Sample records for abe midex mission

  1. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.


    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) mission is one of four selected for Phase A Concept Study in NASA's current call for MIDEX class missions. ABE is a cooled space telescope equipped with spectrographs covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral range. The ABE mission is devoted to the detection and identification of organic and related molecular species in space. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace.

  2. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Identifying Organic Molecules in Space (United States)

    Ennico, Kimberly; Sandford, Scott; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Cohen, Martin; Cruikshank, Dale; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas; Kwok, Sun; Lord, Steven; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)


    The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept, currently under Concept Phase A study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace & Technologies, Corp., and managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct infrared spectroscopic observations to address important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding the distribution, identity, and evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds, young forming stellar systems, stellar outflows, the general diffuse ISM, HII regions, Solar System bodies, and external galaxies. The ABE instrument concept includes a 0.6 m aperture Ritchey-Chretien telescope and three moderate resolution (R = 2000-3000) spectrometers together covering the 2.5-20 micron spectral region. Large format (1024 x 1024 pixel) IR detector arrays will allow each spectrometer to cover an entire octave of spectral range per exposure without any moving parts. The telescope will be cooled below 50 K by a cryogenic dewar shielded by a sunshade. The detectors will be cooled to approx. 7.5 K by a solid hydrogen cryostat. The optimum orbital configuration for achieving the scientific objectives of the ABE mission is a low background, 1 AU Earth driftaway orbit requiring a Delta II launch vehicle. This configuration provides a low thermal background and allows adequate communications bandwidth and good access to the entire sky over the approx. 1.5 year mission lifetime.

  3. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) MIDEX Mission Concept: Using Infrared Spectroscopy to Identify Organic Molecules in Space (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.; Ennico, Kimberly; Allamandola, Louis; Bregman, Jesse; Greene, Thomas; Hudgins, Douglas


    One of the principal means by which organic compounds are detected and identified in space is by infrared spectroscopy. Past IR telescopic and laboratory studies have shown that much of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) is in complex organic species but the distribution, abundance and evolutionary relationships of these materials are not well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to conduct IR spectroscopic observations to detect and identify these materials and address outstanding problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. ABE's core science program includes observations of planetary nebulae and stellar outflows, protostellar objects, Solar System objects, and galaxies, and lines of sight through dense molecular clouds and the diffuse ISM. ABE is a cryogenically-cooled 60 cm diameter space telescope equipped with 3 cross-dispersed R-2000 spectrometers that share a single common slit. Each spectrometer measures one spectral octave and together cover the entire 2.5-20 micron region simultaneously. The spectrometers use state-of-the-art InSb and Si:As 1024x1024 pixel detectors. ABE would operate in a heliocentric, Earth drift-away orbit and have a core science mission lasting approximately 1.5 years. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp.

  4. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.


    Introduction: Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5- 16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Furthermore, the presence of D-enriched organics in meteorites suggests that a portion of these materials survives incorporation into protosolar nebulae. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials in space nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are currently well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept designed to use infrared spectroscopy to address outstanding problems in Astrochemistry which are particularly relevant to Astrobiology and are amenable to astronomical observation. ABE is currently under study at NASA's Ames Research Center in collaboration with Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE was selected for Phase A study during the last MIDEX AO round, but has yet to be selected for flight.

  5. RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex (AMM) Mission star tracker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Troels; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif;


    This document is in response to the John Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission star tracker.It describes the functionality, the requirements and the performance of the ASC Star Tracker.......This document is in response to the John Hopkins University - Applied Physics Laboratory RFP for the Auroral Multiscale Midex Mission star tracker.It describes the functionality, the requirements and the performance of the ASC Star Tracker....

  6. The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) Mission Concept (United States)

    Sandford, Scott A.


    Infrared spectroscopy in the 2.5-16 micron range is a principle means by which organic compounds can be detected and identified in space via their vibrational transitions. Ground-based, airborne, and spaceborne IR spectral studies have already demonstrated that a significant fraction of the carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM) resides in the form of complex organic molecular species. Unfortunately, neither the distribution of these materials nor their genetic and evolutionary relationships with each other or their environments are well understood. The Astrobiology Explorer (ABE) is a MIDEX mission concept currently under study by a team of partners: NASA's Ames Research Center, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corporation, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. ABE will conduct IR spectroscopic observations to address outstanding important problems in astrobiology, astrochemistry, and astrophysics. The core observational program would make fundamental scientific progress in understanding (1) The evolution of ices and organic matter in dense molecular clouds and young forming stellar systems, (2) The chemical evolution of organic molecules in the ISM as they transition from AGB outflows to planetary nebulae to the general diffuse ISM to HII regions and dense clouds, (3) The distribution of organics in the diffuse ISM, (4) The nature of organics in the Solar System (in comets, asteroids, satellites), and (5) The nature and distribution of organics in local galaxies. The technical considerations of achieving these science objectives in a MIDEX-sized mission will be presented.

  7. AstroBiology Explorer Mission Concepts (ABE/ASPIRE) (United States)

    Sandford, Scott; Ennico, Kimberly A.


    The AstroBiology Explorer (ABE) and the Astrobiology Space InfraRed Explorer (ASPIRE) Mission Concepts are two missions designed to address the questions (1) Where do we come from? and (2) Are we alone? as outlined in NASA s Origins Program using infrared spectroscopy to explore the identity, abundance, and distribution of molecules of astrobiological importance throughout the Universe. The ABE mission s observational program is focused on six tasks to: (1) Investigate the evolution of ice and organics in dense clouds and star formation regions, and the young stellar/planetary systems that form in them; (2) Measure the evolution of complex organic molecules in stellar outflows; (3) Study the organic composition of a wide variety of solar system objects including asteroids, comets, and the planets and their satellites; (4) Identify organic compounds in the diffuse interstellar medium and determine their distribution , abundance, and change with environment; (5) Detect and identify organic compounds in other galaxies and determine their dependence on galactic type; and (6) Measure deuterium enrichments in interstellar organics and use them as tracers of chemical processes. The ASPIRE mission s observational program expands upon ABE's core mission and adds tasks that (7) Address the role of silicates in interstellar organic chemistry; and (8) Use different resolution spectra to assess the relative roles and abundances of gas- and solid-state materials. ABE (ASPIRE) achieves these goals using a highly sensitive, cryogenically-cooled telescope in an Earth drift-away heliocentric orbit, armed with a suite of infrared spectrometers that cover the 2.5-20(40) micron spectral region at moderate spectral resolution (R>2000). ASPIRE's spectrometer complement also includes a high-resolution (R>25,000) module over the 4-8 micron spectral region. Both missions target lists are chosen to observe a statistically significant sample of a large number of objects of varied types in

  8. Mapping Dark Matter and Large Scale Structure with a MIDEX mission (United States)

    Jahoda, K.; Petre, R.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Gendreau, K.; White, N. E.


    We present a MIDEX mission concept, on behalf of an international collaboartion, with the capability of answering numerous fundamental questions about the dark matter which dominates the gravitational mass of the universe, including: How much dark matter is there? What is its spatial distribution? Is the large scale structure that is observed today the result of gravitational instabilities (as assumed by all current theories)? The basis of our concept is an X-ray survey of π sr with the following characteristics: 0.5-10 keV bandpass, 10 arc-sec angular resolution, and (50 photon) flux limit 5 x 10-14 erg/s/cm2 (0.5-2 keV band). The X-ray data will be of sufficient quality to separate the primary dark matter tracers - clusters of galaxies - from the background population of AGN; the mission observation strategy will minimize the time required to measure the third dimension, redshift, by concentrating on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey region, thus performing a large fraction of the optical "follow-up" in advance. Based on the observed log N-log S distribution for clusters, we expect to detect substantially more than 104 clusters of galaxies.

  9. The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR): A US MIDEX Mission Concept

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Paul S; Wood, Kent S; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Remillard, Ronald A; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A


    AXTAR is a NASA MIDEX mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for submillisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultradense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR's main instrument is a collimated, thick Si pixel detector with 2-50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. For timing observations of accreting neutron stars and black holes, AXTAR provides at least a factor of five improvement in sensitivity over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR also carries a sensitive sky monitor that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky...

  10. FAME selected for MIDEX 2004 launch (United States)

    Urban, S. E.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Germain, M.; Horner, S.; Greene, T.; Harris, F.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, K. J.; Monet, D.; Murrison, M.; Phillips, J.; Reasenberg, R.; Vassar, R.

    FAME, the Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer, was selected for the MIDEX mission of NASA and is sheduled for a 2004 launch. Project goals and design, as well as data analysis and recent experiments are summarized.

  11. Empowering Adult Learners. NIF Literacy Program Helps ABE Accomplish Human Development Mission. (United States)

    Hurley, Mary E.


    The National Issues Forum's Literacy Program uses study circles and group discussion to promote empowerment and enhance adult literacy through civic education. The program has helped the Westonka (Minnesota) Adult Basic Education project accomplish its mission and has expanded the staff's view of adult learning. (SK)

  12. Abe's Political Views

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Abe discussed much about his views of politics and diplomacy in his election program, showing that he means to be a tough party president and prime minister. First, on the issue of constitutional revision and collective self-defense right, Abe strongly advocates completely revising the Constitution to remove the limit that Japan can only exercise military power in self-defense. At the same time, by enacting a law, Japan would be able to send its self-defense forces overseas at any time. Abe claims that J...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li


    Full Text Available Key-Policy Attribute Based Encryption (KP-ABE has always been criticized for its inefficiency drawbacks. Based on the cloud computing technology, computation outsourcing is one of the effective solution to this problem. Some papers have proposed their schemes; however, adversaries in their attack models were divided into two categories and they are assumed not to communicate with each other, which is obviously unrealistic. In this paper, we first proved there exist severe security vulnerabilities in these schemes for such an assumption, and then proposed a security enhanced Chosen Ciphertext Attack (SE-CCA model, which eliminates the improper limitations. By utilizing Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE and one-time signature technology, we also constructed a concrete KP-ABE outsourcing scheme (O-KP-ABE and proved its security under SE-CCA model. Comparisons with existing schemes show that our constructions have obvious comprehensive advantages in security and efficiency

  14. Effective ABE Programming: Nine Case Studies. (United States)

    Sjogren, Douglas; Jacobson, Larry

    The document presents an indepth study of nine selected exemplary adult basic education (ABE) programs in Region 8: Volunteers Clearing House, Fort Collins, Colorado; Utah Navajo Development Council, Blanding, Utah; Adult Education Tutorial Program, Denver, Colorado; Project SAVE, Lemmon, South Dakota; Gates Rubber Company, Denver, Colorado;…

  15. Abe's Womenomics needs to include men too


    Macnaughtan, Helen


    Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has pledged to enable more women to participate in the Japanese workforce. But his policy has largely amounted to rhetoric and there has been no discussion of the impact of these policies for male employment. In this article I argue that in order to realistically increase opportunities for women, the current system of male-focused employment needs to be reconfigured.

  16. The Variable Coefficient ABE-I Method and Its Stability%变系数ABE-I方法及其稳定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕桂霞; 马富明


    The ABE-I (Alternating Block Explicit-Implicit) method for diffusion problem is extended to solve the variable coefficient problem and the unconditional stability of the ABE-I method is proved by the energy method.

  17. Recent trends in acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keikhosro Karim


    Full Text Available Among the renewable fuels considered as a suitable substitute to petroleum-based gasoline, butanol has attracted a great deal of attention due to its unique properties. Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE can be produced biologically from different substrates, including sugars, starch, lignocelluloses, and algae. This process was among the very first biofuel production processes which was commercialized during the First World War. The present review paper discusses the different aspects of the ABE process and the recent progresses made. Moreover, the microorganisms and the biochemistry of the ABE fermentation as well as the feedstocks used are reviewed. Finally, the challenges faced such as low products concentration and products` inhibitory effects on the fermentation are explained and different possible solutions are presented and reviewed.

  18. The Correctional Benefits of Education: A Follow-Up of Canadian Federal Offenders Participating in ABE. (United States)

    Porporino, Frank J.; Robinson, David


    Followup of 1,736 adult basic education (ABE) participants released from prison showed that (1) ABE completers had the lowest recidivism rates; (2) offenders at greater risk of recidivism benefited most from completion; and (3) ABE participation helped in postrelease job search and gave a sense of control. (SK)

  19. Kidney Dialysis Patients Discover New Hope through ABE Program. (United States)

    Amonette, Linda; And Others

    A program was developed to provide adult basic education (ABE) to kidney patients while they are receiving dialysis treatment. The program, which relies on an individualized learning approach, involved the coordinated efforts of the following parties: West Virginia Dialysis Facilities, Inc.; the Charleston Renal Group; and the Kanawha County Adult…

  20. National Issues Forums in an ABE Setting. Final Report. (United States)

    Molek, Carol

    National Issues Forums (NIFs) were conducted for adult basic education (ABE) students in a Pennsylvania adult education and job training center. The forums provide a process of sharing thoughts and opinions about areas of pressing national concerns in an open exchange of everyone's opinion. After instructors participated in NIFs, they developed a…

  1. Impacts of Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) ratio on spray and combustion characteristics of ABE–diesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Spray and combustion characteristics of ABE–diesel blends were studied. • Volatility and latent heat show competitive effects on spray performance. • There exists a critical ABE ratio between 20% and 50% spray characteristics. • Soot reduction potential of blends significantly increase with ABE ratio. • Among tested blends, ABE50 can maintain diesel combustion characteristics. - Abstract: Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE), the intermediate product while producing bio-butanol, has been proposed to be used as an alternative fuel directly to reduce the butanol recovery/separation costs. It is important to understand how the ABE ratio influences the combustion process because of the large differences in physical and chemical properties between the ABE components and diesel. Therefore, a wide range of ratios of ABE (0%, 20%, 50%, and 80% in volume referred to as D100, ABE20, ABE50 and ABE80 respectively) were blended with diesel and combusted in a constant volume chamber under various ambient temperatures (1200 K, 1000 K, and 800 K) and various ambient oxygen concentrations (21%, 16%, and 11%). Mie scattering images of the liquid spray and broadband flame luminosity images were captured by a high speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser beam as light source. The results show that ABE20 exhibits spray characteristics similar to those of D100 while ABE50 exhibits spray characteristics similar to those of ABE80. However, the sprays of ABE50 and ABE80 are much shorter and narrower compared to those of D100 and ABE20. It is predicted that there exists a critical ratio between 20% and 50% for ABE, beyond which the spray characteristics of the blend will be dominated by ABE. The intermediate ABE blend, ABE50 achieves a shorter ignition delay (slightly longer than that of D100) and combustion duration compared to those of ABE20 and ABE80 because of its improved spray performance and relatively low latent heat and high cetane number. The natural

  2. Combining Experimentation and Theory A Hommage to Abe Mamdani

    CERN Document Server

    Bonissone, Piero; Magdalena, Luis; Kacprzyk, Janusz


    The unexpected and premature passing away of Professor Ebrahim H. "Abe" Mamdani on January, 22, 2010, was a big shock to the scientific community, to all his friends and colleagues around the world, and to his close relatives. Professor Mamdani was a remarkable figure in the academic world, as he contributed to so many areas of science and technology. Of great relevance are his latest thoughts and ideas on the study of language and its handling by computers. The fuzzy logic community is particularly indebted to Abe Mamdani (1941-2010) who, in 1975, in his famous paper An Experiment in Linguistic Synthesis with a Fuzzy Logic Controller, jointly written with his student Sedrak Assilian, introduced the novel idea of fuzzy control. This was an elegant engineering approach to the modeling and control of complex processes for which mathematical models were unknown or too difficult to build, yet they could effectively and efficiently be controlled by human operators. This ground-breaking idea has found innumerable a...

  3. Data supporting Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data files representing each of the Figures and Tables published in Al-Abed et al., Environ. Sci.: Nano, 2016, 3, 593. The data file names identify the Figure or...

  4. 高掺比ABE/柴油混合燃料的喷雾与燃烧特性%Spray and Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE)-Diesel Blend with High ABE Ratio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晗; 林亦律; 肖国炜; Lee Timothy; 李佳峰; 张春化


    The acetone-butanol-ethanol(ABE)/diesel blend with high ABE ratio as alternative fuel was studied and the experiments were conducted in a pre-combustion type constant volume chamber.ABE solution with typical volu-metric ratios of 30%, acetone,60%, butanol,and 10%, ethanol was blended with diesel at 80%, volume and was tested.The ambient temperature was set to be 1,100,K and 900,K,which represent normal temperature combustion mode and low temperature combustion mode,respectively,andthe ambient oxygen concentrations were set to be 21%,,16%, and 11%,,respectively,which represent different EGR conditions for diesel engine.In-cylinder pres-sure was recorded by using a pressure transducer and the time-resolved Mie-scattering image and natural flame lumi-nosity were captured by using a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser as a light source.The results show that,due to the high percentage of ABE in the blend,the liquid penetration and intensity of natural flame lu-minosity are reduced significantly,which indicates a high potential to reduce soot level when it is used as an alterna-tive fuel for internal combustion engine.Furthermore,a soot-free combustion is achieved by combing the low tem-perature combustion with blended fuel with a high percentage of ABE.Hence,in terms of soot emission,high ABE ratio blends are a very promising alternative fuel which can be directly used in diesel engines.%针对丙酮-丁醇-乙醇(ABE)/柴油混合燃料的喷雾蒸发和燃烧过程展开了试验研究.试验在预燃加热式定容燃烧弹中进行,燃料为体积分数80%的ABE和20%,的柴油混合物,且ABE溶液中丙酮、丁醇、乙醇的体积分数分别为30%,、60%,和10%,.试验过程中燃烧弹内喷雾环境温度分别控制在1,100,K和900,K以代表普通燃烧模式和低温燃烧模式,环境氧体积分数分别控制在21%,、16%,和11%,以对应发动机不同的 EGR 工况.由高速摄相机配合激光束的使用,拍摄喷雾

  5. Thesis: A Combined-light Mission For Exoplanet Molecular Spectroscopy (United States)

    Deroo, Pieter; Swain, M. R.; Tinetti, G.; Griffith, C.; Vasisht, G.; Deming, D.; Henning, T.; Beaulieu, J.


    THESIS, the Transiting Habitable-zone Exoplanet Spectroscopy Infrared Spacecraft, is a concept for a MIDEX/Discovery class exoplanet mission. Building on the recent Spitzer and Hubble successes in exoplanet characterization and molecular spectroscopy, THESIS would extend these types of measurements to a large population of planets including non-transiting planets and super-Earths. The ability to acquire high-stability, spectroscopic data from the near-visible to the mid-infrared is a unique aspect of THESIS. A strength of the THESIS concept is simplicity low technical risk, and modest cost. By enabling molecular spectroscopy of exoplanet atmospheres, THESIS mission has the potential to dramatically advance our understanding of conditions on extrasolar worlds while serving as a stepping stone to more ambitious future missions.

  6. Hydrothermal Exploration at the Chile Triple Junction - ABE's last adventure? (United States)

    German, C. R.; Shank, T. M.; Lilley, M. D.; Lupton, J. E.; Blackman, D. K.; Brown, K. M.; Baumberger, T.; Früh-Green, G.; Greene, R.; Saito, M. A.; Sylva, S.; Nakamura, K.; Stanway, J.; Yoerger, D. R.; Levin, L. A.; Thurber, A. R.; Sellanes, J.; Mella, M.; Muñoz, J.; Diaz-Naveas, J. L.; Inspire Science Team


    In February and March 2010 we conducted preliminary exploration for hydrothermal plume signals along the East Chile Rise where it intersects the continental margin at the Chile Triple Junction (CTJ). This work was conducted as one component of our larger NOAA-OE funded INSPIRE project (Investigation of South Pacific Reducing Environments) aboard RV Melville cruise MV 1003 (PI: Andrew Thurber, Scripps) with all shiptime funded through an award of the State of California to Andrew Thurber and his co-PI's. Additional support came from the Census of Marine Life (ChEss and CoMarge projects). At sea, we conducted a series of CTD-rosette and ABE autonomous underwater vehicle operations to prospect for and determine the nature of any seafloor venting at, or adjacent to, the point where the the East Chile Rise subducts beneath the continental margin. Evidence from in situ sensing (optical backscatter, Eh) and water column analyses of dissolved CH4, δ3He and TDFe/TDMn concentrations document the presence of two discrete sites of venting, one right at the triple junction and the other a further 10km along axis, north of the Triple Junction, but still within the southernmost segment of the East Chile Rise. From an intercomparison of the abundance of different chemical signals we can intercompare likely characteristics of these differet source sites and also differentiate between them and the high methane concentrations released from cold seep sites further north along the Chile Margin, both with the CTJ region and also at the Concepcion Methane Seep Area (CMSA). This multi-disciplinary and international collaboration - involving scientists from Chile, the USA, Europe and Japan - can serve as an excellent and exciting launchpoint for wide-ranging future investigations of the Chile Triple Junction area - the only place on Earth where an oceanic spreading center is being actively subducted beneath a continent and also the only place on Earth where all known forms of deep

  7. Recruitment Issues and Strategies for Adults Who Are Not Currently Participating in Literacy and Adult Basic Education (ABE) Programs. (United States)

    Kohring, Aaron

    Adult basic education (ABE) and literacy programs have used many different strategies and tools to recruit new students. A small sampling of Tennessee ABE programs shows the more effective recruitment strategies are word-of-mouth referrals; newspaper advertisements and articles; fliers; brochures; posters, radio messages, and public service…

  8. The Space Missions WAXS/WFXT and SWIFT New Targets for the VLT

    CERN Document Server

    Chincarini, G L


    At OAB we were, during the year 1998, deeply involved in planning two important space missions for which very large ground based telescopes, VLT in particular, would play a very large and important role in the optical followup. The study of the first mission, Wide Angle X-ray Survey using a Wide Field X-ray Telescope, was coordinated by the Observatory of Brera, involved mainly Italian industries and resulted in a proposal to the Italian Space Agency under the Small Satellite Program. The second mission, SWIFT, has been coordinated and directed by the Goddard Space Flight Center and resulted in the submission of a proposal to NASA under the MIDEX program. The science goal of this mission is the detection and study of the Gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Sistem Akuntansi Piutang Dagang Pada Pedagang Besar Farmasi PT. Trido Abed Utama Medan




    The purpose of this research is to examine the accounting procedures of credit sales and account receivable collections implemented in PT Trido Abed Utama and to examine wheter the procedures has given adequete internal control. The research method used is Descriptive Method and Comperative Method, while the types of data used Qualititative data which consist of primary data and secondary data. Data collections techniques are inquiries, bibliography, and documentation. The responded of. this ...

  10. Moral Education in Japan The Coming of a New Dawn, Abe s New Moral Education


    Bolton, Kristoffer Hornburg


    This thesis studies the current debate surrounding moral education in Japan, choosing to focus on the criticism of the Abe administration s proposed educational reform. Moral education has received criticism for being overly nationalistic, being too similar to its pre-war iteration, and for supposedly brainwashing children. A majority of this criticism has been centered on the new textbook, Watashitachi no Doutoku. Its predecessor, Kokoro no Nooto, raised similar concerns and critics fear a w...

  11. Abe homotopy classification of topological excitations under the topological influence of vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topological excitations are usually classified by the nth homotopy group πn. However, for topological excitations that coexist with vortices, there are cases in which an element of πn cannot properly describe the charge of a topological excitation due to the influence of the vortices. This is because an element of πn corresponding to the charge of a topological excitation may change when the topological excitation circumnavigates a vortex. This phenomenon is referred to as the action of π1 on πn. In this paper, we show that topological excitations coexisting with vortices are classified by the Abe homotopy group κn. The nth Abe homotopy group κn is defined as a semi-direct product of π1 and πn. In this framework, the action of π1 on πn is understood as originating from noncommutativity between π1 and πn. We show that a physical charge of a topological excitation can be described in terms of the conjugacy class of the Abe homotopy group. Moreover, the Abe homotopy group naturally describes vortex-pair creation and annihilation processes, which also influence topological excitations. We calculate the influence of vortices on topological excitations for the case in which the order parameter manifold is Sn/K, where Sn is an n-dimensional sphere and K is a discrete subgroup of SO(n+1). We show that the influence of vortices on a topological excitation exists only if n is even and K includes a nontrivial element of O(n)/SO(n).

  12. Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production by Clostridium beijerinckii from wheat straw hydrolysates: efficient use of penta and hexa carbohydrates. (United States)

    Bellido, Carolina; Loureiro Pinto, Marina; Coca, Mónica; González-Benito, Gerardo; García-Cubero, María Teresa


    ABE fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii of steam-exploded and ozonated wheat straw hydrolysates was investigated. In steam-exploded hydrolysates, highest yields of 0.40 g/g ABE yield and 127.71 g ABE/kg wheat straw were achieved when the whole slurry from the pretreatment was used. In ozonated hydrolysates, 0.32 g/g ABE yield and 79.65 g ABE/kg wheat straw were obtained from washed ozonated wheat straw. Diverse effects were observed in steam explosion and ozonolysis of wheat straw which resulted in hemicellulose removal and acid insoluble lignin solubilization, respectively. SEM analysis showed structural differences in untreated and pretreated biomass. Depending on the operational strategy, after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis, the glucose recovery ranged between 65.73-66.49% and 63.22-65.23% and the xylose recovery ranged between 45.19-61.00% and 34.54-40.91% in steam-exploded and ozonated hydrolysates, respectively. The effect of the main inhibitory compounds found in hydrolysates (oxalic acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural) was studied through ABE fermentation in model media.

  13. Defending against Key Abuse Attacks in KP-ABE Enabled Broadcast Systems (United States)

    Yu, Shucheng; Ren, Kui; Lou, Wenjing; Li, Jin

    Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE) is a promising cryptographic primitive which enables fine-grained access control over sensitive data. However, key abuse attacks in KP-ABE may impede its wide application especially in copyright-sensitive systems. To defend against this kind of attacks, this paper proposes a novel KP-ABE scheme which is able to disclose any illegal key distributor’s ID when key abuse is detected. In our scheme, each bit of user ID is defined as an attribute and the user secret key is associated with his unique ID. The tracing algorithm fulfills its task by tricking the pirate device into decrypting the ciphertext associated with the corresponding bits of his ID. Our proposed scheme has the salient property of black box tracing, i.e., it traces back to the illegal key distributor’s ID only by observing the pirate device’s outputs on certain inputs. In addition, it does not require the pirate device’s secret keys to be well-formed as compared to some previous work. Our proposed scheme is provably secure under the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH) assumption and the Decisional Linear (DL) assumption.

  14. The MAP Autonomous Mission Control System (United States)

    Breed, Juile; Coyle, Steven; Blahut, Kevin; Dent, Carolyn; Shendock, Robert; Rowe, Roger


    The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) mission is the second mission in NASA's Office of Space Science low-cost, Medium-class Explorers (MIDEX) program. The Explorers Program is designed to accomplish frequent, low cost, high quality space science investigations utilizing innovative, streamlined, efficient management, design and operations approaches. The MAP spacecraft will produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations with high sensitivity and angular resolution. The MAP spacecraft is planned for launch in early 2001, and will be staffed by only single-shift operations. During the rest of the time the spacecraft must be operated autonomously, with personnel available only on an on-call basis. Four (4) innovations will work cooperatively to enable a significant reduction in operations costs for the MAP spacecraft. First, the use of a common ground system for Spacecraft Integration and Test (I&T) as well as Operations. Second, the use of Finite State Modeling for intelligent autonomy. Third, the integration of a graphical planning engine to drive the autonomous systems without an intermediate manual step. And fourth, the ability for distributed operations via Web and pager access.

  15. Continuous Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) Fermentation with in Situ Solvent Recovery by Silicalite-1 Filled PDMS/PAN Composite Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun;


    The pervaporation (PV) performance of a thin-film silicalite-1 filled PDMS/PAN composite membrane was investigated in the continuous acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) production by a fermentation–PV coupled process. Results showed that continuous removal of ABE from the broth at three different...

  16. Effect of cellulosic sugar degradation products (furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural) on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation using Clostridium beijerinckii P260 (United States)

    Studies were performed to identify chemicals present in wheat straw hydrolysate (WSH) that enhance acetone butanol ethanol (ABE) productivity. These chemicals were identified as furfural and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Control experiment resulted in the production of 21.09-21.66 gL**-1 ABE with a ...

  17. Multi-authority ABE for Access Control in Cloud Storage%基于 MA-ABE 的云存储访问控制方法∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谢华; 张蒙蒙; 刘鸿; 王勇军


    针对于跨域云数据访问控制中的安全性和有效性问题,提出了一种基于树访问结构的多授权机构属性加密(Attribute-Based Encryption,ABE)的跨域数据访问控制方法。通过建立分散授权模型,将属性私钥的生成与中央认证机构(Central Authority,CA)分离,由数据属主(Data Owner,DO)和授权机构分别生成并分发属性私钥组件。利用基于访问结构树的控制策略,有效预防了用户之间以及用户和授权机构之间的联合攻击。此外,用户密钥计算无需使用全球唯一标识(Global Identity,GID),支持匿名用户跨域数据访问。最后,利用双线性判定Diffie-Hellman(Decision Bilinear Diffie-Hellman,DBDH)假设理论分析了方案的安全性。研究结果表明,本方案在解密操作和加解密平均时间上具有较高的性能,能够有效地应用于多授权机构并存的云存储环境。%In order to improve the security and efficiency of data access control under multi-authority environment,an access-tree based multi-authority ABE (ATB-MAABE)has been proposed in this paper. In ATB-MAABE,CA is only used for public parameters generating and authority verification,which re-duces the security risk introduced by CA.Access control policy is defined by the DO(data owner),and the attribute-based secret key components are generated by DO and different attributes authorities.By using the access tree based control policy,this scheme can prevent the attacks from the user and authority collu-sion.Furthermore,the user's global identifier (GID)is not required in secret key generating,which can support anonymous data control and sharing.Finally,the security proof is given by using the Decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (DBDH )assumption,and the experiment results show the efficiency of this scheme in encryption/decryption operations.

  18. "Enne diskussiooni võta 100 g (40°-80°)!" : Gustav Naani kolm kirja Abe Liebmanile / Gustav Naan ; kommentaarinud Helen Lausma-Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naan, Gustav, 1919-1994


    Kirjad pakuvad lisateavet selle kohta, kuidas kujunes marksistlik-leninlik-stalinlik Eesti ajaloo kontseptsioon. Annavad võimaluse heita pilgu Gustav Naani mõttemaailma ja ridade vahelt saab aimu Abe Liebmani rollist ajalooteaduse ümbermõtestamisel

  19. Investigations into the perplexing interrelationship of the Genus Takifugu Abe, 1949 (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The phylogenetic relationships within the genus Takifugu Abe, 1949 (Tetraodontiformes, Tetraodontidae) remain unresolved. Because of the use of Takifugu as model organisms, the resolution of these relationships is crucial for the interpretation of evolutionary trends in biology. Pufferfishes of this genus are comprised of a comparatively small number of species and are mainly distributed along the coastal region of the western part of the Sea of Japan and the coastline of China. Mitochondrial gene sequences were employed to test the phylogenetic hypotheses within the genus. Seventeen species of the genus were examined. Molecular phylogenetic trees were constructed using the maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods. Our hypothesis of internal relationships within the genus differs from previous hypotheses. Our results indicate that (1) the genus Takifugu is a monophyletic assemblage; (2) the genus is divided into 6 subgroups based on the molecular data; and (3) there is low genetic diversity among the species within this genus. In addition,speciation within Takifugu appears to be driven by hybridization and isolation by distribution. Our resuits also suggested that the taxonomy in the genus should be clarified based on both molecular and morphological data.

  20. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  1. [The mission]. (United States)

    Ruiz Moreno, J; Blanch Mon, A


    After having made a historical review of the concept of mission statement, of evaluating its importance (See Part I), of describing the bases to create a mission statement from a strategic perspective and of analyzing the advantages of this concept, probably more important as a business policy (See Parts I and II), the authors proceed to analyze the mission statement in health organizations. Due to the fact that a mission statement is lacking in the majority of health organizations, the strategy of health organizations are not exactly favored; as a consequence, neither are its competitive advantage nor the development of its essential competencies. After presenting a series of mission statements corresponding to Anglo-Saxon health organizations, the authors highlight two mission statements corresponding to our social context. The article finishes by suggesting an adequate sequence for developing a mission statement in those health organizations having a strategic sense. PMID:10983153

  2. An Investigation of the Factors That Motivate Adults to Participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) Classes at a Southeastern Wisconsin Community College (United States)

    Crump-Phillips, Maureen R.


    This study assessed the plausibility of using Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB) to identify the factors that motivate adults to participate in Adult Basic Education (ABE) classes at a Southeast Wisconsin Community College. The original TPB (Ajzen, 1991) attests that planned behaviors are determined by behavioral intentions which are…

  3. Direct in situ butanol recovery inside the packed bed during continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Rong; Chiang, Yu-Sheng; Chuang, Po-Jen; Chao, Yun-Peng; Li, Si-Yu


    In this study, the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process was coupled with continuous ABE fermentation using immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum. At the same time, oleyl alcohol was cocurrently flowed into the packed bed reactor with the fresh medium and then recycled back to the packed bed reactor after removing butanol in the stripper. A high glucose consumption of 52 g/L and a high butanol productivity of 11 g/L/h were achieved, resulting in a high butanol yield of 0.21 g-butanol/g-glucose. This can be attributed to both the high bacterial activity for solvent production as well as a threefold increase in the bacterial density inside the packed bed reactor. Also reported is that 64 % of the butanol produced can be recovered by the integrated in situ extraction-gas stripping process. A high butanol productivity and a high glucose consumption were simultaneously achieved. PMID:27005413

  4. A quantitative metabolomics study of high sodium response in Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. (United States)

    Zhao, Xinhe; Condruz, Stefan; Chen, Jingkui; Jolicoeur, Mario


    Hemicellulose hydrolysates, sugar-rich feedstocks used in biobutanol refinery, are normally obtained by adding sodium hydroxide in the hydrolyze process. However, the resulting high sodium concentration in the hydrolysate inhibits ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) fermentation, and thus limits the use of these low-cost feedstocks. We have thus studied the effect of high sodium on the metabolic behavior of Clostridium acetobutyricum ATCC 824, with xylose as the carbon source. At a threshold sodium concentration of 200 mM, a decrease of the maximum cell dry weight (-19.50 ± 0.85%) and of ABE yield (-35.14 ± 3.50% acetone, -33.37 ± 0.74% butanol, -22.95 ± 1.81% ethanol) were observed compared to control culture. However, solvents specific productivities were not affected by supplementing sodium. The main effects of high sodium on cell metabolism were observed in acidogenesis, during which we observed the accumulation of ATP and NADH, and the inhibition of the pentose phosphate (PPP) and the glycolytic pathways with up to 80.73 ± 1.47% and 68.84 ± 3.42% decrease of the associated metabolic intermediates, respectively. However, the NADP(+)-to-NADPH ratio was constant for the whole culture duration, a phenomenon explaining the robustness of solvents specific productivities. Therefore, high sodium, which inhibited biomass growth through coordinated metabolic effects, interestingly triggered cell robustness on solvents specific productivity. PMID:27321153

  5. Simulated Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ On June 3,27-year-old Chinese astronaut trainer Wang Yue walked into a mock spaceship at a Moscow research institute with five other foreign space enthusiasts in an unprecedented simulation of a manned mission to Mars.

