant, M.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Enoto, T.; Erkut, M. H.; Esposito, P.; Evangelista, Y.; Fabian, A.; Falanga, M.; Favre, Y.; Feldman, C.; Fender, R.; Feng, H.; Ferrari, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Finger, M.; Finger, M. H.; Fraser, G. W.; Frericks, M.; Fullekrug, M.; Fuschino, F.; Gabler, M.; Galloway, D. K.; Gálvez Sanchez, J. L.; Gandhi, P.; Gao, Z.; Garcia-Berro, E.; Gendre, B.; Gevin, O.; Gezari, S.; Giles, A. B.; Gilfanov, M.; Giommi, P.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gogus, E.; Goldwurm, A.; Goluchová, K.; Götz, D.; Gou, L.; Gouiffes, C.; Grandi, P.; Grassi, M.; Greiner, J.; Grinberg, V.; Groot, P.; Gschwender, M.; Gualtieri, L.; Guedel, M.; Guidorzi, C.; Guy, L.; Haas, D.; Haensel, P.; Hailey, M.; Hamuguchi, K.; Hansen, F.; Hartmann, D. H.; Haswell, C. A.; Hebeler, K.; Heger, A.; Hempel, M.; Hermsen, W.; Homan, J.; Hornstrup, A.; Hudec, R.; Huovelin, J.; Huppenkothen, D.; Inam, S. C.; Ingram, A.; In't Zand, J. J. M.; Israel, G.; Iwasawa, K.; Izzo, L.; Jacobs, H. M.; Jetter, F.; Johannsen, T.; Jenke, P. A.; Jonker, P.; Josè, J.; Kaaret, P.; Kalamkar, K.; Kalemci, E.; Kanbach, G.; Karas, V.; Karelin, D.; Kataria, D.; Keek, L.; Kennedy, T.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Koerding, E.; Kokkotas, K.; Komossa, S.; Korpela, S.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kowalski, A. F.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kuiper, L. M.; Kunneriath, D.; Kurkela, A.; Kuvvetli, I.; La Franca, F.; Labanti, C.; Lai, D.; Lamb, F. K.; Lachaud, C.; Laubert, P. P.; Lebrun, F.; Li, X.; Liang, E.; Limousin, O.; Lin, D.; Linares, M.; Linder, D.; Lodato, G.; Longo, F.; Lu, F.; Lund, N.; Maccarone, T. J.; Macera, D.; Maestre, S.; Mahmoodifar, S.; Maier, D.; Malcovati, P.; Malzac, J.; Malone, C.; Mandel, I.; Mangano, V.; Manousakis, A.; Marelli, M.; Margueron, J.; Marisaldi, M.; Markoff, S. B.; Markowitz, A.; Marinucci, A.; Martindale, A.; Martínez, G.; McHardy, I. M.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mehdipour, M.; Melatos, A.; Mendez, M.; Mereghetti, S.; Migliari, S.; Mignani, R.; Michalska, M.; Mihara, T.; Miller, M. C.; Miller, J. M.; Mineo, T.; Miniutti, G.; Morsink, S.; Motch, C.; Motta, S.; Mouchet, M.; Mouret, G.; Mulačová, J.; Muleri, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Negueruela, I.; Neilsen, J.; Neubert, T.; Norton, A. J.; Nowak, M.; Nucita, A.; O'Brien, P.; Oertel, M.; Olsen, P. E. H.; Orienti, M.; Orio, M.; Orlandini, M.; Osborne, J. P.; Osten, R.; Ozel, F.; Pacciani, L.; Paerels, F.; Paltani, S.; Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Papitto, A.; Paragi, Z.; Paredes, J. M.; Patruno, A.; Paul, B.; Pederiva, F.; Perinati, E.; Pellizzoni, A.; Penacchioni, A. V.; Peretz, U.; Perez, M. A.; Perez-Torres, M.; Peterson, B. M.; Petracek, V.; Pittori, C.; Pons, J.; Portell, J.; Possenti, A.; Postnov, K.; Poutanen, J.; Prakash, M.; Prandoni, I.; Le Provost, H.; Psaltis, D.; Pye, J.; Qu, J.; Rambaud, D.; Ramon, P.; Ramsay, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Rashevski, A.; Rashevskaya, I.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reddy, S.; Reig, P.; Reina Aranda, M.; Remillard, R.; Reynolds, C.; Rezzolla, L.; Ribo, M.; de la Rie, R.; Riggio, A.; Rios, A.; Rischke, D. H.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Rodriguez, J.; Rohlfs, R.; Romano, P.; Rossi, E. M. R.; Rozanska, A.; Rousseau, A.; Rudak, B.; Russell, D. M.; Ryde, F.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Sala, G.; Salvaterra, R.; Salvetti, D.; Sanna, A.; Sandberg, J.; Savolainen, T.; Scaringi, S.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.; Schatz, H.; Schee, J.; Schmid, C.; Serino, M.; Shakura, N.; Shore, S.; Schnittman, J. D.; Schneider, R.; Schwenk, A.; Schwope, A. D.; Sedrakian, A.; Seyler, J. -Y; Shearer, A.; Slowikowska, A.; Sims, M.; Smith, A.; Smith, D. M.; Smith, P. J.; Sobolewska, M.; Sochora, V.; Soffitta, P.; Soleri, P.; Song, L.; Spencer, A.; Stamerra, A.; Stappers, B.; Staubert, R.; Steiner, A. W.; Stergioulas, N.; Stevens, A. L.; Stratta, G.; Strohmayer, T. E.; Stuchlik, Z.; Suchy, S.; Suleimanov, V.; Tamburini, F.; Tauris, T.; Tavecchio, F.; Tenzer, C.; Thielemann, F. K.; Tiengo, A.; Tolos, L.; Tombesi, F.; Tomsick, J.; Torok, G.; Torrejon, J. M.; Torres, D. F.; Torresi, E.; Tramacere, A.; Traulsen, I.; Trois, A.; Turolla, R.; Turriziani, S.; Typel, S.; Uter, P.; Uttley, P.; Vacchi, A.; Varniere, P.; Vaughan, S.; Vercellone, S.; Vietri, M.; Vincent, F. H.; Vrba, V.; Walton, D.; Wang, J.; Wang, Z.; Watanabe, S.; Wawrzaszek, R.; Webb, N.; Weinberg, N.; Wende, H.; Wheatley, P.; Wijers, R.; Wijnands, R.; Wille, M.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Winter, B.; Walk, S. J.; Wood, K.; Woosley, S. E.; Wu, X.; Xu, R.; Yu, W.; Yuan, F.; Yuan, W.; Yuan, Y.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Zampieri, L.; Zdunik, L.; Zdziarski, A.; Zech, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, S.; Zingale, M.; Zwart, F.


    The Large Observatory For x-ray Timing (LOFT) is a mission concept which was proposed to ESA as M3 and M4 candidate in the framework of the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. Thanks to the unprecedented combination of effective area and spectral resolution of its main instrument and the uniquely large

  18. Robotics Challenge: Cognitive Robot for General Missions



  19. Engaged Scholarship: (Re) Focusing on Our Mission

    Kirtman, Lisa; Bowers, Erica; Hoffman, John L.


    Although the mission statements of most comprehensive teaching institutions of higher education include serving as a resource for the global and local community, the tenure and promotion process typically does not recognize these community partnerships as research endeavors, even when the nature of the work is firmly grounded in sound empirical…

  20. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.


    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  1. Pharmaceutical experiment aboard STS-67 mission


    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour during the STS-67 mission. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical, but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids, and crystal growth investigation

  2. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II



    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  3. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell


    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  4. Initial performance of the NEOWISE reactivation mission

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fabinsky, B.; Heinrichsen, I.; Liu, F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cutri, R. M.; Beck, R.; Conrow, T.; Dailey, J.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Clarkson, P.; Kendall, M., E-mail: [Ball Aerospace and Technology Center, Boulder, CO (United States); and others


    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been brought out of hibernation and has resumed surveying the sky at 3.4 and 4.6 μm. The scientific objectives of the NEOWISE reactivation mission are to detect, track, and characterize near-Earth asteroids and comets. The search for minor planets resumed on 2013 December 23, and the first new near-Earth object (NEO) was discovered 6 days later. As an infrared survey, NEOWISE detects asteroids based on their thermal emission and is equally sensitive to high and low albedo objects; consequently, NEOWISE-discovered NEOs tend to be large and dark. Over the course of its three-year mission, NEOWISE will determine radiometrically derived diameters and albedos for ∼2000 NEOs and tens of thousands of Main Belt asteroids. The 32 months of hibernation have had no significant effect on the mission's performance. Image quality, sensitivity, photometric and astrometric accuracy, completeness, and the rate of minor planet detections are all essentially unchanged from the prime mission's post-cryogenic phase.

  5. Coating optimization for the ATHENA+ mission

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen;


    that further coating developments can improve on the baseline specifications and present here preliminary results on the optimization of coating design based on the new specifications of the ATHENA+ mission. The performances of several material combinations are investigated with the goal of maximizing...

  6. Is Middlesex County College Accomplishing Its Mission?

    Balabkins, Xenia P.

    Over the past few years, New Jersey's Middlesex County College (MCC) has placed an inordinate amount of attention and effort on the issue of student transfer to four-year institutions. Although attention to traditional academic goals is important, MCC's stated mission also addresses other important segments of the college's market. The college has…

  7. Apollo 14 mission circuit breaker anomaly


    Continuity through the circuit breaker in the mechanically closed condition was prevented by a foreign substance on the contact surface onboard Apollo 14. It was concluded that this was the only failure of this type in over 3400 units that were flown, and since no circuit breaker is a single-point failure for crew safety or mission success, no corrective action was taken.

  8. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.


    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...