  6. El-AbedOroub, Unprotected: Palestinians in Egypt since 1948, Washington, DC, Institute for Palestine Studies / Ottawa: International Development Research Centre, 2009, 253 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise de Bel-Air


    Full Text Available L’ouvrage proposé par Oroub El-Abed sur les Palestiniens d’Égypte comble un manque : cette communauté n’avait, en effet, encore jamais fait l’objet d’une étude scientifique de grande ampleur telle que celle entreprise par l’auteur sous les auspices du programme Forced Migration and Refugee Studies de l’Université américaine au Caire. L’ambition initiale de Oroub El-Abed et de son équipe était de réaliser une enquête de terrain portant sur un échantillon de 300 ménages répartis dans 15 gouvern...

  7. Screening of ABE producing strains and study on fermenting butanol with corn cob hydrolysate%丙酮丁醇产生菌的筛选及玉米芯水解液发酵丁醇研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 唐波; 葛珍珍; 周灿灿; 余晓斌


    The study on ABE producing strains screened from nature to ferment the enzymatic hydrolysate of corn cob pretreated by levigation was carried out. 205 ABE producing strains were screened from 133 forest soil samples. Among them, G -23 strain was able to use glucose, xylose and the mixture of both to ferment ABE. The results showed that corn cobs pretreated by levigation could effectively promote the enzymatic hydrolysis while the hydrolysate could be directly used in ABE fermentation. The ABE fermentation by G - 23 strain using cellulase hydrolysate pretreated by levigation was performed and then 7. 6 g/L butanol and 12. 8 g/L ABE were obtained.%对从自然界筛选的丙酮丁醇产生菌发酵玉米芯水磨酶水解液进行了研究.结果表明:从133份森林土样中筛选到的205株丙酮丁醇产生菌中,G-23菌株能够有效地利用葡萄糖、木糖以及葡萄糖和木糖的混合糖进行丙酮丁醇(acetone-butanol-ethanol,ABE)发酵.利用水磨的方法对玉米芯进行预处理,该方法能够有效提高玉米芯的酶水解效率,得到的水解液能直接进行丙酮丁醇发酵.利用G-23菌株对水磨预处理后的酶水解液进行ABE发酵,得到了较高产量的丁醇和总溶剂,分别为7.6 g/L和12.8 g/L.

  8. On the Novel Space of Kobo Abe%论安部公房的小说空间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱雅芬; 叶从容


    安部公房小说具有突出的空间性,其代表性小说文本通过或写实,或超现实,或者虚实结合的叙事手法搭建独特的文学空间,呈现出隐喻的丰富性、建构的粘贴性以及景观的都市性等主要特征。空间化小说是安部公房小说美学从现代主义向后现代主义过渡的重要表征,呈现出独特的审美意蕴,有别于传统日本文学经验,亦非对西方空间美学的全盘照搬,是一种融合了本土文化与外来思潮的经验重构。%Kobo Abe ’s novels have outstanding spatial characteristics.His representative novels build a u-nique literary space by realism,surrealism,or narrative technique with a combination of the virtual and actual situ-ations,showing a rich metaphor,a coherent construction and metropolitanization.Spatialization constitutes the im-portant characteristics of Kobo Abe’s novel aesthetics from the modernism to the post modernism,which shows a u-nique aesthetic implication different from the traditional experience of Japanese literature.Instead of becoming a complete copy of the western spatial aesthetics,it forms an experience reconstruction integrating the local culture and borrowed thoughts surge.

  9. Research on DCP-ABE Scheme Supporting Attribute Reuse%一种支持属性重用的DCP-ABE方案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连科; 赵泽茂; 王丽君; 贺玉菊



  10. MUSE and ABE Concept

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; JI Yang


    A perspective view for next generation mobile wireless network is given in this paper, named as Mobile Ubiquitous Service Environment (MUSE). The main mechanisms and principles for MUSE and related issues are also given.

  11. The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer - An optical, astrometric survey mission (United States)

    Horner, S. D.; Germain, M. E.; Greene, T. P.; Harris, F. H.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, M. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Monet, D. G.; Murison, M. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Reasenberg, R. D.; Seidelmann, P. K.; Urban, S. E.; Vassar, R. H.


    The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) is a NASA MIDEX mission scheduled for launch in 2004. It will perform an all sky, astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will determine the positions, parallaxes, proper motions, and photometry of 40,000,000 stars with visual band magnitudes 5 DSS colors. FAME will enable a wide range of scientific investigations using its large, rich database of information on stellar properties. It will: * Calibrate the zero point of the extragalactic distance scale to 1% * Determine absolute luminosities of a wide range of spectral types * Detect a meaningful statistical sample of companion stars, brown dwarfs, and giant planets * Enable studies of the kinematics of our galaxy, including the effect of dark matter in the disk * Characterize stellar variability of a large sample of stars at the 0.1% level * Define a rigid optical reference frame for future scientific endeavors FAME is evolved from design concepts from the Hipparcos mission, using current CCD technology to observe more and fainter stars. Like Hipparcos, FAME has a compound mirror consisting of two flats angled relative to each other. The compound mirror feeds the two fields of view separated by the ``basic angle'' into a common telescope. The two fields of view are used to control the growth of stochastic errors in determining the relative separations of stars. FAME is a joint development effort of the U.S. Naval Observatory, the Naval Research Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space Advanced Technology Center, and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Funding for FAME is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science through the Explorer program managed by Goddard Space Flight Center. Additional funding has been provided by the U.S. Navy.

  12. Missions and Moral Judgement. (United States)

    Bushnell, Amy Turner


    Addresses the history of Spanish-American missions, discussing the view of missions in church history, their role in the Spanish conquest, and the role and ideas of Herbert E. Bolton. Focuses on differences among Spanish borderlands missions, paying particular attention to the Florida missions. (CMK)

  13. Threads of Mission Success (United States)

    Gavin, Thomas R.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  14. Mission operations management (United States)

    Rocco, David A.


    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  15. Industrial culture media optimization for acetrobutilic Fermentation Optimización de un medio de cultivo industrial para la fermentación acetobutilica (abe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos J.


    Full Text Available The industrial culture media for butanol-ethanol-acetone fermentation (ABE was optimized by experimental design. A butanol resistant mutant isolated from Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1732 was used. This mutant produced 15.5 g/1 of total solvents, 30% more than the wild strain solvent production. Mutant strain resists a concentration of 2,5% v/v meanwhile the type strain resists 1 % v/v butanol concentration. Molasses of sugar cane as carbon source were used. The molasses concentration was determined based on the necessary glucose concentration for producing 15 g/1 of butanol as limit product in the ABE fermentation. The nutrients were calculated in according lo literature reports and lo highest biomasse production on vegetative medium 3.8g/l. For determining which variables have significant effect on the total solvent production, the PLAKET-BURMAN method was used. The final concentrations of the culture medium were determined by EVOP-Simplex method. A liter of optimized industrial medium is composed by: molasses 130 g, biotin 4.0 mg, PAB A 3.0 mg, KH2PO41.8 g, yeast extract 3.0 g, minerals stock 4 ml and distilled water lo complete 1 liter; pH 6.1 before sterilization. Using this medium the total solvents production was 24,6 g/1. The production increment is equivalent lo 58,7%, compared lo the mutant strain before the medium was optimized. En el presente trabajo se optimizó un medio de cultivo industrial para la fermentación acetobutilica (ABE mediante la aplicación de diseño de experimentos. Se empleó una mutante espontánea resistente al butanol aislada de la cepa de Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 1732 la cual tolera una concentración de butanol de 2.5% v/v. La mutante produce 15.5 g/1 de solventes totales que representan 30% más que la cepa silvestre. Para diseñar el medio se empleó como fuente de carbono, melazas de caña. Los nutrientes se calcularon de acuerdo con la máxima cantidad de biomasa obtenida en medio vegetativo (3

  16. Índices de calidad ambiental de aguas del Arroyo Caañabe mediante tests microbiológicos y ecotoxicológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás López Arias


    Full Text Available El Arroyo Caañabe, es un curso de agua que corre a través de los Departamentos Central y Paraguarí (República del Paraguay. Las descargas de origen agropecuario, urbano e industrial contaminan sus aguas. En este trabajo se evalúa la calidad del arroyo mediante sus características fisicoquímicas, ecotoxicológicas, microbiológicas y se la comparan con la legislación vigente. Se colectaron muestras en los meses de Julio y Setiembre del año 2014. Se estudiaron tres sitios denominados S1, ubicado en aguas arriba de la Ciudad de Carapegua; S2 en la intersección del arroyo con la Ruta 1, y S3, en la zona límite de las ciudades de Carapegua y Nueva Italia. Se realizaron ensayos de toxicidad aguda con Daphnia magna, Lactuca sativa, y alevines de Danio rerio; además de ensayos crónicos en Tetradesmus wisconsinenesis, D. rerio y Allium cepa. Se evaluaron los grupos y especies microbianos siguientes: aerobios mesófilos, enterobacterias, coliformes totales, coliformes fecales, E. coli, Pseudomona aeruginosa, mohos y levaduras; además se determinaron índices de calidad y de contaminación. Los resultados indican que las aguas del arroyo presentaron características de clase II y de clase III según el padrón establecido por la Secretaría del Ambiente del Paraguay. El índice de calidad de agua (ICA arrojó valores comprendidos entre 52 y 62 lo que otorga la clasificación de "regular"; mientras que el índice de contaminación trófica (ICOTRO presentó valores entre 0,12 y 0.26, indicando "eutrofización". Los recuentos de coliformes fueron superiores en el segundo muestreo, aunque dentro lo establecido por la norma. La presencia de P. aeruginosa en los tres puntos constituye un riesgo para la salud. Ensayos ecotoxicológicos agudos mostraron que las aguas presentan escasos efectos letales, no obstante los ensayos crónicos en A. cepa y el test de micronúcleos en D. rerio indican potenciales efectos citotóxicos y genotóxicos de las

  17. Privacy protection scheme in cloud computing using CP-ABE based on data partition%云环境下一种基于数据分割的CP-ABE隐私保护方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施荣华; 刘鑫; 董健; 胡炳浩; 李西柯


    According to cloud computing privacy protection,this paper proposed a CP-ABE (cipertext policy-attribute based encryption)scheme based on data partition which improved security,it reduced the performance overhead,overcome untrustful three sides.This scheme used the data ideological to divide date into big and small block of data,then divided the big data block into small pieces and encrypting the small data block with CP-ABE algorithms.Manager deals with experimental analy-sis,in a cloud environment,this scheme has advantages on the safety and performance overhead and extension.%针对云计算隐私安全保护,提出了一种基于数据分割的CP-ABE (密文策略的基于属性的加密方案)隐私保护方案,克服了云环境下不可信第三方、安全性和性能开销的三大难题。本方案利用数据分割思想将数据分为大数据块和小数据块,通过分割策略对大数据块再进行分块,并用CP-ABE 算法对小数据块进行加密。经理论分析及实验仿真表明,在云环境下,此方案在安全问题、开销问题及扩展问题上都有很大优势。

  18. Five Analysis of Abe no nakamaro Monument in Xi'an%解读西安阿倍仲麻吕纪念碑的五条线索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 张婧


    张锦秋大师的早期作品西安阿倍仲麻吕纪念碑是唐代中日往来的重要纪念物,论文从历史语境、基址环境、碑石叙事、创作经历和碑石文化五条线索对其进行解读,揭示阿倍仲麻吕纪念碑建筑形式与空间表象下的深层涵义和文化价值。%Taking as one of significant memorial buildings for Chinese-Japanese culture communication, the paper attempts to review the monument to Abe no nakamaro in Xi’an by analyzing the historic background, situation, architectural narrative, experience of architects, and Chinese stele culture, and to reveal the underlying meaning and cultural value underneath both the architectural form and space of the monument.

  19. Delivering community benefits acts as insurance for the survival of small protected areas such as the Abe Bailey Nature Reserve, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Taylor


    Full Text Available The Abe Bailey Nature Reserve (ABNR in the Gauteng Province of South Africa is largely unknown and offers little to attract visitors. The biological integrity of the ABNR is challenged by the urban poverty in Khutsong, the reserve’s immediate neighbour. Relations between Khutsong and the nature reserve had been hostile for decades as a result of the ‘fortress’ style of conservation protection used for the ABNR. However, this situation provided the Gauteng Directorate of Nature Conservation with an opportunity to experiment with dentifying and transferring benefits to the community, as well as establishing an effective buffer zone between the nature reserve and the informal settlements of Khutsong. Following an initial rapid rural appraisal and ongoing liaison through specifically appointed project managers, an outreach programme containing two natural resource-based projects was developed. As a result, better relations were established between the ABNR and its neighbouring community for the first time since the nature reserve was established in 1977. This acted as ‘insurance’ during violent public protests and vandalism in the Khutsong border demarcation dispute (2005–2007, but may not be enough to secure the nature reserve into the future. Conservation implications: Small protected areas may not be effective in ensuring their biological integrity in the long term, but working cooperatively with existing and future neighbours is an essential strategy to optimise conservation activities in small reserves such as the ABNR.

  20. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans (United States)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.


    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  1. IAEA International Missions in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Description of international missions during the period of 1999-2001 is presented. At that period three IAEA international missions took place: Mission of International Physical Protection Advisor Service in 1999, Mission of International Probabilistic Safety Assessment Review Team in 2000 and Mission of International Regulatory Review Team in 2001. Topics addressed during the missions are presented

  2. The STEREO Mission

    CERN Document Server


    The STEREO mission uses twin heliospheric orbiters to track solar disturbances from their initiation to 1 AU. This book documents the mission, its objectives, the spacecraft that execute it and the instruments that provide the measurements, both remote sensing and in situ. This mission promises to unlock many of the mysteries of how the Sun produces what has become to be known as space weather.

  3. Juno Mission Simulation (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.


    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  4. The Rosetta mission (United States)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu


    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  5. Mission Medical Information System (United States)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.


    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  6. The Pioneer Venus Missions. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  7. The Community College Mission. (United States)

    Vaughan, George B.


    Argues that the community college's mission has been and will be constant with respect to its social role to educate; its responsiveness to community needs; its focus on teaching; its open access philosophy; and its commitment to a comprehensive curriculum. Examines social tensions affecting the mission. (DMM)

  8. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions (United States)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)


    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  9. NEP missions to Pluto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) has the potential to deliver fast trips to the distant outer planets and to be enabling for orbiter missions to Pluto, the moons of the distant outer planets, and Kuiper belt objects. This paper summarizes results of a mission study for a Pluto Flyby and a Pluto Orbiter. It was concluded that the flyby mission trip time would be about 6-10 years, depending on how lightweight the power system could be made for a given power level. The trip time was not too sensitive to whether the initial condition was earth escape or earth orbit if a larger power system could be assumed for the earth-orbit option because of the larger launch mass that could be used in that case. The trip time for the orbiter mission was projected to be about 9-14 years

  10. Cassini's Solstice Mission (United States)

    Seal, David; Mitchell, Robert


    With the recent approval of NASA's flagship Cassini mission for seven more years of continued operations, dozens more Titan, Enceladus and other icy moon flybys await, as well as many occultations and multiple close passages to Saturn. Seasonal change is the principal scientific theme as Cassini extends its survey of the target-rich system over one full half-season, from just after northern winter solstice at arrival back in 2004, to northern summer solstice at the end of mission in 2017. The new seven-year mission extension requires careful propellant management as well as streamlined operations strategies with smaller spacecraft, sequencing and science teams. Cassini's never-before-envisioned end of mission scenario also includes nearly two dozen high-inclination orbits which pass between the rings and the planet allowing thrilling and unique science opportunities before entry into Saturn's atmosphere.

  11. Pakistan Mission System (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Pak Info was designed by OAPA to fill in the knowledge and reporting gaps in existing agency systems for the Pakistan Mission. It tracks the program approval...

  12. Uganda Mission PRS (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — A web-based performance reporting system that is managed by IBI that interfaces with the Mission's GIS database that supports USAID/Uganda and its implementing...

  13. Autonomous Mission Operations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future human spaceflight missions will occur with crews and spacecraft at large distances, with long communication delays, to the Earth. The one-way light-time...

  14. Galileo Mission Science Briefing (United States)


    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  15. NEEMO 7 undersea mission (United States)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran


    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  16. Mars Observer mission


    Albee, A. L.; Arvidson, R.E.; Palluconi, F. D.


    The Mars Observer mission will extend the exploration and characterization of Mars by providing new and systematic measurements of the atmosphere, surface, and interior of the planet. These measurements will be made from a low-altitude polar orbiter over a period of 1 Martian year, permitting repetitive observations of the surface and of the seasonal variations of the atmosphere. The mission will be conducted in a manner that will provide new and valuable scientific data using a distributed d...

  17. Future Titan Missions (United States)

    Waite, J. H.; Coustenis, A.; Lorenz, R.; Lunine, J.; Stofan, E.


    New discoveries about Titan from the Cassini-Huygens mission have led to a broad range of mission class studies for future missions, ranging from NASA Discovery class to International Flagship class. Three consistent science themes emerge and serve as a framework for discussing the various mission concepts: Goal A: Explore Titan, an Earth-Like System - How does Titan function as a system? How are the similarities and differences with Earth, and other solar system bodies, a result of the interplay of the geology, hydrology, meteorology, and aeronomy present in the Titan system?; Goal B: Examine Titan’s Organic Inventory—A Path to Prebiological Molecules - What is the complexity of Titan’s organic chemistry in the atmosphere, within its lakes, on its surface, and in its putative subsurface water ocean and how does this inventory differ from known abiotic organic material in meteorites and therefore contribute to our understanding of the origin of life in the Solar System?; and Goal C: Explore Enceladus and Saturn’s magnetosphere—clues to Titan’s origin and evolution - What is the exchange of energy and material with the Saturn magnetosphere and solar wind? What is the source of geysers on Enceladus? Does complex chemistry occur in the geyser source? Within this scientific framework the presentation will overview the Titan Explorer, Titan AND Enceladus Mission, Titan Saturn System Mission, Titan Mare Explorer, and Titan Submersible. Future timelines and plans will be discussed.

  18. Robotic Mission Simulation Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Energid Technologies proposes a software tool to predict robotic mission performance and support supervision of robotic missions even when environments and...

  19. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap (United States)

    Frank, Jeremy David


    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  20. KuaFu Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Lidong; TU Chuanyi; Schwenn Rainer; Donovan Eric; Marsch Eckart; WANG Jingsong; ZHANG Yongwei; XIAO Zuo


    The KuaFu mission-Space Storms, Aurora and Space Weather Explorer-is an "L1+Polar" triple satellite project composed of three spacecraft: KuaFu-A will be located at L1 and have instruments to observe solar EUV and FUV emissions, and white-light Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and to measure radio waves, the local plasma and magnetic field,and high-energy particles. KuaFuB1 and KuaFu- B2 will bein polar orbits chosen to facilitate continuous 24 hours a day observation of the north polar Aurora Oval. The KuaFu mission is designed to observe the complete chain of disturbances from the solar atmosphere to geospace, including solar flares, CMEs, interplanetary clouds, shock waves, and their geo-effects, such as magnetospheric sub-storms and magnetic storms, and auroral activities. The mission may start at the next solar maximum (launch in about 2012), and with an initial mission lifetime of two to three years. KuaFu data will be used for the scientific study of space weather phenomena, and will be used for space weather monitoring and forecast purposes. The overall mission design, instrument complement, and incorporation of recent technologies will target new fundamental science, advance our understanding of the physical processes underlying space weather, and raise the standard of end-to-end monitoring of the Sun-Earth system.

  1. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    in the context of universities. Although the economic aspects of value are important and cannot be ignored, we argue for a much richer interpretation of value that captures the many and varied results from universities. A shared mission is a prerequisite for university management and leadership. It makes...... of the universities. The sad result is that the dialog about university development, resources, leadership, governance etc. too often ends up in rather fruitless discussions and sometimes even mutual suspicion. This paper argues for having a dialog involving both internal and external stakeholders agreeing...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...

  2. The Hinode Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Sakurai, Takashi


    The Solar-B satellite was launched in 2006 by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), and was renamed Hinode ('sunrise' in Japanese). Hinode carries three instruments: the X-ray telescope (XRT), the EUV imaging spectrometer (EIS), and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT). These instruments were developed by ISAS/JAXA in cooperation with the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan as domestic partner, and NASA and the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK) as international partners. ESA and the Norwegian Space Center have been providing a downlink station. The Hinode (Solar-B) Mission gives a comprehensive description of the Hinode mission and its instruments onboard. This book is most useful for researchers, professionals, and graduate students working in the field of solar physics, astronomy, and space instrumentation. This is the only book that carefully describes the details of the Hinode mission; it is richly illustrated with full-color ima...

  3. Athena Mission Status (United States)

    Lumb, D.


    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  4. Country programming mission. Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to a request from the Government of Namibia conveyed in a letter dated 29 November 1990 IAEA provided a multi-disciplinary Programming Mission which visited Namibia from 15 - 19 July 1991. The terms of reference of the Mission were: 1. To assess the possibilities and benefits of nuclear energy applications in Namibia's development; 2. To advise on the infrastructure required for nuclear energy projects; 3. To assist in the formulation of project proposals which could be submitted for Agency assistance. This report is based on the findings of the Mission and falls into 3 sections with 8 appendices. The first section is a country profile providing background information, the second section deals with sectorial needs and institutional review of the sectors of agriculture including animal production, life sciences (nuclear medicine and radiotherapy) and radiation protection. The third section includes possible future technical co-operation activities

  5. Bering Mission Navigation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn;


    "Bering", after the name of the famous Danish explorer, is a near Earth object (NEO) and main belt asteroids mapping mission envisaged by a consortium of Danish universities and research institutes. To achieve the ambitious goals set forth by this mission, while containing the costs and risks, "B......, "Bering" sports several new technological enhancements and advanced instruments under development at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The autonomous on-board orbit determination method is part of them and it is described in this paper....

  6. The Asteroid Impact Mission (United States)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim


    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  7. Magellan: mission summary. (United States)

    Saunders, R S; Pettengill, G H


    The Magellan radar mapping mission is in the process of producing a global, high-resolution image and altimetry data set of Venus. Despite initial communications problems, few data gaps have occurred. Analysis of Magellan data is in the initial stages. The radar system data are of high quality, and the planned performance is being achieved in terms of spatial resolution and geometric and radiometric accuracy. Image performance exceeds expectations, and the image quality and mosaickability are extremely good. Future plans for the mission include obtaining gravity data, filling gaps in the initial map, and conducting special studies with the radar.

  8. Mars Stratigraphy Mission (United States)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.


    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  9. Inspiration is "Mission Critical" (United States)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.


    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  10. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures (United States)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime


    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  11. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  12. Mission Operations Assurance (United States)

    Faris, Grant


    Integrate the mission operations assurance function into the flight team providing: (1) value added support in identifying, mitigating, and communicating the project's risks and, (2) being an essential member of the team during the test activities, training exercises and critical flight operations.

  13. Robust UAV Mission Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Dollevoet, T.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) can provide significant contributions to information gathering in military missions. UAVs can be used to capture both full motion video and still imagery of specific target locations within the area of interest. In order to improve the effectiveness of a reconnaissanc

  14. EOS Aura Mission Status (United States)

    Guit, William J.


    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  15. The Mothership Mission Architecture (United States)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.


    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  16. The Double Star mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Double Star Programme (DSP was first proposed by China in March, 1997 at the Fragrant Hill Workshop on Space Science, Beijing, organized by the Chinese Academy of Science. It is the first mission in collaboration between China and ESA. The mission is made of two spacecraft to investigate the magnetospheric global processes and their response to the interplanetary disturbances in conjunction with the Cluster mission. The first spacecraft, TC-1 (Tan Ce means "Explorer", was launched on 29 December 2003, and the second one, TC-2, on 25 July 2004 on board two Chinese Long March 2C rockets. TC-1 was injected in an equatorial orbit of 570x79000 km altitude with a 28° inclination and TC-2 in a polar orbit of 560x38000 km altitude. The orbits have been designed to complement the Cluster mission by maximizing the time when both Cluster and Double Star are in the same scientific regions. The two missions allow simultaneous observations of the Earth magnetosphere from six points in space. To facilitate the comparison of data, half of the Double Star payload is made of spare or duplicates of the Cluster instruments; the other half is made of Chinese instruments. The science operations are coordinated by the Chinese DSP Scientific Operations Centre (DSOC in Beijing and the European Payload Operations Service (EPOS at RAL, UK. The spacecraft and ground segment operations are performed by the DSP Operations and Management Centre (DOMC and DSOC in China, using three ground station, in Beijing, Shanghai and Villafranca.

  17. Sentinel-2 Mission status (United States)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin


    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  18. Analysis on Proactive Contribution to Peace Foreign Tendency of the Abe Regime%安倍政权的"积极和平主义"外交动向分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In September, 2013 Abe proposed to include the Proactive Contribution to Peace into national security strategy. By conducting theoretical analysis and realistic interpretation of the Proactive Contribution to Peace proposed by Abe, we could fully understand the basic trend of Japanese diplomatic policy and its change tendency in the future. Based on the analysis of the theory of Proactive Contribution to Peace, the author would put forward the paradox of the Proactive Contribution to Peace and then would analyze the interaction between the paradox of reality and theory. Along with the further promotion of the Proactive Contribution to Peace, and based on the evolvement and interaction of Japanese foreign policy and security policy in its internal affairs and diplomacy, regional security and neighboring international relations, the dynamical variable of Abe's the Proactive Contribution to Peace would be assessed accordingly.%2013年9月,安倍提出将积极和平主义纳入国家安全保障战略.通过对安倍所提出的积极和平主义进行理论分析与现实解读,有助于更为充分地理解日本外交基本态势与未来变化的趋势.基于积极和平主义的分析,进一步阐释安倍所提出的积极和平主义的悖论,进而分析理论与现实悖论的互动.随着积极和平主义推进,基于日本外交与安保政策在本国内政外交、地区安全、周边国际关系自身逐层次的推演与彼此的互动所逐步展现,对积极和平主义的动力变量进行相应评估.

  19. The THEMIS Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, J. L


    The THEMIS mission aims to determine the trigger and large-scale evolution of substorms by employing five identical micro-satellites which line up along the Earth's magnetotail to track the motion of particles, plasma, and waves from one point to another and for the first time, resolve space-time ambiguities in key regions of the magnetosphere on a global scale. The primary goal of THEMIS is to elucidate which magnetotail process is responsible for substorm onset at the region where substorm auroras map: (i) local disruption of the plasma sheet current (current disruption) or (ii) the interaction of the current sheet with the rapid influx of plasma emanating from reconnection. The probes also traverse the radiation belts and the dayside magnetosphere, allowing THEMIS to address additional baseline objectives. This volume describes the mission, the instrumentation, and the data derived from them.

  20. The Euclid mission design

    CERN Document Server

    Racca, Giuseppe D; Stagnaro, Luca; Salvignol, Jean Christophe; Alvarez, Jose Lorenzo; Criado, Gonzalo Saavedra; Venancio, Luis Gaspar; Short, Alex; Strada, Paolo; Boenke, Tobias; Colombo, Cyril; Calvi, Adriano; Maiorano, Elena; Piersanti, Osvaldo; Prezelus, Sylvain; Rosato, Pierluigi; Pinel, Jacques; Rozemeijer, Hans; Lesna, Valentina; Musi, Paolo; Sias, Marco; Anselmi, Alberto; Cazaubiel, Vincent; Vaillon, Ludovic; Mellier, Yannick; Amiaux, Jerome; Berthe, Michel; Sauvage, Marc; Azzollini, Ruyman; Cropper, Mark; Pottinger, Sabrina; Jahnke, Knud; Ealet, Anne; Maciaszek, Thierry; Pasian, Fabio; Zacchei, Andrea; Scaramella, Roberto; Hoar, John; Kohley, Ralf; Vavrek, Roland; Rudolph, Andreas; Schmidt, Micha


    Euclid is a space-based optical/near-infrared survey mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) to investigate the nature of dark energy, dark matter and gravity by observing the geometry of the Universe and on the formation of structures over cosmological timescales. Euclid will use two probes of the signature of dark matter and energy: Weak gravitational Lensing, which requires the measurement of the shape and photometric redshifts of distant galaxies, and Galaxy Clustering, based on the measurement of the 3-dimensional distribution of galaxies through their spectroscopic redshifts. The mission is scheduled for launch in 2020 and is designed for 6 years of nominal survey operations. The Euclid Spacecraft is composed of a Service Module and a Payload Module. The Service Module comprises all the conventional spacecraft subsystems, the instruments warm electronics units, the sun shield and the solar arrays. In particular the Service Module provides the extremely challenging pointing accuracy required by the sc...

  1. STS-31 Mission Insignia (United States)


    The mission insignia for NASA's STS-31 mission features the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in its observing configuration against a background of the universe it will study. The cosmos includes a stylistic depiction of galaxies in recognition of the contribution made by Sir Edwin Hubble to our understanding of the nature of galaxies and the expansion of the universe. The STS-31 crew points out that is it in honor of Hubble's work that this great observatory in space bears his name. The depicted Space Shuttle trails a spectrum symbolic of both the red shift observations that were so important to Hubble's work and new information which will be obtained with the HST. Encircling the art work, designed by the crew, are the names of its members.

  2. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (United States)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)


    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  3. A Somalia mission experience. (United States)

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah


    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  4. Deep Blue Mission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Navy dispatches ships to the Gulf of Aden on a second escort mission, marking its growing strength in the face of more diverse challenges Elarly in the morning of April 23, crew- imembers from the Chinese Navy’s second escort fleet in the Gulf of Aden Igathered on deck and saluted to the east, paying their respects to the motherland in celebration of the 60th anniversary of the Chinese Navy. This fleet,

  5. Multi-Mission SDR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless transceivers used for NASA space missions have traditionally been highly custom and mission specific. Programs such as the GRC Space Transceiver Radio...

  6. Mission Critical Occupation (MCO) Charts (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Agencies report resource data and targets for government-wide mission critical occupations and agency specific mission critical and/or high risk occupations. These...

  7. Mars Exploration Rover mission (United States)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.


    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  8. The Juno Mission (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.


    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  9. Mission from Mars:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Eriksson, Eva; Iversen, Ole Sejer;


    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...... school bag (eBag). The three-hour collaborative session provides a first-hand insight into children's practice in a fun and intriguing way. The method is proposed as a supplement to existing descriptive design methods for interaction design and children....

  10. The PICARD mission (United States)

    Thuillier, G.; Prado, J.-Y.

    The understanding of the physical processes taking place in the Sun allows construction of solar models. These models are validated by comparison between predictions and observations. Most of the observations are total and spectral solar irradiance, temperature, frequencies of oscillation, diameter, and asphericity, as well as their variations as a function of time. By 2006 and beyond, several missions dedicated to solar observations will be operated in particular PICARD and Solar Dynamics Observer which have complementary measurements and a strong scientific synergy for the study of the solar variability and its consequence for the Earth's climate.

  11. The CHEOPS Mission (United States)

    Broeg, Christopher; benz, willy; fortier, andrea; Ehrenreich, David; beck, Thomas; cessa, Virginie; Alibert, Yann; Heng, Kevin


    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is a joint ESA-Switzerland space mission dedicated to search for exoplanet transits by means of ultra-high precision photometry. It is expected to be launch-ready at the end of 2017.CHEOPS will be the first space observatory dedicated to search for transits on bright stars already known to host planets. It will have access to more than 70% of the sky. This will provide the unique capability of determining accurate radii for planets for which the mass has already been estimated from ground-based radial velocity surveys and for new planets discovered by the next generation ground-based transits surveys (Neptune-size and smaller). The measurement of the radius of a planet from its transit combined with the determination of its mass through radial velocity techniques gives the bulk density of the planet, which provides direct insights into the structure and/or composition of the body. In order to meet the scientific objectives, a number of requirements have been derived that drive the design of CHEOPS. For the detection of Earth and super-Earth planets orbiting G5 dwarf stars with V-band magnitudes in the range 6 ≤ V ≤ 9 mag, a photometric precision of 20 ppm in 6 hours of integration time must be reached. This time corresponds to the transit duration of a planet with a revolution period of 50 days. In the case of Neptune-size planets orbiting K-type dwarf with magnitudes as faint as V=12 mag, a photometric precision of 85 ppm in 3 hours of integration time must be reached. To achieve this performance, the CHEOPS mission payload consists of only one instrument, a space telescope of 30 cm clear aperture, which has a single CCD focal plane detector. CHEOPS will be inserted in a low Earth orbit and the total duration of the CHEOPS mission is 3.5 years (goal: 5 years).The presentation will describe the current payload and mission design of CHEOPS, give the development status, and show the expected performances.

  12. The Sunrise Mission


    Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Schüssler, M.; Chares, B.; Curdt, W.; Deutsch, W. (Walter); Feller, A.; Germerott, D.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Meller, R.; Müller, R.


    The first science flight of the balloon-borne \\Sunrise telescope took place in June 2009 from ESRANGE (near Kiruna/Sweden) to Somerset Island in northern Canada. We describe the scientific aims and mission concept of the project and give an overview and a description of the various hardware components: the 1-m main telescope with its postfocus science instruments (the UV filter imager SuFI and the imaging vector magnetograph IMaX) and support instruments (image stabilizing and light distribut...

  13. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO (United States)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.


    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  14. The ARTEMIS mission

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Vassilis


    The ARTEMIS mission was initiated by skillfully moving the two outermost Earth-orbiting THEMIS spacecraft into lunar orbit to conduct unprecedented dual spacecraft observations of the lunar environment. ARTEMIS stands for Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun. Indeed, this volume discusses initial findings related to the Moon’s magnetic and plasma environments and the electrical conductivity of the lunar interior. This work is aimed at researchers and graduate students in both heliophysics and planetary physics. Originally published in Space Science Reviews, Vol. 165/1-4, 2011.

  15. The SPICA mission (United States)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.


    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  16. Instrumentation and new missions (United States)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Cash, W.; Bautz, M.; Elvis, M.


    A Soft X-Ray Grating Mission: Missing Baryons, AGN Outflows, Cosmic Feedback, Coronae Doppler Tomography, and much more | I will review the parameters of the new generation of high efficiency high resolution X-ray grating spectrometers, and present possible mission configurations, which would allow soft X-ray spectrometry to be performed on a large variety of astrophysical sources, with high diagnostic power. Resolving powers of R~4000 at 0.5 keV correspond to velocity accuracies of only few tens of km per second, sufficient to separate physical and dynamical phases of the low red shift photo-ionized and shock-heated inter-galactic medium (IGM), investigate mechanical and metal-feedback from galaxies to their surrounding circum- galactic medium (CGM) and IGM, study the physics and kinematics of AGN outflows, probing the dynamics of hot X-ray gas in clusters from their center to their virial radius and beyond, Doppler-mapping X-ray coronae of active stars.

  17. EU Universities’ Mission Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Arcimaviciene


    Full Text Available In the last 10 years, a highly productive space of metaphor analysis has been established in the discourse studies of media, politics, business, and education. In the theoretical framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Critical Discourse Analysis, the restored metaphorical patterns are especially valued for their implied ideological value as realized both conceptually and linguistically. By using the analytical framework of Critical Metaphor Analysis and procedurally employing Pragglejaz Group’s Metaphor Identification Procedure, this study aims at analyzing the implied value of the evoked metaphors in the mission statements of the first 20 European Universities, according to the Webometrics ranking. In this article, it is proposed that Universities’ mission statements are based on the positive evaluation of the COMMERCE metaphor, which does not fully correlate with the ideological framework of sustainability education but is rather oriented toward consumerism in both education and society. Despite this overall trend, there are some traceable features of the conceptualization reflecting the sustainability approach to higher education, as related to freedom of speech, tolerance, and environmental concerns. Nonetheless, these are suppressed by the metaphoric usages evoking traditional dogmas of the conservative ideology grounded in the concepts of the transactional approach to relationship, competitiveness for superiority, the importance of self-interest and strength, and quantifiable quality.