  9. The Cosmic DUNE dust astronomy mission

    Grun, E.; Srama, R.; Cosmic Dune Team

    A dust astronomy mission aims at the simultaneous measurement of the origin and the chemical composition of individual dust grains in space. Interstellar dust traversing the solar system constitutes the galactic solid phase of matter from which stars and planetary systems form. Interplanetary dust, from comets and asteroids, represents remnant material from bodies at different stages of early solar system evolution. Thus, studies of interstellar and interplanetary dust with Cosmic DUNE (Cosmic Dust Near Earth) will provide a comparison between the composition of the interstellar medium and primitive planetary objects. Cosmic DUNE will prepare the way for effective collection in near-Earth space of interstellar and interplanetary dust for subsequent return to Earth and analysis in laboratories. Cosmic DUNE establishes the next logical step beyond NASA's Stardust mission, with four major advancements in cosmic dust research: (1) Analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of individual cosmic dust grains, (2) determination of the size distribution of interstellar dust, (3) characterization of the interstellar dust flow through the planetary system, and (4) analysis of interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. This mission goal will be reached with novel dust instrumentation. A dust telescope trajectory sensor has been developed which is capable of obtaining precision trajectories of sub-micron sized particles in space. A new high mass resolution dust analyzer of 0.1m2 impact area can cope with the low fluxes expected in interplanetary space. Cosmic DUNE will be proposed to ESA in response to its upcoming call for mission ideas.

  10. Army Cyber Mission Force - Ambitions and Realities


    readdress branding , compensation, professional development and organization in order to increase the likelihood of success for the Cyber Mission Force...unique character traits that differ from the typical traits of Army enlistees. The research has further shown that compensation, branding ...Force and private sector branding with that of the Army. The research also examined compensation differences between the Air Force, private sector

  11. "Sunshine": mission to reignite the sun

    Ebert, Roger


    "As a permanent winter settles upon the Earth, a specaship is sent on a desperate mission to drop a nuclear device into the sick sn and "reignite" it. To name the ship "Icarus I" seems like asking for trouble in two ways, considering the fate of the original Icaru and the numeral that omniously leaves room for a sequel." (1 page)

  12. H-60 Mission Avionics Technology Insertion


    single board computer . This is the same single board computer that is utilized in the Primary Mission Computer, so it would be subject to the same...Report Document No. 312-015-002 Page 23 4.2.13 Acoustic Processor The Acoustic Processor contains four single board computer modules in a 15 slot VME

  13. The Science Payload of the LOFT Mission

    Feroci, Marco; den Herder, J.; van der Klis, M.;

    The scientific payload onboard the Large Observatory For x-ray Timing mission (LOFT, see presentation by P. Ray et al. at this meeting) is composed of two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD, 10 m2 effective area in the primary energy range 2-30 keV, 1-deg collimated field of view) and the ...

  14. Military logistics and its application in missions


    This thesis deals with the problems of logistics and its application in the military. There are mentioned various areas of using logistics in the military. It also describes the implementation of support for foreign missions, especially in the area of supply. Because of the difficultness of transport tasks it is used linear programming for the solution.

  15. Navigational Challenges for a Europa Flyby Mission

    Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; Ionasescu, Rodica; Valerino, Powtawche; Criddle, Kevin; Roncoli, Ralph


    Jupiter's moon Europa is a prime candidate in the search for present-day habitable environments outside of the Earth. A number of missions have provided increasingly detailed images of the complex surface of Europa, including the Galileo mission, which also carried instruments that allowed for a limited investigation of the environment of Europa. A new mission to Europa is needed to pursue these exciting discoveries using close-up observations with modern instrumentation designed to address the habitability of Europa. In all likelihood the most cost effective way of doing this would be with a spacecraft carrying a comprehensive suite of instruments and performing multiple flybys of Europa. A number of notional trajectory designs have been investigated, utilizing gravity assists from other Galilean moons to decrease the period of the orbit and shape it in order to provide a globally distributed coverage of different regions of Europa. Navigation analyses are being performed on these candidate trajectories to assess the total Delta V that would be needed to complete the mission, to study how accurately the flybys could be executed, and to determine which assumptions most significantly affect the performance of the navigation system.

  16. NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study

    Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul


    With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.

  17. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.


    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  18. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions

    Yassine, Nathan K.


    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  19. 中日关系中的“破冰”与“结冰”--从第一次安倍内阁到第二次安倍内阁%“Ice-breaking”and “Ice-forming”in Sino-Japanese Relationship --From the First to the Second Abe Cabinet



    安倍晋三的“破冰之旅”和温家宝的“融冰之旅”,使小泉内阁时期降到“冰点”的中日关系出现“回暖”迹象;福田康夫的“迎春之旅”和胡锦涛的“暖春之旅”,标志着中日关系由“寒冬”进入了“暖春”;麻生内阁基本上沿着安倍、福田内阁的对华路线前进,使中日关系保持了之前的良好发展态势;鸠山内阁是日本“改朝换代”后民主党执政的第一届内阁,在对华关系方面较之自民党政府表现得更为积极、友好;菅直人内阁期间的“撞船事件”使中日关系开始降温;野田内阁上演“购岛”闹剧,中日关系出现“拐点”;第二次安倍内阁继续“右转”,中日关系再次“结冰”。%The “Ice-breaking trip”by Abe Shinzou and the “Ice-melting trip”by Wen Jiabao warmed up the Sino-Japanese relationship that had dropped to freezing point during the Japanese Koizumi Cabinet. The“Spring-welcoming trip”by Hujuda Yasuo and the “Spring-warming trip”by Hu Jintao turned the Sino-Japanese relationship from “cold winter”to “warm spring”. Asou Cabinet basically followed the route of the China Policy adopted by Abe and Hukuda Cabinet. Sino-Japanese relationship had, as a result, maintained the previous good development momentum. Hatoyama Cabinet was the first Democratic cabinet since “New Dynasty Replacing the Old”. Compared with the Liberal Democratic government, Hatoyama Cabinet was more positive and friendly in terms of its China policy. The“ship collision incident”during Kan Naoto Cabinet triggered the cool-down Sino-Japanese relationship. The “island purchase farce”put on by the Noda Cabinet served as the inflection point of Sino-Japanese relationship. The second Abe Cabinet continued to“turn to the right”, and Sino-Japanese relationship once again“freezes”.

  20. Emirates Mars Mission Planetary Protection Plan

    Awadhi, Mohsen Al


    The United Arab Emirates is planning to launch a spacecraft to Mars in 2020 as part of the Emirates Mars Mission (EMM). The EMM spacecraft, Amal, will arrive in early 2021 and enter orbit about Mars. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit and remain there throughout the primary mission. This paper describes the planetary protection plan for the EMM mission. The EMM science orbit, where Amal will conduct the majority of its operations, is very large compared to other Mars orbiters. The nominal orbit has a periapse altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapse altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. From this vantage point, Amal will conduct a series of atmospheric investigations. Since Amal's orbit is very large, the planetary protection plan is to demonstrate a very low probability that the spacecraft will ever encounter Mars' surface or lower atmosphere during the mission. The EMM team has prepared methods to demonstrate that (1) the launch vehicle targets support a 0.01% probability of impacting Mars, or less, within 50 years; (2) the spacecraft has a 1% probability or less of impacting Mars during 20 years; and (3) the spacecraft has a 5% probability or less of impacting Mars during 50 years. The EMM mission design resembles the mission design of many previous missions, differing only in the specific parameters and final destination. The following sequence describes the mission: 1.The mission will launch in July, 2020. The launch includes a brief parking orbit and a direct injection to the interplanetary cruise. The launch targets are specified by the hyperbolic departure's energy C3, and the hyperbolic departure's direction in space, captured by the right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, RLA and DLA, respectively. The targets of the launch vehicle are biased away from Mars such that there is a 0.01% probability or less that the launch vehicle arrives onto a trajectory that impacts Mars

  1. Using Natural Language to Enhance Mission Effectiveness

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Meszaros, Erica


    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for professional-related activities. The driving function of this research is allowing a non-UAV pilot, an operator, to define and manage a mission. This paper describes the preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define the mission using speech to make inputs. An experiment was conducted to begin to enumerate the efficacy and user acceptance of using voice commands to define a multi-UAV mission and to provide high-level vehicle control commands such as "takeoff." The primary independent variable was input type - voice or mouse. The primary dependent variables consisted of the correctness of the mission parameter inputs and the time needed to make all inputs. Other dependent variables included NASA-TLX workload ratings and subjective ratings on a final questionnaire. The experiment required each subject to fill in an online form that contained comparable required information that would be needed for a package dispatcher to deliver packages. For each run, subjects typed in a simple numeric code for the package code. They then defined the initial starting position, the delivery location, and the return location using either pull-down menus or voice input. Voice input was accomplished using CMU Sphinx4-5prealpha for speech recognition. They then inputted the length of the package. These were the option fields. The subject had the system "Calculate Trajectory" and then "Takeoff" once the trajectory was calculated. Later, the subject used "Land" to finish the run. After the voice and mouse input blocked runs, subjects completed a NASA-TLX. At the conclusion of all runs, subjects completed a questionnaire asking them about their experience in inputting the mission parameters, and starting and stopping the mission using mouse and voice input. In general, the usability of voice commands is acceptable

  2. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam


    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  3. Designing Electrostatic Accelerometers for Next Gravity Missions

    Huynh, Phuong-Anh; Foulon, Bernard; Christophe, Bruno; Liorzou, Françoise; Boulanger, Damien; Lebat, Vincent


    Square cuboid electrostatic accelerometers sensor core have been used in various combinations in recent and still flying missions (CHAMP, GRACE, GOCE). ONERA is now in the process of delivering such accelerometers for the GRACE Follow-On mission. The goal is to demonstrate the performance benefits of an interferometry laser ranging method for future low-low satellite to satellite missions. The electrostatic accelerometer becoming thus the system main performance limiter, we propose for future missions a new symmetry which will allow for three ultrasensitive axes instead of two. This implies no performance ground testing, as the now cubic proof-mass will be too heavy, but only free fall tests in catapult mode, taking advantage of the additional microgravity testing time offered by the updated ZARM tower. The updated mission will be in better adequacy with the requirements of a next generation of smaller and drag compensated micro-satellites. In addition to the measurement of the surface forces exerted on the spacecraft by the atmospheric drag and by radiation pressures, the accelerometer will become a major part of the attitude and orbit control system by acting as drag free sensor and by accurately measuring the angular accelerations. ONERA also works on a hybridization of the electrostatic accelerometer with an atomic interferometer to take advantage of the absolute nature of the atomic interferometer acceleration measurement and its great accuracy in the [5-100] mHz bandwidth. After a description of the improvement of the GRACE-FO accelerometer with respect to the still in-orbit previous models and a status of its development, the presentation will describe the new cubic configuration and how its operations and performances can be verified in the Bremen drop tower.