  18. The FAME mission (United States)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.


    The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) space mission will perform an all sky astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will produce an astrometric catalog of 40 million stars between 5th and 15th visual magnitude. For the bright stars (5th to 9th magnitude), FAME will determine the positions and parallaxes to better than 50 μas, with proper motion errors of 70 μas per year. For the fainter stars (between l0th and 15th magnitude), FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 500 μas with proper motions errors less than 500 μas per year. FAME will also collect photometric data on the 40 million stars. The accuracy of a single observation of a 9th magnitude star will be 1 mmag. The FAME mission will impact almost all areas of astrophysics. It will find planets revolving around nearby stars, further studies of stellar evolution, determine the location of dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy, and measure the size and age of the universe. It will also establish a celestial reference frame with an accuracy better than a microarcsecond.

  19. The Gaia mission

    CERN Document Server



    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We...

  20. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  1. STS-78 Mission Insignia (United States)


    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  2. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P.


    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  3. Phobos Sample Return mission (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, A.; Martynov, M.; Polischuk, G.

    Very mysterious objects of the Solar system are the Martian satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Attempt to study Phobos in situ from an orbiter and from landers have been done by the Russian mission FOBOS in 1988. However, due to a malfunction of the onboard control system the landers have not been delivered to the Phobos surface. A new robotics mission to Phobos is under development now in Russia. Its main goal is the delivery of samples of the Phobos surface material to the Earth for laboratory studies of its chemical, isotopic, mineral composition, age etc. Other goals are in situ studies of Phobos (regolith, internal structure, peculiarities in orbital and proper rotation), studies of Martian environment (dust, plasma, fields). The payload includes a number of scientific instruments: gamma and neutron spectrometers, gaschromatograph, mass spectrometers, IR spectrometer, seismometer, panoramic camera, dust sensor, plasma package. To implement the tasks of this mission a cruise-transfer spacecraft after the launch and the Earth-Mars interplanetary flight will be inserted into the first elliptical orbit around Mars, then after several corrections the spacecraft orbit will be formed very close to the Phobos orbit to keep the synchronous orbiting with Phobos. Then the spacecraft will encounter with Phobos and will land at the surface. After the landing the sampling device of the spacecraft will collect several samples of the Phobos regolith and will load these samples into the return capsule mounted at the returned vehicle. This returned vehicle will be launched from the mother spacecraft and after the Mars-Earth interplanetary flight after 11 monthes with reach the terrestrial atmosphere. Before entering into the atmosphere the returned capsule will be separated from the returned vehicle and will hopefully land at the Earth surface. The mother spacecraft at the Phobos surface carrying onboard scientific instruments will implement the "in situ" experiments during an year

  4. Descope of the ALIA mission

    CERN Document Server

    Gong, Xuefei; Xu, Shengnian; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Bai, Shan; Bian, Xing; Cao, Zhoujian; Chen, Gerui; Chen, Xian; Ding, Yanwei; Dong, Peng; Gao, Wei; Heinzel, Gerhard; Li, Ming; Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Luo, Ziren; Shao, Mingxue; Spurzem, Rainer; Sun, Baosan; Tang, Wenlin; Wang, Yan; Xu, Peng; Yu, Pin; Yuan, Yefei; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhou, Zebing


    The present work reports on a feasibility study commissioned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences of China to explore various possible mission options to detect gravitational waves in space alternative to that of the eLISA/LISA mission concept. Based on the relative merits assigned to science and technological viability, a few representative mission options descoped from the ALIA mission are considered. A semi-analytic Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to understand the cosmic black hole merger histories starting from intermediate mass black holes at high redshift as well as the possible scientific merits of the mission options considered in probing the light seed black holes and their coevolution with galaxies in early Universe. The study indicates that, by choosing the armlength of the interferometer to be three million kilometers and shifting the sensitivity floor to around one-hundredth Hz, together with a very moderate improvement on the position noise budget, there are certain mission options capable ...

  5. The Messenger Mission to Mercury

    CERN Document Server

    Domingue, D. L


    NASA’s MESSENGER mission, launched on 3 August, 2004 is the seventh mission in the Discovery series. MESSENGER encounters the planet Mercury four times, culminating with an insertion into orbit on 18 March 2011. It carries a comprehensive package of geophysical, geological, geochemical, and space environment experiments to complete the complex investigations of this solar-system end member, which begun with Mariner 10. The articles in this book, written by the experts in each area of the MESSENGER mission, describe the mission, spacecraft, scientific objectives, and payload. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the MESSENGER mission, to those studying the nature of the planet Mercury, and by all those interested in the design and implementation of planetary exploration missions.

  6. Manned Mars mission cost estimate (United States)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith


    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  7. The INTEGRAL mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Di Cocco, G.;


    The ESA observatory INTEGRAL (International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (2.5 keV FWHM @ 1 MeV) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12 arcmin FWHM) of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV with concurrent source monitoring......-angular resolution imaging (15 keV-10 MeV). Two monitors, JEM-X (Lund et al. 2003) in the (3-35) keV X-ray band, and OMC (Mas-Hesse et al. 2003) in optical Johnson V-band complement the payload. The ground segment includes the Mission Operations Centre at ESOC, ESA and NASA ground stations, the Science Operations...

  8. The Planck mission

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, François R


    These lecture from the 100th Les Houches summer school on "Post-planck cosmology" of July 2013 discuss some aspects of the Planck mission, whose prime objective was a very accurate measurement of the temperature anisotropies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). We announced our findings a few months ago, on March 21$^{st}$, 2013. I describe some of the relevant steps we took to obtain these results, sketching the measurement process, how we processed the data to obtain full sky maps at 9 different frequencies, and how we extracted the CMB temperature anisotropies map and angular power spectrum. I conclude by describing some of the main cosmological implications of the statistical characteristics of the CMB we found. Of course, this is a very much shortened and somewhat biased view of the \\Planck\\ 2013 results, written with the hope that it may lead some of the students to consult the original papers.

  9. The Sunrise Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Barthol, Peter; Solanki, Sami K; Schüssler, Manfred; Chares, Bernd; Curdt, Werner; Deutsch, Werner; Feller, Alex; Germerott, Dietmar; Grauf, Bianca; Heerlein, Klaus; Hirzberger, Johann; Kolleck, Martin; Meller, Reinhard; Müller, Reinhard; Riethmüller, Tino L; Tomasch, Georg; Knölker, Michael; Lites, Bruce W; Card, Greg; Elmore, David; Fox, Jack; Lecinski, Alice; Nelson, Peter; Summers, Richard; Watt, Andrew; Pillet, Valentin Martínez; Bonet, Jose Antonio; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Berkefeld, Thomas; Title, Alan M; Domingo, Vicente; Blesa, Jose Luis Gasent; Iniesta, Jose Carlos del Toro; Jiménez, Antonio López; Álvarez-Herrero, Alberto; Sabau-Graziati, Lola; Widani, Christoph; Haberler, Peter; Härtel, Klaus; Kampf, Dirk; Levin, Thorsten; Grande, Isabel Pérez; Sanz-Andrés, Angel; Schmidt, Elke


    The first science flight of the balloon-borne \\Sunrise telescope took place in June 2009 from ESRANGE (near Kiruna/Sweden) to Somerset Island in northern Canada. We describe the scientific aims and mission concept of the project and give an overview and a description of the various hardware components: the 1-m main telescope with its postfocus science instruments (the UV filter imager SuFI and the imaging vector magnetograph IMaX) and support instruments (image stabilizing and light distribution system ISLiD and correlating wavefront sensor CWS), the optomechanical support structure and the instrument mounting concept, the gondola structure and the power, pointing, and telemetry systems, and the general electronics architecture. We also explain the optimization of the structural and thermal design of the complete payload. The preparations for the science flight are described, including AIV and ground calibration of the instruments. The course of events during the science flight is outlined, up to the recovery...

  10. Mission planning for autonomous systems (United States)

    Pearson, G.


    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  11. SEPAC: Spacelab Mission 1 report (United States)


    The SEPAC Spacelab Mission 1 activities relevant to software operations are reported. Spacelab events and problems that did not directly affect SEPAC but are of interest to experimenters are included. Spacelab Mission 1 was launched from KSC on 28 November 1983 at 10:10 Huntsville time. The Spacelab Mission met its objectives. There were two major problems associated with SEPAC: the loss of the EBA gun and the RAU 21.

  12. The CATSAT Student Explorer Mission


    Forrest, D. J.; Levenson, K.; Vestrand, W. T.; Reister, K.; J. Smith; Wood, C.; Williams, C.; Whitford, C.; Watcon, D.; Owens, A.


    CATSAT (Cooperative Astrophysical and Technology SATellite) is one of three missions being developed under NASA/USRA's Student Explorer Demonstration Initiative (STEDI) for launch in 1997-98. STEDI is a pilot program to "assess the efficacy of smaller, low-cost spaceflight missions ... that is matched to the traditional process of research and development at universities". This program allows $4 million and 2-3 years for all aspects of the mission, i.e. instrument and satellite development, i...

  13. Do trade missions increase trade?


    Head, Keith; Ries, John


    In an effort to stimulate trade, Canada has conducted regular trade missions starting in 1994, often led by the Prime Minister. According to the Canadian government, these missions generated tens of billions of dollars in new business deals. This paper uses bilateral trade data to assess this claim. We find that Canada exports and imports above-normal amounts to the countries to which it sent trade missions. However, the missions do not seem to have caused an increase in trade. In the preferr...

  14. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  15. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission (United States)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  16. Simulation of Mission Phases (United States)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury


    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  17. Disruptive Propulsive Technologies for European Space Missions


    Koppel, Christophe; Valentin, Dominique; Blott, Richard; Jansen, Frank; Ferrari, Claudio; Bruno, Claudio; Herdrich, Georg; Gabrielli, Roland


    Advanced space technologies have been reviewed and analysed in view of heavy interplanetary missions of interest for Europe and European industry capabilities. Among the missions of interest: o Heavy robotic missions to outer planets, o Asteroid deflection missions, o Interplanetary manned mission (at longer term). These missions involve high speed increments, generally beyond the capability of chemical propulsion (except if gravitational swing-by can be used). For missions bey...

  18. Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin. (United States)

    Heaton, Moss, Ed.


    Written by history students at Gary High School, Gary, Texas, this issue includes two articles relevant to East Texas history. "Mission Dolores and Jim Corbin," (Moss Heaton and others) is a summary of material presented by Professor James Corbin about the early Spanish presence in East Texas. The first attempt at setting up a mission was in 1690…

  19. ESA CHEOPS mission: development status (United States)

    Rando, N.; Asquier, J.; Corral Van Damme, C.; Isaak, K.; Ratti, F.; Safa, F.; Southworth, R.; Broeg, C.; Benz, W.


    The European Space Agency (ESA) Science Programme Committee (SPC) selected CHEOPS (Characterizing Exoplanets Satellite) in October 2012 as the first S-class mission (S1) within the Agency's Scientific Programme, targeting launch readiness by the end of 2017. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry. It is implemented as a partnership between ESA and a consortium of Member States led by Switzerland. CHEOPS is considered as a pilot case for implementing "small science missions" in ESA with the following requirements: science driven missions selected through an open Call for missions (bottom-up process); spacecraft development schedule much shorter than for M and L missions, in the range of 4 years; and cost-capped missions to ESA with possibly higher Member States involvement than for M or L missions. The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

  20. Mission management aircraft operations manual (United States)


    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  1. Odyssey: a Solar System Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Christophe, B; Anderson, J D; Asmar, S; Bério, Ph; Bertolami, O; Bingham, R; Bondu, F; Bouyer, Ph; Bremer, S; Brillet, A; Courty, J-M; Dittus, H; Foulon, B; Gil, P; Johann, U; Jordan, J F; Kent, B; Lämmerzahl, C; Lévy, A; Métris, G; Nock, K T; Olsen, Ø; Páramos, J; Prestage, J D; Progrebenko, S V; Rasel, E; Rathke, A; Reynaud, S; Rievers, B; Samain, E; Sumner, T J; Theil, S; Touboul, P; Turyshev, S; Vrancken, P; Wolf, P; Yu, N


    The Solar System Odyssey mission uses modern-day high-precision experimental techniques to answer some of the important questions on the laws of fundamental physics which determine dynamics in the solar system. It could lead to a major discovery by using readily available technologies and could be flown early within the Cosmic Vision time frame. The mission proposes to perform a set of precision gravitation experiments from the vicinity of Earth to the deep Solar System far beyond the orbit of known planets: verification of gravity in the deep Solar System, measurement of Eddington's parameter, investigation on fly-by anomaly, mapping of gravity field in the outer solar system. The Odyssey mission focuses its efforts on the challenge of designing a deep space mission within the cost of 300Meuros. This challenge restricts the main mission design choices (launcher, energy and payload options) and trade-offs in science goals. The payload definition emphasises demonstrated technology, with non gravitational force...

  2. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  3. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy's Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation's spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs

  4. UNAIDS: mission and roles. (United States)


    The UN has responded to the ongoing AIDS crisis by creating a new Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). UNAIDS is the AIDS program of six UN agencies (UNICEF; the Development Programme; the Population Fund; the Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization; the World Health Organization, and the World Bank). The mission of UNAIDS is to lead a multisectoral effort to prevent HIV transmission, provide care and support, alleviate the impact of the epidemic, and reduce vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Thus, UNAIDS will operate in the areas of policy development and research, technical support, and advocacy. UNAIDS has had an executive director since January 1995, and a formal review of its strategic plan was scheduled for November 1995. At the country level, country representatives of the various agencies that make up UNAIDS will meet regularly to plan, program, and evaluate their HIV/AIDS activities. UNAIDS staff will be available to aid the country efforts. While UNAIDS will assume most of the global-level activities of its six cosponsor agencies, each agency will integrate HIV/AIDS considerations into their ongoing efforts.

  5. Analysis on the Realistic Diplomacy of the Abe Administration toward ASEAN%日本安倍政府对东盟的现实主义外交刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    日本安倍政府“巧妙”利用与东盟建立友好合作关系40周年的重要节点,通过频繁的政治互动与密集的经济合作,深化了日本与东盟在地区政治、经济、安全等各个维度上的政策拟合度。不仅如此,迫于现实与战略层面的利益考虑,安倍政府试图借助政治拉拢与经济控制,把东盟塑造成“遏制中国发展”的潜在战略盟友。但由于存在过分强调主观意志、工具主义与利益至上等严重的局限性,日本安倍政府对东盟的外交战略注定无法达到预期效果,也难以在现实层面拉拢东盟构筑对华包围圈。%The Abe asministration les by the rightists“skillfully”makes use of the 40 th anniversary of the friensly cooperative relations between Japan ans ASEAN to increase the fitting segree of policies between the two in fielss inclusing politics,economics ans security through frequent political interaction ans economic cooperation. Moreo-ver,forces by the interests in realistic ans strategic levels,the Abe asministration attempts to establish ASEAN a potential strategic ally of“containing Chinese sevelopment”by roping it in politically ans controlling it economical-ly. Nonetheless,sue to the restrictions causes by its stressing too much on subjective will,instrumentalist ans in-terests-first principles,it is soomes that Japanese siplomacy towars ASEAN can neither meet its expectations nor sraw ASEAN in builsing an encirclement targetes China on a practical level.

  6. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission (United States)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila


    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  7. Multi-mission Satellite Management (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.


    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  8. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (United States)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection?
In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  9. STS-99 / Endeavour Mission Overview (United States)


    The primary objective of the STS-99 mission was to complete high resolution mapping of large sections of the Earth's surface using the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). This radar system will produce unrivaled 3-D images of the Earth's Surface. This videotape presents a mission overview press briefing. The panel members are Dr. Ghassem Asrar, NASA Associate Administrator Earth Sciences; General James C. King, Director National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA); Professor Achim Bachem, Member of the Executive Board, Deutschen Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German National Aerospace Research Center; and Professor Sergio Deiulio, President of the Italian Space Agency. Dr. Asrar opened with a summary of the history of Earth Observations from space, relating the SRTM to this history. This mission, due to cost and complexity, required partnership with other agencies and nations, and the active participation of the astronauts. General King spoke to the expectations of NIMA, and the use of the Synthetic Aperture Radar to produce the high resolution topographic images. Dr. Achim Bachem spoke about the international cooperation that this mission required, and some of the commercial applications and companies that will use this data. Dr Deiulio spoke of future plans to improve knowledge of the Earth using satellites. Questions from the press concerned use of the information for military actions, the reason for the restriction on access to the higher resolution data, the mechanism to acquire that data for scientific research, and the cost sharing from the mission's partners. There was also discussion about the mission's length.

  10. The Science of Mission Assurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Jabbour


    Full Text Available The intent of this article is to describe—and prescribe—a scientific framework for assuring mission essential functions in a contested cyber environment. Such a framework has profound national security implications as the American military increasingly depends on cyberspace to execute critical mission sets. In setting forth this prescribed course of action, the article will first decompose information systems into atomic processes that manipulate information at all six phases of the information lifecycle, then systematically define the mathematical rules that govern mission assurance.

  11. The Ulysses mission: An introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, R.G. [Space Science Dept. of ESA, Estec, Noordwijk (Netherlands)


    On 30 September 1995, Ulysses completed its initial, highly successful, survey of the polar regions of the heliosphere in both southern and northern hemispheres, thereby fulfilling its prime mission. The results obtained to date are leading to a revision of many earlier ideas concerning the solar wind and the heliosphere. Now embarking on the second phase of the mission, Ulysses will continue along its out-of-ecliptic flight path for another complete orbit of the Sun. In contrast to the high-latitude phase of the prime mission, which occurred near solar minimum, the next polar passes (in 2000 and 2001) will take place when the Sun is at its most active.

  12. 代盐剂ABE在棉织物活性低盐染色中的应用%Application of a salt substitute ABE to low-salt reactive dyeing of cotton fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房莉; 陈英; 张迎春; 何鹰


    将棉织物煮漂与代盐剂ABE预处理进行一浴一步法前处理,探讨了代盐剂种类及用量、中温型练染酶LS用量、双氧水(30%)用量、处理温度及时间对棉织物低盐活性染料染色效果的影响.通过正交试验获得的优化工艺为:代盐剂ABE 7 g/L,碱剂EH1 g/L,LS酶3.5 g/L,双氧水(30%)3 g/L,处理温度98℃,时间30 min,浴比1:50;结果表明,相比传统的活性染料染色,织物经一步法前处理后,再经低盐染色碱S固色,可减少无机盐用量50%~75%,染色织物得色均匀,皂洗牢度和耐摩擦牢度均达到服用要求.

  13. Japan-Africa Trade Relationship and Abe Regime’s Policy towards Africa Economy%日非经贸关系及安倍政权的对非经济政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石其宝; 程永明


    Japanese government has been developing the economic relationship toward Africa for several decades, but the progress is slow. Japanese academic circles and economic circles often criticized the Japanese government that they didn’t pay enough attention to Africa. After 1990s, Japan made full use of the platform of Tokyo International Conference on African Development (TICAD) to increase the focus on Africa in the full range. Especially, the Abe regime launched a series of economic policies to Africa, aiming at strengthening economic relations with each state in Africa, and seeking more economic interests and international discourse right.%日本对非经济关系虽然已有数十年的历史,但进展缓慢,日本学界及经济界也常常批评日本政府对非洲不够重视。90年代以后日本充分利用非洲发展会议(TICAD)这一平台,全方位地加大了对非洲的关注力度,尤其是目前的安倍政权更是推出了一系列的非洲经济政策,旨在增强同非洲各国的经济关系,谋求更多的经济利益和国际话语权。

  14. 安倍晋三再执政以来的中日关系困境探析%An Analysis on the Dilemma of Sino-Japanese Relations Since Shinzo Abe Taking Office

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马修松; 刘健


    中日两国关系自安倍晋三再执政以来陷入了困境,不利于两国经济的发展,也不利于东亚地区的稳定和发展。造成中日关系的紧张局面有其深刻的历史原因。由于政治上的互不信任、经济上的竞争、军事上的对抗、冷战思维的延续等因素,中日两国面临着安全困境。中日两国需要采取实际行动来改善中日关系,走出困境。%The relations between China and Japan have got into dilemma since Shinzo Abe took office. This situation is not good for the stability and development of East Asia.There are profound historical rea-sons which are made this intension situation.China and Japan have to face security dilemma because of the political mutual trust,economic competition,military confrontation,cold war thinking extension and other factors.Therefore,the two countries should take action to improve relations,and that would help improve the relations between China and Japan .

  15. Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (United States)


    Tropical rainfall affects the lives and economics of a majority of the Earth's population. Tropical rain systems, such as hurricanes, typhoons, and monsoons, are crucial to sustaining the livelihoods of those living in the tropics. Excess rainfall can cause floods and great property and crop damage, whereas too little rainfall can cause drought and crop failure. The latent heat release during the process of precipitation is a major source of energy that drives the atmospheric circulation. This latent heat can intensify weather systems, affecting weather thousands of kilometers away, thus making tropical rainfall an important indicator of atmospheric circulation and short-term climate change. Tropical forests and the underlying soils are major sources of many of the atmosphere's trace constituents. Together, the forests and the atmosphere act as a water-energy regulating system. Most of the rainfall is returned to the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration, and the atmospheric trace constituents take part in the recycling process. Hence, the hydrological cycle provides a direct link between tropical rainfall and the global cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur, all important trace materials for the Earth's system. Because rainfall is such an important component in the interactions between the ocean, atmosphere, land, and the biosphere, accurate measurements of rainfall are crucial to understanding the workings of the Earth-atmosphere system. The large spatial and temporal variability of rainfall systems, however, poses a major challenge to estimating global rainfall. So far, there has been a lack of rain gauge networks, especially over the oceans, which points to satellite measurement as the only means by which global observation of rainfall can be made. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States and the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of

  16. EOS Terra: Mission Status Constellation MOWG (United States)

    Mantziaras, Dimitrios


    This EOS Terra Mission Status Constellation MOWG will discuss mission summary; spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities; inclination adjust maneuvers, conjunction history, propellant usage and lifetime estimate; and end of mission plan.

  17. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) (United States)

    Hughes, Steven P. (Compiler)


    This is a software tutorial and presentation demonstrating the application of the General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) to the critical design phase of NASA missions. The demonstration discusses GMAT basics, then presents a detailed example of GMAT application to the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission. Other examples include OSIRIS-Rex. This talk is a combination of existing presentations; a GMAT basics and overview, and technical presentations from the TESS and OSIRIS-REx projects on their application of GMAT to critical mission design. The GMAT basics slides are taken from the open source training material. The OSIRIS-REx slides are from a previous conference presentation. The TESS slides are a streamlined version of the CDR package provided by the project with SBU and ITAR data removed by the TESS project.

  18. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV (United States)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert


    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  19. Urinary albumin in space missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina;


    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody...... radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity)....

  20. KEPLER Mission: development and overview. (United States)

    Borucki, William J


    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth. PMID:26863223

  1. KEPLER Mission: development and overview (United States)

    Borucki, William J.


    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170 000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many ‘blind alleys’ before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170 000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  2. KEPLER Mission: development and overview. (United States)

    Borucki, William J


    The Kepler Mission is a space observatory launched in 2009 by NASA to monitor 170,000 stars over a period of four years to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in and near the habitable zone of Sun-like stars, the size and orbital distributions of these planets, and the types of stars they orbit. Kepler is the tenth in the series of NASA Discovery Program missions that are competitively-selected, PI-directed, medium-cost missions. The Mission concept and various instrument prototypes were developed at the Ames Research Center over a period of 18 years starting in 1983. The development of techniques to do the 10 ppm photometry required for Mission success took years of experimentation, several workshops, and the exploration of many 'blind alleys' before the construction of the flight instrument. Beginning in 1992 at the start of the NASA Discovery Program, the Kepler Mission concept was proposed five times before its acceptance for mission development in 2001. During that period, the concept evolved from a photometer in an L2 orbit that monitored 6000 stars in a 50 sq deg field-of-view (FOV) to one that was in a heliocentric orbit that simultaneously monitored 170,000 stars with a 105 sq deg FOV. Analysis of the data to date has detected over 4600 planetary candidates which include several hundred Earth-size planetary candidates, over a thousand confirmed planets, and Earth-size planets in the habitable zone (HZ). These discoveries provide the information required for estimates of the frequency of planets in our galaxy. The Mission results show that most stars have planets, many of these planets are similar in size to the Earth, and that systems with several planets are common. Although planets in the HZ are common, many are substantially larger than Earth.

  3. Surgery in a mission hospital.


    Hankins, G. W.


    The western-trained surgeon working in a mission hospital in a developing country finds that in spite of the heavy demands placed upon him the work can be most absorbing, challenging, and satisfying. Some impressions gained during 31/2 years working in the department of surgery of a mission hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, are recorded. Particular reference is made to the striking differences in disease incidence, as brought out in a review of operative surgery for 1977.

  4. Rosetta mission operations for landing (United States)

    Accomazzo, Andrea; Lodiot, Sylvain; Companys, Vicente


    The International Rosetta Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) was launched on 2nd March 2004 on its 10 year journey to comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko and has reached it early August 2014. The main mission objectives were to perform close observations of the comet nucleus throughout its orbit around the Sun and deliver the lander Philae to its surface. This paper describers the activities at mission operations level that allowed the landing of Philae. The landing preparation phase was mainly characterised by the definition of the landing selection process, to which several parties contributed, and by the definition of the strategy for comet characterisation, the orbital strategy for lander delivery, and the definition and validation of the operations timeline. The definition of the landing site selection process involved almost all components of the mission team; Rosetta has been the first, and so far only mission, that could not rely on data collected by previous missions for the landing site selection. This forced the teams to include an intensive observation campaign as a mandatory part of the process; several science teams actively contributed to this campaign thus making results from science observations part of the mandatory operational products. The time allocated to the comet characterisation phase was in the order of a few weeks and all the processes, tools, and interfaces required an extensive planning an validation. Being the descent of Philae purely ballistic, the main driver for the orbital strategy was the capability to accurately control the position and velocity of Rosetta at Philae's separation. The resulting operations timeline had to merge this need of frequent orbit determination and control with the complexity of the ground segment and the inherent risk of problems when doing critical activities in short times. This paper describes the contribution of the Mission Control Centre (MOC) at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) to this

  5. SpinSat Mission Overview


    Nicholas, Andrew; Finne, Ted; Galysh, Ivan; Mai, Anthony; Yen, Jim; Sawka, Wayne; Ransdell, Jeff; Williams, Shae


    The SpinSat flight is a small satellite mission proposed by the Naval Research Laboratory and Digital Solid State Propulsion (DSSP) LLC to demonstrate and characterize the on-orbit performance of electrically controlled solid propellant technology in space. This is an enabling technology for the small satellite community that will allow small satellites to perform maneuvers. The mission consists of a 22-inch diameter spherical spacecraft fitted with Electrically Controlled Solid Propellant th...

  6. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  7. Mission Design Overview for the Phoenix Mars Scout Mission (United States)

    Garcia, Mark D.; Fujii, Kenneth K.


    The Phoenix mission "follows the water" by landing in a region where NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter has discovered evidence of ice-rich soil very near the Martian surface. For three months after landing, the fixed Lander will perform in-situ and remote sensing investigations that will characterize the chemistry of the materials at the local surface, sub-surface, and atmosphere, and will identify potential provenance of key indicator elements of significance to the biological potential of Mars, including potential organics and any accessible water ice. The Lander will employ a robotic arm to dig to the ice layer, and will analyze the acquired samples using a suite of deck-mounted, science instruments. The development of the baseline strategy to achieve the objectives of this mission involves the integration of a variety of elements into a coherent mission plan.

  8. Flora: A Proposed Hyperspectral Mission (United States)

    Ungar, Stephen; Asner, Gregory; Green, Robert; Knox, Robert


    In early 2004, one of the authors (Stephen Ungar, NASA GSFC) presented a mission concept called "Spectrasat" at the AVIRIS Workshop in Pasadena, CA. This mission concept grew out of the lessons learned from the Earth Observing-One (EO-1) Hyperion Imaging Spectrometer and was structured to more effectively accomplish the types of studies conducted with Hyperion. The Spectrasat concept represented an evolution of the technologies and operation strategies employed on EO-I. The Spectrasat concept had been preceded by two community-based missions proposed by Susan Ustin, UC Davis and Robert Green, NASA JPL. As a result of community participation, starting at this AVIRIS Workshop, the Spectrasat proposal evolved into the Flora concept which now represents the combined visions of Gregory Asner (Carnegie Institute), Stephen Ungar, Robert Green and Robert Knox, NASA GSFC. Flora is a proposed imaging spectrometer mission, designed to address global carbon cycle science issues. This mission centers on measuring ecological disturbance for purposes of ascertaining changes in global carbon stocks and draws heavily on experience gained through AVIRIS airborne flights and Hyperion space born flights. The observing strategy exploits the improved ability of imaging spectrometers, as compared with multi-spectral observing systems, to identify vegetation functional groups, detect ecosystem response to disturbance and assess the related discovery. Flora will be placed in a sun synchronous orbit, with a 45 meter pixel size, a 90 km swath width and a 31 day repeat cycle. It covers the spectral range from 0.4 to 2.5 micrometers with a spectral sampling interval of 10 nm. These specifications meet the needs of the Flora science team under the leadership of Gregory Asner. Robert Green, has introduced a spectrometer design for Flora which is expected to have a SNR of 600: 1 in the VNIR and 450: 1 in the SWIR. The mission team at NASA GSFC is designing an Intelligent Payload Module (IPM

  9. Austere Human Missions to Mars (United States)

    Price, Hoppy; Hawkins, Alisa; Radcliffe, Torrey


    This slide presentation reviews a possible mission architecture for a more austere Mars mission, than the one developed by NASA outlined in the Design Reference Architecture 5 (DRA 5). "Austere" architecture is scaled back from DRA 5 and might offer lower development cost, lower flight cost, and lower development risk. This approach will not meet all the DRA 5 mission requirements. Included in the presentation are the elements of an Austere mission, diagrams of the trans-Mars injection (TMI), cruise, and Mars Orbital Insertion for various phases of the mission, the entry descent landing (EDL) concept. The key features of the Transit Habitat (TransHab), the Earth Departure Stage (EDS), the landers, are reviewed. A chart shows the Mass in tons, of the conceptual types of Mars Landers. The EDL concept, EDL Phase diagrams for the Mars Lander are reviewed. New technologies that would be required are also reviewed. Flight test programs for the various parts of the architecture and a flight schedule are reviewed.

  10. 309 Building deactivation mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of the 309 Building (Plutonium Fuels Utilization Program) Deactivation Project mission analysis. Hanford systems engineering (SE) procedures call for a mission analysis. The mission analysis is an important first step in the SE process. The functions and requirements to successfully accomplish this mission, the selected alternatives and products will later be defined using the SE process

  11. No Mission, No Money: No Money, No Mission (United States)

    Durel, John W.


    Museum leaders around the country are in the midst of examining and changing their business models in response to new economic realities. Museum educators have an opportunity to play a leading role in this endeavor. To do so educators must understand the relationship between money and mission. For too long there has been a belief that the…

  12. The WAXS/WFXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Chincarini, G L


    I present the science goals and give a brief summary of the Wide Angle X-ray survey with a Wide Field X-ray Telescope (WAXS/WFXT) mission proposal (Phase A) which will be submitted to the Italian Space Agency (ASI) following the call for proposal under the Small Satellite program. The text points out the uniqueness of the mission for the study of the evolution of clusters of galaxies and of the Large-Scale Structure at large redshifts and for the study of the Milky Way. I present, furthermore, the successful result of the metrology of the first wide field X-ray optics ever made.

  13. Lunar South Pole Mission (LSPM) :


    Hobbs, Stephen


    This report is a summary of the group design project of the MSc in Astronautics and Space Engineering at Cranfield University for the year 1996/97. The project was a feasibility study of a European unmanned mission to the lunar south pole to carry out scientific study. The mission proposed uses two spacecraft: (1) an orbiter to take images of the proposed landing site, to measure the Moon’s gravitational field, and to act as a communications relay, and (2) a larger lander wh...

  14. The virtual mission approach: Empowering earth and space science missions (United States)

    Hansen, Elaine


    Future Earth and Space Science missions will address increasingly broad and complex scientific issues. To accomplish this task, we will need to acquire and coordinate data sets from a number of different instrumetns, to make coordinated observations of a given phenomenon, and to coordinate the operation of the many individual instruments making these observations. These instruments will need to be used together as a single ``Virtual Mission.'' This coordinated approach is complicated in that these scientific instruments will generally be on different platforms, in different orbits, from different control centers, at different institutions, and report to different user groups. Before this Virtual Mission approach can be implemented, techniques need to be developed to enable separate instruments to work together harmoniously, to execute observing sequences in a synchronized manner, and to be managed by the Virtual Mission authority during times of these coordinated activities. Enabling technologies include object-oriented designed approaches, extended operations management concepts and distributed computing techniques. Once these technologies are developed and the Virtual Mission concept is available, we believe the concept will provide NASA's Science Program with a new, ``go-as-you-pay,'' flexible, and resilient way of accomplishing its science observing program. The concept will foster the use of smaller and lower cost satellites. It will enable the fleet of scientific satellites to evolve in directions that best meet prevailing science needs. It will empower scientists by enabling them to mix and match various combinations of in-space, ground, and suborbital instruments - combinations which can be called up quickly in response to new events or discoveries. And, it will enable small groups such as universities, Space Grant colleges, and small businesses to participate significantly in the program by developing small components of this evolving scientific fleet.

  15. New Horizons Mission to Pluto (United States)

    Delgado, Luis G.


    This slide presentation reviews the trajectory that will take the New Horizons Mission to Pluto. Included are photographs of the spacecraft, the launch vehicle, the assembled vehicle as it is being moved to the launch pad and the launch. Also shown are diagrams of the assembled parts with identifying part names.

  16. Pluto Express: Mission to Pluto (United States)

    Giuliano, J. A.


    Pluto is the smallest, outermost and last-discovered planet in the Solar System and the only one that has never been visited by a spacecraft from Earth. Pluto and its relatively large satellite Charon are the destinations of a proposed spacecraft mission for the next decade, being developed for NASA by scientists and engineers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  17. Planned CMB Satellite Mission Overview (United States)

    Lee, Adrian


    I will summarize space missions that are in the planning stage to measure the polarized spatial fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Space missions are complementary to ground-based observatories. First, the absence of atmospheric emission results in a wider range of frequencies that can be observed, which in turn improves removal of galactic foreground emission. Second, the stable observations possible from space give high-fidelity measurements at angular scales of tens of degrees where inflation theory predicts a peak in the B-mode angular power spectrum. Robust detection of both this ``reionization'' peak and the ``recombination'' peak at degree angular scales will give the most convincing case that the fingerprints of inflation have been detected. CMB polarization space missions in the planning stage include CORE+, LiteBIRD, and PIXIE. Science goals for all these missions include the detection and characterization of inflation and the characterization of the reionization epoch. CORE+ and LiteBIRD are imaging telescopes with sub-Kelvin superconducting focal-plane detector arrays with several thousand detectors. PIXIE is a two-beam differential spectrometer that will measure the Planck spectrum of the CMB in addition to searching for inflation.

  18. Catholic Higher Education as Mission (United States)

    Lowery, Daniel


    This article uses the work of Anthony J. Gittins to reframe our understanding of Catholic higher education as mission. The broad adoption of this framework would require a common intellectual foundation, the possibility of which is dismissed by many. An accessible ontology is implied, however, in the existential analysis and theology of Karl…

  19. Mission Statements: One More Time. (United States)

    Detomasi, Don


    It is argued that well-conceived college and university mission statements can be useful in setting objectives for planning and for public information dissemination and marketing. The experience of the University of Calgary (Alberta) illustrates a successful process of drafting and reaching agreement on such a document. (MSE)

  20. The Europa Ocean Discovery mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, B.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chyba, C.F. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Abshire, J.B. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Goddard Space Flight Center] [and others


    Since it was first proposed that tidal heating of Europa by Jupiter might lead to liquid water oceans below Europa`s ice cover, there has been speculation over the possible exobiological implications of such an ocean. Liquid water is the essential ingredient for life as it is known, and the existence of a second water ocean in the Solar System would be of paramount importance for seeking the origin and existence of life beyond Earth. The authors present here a Discovery-class mission concept (Europa Ocean Discovery) to determine the existence of a liquid water ocean on Europa and to characterize Europa`s surface structure. The technical goal of the Europa Ocean Discovery mission is to study Europa with an orbiting spacecraft. This goal is challenging but entirely feasible within the Discovery envelope. There are four key challenges: entering Europan orbit, generating power, surviving long enough in the radiation environment to return valuable science, and complete the mission within the Discovery program`s launch vehicle and budget constraints. The authors will present here a viable mission that meets these challenges.

  1. The Europa Clipper Mission Concept (United States)

    Pappalardo, Robert; Goldstein, Barry; Magner, Thomas; Prockter, Louise; Senske, David; Paczkowski, Brian; Cooke, Brian; Vance, Steve; Wes Patterson, G.; Craft, Kate


    A NASA-appointed Science Definition Team (SDT), working closely with a technical team from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), recently considered options for a future strategic mission to Europa, with the stated science goal: Explore Europa to investigate its habitability. The group considered several mission options, which were fully technically developed, then costed and reviewed by technical review boards and planetary science community groups. There was strong convergence on a favored architecture consisting of a spacecraft in Jupiter orbit making many close flybys of Europa, concentrating on remote sensing to explore the moon. Innovative mission design would use gravitational perturbations of the spacecraft trajectory to permit flybys at a wide variety of latitudes and longitudes, enabling globally distributed regional coverage of the moon's surface, with nominally 45 close flybys at altitudes from 25 to 100 km. We will present the science and reconnaissance goals and objectives, a mission design overview, and the notional spacecraft for this concept, which has become known as the Europa Clipper. The Europa Clipper concept provides a cost-efficient means to explore Europa and investigate its habitability, through understanding the satellite's ice and ocean, composition, and geology. The set of investigations derived from the Europa Clipper science objectives traces to a notional payload for science, consisting of: Ice Penetrating Radar (for sounding of ice-water interfaces within and beneath the ice shell), Topographical Imager (for stereo imaging of the surface), ShortWave Infrared Spectrometer (for surface composition), Neutral Mass Spectrometer (for atmospheric composition), Magnetometer and Langmuir Probes (for inferring the satellite's induction field to characterize an ocean), and Gravity Science (to confirm an ocean).The mission would also include the capability to perform reconnaissance for a future lander

  2. IntroductionThe Cluster mission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fehringer

    Full Text Available The Cluster mission, ESA’s first cornerstone project, together with the SOHO mission, dating back to the first proposals in 1982, was finally launched in the summer of 2000. On 16 July and 9 August, respectively, two Russian Soyuz rockets blasted off from the Russian cosmodrome in Baikonour to deliver two Cluster spacecraft, each into their proper orbit. By the end of August 2000, the four Cluster satellites had reached their final tetrahedral constellation. The commissioning of 44 instruments, both individually and as an ensemble of complementary tools, was completed five months later to ensure the optimal use of their combined observational potential. On 1 February 2001, the mission was declared operational. The main goal of the Cluster mission is to study the small-scale plasma structures in three dimensions in key plasma regions, such as the solar wind, bow shock, magnetopause, polar cusps, magnetotail and the auroral zones. With its unique capabilities of three-dimensional spatial resolution, Cluster plays a major role in the International Solar Terrestrial Program (ISTP, where Cluster and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO are the European contributions. Cluster’s payload consists of state-of-the-art plasma instrumentation to measure electric and magnetic fields from the quasi-static up to high frequencies, and electron and ion distribution functions from energies of nearly 0 eV to a few MeV. The science operations are coordinated by the Joint Science Operations Centre (JSOC, at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (UK, and implemented by the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC, in Darmstadt, Germany. A network of eight national data centres has been set up for raw data processing, for the production of physical parameters, and their distribution to end users all over the world. The latest information on the Cluster mission can be found at

  3. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (United States)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald


    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  4. Multiple Space Debris Collecting Mission -- Optimal Mission Planning

    CERN Document Server

    Cerf, Max


    This paper addresses the problem of planning successive Space Debris Collecting missions so that they can be achieved at minimal cost by a generic vehicle. The problem mixes combinatorial optimization to select and order the debris among a list of candidates, and continuous optimization to fix the rendezvous dates and to define the minimum fuel orbital maneuvers. The solution method proposed consists in three stages. Firstly the orbital transfer problem is simplified by considering a generic transfer strategy suited either to a high thrust or a low thrust vehicle. A response surface modelling is built by solving the reduced problem for all pairs of debris and for discretized dates, and storing the results in cost matrices. Secondly a simulated annealing algorithm is applied to find the optimal mission planning. The cost function is assessed by interpolation on the response surface based on the cost matrices. This allows the convergence of the simulated algorithm in a limited computation time, yielding an opti...

  5. Spacelab life sciences 2 post mission report (United States)

    Buckey, Jay C.


    Jay C. Buckey, M.D., Assistant Professor of Medicine at The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas served as an alternate payload specialist astronaut for the Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Space Shuttle Mission from January 1992 through December 1993. This report summarizes his opinions on the mission and offers suggestions in the areas of selection, training, simulations, baseline data collection and mission operations. The report recognizes the contributions of the commander, payload commander and mission management team to the success of the mission. Dr. Buckey's main accomplishments during the mission are listed.

  6. Status of the DIOS mission (United States)

    Tawara, Y.; Sakurai, I.; Furuzawa, A.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Hoshino, A.; Akamatsu, H.; Ishikawa, K.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Shinozaki, K.; Masui, K.; Yoshino, T.; Hagihara, T.; Kimura, S.; Yoshitake, H.


    We present the current status of a small X-ray mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor), consisting of a 4-stage X-ray telescope and an array of TES microcalorimeters, cooled with mechanical coolers, with a total weight of about 400 kg. The mission will perform survey observations of warm-hot intergalactic medium using OVII and OVIII emission lines, with the energy coverage up to 1.5 keV. The wide field of view of about 50' diameter, superior energy resolution close to 2 eV FWHM, and very low background will together enable us a wide range of science for diffuse X-ray sources. We briefly describe the current status of the development of the satellite, and the subsystems.

  7. The Mercury dual orbiter mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mercury Orbiter (MeO) will carry out a full range of particles, fields, and planetary imaging science at Mercury. Present mission plans call for a launch in 1999 with a flight time of about 4.5 years. By means of multiple Venus and Mercury gravitational assists, the mission can be accomplished with present U.S. launch vehicles and a very large payload can be placed in orbit around Mercury. The dual-spacecraft concept will permit outstanding scientific study of solar cosmic rays and the solar wind throughout the inner heliosphere from 0.3 AU to 1.0 AU. Modest enhancements to the planned magnetospheric instruments and utilization of onboard solar instruments will permit unique investigation of solar particle acceleration and transport with the MeO spacecraft

  8. The GAMMA-400 Space Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cumani, P; Bonvicini, V; Topchiev, N P; Adriani, O; Aptekar, R L; Arkhangelskaja, I V; Arkhangelskiy, A I; Bergstrom, L; Berti, E; Bigongiari, G; Bobkov, S G; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bonechi, S; Bongi, M; Bottai, S; Castellini, G; Cattaneo, P W; Dedenko, G L; De Donato, C; Dogiel, V A; Gorbunov, M S; Gusakov, Yu V; Hnatyk, B I; Kadilin, V V; Kaplin, V A; Kaplun, A A; Kheymits, M D; Korepanov, V E; Larsson, J; Leonov, A A; Loginov, V A; Longo, F; Maestro, P; Marrocchesi, P S; Menshenin, A L; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Moiseev, A A; Mori, N; Moskalenko, I V; Naumov, P Yu; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Popov, A V; Rappoldi, A; Ricciarini, S; Runtso, M F; Ryde, F; Serdin, O V; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Suchkov, S I; Tavani, M; Taraskin, A A; Tiberio, A; Tyurin, E M; Ulanov, M V; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Yurkin, Yu T; Zampa, N; Zirakashvili, V N; Zverev, V G


    GAMMA-400 is a new space mission which will be installed on board the Russian space platform Navigator. It is scheduled to be launched at the beginning of the next decade. GAMMA-400 is designed to study simultaneously gamma rays (up to 3 TeV) and cosmic rays (electrons and positrons from 1 GeV to 20 TeV, nuclei up to 10$^{15}$-10$^{16}$ eV). Being a dual-purpose mission, GAMMA-400 will be able to address some of the most impelling science topics, such as search for signatures of dark matter, cosmic-rays origin and propagation, and the nature of transients. GAMMA-400 will try to solve the unanswered questions on these topics by high-precision measurements of the Galactic and extragalactic gamma-ray sources, Galactic and extragalactic diffuse emission and the spectra of cosmic-ray electrons + positrons and nuclei, thanks to excellent energy and angular resolutions.

  9. Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (United States)

    Pettinger, Ross; Watlington, Tim; Ryley, Richard; Harbour, Jeff


    The Java Mission Evaluation Workstation System (JMEWS) is a collection of applications designed to retrieve, display, and analyze both real-time and recorded telemetry data. This software is currently being used by both the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and the International Space Station (ISS) program. JMEWS was written in the Java programming language to satisfy the requirement of platform independence. An object-oriented design was used to satisfy additional requirements and to make the software easily extendable. By virtue of its platform independence, JMEWS can be used on the UNIX workstations in the Mission Control Center (MCC) and on office computers. JMEWS includes an interactive editor that allows users to easily develop displays that meet their specific needs. The displays can be developed and modified while viewing data. By simply selecting a data source, the user can view real-time, recorded, or test data.

  10. Mission design for LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Landgraf, M; Kemble, S


    Here we describe the mission design for SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder. The best trade-off between the requirements of a low-disturbance environment and communications distance is found to be a free-insertion Lissajous orbit around the first co-linear Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth system L1, 1.5x 10^6 km from Earth. In order to transfer SMART-2/LISA Pathfinder from a low Earth orbit, where it will be placed by a small launcher, the spacecraft carries out a number of apogee-raise manoeuvres, which ultimatively place it to a parabolic escape trajectory towards L1. The challenges of the design of a small mission are met, fulfilling the very demanding technology demonstration requirements without creating excessive requirements on the launch system or the ground segment.

  11. New ESA Earth Explorer Missions (United States)

    Herland, E.


    The European Space Agency has recently selected a set of six mission candidates for its next Earth Explorer Core mission. This mission will be launched in the beginning of the next decade, and will contribute significantly to Earth science in addition to the already approved six missions in the programme. The scientific priorities for the call for proposals were the global water cycle, the global carbon cycle, atmospheric chemistry and the human element in the Earth system. The presentation will outline the scientific objectives of each of the six mission proposals, and in particular address the potential contribution to the water and energy cycle research and CEOP. The six mission proposals are: BIOMASS global measurements of forest biomass. The measurement is accomplished by a space-borne P-band synthetic aperture polarimetric radar. The technique is mainly based on the measurement of the cross- polar backscattering coefficient, from which forest biomass is directly retrieved. Also uses multipolarization measurements and interferometry. The studies for this mission will include comparative studies to measure terrestrial biomass using P- or L-band and consideration of alternative implementations using L-band. TRAQ TRopospheric composition and Air Quality: Monitoring of air quality and long-range transport of air pollutants. A new synergistic sensor concept for process studies, particularly with respect to aerosol-cloud interactions. Focus on the rate of air quality change on regional and global scales, the strength and distribution of sources and sinks of tropospheric trace gases and aerosols influencing air quality, and the role of tropospheric composition in global change. Carries imaging spectrometers in the range from ultraviolet to short-wave infrared. PREMIER PRocess Exploration through Measurements of Infrared and millimetre-wave Emitted Radiation: Aims at understanding processes that link trace gases, radiation, chemistry and climate in the atmosphere

  12. MIOSAT Mission Scenario and Design (United States)

    Agostara, C.; Dionisio, C.; Sgroi, G.; di Salvo, A.


    MIOSAT ("Mssione Ottica su microSATellite") is a low-cost technological / scientific microsatellite mission for Earth Observation, funded by Italian Space Agency (ASI) and managed by a Group Agreement between Rheinmetall Italia - B.U. Spazio - Contraves as leader and Carlo Gavazzi Space as satellite manufacturer. Several others Italians Companies, SME and Universities are involved in the development team with crucial roles. MIOSAT is a microsatellite weighting around 120 kg and placed in a 525 km altitude sun-synchronuos circular LEO orbit. The microsatellite embarks three innovative optical payloads: Sagnac multi spectral radiometer (IFAC-CNR), Mach Zehender spectrometer (IMM-CNR), high resolution pancromatic camera (Selex Galileo). In addition three technological experiments will be tested in-flight. The first one is an heat pipe based on Marangoni effect with high efficiency. The second is a high accuracy Sun Sensor using COTS components and the last is a GNSS SW receiver that utilizes a Leon2 processor. Finally a new generation of 28% efficiency solar cells will be adopted for the power generation. The platform is highly agile and can tilt along and cross flight direction. The pointing accuracy is in the order of 0,1° for each axe. The pointing determination during images acquisition is implementation. MIOSAT mission design has been constrained from challenging requirements in terms of satellite mass, mission lifetime, instrument performance, that have implied the utilization of satellite agility capability to improve instruments performance in terms of S/N and resolution. The instruments provide complementary measurements that can be combined in effective ways to exploit new applications in the fields of atmosphere composition analysis, Earth emissions, antropic phenomena, etc. The Mission is currently in phase B and the launch is planned for 2011.

  13. Mars Observer's Global Mapping Mission


    Albee, A. L.; Palluconi, D. F.


    The Mars Observer mission, scheduled for launch in September 1992, will provide an orbital platform at Mars from which the entire Martian surface and atmosphere will be observed beginning in late 1993. Mars Observer will extend the exploration and characterization of Mars by providing new and systematic measurements of the surface and atmosphere of the planet. These measurements will be made from a low-altitude polar orbiter over a period of one Martian year (687 Earth days), permitting repet...

  14. UAV Mission Planning: From Robust to Agile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.; Wagelmans, A.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are important assets for information gathering in Intelligence Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions. Depending on the uncertainty in the planning parameters, the complexity of the mission and its constraints and requirements, different planning methods might

  15. Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low Energy Mission Planning Toolbox is designed to significantly reduce the resources and time spent on designing missions in multi-body gravitational...

  16. The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) Mission (United States)

    Spence, Michael W.; Njoku, Eni; Kim, Yunjin; Entekhabi, Dara; Doiron, Terence; Piepmeier, Jeffrey; Girard, Ralph


    The Hydrosphere State (HYDROS) Mission has been selected for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program. The objectives of HYDROS are to provide frequent, global measurements of surface soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state. In order to adequately measure these geophysical parameters, a system capable of simultaneously measuring L-Band radiometer brightness temperatures at 40 km resolution and L-Band radar backscatter at 3 km resolution over a very wide swath is required. In addition, these science requirements must be satisfied under the stringent cost-cap imposed on all ESSP missions. As a solution to this challenging set of requirements, a relatively large, six meter, conically-scanning reflector antenna architecture was selected for the mission design. The HYDROS instrument will fly on a General Dynamics SA-200HP spacecraft bus. Although large deployable mesh antennas have been used in communication applications, this will mark the first time such technology is applied in a rotating configuration for high-resolution remote sensing.

  17. The ASTRO-H Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Tadayuki; Kelley, Richard; Aharonian, Felix; Akimoto, Fumie; Allen, Steve; Anabuki, Naohisa; Angelini, Lorella; Arnaud, Keith; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Bamba, Aya; Bando, Nobutaka; Bautz, Mark; Blandford, Roger; Boyce, Kevin; Brown, Greg; Chernyakova, Maria; Coppi, Paolo; Costantini, Elisa; Cottam, Jean; Crow, John; de Plaa, Jelle; de Vries, Cor; Herder, Jan-Willem den; DiPirro, Michael; Done, Chris; Dotani, Tadayasu; Ebisawa, Ken; Enoto, Teruaki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Fabian, Andrew; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Funk, Stefan; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Galeazzi, Massimiliano; Gandhi, Poshak; Gendreau, Keith; Gilmore, Kirk; Haba, Yoshito; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hatsukade, Isamu; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Hiraga, Junko; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Hornschemeier, Ann; Hughes, John; Hwang, Una; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Ishimura, Kosei; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Isobe, Naoki; Ito, Masayuki; Iwata, Naoko; Kaastra, Jelle; Kallman, Timothy; Kamae, Tuneyoshi; Katagiri, Hideaki; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuda, Satoru; Kawaharada, Madoka; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Shigeo; Khangaluyan, Dmitry; Kilbourne, Caroline; Kinugasa, Kenzo; Kitamoto, Shunji; Kitayama, Tetsu; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Kokubun, Motohide; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Kotani, Taro; Koyama, Katsuji; Kubota, Aya; Kunieda, Hideyo; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, Francois; Limousin, Olivier; Loewenstein, Michael; Long, Knox; Madejski, Grzegorz; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Makishima, Kazuo; Markevitch, Maxim; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; McCammon, Dan; Miller, Jon; Mineshige, Shin; Minesugi, Kenji; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Koji; Mori, Hideyuki; Mukai, Koji; Murakami, Hiroshi; Murakami, Toshio; Mushotzky, Richard; Nakagawa, Yujin; Nakagawa, Takao; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nakamori, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Namba, Yoshiharu; Nomachi, Masaharu; Dell, Steve O'; Ogawa, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Mina; Ogi, Keiji; Ohashi, Takaya; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Okajima, Takashi; Ota, Naomi; Ozaki, Masanobu; Paerels, Frits; Paltani, Stéphane; Parmer, Arvind; Petre, Robert; Pohl, Martin; Porter, Scott; Ramsey, Brian; Reynolds, Christopher; Sakai, Shin-ichiro; Sambruna, Rita; Sato, Goro; Sato, Yoichi; Serlemitsos, Peter; Shida, Maki; Shimada, Takanobu; Shinozaki, Keisuke; Shirron, Peter; Smith, Randall; Sneiderman, Gary; Soong, Yang; Stawarz, Lukasz; Sugita, Hiroyuki; Szymkowiak, Andrew; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takei, Yoh; Tamagawa, Toru; Tamura, Takayuki; Tamura, Keisuke; Tanaka, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Makoto; Tawara, Yuzuru; Terada, Yukikatsu; Terashima, Yuichi; Tombesi, Francesco; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Miyako; Tsuboi, Yoko; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Tsuru, Takeshi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Uno, Shinichiro; Urry, Meg; Watanabe, Shin; White, Nicholas; Yamada, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yamasaki, Noriko; Yamauchi, Makoto; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Yoshida, Atsumasa


    The joint JAXA/NASA ASTRO-H mission is the sixth in a series of highly successful X-ray missions initiated by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). ASTRO-H will investigate the physics of the high-energy universe by performing high-resolution, high-throughput spectroscopy with moderate angular resolution. ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. ASTRO-H allows a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (5-80 keV) provided by multilayer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3-12 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope (0.4-12 keV) and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector (40-600 keV) . The micro-calorimeter system is developed by an international collaboration led by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral reso...

  18. The ASTRO-H Mission (United States)

    Dotani, Tadayasu; Takahashi, Tadayuki


    ASTRO-H, the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission, planed for launch in 2014. ASTRO-H is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector based on a narrow-FOV semiconductor Compton Camera. With these instruments, ASTRO-H covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The simultaneous broad band pass, coupled with high spectral resolution of super massive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei; trace the growth history of the largest structures in the Universe; provide insights into the behavior of material in extreme gravitational fields; trace particle acceleration structures in clusters of galaxies and SNRs; and investigate the detailed physics of jets. In this presentation, we will describe the mission, scientific goal and the recent progress of the project.

  19. The Van Allen Probes mission

    CERN Document Server

    Burch, James


    This collection of articles provides broad and detailed information about NASA’s Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes) twin-spacecraft Earth-orbiting mission. The mission has the objective of achieving predictive understanding of the dynamic, intense, energetic, dangerous, and presently unpredictable belts of energetic particles that are magnetically trapped in Earth’s space environment above the atmosphere. It documents the science of the radiation belts and the societal benefits of achieving predictive understanding. Detailed information is provided about the Van Allen Probes mission design, the spacecraft, the science investigations, and the onboard instrumentation that must all work together to make unprecedented measurements within a most unforgiving environment, the core of Earth’s most intense radiation regions.
 This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in space science, solar-terrestrial interactions and studies of the up...

  20. Science Mission Definition Studies for TROPIX (United States)

    Fennell, J. F.


    This document summarizes the results of mission definition studies for solar electric propulsion missions that have been carried out over the last approximately three years. The major output from the studies has been two proposals which were submitted to NASA in response to Announcements of Opportunity for missions and an ongoing Global Magnetospheric Dynamics mission study. The bulk of this report consists of copies of the proposals and preliminary materials from the GMD study that will be completed in the coming months.

  1. Management by missions in the healthcare sector. (United States)

    Fonseca Pires, J; Rey, C; Más-Machuca, M; Bastons, M


    This article discusses the importance of the mission statement in the healthcare sector. It's also argued that only formal declaration of the mission it's insufficient to the appropriate professional coordination of doctors, nurses and managers. It's proposed a systematic approach to facilitate the introduction of the mission within the systems of the organization, what is called "Management by missions." It promotes horizontal and vertical integration between doctors, nurses and managers. Criteria that ensure this integration are specified. PMID:27068141

  2. Mechanical design of the Mars Pathfinder mission (United States)

    Eisen, Howard Jay; Buck, Carl W.; Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Umland, Jeffrey W.


    The Mars Pathfinder mission and the Sojourner rover is reported on, with emphasis on the various mission steps and the performance of the technologies involved. The mechanical design of mission hardware was critical to the success of the entry sequence and the landing operations. The various mechanisms employed are considered.

  3. COMS normal operation for Earth Observation mission (United States)

    Cho, Young-Min


    Communication Ocean Meteorological Satellite (COMS) for the hybrid mission of meteorological observation, ocean monitoring, and telecommunication service was launched onto Geostationary Earth Orbit on June 27, 2010 and it is currently under normal operation service since April 2011. The COMS is located on 128.2° East of the geostationary orbit. In order to perform the three missions, the COMS has 3 separate payloads, the meteorological imager (MI), the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI), and the Ka-band antenna. Each payload is dedicated to one of the three missions, respectively. The MI and GOCI perform the Earth observation mission of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring, respectively. For this Earth observation mission the COMS requires daily mission commands from the satellite control ground station and daily mission is affected by the satellite control activities. For this reason daily mission planning is required. The Earth observation mission operation of COMS is described in aspects of mission operation characteristics and mission planning for the normal operation services of meteorological observation and ocean monitoring. And the first year normal operation results after the In-Orbit-Test (IOT) are investigated through statistical approach to provide the achieved COMS normal operation status for the Earth observation mission.

  4. CHEOPS: A transit photometry mission for ESA's small mission programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.


    Full Text Available Ground based radial velocity (RV searches continue to discover exoplanets below Neptune mass down to Earth mass. Furthermore, ground based transit searches now reach milli-mag photometric precision and can discover Neptune size planets around bright stars. These searches will find exoplanets around bright stars anywhere on the sky, their discoveries representing prime science targets for further study due to the proximity and brightness of their host stars. A mission for transit follow-up measurements of these prime targets is currently lacking. The first ESA S-class mission CHEOPS (CHaracterizing ExoPlanet Satellite will fill this gap. It will perform ultra-high precision photometric monitoring of selected bright target stars almost anywhere on the sky with sufficient precision to detect Earth sized transits. It will be able to detect transits of RV-planets by photometric monitoring if the geometric configuration results in a transit. For Hot Neptunes discovered from the ground, CHEOPS will be able to improve the transit light curve so that the radius can be determined precisely. Because of the host stars' brightness, high precision RV measurements will be possible for all targets. All planets observed in transit by CHEOPS will be validated and their masses will be known. This will provide valuable data for constraining the mass-radius relation of exoplanets, especially in the Neptune-mass regime. During the planned 3.5 year mission, about 500 targets will be observed. There will be 20% of open time available for the community to develop new science programmes.

  5. Downstream process options for the ABE fermentation. (United States)

    Friedl, Anton


    Butanol is a very interesting substance both for the chemical industry and as a biofuel. The classical distillation process for the removal of butanol is far too energy demanding, at a factor of 220% of the energy content of butanol. Alternative separation processes studied are hybrid processes of gas-stripping, liquid-liquid extraction and pervaporation with distillation and a novel adsorption/drying/desorption hybrid process. Compared with the energy content of butanol, the resulting energy demand for butanol separation and concentration of optimized hybrid processes is 11%-22% for pervaporation/distillation and 11%-17% for liquid-liquid extraction/distillation. For a novel adsorption/drying/desorption process, the energy demand is 9.4%. But all downstream process options need further proof of industrial applicability. PMID:27020411

  6. ABE Women: Gaining a New Voice. (United States)

    Griffin, Carrie; And Others


    In the Dayton (Ohio) Literacy Project, female welfare recipients in adult basic education meet with college students to increase the women's reading, writing, and speaking skills and help them come to think of themselves as "knowers." (SK)

  7. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates... Commercial Service is organizing a Trade Mission to Bogot and Cartagena, Colombia and Panama City, Panama... The mission will stop in Bogot , and Cartagena, Colombia, and Panama City, Panama. In each...

  8. Mission Design of the Dutch-Chinese FAST Micro-Satellite Mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, D.C.; Guo, J.; Gill, E.; Laan, E.; Moon, S.; Zheng, G.T.


    The paper treats the mission design for the Dutch-Chinese FAST (Formation for Atmospheric Science and Technology demonstration) mission. The space segment of the 2.5 year mission consists out of two formation flying micro-satellites. During the mission, new technologies will be demonstrated and, usi

  9. Human Mars Missions: Cost Driven Architecture Assessments (United States)

    Donahue, Benjamin


    This report investigates various methods of reducing the cost in space transportation systems for human Mars missions. The reference mission for this task is a mission currently under study at NASA. called the Mars Design Reference Mission, characterized by In-Situ propellant production at Mars. This study mainly consists of comparative evaluations to the reference mission with a view to selecting strategies that would reduce the cost of the Mars program as a whole. One of the objectives is to understand the implications of certain Mars architectures, mission modes, vehicle configurations, and potentials for vehicle reusability. The evaluations start with year 2011-2014 conjunction missions which were characterized by their abort-to-the-surface mission abort philosophy. Variations within this mission architecture, as well as outside the set to other architectures (not predicated on an abort to surface philosophy) were evaluated. Specific emphasis has been placed on identifying and assessing overall mission risk. Impacts that Mars mission vehicles might place upon the Space Station, if it were to be used as an assembly or operations base, were also discussed. Because of the short duration of this study only on a few propulsion elements were addressed (nuclear thermal, cryogenic oxygen-hydrogen, cryogenic oxygen-methane, and aerocapture). Primary ground rules and assumptions were taken from NASA material used in Marshall Space Flight Center's own assessment done in 1997.

  10. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 1: Integrated payload and mission planning process evaluation (United States)

    Sapp, T. P.; Davin, D. E.


    The integrated payload and mission planning process for STS payloads was defined, and discrete tasks which evaluate performance and support initial implementation of this process were conducted. The scope of activity was limited to NASA and NASA-related payload missions only. The integrated payload and mission planning process was defined in detail, including all related interfaces and scheduling requirements. Related to the payload mission planning process, a methodology for assessing early Spacelab mission manager assignment schedules was defined.

  11. Mission Analysis of Robotic Low Thrust Missions to the Martian Moons Deimos And Phobos


    Derz, Uwe; Ohndorf, Andreas; Bischof, Bernd


    The Martian moons Deimos and Phobos are interesting targets for exploration missions, especially within the frame of a crewed Mars orbit mission. To minimize the risk to a crew and also to support EVA site selection, a robotic precursor mission should investigate both moons in advance. The focus of this study is on mission analysis of such a precursor mission that utilizes low-thrust propulsion, in particular Electric Propulsion, for the transfer to the Martian system. We assum...

  12. Magnetic Satellite Missions and Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Kotsiaros, Stavros


    Although the first satellite observations of the Earth’s magnetic field were already taken more than 50 years ago, continuous geomagnetic measurements from space are only available since 1999. The unprecedented time-space coverage of this recent data set opened revolutionary new possibilities...... for exploring the Earth’s magnetic field from space. In this chapter we discuss characteristics of satellites measuring the geomagnetic field and report on past, present and upcoming magnetic satellite missions. We conclude with some basics about space magnetic gradiometry as a possible path for future...... exploration of Earth’s magnetic field with satellites....

  13. Reconfigurable Software for Mission Operations (United States)

    Trimble, Jay


    We developed software that provides flexibility to mission organizations through modularity and composability. Modularity enables removal and addition of functionality through the installation of plug-ins. Composability enables users to assemble software from pre-built reusable objects, thus reducing or eliminating the walls associated with traditional application architectures and enabling unique combinations of functionality. We have used composable objects to reduce display build time, create workflows, and build scenarios to test concepts for lunar roving operations. The software is open source, and may be downloaded from https:github.comnasamct.

  14. The Cassini-Huygens mission

    CERN Document Server

    The joint NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission promises to return four (and possibly more) years of unparalleled scientific data from the solar system’s most exotic planet, the ringed, gas giant, Saturn. Larger than Galileo with a much greater communication bandwidth, Cassini can accomplish in a single flyby what Galileo returned in a series of passes. Cassini explores the Saturn environment in three dimensions, using gravity assists to climb out of the equatorial plane to look down on the rings from above, to image the aurora and to study polar magnetospheric processes such as field-aligned currents. Since the radiation belt particle fluxes are much more benign than those at Jupiter, Cassini can more safely explore the inner regions of the magnetosphere. The spacecraft approaches the planet closer than Galileo could, and explores the inner moons and the rings much more thoroughly than was possible at Jupiter. This book is the second volume, in a three volume set, that describes the Cassini/Huygens mission. Thi...

  15. The NeXT Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, T; Mitsuda, K; Kunieda, H; Petre, R; White, N; Dotani, T; Fujimoto, R; Fukazawa, Y; Hayashida, K; Ishida, M; Ishisaki, Y; Kokubun, M; Makishima, K; Koyama, K; Madejski, G M; Mori, K; Mushotzky, R; Nakazawa, K; Ogasaka, Y; Ohashi, T; Ozaki, M; Tajima, H; Tashiro, M; Terada, Y; Tsunemi, H; Tsuru, T G; Ueda, Y; Yamasaki, N; Watanabe, S


    The NeXT (New exploration X-ray Telescope), the new Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite following Suzaku, is an international X-ray mission which is currently planed for launch in 2013. NeXT is a combination of wide band X-ray spectroscopy (3 - 80 keV) provided by multi-layer coating, focusing hard X-ray mirrors and hard X-ray imaging detectors, and high energy-resolution soft X-ray spectroscopy (0.3 - 10 keV) provided by thin-foil X-ray optics and a micro-calorimeter array. The mission will also carry an X-ray CCD camera as a focal plane detector for a soft X-ray telescope and a non-focusing soft gamma-ray detector. With these instruments, NeXT covers very wide energy range from 0.3 keV to 600 keV. The micro-calorimeter system will be developed by international collaboration lead by ISAS/JAXA and NASA. The simultaneous broad bandpass, coupled with high spectral resolution of Delta E ~ 7 eV by the micro-calorimeter will enable a wide variety of important science themes to be pursued.

  16. Mission and ethics in Galatians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobus Kok


    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated how the concepts identity, ethics and ethos interrelate, and how the ethics of the Pauline communities in Galatians functioned against the background of the missionary context of the early church. The author argued that the missionary dimension originated in the context of the missio Dei, and that God called Paul as a missionary to be taken up in the latter. The missionary process did not end with Paul, but was designed to be carried further by believers who should be, by their very nature, missionary. In the process, the author investigated how the transformation of identity (the understanding of self, God and others leads to the creation of ethical values and how it is particularised in different socioreligious and cultural contexts in the development of the early church. The author argued that there is an implicit missionary dimension in the ethics of Paul in Galatians. In the process, it is argued that those who want to speak of ethics should make something of mission, and those who speak of mission in Galatians, should speak about the role of identity, ethics and ethos in the letter.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gandor


    Full Text Available This paper presents a development of an open-source flight planning tool for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS that is dedicated to high-precision photogrammetric mapping. This tool contains planning functions that are usually available in professional mapping systems for manned aircrafts as well as new features related to GPS signal masking in complex (e.g. mountainous terrain. The application is based on the open-source Java SDK (Software Development Kit World Wind from NASA that contains the main geospatial components facilitating the development itself. Besides standard planning functions known from other mission planners, we mainly focus on additional features dealing with safety and accuracy, such as GPS quality assessment. The need for the development came as a response for unifying mission planning across different platforms (e.g. rotary or fixed wing operating over terrain of different complexity. A special attention is given to the user interface, that is intuitive to use and cost-effective with respect to computer resources.

  18. The Simbol-X Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The elucidation of key questions in astrophysics, in particular those related to black hole physics and census, and to particle acceleration mechanisms, necessitates to develop new observational capabilities in the hard X-ray domain with performances several orders of magnitude better than presently available. Relying on two spacecrafts in a formation flying configuration, Simbol-X will provide the world-wide astrophysics community with a single optics long focal length telescope. This observatory will have unrivaled performances in the hard X-ray domain, up to ∼80 keV, as well as very good characteristics in the soft X-ray domain, down to ∼0.5 keV. The Simbol-X mission has successfully passed a phase A study, jointly conducted by CNES and ASI, with the participation of German laboratories. It is now entering phase B studies with the participation of new international partners, for a launch in 2015. We give in this paper a general overview of the mission, as consolidated at the start of phase B.

  19. Water Cycling &the GPM Mission (United States)

    Smith, E. A.


    The GPM mission is currently planned for start in the late'07 - early'08 time frame. Its main scientific goal is to help answer pressing scientific problems arising within the context of global and regional water cycles. These problems cut across a hierarchy of scales and include climate-water cycle interactions, techniques for improving weather and climate predictions, and better methods for combining observed precipitation with hydrometeorological prediction models for applications to hazardous flood-producing storms, seasonal flood/draught conditions, and fresh water resource assessments. The GPM mission will expand the scope of precipitation measurement through the use of a constellation of some 9 satellites, one of which will be an advanced TRMM-like "core" satellite carrying a dual-frequency Ku-Ka band precipitation radar and an advanced, multifrequency passive microwave radiometer with vertical-horizontal polarization discrimination. The other constellation members will include new dedicated satellites and co-existing operational/research satellites carrying similar (but not identical) passive microwave radiometers. The goal of the constellation is to achieve 3-hour sampling at any spot on the globe - continuously. The constellation's orbit architecture will consist of a mix of sun-synchronous and non-sun-synchronous satellites with the "core" satellite providing measurements of cloud-precipitation microphysical processes plus calibration-quality rainrates to be used with the other retrieval information to ensure bias-free constellation coverage. GPM is organized internationally, involving existing, pending, projected, and under-study partnerships which will link NASA and NOAA in the US, NASDA in Japan, ESA in Europe, ISRO in India, CNES in France, and possibly ASI in Italy, KARI in South Korea, CSA in Canada, and AEB in Brazil. Additionally, the program is actively pursuing agreements with other international collaborators and domestic scientific agencies

  20. Mission objectives and scientific rationale for the magnetometer mission. (United States)

    Langel, R. A.