  4. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.


    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  5. GPM Constellation Reconfiguration and Mission Status

    Hou, Arthur Y.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission that uses combined active and passive remote sensing techniques to improve global precipitation measurements derived from dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals to (1) advance the knowledge of precipitation physics and the global water cycle variability, and (2) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation and innovative application methods. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional domestic and international partners in satellite constellation buildup and ground validation activities. The GPM concept is centered on employing a dualfrequency precipitation radar and a microwave radiometer with high-frequency capabilities on a core satellite to serve as a physics observatory and calibration standard to provide a consistent framework for unifying precipitation measurements from a heterogeneous constellation of passive microwave sensors. Building on the siccess of TRMM, GPM extends combined radadradiometer precipitation measurements into the mid and high latitudes, with new science foci on improved capabilities for light-rain and snowfall measurements, as well as more accurate precipitation retrievals over land. With recent studies indicating that AMSU-B rainfall estimates are comparable in quality to those derived from conically-scanning radiometers over land, it is envisioned that cross-track microwave sounders with high-frequency channels on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), NOAA-N', and MetOp satellites can play a significant role in augmenting conically-scanning microwave radiometers to achieve better

  6. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.


    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  7. The European Venus Explorer (EVE) mission proposal

    Chassefiere, E.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D.; Korablev, O.; Aplin, K.; Baines, K.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J.; Cochrane, C.; Ferencz, Cs.; Ferri, F.; Gerasimov, M.; Imamura, T.; Leitner, J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Marty, B.; Martynov, M.; Pogrebenko, S.; Rodin, A.; Whiteway, J.; Zasova, L.


    The European Venus Explorer (EVE) is a mission proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) under the Cosmic Vision Call for Ideas, for launch in 2016-2018. The central goal of this mission is to investigate the evolution of Venus and its climate, in order to understand better the 'life cycle' of Earth-like planets everywhere. After the excellent results being obtained from ESA's Venus Express orbiter, in situ measurements will be required to answer many of the outstanding questions, specially relating to the evolution of the planet, its complex cloud chemistry and the stability of its climate. The baseline EVE mission consists of one balloon platform floating at an altitude of 50-60 km, one descent probe provided by Russia, and an orbiter with a polar orbit which will perform science observations as well as relay data from the balloon and descent probe. The minimum lifetime of the balloon is 7 days, required for one full circle around the planet, much longer than the 48 hour data returned from Russia's VEGA balloons. Earth-based VLBI and Doppler measurements provide tracking information for the orbiter, allowing measurement of the variations in the planet's gravity field, and for the balloon and descent probe to yield wind measurements in the lower atmosphere. The descent probe's fall through the atmosphere is expected to last 60 minutes, followed by a lifetime of 30 minutes on the surface. The Japanese space agency (JAXA) also proposes to include another independent platform, a small water vapour-inflated balloon which would be deployed at 35 km altitude and would communicate directly to Earth. Further details of the EVE mission, including proposals for Education & Outreach schemes, can be viewed at the mission website:

  8. Open Source Next Generation Visualization Software for Interplanetary Missions

    Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George


    Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (

  9. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.


    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  10. The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) Mission Applications Study

    Bose, David M.; Winski, Richard; Shidner, Jeremy; Zumwalt, Carlie; Johnston, Christopher O.; Komar, D. R.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Hughes, Stephen J.


    The objective of the HIAD Mission Applications Study is to quantify the benefits of HIAD infusion to the concept of operations of high priority exploration missions. Results of the study will identify the range of mission concepts ideally suited to HIADs and provide mission-pull to associated technology development programs while further advancing operational concepts associated with HIAD technology. A summary of Year 1 modeling and analysis results is presented covering missions focusing on Earth and Mars-based applications. Recommended HIAD scales are presented for near term and future mission opportunities and the associated environments (heating and structural loads) are described.

  11. JPL Mission Design Software: Current Efforts to Support Low-Cost Missions

    Fordyce, J.


    Over the last several decades, engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory have developed a collection of analytical tools to design missions to Earth orbit, the moon, sun, planets and various other bodies in our solar system, and beyond.

  12. View of Mission Control Center celebrating conclusion of Apollo 11 mission


    Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet in the Pacific recovery area (40301); NASA and MSC Officials join the flight controllers in celebrating the conclusion of the Apollo 11 mission. From left foreground Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director fo Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Adminstrator, Offic of Public Affairs, NASA HQ.; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ (40302).

  13. Design of human missions to Mars and robotic missions to Jupiter

    Okutsu, Masataka

    We consider human missions to Mars and robotic missions to Jupiter for launch dates in the near- and far-future. For the near-future, we design trajectories for currently proposed space missions that have well-defined spacecraft and mission requirements. For example, for early human missions to Mars we assume that the constraints used in NASA's design reference missions are indicative of current and near-future technologies, which of course limit our capabilities to explore Mars--and these limits make the problem challenging. Similarly, in the case of robotic exploration of Jupiter, we consider that the technology levels assumed for the proposed Europa Orbiter mission represent reasonable limits. For the far-future (two to three decades from now), we take the best estimates from current literature about the capabilities that may be available in nuclear-powered electric propulsion. We consider hardware capabilities (in terms of specific mass, specific impulse, thrust, power, etc.) for low-thrust trajectories, which range froth near-term to far-future technologies. In designing such missions, several techniques are found useful. For example, the Tisserand Graph, which tracks the changes in orbital shapes and energies, provides insight in designing Jovian tours for the Europa Orbiter mission. The graph is also useful in analyzing abort trajectories for human missions to Mars. Furthermore, a patched-conic propagator, which can generate thousands of potential trajectories, plays a vital role in three of four chapters of this thesis. For launches in the next three decades, we discovered a class of Earth- Mars-Venus-Earth free returns (which appear only four times in the 100-year period), Jovian tours involving ten to twenty flybys of the Galilean satellites, and low-thrust trajectories to Jupiter via gravity assists from Venus, Earth, and Mars. In addition, our continuation method, in which a solution for a conic trajectory is gradually converted into that for a low

  14. New trade tree for manned mars missions

    Salotti, Jean-Marc


    Recent studies on human missions to Mars suggest revisiting the parameters that have the most important impact on the complexity, the initial mass in low Earth orbit, the risks and the development costs for the first journey to the red planet. In the last NASA reference mission, a trade tree is proposed. At first level, the parameter is the class of mission, e.g., conjunction (long surface stay) or opposition (short surface stay). This parameter is important but there is an agreement on the best option (conjunction). It is therefore not a relevant parameter of the decision tree. For the other levels, the parameters are as follows: Mars orbit insertion: aerocapture or propulsive. Exploitation of local resources: yes/no. Propulsion for interplanetary flight: chemical/nuclear thermal/electric. The relevance of these parameters is questionable. It is proposed to reexamine all parameters of the mission and to study their interdependency and the complexity and the costs of possible options. The first important parameter should be the size of the crew. It should be assigned to the top node of the tree, because its impact on the initial mass in low Earth orbit, costs and risks is probably higher than any other parameter. Another parameter is the strategy for Mars orbit insertion. It is suggested here that aerocapture is very important and that it brings acceptable constraints for the architecture of the mission. The third parameter should be the strategy for entry, descent and landing. The mass of the landing vehicle is very important, because it is tightly linked to the complexity of the entry, descent and landing phase. With a low mass, a capsule shape and a rigid heat shield can be chosen for this maneuver (lowest risk, highest technology readiness level). With a heavy vehicle, an inflatable heat shield might help but the qualification of the systems would be very difficult and the entry, descent and landing phase would be more complex. This parameter is clearly a

  15. Mission assurance increased with regression testing

    Lang, R.; Spezio, M.

    Knowing what to test is an important attribute in any testing campaign, especially when it has to be right or the mission could be in jeopardy. The New Horizons mission, developed and operated by the John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, received a planned major upgrade to their Mission Operations and Control (MOC) ground system architecture. Early in the mission planning it was recognized that the ground system platform would require an upgrade to assure continued support of technology used for spacecraft operations. With the planned update to the six year operational ground architecture from Solaris 8 to Solaris 10, it was critical that the new architecture maintain critical operations and control functions. The New Horizons spacecraft is heading to its historic rendezvous with Pluto in July 2015 and then proceeding into the Kuiper Belt. This paper discusses the Independent Software Acceptance Testing (ISAT) Regression test campaign that played a critical role to assure the continued success of the New Horizons mission. The New Horizons ISAT process was designed to assure all the requirements were being met for the ground software functions developed to support the mission objectives. The ISAT team developed a test plan with a series of test case designs. The test objectives were to verify that the software developed from the requirements functioned as expected in the operational environment. As the test cases were developed and executed, a regression test suite was identified at the functional level. This regression test suite would serve as a crucial resource in assuring the operational system continued to function as required with such a large scale change being introduced. Some of the New Horizons ground software changes required modifications to the most critical functions of the operational software. Of particular concern was the new MOC architecture (Solaris 10) is Intel based and little endian, and the legacy architecture (Solaris 8) was SPA

  16. Mission Command or Mission Failure?: Evaluation Decentralized Execution in Contemporary Stability Operations


    operations in OEF/OIF are attributable not to underlying weaknesses in mission command as a theoretical construct, or its lack of suitability for...posited that acknowledged shortcomings in the success of stability operations in OEF/OIF are attributable not to underlying weaknesses in mission command...230. 7 Jeffrey Buchman, Maxie Y. Davis, and Lee T. Wright. “Death of the Combatant Command? Toward a Joint Interagency Approach.” Joint Force

  17. EXPOSE-R2, the 3rd successful EXPOSE mission – a mission and mission ground reference overview


    For nearly 2 years the 3rd ESA EXPOSE mission, the 2nd on the Russian Zvezda module of the ISS, exposed a variety of astrobiological samples to space and simulated Mars environmental conditions. Various chemical compounds and organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, plant seeds, lychens, mosses and animal eggs and larvae from the international experiments BIOMEX, BOSS, P.S.S. and the IBMP-experiment were exposed to space vacuums dryness, extraterrestrial short wavelength UV, radiation and tem...