    Based on a review of the characteristics of the geomagnetic field, objectives for the magnetic portion of the ARISTOTELES mission are: (1) To derive a description of the main magnetic field and its secular variation. (2) To investigate the correlation between the geomagnetic field and variations in the length of day. (3) To study properties of the fluid core. (4) To study the conductivity of the mantle. (5) To model the state and evolution of the crust and upper lithosphere. (6) To measure and characterize field aligned currents and ionospheric currents and to understand their generation mechanisms and their role in energy coupling in the interplanetary-magnetospheric-ionospheric systems. Procedures for these investigations are outlined.

  1. Chandrayaan-1: India's first planetary science mission (United States)

    Nath Goswami, Jitendra

    A new initiative of the Indian Space Research Organization to have dedicated Space Science Missions led to two major missions that are currently in progress: Astrosat and Chandrayaan-1, the latter being the first planetary science mission of the country. The spadework for this mission started about ten years back and culminated in late 2003 with the official endorsement for the mission. This remote sensing mission, to be launched in early next year, is expected to further our understanding of the origin and evolution of the Moon based on a chemical, mineralogical and topographic study of the lunar surface at spatial and spectral resolutions much better than those for previous and other currently planned lunar missions. The Chandrayaan-1 mission is also international in character and will have an array of Indian instruments as well as several instruments from abroad some of which will have very strong Indian collaboration. This talk will provide a brief overview of our present understanding of the Moon, the science objectives of the Chandrayaan-1 mission and how we hope to achieve these from the data to be obtained by the various instruments on board the mission. A possible road map for Indian planetary exploration programme in the context of the International scenario will be presented at the end.

  2. A Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (United States)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie


    Development of technologies that enable significant reductions in the cost of space mission operations is critical if constellations, formations, federations and sensor webs, are to be economically feasible. One approach to cost reduction is to infuse automation technologies into mission operations centers so that fewer personnel are needed for mission support. But missions are more culturally and politically adverse to the risks of automation. Reducing the mission risk associated with increased use of automation within a MOC is therefore of great importance. The belief that mission risk increases as more automation is used stems from the fact that there is inherently less direct human oversight to investigate and resolve anomalies in an unattended MOC. The Virtual Missions Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) project was launched to address this concern. The goal of the VMOC-CE project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission operations between onsite operators and on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. VMOC-CE enables missions to more readily adopt automation because off-site operators and engineers can more easily identify, investigate, and resolve anomalies without having to be present in the MOC. The VMOC-CE intent is to have a single access point for all resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment. Team members will be able to interact during spacecraft operations, specifically for resolving anomalies, utilizing a desktop computer and the Internet. Mission operations management can use the VMOC-CE as a tool to participate in and monitor status of anomaly resolution or other mission operations issues. In this paper we present the VMOC-CE project, system capabilities and technologies, operations concept, and results of its pilot in support of the Earth Science Mission Operations System (ESMOS).

  3. TerraSAR-X mission (United States)

    Werninghaus, Rolf


    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  4. Space Mission : Y3K (United States)


    ESA and the APME are hosting a contest for 10 - 15 year olds in nine European countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom). The contest is based on an interactive CD ROM, called Space Mission: Y3K, which explores space technology and shows some concrete uses of that technology in enhancing the quality of life on Earth. The CD ROM invites kids to join animated character Space Ranger Pete on an action-packed, colourful journey through space. Space Ranger Pete begins on Earth: the user navigates around a 'locker room' to learn about synthetic materials used in rocket boosters, heat shields, space suits and helmets, and how these materials have now become indispensable to everyday life. From Earth he flies into space and the user follows him from the control room in the spacecraft to a planet, satellites and finally to the International Space Station. Along the way, the user jots down clues that he or she discovers in this exploration, designing an imaginary space community and putting together a submission for the contest. The lucky winners will spend a weekend training as "junior astronauts" at the European Space Centre in Belgium (20-22 April 2001). They will be put through their astronaut paces, learning the art of space walking, running their own space mission, piloting a space capsule and re-entering the Earth's atmosphere. The competition features in various youth media channels across Europe. In the UK, popular BBC Saturday morning TV show, Live & Kicking, will be launching the competition and will invite viewers to submit their space community designs to win a weekend at ESC. In Germany, high circulation children's magazine Geolino will feature the competition in the January issue and on their internet site. And youth magazine ZoZitDat will feature the competition in the Netherlands throughout February. Space Mission: Y3K is part of an on-going partnership between the ESA's Technology Transfer

  5. The Titan Saturn System Mission (United States)

    Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Lebreton, J.; Matson, D.; Erd, C.; Reh, K.; Beauchamp, P.; Lorenz, R.; Waite, H.; Sotin, C.; Tssm Jsdt, T.


    A mission to return to Titan after Cassini-Huygens is a high priority for exploration. Recent Cassini-Huygens discoveries have revolutionized our understanding of the Titan system, rich in organics, containing a vast subsurface ocean of liquid water, surface repositories of organic compounds, and having the energy sources necessary to drive chemical evolution. With these recent discoveries, interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer Solar System is strongly reinforced. Cassini's discovery of active geysers on Enceladus adds an important second target in the Saturn system. The mission concept consists of a NASA-provided orbiter and an ESA-provided probe/lander and a Montgolfiere. The mission would launch on an Atlas 551 around 2020, travelling to Saturn on an SEP gravity assist trajectory, and reaching Saturn about 9.5 years later. The flight system would go into orbit around Saturn for about 2 years. During the first Titan flyby, the orbiter would release the lander to target a large northern polar sea, Kraken Mare, and the balloon system to a mid latitude region. During the tour phase, TSSM will perform Saturn system and Enceladus science, with at least 5 Enceladus flybys. Instruments aboard the orbiter will map Titan's surface at 50 m resolution in the 5 micron window, provide a global data set of topography and sound the immediate subsurface, sample complex organics, provide detailed observations of the atmosphere, and quantify the interaction of Titan with the Saturn magnetosphere. A subset of the instruments would provide spectra, imaging, plume sampling and particles and fields data on Enceladus. Instruments aboard the balloon will acquire high resolution vistas of the surface of Titan as the balloon cruises at 10 km altitude, as well as make compositional measurements of the surface, detailed sounding of crustal layering, and chemical measurements of aerosols. A magnetometer, will permit sensitive detection of induced or intrinsic fields

  6. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.


    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  7. Agile: From Software to Mission System (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Shirley, Mark H.; Hobart, Sarah Groves


    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an in-situ resource utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission, designed to search for volatiles at the Lunar South Pole. This is NASA's first near real time tele-operated rover on the Moon. The primary objective is to search for volatiles at one of the Lunar Poles. The combination of short mission duration, a solar powered rover, and the requirement to explore shadowed regions makes for an operationally challenging mission. To maximize efficiency and flexibility in Mission System design and thus to improve the performance and reliability of the resulting Mission System, we are tailoring Agile principles that we have used effectively in ground data system software development and applying those principles to the design of elements of the mission operations system.

  8. The first Spacelab mission. [payload management functions (United States)

    Pace, R. E., Jr.


    The purpose of Spacelab, an Orbiter-mounted NASA/ESA laboratory, is to include in the Space Transportation System (STS) a payload carrier with maximum flexibility to accommodate multidisciplinary scientific payloads. The major Spacelab configurations obtained by combination of two basic elements, the module and pallet, are described along with the anticipated program of experiments and payloads, and mission management general concept. The first Spacelab 7-day mission is scheduled for flight in the second half of 1980, with the primary objective being to verify system performance capabilities. Detailed attention is given to the payload mission management responsibilities for the first flight, including program control, science management, payload interfaces, integrated payload mission planning, integration requirements, payload specialist training, payload integration, launch site integration, payload flight/mission operations, and postmission activities. The Spacelab configuration (including the long module and one pallet) and the overall schedule for this mission are presented.

  9. The heat capacity mapping mission (United States)

    Short, N. M.


    The first in a series of low cost Atmospheric Explorer Satellites, the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) was designed to evaluate the utility of thermal inertial and other thermal and reflectance data for: (1) discriminating bedrock and unconsolidated regolith types; (2) mapping soil moisture; (3) measuring plant canopy temperatures; (4) examining thermal circulation in large bodies of water; and (5) monitoring urban heat islands. Final reports from the HCMM investigator's program are beginning to define the utility of day/the night thermal data. Under favorable circumstances, some major rock types can be identified, soil moisture in extensive agricultural and alluvial terrains can be detected and at least semiqualitatively assessed; and circulation of currents in large bodies of water can be followed by noting thermal patterns.

  10. LISA Pathfinder: A Mission Status (United States)

    Hewitson, Martin; LISA Pathfinder Team Team


    On December 3rd at 04:04 UTC, The European Space Agency launched the LISA Pathfinder satellite on board a VEGA rocket from Kourou in French Guiana. After a series of orbit raising manoeuvres and a 2 month long transfer orbit, LISA Pathfinder arrived at L1. Following a period of commissioning, the science operations commenced at the start of March, beginning the demonstration of technologies and methodologies which pave the way for a future large-scale gravitational wave observatory in space. This talk will present the scientific goals of the mission, discuss the technologies being tested, elucidate the link to a future space-based observatory, such as LISA, and present preliminary results from the in-orbit operations and experiments.

  11. Job Orders (Ordres de mission)

    CERN Multimedia

    Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905


    Please note that individual job orders and continuous job orders (valid for one calendar year, i.e. from 1st January to 31st December) must henceforth be completed via EDH and approved by the Department Leader concerned (or the person appointed by him via EDHAdmin). Once approved, the form must be printed and kept for the duration of the mission by the driver to whom the job order is issued. You will find the icon for this document on the EDH Desktop, as well as on-line help on how to use it. In emergencies, paper copies of individual job orders (SCEM may be issued outside normal working hours by the Fire Brigade (Meyrin Site, Building 65). Organisation & Procedures, FI Department, Tel. 73905 Relations with the Host States Service, Tel. 72848

  12. I satelliti della missione EROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano De Corso


    Full Text Available EROS mission satellitesThe EROS (Earth Remote Observation Satellite constellation is property of ImageSat International N.V. an international company and a commercial provider of high-resolution, satellite earth-imagery collected by its Earth Remote Observation Satellite. EROS A is equipped with a camera whose focal plane of CCD (Charge Coupled Device detectors produces a standard image resolution of 1.9 meters. EROS B slightly larger and similar in appearance to EROS A, the new satellite has superior capabilities, including a larger camera of CCD/ TDI type (Charge Coupled Device/Time Delay Integration, with standard panchromatic resolution of 0.70 m at an altitude of about 500 km, a larger on-board recorder, improved pointing accuracy and a faster data communication link.

  13. The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (United States)

    Jackson, Gail


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission's Core satellite, scheduled for launch at the end of February 2014, is well designed estimate precipitation from 0.2 to 110 mm/hr and to detect falling snow. Knowing where and how much rain and snow falls globally is vital to understanding how weather and climate impact both our environment and Earth's water and energy cycles, including effects on agriculture, fresh water availability, and responses to natural disasters. The design of the GPM Core Observatory is an advancement of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s highly successful rain-sensing package [3]. The cornerstone of the GPM mission is the deployment of a Core Observatory in a unique 65o non-Sun-synchronous orbit to serve as a physics observatory and a calibration reference to improve precipitation measurements by a constellation of 8 or more dedicated and operational, U.S. and international passive microwave sensors. The Core Observatory will carry a Ku/Ka-band Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) and a multi-channel (10-183 GHz) GPM Microwave Radiometer (GMI). The DPR will provide measurements of 3-D precipitation structures and microphysical properties, which are key to achieving a better understanding of precipitation processes and improving retrieval algorithms for passive microwave radiometers. The combined use of DPR and GMI measurements will place greater constraints on possible solutions to radiometer retrievals to improve the accuracy and consistency of precipitation retrievals from all constellation radiometers. Furthermore, since light rain and falling snow account for a significant fraction of precipitation occurrence in middle and high latitudes, the GPM instruments extend the capabilities of the TRMM sensors to detect falling snow, measure light rain, and provide, for the first time, quantitative estimates of microphysical properties of precipitation particles. The GPM Core Observatory was developed and tested at NASA

  14. The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (United States)

    Schuetzle, James G.


    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Principal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZetaLisp and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  15. Solar sail Engineering Development Mission (United States)

    Price, H. W.


    Since photons have momentum, a useful force can be obtained by reflecting sunlight off of a large, low mass surface (most likely a very thin metal-coated plastic film) and robbing the light of some of its momentum. A solar sail Engineering Development Mission (EDM) is currently being planned by the World Space Foundation for the purpose of demonstrating and evaluating solar sailing technology and to gain experience in the design and operation of a spacecraft propelled by sunlight. The present plan is for the EDM spacecraft to be launched (sail stowed) in a spin-stabilized configuration into an initial elliptical orbit with an apogee of 36,000 km and a perigee of a few hundred kilometers. The spacecraft will then use its own chemical propulsion system to raise the perigee to at least 1,200 km. The deployed sail will have an area of 880 sq m and generate a solar force of about 0.007 N.

  16. Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) (United States)

    Alland, Robert


    This paper describes my work with the Cassini Mission Sequence Subsystem (MSS) team during the summer of 2011. It gives some background on the motivation for this project and describes the expected benefit to the Cassini program. It then introduces the two tasks that I worked on - an automatic system auditing tool and a series of corrections to the Cassini Sequence Generator (SEQ_GEN) - and the specific objectives these tasks were to accomplish. Next, it details the approach I took to meet these objectives and the results of this approach, followed by a discussion of how the outcome of the project compares with my initial expectations. The paper concludes with a summary of my experience working on this project, lists what the next steps are, and acknowledges the help of my Cassini colleagues.

  17. Agency staff on special missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Secretariat includes 190 scientists and engineers whose special qualifications cover most of the branches of nuclear science and applications of nuclear energy. This gives it a unique international concentration of specialized skills and knowledge, but increasingly this know-how is being taken straight to Member States. While the nucleus of the work of the technical Divisions is at the IAEA Headquarters, the Agency is sending out more and more of its specialists for short-term assignments 'in the field' to help and advise Member governments. These assignments are distinct from the longer-term technical assistance projects, for which specialists are recruited from outside the Secretariat and only occasionally from its staff. he different types of help that the Agency's Secretariat gives to Member States covers a wide range of subjects. The legal staff gives advice on basic laws and on safety regulations, and has done so in 35 countries. It has also accepted more than 30 trainees from Member States to work in its offices at headquarters since 1961. Scientists, economists and engineers go out to Member States to advise on problems linked to the planning of nuclear power programmes or to the building and commissioning of their first nuclear power plants. Inspectors from the Department of Safeguards and Inspection help to set up systems of nuclear materials management and control which are essential for safe and efficient operation of nuclear plants and for governmental surveillance of nuclear industry. Specialists in nuclear medicine have helped calibrate instruments and to advise the setting up of clinics. Staff geologists have advised many countries about the development of uranium ore. he list of specialities covered is very wide. We have singled out one type of mission as an example of the help that the IAEA can give in a field of particular importance. This is the safety and siting mission. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Bertaina


    Full Text Available The JEM-EUSO mission explores the origin of the extreme energy cosmic rays (EECRs above 50EeV and explores the limits of the fundamental physics, through the observations of their arrival directions and energies. It is designed to open a new particle astronomy channel. This superwide-field (60 degrees telescope with a diameter of about 2.5m looks down from space onto the night sky to detect near UV photons (330 ÷ 400nm, both fluorescent and Cherenkov photons emitted from the giant air showers produced by EECRs. The arrival direction map with more than five hundred events will tell us the origin of the EECRs and allow us to identify the nearest EECR sources with known astronomical objects. It will allow them to be examined in other astronomical channels. This is likely to lead to an  nderstanding of the acceleration mechanisms perhaps producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The comparison of the energy spectra among the spatially resolved individual sources will help to clarify the acceleration/emission mechanism, and also finally confirm the Greisen–Zatsepin–Kuz’min process for the validation of Lorentz invariance up to γ ~ 1011. Neutral components (neutrinos and gamma rays can also be detected as well, if their fluxes are high enough. The JEM-EUSO mission is planned to be launched by a H2B rocket about 2017 and transferred to ISS by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV. It will be attached to the Exposed Facility external experiment platform of “KIBO”.

  19. Beyond LISA: Exploring Future Gravitational Wave Missions


    Crowder, Jeff; Cornish, Neil J.


    The Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna (ALIA) and the Big Bang Observer (BBO) have been proposed as follow on missions to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). Here we study the capabilities of these observatories, and how they relate to the science goals of the missions. We find that the Advanced Laser Interferometer Antenna in Stereo (ALIAS), our proposed extension to the ALIA mission, will go considerably further toward meeting ALIA's main scientific goal of studying intermedia...

  20. Space Power Requirements for Future NASA Missions (United States)

    Mulville, Daniel R.


    The key technology issues for the power requirements of future NASA space missions are: reduction in mass to enable smaller launch vehicles, faster trip time and lower cost; simpler more autonomous operations to reduce life cycle cost; reduce design, development , and qualification time to enable frequent low-cost missions; increase payload fraction and science return; enable next generation missions; stimulate U.S. industry to promote strong world leadership capability; and incorporate dual-use strategy into technology development.

  1. The Scots abroad: migration and mission


    Ross, Kenneth R.


    Kenneth Ross’s essay begins with an overview of the migration of the Scots round the world in the age of colonialism. He then examines this more closely, exploring the relationship between migration and missions in the diaspora church. Beginning with mission-migrant relations in Malawi, Ross then points to more general, more deeply-rooted tensions arising in the Scottish diaspora, reflected in the conflicting interests of expatriate churches and mission agencies. Publisher PDF

  2. Mission Reliability Estimation for Repairable Robot Teams (United States)

    Trebi-Ollennu, Ashitey; Dolan, John; Stancliff, Stephen


    A mission reliability estimation method has been designed to translate mission requirements into choices of robot modules in order to configure a multi-robot team to have high reliability at minimal cost. In order to build cost-effective robot teams for long-term missions, one must be able to compare alternative design paradigms in a principled way by comparing the reliability of different robot models and robot team configurations. Core modules have been created including: a probabilistic module with reliability-cost characteristics, a method for combining the characteristics of multiple modules to determine an overall reliability-cost characteristic, and a method for the generation of legitimate module combinations based on mission specifications and the selection of the best of the resulting combinations from a cost-reliability standpoint. The developed methodology can be used to predict the probability of a mission being completed, given information about the components used to build the robots, as well as information about the mission tasks. In the research for this innovation, sample robot missions were examined and compared to the performance of robot teams with different numbers of robots and different numbers of spare components. Data that a mission designer would need was factored in, such as whether it would be better to have a spare robot versus an equivalent number of spare parts, or if mission cost can be reduced while maintaining reliability using spares. This analytical model was applied to an example robot mission, examining the cost-reliability tradeoffs among different team configurations. Particularly scrutinized were teams using either redundancy (spare robots) or repairability (spare components). Using conservative estimates of the cost-reliability relationship, results show that it is possible to significantly reduce the cost of a robotic mission by using cheaper, lower-reliability components and providing spares. This suggests that the

  3. Towards a graphical language for quadrotor missions


    Schwartz, Benjamin; Nägele, Ludwig; Angerer, Andreas; MacDonald, Bruce A.


    This paper presents an approach for defining Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) missions on a high level. Current methods for UAV mission specification are evaluated and their deficiencies are analyzed. From these findings, a new graphical specification language for UAV missions is proposed, which is targeted towards typical UAV users from various domains rather than computer science experts. The research is ongoing, but a first prototype is presented.

  4. Bids requested for Genesis Mission analytical facilities


    Burnett, Donald S.


    The Genesis Discovery mission, to be launched in January 2001, will expose ultrapure materials to the solar wind for about 2 years and then return this sample to Earth for isotopic and chemical analysis in terrestrial laboratories. Sample return missions use the best available instrumentation to achieve mission science goals. To complete the Genesis science objectives, advanced instrumentation that surpasses present laboratory sample analysis capabilities is required. Advanced Analytical ...

  5. GSFC Safety and Mission Assurance Organization (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's approach to safety and mission assurance. The contents include: 1) NASA GSFC Background; 2) Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate; 3) The Role of SMA-D and the Technical Authority; 4) GSFC Mission assurance Requirements; 5) GSFC Systems Review Office (SRO); 6) GSFC Supply Chain Management Program; and 7) GSFC ISO9001/AS9100 Status Brief.

  6. Tank waste remediation system (TWRS) mission analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieck, R.H.


    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis provides program level requirements and identifies system boundaries and interfaces. Measures of success appropriate to program level accomplishments are also identified.

  7. Autolanding for Sample Return Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA and commercial missions will increasingly target destinations with challenging topography and limited communication including unmapped asteroids,...

  8. Rapid Automated Mission Planning System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an automated UAS mission planning system that will rapidly identify emergency (contingency) landing sites, manage contingency routing,...

  9. Sustainable, Reliable Mission-Systems Architecture (United States)

    O'Neil, Graham; Orr, James K.; Watson, Steve


    A mission-systems architecture, based on a highly modular infrastructure utilizing: open-standards hardware and software interfaces as the enabling technology is essential for affordable and sustainable space exploration programs. This mission-systems architecture requires (a) robust communication between heterogeneous system, (b) high reliability, (c) minimal mission-to-mission reconfiguration, (d) affordable development, system integration, and verification of systems, and (e) minimal sustaining engineering. This paper proposes such an architecture. Lessons learned from the Space Shuttle program and Earthbound complex engineered system are applied to define the model. Technology projections reaching out 5 years are mde to refine model details.

  10. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.


    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  11. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Two (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun


    The Cassini Spacecraft was launched in October 1997 on a mission to observe Saturn and its moons; it entered orbit around Saturn in July 2004 for a nominal four-year Prime Mission, later augmented by two extensions: the Equinox Mission, from July 2008 through September 2010, and the Solstice Mission, from October 2010 through September 2017. This paper provides an overview of the maneuver activities from August 2011 through June 2012 which include the design of 38 Orbit Trim Maneuvers--OTM-288 through OTM-326-- for attaining 14 natural satellite encounters: seven with Titan, six with Enceladus, and one with Dione.

  12. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year One (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Ballard, Christopher G.; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.


    The Cassini-Huygens spacecraft began its four-year Prime Mission to study Saturn's system in July 2004. Two tour extensions followed: a two-year Equinox Mission beginning in July 2008 and a seven-year Solstice Mission starting in September 2010. This paper highlights Cassini maneuver activities from June 2010 through June 2011, covering the transition from the Equinox to Solstice Mission. This interval included 38 scheduled maneuvers, nine targeted Titan flybys, three targeted Enceladus flybys, and one close Rhea flyby. In addition, beyond the demanding nominal navigation schedule, numerous unforeseen challenges further complicated maneuver operations. These challenges will be discussed in detail.

  13. ESPA for Lunar and Science Missions Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA mission planning in the next decade includes small spacecraft and secondary flight opportunities on Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELVs), specifically...

  14. SLS launched missions concept studies for LUVOIR mission (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.


    NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. The multi-center ATLAST Team is working to meet these needs. The MSFC Team is examining potential concepts that leverage the advantages of the SLS (Space Launch System). A key challenge is how to affordably get a large telescope into space. The JWST design was severely constrained by the mass and volume capacities of its launch vehicle. This problem is solved by using an SLS Block II-B rocket with its 10-m diameter x 30-m tall fairing and estimated 45 mt payload to SE-L2. Previously, two development study cycles produced a detailed concept called ATLAST-8. Using ATLAST-8 as a point of departure, this paper reports on a new ATLAST-12 concept. ATLAST-12 is a 12-m class segmented aperture LUVOIR with an 8-m class center segment. Thus, ATLAST-8 is now a de-scope option.

  15. Composable Mission Framework for Rapid End-to-End Mission Design and Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed here is the Composable Mission Framework (CMF)?a model-based software framework that shall enable seamless continuity of mission design and...

  16. A university-based distributed satellite mission control network for operating professional space missions (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher; Rasay, Mike


    For more than a decade, Santa Clara University's Robotic Systems Laboratory has operated a unique, distributed, internet-based command and control network for providing professional satellite mission control services for a variety of government and industry space missions. The system has been developed and is operated by students who become critical members of the mission teams throughout the development, test, and on-orbit phases of these missions. The mission control system also supports research in satellite control technology and hands-on student aerospace education. This system serves as a benchmark for its comprehensive nature, its student-centric nature, its ability to support NASA and industry space missions, and its longevity in providing a consistent level of professional services. This paper highlights the unique features of this program, reviews the network's design and the supported spacecraft missions, and describes the critical programmatic features of the program that support the control of professional space missions.

  17. International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions. (United States)

    Yeow, Vincent K L; Lee, Seng-Teik T; Lambrecht, Thomas J; Barnett, John; Gorney, Mark; Hardjowasito, Widanto; Lemperle, Gottfried; McComb, Harold; Natsume, Nagato; Stranc, Mirek; Wilson, Libby


    The International Task Force on Volunteer Cleft Missions was set up to provide a report to be presented at the Eighth International Congress of Cleft Palate and Associated Craniofacial Anomalies on September 12, 1997, in Singapore. The aim of the report was to provide data from a wide range of different international teams performing volunteer cleft missions and, thereafter, based on the collected data, to identify common goals and aims of such missions. Thirteen different groups actively participating in volunteer cleft missions worldwide were selected from the International Confederation of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery's list of teams actively participating in volunteer cleft missions. Because of the time frame within which the committee had to work, three groups that did not respond by the stipulated deadline were omitted from the committee. The represented members and their respective institutions have undertaken more than 50 volunteer cleft missions to underdeveloped nations worldwide within the last 3 years. They have visited over 20 different countries, treating more than 3,500 patients worldwide. Based on the data collected and by consensus, the committee outlined recommendations for future volunteer cleft missions based on 1) mission objectives, 2) organization, 3) personal health and liability, 4) funding, 5) trainees in volunteer cleft missions, and 6) public relations. The task force believed that all volunteer cleft missions should have well-defined objectives, preferably with long-term plans. The task force also decided that it was impossible to achieve a successful mission without good organization and close coordination. All efforts should be made, and care taken, to ensure that there is minimal morbidity and no mortality. Finally, as ambassadors of goodwill and humanitarian aid, the participants must make every effort to understand and respect local customs and protocol. The main aims are to provide top-quality surgical service, train local

  18. Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission (United States)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Litvinenko, L.; Shulga, V.; Yatskiv, Y.; Kislyuk, V.

    Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical polarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface in a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are: a synthetic aperture imaging radar (SAR), ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and imaging polarimeter (IP). The main purpose of SAR is to study with high resolution (50 m) the permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential of resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for permanent manned bases on the Moon. Radar imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequencies multi-polarization soun d ing of the lunar surface with GPR can provide information about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. GPR can be used for measuring the megaregolith layer properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. IP will be a CCD camera with an additional suite of polarizers. Modest spatial resolution (100 m) should provide a total coverage or a large portion of the lunar surface in oblique viewing basically at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional radiophysical experiments are considered with the use of the SAR system, e.g., bistatic radar

  19. Mission to Very Early Earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutcheon, I D; Weber, P K; Fallon, S J; Smith, J B; Aleon, J; Ryerson, F J; Harrison, T M; Cavosie, A J; Valley, J W


    The Hadean Earth is often viewed as an inhospitable and, perhaps, unlikely setting for the rise of primordial life. However, carbonaceous materials supplied by accreting meteorites and sources of chemical energy similar to those fueling life around modern deep-sea volcanic vents would have been present in abundance. More questionable are two other essential ingredients for life - liquid water and clement temperatures. Did the Hadean Earth possess a hydrosphere and temperate climate compatible with the initiation of biologic activity? If so, the popular model of an excessively hot planetary surface characterized by a basaltic crust, devoid of continental material is invalid. Similarly, establishment of an Hadean hydrosphere prior to the cessation of heavy asteroid bombardment may mean that primitive life could have evolved and then been extinguished, only to rise again. The most effective means of determining the environmental conditions on this young planet is through geochemical analysis of samples retrieved from the Early Earth. While rocks older than 4 billion years (4 Ga) have not been found, individual zircon grains, the detritus of rocks long since eroded away, have been identified with ages as old as 4.4 Ga - only {approx}160 million years younger than the Earth itself. If we can use the geochemical information contained in these unique samples to infer the nature of their source rocks and the processes that formed them, we can place constraints on the conditions prevailing at the Earth's surface shortly after formation. This project utilizes a combined analytical and experimental approach to gather the necessary geochemical data to determine the parameters required to relate the zircons to their parent materials. Mission to Early Earth involves dating, isotopic and chemical analyses of mineral and melt inclusions within zircons and of the zircons themselves. The major experimental activity at LLNL focused on the partitioning of trace elements between

  20. Evaluating Mission Drift in Microfinance: Lessons for Programs with Social Mission (United States)

    Hishigsuren, Gaamaa


    The article contributes to a better understanding of implications of scaling up on the social mission of microfinance programs. It proposes a methodology to measure the extent, if any, to which a microfinance program with a poverty alleviation mission drifts away from its mission during rapid scaling up and presents findings from a field research…

  1. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2 (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.


    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA’s next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and pro-gram goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance as affected by variations in Earth-Moon geometry. This provides Orion’s subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews (PDR and CDR), there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products needed include, large quantities of nominal trajectories for multiple monthly launch periods and abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajectory in the launch window.

  2. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.


    The Tank Waste Remediation System Mission Analysis Report identifies the initial states of the system and the desired final states of the system. The Mission Analysis Report identifies target measures of success appropriate to program-level accomplishments. It also identifies program-level requirements and major system boundaries and interfaces.

  3. Mars Telecom Orbiter mission operations concepts (United States)

    Deutsch, Marie-Jose; Komarek, Tom; Lopez, Saturnino; Townes, Steve; Synnott, Steve; Austin, Richard; Guinn, Joe; Varghese, Phil; Edwards, Bernard; Bondurant, Roy; De Paula, Ramon


    The Mars Telecom Orbiter (MTO) relay capability enables next decadal missions at Mars, collecting gigabits of data a day to be relayed back at speeds exceeding 4 Mbps and it facilitates small missions whose limited resources do not permit them to have a direct link to Earth.

  4. Multi-mission telecom analysis tool (United States)

    Hanks, D.; Kordon, M.; Baker, J.


    In the early formulation phase of a mission it is critically important to have fast, easy to use, easy to integrate space vehicle subsystem analysis tools so that engineers can rapidly perform trade studies not only by themselves but in coordination with other subsystem engineers as well. The Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is designed for just this purpose.

  5. A Computer System for Mission Managers (United States)

    Tolchin, Robert; Achar, Sathy; Yang, Tina; Lee, Tom


    Mission Managers' Workstation (MMW) is personal-computer-based system providing data management and reporting functions to assist Space Shuttle mission managers. Allows to relate events and stored data in timely and organized fashion. Using MMW, standard reports formatted, generated, edited, and electronically communicated with minimum clerical help. Written in PASCAL, BASIC, and assembler.

  6. Coatings for the NuSTAR mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Brejnholt, Nicolai;


    The NuSTAR mission will be the first mission to carry a hard X-ray(5-80 keV) focusing telescope to orbit. The optics are based on the use of multilayer coated thin slumped glass. Two different material combinations were used for the flight optics, namely W/Si and Pt/C. In this paper we describe...

  7. Basic radio interferometry for future lunar missions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminaei, Amin; Klein Wolt, Marc; Chen, Linjie; Bronzwaer, Thomas; Pourshaghaghi, Hamid Reza; Bentum, Mark J.; Falcke, Heino


    In light of presently considered lunar missions, we investigate the feasibility of the basic radio interferometry (RIF) for lunar missions. We discuss the deployment of two-element radio interferometer on the Moon surface. With the first antenna element is envisaged to be placed on the lunar lander,

  8. Solar Power for Future NASA Missions (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Landis, Geoffrey A.


    An overview of NASA missions and technology development efforts are discussed. Future spacecraft will need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of missions. One application driving development of these future arrays is solar electric propulsion.

  9. Applications of nuclear propulsion to Mars missions (United States)

    Rosen, Robert; Reck, Gregory M.; Bennett, Gary L.


    The basic features of a piloted mission to Mars is described, and it is shown how nuclear propulsion can improve upon the various performance measures of such a mission. An overview of the history and types of nuclear propulsion in the U.S. is presented. Current planning to develop nuclear propulsion technology for the Space Exploration Initiative is addressed.

  10. Radiation Hardness Assurance (RHA) for Small Missions (United States)

    Campola, Michael J.


    Varied mission life and complexity is growing for small spacecraft. Small missions benefit from detailed hazard definition and evaluation as done in the past. Requirements need to flow from the system down to the parts level and aid system level radiation tolerance. RHA is highlighted with increasing COTS usage.

  11. Human missions to Mars: issues and challenges (United States)

    Race, M.; Kminek, G.

    Recent announcements of the planned future human exploration of Mars by both European and US space agencies have raised a host of questions and challenges that must be addressed in advance of long-duration human missions. While detailed mission planning is a long way off, numerous issues can already be identified in the broad context of planetary protection. In this session, a panel of experts will provide brief overviews of the types of challenges ahead, such as the protection of the martian environment; the integration of human and robotic mission elements and operations; precursor scientific information necessary to plan human missions; development and use of nuclear and other technologies for the protection and support of astronauts during the mission; protection of Earth upon return; and societal and ethical questions about human exploration. The session has been designed to encourage and incorporate audience participation in the discussion about the issues and challenges ahead.

  12. The Method of Mission Oriented Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In a real application, equipment in good condition sometimes have to be repairedbecause the equipment does not satisfy the requirements of the mission; However, it is notnecessary to repair some equipment with failures because the failures do not affect the mission completion. In these cases, maintenance activity guided by present maintenance methodsmay sometimes affect the mission completion in time or bring about extra maintenance. To overcome the shortage of present maintenance methods, we propose an idea and method of missionoriented maintenance (MOM) to deal with the maintenance policy on these kinds of problems. This method can work out different maintenance policies corresponding to differentmissions with full consideration of missions and mission requirements for the equipment.

  13. ORION: A Supersynchronous Transfer Orbit mission (United States)

    Walters, I. M.; Baker, J. F.; Shurmer, I. M.


    ORION F1 was launched on 29th November 1994 on an Atlas IIA launch vehicle. It was designed, built and delivered in-orbit by Matra Marconi Space Systems Plc and was handed over to ORION Satellite Corporation on 20th January 1995 at its on-station longitude of 37.5 deg W. The mission differed significantly from that of any other geostationary communications satellite in that the Transfer Orbit apogee altitude of 123,507 km was over three times geosynchronous (GEO) altitude and one third of the way to the moon. The SuperSynchronous Transfer Orbit (SSTO) mission is significantly different from the standard Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO)mission in a number of ways. This paper discusses the essential features of the mission design through its evolution since 1987 and the details of the highly successful mission itself including a detailed account of the attitude determination achieved using the Galileo Earth and Sun Sensor (ESS).

  14. Analyzing the designs of planet finding missions

    CERN Document Server

    Savransky, D; Cady, E


    We present an extended framework for the analysis of direct detection planet finding missions using space telescopes. We describe the components of a design reference mission (DRM), including the complete description of an arbitrary planetary system, the description of a planet finding instrument, and the modeling of an observation at an arbitrary time. These components are coupled with a decision modeling algorithm, which allows us to automatically generate DRMs with simple mission rules that lead to an optimized science yield. This automated DRM generation is then employed to perform a Monte Carlo analysis to produce the distribution of science deliverables and costs for a mission concept. Along with the details of our implementation of this algorithm, we discuss validation techniques and possible future refinements. We apply this analysis technique to three mission concepts: an internal pupil mapping coronagraph, an external occulter, and the THEIA XPC concept (also an occulter based design). The focus of ...

  15. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen


    Increases in NASA mission costs have led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns as well as mitigation and prevention attempts. This paper hypothesizes that one cause is that the availability of reserves may reduce incentives to control costs. We draw a comparison to the insurance concept of moral hazard, and we use actuarial techniques to better understand the increase in mission costs due to the availability of reserves. NASA's CADRe database provided the data against which we tested our hypothesis and discovered that there is correlation between the amount of available reserves and project overruns, particularly for mission hardware cost increases. We address the question of how to prevent reserves from increasing mission spending without increasing cost risk to projects.

  16. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  17. A suborbital IMU test mission (United States)

    Lawman, Adam; Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott


    This paper presents work conducted in preparation for a suborbital test flight to test an inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) ability to serve as a position determination mechanism in a GPS-denied environment. Because the IMU could potentially be used at several points during flight, it is not guaranteed that a GPS fix can be used to reset the IMU after the stresses of launch. Due to this, the specific goal of this work is to characterize whether a rocket launch disrupts the IMU-based position knowledge to the extent that it is unusable. This paper discusses preparations for a sub-orbital launch mission to this end. It include a description of the hardware and software used. A discussion of the data logging mechanism and the onboard and post-flight processing which is required to compare the GPS fixes and IMU-generated positions is also presented. Finally, the utility of an IMU capable of maintaining position awareness during launch is discussed.

  18. New Technology Lunar Astronomy Mission (United States)

    Chen, P. C.; Oliversen, R. J.; Barry, R. K.; Romeo, R.; Pitts, R.; Ma, K. B.


    A scientifically productive Moon-based observatory can be established in the near term (3-5 years) by robotic spacecraft. Such a project is affordable even taking into account NASA's currently very tight budget. In fact the estimated cost of a lunar telescope is sufficiently low that it can be financed by private industry, foundations, or wealthy individuals. The key factor is imaginative use of new technologies and new materials. Since the Apollo era, many new areas of space technology have been developed in the US by NASA, the military, academic and industry sectors, ESA, Japan, and others. These include ultralite optics, radiation tolerant detectors, precision telescope drives incorporating high temperature superconductors, smart materials, active optics, dust and thermal control structures, subminiature spectrometers, tiny radio transmitters and receivers, small rockets, innovative fuel saving trajectories, and small precision landers. The combination of these elements makes possible a lunar observatory capable of front line astrophysical research in UV-Vis-IR imaging, spectrometry, and optical interferometry, at a per unit cost comparable to that of Small Explorer (SMEX) class missions. We describe work in progress at NASA GSFC and elsewhere, applications to other space projects, and spinoff benefits to ground-based astronomy, industry, and education.

  19. The Jem-Euso Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Yoshiyuki


    JEM-EUSO is a space science mission to explore extreme energies and physics of the Universe. Its instrument will watch the dark-side of the earth and will detect UV photons emitted from the extensive air shower caused by an Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs above 10^18 eV), or Extremely High Energy Cosmic Ray (EHECR) particle (e.g., above about 10^20 eV). Such a high-rigidity particles as the latter arrives almost in a straight-line from its origin through the magnetic fields of our Milky Way Galaxy and is expected to allow us to trace the source location by its arrival direction. This nature can open the door to the new astronomy with charged particles. In its five years operation including the tilted mode, JEM-EUSO will detect at least 1,000 events with E>7x10^19 eV with the GZK cutoff spectrum. It can determine the energy spectrum and source locations of GZK to super-GZK regions with a statistical accuracy of several percent. JEM-EUSO is planned to be deployed by H2 Transfer Vehicle (HTV) and will be a...

  20. NASA's Missions for Exoplanet Exploration (United States)

    Unwin, Stephen


    Exoplanets are detected and characterized using a range of observational techniques - including direct imaging, astrometry, transits, microlensing, and radial velocities. Each technique illuminates a different aspect of exoplanet properties and statistics. This diversity of approach has contributed to the rapid growth of the field into a major research area in only two decades. In parallel with exoplanet observations, major efforts are now underway to interpret the physical and atmospheric properties of exoplanets for which spectroscopy is now possible. In addition, comparative planetology probes questions of interest to both exoplanets and solar system studies. In this talk I describe NASA's activities in exoplanet research, and discuss plans for near-future missions that have reflected-light spectroscopy as a key goal. The WFIRST-AFTA concept currently under active study includes a major microlensing survey, and now includes a visible light coronagraph for exoplanet spectroscopy and debris disk imaging. Two NASA-selected community-led teams are studying probe-scale (important targets with transit spectroscopy on JWST), and build on the work of ground-based instruments such as LBTI and observing with HIRES on Keck. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Copyright 2014. California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  1. NICER: Mission Overview and Status (United States)

    Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.


    NASA's Neutron star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission will explore the structure, dynamics, and energetics of neutron stars through soft X-ray (0.2-12 keV) timing and spectroscopy. An external attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS), NICER is manifested on the Commercial Resupply Services SpaceX-11 flight, with launch scheduled for late 2016. The NICER payload is currently in final integration and environmental testing. Ground calibration has provided robust performance measures of the optical and detector subsystems, demonstrating that the instrument meets or surpasses its effective area, timing resolution, energy resolution, etc., requirements. We briefly describe the NICER hardware, its continuing testing, operations and environment on ISS, and the objectives of NICER's prime mission—including precise radius measurements for a handful of neutron stars to constrain the equation of state of cold, ultra-dense matter. Other contributions at this meeting address specific scientific investigations that are enabled by NICER, for neutron stars in their diverse manifestations as well as for broader X-ray astrophysics through a brief, approved Guest Observer program beginning in 2018.

  2. Concepts For An EO Land Convoy Mission (United States)

    Cutter, M. A.; Eves, S.; Remedios, J.; Humpage, N.; Hall, D.; Regan, A.


    ESA are undertaking three studies investigating possible synergistic satellite missions flying in formation with the operational Copernicus Sentinel missions and/or the METOP satellites. These three studies are focussed on:- a) ocean and ice b) land c) atmosphere Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL), the University of Leicester and Astrium Ltd are undertaking the second of these studies into the synergetic observation by missions flying in formation with European operational missions, focusing on the land theme. The aim of the study is to identify and develop, (through systematic analysis), potential innovative Earth science objectives and novel applications and services that could be made possible by flying additional satellites, (possibly of small-class type), in constellation or formation with one or more already deployed or firmly planned European operational missions, with an emphasis on the Sentinel missions, but without excluding other possibilities. In the long-term, the project aims at stimulating the development of novel, (smaller), mission concepts in Europe that may exploit new and existing European operational capacity in order to address in a cost effective manner new scientific objectives and applications. One possible route of exploitation would be via the proposed Small Mission Initiative (SMI) that may be initiated under the ESA Earth Explorer Observation Programme (EOEP). The following ESA science priority areas have been highlighted during the study [1]:- - The water cycle - The carbon cycle - Terrestrial ecosystems - Biodiversity - Land use and land use cover - Human population dynamics The study team have identified the science gaps that might be addressed by a "convoy" mission flying with the Copernicus Sentinel satellites, identified the candidate mission concepts and provided recommendations regarding the most promising concepts from a list of candidates. These recommendations provided the basis of a selection process performed by ESA

  3. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne; Clowdsley, Martha; Qualls, Garry; Blattnig, Steve; Lee, Kerry; Fry, Dan; Stoffle, Nicholas; Simonsen, Lisa; Slaba, Tony; Walker, Steven; Zapp, Edward


    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large Solar Particle Event (SPE). Longer duration missions have both SPE and Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) risks. SPE exposure can contribute significantly toward cancer induction in combination with GCR. As mission duration increases, mitigation strategies must address the combined risks from SPE and GCR exposure. In this paper, full mission exposure assessments were performed for the proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, previously developed radiation shielding models for a proposed lunar habitat and rover were utilized. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for the proposed timelines. Mission exposure results, assessed in terms of effective dose, are presented for the proposed timelines and recommendations are made for improved astronaut shielding and safer operational practices.

  4. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky


    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  5. The Pascal Mars Scout Mission (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)


    Except for Earth, Mars is the planet most amenable to surface-based climate studies. Its surface is accessible, and the kind of observations that are needed, such as meteorological measurements from a long-lived global network, are readily achievable. Weather controls the movement of dust, the exchange of water between the surface and atmosphere, and the cycling of CO2 between the poles. We know there is a weather signal, we know how to measure it, and we know how to interpret it. Pascal seeks to understand the long-term global behavior of near-surface weather systems on Mars, how they interact with its surface, and, therefore, how they control its climate system. To achieve this, Pascal delivers 18 Science Stations to the surface of the planet that operate for three Mars years (5.6 Earth years). The network has stations operating in the tropics, midlatitudes, and polar regions of both hemispheres. During entry, descent, and landing, each Pascal probe acquires deceleration measurements to determine thermal structure, and descent images to characterize local terrain. On the surface, each Science Station takes daily measurements of pressure, opacity, temperature, wind speed, and water vapor concentration and monthly panoramic images of the landing environment. These data will characterize the planet's climate system and how atmosphere-surface interactions control it. The Pascal mission is named after 17th century French Scientist, Blaise Pascal, who pioneered measurements of atmospheric pressure. Pressure is the most critical measurement because it records the "heartbeat" of the planet's general circulation and climate system.

  6. Cost considerations for interstellar missions (United States)

    Andrews, Dana G.

    This paper examines the technical and economic feasibility of interstellar exploration. Three candidate interstellar propulsion systems are evaluated with respect to technical viability and compared on an estimated cost basis. Two of the systems, the laser-propelled lightsail (LPL) and the particle-beam propelled magsail (PBPM), appear to be technically feasible and capable supporting one-way probes to nearby star systems within the lifetime of the principal investigators, if enough energy is available. The third propulsion system, the antimatter rocket, requires additional proof of concept demonstrations before its feasibility can be evaluated. Computer simulations of the acceleration and deceleration interactions of LPL and PBPM were completed and spacecraft configurations optimized for minimum energy usage are noted. The optimum LPL transfers about ten percent of the laser beam energy into kinetic energy of the spacecraft while the optimum PBPM transfers about thirty percent. Since particle beam generators are roughly twice as energy efficient as large lasers, the PBPM propulsion system requires roughly one-sixth the busbar electrical energy a LPL system would require to launch an identical payload. The total beam energy requirement for an interstellar probe mission is roughly 10 20 joules, which would require the complete fissioning of one thousand tons of Uranium assuming thirty-five percent powerplant efficiency. This is roughly equivalent to a recurring cost per flight of 3.0 Billion dollars in reactor grade enriched uranium using today's prices. Therefore, interstellar flight is an expensive proposition, but not unaffordable, if the nonrecurring costs of building the powerplant can be minimized.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The mission is generic expression of reason for the existence of an organization. Organizational mission ensure continuity of existence beyond the objectives and targets of activities. It is the expression of an organization's responsibilities towards the environment in which it belongs. As the organization grows and its activities or environmental conditions change, managers adapt their strategies, but stated mission will remain valid for a period of time or unchanged throughout the life of the organization. All managerial elements of the organization are aligned with stated mission, starting from the organization structure, management behavior or specific business processes. The focus of the mission of an higher education institution on a need or several integrated needs, on customers who manifest this need and on how they can be met, that really means defining of its strategic domanin, as a sphere of influence of the organization in their environment. In this sphere of influence, three components integrate on three levels of the mission: to establish needs; identify the customer type to which an organization adress and key competencies that differentiate it from the rest competitors. To that context identifies four specific forms of academic institutions starting from their mission and strategic area: autocratic academic institutions, meritocrate academic institutions, democratic academic institutions, bureaucrats academic institutions.

  8. The Alfvén mission concept (United States)

    Berthomier, M.; Fazakerley, A. N.


    The Alfvén mission is a candidate to the 2014 ESA Call for M-class science missions. Its main scientific objective is to elucidate the universal physical processes at work in the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR). The AAR is a unique laboratory for investigating strongly magnetized plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. The Alfvén mission will investigate fundamental and multi-scale physical processes that govern what Nobel Prize laureate Hannes Alfvén named the Plasma Universe. The mission concept is designed to teach us where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how they emit radiation, and to elucidate the ion heating and outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The only way to distinguish between the models describing acceleration processes at the heart of Magnetosphere-Ionosphere (MI) coupling is to combine high-time resolution in situ measurements (as pioneered by the FAST mission), multi-point measurements (as pioneered by CLUSTER), and auroral arc imaging in one mission. Taking advantage of the existing dense network of ground based observatories the Alfvén mission will also allow a major breakthrough in our understanding of solar terrestrial relationships by providing key experimental measurements to large scale models of MI electrodynamics.

  9. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S


    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  10. ESA's atmospheric composition and dynamics mission (United States)

    Fehr, Thorsten; Laur, Henri; Hoersch, Bianca; Ingmann, Paul; Wehr, Tobias; Langen, Joerg; Veihelmann, Ben

    For almost 15 years, ESA is providing atmospheric chemistry and composition information to the user community. In 1995, this commitment started with the GOME instrument on-board ERS-2. This mission was continued and extended with the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments on-board of ENVISAT launched in 2002. ESA is prepared to continue Envisat through 2013 in the frame of the mission extension. To respond to GMES requirements, ESA develops the Sentinel 5 Precursor mission to be launched in 2014, to continue and improve the European measurement capabilities initiated with GOME and SCIAMACHY, and continued with EUMETSAT's GOME-2 and the Dutch OMI instrument on the NASA Aura platform. In addition the Sentinel 4 and 5 missions are prepared, further improving the monitoring capabilities with geostationary observation capabilities and continuing the Low Earth Orbit Sentinel 5 Precursor well beyond 2025. At the same time, ESA is preparing two atmospheric Earth Explorer Missions. With ADM-Aeolus, a novel lidar system for the retrieval of wind speed vectors from space is being developed and planned to be launched in 2012. EarthCARE will investigate the Clouds-Aerosol-radiation-interaction with a lidar, cloud radar (provided by JAXA), multi-spectral imager and broad band radiometric instruments collocated on one platform. A major goal is the development of synergistic retrievals exploiting information from different sensors in one algorithm. The mission is planned to start in 2014. In parallel the Phase A studies for the ESA Earth Explorer 7 are ongoing. One of the three candidate missions is PREMIER, an infrared limb-imaging spectrometer and millimetre-wave limb-sounder planned to be launched in 2016. In addition the call of ideas for the Earth Explorer 8 has been published and the corresponding Letters of Intend have been received, including a number of proposals for mission in the atmospheric composition and dynamics domain. At the same time, the access to ESA Third

  11. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission (United States)

    O'Keefe, William


    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  12. Autonomy requirements engineering for space missions

    CERN Document Server

    Vassev, Emil


    Advanced space exploration is performed by unmanned missions with integrated autonomy in both flight and ground systems. Risk and feasibility are major factors supporting the use of unmanned craft and the use of automation and robotic technologies where possible. Autonomy in space helps to increase the amount of science data returned from missions, perform new science, and reduce mission costs.Elicitation and expression of autonomy requirements is one of the most significant challenges the autonomous spacecraft engineers need to overcome today. This book discusses the Autonomy Requirements Eng

  13. Integrated Network Architecture for NASA's Orion Missions (United States)

    Bhasin, Kul B.; Hayden, Jeffrey L.; Sartwell, Thomas; Miller, Ronald A.; Hudiburg, John J.


    NASA is planning a series of short and long duration human and robotic missions to explore the Moon and then Mars. The series of missions will begin with a new crew exploration vehicle (called Orion) that will initially provide crew exchange and cargo supply support to the International Space Station (ISS) and then become a human conveyance for travel to the Moon. The Orion vehicle will be mounted atop the Ares I launch vehicle for a series of pre-launch tests and then launched and inserted into low Earth orbit (LEO) for crew exchange missions to the ISS. The Orion and Ares I comprise the initial vehicles in the Constellation system of systems that later includes Ares V, Earth departure stage, lunar lander, and other lunar surface systems for the lunar exploration missions. These key systems will enable the lunar surface exploration missions to be initiated in 2018. The complexity of the Constellation system of systems and missions will require a communication and navigation infrastructure to provide low and high rate forward and return communication services, tracking services, and ground network services. The infrastructure must provide robust, reliable, safe, sustainable, and autonomous operations at minimum cost while maximizing the exploration capabilities and science return. The infrastructure will be based on a network of networks architecture that will integrate NASA legacy communication, modified elements, and navigation systems. New networks will be added to extend communication, navigation, and timing services for the Moon missions. Internet protocol (IP) and network management systems within the networks will enable interoperability throughout the Constellation system of systems. An integrated network architecture has developed based on the emerging Constellation requirements for Orion missions. The architecture, as presented in this paper, addresses the early Orion missions to the ISS with communication, navigation, and network services over five

  14. Design of an Extended Mission for GRAIL (United States)

    Sweetser, Theodore H.; Wallace, Mark S.; Hatch, Sara J.; Roncoli, Ralph B.


    The GRAIL extended mission will extend the measurement of the lunar gravity field beyond what was achieved by the primary GRAIL mission this past spring (2012). By lowering the orbits of the two GRAIL spacecraft to less than half the altitude of the primary mission orbits on average, the resolution of the gravity field measurements will be improved by a factor of two, yielding a signicant improvement in our knowledge of the structure of the upper crust of the Moon. The challenges of flying so low and the design which will meet those challenges is presented here.

  15. Cassini Solstice Mission Maneuver Experience: Year Three (United States)

    Wagner, Sean V.; Arrieta, Juan; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul W.; Valerino, Powtawche N.; Wong, Mau C.


    The Solstice Mission is the final extension of the Cassini spacecraft s tour of Saturn and its moons. To accommodate an end-of-mission in 2017, the maneuver decision process has been refined. For example, the Cassini Project now prioritizes saving propellant over minimizing maneuver cycles. This paper highlights 30 maneuvers planned from June 2012 through July 2013, targeted to nine Titan flybys and the final Rhea encounter in the mission. Of these maneuvers, 90% were performed to maintain the prescribed trajectory and preserve downstream delta V. Recent operational changes to maneuver executions based on execution-error modeling and analysis are also discussed.

  16. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations (United States)

    Green, James


    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  17. Designing Mission Operations for the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission (United States)

    Havens, Glen G.; Beerer, Joseph G.


    NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, to understand the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, offered unique challenges to mission operations. From launch through end of mission, the twin GRAIL orbiters had to be operated in parallel. The journey to the Moon and into the low science orbit involved numerous maneuvers, planned on tight timelines, to ultimately place the orbiters into the required formation-flying configuration necessary. The baseline GRAIL mission is short, only 9 months in duration, but progressed quickly through seven very unique mission phases. Compressed into this short mission timeline, operations activities and maneuvers for both orbiters had to be planned and coordinated carefully. To prepare for these challenges, development of the GRAIL Mission Operations System began in 2008. Based on high heritage multi-mission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin, the GRAIL mission operations system was adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper describes GRAIL's system engineering development process for defining GRAIL's operations scenarios and generating requirements, tracing the evolution from operations concept through final design, implementation, and validation.

  18. The Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP): A New Tool for Performance Evaluation of Human Lunar Missions (United States)

    Williams, Jacob; Stewart, Shaun M.; Lee, David E.; Davis, Elizabeth C.; Condon, Gerald L.; Senent, Juan


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) Constellation Program paves the way for a series of lunar missions leading to a sustained human presence on the Moon. The proposed mission design includes an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), a Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and a lunar lander (Altair) which support the transfer to and from the lunar surface. This report addresses the design, development and implementation of a new mission scan tool called the Mission Assessment Post Processor (MAPP) and its use to provide insight into the integrated (i.e., EDS, Orion, and Altair based) mission cost as a function of various mission parameters and constraints. The Constellation architecture calls for semiannual launches to the Moon and will support a number of missions, beginning with 7-day sortie missions, culminating in a lunar outpost at a specified location. The operational lifetime of the Constellation Program can cover a period of decades over which the Earth-Moon geometry (particularly, the lunar inclination) will go through a complete cycle (i.e., the lunar nodal cycle lasting 18.6 years). This geometry variation, along with other parameters such as flight time, landing site location, and mission related constraints, affect the outbound (Earth to Moon) and inbound (Moon to Earth) translational performance cost. The mission designer must determine the ability of the vehicles to perform lunar missions as a function of this complex set of interdependent parameters. Trade-offs among these parameters provide essential insights for properly assessing the ability of a mission architecture to meet desired goals and objectives. These trades also aid in determining the overall usable propellant required for supporting nominal and off-nominal missions over the entire operational lifetime of the program, thus they support vehicle sizing.

  19. Planning for Planetary Science Mission Including Resource Prospecting Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advances in computer-aided mission planning can enhance mission operations and science return for surface missions to Mars, the Moon, and beyond. While the...

  20. 2016 Mission Operations Working Group: Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) (United States)

    Frye, Stuart


    EO-1 Mission Status for the Constellation Mission Operations Working Group to discuss the EO-1 flight systems, mission enhancements, debris avoidance maneuver, orbital information, 5-year outlook, and new ground stations.

  1. Factors Contributing to Unsuccessful Re-Proposed Missions (United States)

    Anteau, Gillian R.


    JPL often re-proposes unselected missions after technology advancement and mission concept development. Feedback given as major and minor weaknesses and strengths in prior rounds are addressed in later versions of proposals. This feedback provides insight into the factors that affect perceptions of risk and value. My research involved an in-depth case study of an original mission, Mission-A, and the re-proposed mission, Mission-B, after a multi-year technology development effort.In 2002, Mission-A was rated as Category III, with above average science merit (top score) and High Risk. To reduce risk, NASA invested technology development funds. In 2006 the re-formulated Mission-A mission, renamed Mission-B, was rated Category IV, good to very good science, and Medium Risk. While the risk rating improved from Mission-A to Mission-B, the overall results were worse.

  2. Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) (United States)

    Shimoda, Haruhisa

    In order to meet the requirements of Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as well as to continue the ADEOS and ADEOS2 missions, JAXA is now planning the GCOM mission which is composed of a series of satellites. There are two series of satellites, and they are now called GCOM-W and GCOM-C satellites. Both series are composed of 3 satellites with 5 years lifetime. Hence, 13 years of continuous observation can be assured with 1 year overlaps. The first satellite of GCOM-W will be launched in fiscal 2011 while the first one of GCOM-C will be launched in fiscal 2013. In regard to global warming, the GCOM intends the measurement of most factors involved in the energy and water cycle and material cycle, which are the main mechanisms determining climate change, and also analysis of the relevant processes. Within the material cycle, measurement of the carbon cycle is a key subject. In this particular field, the GCOM aims at estimating the primary production as well as carbon flux based on measurement data on land vegetation and phytoplankton. In regard to changes of the land environment, the measuring subjects are tropical forests and the global distribution of vegetation and its changes. In regard to the cryosphere, the sea ice concentration and snow coverage are measured and their interaction with the climate is analyzed. GCOM-W1 will carry AMSR2 (AMSR F/O). AMSR2 will be very similar to AMSR on ADEOS2 and AMSR-E on EOS-Aqua with some modifications. The aperture of AMSR2 is 2m, and AMSR2 will have more accurate hot load than AMSR. Two kinds of modification are intro-duced. One is to use an actively controlled thermal reflector over the hot load. This reflector is called a temperature controlled plate (TCP). Another modification is to shield the ambient emissions. GCOM-C1 will carry GLI F/O (called the second generation GLI : SGLI). The SGLI will be rather different from GLI on ADEOS2. The main targets of SGLI are atmospheric aerosols, coastal zone and land

  3. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission: 1978-1980 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — NASA's Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) project collected Earth data in the visible and thermal bands between April 1978 and September 1980. This was an...

  4. Atrial Fibrillation During an Exploration Class Mission (United States)

    Lipsett, Mark; Hamilton, Douglas; Lemery, Jay; Polk, James


    This slide presentation reviews a possible scenario of an astronaut having Atrial Fibrillation during a Mars Mission. In the case review the presentation asks several questions about the alternatives for treatment, medications and the ramifications of the decisions.

  5. Software Innovation in a Mission Critical Environment (United States)

    Fredrickson, Steven


    Operating in mission-critical environments requires trusted solutions, and the preference for "tried and true" approaches presents a potential barrier to infusing innovation into mission-critical systems. This presentation explores opportunities to overcome this barrier in the software domain. It outlines specific areas of innovation in software development achieved by the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Engineering Directorate in support of NASA's major human spaceflight programs, including International Space Station, Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion), and Commercial Crew Programs. Software engineering teams at JSC work with hardware developers, mission planners, and system operators to integrate flight vehicles, habitats, robotics, and other spacecraft elements for genuinely mission critical applications. The innovations described, including the use of NASA Core Flight Software and its associated software tool chain, can lead to software that is more affordable, more reliable, better modelled, more flexible, more easily maintained, better tested, and enabling of automation.

  6. Pointing control for the International Comet Mission (United States)

    Leblanc, D. R.; Schumacher, L. L.


    The design of the pointing control system for the proposed International Comet Mission, intended to fly by Comet Halley and rendezvous with Comet Tempel-2 is presented. Following a review of mission objectives and the spacecraft configuration, design constraints on the pointing control system controlling the two-axis gimballed scan platform supporting the science instruments are discussed in relation to the scientific requirements of the mission. The primary design options considered for the pointing control system design for the baseline spacecraft are summarized, and the design selected, which employs a target-referenced, inertially stabilized control system, is described in detail. The four basic modes of operation of the pointing control subsystem (target acquisition, inertial hold, target track and slew) are discussed as they relate to operations at Halley and Tempel-2. It is pointed that the pointing control system design represents a significant advance in the state of the art of pointing controls for planetary missions.

  7. Enterprise Information Architecture for Mission Development (United States)

    Dutra, Jayne


    This slide presentation reviews the concept of an information architecture to assist in mission development. The integrate information architecture will create a unified view of the information using metadata and the values (i.e., taxonomy).

  8. DOE and NASA joint Dark Energy mission

    CERN Multimedia


    "DOE and NASA announced their plan for a Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) on October 23, 2003, at the NASA Office of Space Science Structure and Evolution of the Universe Subcommittee (SEUS) meeting" (1 paragraph).

  9. Cloud Computing Techniques for Space Mission Design (United States)

    Arrieta, Juan; Senent, Juan


    The overarching objective of space mission design is to tackle complex problems producing better results, and faster. In developing the methods and tools to fulfill this objective, the user interacts with the different layers of a computing system.

  10. Multi-Mission MicroSDR Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Toyon proposes to develop a low-power and compact reconfigurable radio specifically targeted to NASA mission needs. We envision the radio to be well matched to...

  11. The Legacy of the FUSE Mission (United States)

    Sonneborne, George


    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission was a far-ultraviolet space telescope that performed high resolution (R=20,OOO) spectroscopy in the 905 - 1187 A spectral range. FUSE primarily observed stars and distant galaxies to study interstellar and intergalactic gas through absorption spectroscopy, as well as the properties of the objects themselves. This capability complemented the Hubble Space Telescope at longer wavelengths, and provided the international astronomical community with access to an important part of the electromagnetic spectrum. FUSE was a joint project of NASA, CNES, and CSA. The mission operated from 1999 to 2007. This review talk will summarize the scientific impact of the FUSE mission on several key scientific problems, as well as lessons learned for future mission concepts.

  12. Experimental Design for the LATOR Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G; Nordtvedt, K L; Turyshev, Slava G.; Shao, Michael; Nordtvedt, Kenneth L.


    This paper discusses experimental design for the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) mission. LATOR is designed to reach unprecedented accuracy of 1 part in 10^8 in measuring the curvature of the solar gravitational field as given by the value of the key Eddington post-Newtonian parameter \\gamma. This mission will demonstrate the accuracy needed to measure effects of the next post-Newtonian order (~G^2) of light deflection resulting from gravity's intrinsic non-linearity. LATOR will provide the first precise measurement of the solar quadrupole moment parameter, J2, and will improve determination of a variety of relativistic effects including Lense-Thirring precession. The mission will benefit from the recent progress in the optical communication technologies -- the immediate and natural step above the standard radio-metric techniques. The key element of LATOR is a geometric redundancy provided by the laser ranging and long-baseline optical interferometry. We discuss the mission and optical designs, a...

  13. A Virtual Mission Operations Center: Collaborative Environment (United States)

    Medina, Barbara; Bussman, Marie; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)


    The Virtual Mission Operations Center - Collaborative Environment (VMOC-CE) intent is to have a central access point for all the resources used in a collaborative mission operations environment to assist mission operators in communicating on-site and off-site in the investigation and resolution of anomalies. It is a framework that as a minimum incorporates online chat, realtime file sharing and remote application sharing components in one central location. The use of a collaborative environment in mission operations opens up the possibilities for a central framework for other project members to access and interact with mission operations staff remotely. The goal of the Virtual Mission Operations Center (VMOC) Project is to identify, develop, and infuse technology to enable mission control by on-call personnel in geographically dispersed locations. In order to achieve this goal, the following capabilities are needed: Autonomous mission control systems Automated systems to contact on-call personnel Synthesis and presentation of mission control status and history information Desktop tools for data and situation analysis Secure mechanism for remote collaboration commanding Collaborative environment for remote cooperative work The VMOC-CE is a collaborative environment that facilitates remote cooperative work. It is an application instance of the Virtual System Design Environment (VSDE), developed by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Systems Engineering Services & Advanced Concepts (SESAC) Branch. The VSDE is a web-based portal that includes a knowledge repository and collaborative environment to serve science and engineering teams in product development. It is a "one stop shop" for product design, providing users real-time access to product development data, engineering and management tools, and relevant design specifications and resources through the Internet. The initial focus of the VSDE has been to serve teams working in the early portion of the system

  14. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.


    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  15. NASA reschedules Mars mission for 2018 (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter


    NASA has announced that its next mission to Mars will be launched in May 2018 following the discovery of a leak in a key scientific instrument. The mission - Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport (InSight) - was originally scheduled to launch last month and reach Mars later this year, but the new launch window means it will now not land on the red planet until November 2018.

  16. The Planck Surveyor mission: astrophysical prospects


    De Zotti, G.; Toffolatti, L.; Argüeso, F.; Davies, R. D.; Mazzotta, P.; Partridge, R. B.; Smoot, G. F.; Vittorio, N.


    Although the Planck Surveyor mission is optimized to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, it will also provide extremely valuable information on astrophysical phenomena. We review our present understanding of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds relevant to the mission and discuss on one side, Planck's impact on the study of their properties and, on the other side, to what extent foreground contamination may affect Planck's ability to accurately determine cosmological parameter...

  17. Optimized Mission Planning for Planetary Exploration Rovers


    Lavin, Alexander


    The exploration of planetary surfaces is predominately unmanned, calling for a landing vehicle and an autonomous and/or teleoperated rover. Artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques can be leveraged for better mission planning. This paper describes the coordinated use of both global navigation and metaheuristic optimization algorithms to plan the safe, efficient missions. The aim is to determine the least-cost combination of a safe landing zone (LZ) and global path plan, where a...

  18. Technology driven Robotic-Moon-Mission 2016


    Bozic, Ognjan; Longo, Jose M. A.


    Summary The paper proposes a concept mission to Moon including a space-tug-vehicle in Moon orbit, a transfer surveillance/relay satellite into low lunar orbit, a Moon lander equipped with a rover for miscellaneous challenges and an Earth return spacecraft transporting Moon samples. To guaranty a low mission cost, trajectories of low impulse has been selected in combination of technologies like combined chemical-electrical propulsion; broad Ka–band/ X–band/ S-band transponder communication...

  19. On mission drift in microfinance institutions


    Armendáriz, Beatriz; Szafarz, Ariane


    This paper sheds light on a poorly understood phenomenon in microfinance which is often referred to as a “mission drift”: A tendency reviewed by numerous microfinance institutions to extend larger average loan sizes in the process of scaling–up. We argue that this phenomenon is not driven by transaction cost minimization alone. Instead, poverty–oriented microfinance institutions could potentially deviate from their mission by extending larger loan sizes neither because of “progressive lending...

  20. Small Satellite Mars Missions using Electric Propulsion


    Price, ME; Wells, NS; Ball, AJ; Zarnecki, JC; Taylor, FW


    Two small satellite concepts are presented for low cost Mars system exploration. Both concepts use solar electric propulsion (SEP) to move from a low velocity Earth escape orbit to captured Mars orbits, and so are able to make use of smaller launcher vehicles, while still providing significant payload accommodation, despite their small size. Both missions achieve their Mars system operational orbits in less than 20 months from launch. The Mars Global Atmosphere Survey (MGAS) mission design ha...

  1. Saturn satellites as seen by Cassini Mission


    Coradini, A; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Filacchione, G.; Magni, G; Orosei, R.; F. Tosi; Turrini, D


    In this paper we will summarize some of the most important results of the Cassini mission concerning the satellites of Saturn. Given the long duration of the mission, the complexity of the payload onboard the Cassini Orbiter and the amount of data gathered on the satellites of Saturn, it would be impossible to describe all the new discoveries made, therefore we will describe only some selected, paramount examples showing how Cassini's data confirmed and extended ground-based observations. In ...

  2. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors' facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission

  3. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.


    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  4. Exploration Mission Benefits From Logistics Reduction Technologies (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Schlesinger, Thilini; Ewert, Michael K.


    Technologies that reduce logistical mass, volume, and the crew time dedicated to logistics management become more important as exploration missions extend further from the Earth. Even modest reductions in logical mass can have a significant impact because it also reduces the packing burden. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems' Logistics Reduction Project is developing technologies that can directly reduce the mass and volume of crew clothing and metabolic waste collection. Also, cargo bags have been developed that can be reconfigured for crew outfitting and trash processing technologies to increase habitable volume and improve protection against solar storm events are under development. Additionally, Mars class missions are sufficiently distant that even logistics management without resupply can be problematic due to the communication time delay with Earth. Although exploration vehicles are launched with all consumables and logistics in a defined configuration, the configuration continually changes as the mission progresses. Traditionally significant ground and crew time has been required to understand the evolving configuration and locate misplaced items. For key mission events and unplanned contingencies, the crew will not be able to rely on the ground for logistics localization assistance. NASA has been developing a radio frequency identification autonomous logistics management system to reduce crew time for general inventory and enable greater crew self-response to unplanned events when a wide range of items may need to be located in a very short time period. This paper provides a status of the technologies being developed and there mission benefits for exploration missions.

  5. Software engineering processes for Class D missions (United States)

    Killough, Ronnie; Rose, Debi


    Software engineering processes are often seen as anathemas; thoughts of CMMI key process areas and NPR 7150.2A compliance matrices can motivate a software developer to consider other career fields. However, with adequate definition, common-sense application, and an appropriate level of built-in flexibility, software engineering processes provide a critical framework in which to conduct a successful software development project. One problem is that current models seem to be built around an underlying assumption of "bigness," and assume that all elements of the process are applicable to all software projects regardless of size and tolerance for risk. This is best illustrated in NASA's NPR 7150.2A in which, aside from some special provisions for manned missions, the software processes are to be applied based solely on the criticality of the software to the mission, completely agnostic of the mission class itself. That is, the processes applicable to a Class A mission (high priority, very low risk tolerance, very high national significance) are precisely the same as those applicable to a Class D mission (low priority, high risk tolerance, low national significance). This paper will propose changes to NPR 7150.2A, taking mission class into consideration, and discuss how some of these changes are being piloted for a current Class D mission—the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS).