  18. A Water Rich Mars Surface Mission Scenario

    Hoffman, Stephen J.; Andrews, Alida; Joosten, B. Kent; Watts, Kevin


    In an on-going effort to make human Mars missions more affordable and sustainable, NASA continues to investigate the innovative leveraging of technological advances in conjunction with the use of accessible Martian resources directly applicable to these missions. One of the resources with the broadest utility for human missions is water. Many past studies of human Mars missions assumed a complete lack of water derivable from local sources. However, recent advances in our understanding of the Martian environment provides growing evidence that Mars may be more "water rich" than previously suspected. This is based on data indicating that substantial quantities of water are mixed with surface regolith, bound in minerals located at or near the surface, and buried in large glacier-like forms. This paper describes an assessment of what could be done in a "water rich" human Mars mission scenario. A description of what is meant by "water rich" in this context is provided, including a quantification of the water that would be used by crews in this scenario. The different types of potential feedstock that could be used to generate these quantities of water are described, drawing on the most recently available assessments of data being returned from Mars. This paper specifically focuses on sources that appear to be buried quantities of water ice. (An assessment of other potential feedstock materials is documented in another paper.) Technologies and processes currently used in terrestrial Polar Regions are reviewed. One process with a long history of use on Earth and with potential application on Mars - the Rodriguez Well - is described and results of an analysis simulating the performance of such a well on Mars are presented. These results indicate that a Rodriguez Well capable of producing the quantities of water identified for a "water rich" human mission are within the capabilities assumed to be available on the Martian surface, as envisioned in other comparable Evolvable

  19. Parallel Enhancements of the General Mission Analysis Tool Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a state of the art spacecraft mission design tool under active development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)....

  20. Idaho National Laboratory Mission Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 2015

    Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia Latta [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A summary of mission accomplishments for the research organizations at the Idaho National Laboratory for FY 2015. Areas include Nuclear Energy, National and Homeland Security, Science and Technology Addressing Broad DOE Missions; Collaborations; and Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities.

  1. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30, 2013, to revise the mission description...

  2. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions Element

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks:Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed;Mission Operations...

  3. 5 in 1 Drill For Mars Sample Return Mission Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating a Mars Sample Return Mission, consisting of at least three separate missions: 1) Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher, MAX-C (sample acquisition...

  4. The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) mission

    Neugebauer, G.; Habing, H. J.; Van Duinen, R.; Aumann, H. H.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Boggess, N.; Clegg, P. E.; De Jong, T.


    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) consists of a spacecraft and a liquid helium cryostat that contains a cooled IR telescope. The telescope's focal plane assembly is cooled to less than 3 K, and contains 62 IR detectors in the survey array which are arranged so that every source crossing the field of view can be seen by at least two detectors in each of four wavelength bands. The satellite was launched into a 900 km-altitude near-polar orbit, and its cryogenic helium supply was exhausted on November 22, 1983. By mission's end, 72 percent of the sky had been observed with three or more hours-confirming scans, and 95 percent with two or more hours-confirming scans. About 2000 stars detected at 12 and 25 microns early in the mission, and identified in the SAO (1966) catalog, have a positional uncertainty ellipse whose axes are 45 x 9 arcsec for an hours-confirmed source.

  5. Organization Mission Planning: Methodology and Application


    Mission planning of organization is to select best strategy to complete its mission under the conditions of organizational states. A new methodology of generating and optimizing strategy of organizational course of actions (COA) was illuminated with a joint campaign. A process of generating and optimizing COA in military force was modeled. And enumerative and heuristic techniques were employed to search optimal strategy for the case of joint campaign. The complex between the two approaches to find best strategy was analyzed. The results from our case were given and compared with reality of joint campaign, on which deficiency of models was taken apart. The optimal COA, obtained from our new methodology under diverse campaigns conditions, is given and analyzed. Results from the simulation of the COA show that our approach to solve optimal strategy of organizational processes accords with traits of general landing campaign.

  6. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    Perchonok, Michele


    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  7. The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission

    Schoeberl, M.; Remer, L.; Kahn, R.; Starr, D.; Hildebrand, P.; Colarco, P.; Diner, D.; Vane, D.; Im, E.; Behrenfeld, M.; Stephens, G.; Maring, H.; Bontempi, P.; Martins, J. V.


    The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission is a second tier Decadal Survey mission designed to characterize the role of aerosols in climate forcing, especially their impact on precipitation and cloud formation. ACE also includes ocean biosphere measurements (chlorophyll and dissolved organic materials) which will be greatly improved by simultaneous measurements of aerosols. The nominal ACE payload includes lidar and multiangle spectropolarimetric polarimetric measurements of aerosols, radar measurements of clouds and multi-band spectrometer for the measurement of ocean ecosystems. An enhancement to ACE payload under consideration includes µ-wave radiometer measurements of cloud ice and water outside the nadir path of the radar/lidar beams. This talk will cover ACE instrument and science options, updates on the science team definition activity and science potential.

  8. Lunar mission design using Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    Stancati, Michael L.; Collins, John T.; Borowski, Stanley K.


    The NERVA-class Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR), with performance nearly double that of advanced chemical engines, has long been considered an enabling technology for human missions to Mars. NTR engines address the demanding trip time and payload delivery needs of both cargo-only and piloted flights. But NTR can also reduce the Earth launch requirements for manned lunar missions. First use of NTR for the Moon would be less demanding and would provide a test-bed for early operations experience with this powerful technology. Study of application and design options indicates that NTR propulsion can be integrated with the Space Exploration Initiative scenarios to deliver performance gains while managing controlled, long-term disposal of spent reactors to highly stable orbits.

  9. Trailblazing Medicine Sustaining Explorers During Interplanetary Missions

    Seedhouse, Erik


    To prepare for the day when astronauts leave low-Earth orbit for long-duration exploration missions, space medicine experts must develop a thorough understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body, as well as ways of mitigating them. To gain a complete understanding of the effects of space on the human body and to create tools and technologies required for successful exploration, space medicince will become an increasingly collaborative discipline incorporating the skills of physicians, biomedical scientists, engineers, and mission planners. Trailblazing Medicine examines the future of space medicine in relation to human space exploration; describes what is necessary to keep a crew alive in space, including the use of surgical robots, surface-based telemedicine, and remote emergency care; discusses bioethical problems such as euthanasia, sex, and precautionary surgery; investigates the medical challenges faced by interplanetary astronauts; details the process of human hibernation.

  10. The Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission

    André, Philippe; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoȋt, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J.A.P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford; Cabrera, Nicolas


    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM

  11. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.


    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  12. The Difficult Birth of NASA's Pluto Mission

    Neufeld, Michael J.


    The complex and contested origins of the New Horizons mission to Pluto, launched by NASA in 2006, provides a window on how space science policy has been formulated in the United States before and after the turn of the twenty-first century, and how the shifting network of institutions that support and shape space science have changed since 1989. Those decades that have so far been little studied except by policy scholars seeking lessons from the NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin's attempt to force a small-spacecraft technological revolution on space science in the 1990s. The New Horizons case study reveals a shift in the balance of power around 2000 among the important players in the field, increasing the influence of non-NASA actors—notably Congress, science groups and planetary-exploration lobbies. In addition, the origins of New Horizons reveals how contingent the emergence of a particular space science mission can be.

  13. Fourier transform spectroscopy for future planetary missions

    Brasunas, John; Kolasinski, John; Kostiuk, Ted; Hewagama, Tilak


    Thermal-emission infrared spectroscopy is a powerful tool for exploring the composition, temperature structure, and dynamics of planetary atmospheres; and the temperature of solid surfaces. A host of Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) such as Mariner IRIS, Voyager IRIS, and Cassini CIRS from NASA Goddard have made and continue to make important new discoveries throughout the solar system. Future FTS instruments will have to be more sensitive (when we concentrate on the colder, outer reaches of the solar system), and less massive and less power-hungry as we cope with decreasing resource allotments for future planetary science instruments. With this in mind, we have developed CIRS-lite, a smaller version of the CIRS FTS for future planetary missions. We discuss the roadmap for making CIRS-lite a viable candidate for future planetary missions, including the recent increased emphasis on ocean worlds (Europa, Encelatus, Titan) and also on smaller payloads such as CubeSats and SmallSats.

  14. No mission is impossible for LHCb

    CERN Bulletin


    Time: 01:37:51 am, 3 October, 2011. The LHC is producing million collisions per second in its detectors. But at that time, one collision is “more special” than the others in the LHCb detector: the milestone of 1 inverse femtobarn of luminosity is surpassed. What was considered as “mission impossible” at the beginning of the year is now “mission accomplished”.   Mike Lamont (Operations Group Leader), Pierluigi Campana (LHCb Spokesperson), Steve Myers (Director for Accelerators and Technology), and Paul Collier (Head of the Beams Department) celebrate the LHCb milestone. LHCb is the CERN experiment specialising in the study of b-quarks, whose properties and behaviour are likely to provide physicists with important hints on several physics processes, including some new physics. “One inverse femtobarn of luminosity corresponds to about seventy billion b-quark pairs decayed in the LHCb detector,” explains Pierluigi Cam...

  15. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry


    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  16. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.


    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  17. Reusable space tug concept and mission

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona


    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a space tug to be used in support to Earth satellites transfer manoeuvres. Usually Earth satellites are released in a non-definitive low orbit, depending on the adopted launcher, and they need to be equipped with an adequate propulsion system able to perform the transfer to their final operational location. In order to reduce the mass at launch of the satellite system, an element pre-deployed on orbit, i.e. the space tug, can be exploited to perform the transfer manoeuvres; this allows simplifying the propulsion requirements for the satellite, with a consequent decrease of mass and volume, in favour of larger payloads. The space tug here presented is conceived to be used for the transfer of a few satellites from low to high orbits, and vice versa, if needed. To support these manoeuvres, dedicated refuelling operations are envisaged. The paper starts from on overview of the mission scenario, the concept of operations and the related architecture elements. Then it focuses on the detailed definition of the space tug, from the requirements' assessment up to the budgets' development, through an iterative and recursive design process. The overall mission scenario has been derived from a set of trade-off analyses that have been performed to choose the mission architecture and operations that better satisfy stakeholder expectations: the most important features of these analyses and their results are described within the paper. Eventually, in the last part of the work main conclusions are drawn on the selected mission scenario and space tug and further utilizations of this innovative system in the frame of future space exploration are discussed. Specifically, an enhanced version of the space tug that has been described in the paper could be used to support on orbit assembly of large spacecraft for distant and long exploration missions. The Space Tug development is an activity carried on in the frame of the SAPERE project (Space

  18. Science of the Europa Multiple Flyby Mission

    Pappalardo, Robert T.; Senske, David A.; Prockter, Louise; Hand, Kevin P.; Goldstein, Barry; Europa Science Team


    The Europa Multiple Flyby Mission, in formulation for launch in the 2020s, would investigate the habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa. The mission would send a solar-powered, radiation-tolerant spacecraft into an elliptical orbit about Jupiter to conduct more than 40 close flybys of Europa, most in the range 25 km-100 km. The payload comprises a suite of nine science instruments that together would support three key objectives: detailed investigation of Europa's interior, both its internal ocean (including its salinity and depth) and its ice shell (including thickness and potential water pockets within); composition of the icy surface, notably dark reddish areas that may evince linkages between the ocean and the surface; and geology at the regional and local scales, especially areas that may show signs of recent or current activity. The science objectives and project status will be summarized.

  19. Technology demonstration by the BIRD-mission

    Brieß, K.; Bärwald, W.; Gill, E.; Kayal, H.; Montenbruck, O.; Montenegro, S.; Halle, W.; Skrbek, W.; Studemund, H.; Terzibaschian, T.; Venus, H.


    Small satellites have to meet a big challenge: to answer high-performance requirements by means of small equipment and especially of small budgets. Out of all aspects the cost aspect is one of the most important driver for small satellite missions. To keep the costs within the low-budget frame (in comparison to big missions) the demonstration of new and not space-qualified technologies for the spacecraft is one key point in fulfilling high-performance mission requirements. Taking this into account the German DLR micro-satellite mission BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra-Red Detection) has to demonstrate a high-performance capability of spacecraft bus by using and testing new technologies basing on a mixed parts and components qualification level. The basic approach for accomplishing high-performance capability for scientific mission objectives under low-budget constraints is characterized by using state-of-the-art technologies, a mixed strategy in the definition of the quality level of the EEE parts and components, a tailored quality management system according to ISO 9000 and ECSS, a risk management system, extensive redundancy strategies, extensive tests especially on system level, large designs margins (over-design), robust design principles. The BIRD-mission is dedicated to the remote sensing of hot spot events like vegetation fires, coal seam fires or active volcanoes from space and to the space demonstration of new technologies. For these objectives a lot of new small satellite technologies and a new generation of cooled infrared array sensors suitable for small satellite missions are developed to fulfil the high scientific requirements of the mission. Some basic features of the BIRD spacecraft bus are compact micro satellite structure with high mechanical stability and stiffness, envelope qualification for several launchers, cubic shape in launch configuration with dimensions of about 620×620×550mm3 and variable launcher interface, mass ratio bus:payload = 62 kg:30

  20. Search and Rescue Mission Using Multicopters

    Steen, Thor Audun


    Search and rescue operations can greatly benefit from the use of autonomous unmanned aerial systems to survey the environment and collect evidence about the positions of missing persons. This thesis considers the design of an autonomous multicopter system for use in a search and rescue mission. The ArduPilot Mega is used as the autopilot and is presented together with detailed information about the utilized hardware and software. The design of a low- level control interface is implemented as ...

  1. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.


    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  2. Photopolarimetry team outer planets mission definition phase


    The work is reported of the Photopolarimetry Team in identifying scientific objectives for photometer/polarimeter experiments for outer planet flyby missions. A discussion of the scientific objectives which can be attained with a photometer/polarimeter experiment, and summaries of the special studies which were performed for the Photopolarimetry Team are presented along with a description of the photometer/polarimeter design which was developed for the Meteoroid Detection Team.

  3. Modular Avionics for Seamless Reconfigurable UAS Missions


    Abstract Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture is a trend in current avionics that employs a partitioned environment in which different avionics functions share a unique computing environment. UAS avionics, especially in small UAS, are usually of less complexity than not the present on airliners, however, in real autonomous UAS, the onboard avionics should control not only the flight and navigation but also the mission and payload of the aircraft. This involves more complex softwa...

  4. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention

    Johnson, Teresa A.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.

  5. Directed energy missions for planetary defense

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis


    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploration, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional propellant for launch to LEO and then ion engines to propel the spacecraft from LEO to the near-Earth asteroid (NEA). During laser ablation, the asteroid itself provides the propellant source material; thus a very modest spacecraft can deflect an asteroid much larger than would be possible with a system of similar mission mass using ion beam deflection (IBD) or a gravity tractor. DE-STARLITE is capable of deflecting an Apophis-class (325 m diameter) asteroid with a 1- to 15-year targeting time (laser on time) depending on the system design. The mission fits within the rough mission parameters of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) program in terms of mass and size. DE-STARLITE also has much greater capability for planetary defense than current proposals and is readily scalable to match the threat. It can deflect all known threats with sufficient warning.

  6. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions

    Kumaş, A. E.


    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  7. An aerial 3D printing test mission

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy


    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  8. Nuclear electric propulsion mission engineering study. Volume 2: Final report


    Results of a mission engineering analysis of nuclear-thermionic electric propulsion spacecraft for unmanned interplanetary and geocentric missions are summarized. Critical technologies associated with the development of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) are assessed, along with the impact of its availability on future space programs. Outer planet and comet rendezvous mission analysis, NEP stage design for geocentric and interplanetary missions, NEP system development cost and unit costs, and technology requirements for NEP stage development are studied.

  9. Microsats for On-Orbit Support Missions

    Ledebuhr, A G


    I appreciate the opportunity to address this conference and describe some of our work and plans for future space missions and capabilities. My presentation will consist of a short overview of our program, some potential missions and enabling technologies, as well as, a description of some of our test vehicles and ongoing docking experiments. The Micro-Satellite Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing technologies for a new generation of a very highly capable autonomous microsats. A microsat is defined here as a vehicle that's less than 100 kilograms in mass. We're looking at a number of different microsat design configurations, between 0.5 to 1 meter in length and less than 40 kg in mass. You'll see several ground-test vehicles that we have been building that are modeled after potential future on-orbit systems. In order to have very aggressive missions, these microsats will require new integrated proximity operation sensors, advanced propulsion, avionics and guidance systems. Then to make this dream a reality a new approach to high fidelity ''hardware-in-the-loop'' ground testing, will be discussed that allows repeated tests with the same vehicle multiple times. This will enable you to ''get it right'' before going into space. I'll also show some examples of our preliminary docking work completed as of today.

  10. Mission critical cloud computing in a week

    George, B.; Shams, K.; Knight, D.; Kinney, J.

    NASA's vision is to “ reach for new heights and reveal the unknown so that what we do and learn will benefit all humankind.” While our missions provide large volumes of unique and invaluable data to the scientific community, they also serve to inspire and educate the next generation of engineers and scientists. One critical aspect of “ benefiting all humankind” is to make our missions as visible and accessible as possible to facilitate the transfer of scientific knowledge to the public. The recent successful landing of the Curiosity rover on Mars exemplified this vision: we shared the landing event via live video streaming and web experiences with millions of people around the world. The video stream on Curiosity's website was delivered by a highly scalable stack of computing resources in the cloud to cache and distribute the video stream to our viewers. While this work was done in the context of public outreach, it has extensive implications for the development of mission critical, highly available, and elastic applications in the cloud for a diverse set of use cases across NASA.

  11. Euclid Mission: building of a Reference Survey

    Amiaux, J; Mellier, Y; Altieri, B; Burigana, C; Da Silva, A; Gomez, P; Hoar, J; Laureijs, R; Maiorano, E; Oliveira, D Magalhaes; Renk, F; Criado, G Saavedra; Tereno, I; Augueres, J L; Brinchmann, J; Cropper, M; Duvet, L; Ealet, A; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gondoin, P; Guzzo, L; Hoekstra, H; Holmes, R; Jahnke, K; Kitching, T; Meneghetti, M; Percival, W; Warren, S


    Euclid is an ESA Cosmic-Vision wide-field-space mission which is designed to explain the origin of the acceleration of Universe expansion. The mission will investigate at the same time two primary cosmological probes: Weak gravitational Lensing (WL) and Galaxy Clustering (in particular Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, BAO). The extreme precision requested on primary science objectives can only be achieved by observing a large number of galaxies distributed over the whole sky in order to probe the distribution of dark matter and galaxies at all scales. The extreme accuracy needed requires observation from space to limit all observational biases in the measurements. The definition of the Euclid survey, aiming at detecting billions of galaxies over 15 000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky, is a key parameter of the mission. It drives its scientific potential, its duration and the mass of the spacecraft. The construction of a Reference Survey derives from the high level science requirements for a Wide and a De...