  6. Future Venus exploration: mission Venera-D (United States)

    Zasova, Ludmila

    Venus was actively studied by Soviet and US missions in 60-90-th years of the last century. The investigations carried out both from the orbit and in situ were highly successful. After a 15-year break in space research of Venus, the ESA Venus Express mission, launched in 2005, successfully continues its work on orbit around Venus, obtaining spectacular results. However, many questions concerning the structure and evolutions of the planet Venus, which are the key questions of comparative planetology and very essential for understanding the possible evolution of the terrestrial climate, cannot be solved by observations only from an orbit. Venera-D includes orbiter, lander, subsatellite, long living station on the surface. Venera-D is focused for both in situ and remote investigations of Venus of surface and atmosphere, as well plasma environment and solar wind interaction. Practically all experiments for Venera-D, will be provided by international teams. A Russia-US Venera-D Joint Science Definition Team has been formed in February 2014 to recommend a possible collaborative and coordinated implementation by considering the common aspects of Venera-D mission as presently defined, as well as the Venus Climate Mission recommended by the US Academies Decadal Survey of Planetary Science and the Venus Flagship mission studied by NASA in 2009. The team will provide its report by March 2015 and will likely lead to a coordinated or joint call for instruements and/or mission elements.

  7. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM) (United States)

    Buoni, Greg


    This viewgraph presentation describes the Western states Fire Missions (WSFM) that occurred in 2007. The objectives of this mission are: (1) Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. (1) Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). (2) Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. (3) Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. (4) Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. (5) Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition). (6) Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  8. Mission maps for use in the choice of specific impulse for manned Mars missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, W.W.; Neuman, J.E.; Olson, T.S.; Siahpush, A.S.


    The choice of engine concept for the initial manned missions to Mars should be driven by what can be feasibly built and flight qualified in the near term, and by the level of engine performance that is required for these missions. This paper addresses how mission requirements affect the choice of specific impulse, and consequently what values of the specific impulse best serve these missions. Broad mission surveys and sensitivity studies were performed to determine the specific impulse values that allow for fast transfer times and wide launch windows. We find that a specific impulse of around 1000 to 1200 sec is sufficient. Choosing an engine concept that has a higher specific impulse value is not justified for these missions because the modest reduction in propellant requirements and further widening of the launch windows does not compensate for the substantially greater technical risk. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Evolution of Orion Mission Design for Exploration Mission 1 and 2 (United States)

    Gutkowski, Jeffrey P.; Dawn, Timothy F.; Jedrey, Richard M.


    The evolving mission design and concepts of NASA's next steps have shaped Orion into the spacecraft that it is today. Since the initial inception of Orion, through the Constellation Program, and now in the Exploration Mission frame-work with the Space Launch System (SLS), each mission design concept and program goal have left Orion with a set of capabilities that can be utilized in many different mission types. Exploration Missions 1 and 2 (EM-1 and EM-2) have now been at the forefront of the mission design focus for the last several years. During that time, different Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were built, analyzed, and modified to solve or mitigate enterprise level design trades to ensure a viable mission from launch to landing. The resulting DRMs for EM-1 and EM-2 were then expanded into multi-year trajectory scans to characterize vehicle performance and Earth-Moon geometry trends. This provides Orion's subsystems with stressing reference trajectories to help design their system. Now that Orion has progressed through the Preliminary and Critical Design Re-views (PDR and CDR) there is a general shift in the focus of mission design from aiding the vehicle design to providing mission specific products needed for pre-flight and real time operations. Some of the mission specific products need-ed include analysis of steering law performance, inputs into navigational accura-cy assessments, abort options at any point in the mission for each valid trajecto-ry in the launch window, recontact avoidance between the upper stage and Orion post nominal separation, etc.

  10. The Titan Mare Explorer Mission (TiME): A Discovery mission to a Titan sea (United States)

    Stofan, E. R.; Lunine, J. I.; Lorenz, R. D.; Aharonson, O.; Bierhaus, E.; Boldt, J.; Clark, B.; Griffith, C.; Harri, A.-M.; Karkoschka, E.; Kirk, R.; Mahaffy, P.; Newman, C.; Ravine, M.; Trainer, M.; Turtle, E.; Waite, H.; Yelland, M.; Zarnecki, J.


    The Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) is a Discovery class mission to Titan, and would be the first in situ exploration of an extraterrestrial sea. The mission is one of three recently chosen by NASA for a Phase A study; one mission will be downselected for launch in the summer of 2012. TiME is a lake lander, which would float on the surface of a sea, performing chemical, meteorological and visual observations.

  11. Re-Engineering the Mission Operations System (MOS) for the Prime and Extended Mission (United States)

    Hunt, Joseph C., Jr.; Cheng, Leo Y.


    One of the most challenging tasks in a space science mission is designing the Mission Operations System (MOS). Whereas the focus of the project is getting the spacecraft built and tested for launch, the mission operations engineers must build a system to carry out the science objectives. The completed MOS design is then formally assessed in the many reviews. Once a mission has completed the reviews, the Mission Operation System (MOS) design has been validated to the Functional Requirements and is ready for operations. The design was built based on heritage processes, new technology, and lessons learned from past experience. Furthermore, our operational concepts must be properly mapped to the mission design and science objectives. However, during the course of implementing the science objective in the operations phase after launch, the MOS experiences an evolutional change to adapt for actual performance characteristics. This drives the re-engineering of the MOS, because the MOS includes the flight and ground segments. Using the Spitzer mission as an example we demonstrate how the MOS design evolved for both the prime and extended mission to enhance the overall efficiency for science return. In our re-engineering process, we ensured that no requirements were violated or mission objectives compromised. In most cases, optimized performance across the MOS, including gains in science return as well as savings in the budget profile was achieved. Finally, we suggest a need to better categorize the Operations Phase (Phase E) in the NASA Life-Cycle Phases of Formulation and Implementation

  12. Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission (United States)

    Carle, Glenn C.; Clark, Benton C.; Knocke, Philip C.; OHara, Bonnie J.; Adams, Larry; Niemann, Hasso B.; Alexander, Merle; Veverka, Joseph; Goldstein, Raymond; Huebner, Walter; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)


    Cometary exploration remains of great importance to virtually all of space science. Because comets are presumed to be remnants of the early solar nebula, they are expected to provide fundamental knowledge as to the origin and development of the solar system as well as to be key to understanding of the source of volatiles and even life itself in the inner solar system. Clearly the time for a detailed study of the composition of these apparent messages from the past has come. A comet rendezvous mission, the Cometary Coma Chemical Composition (C4) Mission, is now being studied as a candidate for the new Discovery program. This mission is a highly-focussed and usefully-limited subset of the Cometary Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) Mission. The C4 mission will concentrate on measurements that will produce an understanding of the composition and physical makeup of a cometary nucleus. The core science goals of the C4 mission are 1) to determine the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of a cometary nucleus and 2) to characterize the chemical and isotopic nature of its atmosphere. A related goal is to obtain temporal information about the development of the cometary coma as a function of time and orbital position. The four short-period comets -- Tempel 1, Tempel 2, Churyumov-Gerasimenko, and Wirtanen -which all appear to have acceptable dust production rates, were identified as candidate targets. Mission opportunities have been identified beginning as early as 1998. Tempel I with a launch in 1999, however, remains the baseline comet for studies of and planning the C4 mission. The C4 mission incorporates two science instruments and two engineering instruments in the payload to obtain the desired measurements. The science instruments include an advanced version of the Cometary Ice and Dust Experiment (CIDEX), a mini-CIDEX with a sample collection system, an X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer and a Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph, and a simplified version of the Neutral

  13. Preliminary design of an asteroid hopping mission (United States)

    Scheppa, Michael D.

    In 2010, NASA announced that its new vision is to support private space launch operations. It is anticipated that this new direction will create the need for new and innovative ideas that push the current boundaries of space exploration and contain the promise of substantial gain, both in research and capital. The purpose of the study is to plan and estimate the feasibility of a mission to visit a number of near Earth asteroids (NEAs). The mission would take place before the end of the 21st century, and would only use commercially available technology. Throughout the mission design process, while holding astronaut safety paramount, it was the goal to maximize the return while keeping the cost to a minimum. A mission of the nature would appeal to the private space industry because it could be easily adapted and set into motion. The mission design was divided into three main parts; mission timeline, vehicle design and power sources, with emphasis on nuclear and solar electric power, were investigated. The timeline and associated trajectories were initially selected using a numerical estimation and then optimized using Satellite Tool Kit (STK) 9.s's Design Explorer Optimizer [1]. Next, the spacecraft was design using commercially available parts that would support the mission requirements. The Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) was and instrumental piece in maximizing the number of NEAs visited. Once the spacecraft was designed, acceptable power supply options were investigated. The VASIMR VX-200 requires 200 kilowatts of power to maintain thrust. This creates the need for a substantial power supply that consists of either a nuclear reactor of massive solar arrays. STK 9.1's Design Explorer Optimizer was able to create a mission time line that allowed for the exploration of seven NEAs in under two years, while keeping the total mission DeltaV under 71 kilometers per second. Based on these initial findings, it is determined that a mission of this

  14. MNSM - A Future Mars Network Science Mission (United States)

    Chicarro, A. F.


    Following ESA' s successful Mars Express mission, European efforts in Mars Exploration are now taking place within the joint ESA-NASA Mars Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with the Trace Gases Orbiter (TGO) focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane, and with the Entry and Descent Module (EDM). In 2018, a joint NASA-ESA rover will perform sample caching as well as geological, geochemical and exobiological measurements of the surface and the subsurface of Mars. A number of missions for 2020 and beyond are currently under study. Among those, a possible candidate is a Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM) of 3-6 surface stations, to investigate the interior of the planet, its rotational parameters and its atmospheric dynamics. These important science goals have not been fully addressed by Mars exploration so far and can only be achieved with simultaneous measurements from a number of landers located on the surface of the planet such as a Mars Network mission. In addition, the geology, mineralogy and astrobiological significance of each landing site would be addressed, as three new locations on Mars would be reached. Such Mars Network Science Mission has been considered a significant priority by the planetary science community worldwide for the past two decades. In fact, a Mars Network mission concept has a long heritage, as it was studied a number of times by ESA, NASA and CNES (e.g., Marsnet, Intermarsnet, Netlander and MarsNEXT mission studies) since 1990. Study work has been renewed in ESA recently with MNSM Science and Engineering Teams being set up to update the scientific objectives of the mission and to evaluate its technical feasibility, respectively. The current mission baseline includes three ESA-led small landers with a robotic arm to be launched with a Soyuz rocket and direct communications to Earth (no need of a dedicated orbiter). However, a larger network could be put in place through international collaboration, as several

  15. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission (United States)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.


    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  16. INTEGRITY -- Integrated Human Exploration Mission Simulation Facility (United States)

    Henninger, D.; Tri, T.; Daues, K.

    It is proposed to develop a high -fidelity ground facil ity to carry out long-duration human exploration mission simulations. These would not be merely computer simulations - they would in fact comprise a series of actual missions that just happen to stay on earth. These missions would include all elements of an actual mission, using actual technologies that would be used for the real mission. These missions would also include such elements as extravehicular activities, robotic systems, telepresence and teleoperation, surface drilling technology--all using a simulated planetary landscape. A sequence of missions would be defined that get progressively longer and more robust, perhaps a series of five or six missions over a span of 10 to 15 years ranging in durat ion from 180 days up to 1000 days. This high-fidelity ground facility would operate hand-in-hand with a host of other terrestrial analog sites such as the Antarctic, Haughton Crater, and the Arizona desert. Of course, all of these analog mission simulations will be conducted here on earth in 1-g, and NASA will still need the Shuttle and ISS to carry out all the microgravity and hypogravity science experiments and technology validations. The proposed missions would have sufficient definition such that definitive requirements could be derived from them to serve as direction for all the program elements of the mission. Additionally, specific milestones would be established for the "launch" date of each mission so that R&D programs would have both good requirements and solid milestones from which to build their implementation plans. Mission aspects that could not be directly incorporated into the ground facility would be simulated via software. New management techniques would be developed for evaluation in this ground test facility program. These new techniques would have embedded metrics which would allow them to be continuously evaluated and adjusted so that by the time the sequence of missions is completed

  17. 中日关系中的“破冰”与“结冰”--从第一次安倍内阁到第二次安倍内阁%“Ice-breaking”and “Ice-forming”in Sino-Japanese Relationship --From the First to the Second Abe Cabinet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    安倍晋三的“破冰之旅”和温家宝的“融冰之旅”,使小泉内阁时期降到“冰点”的中日关系出现“回暖”迹象;福田康夫的“迎春之旅”和胡锦涛的“暖春之旅”,标志着中日关系由“寒冬”进入了“暖春”;麻生内阁基本上沿着安倍、福田内阁的对华路线前进,使中日关系保持了之前的良好发展态势;鸠山内阁是日本“改朝换代”后民主党执政的第一届内阁,在对华关系方面较之自民党政府表现得更为积极、友好;菅直人内阁期间的“撞船事件”使中日关系开始降温;野田内阁上演“购岛”闹剧,中日关系出现“拐点”;第二次安倍内阁继续“右转”,中日关系再次“结冰”。%The “Ice-breaking trip”by Abe Shinzou and the “Ice-melting trip”by Wen Jiabao warmed up the Sino-Japanese relationship that had dropped to freezing point during the Japanese Koizumi Cabinet. The“Spring-welcoming trip”by Hujuda Yasuo and the “Spring-warming trip”by Hu Jintao turned the Sino-Japanese relationship from “cold winter”to “warm spring”. Asou Cabinet basically followed the route of the China Policy adopted by Abe and Hukuda Cabinet. Sino-Japanese relationship had, as a result, maintained the previous good development momentum. Hatoyama Cabinet was the first Democratic cabinet since “New Dynasty Replacing the Old”. Compared with the Liberal Democratic government, Hatoyama Cabinet was more positive and friendly in terms of its China policy. The“ship collision incident”during Kan Naoto Cabinet triggered the cool-down Sino-Japanese relationship. The “island purchase farce”put on by the Noda Cabinet served as the inflection point of Sino-Japanese relationship. The second Abe Cabinet continued to“turn to the right”, and Sino-Japanese relationship once again“freezes”.

  18. High Energy Astrophysical Missions in Japan (United States)

    Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    There are five X-ray astronomy satellites launched from Japan. The latest satellite, Suzaku, was launched in 2005. MAXI is an all sky survey mission in X-ray that was attached to the ISS in 2009. These two are functioning at present. ASTRO-H is the only approved mission in X-ray that will be launched in 2014. There are four X-ray detectors on board ASTRO-H, SXS, SXI, HXI and SGD as well as X-ray telescopes made of thin foil mirrors. Most of the future missions heavily depend on them both in technology and in science. From this point of view, we have to concentrate on ASTRO-H so that we can expand our activities in future. In Japan, the small scientific satellite project is now on-going. Two missions are already allocated while no X-ray mission is approved. DIOS, PolariS, CAST and FFAST are proposed. Here we explain FFAST in detail that will study the evolution of the universe.

  19. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  20. Teamwork Reasoning and Multi-Satellite Missions (United States)

    Marsella, Stacy C.; Plaunt, Christian (Technical Monitor)


    NASA is rapidly moving towards the use of spatially distributed multiple satellites operating in near Earth orbit and Deep Space. Effective operation of such multi-satellite constellations raises many key research issues. In particular, the satellites will be required to cooperate with each other as a team that must achieve common objectives with a high degree of autonomy from ground based operations. The multi-agent research community has made considerable progress in investigating the challenges of realizing such teamwork. In this report, we discuss some of the teamwork issues that will be faced by multi-satellite operations. The basis of the discussion is a particular proposed mission, the Magnetospheric MultiScale mission to explore Earth's magnetosphere. We describe this mission and then consider how multi-agent technologies might be applied in the design and operation of these missions. We consider the potential benefits of these technologies as well as the research challenges that will be raised in applying them to NASA multi-satellite missions. We conclude with some recommendations for future work.

  1. Chandra mission scheduling on-orbit experience (United States)

    Bucher, Sabina; Williams, Brent; Pendexter, Misty; Balke, David


    Scheduling observatory time to maximize both day-to-day science target integration time and the lifetime of the observatory is a formidable challenge. Furthermore, it is not a static problem. Of course, every schedule brings a new set of observations, but the boundaries of the problem change as well. As spacecraft ages, its capabilities may degrade. As in-flight experience grows, capabilities may expand. As observing programs are completed, the needs and expectations of the science community may evolve. Changes such as these impact the rules by which a mission scheduled. In eight years on orbit, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Mission Planning process has adapted to meet the challenge of maximizing day-to-day and mission lifetime science return, despite a consistently evolving set of scheduling constraints. The success of the planning team has been achieved, not through the use of complex algorithms and optimization routines, but through processes and home grown tools that help individuals make smart short term and long term Mission Planning decisions. This paper walks through the processes and tools used to plan and produce mission schedules for the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. Nominal planning and scheduling, target of opportunity response, and recovery from on-board autonomous safing actions are all addressed. Evolution of tools and processes, best practices, and lessons learned are highlighted along the way.

  2. A Mars 2011 Balloon Mission Trade Study (United States)

    Smith, I.; Lew, T.; Perry, W.

    Mars Scouts are competitively selected PI-led missions to further Mars exploration in ways that satisfy NASA s overall objectives but are not currently in the planned line of missions The current 2006 Announcement of Opportunity AO for Mars Scouts has just closed The goal of this SwRI study was to develop a new balloon mission concept to where it could be credibly proposed for the AO The balloon system was defined in the study as consisting of two parts the balloon flight system BFS and the balloon deployment inflation system DIS The BFS includes the balloon envelope accessory hardware and gondola The balloon includes the envelope seams end fittings load core inflation tube diffusers payload tether shock attenuator and separation hardware The DIS includes the balloon container deployment hardware sequencer tankage gas and control hardware Trade studies were performed to better define the mission design space These studies included 1 effect of varied atmospheric thermal loads 2 effect of varying latitudes 3 effect of payload mass for varying altitudes 4 effect of radiative material properties on balloon size mass 5 effect of material areal densities on balloon size mass and 6 effect of inflation gas on system masses Results of the balloon trade study for the Mars 2011 mission opportunity will be presented

  3. Science Formulation of Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) (United States)

    Smith, Eric A.; Mehta, Amita; Shepherd, Marshall; Starr, David O. (Technical Monitor)


    In late 2001, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was approved as a new start by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The new mission, which is now in its formulation phase, is motivated by a number of scientific questions that are posed over a range of space and time scales that generally fall within the discipline of the global water and energy cycle (GWEC), although not restricted to that branch of research. Recognizing that satellite rainfall datasets are now a foremost tool for understanding global climate variability out to decadal scales and beyond, for improving weather forecasting, and for producing better predictions of hydrometeorological processes including short-term hazardous flooding and seasonal fresh water resources assessment, a comprehensive and internationally sanctioned global measuring strategy has led to the GPM mission. The GPM mission plans to expand the scope of rainfall measurement through use of a multi-member satellite constellation that will be contributed by a number of world nations. This talk overviews the GPM scientific research program that has been fostered within NASA, then focuses on scientific progress that is being made in various areas in the course of the mission formulation phase that are of interest to the Natural Hazards scientific community. This latter part of the talk addresses research issues that have become central to the GPM science implementation plan concerning the rate of the global water cycling, cloud macrophysical-microphysical processes of flood-producing storms, and the general improvement in measuring precipitation at the fundamental microphysical level.

  4. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.


    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  5. Logistics Needs for Potential Deep Space Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (United States)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; Shultz, Eric; Mattfeld, Bryan; Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce


    The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is currently being explored as the next step towards deep space human exploration, with the ultimate goal of reaching Mars. NASA is currently investigating a number of potential human exploration missions, which will progressively increase the distance and duration that humans spend away from Earth. Missions include extended human exploration in cis-lunar space which, as conceived, would involve durations of around 60 days, and human missions to Mars, which are anticipated to be as long as 1000 days. The amount of logistics required to keep the crew alive and healthy for these missions is significant. It is therefore important that the design and planning for these missions include accurate estimates of logistics requirements. This paper provides a description of a process and calculations used to estimate mass and volume requirements for crew logistics, including consumables, such as food, personal items, gasses, and liquids. Determination of logistics requirements is based on crew size, mission duration, and the degree of closure of the environmental control life support system (ECLSS). Details are provided on the consumption rates for different types of logistics and how those rates were established. Results for potential mission scenarios are presented, including a breakdown of mass and volume drivers. Opportunities for mass and volume reduction are identified, along with potential threats that could possibly increase requirements.

  6. Definition phase of Grand Tour missions/radio science investigations study for outer planets missions (United States)

    Tyler, G. L.


    Scientific instrumentation for satellite communication and radio tracking systems in the outer planet exploration mission is discussed. Mission planning considers observations of planetary and satellite-masses, -atmospheres, -magnetic fields, -surfaces, -gravitational fields, solar wind composition, planetary radio emissions, and tests of general relativity in time delay and ray bending experiments.

  7. 33 CFR 80.1106 - Mission Bay, CA. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mission Bay, CA. 80.1106 Section 80.1106 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1106 Mission Bay, CA. A line drawn from Mission Bay South Jetty Light 2 to Mission...

  8. Missionêre perspektiewe op Teologiese opleiding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Kritzinger


    Full Text Available In the light of the transformation in society and in tertiary education, renewed attention should be given to the church, its mission, and the mission of its theological schools. If it were true that the church is the Body of Christ, called to continually be involved in God's outreach to his world, then the training of missionaries and the place of mission in the theological curriculum should also receive renewed attention. The author re-iterates the need for both a focused Missiology and the development of a true missionary theology in the theological faculty. He also indicates a need for academic Missiology to become involved in the training of missionaries.

  9. All Sky Survey Mission Observing Scenario Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Spangelo, Sara C; Unwin, Stephen C; Bock, Jamie J


    This paper develops a general observing strategy for missions performing all-sky surveys, where a single spacecraft maps the celestial sphere subject to realistic constraints. The strategy is flexible such that targeted observations and variable coverage requirements can be achieved. This paper focuses on missions operating in Low Earth Orbit, where the thermal and stray-light constraints due to the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in interacting and dynamic constraints. The approach is applicable to broader mission classes, such as those that operate in different orbits or that survey the Earth. First, the instrument and spacecraft configuration is optimized to enable visibility of the targeted observations throughout the year. Second, a constraint-based high-level strategy is presented for scheduling throughout the year subject to a simplified subset of the constraints. Third, a heuristic-based scheduling algorithm is developed to assign the all-sky observations over short planning horizons. The constraint-based...

  10. Evaluation of the electric utility missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French law from February 10, 2000, about the modernization and development of the electric utility, has created new missions of public utility and foresees some compensation mechanisms for not handicapping the power operators in charge of these missions and for not creating competition distortions to their detriment on the European market. The author explains, first, the financial and economical stakes linked with these new missions. Then, he evokes the evolution of the energy context that has taken place between the 2. World war and the enforcement of the February 10, 2000 law, and he analyzes the systems foreseen for the power generation and distribution. For each public utility charge, the existing dispositions and those introduced by the law are analyzed and compared to the equivalent systems existing in other countries. Then, charge evaluation criteria and sharing rules and proposed. (J.S.)

  11. SWARM - An earth Observation Mission investigating Geospace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, Eigil; Lühr, H.; Knudsen, D.;


    The Swarm mission was selected as the 5th mission in ESA's Earth Explorer Programme in 2004. This mission aims at measuring the Earth's magnetic field with unprecedented accuracy. This will be done by a constellation of three satellites, where two will fly at lower altitude, measuring the gradient...... of the magnetic field, and one satellite will fly at higher altitude. The measured magnetic field is the sum of many contributions including both magnetic fields and currents in the Earth's interior and electrical currents in Geospace. In order to separate all these sources electric field and plasma measurements...... will also be made to complement the primary magnetic field measurements. Together these will allow the deduction of information on a series of solid earth processes responsible for the creation of the fields measured. The completeness of the measurements on each satellite and the constellation aspect...

  12. Mathematical SETI Statistics, Signal Processing, Space Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Maccone, Claudio


    This book introduces the Statistical Drake Equation where, from a simple product of seven positive numbers, the Drake Equation is turned into the product of seven positive random variables. The mathematical consequences of this transformation are demonstrated and it is proven that the new random variable N for the number of communicating civilizations in the Galaxy must follow the lognormal probability distribution when the number of factors in the Drake equation is allowed to increase at will. Mathematical SETI also studies the proposed FOCAL (Fast Outgoing Cyclopean Astronomical Lens) space mission to the nearest Sun Focal Sphere at 550 AU and describes its consequences for future interstellar precursor missions and truly interstellar missions. In addition the author shows how SETI signal processing may be dramatically improved by use of the Karhunen-Loève Transform (KLT) rather than Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Finally, he describes the efforts made to persuade the United Nations to make the central part...

  13. The geophysical impact of the Aristoteles mission (United States)

    Anderson, Allen Joel; Klingele, E.; Sabadini, R.; Tinti, S.; Zerbini, Suzanna


    The importance of a precise, high resolution gradiometric and magnetometric mission in some topics of geophysical interest is stressed. Ways in which the planned Aristoteles mission can allow the geophysical community to improve the knowledge and the physical understanding of several important geodynamical processes involving the coupled system consisting of the lithosphere, asthenosphere and upper mantle are discussed. Particular attention is devoted to the inversion of anomalous density structures in collision and subduction zones by means of the joint use of gradiometric and seismic tomographic data. Some modeling efforts accomplished to study the capability of the mission to invert the rheological parameters of the lithosphere and upper mantle through the gravimetric signals of internal and surface density anomalies are described.

  14. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission (United States)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill


    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  15. Satellite servicing mission preliminary cost estimation model (United States)


    The cost model presented is a preliminary methodology for determining a rough order-of-magnitude cost for implementing a satellite servicing mission. Mission implementation, in this context, encompassess all activities associated with mission design and planning, including both flight and ground crew training and systems integration (payload processing) of servicing hardward with the Shuttle. A basic assumption made in developing this cost model is that a generic set of servicing hardware was developed and flight tested, is inventoried, and is maintained by NASA. This implies that all hardware physical and functional interfaces are well known and therefore recurring CITE testing is not required. The development of the cost model algorithms and examples of their use are discussed.

  16. Software Schedules Missions, Aids Project Management (United States)


    NASA missions require advanced planning, scheduling, and management, and the Space Agency has worked extensively to develop the programs and software suites necessary to facilitate these complex missions. These enormously intricate undertakings have hundreds of active components that need constant management and monitoring. It is no surprise, then, that the software developed for these tasks is often applicable in other high-stress, complex environments, like in government or industrial settings. NASA work over the past few years has resulted in a handful of new scheduling, knowledge-management, and research tools developed under contract with one of NASA s partners. These tools have the unique responsibility of supporting NASA missions, but they are also finding uses outside of the Space Program.

  17. Mars MetNet Mission Status (United States)

    Harri, A.-M.; Aleksashkin, S.; Arruego, I.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M.; Vazquez, L.; Haukka, H.; Palin, M.; Nikkanen, T.


    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semihard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.

  18. Corporate culture and the healing mission. (United States)

    Clifton, R


    The health care revolution of the 1960s was affected not only by changes in government's public policy but also changes in Church teaching. As Medicare and Medicaid helped finance the building of many new facilities, religious institutes--influenced by the decisions of the second Vatican Council--began to redefine themselves. The growth in each area was a hopeful sign of the ability to care for more people and extend Jesus' healing mission. Today health care organizations face pressures to compete, diversify, and reorganize. To ensure that they remain renewed and vital in the midst of change, they must promote their mission and philosophy through reeducation and socialization. The chief executive officer, who ultimately is responsible for ensuring that the organization is value-driven, must not abdicate this responsibility. Maintaining a religious organization's mission is as essential to its survival as meeting the budget, developing a strategic plan, or recruiting physicians. PMID:10276820

  19. Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office Status and Support Philosophy (United States)

    Smith, Ernest; Webb, Dennis


    The Constellation Program Mission Operations Project Office (CxP MOP) at Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas is preparing to support the CxP mission operations objectives for the CEV/Orion flights, the Lunar Lander, and and Lunar surface operations. Initially the CEV will provide access to the International Space Station, then progress to the Lunar missions. Initial CEV mission operations support will be conceptually similar to the Apollo missions, and we have set a challenge to support the CEV mission with 50% of the mission operations support currently required for Shuttle missions. Therefore, we are assessing more efficient way to organize the support and new technologies which will enhance our operations support. This paper will address the status of our preparation for these CxP missions, our philosophical approach to CxP operations support, and some of the technologies we are assessing to streamline our mission operations infrastructure.

  20. Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph for the ACCESS Mission (United States)

    Trauger, J.; ACCESS Science and Engineering Team


    We report the design and fabrication of hybrid focal-plane masks for Lyot coronagraphy, supported this year by NASA's Technology Demonstration for Exoplanet Missions (TDEM) program. These masks are composed of thickness-profiled metallic and dielectric thin films, and manufactured by vacuum deposition on a glass substrate. Hybrid masks are in principle band-limited in both the real and imaginary parts of the complex amplitude characteristics, providing the theoretical basis for mathematically perfect starlight suppression. Together with a deformable mirror for control of wavefront phase, these masks achieve contrast levels of 2e-10 at inner working angles of 3 lambda/D, over spectral bandwidths of 20% or more, and with throughput efficiencies of 60%. We evaluate the science potential of these coronagaph masks in the context of ACCESS, a representative exoplanet mission concept. ACCESS is one of four medium-class concepts studied in 2008-2009 under NASA's Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concepts Study program. In a nutshell, the ACCESS study seeks the most capable medium-class coronagraphic mission that is possible with high-readiness telescope, instrument, and spacecraft technologies available today. The ACCESS study compared the performance of four major coronagraph architectures. It defined a conceptual space observatory platform as the "level playing field" for comparisons among coronagraph types. And it used laboratory validation of the representative coronagraph types as a second "level playing field" for assessing coronagraph hardware readiness. ACCESS identifies a class of scientifically compelling mission concepts built upon mature (TRL6+) subsystem technologies, and evaluates science reach of a medium-class coronagraph mission. Using current high-TRL technologies, the ACCESS minimum science program surveys the nearest 120+ AFGK stars for exoplanet systems, and surveys the majority of those for exozodiacal dust to the level of 1 zodi at 3 AU. Discoveries are

  1. 3 EXPOSE Missions - overview and lessons learned (United States)

    Rabbow, E.; Willnekcer, R.; Reitz, G.; Aman, A.; Bman, B.; Cman, C.


    The International Space Station ISS provides a variety of external research platforms for experiments aiming at the utilization of space parameters like vacuum, temperature oscillation and in particular extraterrestrial short wavelength UV and ionizing radiation which cannot be simulated accurately in the laboratory. Three Missions, two past and one upcoming, will be presented. A family of astrobiological experimental ESA facilities called "EXPOSE" were and will be accommodated on these outside exposure platforms: on one of the external balconies of the European Columbus Module (EXPOSE-E) and on the URM-D platform on the Russian Zvezda Module (EXPOSE-R and EXPOSE-R2). Exobiological and radiation experiments, exposing chemical, biological and dosimetric samples to the harsh space environment are - and will be - accommodated on these facilities to increase our knowledge on the origin, evolution and distribution of life, on Earth and possibly beyond. The biological experiments investigate resistance and adaptation of organisms like bacteria, Achaea, fungi, lichens, plant seeds and small animals like mosquito larvae to extreme environmental conditions and underlying mechanisms like DNA repair. The organic chemical experiments analyse chemical reactions triggered by the extraterrestrial environment, especially short wavelength UV radiation, to better understand prebiotic chemistry. The facility is optimized to allow exposure of biological specimen and material samples under a variety of conditions, using optical filter systems. Environmental parameters like temperature and radiation are regularly recorded and down linked by telemetry. Two long term missions named according to their facility - EXPOSE-E and EXPOSE-R - are completed and a third mission is planned and currently prepared. Operations of all three missions including sample accommodation are performed by DLR. An overview of the two completed missions will be given including lessons learned as well as an outlook

  2. Hydrologic Research for the SWOT Mission (United States)

    Alsdorf, Doug; Mognard, Nelly; Cretaux, Jean-Francois; Calmant, Stephane; Biancamaria, Sylvain; Andreadis, Kostas; Schumann, Guy


    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT, is designed to measure the elevations of the world's water surfaces including both terrestrial surface waters and the oceans. CNES, NASA, and the CSA are partners in the mission, which is now in Phase A with a launch date of 2020. The mission teams have already made exciting advances, most notably the formation of the Science Definition Team. The SDT consists of three-dozen lead investigators and their research teams, spanning Europe and the U.S. and across oceanography and hydrology. The group will address hydrologic issues such as: What are the spatial resolutions, temporal samplings, and height accuracies required to address SWOT's hydrologic science questions? Can these be relaxed or improved from preliminary designs and thus what are the expected impacts on mission power requirements? To help address these issues, an airborne platform called "AirSWOT" has been developed. While AirSWOT flights are still in the planning stages, it is hoped that measurements will occur over several U.S. and French rivers, including some braided Alaskan rivers and some tropical rivers. These various hydrogeomorphic regimes will provide different settings in which to test discharge algorithms. Based on the results of a workshop held in June 2012, it is thought that river reaches, rather than river cross-sections, are optimum for SWOT estimates of discharge. As the SDT works through these important mission design issues, they will also help to further refine the mission hydrologic goals. For example, reservoirs around the world impact the water cycle via storage and release. Yet, a global comprehensive understanding of these changes remains unknown. What role will SWOT have in solving this problem, e.g., what are the fluvial geomorphic environments best suited for SWOT measurements of reservoirs?

  3. Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission (United States)

    Neeck, Steven P.; Lindstrom, Eric J.; Vaze, Parag V.; Fu, Lee-Lueng


    The Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission was recommended in 2007 by the National Research Council's Decadal Survey, "Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond", for implementation by NASA. The SWOT mission is a partnership between two communities, the physical oceanography and the hydrology, to share high vertical accuracy and high spatial resolution topography data produced by the science payload, principally a Ka-band radar Interferometer (KaRIn). The SWOT payload also includes a precision orbit determination system consisting of GPS and DORIS receivers, a Laser Retro-reflector Assembly (LRA), a Jason-class nadir radar altimeter, and a JASON-class radiometer for tropospheric path delay corrections. The SWOT mission will provide large-scale data sets of ocean sea-surface height resolving scales of 15km and larger, allowing the characterization of ocean mesoscale and submesoscale circulation. The SWOT mission will also provide measurements of water storage changes in terrestrial surface water bodies and estimates of discharge in large (wider than 100m) rivers globally. The SWOT measurements will provide a key complement to other NASA spaceborne global measurements of the water cycle measurements by directly measuring the surface water (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands) component of the water cycle. The SWOT mission is an international partnership between NASA and the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is also expected to contribute to the mission. SWOT is currently nearing entry to Formulation (Phase A). Its launch is targeted for October 2020.

  4. Flight Operations . [Zero Knowledge to Mission Complete (United States)

    Forest, Greg; Apyan, Alex; Hillin, Andrew


    Outline the process that takes new hires with zero knowledge all the way to the point of completing missions in Flight Operations. Audience members should be able to outline the attributes of a flight controller and instructor, outline the training flow for flight controllers and instructors, and identify how the flight controller and instructor attributes are necessary to ensure operational excellence in mission prep and execution. Identify how the simulation environment is used to develop crisis management, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills for SGT employees beyond what can be provided by classroom training.