  12. Target Analysis for the Twinkle Space Mission

    Rice, Malena; Tinetti, Giovanna; Zingales, Tiziano; Twinkle Consortium


    Twinkle is a dedicated exoplanet space mission planned for launch in 2019 to observe and characterize the atmospheres of planets around F, G, K, and M type stars. By obtaining high-resolution near-infrared transit spectra (0.5 – 4.5 microns), Twinkle will identify molecules of interest within planetary atmospheres. Twinkle will provide critical data for the characterization of individual exoplanets, leading to an improved understanding of planetary systems as a whole. In this study, we provide an analysis of potential targets for the Twinkle space mission, and we find that the spacecraft will be capable of observing a wide range of planet types, including Earths, Super Earths, Sub Neptunes, Large Neptunes, and Hot Jupiters. We discuss the population distribution of observable targets in terms of planet temperature and radius, host star temperature, and observation time necessary to achieve the desired signal-to-noise ratios. We also include sample Twinkle spectra from a simulated data set, as well as an example retrieval using the TauRex program to retrieve molecules in these simulated spectra. We conclude with a discussion of these results and their implications for the Twinkle mission.

  13. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions

    Klein, John W.


    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  14. LANTR Engine Optimization for Lunar Missions

    Bulman, M. J.; Poth, Greg; Borowski, Stan


    Propulsion requirements for sustainable Lunar missions are very demanding. The high Delta V for short transit times and/or reusable vehicles are best served with the High Isp of Nuclear Propulsion. High thrust is needed to reduce gravity losses during earth departure. The LOX-Augmented Nuclear Thermal Rocket (LANTR) is a concept whereby thrust from a nuclear thermal rocket can be doubled, or even quadrupled, by the injection and combustion of gaseous oxygen downstream of the throat. This has many advantages for the mission including a reduction in the size of the reactor(s) and propellant tank volume for a given payload delivered to Low Lunar Orbit. In this paper, we conduct mission studies to define the optimum basic (Unaugmented) engine thrust, Lox augmentation level and Lox loading for minimum initial mass in low earth orbit. 35% mass savings are seen for NTR powered LTVs with over twice the propellant Volume. The LANTR powered LTV has a similar mass savings with minimal volume penalties.

  15. Spreadsheets for Analyzing and Optimizing Space Missions

    Some, Raphael R.; Agrawal, Anil K.; Czikmantory, Akos J.; Weisbin, Charles R.; Hua, Hook; Neff, Jon M.; Cowdin, Mark A.; Lewis, Brian S.; Iroz, Juana; Ross, Rick


    XCALIBR (XML Capability Analysis LIBRary) is a set of Extensible Markup Language (XML) database and spreadsheet- based analysis software tools designed to assist in technology-return-on-investment analysis and optimization of technology portfolios pertaining to outer-space missions. XCALIBR is also being examined for use in planning, tracking, and documentation of projects. An XCALIBR database contains information on mission requirements and technological capabilities, which are related by use of an XML taxonomy. XCALIBR incorporates a standardized interface for exporting data and analysis templates to an Excel spreadsheet. Unique features of XCALIBR include the following: It is inherently hierarchical by virtue of its XML basis. The XML taxonomy codifies a comprehensive data structure and data dictionary that includes performance metrics for spacecraft, sensors, and spacecraft systems other than sensors. The taxonomy contains >700 nodes representing all levels, from system through subsystem to individual parts. All entries are searchable and machine readable. There is an intuitive Web-based user interface. The software automatically matches technologies to mission requirements. The software automatically generates, and makes the required entries in, an Excel return-on-investment analysis software tool. The results of an analysis are presented in both tabular and graphical displays.

  16. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission.

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja


    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  17. Potential anesthesia protocols for space exploration missions.

    Komorowski, Matthieu; Watkins, Sharmila D; Lebuffe, Gilles; Clark, Jonathan B


    In spaceflight beyond low Earth's orbit, medical conditions requiring surgery are of a high level of concern because of their potential impact on crew health and mission success. Whereas surgical techniques have been thoroughly studied in spaceflight analogues, the research focusing on anesthesia is limited. To provide safe anesthesia during an exploration mission will be a highly challenging task. The research objective is thus to describe specific anesthesia procedures enabling treatment of pre-identified surgical conditions. Among the medical conditions considered by the NASA Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability element, those potentially necessitating anesthesia techniques have been identified. The most appropriate procedure for each condition is thoroughly discussed. The substantial cost of training time necessary to implement regional anesthesia is pointed out. Within general anesthetics, ketamine combines the unique advantages of preservation of cardiovascular stability, the protective airway reflexes, and spontaneous ventilation. Ketamine side effects have for decades tempered enthusiasm for its use, but recent developments in mitigation means broadened its indications. The extensive experience gathered in remote environments, with minimal equipment and occasionally by insufficiently trained care providers, confirms its high degree of safety. Two ketamine-based anesthesia protocols are described with their corresponding indications. They have been designed taking into account the physiological changes occurring in microgravity and the specific constraints of exploration missions. This investigation could not only improve surgical care during long-duration spaceflights, but may find a number of terrestrial applications in isolated or austere environments.

  18. Multi-mission, autonomous, synthetic aperture radar

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Madsen, David; Jensen, Mark; Sullivan, Stephanie; Addario, Michael; Hally, Iain


    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have become a critical asset in current battlespaces and continue to play an increasing role for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. With the development of medium-to-low altitude, rapidly deployable aircraft platforms, the ISR community has seen an increasing push to develop ISR sensors and systems with real-time mission support capabilities. This paper describes recent flight demonstrations and test results of the RASAR (Real-time, Autonomous, Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor system. RASAR is a modular, multi-band (L and X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging sensor designed for self-contained, autonomous, real-time operation with mission flexibility to support a wide range of ISR needs within the size, weight and power constraints of Group III UASs. The sensor command and control and real-time image formation processing are designed to allow integration of RASAR into a larger, multi-intelligence system of systems. The multi-intelligence architecture and a demonstration of real-time autonomous cross-cueing of a separate optical sensor will be presented.

  19. Science Parametrics for TPF-Type Missions

    Brown, Robert A


    We propose a science metric for pure-search missions of the scale of the Terrestrial Planet Finder. The metric is the expected number $N$ of discovered earthlike planets as a function of total exposure time $\\Sigma\\tau$. We estimate $N(\\Sigma\\tau)$ for a range of mission parameters: aperture $D=4-16$ m, inner working angle $IWA=0.0196''-0.3135''$, and $\\Sigma\\tau=10-1000$ d. Our technique involves (1) building a prioritized stack of all possible search observations of stars in the input catalog, including revisits, (2) constructing design reference missions by repeatedly selecting the observation with highest merit from the top of the stack, (3) estimating the density of $N$ by convolving the Bernoullian densities of executed observations, and (4) investigating the parametrical variations of $N$, $D$, $IWA$, and $\\Sigma\\tau$. For example, near the center of the range of parameters -- at $D=8$ m, $IWA=0.0784''$, $\\Sigma\\tau=100$ d -- we estimate $N=40$, that $N\\sim\\Sigma\\tau^{0.272}$, and that a factor-two imp...

  20. The SVOM gamma-ray burst mission

    Cordier, B; Atteia, J -L; Basa, S; Claret, A; Daigne, F; Deng, J; Dong, Y; Godet, O; Goldwurm, A; Götz, D; Han, X; Klotz, A; Lachaud, C; Osborne, J; Qiu, Y; Schanne, S; Wu, B; Wang, J; Wu, C; Xin, L; Zhang, B; Zhang, S -N


    We briefly present the science capabilities, the instruments, the operations, and the expected performance of the SVOM mission. SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a Chinese-French space mission dedicated to the study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the next decade. The SVOM mission encompasses a satellite carrying four instruments to detect and localize the prompt GRB emission and measure the evolution of the afterglow in the visible band and in X-rays, a VHF communication system enabling the fast transmission of SVOM alerts to the ground, and a ground segment including a wide angle camera and two follow-up telescopes. The pointing strategy of the satellite has been optimized to favor the detection of GRBs located in the night hemisphere. This strategy enables the study of the optical emission in the first minutes after the GRB with robotic observatories and the early spectroscopy of the optical afterglow with large telescopes to measure the redshifts. The study of GRBs in the...

  1. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork

    Malin, Jane T.


    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  2. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission

    Salotti, Jean-Marc


    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  3. Juno at Jupiter: Mission and Science

    Bolton, Scott


    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the atmosphere of Jupiter will be presented.

  4. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    Schoeberl, Mark


    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  5. Guidance Trade-off for Aerocapture Missions

    Vernis, P.; Gelly, G.; Ferreira, E.; da Costa, R.; Ortega, G.

    In the very late 90's, EADS-ST began home funded studies on aerocapture problems. The objectives of these studies were at that time to prepare a possible cooperation within the NASA/Cnes MSR-Orbiter program by investigating this new orbital insertion technique studying different algorithmic solutions from a guidance point of view. According to these preliminary studies, EADS-ST was retained in 2002 by ESA to study insertion techniques such as aerocapture, aero-gravity assist or aerobraking techniques within the frame of Technological Research Program able to bring solutions to Aurora program. In the frame of the ATPE (Aeroassist Technologies for Planetary Exploration) TRP program, EADS-ST, led by Astrium-Gmbh (now part of EADS-ST), developed and implemented an efficient and simple guidance scheme able to cope with mission requirements for aerocapture on Mars, Venus or the Earth: the Feedback Trajectory Control, or FTC. The development of this guidance scheme was made according to a preliminary trade-off analysis using different guidance schemes. Among those ones was an original predictor-corrector guidance scheme, already analyzed within the frame of the MSR-O mission. But, the FTC algoritm was prefered because of its good results and high simplicity. This paper presents an upgrade of the original Apoapsis Predictor, or AP, with the improvement of its robustness woth respect to off-nomonal flight conditions and its process simplification. A new trade-off analysis is then detailed on a Mars Sample return mission.

  6. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Omega

    Gehrels, Neil


    [JDEM-Omega is one of the three concepts that contributed to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission advocated by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey. It is the concept on which the recommended observatory configuration is based.] The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a space-based observatory designed to perform precision measurements of the nature of dark energy in the Universe. It will make an order of magnitude progress in measuring the equation of state parameters of the Universe of most importance for understanding dark energy. JDEM-Omega is a wide-field space telescope operating in the near infrared. Dark energy measurements will be made via large surveys of galaxies and supernova monitoring. These will be an order of magnitude larger surveys than currently available and will provide enormous catalogs of astrophysical objects for many communities ranging from solar system to galaxy to galaxies/clusters to cosmology. JDEM-Omega is a mission concept collaboratively developed by NASA and the ...

  7. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.


    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  8. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait


    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to...

  9. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation

    Guit, Bill


    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  10. Service-learning: education with a missions focus.

    Wright, Dolores J


    Many nursing students today want to be involved in mission projects to serve others, study abroad, and/or develop cultural competence. This article describes the service-learning model applied to a study-abroad clinical experience with a mission focus that follows best-practice guidelines for healthcare missions.

  11. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura

    Fisher, Dominic


    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  12. 75 FR 60736 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India


    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice. ] Water Technology Trade Mission to India; February 28... Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing a Water Technology Trade Mission to...

  13. 76 FR 11203 - Water Technology Trade Mission to India


    ... International Trade Administration Water Technology Trade Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade... Water Technology Trade Mission to India from February 28 to March 4, 2011. The purpose of the mission is to expose U.S. firms to India's rapidly expanding water and waste water market and to assist...

  14. Antenna System for Nano-satelite Mission GOMX-3

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.; Christiansen, J.;


    In this paper, we present the antenna design for a nano-satellite mission launched in September, the GOMX-3 mission. Some of the key design challenges are discussed and the chosen solutions are presented. In an effort to minimize development and manufacturing costs for future missions, this study...

  15. 76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration... India (New Delhi, Chennai, and Mumbai) from October 10-15, 2011. This mission will include... education consultants in India. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  16. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade.... Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada on May 2-4, 2011. This aerospace mission is an ] ideal opportunity for U.S. aerospace companies to gain valuable international business leads in a...

  17. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade... Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada, May 6-9, 2012. This aerospace mission is an ideal opportunity for...

  18. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia


    ... interested in participating in the ICT Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia must complete and submit an application... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission...

  19. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    Stoker, Carol R.


    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  20. The ExoMars 2016 Mission

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf; McCoy, Don


    ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, EDM, named Schiaparelli, and the ExoMars 2018 mission, which carries a lander and a rover. The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector to search for subsurface hydrogen (as proxy for water ice and hydrated minerals). The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The EDM is carried to Mars by the TGO and is separated three days before arrival at Mars. In addition to demonstrating the landing capability two scientific investigations are included with the EDM. The AMELIA investigation aims at characterising the Martian atmosphere during the entry and descent using technical and engineering sensors of the EDM, and the DREAMS suite of sensors that will characterise the environment of the landing site for a few days after the landing. ESA provides the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator, ESA member states provide two of the TGO instruments and Roscosmos provides the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle all communications between the Earth and the Rover. The communication between TGO and the rover/lander is done through a UHF communications system, a contribution from NASA. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in March 2016 (launch window 14-25 March) and will arrive at Mars on 19 October. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft

  1. ENVISAT - A Key Ariane 5 Mission

    Jourdainne, Laurent; Louet, Jacques


    : For Arianespace, the success of a launch service has always been the top priority. In 2002, the predicted number of flights is very high and we are ready to serve properly the customers as usual. Major steps will be achieved: the consumption of most of the Ariane 4, the first "Ariane 5 10 tons" flight and last, but first of all, the ENVISAT mission on flight V145 have a specific importance. Like many other ESA missions, ENVISAT mission has really been a great challenge. In fact, for almost 10 years, ESA and Arianespace have acted the complete compatibility between the spacecraft and the launcher. As the biggest and heaviest payload ever carried by Ariane, it has been design to fit the new European rocket. Based on the former PPF plateform, it occupies itself the place inside the highest fairing of Ariane 5. With approximately 8.2 metric tons and 10m high, this bird concentrates advanced technologies and will deliver a huge amount of datas. His time has come with 10 onboard scientific experiments to participate in a better understanding of the earth systemic behaviour and future. As never before, computer models will be precisely tuned and will serve differenciate global scenarii which predict future tendencies. As part of the ambitious European GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) initiative, ENVISAT, ERS, Meteosat or SPOT will contribute to the maximum extent possible. It took nearly 2 months for the complete set of 420 tons of equipments to reach the "Centre Spatial Guyanais" (CSG) using "MN Toucan" Ariane boat, or planes like Antonov or B747-Cargo. Then the payload campaign itself begun on May, the 17th 2001. Unpredicted shorten Ariane 5 mission on july, the 12th 2001, delayed ENVISAT flight to 2002, and gave the campaign a longer and unusual duration. Launcher and customer's teams adapted perfectly and coordinated until the launch. The ENVISAT campaign can be devided in 3 major periods. First period is the customer installation where huge

  2. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    Lloyd, Charles W.


    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  3. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    Johnson, Les; McNutt, Leslie; Castillo-Rogez, Julie


    NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for a near-term Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m2 solar sail and will weigh less than 14 kilograms. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 3 microns thick. NEA Scout will launch on the Space Launch System (SLS) first mission in 2018 and deploy from the SLS after the Orion spacecraft is separated from the SLS upper stage. The NEA Scout spacecraft will stabilize its orientation after ejection using an onboard cold-gas thruster system. The same system provides the vehicle Delta-V sufficient for a lunar flyby. After its first encounter with the moon, the 86 m2 sail will deploy, and the sail characterization phase will begin. A mechanical Active Mass Translation (AMT) system, combined with the remaining ACS propellant, will be used for sail momentum management. Once the system is checked out, the spacecraft will perform a series of lunar flybys until it achieves optimum departure trajectory to the target asteroid. The spacecraft will then begin its two year-long cruise. About one month before the asteroid flyby, NEA Scout will pause to search for the target and start its approach phase using a combination of radio tracking and optical navigation. The solar sail will provide

  4. Why we need asteroid sample return mission?

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta


    Small bodies retain evidence of the primordial solar nebula and the earliest solar system processes that shaped their evolution. They may also contain pre-solar material as well as complex organic molecules, which could have a major role to the development of life on Earth. For these reasons, asteroids and comets have been targets of interest for missions for over three decades. However, our knowledge of these bodies is still very limited, and each asteroid or comet visited by space mission has revealed unexpected scientific results, e.g. the structure and nature of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) visited by the Rosetta mission. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms a small body regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. For those reasons, sample return missions are considered a high priority by a number of the leading space agencies. Abundant within the inner Solar System and the main impactors on terrestrial planets, small bodies may have been the principal contributors of the water and organic material essential to create life on Earth. Small bodies can therefore be considered to be equivalent to DNA for unravelling our solar system's history, offering us a unique window to investigate both the formation of planets and the origin of life. A sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) has been study at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions "How does the Solar System work?" and "What are the conditions for life and planetary formations?". The returned material

  5. Rendezvous missions with minimoons from L1

    Chyba, M.; Haberkorn, T.; Patterson, G.


    We propose to present asteroid capture missions with the so-called minimoons. Minimoons are small asteroids that are temporarily captured objects on orbits in the Earth-Moon system. It has been suggested that, despite their small capture probability, at any time there are one or two meter diameter minimoons, and progressively greater numbers at smaller diameters. The minimoons orbits differ significantly from elliptical orbits which renders a rendezvous mission more challenging, however they offer many advantages for such missions that overcome this fact. First, they are already on geocentric orbits which results in short duration missions with low Delta-v, this translates in cost efficiency and low-risk targets. Second, beside their close proximity to Earth, an advantage is their small size since it provides us with the luxury to retrieve the entire asteroid and not only a sample of material. Accessing the interior structure of a near-Earth satellite in its morphological context is crucial to an in-depth analysis of the structure of the asteroid. Historically, 2006 RH120 is the only minimoon that has been detected but work is ongoing to determine which modifications to current observation facilities is necessary to provide detection algorithm capabilities. In the event that detection is successful, an efficient algorithm to produce a space mission to rendezvous with the detected minimoon is highly desirable to take advantage of this opportunity. This is the main focus of our work. For the design of the mission we propose the following. The spacecraft is first placed in hibernation on a Lissajoux orbit around the liberation point L1 of the Earth-Moon system. We focus on eight-shaped Lissajoux orbits to take advantage of the stability properties of their invariant manifolds for our transfers since the cost to minimize is the spacecraft fuel consumption. Once a minimoon has been detected we must choose a point on its orbit to rendezvous (in position and velocities

  6. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J


    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  7. The Bible and mission in faith perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the early China Inland Mission

    Wigram, C.E.M.


    The thesis 'The Bible and Mission in Faith Perspective: J.Hudson Taylor and the Early China Inland Mission' by Christopher E.M. Wigram analysis the hermeneutical assumptions that underlay Hudson Taylor's approach to biblical interpretation, and the significance of his approach for the mission which

  8. IMPaCT - Integration of Missions, Programs, and Core Technologies

    Balacuit, Carlos P.; Cutts, James A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Jones, Susan K.; Hang, Winnie N.; Dastur, Shahin D.


    IMPaCT enables comprehensive information on current NASA missions, prospective future missions, and the technologies that NASA is investing in, or considering investing in, to be accessed from a common Web-based interface. It allows dependencies to be established between missions and technology, and from this, the benefits of investing in individual technologies can be determined. The software also allows various scenarios for future missions to be explored against resource constraints, and the nominal cost and schedule of each mission to be modified in an effort to fit within a prescribed budget.

  9. Designing Medical Support for a Near-Earth Asteroid Mission

    Watkins, S. D.; Charles, J. B.; Kundrot, C. E.; Barr, Y. R.; Barsten, K. N.; Chin, D. A.; Kerstman, E. L.; Otto, C.


    This panel will discuss the design of medical support for a mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) from a variety of perspectives. The panelists will discuss the proposed parameters for a NEA mission, the NEA medical condition list, recommendations from the NASA telemedicine workshop, an overview of the Exploration Medical System Demonstration planned for the International Space Station, use of predictive models for mission planning, and mission-related concerns for behavioral health and performance. This panel is intended to make the audience aware of the multitude of factors influencing medical support during a NEA mission.

  10. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James


    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  11. Influence of Power System Technology on Electric Propulsion Missions

    Oleson, Steven R.


    Electric propulsion (EP) thruster technology, with efficient lightweight power systems can provide substantial reductions in propulsion system wet mass due to the high specific impulse (Isp) of the thrusters. Historically, the space power systems are too massive for many potential orbital missions. The objective of this paper is to show the impact of current power system technology on EP mission performance and determine what technology advancements are needed to make EP beneficial for earth orbital applications. The approach of the paper is to model the electric propulsion system and orbital mission using a partial parametric method. Various missions are analyzed from orbit maintenance to orbit transfer. Results portray the relationship between mission performance and power technology level. Conclusions show which mission applications currently have acceptable power technology, and which mission applications require power technology improvements.

  12. Downsizing a great observatory: reinventing Spitzer in the warm mission

    Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Dodd, Suzanne R.


    The Spitzer Space Telescope transitioned from the cryogen mission to the IRAC warm mission during 2009. This transition involved changing several areas of operations in order to cut the mission annual operating costs to 1/3 of the cryogen mission amount. In spite of this substantial cut back, Spitzer continues to have one of the highest science return per dollar ratio of any of NASA's extended missions. This paper will describe the major operational changes made for the warm mission and how they affect the science return. The paper will give several measures showing that warm Spitzer continues as one of the most scientifically productive mission in NASA's portfolio. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  13. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC Spacecraft Constellation System, Mission Results, and Prospect for Follow-On Mission

    Chen-Joe Fong


    Full Text Available The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC spacecraft constellation consisting of six LEO satellites is the world's first operational GPS Radio Occultation (RO mission. The mission is jointly developed by Taiwan¡¦s National Space Organization (NSPO and the United States¡¦UCAR in collaboration with NSF, USAF, NOAA, NASA, NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the US Naval Research Laboratory. The FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites were successfully launched from Vandenberg US AFB in California at 0140 UTC 15 April 2006 into the same orbit plane of the designated 516 km altitude. The mission goal is to deploy the six satellites into six orbit planes at 800 km altitude with a 30-degree separation for evenly distributed global coverage. All six FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites are currently maintaining a satisfactory good state-of-health. Five out of six satellites have reached their final mission orbit of 800 km as of November 2007. The data as received by FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites constellation have been processed in near real time into 2500 good ionospheric profiles and 1800 good atmospheric profiles per day. These have outnumbered the worldwide radiosondes (~900 mostly over land launched from the ground per day. The processed atmospheric RO data have been assimilated into the Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP models for real-time weather prediction and typhoon/hurricane forecasting by many major weather centers in the world. This paper describes the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellite constellation system performance and the mission results that span the period from April 2006 to October 2007; and reviews the prospect of a future follow-on mission.

  14. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry


    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  15. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste


    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  16. Recent Hydrologic Developments in the SWOT Mission

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Cretaux, J.; Calmant, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Rodriguez, E.


    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is designed to measure the elevations of the world's water surfaces including both terrestrial surface waters and the oceans. CNES, NASA, and the CSA are partners in the mission as are hydrologists, oceanographers, and an international engineering team. Recent hydrologic and mission related advances include the following. (1) An airborne version of SWOT called AirSWOT has been developed to provide calibration and validation for the mission when on orbit as well as to support science and technology during mission development. AirSWOT flights are in the planning stage. (2) In early 2012, NASA and CNES issued calls for proposals to participate in the forthcoming SWOT Science Definition Team. Results are expected in time for a Fall 2012 start of the SDT. (3) A workshop held in June 2012 addressed the problem of estimating river discharge from SWOT measurements. SWOT discharge estimates will be developed for river reaches rather than individual cross-sections. Errors will result from algorithm unknowns of bathymetry and roughness, from errors in SWOT measurements of water surface height and inundation, from the incomplete temporal record dictated by the SWOT orbit, and from fluvial features such as unmeasured inflows and outflows within the reach used to estimate discharge. To overcome these issues, in-situ and airborne field data are required in order to validate and refine algorithms. (4) Two modeling methods are using the Amazon Basin as a test case for demonstrating the utility of SWOT observables for constraining water balances. In one case, parameters used to minimize differences between SWOT and model water surface elevations should be adjusted locally in space and time. In the other case, using actual altimetry data as a proxy for SWOT's water surface elevations, it was determined that model water surface elevations were less than 1.6m different from the altimetry measurements: a considerable match

  17. The Neurolab Spacelab Mission: Neuroscience Research in Space: Results from the STS-90, Neurolab Spacelab Mission

    Buckey, Jay C., Jr. (Editor); Homick, Jerry L. (Editor)


    Neurolab (STS-90) represents a major scientific achievement that built upon the knowledge and capabilities developed during the preceding 15 successful Spacelab module missions. NASA proposed a dedicated neuroscience research flight in response to a Presidential declaration that the 1990's be the Decade of the Brain. Criteria were established for selecting research proposals in partnership with the National Institutes of Health (NM), the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, and a number of the International Space Agencies. The resulting Announcement of Opportunity for Neurolab in 1993 resulted in 172 proposals from scientists worldwide. After an NIH-managed peer review, NASA ultimately selected 26 proposals for flight on the Neurolab mission.

  18. Pastoral ministry in a missional age: Towards a practical theological understanding of missional pastoral care

    Guillaume H. Smit


    Full Text Available This article concerns itself with the development of a missional ecclesiology and the practices that may accept the challenge of conducting pastoral ministry in the context of South African, middleclass congregations adapting to a rapidly changing, post-apartheid environment. Some practical theological perspectives on pastoral counselling are investigated, whilst Narrative Therapy is explored as an emerging theory of deconstruction to enable the facilitating of congregational change towards a missional understanding of church life in local communities. Subsequently, the theological paradigm of missional ecclesiology is investigated before drawing the broad lines of a theory for pastoral ministry within missional ecclesiology.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: In this article, a missional base theory is proposed for pastoral counselling, consisting of interdisciplinary insights gained from the fields of Missiology, Practical Theology, Narrative Therapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy. The implications of this proposal for the development of a missional pastoral theory focus on the following three aspects:� re-establishing pastoral identity: exploring Christ� pastoral development: intentional faith formation� pastoral ministry: enabling Christ-centred lives.In such a missional pastoral theory four practices should be operationalised: first of all, a cognitive approach to increasing knowledge of the biblical narrative is necessary. This provides the hermeneutical skills necessary to enable people to internalise the biblical ethics and character traits ascribed to the Christian life. Secondly, a pastoral theory needs to pay close attention to development of emotional intelligence. Thirdly, this should be done in the context of small groups, where the focus falls on the personality development of members. Finally, missional pastoral theory should also include the acquisition of life coaching skills, where leaders can be

  19. GNSS software receiver for the MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Geofisica GeochImica lunAre) mission

    Pirazzi, Gabriele; de Quattro, Nicola; Dionisio, Cesare


    In recent years a number of missions have been conceived to acquire and track signals from GPS satellites at altitudes higher than the GPS constellation itself. The main purpose of SDR is to reduce the number of hardware components, projected for specific unmodifiable uses, and utilize general purpose units: on board CPU, DSP or FPGA. In this paper he study and design of a GNSS Software Receiver for space application, applied to a Lunar Mission, is presented with particular attention on Space Segment device and on Ground Facilities.

  20. Systems Engineering Lessons Learned for Class D Missions

    Rojdev, Kristina; Piatek, Irene; Moore, Josh; Calvert, Derek


    One of NASA's goals within human exploration is to determine how to get humans to Mars safely and to live and work on the Martian surface. To accomplish this goal, several smaller missions act as stepping-stones to the larger end goal. NASA uses these smaller missions to develop new technologies and learn about how to survive outside of Low Earth Orbit for long periods. Additionally, keeping a cadence of these missions allows the team to maintain proficiency in the complex art of bringing spacecraft to fruition. Many of these smaller missions are robotic in nature and have smaller timescales, whereas there are others that involve crew and have longer mission timelines. Given the timelines associated with these various missions, different levels of risk and rigor need to be implemented to be more in line with what is appropriate for the mission. Thus, NASA has four different classifications that range from Class A to Class D based on the mission details. One of these projects is the Resource Prospector (RP) Mission, which is a multi-center and multi-institution collaborative project to search for volatiles in the polar regions of the Moon. The RP mission is classified as a Class D mission and as such, has the opportunity to more tightly manage, and therefore accept, greater levels of risk. The requirements for Class D missions were at the forefront of the design and thus presented unique challenges in vehicle development and systems engineering processes. This paper will discuss the systems engineering process at NASA and how that process is tailored for Class D missions, specifically the RP mission.