  5. Coating optimization for the ATHENA+ mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen;


    The ATHENA mission concept, now called ATHENA+, continues to be refined to address important questions in modern astrophysics. Previous studies have established that the requirement for effective area can be achieved using a combination of bi-layer coatings and/or simple graded multilayers. We find...... the telescope effective area within the energy envelope of the mission and simulation of mirror performance is carried out. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  6. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.;


    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...... and much better angular resolution in the 10 - 100 keV band, and (3) higher sensitivity for detecting gamma ray lines of known energy in the 100 keV to 1 MeV band. This paper emphasizes the mission aspects of the concept study such as the payload configuration and launch vehicle. An engineering team...

  7. An infrastructure for remote UAS mission monitorization


    Mestre Fernández, Miguel


    The work aims at building an infrastructure for facilitating dissemination of UAS mission data to all interested parties through the Internet. At one end one or more software components will receive mission data and store it in a database. At the other end, Google Earth will be used to access this data in real time. To connect both ends, a web application running in a web server, will process Google Earth update petitions, retrieve the required data from the database and service it in KML form.

  8. US Contributions to the Athena Mission (United States)

    Smith, Randall


    The science of the Hot and Energetic Universe, as embodied in the IXO mission, was highly ranked by the 2010 Decadal Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics. NASA therefore strongly supports the Athena mission, and plans significant contributions to the X-IFU, such as the micro-calorimeter array, that should enable more capabilities than in the original Athena proposal. NASA and US scientists are also examining, with ESA, possible contributions to other aspects of Athena. I will discuss the status and progress towards these contributions, both planned and potential.

  9. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank


    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  10. Nuclear propulsion system options for Mars missions (United States)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Young, Archie C.


    This paper focuses on the use of a nuclear thermal rocket to accomplish a variety of space missions with emphasis on the manned Mars mission. The particle-bed-reactor type nuclear engine was chosen as the baseline engine because of its perceived versatility over other nuclear propulsion systems in conducting a wide variety of tasks. This study indicates that the particle-bed-reactor engine with its high engine thrust-to-weight ratio (about 20) and high specific impulse (about 950 to 1050 sec) offers distinct advantages over the larger and heavier NERVA-type nuclear engines.

  11. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission (United States)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert


    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  12. Communication strategies for colonization mission to Mars


    Machuca Varela, Pablo Antonio


    Earth-Mars cycler trajectories could be used as a periodic and cost-efficient human transportation system from Earth to Mars in a future mission to colonize Mars. Continuous and reliable communication between Mars and the Earth will be required in such a mission. In a circular-coplanar model, the existance of a particularly interesting cycler trajectory (ballistic outbound Earth-Mars S1L1 cycler trajectory) is proven, which has relatively short Earth-Mars transfer times, low relative velociti...

  13. Downsizing a Great Observatory: Reinventing Spitzer in the Warm Mission


    Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa J.; Dodd, Suzanne R.


    The Spitzer Space Telescope transitioned from the cryogen mission to the IRAC warm mission during 2009. This transition involved changing several areas of operations in order to cut the mission annual operating costs to 1/3 of the cryogen mission amount. In spite of this substantial cut back, Spitzer continues to have one of the highest science return per dollar ratio of any of NASA's extended missions. This paper will describe the major operational changes mad...

  14. A Look Inside the Juno Mission to Jupiter (United States)

    Grammier, Richard S.


    Juno, the second mission within the New Frontiers Program, is a Jupiter polar orbiter mission designed to return high-priority science data that spans across multiple divisions within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Juno's science objectives, coupled with the natural constraints of a cost-capped, PI-led mission and the harsh environment of Jupiter, have led to a very unique mission and spacecraft design.

  15. JPL future missions and energy storage technology implications (United States)

    Pawlik, Eugene V.


    The mission model for JPL future programs is presented. This model identifies mission areas where JPL is expected to have a major role and/or participate in a significant manner. These missions are focused on space science and applications missions, but they also include some participation in space station activities. The mission model is described in detail followed by a discussion on the needs for energy storage technology required to support these future activities.

  16. Introductory remarks to the mission and system aspects session (United States)

    Bonnefoy, Rene; Schuyer, M.


    A brief history of the measurement of Earth potential fields is presented. The scientific objectives of the Aristoteles mission are summarized. Cooperation between NASA and ESA in developing the Aristoteles mission constraints are presented in tabular form. Correspondence between major mission and technical constraints is discussed. Program status of the Aristoteles mission and the mission baseline are described. The planned configuration of the Aristoteles satellite is shown in diagrammatic form.

  17. Sentinel-1 Mission Overview and Implementation Status (United States)

    Davidson, M.; Attema, E.; Snoeij, P.; Levrini, G.


    Sentinel-1 is an imaging radar mission at C-band consisting of a constellation of two satellites aimed at providing continuity of all-weather day-and-night supply of imagery for user services. Special emphasis is placed on services identified in ESA's GMES service elements program and on projects funded by the European Union Framework Programmes. Three priorities (fast-track services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - Monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment - Surveillance of marine environment - Monitoring land surface motion risks - Mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture - Mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. The Sentinel 1 space segment will be designed and built by an industrial consortium with Thales Alenia Space Italia as prime contractor and EADS Astrium GmbH as C-SAR instrument responsible. Data products from current and previous ESA missions including ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services. Consequently Sentinel-1 data maintain data quality levels of the Agency‘s previous SAR missions in terms of spatial resolution, sensitivity, accuracy, polarization and wavelength. Nonetheless, the Sentinel-1 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) constellation represents a completely new approach to SAR mission design by ESA in direct response to the operational needs for SAR data expressed under the EU-ESA Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) programme. The Sentinel-1 constellation is expected to provide near daily coverage over Europe and Canada, global coverage all independent of weather with delivery of radar data within 1 hour of acquisition - all vast improvements with respect to the existing SAR systems. The continuity of C-band SAR data combined with the greatly improved data provision is

  18. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions (United States)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)


    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  19. Mars MetNet Mission Status (United States)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergei; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Haukka, Harri


    New kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL). The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor [1] mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior. The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested. 1. MetNet Lander The MetNet landing vehicles are using an inflatable entry and descent system instead of rigid heat shields and parachutes as earlier semi-hard landing devices have used. This way the ratio of the payload mass to the overall mass is optimized. The landing impact will burrow the payload container into the Martian soil providing a more favorable thermal environment for the electronics and a suitable orientation of the telescopic boom with external sensors and the radio link antenna. It is planned to deploy several tens of MNLs on the Martian surface operating at least partly at the same time to allow meteorological network science. 2. Scientific Payload The payload of the two MNL precursor models includes the following instruments: Atmospheric instruments: 1. MetBaro Pressure device 2. MetHumi Humidity device 3. MetTemp Temperature sensors Optical devices: 1. PanCam Panoramic 2. MetSIS Solar irradiance sensor with OWLS optical wireless system for data transfer 3. DS Dust sensor The descent processes dynamic properties are monitored by a special 3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the

  20. Planning Coverage Campaigns for Mission Design and Analysis: Clasp for the Proposed DESDynI Mission (United States)

    Knight, Russell; McLaren, David; Hu, Steven


    Mission design and analysis present challenges in that almost all variables are in constant flux, yet the goal is to achieve an acceptable level of performance against a concept of operations, which might also be in flux. To increase responsiveness, our approach is to use automated planning tools that allow for the continual modification of spacecraft, ground system, staffing, and concept of operations while returning metrics that are important to mission evaluation, such as area covered, peak memory usage, and peak data throughput. We have applied this approach to DESDynI (Deformation, Ecosystem Structure, and Dynamics of Ice) mission design concept using the CLASP (Compressed Large-scale Activity Scheduler/Planner) planning system [7], but since this adaptation many techniques have changed under the hood for CLASP and the DESDynI mission concept has undergone drastic changes, including that it has been renamed the Earth Radar Mission. Over the past two years, we have run more than fifty simulations with the CLASP-DESDynI adaptation, simulating different mission scenarios with changing parameters including targets, swaths, instrument modes, and data and downlink rates. We describe the evolution of simulations through the DESDynI MCR (Mission Concept Review) and afterwards.

  1. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications (United States)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy


    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  2. The Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, N; Burrows, D N; Chincarini, G L; Cominsky, L R; Giommi, P; Hurley, K C; Marshall, F E; Mason, K O; Mészáros, P; Nousek, J A; Roming, P W A; Wells, A A; White, N E; Team, Swift Science


    The Swift mission, scheduled for launch in early 2004, is a multiwavelength observatory for gamma-ray burst (GRB) astronomy. It is the first-of-its-kind autonomous rapid-slewing satellite for transient astronomy and pioneers the way for future rapid-reaction and multiwavelength missions. It will be far more powerful than any previous GRB mission, observing more than 100 bursts per year and performing detailed X-ray and UV/optical afterglow observations spanning timescales from 1 minute to several days after the burst. The objectives are to determine the origin of GRBs; classify GRBs and search for new types; study the interaction of the ultra-relativistic outflows of GRBs with their surrounding medium; and use GRBs to study the early universe out to z>10. The mission is being developed by a NASA-led international collaboration. It will carry three instruments: a new-generation wide-field gamma-ray (15-150 keV) detector; a narrow-field X-ray telescope; and a narrow-field UV/optical telescope. Redshift determin...

  3. "Sunshine": mission to reignite the sun

    CERN Multimedia

    Ebert, Roger


    "As a permanent winter settles upon the Earth, a specaship is sent on a desperate mission to drop a nuclear device into the sick sn and "reignite" it. To name the ship "Icarus I" seems like asking for trouble in two ways, considering the fate of the original Icaru and the numeral that omniously leaves room for a sequel." (1 page)

  4. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume described in detail the Department's research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department's laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B ampersand R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department's appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R ampersand D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R ampersand D performers chosen to execute the Department's missions

  5. Euclid Space Mission: building the sky survey

    CERN Document Server

    Tereno, I; Dinis, J; Scaramella, R; Amiaux, J; Burigana, C; Cuillandre, J C; da Silva, A; Derosa, A; Maiorano, E; Maris, M; Oliveira, D; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Gomez-Alvarez, P; Meneghetti, M; Wachter, S


    The Euclid space mission proposes to survey 15000 square degrees of the extragalactic sky during 6 years, with a step-and-stare technique. The scheduling of observation sequences is driven by the primary scientific objectives, spacecraft constraints, calibration requirements and physical properties of the sky. We present the current reference implementation of the Euclid survey and on-going work on survey optimization.

  6. Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System (MOPSS) (United States)

    Wood, Terri; Hempel, Paul


    MOPSS is a generic framework that can be configured on the fly to support a wide range of planning and scheduling applications. It is currently used to support seven missions at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) in roles that include science planning, mission planning, and real-time control. Prior to MOPSS, each spacecraft project built its own planning and scheduling capability to plan satellite activities and communications and to create the commands to be uplinked to the spacecraft. This approach required creating a data repository for storing planning and scheduling information, building user interfaces to display data, generating needed scheduling algorithms, and implementing customized external interfaces. Complex scheduling problems that involved reacting to multiple variable situations were analyzed manually. Operators then used the results to add commands to the schedule. Each architecture was unique to specific satellite requirements. MOPSS is an expert system that automates mission operations and frees the flight operations team to concentrate on critical activities. It is easily reconfigured by the flight operations team as the mission evolves. The heart of the system is a custom object-oriented data layer mapped onto an Oracle relational database. The combination of these two technologies allows a user or system engineer to capture any type of scheduling or planning data in the system's generic data storage via a GUI.

  7. NASA's Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study (United States)

    Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul


    With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons, the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines, and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility, to define a conceptual design, evaluate key performance parameters, assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.

  8. Levinas and the Mission of Education (United States)

    Zhao, Guoping


    The current educational discourse on Emmanuel Levinas's concept of subjectivity has focused on the pure openness and subjection of the self to the other. Based on such an understanding, some educational theorists hold that Levinas's work has given us new hope for the mission of education, while others deny its relevance. I suggest that this…

  9. Validating foundry technologies for extended mission profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, K.; Volf, P.; Detcheverry, C.; Yau, A.; Ngan, P.; Liang, Z.; Kuper, F.G.


    This paper presents a process qualification and characterization strategy that can extend the foundry process reliability potential to meet specific automotive mission profile requirements. In this case study, data and analyses are provided that lead to sufficient confidence for pushing the allowed

  10. The RapidEye mission design (United States)

    Tyc, George; Tulip, John; Schulten, Daniel; Krischke, Manfred; Oxfort, Michael


    The RapidEye mission is a commercial remote sensing mission by the German Company RapidEye AG. The RapidEye mission will deliver information products for various customers in the agricultural insurance market, large producers, international institutions and cartography. The mission consists of a constellation of five identical small satellites and a sophisticated ground infrastructure based on proven systems. The five satellites will be placed in a single sun-synchronous orbit of approximately 620 km, with the satellites equally spaced over the orbit. The RapidEye system has the unique ability to image any area on earth once per day and can also provide large area coverage within 5 days. The satellites will each carry a 5 band multi-spectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 6.5 m at nadir and a swath width of 80 km. These capabilities along with the processing throughput of the ground segment allows the system to deliver the information products needed by the customers reliably and in a time frame that meets their specific needs.

  11. STS-102/Expedition 2 Mission Overview (United States)


    John Shannon, STS-102 Lead Flight Director, Bernestine Dickey, STS-102 Launch Package Manager, and Rick La Brode, International Space Station (ISS) Lead Flight Director, give an overview of the STS-102 mission during a prelaunch press conference. Mr. Shannon discusses how the mission came into being and its objectives, including information on the launch and a day-by-day account of mission activities. Ms. Dickey gives details on the payload of STS-102, describing the system racks, cargo elements, and crew supplies delivered via the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Mr. La Brode describes the current configuration of the ISS and upcoming changes. He also discusses the activities of the Expedition 2 crew during the next four months. Computer simulations show the ISS' current and future (after the STS-102 mission) configurations, the installations of Leonardo, and the move of the Pressurized Mating Adapter from one port to another on the Destiny Laboratory. The panel then answers questions from the press.

  12. 75 FR 9574 - Caribbean Trade Mission (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... of corruption, tax reform, and reducing red tape for business. Proximity, quality, and the use of the... will provide management and logistical coordination of the program. The mission leader(s) will...

  13. Building Technologies Program Vision, Mission, and Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Vision, Mission, and Goals of the Building Technologies Program (BTP) focus on short term energy efficiency outcomes such as improved economic environment, enhanced comfort, and affordability that collectively benefit our nation. Long-term goals focus on helping secure our nation's energy independence.

  14. Is Middlesex County College Accomplishing Its Mission? (United States)

    Balabkins, Xenia P.

    Over the past few years, New Jersey's Middlesex County College (MCC) has placed an inordinate amount of attention and effort on the issue of student transfer to four-year institutions. Although attention to traditional academic goals is important, MCC's stated mission also addresses other important segments of the college's market. The college has…

  15. Draft Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This volume described in detail the Department`s research and technology development activities and their funding at the Department`s laboratories. It includes 166 Mission Activity Profiles, organized by major mission area, with each representing a discrete budget function called a Budget and Reporting (B & R) Code. The activities profiled here encompass the total research and technology development funding of the laboratories from the Department. Each profile includes a description of the activity and shows how the funding for that activity is distributed among the DOE laboratories as well as universities and industry. The profiles also indicate the principal laboratories for each activity, as well as which other laboratories are involved. The information in this volume is at the core of the Strategic Laboratory Mission Plan. It enables a reader to follow funds from the Department`s appropriation to a specific activity description and to specific R & D performing institutions. This information will enable the Department, along with the Laboratory Operations Board and Congress, to review the distribution of R & D performers chosen to execute the Department`s missions.

  16. Initial performance of the NEOWISE reactivation mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Eisenhardt, P.; Fabinsky, B.; Heinrichsen, I.; Liu, F. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Cutri, R. M.; Beck, R.; Conrow, T.; Dailey, J.; Fajardo-Acosta, S.; Fowler, J.; Gelino, C.; Grillmair, C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Clarkson, P.; Kendall, M., E-mail: [Ball Aerospace and Technology Center, Boulder, CO (United States); and others


    NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) spacecraft has been brought out of hibernation and has resumed surveying the sky at 3.4 and 4.6 μm. The scientific objectives of the NEOWISE reactivation mission are to detect, track, and characterize near-Earth asteroids and comets. The search for minor planets resumed on 2013 December 23, and the first new near-Earth object (NEO) was discovered 6 days later. As an infrared survey, NEOWISE detects asteroids based on their thermal emission and is equally sensitive to high and low albedo objects; consequently, NEOWISE-discovered NEOs tend to be large and dark. Over the course of its three-year mission, NEOWISE will determine radiometrically derived diameters and albedos for ∼2000 NEOs and tens of thousands of Main Belt asteroids. The 32 months of hibernation have had no significant effect on the mission's performance. Image quality, sensitivity, photometric and astrometric accuracy, completeness, and the rate of minor planet detections are all essentially unchanged from the prime mission's post-cryogenic phase.

  17. Digital communication constraints in prior space missions (United States)

    Yassine, Nathan K.


    Digital communication is crucial for space endeavors. Jt transmits scientific and command data between earth stations and the spacecraft crew. It facilitates communications between astronauts, and provides live coverage during all phases of the mission. Digital communications provide ground stations and spacecraft crew precise data on the spacecraft position throughout the entire mission. Lessons learned from prior space missions are valuable for our new lunar and Mars missions set by our president s speech. These data will save our agency time and money, and set course our current developing technologies. Limitations on digital communications equipment pertaining mass, volume, data rate, frequency, antenna type and size, modulation, format, and power in the passed space missions are of particular interest. This activity is in support of ongoing communication architectural studies pertaining to robotic and human lunar exploration. The design capabilities and functionalities will depend on the space and power allocated for digital communication equipment. My contribution will be gathering these data, write a report, and present it to Communications Technology Division Staff. Antenna design is very carefully studied for each mission scenario. Currently, Phased array antennas are being developed for the lunar mission. Phased array antennas use little power, and electronically steer a beam instead of DC motors. There are 615 patches in the phased array antenna. These patches have to be modified to have high yield. 50 patches were created for testing. My part is to assist in the characterization of these patch antennas, and determine whether or not certain modifications to quartz micro-strip patch radiators result in a significant yield to warrant proceeding with repairs to the prototype 19 GHz ferroelectric reflect-array antenna. This work requires learning how to calibrate an automatic network, and mounting and testing antennas in coaxial fixtures. The purpose of this

  18. Full Mission Astronaut Radiation Exposure Assessments for Long Duration Lunar Surface Missions (United States)

    Adamczyk, Anne M.; Clowdsley, Martha S.; Qualls, Garry D.; Blattnig, Steve B.; Lee, Kerry T.; Fry, Dan J.; Stoffle, Nicholas N.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Slaba, Tony C.; Walker, Steven A.; Zapp, Edward N.


    Risk to astronauts due to ionizing radiation exposure is a primary concern for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and will drive mission architecture requirements, mission timelines, and operational practices. Both galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and solar particle event (SPE) environments pose a risk to astronauts for missions beyond LEO. The GCR environment, which is made up of protons and heavier ions covering a broad energy spectrum, is ever present but varies in intensity with the solar cycle, while SPEs are sporadic events, consisting primarily of protons moving outward through the solar system from the sun. The GCR environment is more penetrating and is more difficult to shield than SPE environments, but lacks the intensity to induce acute effects. Large SPEs are rare, but they could result in a lethal dose, if adequate shielding is not provided. For short missions, radiation risk is dominated by the possibility of a large SPE. Longer missions also require planning for large SPEs; adequate shielding must be provided and operational constraints must allow astronauts to move quickly to shielded locations. The dominant risk for longer missions, however, is GCR exposure, which accumulates over time and can lead to late effects such as cancer. SPE exposure, even low level SPE exposure received in heavily shielded locations, will increase this risk. In addition to GCR and SPE environments, the lunar neutron albedo resulting mainly from the interaction of GCRs with regolith will also contribute to astronaut risk. Full mission exposure assessments were performed for proposed long duration lunar surface mission scenarios. In order to accomplish these assessments, radiation shielding models were developed for a proposed lunar habitat and rover. End-to-End mission exposure assessments were performed by first calculating exposure rates for locations in the habitat, rover, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Subsequently, total mission exposures were evaluated for

  19. Using Natural Language to Enhance Mission Effectiveness (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Meszaros, Erica


    The availability of highly capable, yet relatively cheap, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is opening up new areas of use for hobbyists and for professional-related activities. The driving function of this research is allowing a non-UAV pilot, an operator, to define and manage a mission. This paper describes the preliminary usability measures of an interface that allows an operator to define the mission using speech to make inputs. An experiment was conducted to begin to enumerate the efficacy and user acceptance of using voice commands to define a multi-UAV mission and to provide high-level vehicle control commands such as "takeoff." The primary independent variable was input type - voice or mouse. The primary dependent variables consisted of the correctness of the mission parameter inputs and the time needed to make all inputs. Other dependent variables included NASA-TLX workload ratings and subjective ratings on a final questionnaire. The experiment required each subject to fill in an online form that contained comparable required information that would be needed for a package dispatcher to deliver packages. For each run, subjects typed in a simple numeric code for the package code. They then defined the initial starting position, the delivery location, and the return location using either pull-down menus or voice input. Voice input was accomplished using CMU Sphinx4-5prealpha for speech recognition. They then inputted the length of the package. These were the option fields. The subject had the system "Calculate Trajectory" and then "Takeoff" once the trajectory was calculated. Later, the subject used "Land" to finish the run. After the voice and mouse input blocked runs, subjects completed a NASA-TLX. At the conclusion of all runs, subjects completed a questionnaire asking them about their experience in inputting the mission parameters, and starting and stopping the mission using mouse and voice input. In general, the usability of voice commands is acceptable

  20. Emirates Mars Mission Planetary Protection Plan (United States)

    Awadhi, Mohsen Al


    The United Arab Emirates is planning to launch a spacecraft to Mars in 2020 as part of the Emirates Mars Mission (EMM). The EMM spacecraft, Amal, will arrive in early 2021 and enter orbit about Mars. Through a sequence of subsequent maneuvers, the spacecraft will enter a large science orbit and remain there throughout the primary mission. This paper describes the planetary protection plan for the EMM mission. The EMM science orbit, where Amal will conduct the majority of its operations, is very large compared to other Mars orbiters. The nominal orbit has a periapse altitude of 20,000 km, an apoapse altitude of 43,000 km, and an inclination of 25 degrees. From this vantage point, Amal will conduct a series of atmospheric investigations. Since Amal's orbit is very large, the planetary protection plan is to demonstrate a very low probability that the spacecraft will ever encounter Mars' surface or lower atmosphere during the mission. The EMM team has prepared methods to demonstrate that (1) the launch vehicle targets support a 0.01% probability of impacting Mars, or less, within 50 years; (2) the spacecraft has a 1% probability or less of impacting Mars during 20 years; and (3) the spacecraft has a 5% probability or less of impacting Mars during 50 years. The EMM mission design resembles the mission design of many previous missions, differing only in the specific parameters and final destination. The following sequence describes the mission: 1.The mission will launch in July, 2020. The launch includes a brief parking orbit and a direct injection to the interplanetary cruise. The launch targets are specified by the hyperbolic departure's energy C3, and the hyperbolic departure's direction in space, captured by the right ascension and declination of the launch asymptote, RLA and DLA, respectively. The targets of the launch vehicle are biased away from Mars such that there is a 0.01% probability or less that the launch vehicle arrives onto a trajectory that impacts Mars

  1. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.


    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  2. SMART-1 mission description and development status (United States)

    Racca, G. D.; Marini, A.; Stagnaro, L.; van Dooren, J.; di Napoli, L.; Foing, B. H.; Lumb, R.; Volp, J.; Brinkmann, J.; Grünagel, R.; Estublier, D.; Tremolizzo, E.; McKay, M.; Camino, O.; Schoemaekers, J.; Hechler, M.; Khan, M.; Rathsman, P.; Andersson, G.; Anflo, K.; Berge, S.; Bodin, P.; Edfors, A.; Hussain, A.; Kugelberg, J.; Larsson, N.; Ljung, B.; Meijer, L.; Mörtsell, A.; Nordebäck, T.; Persson, S.; Sjöberg, F.


    SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Horizons 2000 scientific programme. The SMART-1 mission is dedicated to testing of new technologies for future cornerstone missions, using Solar-Electric Primary Propulsion (SEPP) in Deep Space. The chosen mission planetary target is the Moon. The target orbit will be polar with the pericentre close to the South-Pole. The pericentre altitude lies between 300 and 2000 km, while the apocentre will extend to about 10,000 km. During the cruise phase, before reaching the Moon, the spacecraft thrusting profile allows extended periods for cruise science. The SMART-1 spacecraft will be launched in the spring of 2003 as an auxiliary passenger on an Ariane 5 and placed into a Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO). The expected launch mass is about 370 kg, including 19 kg of payload. The selected type of SEPP is a Hall-effect thruster called PPS-1350. The thruster is used to spiral out of the GTO and for all orbit maneuvers including lunar capture and descent. The trajectory has been optimised by inserting coast arcs and the presence of the Moon's gravitational field is exploited in multiple weak gravity assists. The Development Phase started in October 1999 and is expected to be concluded by a Flight Acceptance Review in January 2003. The short development time for this high technology spacecraft requires a concerted effort by industry, science institutes and ESA centres. This paper describes the mission and the project development status both from a technical and programmatic standpoint.

  3. Building a mission for quality care. (United States)

    Peterson, R


    Clearly, there is a benefit to the group process in helping to establish teamwork. Teamwork and cooperation can assist with promoting effective communication, improving work quality, and building a sense of well-being within the group. With this cooperation, setting goals and looking toward the future can become a reality. Once goals are set, then developing a professional image can begin. Developing a mission statement can be an effective means to help create that professional image. Having the opportunity to develop a mission for a patient care area and articulating it through a mission statement coalesces the values, beliefs, and philosophy of a group of neuroscience staff. The following is the mission statement developed by the neurosciences unit at the University of Wisconsin Hospital and Clinics: We, the staff of UWHC Neuroscience unit embrace a vision of excellence in health care for all. Our mission is to deliver consistent quality patient care, while fostering our own professional growth. As caring healers, teachers and patient advocates in an ever-changing health care environment, we are empowered by the code for nurses. Within our scope of practice, we strive to maintain a balance of basic human respect and dignity for patients and their families in their quest for wellness, adaptation, rehabilitation or comfort care. It is our hope that patients and families will work with the health care team to construct a plan of care that best meets the patient's needs and goals. We are committed to accommodate special communication, religious or cultural needs of patients and their families. Our final acknowledgment is to ourselves, as members of the health care team. We celebrate the dignity of the staff by recognizing each individual as a special person capable of making unique and significant contributions to the unit. PMID:10726245

  4. Validation of Mission Plans Through Simulation (United States)

    St-Pierre, J.; Melanson, P.; Brunet, C.; Crabtree, D.


    The purpose of a spacecraft mission planning system is to automatically generate safe and optimized mission plans for a single spacecraft, or more functioning in unison. The system verifies user input syntax, conformance to commanding constraints, absence of duty cycle violations, timing conflicts, state conflicts, etc. Present day constraint-based systems with state-based predictive models use verification rules derived from expert knowledge. A familiar solution found in Mission Operations Centers, is to complement the planning system with a high fidelity spacecraft simulator. Often a dedicated workstation, the simulator is frequently used for operator training and procedure validation, and may be interfaced to actual control stations with command and telemetry links. While there are distinct advantages to having a planning system offer realistic operator training using the actual flight control console, physical verification of data transfer across layers and procedure validation, experience has revealed some drawbacks and inefficiencies in ground segment operations: With these considerations, two simulation-based mission plan validation projects are under way at the Canadian Space Agency (CSA): RVMP and ViSION. The tools proposed in these projects will automatically run scenarios and provide execution reports to operations planning personnel, prior to actual command upload. This can provide an important safeguard for system or human errors that can only be detected with high fidelity, interdependent spacecraft models running concurrently. The core element common to these projects is a spacecraft simulator, built with off-the- shelf components such as CAE's Real-Time Object-Based Simulation Environment (ROSE) technology, MathWork's MATLAB/Simulink, and Analytical Graphics' Satellite Tool Kit (STK). To complement these tools, additional components were developed, such as an emulated Spacecraft Test and Operations Language (STOL) interpreter and CCSDS TM

  5. International partnership in lunar missions: Inaugural address

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dr A P J Abdul Kalam


    I am delighted to participate in the 6th International Conference on Exploration and Utilization of the Moon organized by the Physical Research Laboratory,Ahmedabad.I greet the organizers, eminent planetary exploration and space scientists from India and abroad,academicians,industrialists,engineers,entrepreneurs and distinguished guests.I understand that the International Lunar Conference is a forum to discuss scienti fic results of the ongoing and future space missions related to lunar exploration.This conference will also be utilized to develop understanding on various strategies,initiatives and missions leading to a permanent human presence on our Moon as the future objective.I am happy to note that interactions that took place in the earlier conferences have been bene ficial to participating countries through the intense sharing of scientific knowledge,data and hands-on mission experiences of various space agencies pursuing lunar exploration programmes.I find that nearly 100 scientific papers are being presented in this conference and that the Moon missions being planned and conducted by all the space faring nations of the world are being presented,reviewed and discussed.I note with excitement that many key issues related to space science and Moon missions are being addressed in this conference.These deliberations are important for the world space science community.This will enable you to obtain a comprehensive picture of the goals and policies of all nations striving towards a common vision of space research,being made available for the bene fit of all mankind.Indeed this augurs well for progress towards universal peace and harmony that is a cherished goal of the people of the world as a whole.

  6. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate (United States)

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.


    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  7. Radiation Protection for Lunar Mission Scenarios (United States)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Anderson, Brooke M.; Anderson, Mark S.; Krizan, Shawn A.


    Preliminary analyses of shielding requirements to protect astronauts from the harmful effects of radiation on both short-term and long-term lunar missions have been performed. Shielding needs for both solar particle events (SPEs) and galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are discussed for transit vehicles and surface habitats. This work was performed under the aegis of two NASA initiatives. The first study was an architecture trade study led by Langley Research Center (LaRC) in which a broad range of vehicle types and mission scenarios were compared. The radiation analysis for this study primarily focused on the additional shielding mass required to protect astronauts from the rare occurrence of a large SPE. The second study, led by Johnson Space Center (JSC), involved the design of lunar habitats. Researchers at LaRC were asked to evaluate the changes to mission architecture that would be needed if the surface stay were lengthened from a shorter mission duration of 30 to 90 days to a longer stay of 500 days. Here, the primary radiation concern was GCR exposure. The methods used for these studies as well as the resulting shielding recommendations are discussed. Recommendations are also made for more detailed analyses to minimize shielding mass, once preliminary vehicle and habitat designs have been completed. Here, methodologies are mapped out and available radiation analysis tools are described. Since, as yet, no dosimetric limits have been adopted for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO), radiation exposures are compared to LEO limits. Uncertainties associated with the LEO career effective dose limits and the effects of lowering these limits on shielding mass are also discussed.

  8. The European Venus Explorer (EVE) mission proposal (United States)

    Chassefiere, E.; Wilson, C. F.; Titov, D.; Korablev, O.; Aplin, K.; Baines, K.; Balint, T.; Blamont, J.; Cochrane, C.; Ferencz, Cs.; Ferri, F.; Gerasimov, M.; Imamura, T.; Leitner, J.; Lopez-Moreno, J.; Marty, B.; Martynov, M.; Pogrebenko, S.; Rodin, A.; Whiteway, J.; Zasova, L.


    The European Venus Explorer (EVE) is a mission proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) under the Cosmic Vision Call for Ideas, for launch in 2016-2018. The central goal of this mission is to investigate the evolution of Venus and its climate, in order to understand better the 'life cycle' of Earth-like planets everywhere. After the excellent results being obtained from ESA's Venus Express orbiter, in situ measurements will be required to answer many of the outstanding questions, specially relating to the evolution of the planet, its complex cloud chemistry and the stability of its climate. The baseline EVE mission consists of one balloon platform floating at an altitude of 50-60 km, one descent probe provided by Russia, and an orbiter with a polar orbit which will perform science observations as well as relay data from the balloon and descent probe. The minimum lifetime of the balloon is 7 days, required for one full circle around the planet, much longer than the 48 hour data returned from Russia's VEGA balloons. Earth-based VLBI and Doppler measurements provide tracking information for the orbiter, allowing measurement of the variations in the planet's gravity field, and for the balloon and descent probe to yield wind measurements in the lower atmosphere. The descent probe's fall through the atmosphere is expected to last 60 minutes, followed by a lifetime of 30 minutes on the surface. The Japanese space agency (JAXA) also proposes to include another independent platform, a small water vapour-inflated balloon which would be deployed at 35 km altitude and would communicate directly to Earth. Further details of the EVE mission, including proposals for Education & Outreach schemes, can be viewed at the mission website:

  9. GPM Constellation Reconfiguration and Mission Status (United States)

    Hou, Arthur Y.


    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is an international satellite mission that uses combined active and passive remote sensing techniques to improve global precipitation measurements derived from dedicated and operational passive microwave sensors. GPM is a science mission with integrated applications goals to (1) advance the knowledge of precipitation physics and the global water cycle variability, and (2) improve weather, climate, and hydrological prediction capabilities through more accurate and frequent measurements of global precipitation and innovative application methods. The GPM Mission is currently a partnership between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), with opportunities for additional domestic and international partners in satellite constellation buildup and ground validation activities. The GPM concept is centered on employing a dualfrequency precipitation radar and a microwave radiometer with high-frequency capabilities on a core satellite to serve as a physics observatory and calibration standard to provide a consistent framework for unifying precipitation measurements from a heterogeneous constellation of passive microwave sensors. Building on the siccess of TRMM, GPM extends combined radadradiometer precipitation measurements into the mid and high latitudes, with new science foci on improved capabilities for light-rain and snowfall measurements, as well as more accurate precipitation retrievals over land. With recent studies indicating that AMSU-B rainfall estimates are comparable in quality to those derived from conically-scanning radiometers over land, it is envisioned that cross-track microwave sounders with high-frequency channels on operational satellites such as the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP), NOAA-N', and MetOp satellites can play a significant role in augmenting conically-scanning microwave radiometers to achieve better

  10. Integrating Automation into a Multi-Mission Operations Center (United States)

    Surka, Derek M.; Jones, Lori; Crouse, Patrick; Cary, Everett A, Jr.; Esposito, Timothy C.


    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Space Science Mission Operations (SSMO) Project is currently tackling the challenge of minimizing ground operations costs for multiple satellites that have surpassed their prime mission phase and are well into extended mission. These missions are being reengineered into a multi-mission operations center built around modern information technologies and a common ground system infrastructure. The effort began with the integration of four SMEX missions into a similar architecture that provides command and control capabilities and demonstrates fleet automation and control concepts as a pathfinder for additional mission integrations. The reengineered ground system, called the Multi-Mission Operations Center (MMOC), is now undergoing a transformation to support other SSMO missions, which include SOHO, Wind, and ACE. This paper presents the automation principles and lessons learned to date for integrating automation into an existing operations environment for multiple satellites.

  11. Open Source Next Generation Visualization Software for Interplanetary Missions (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Rinker, George


    Mission control is evolving quickly, driven by the requirements of new missions, and enabled by modern computing capabilities. Distributed operations, access to data anywhere, data visualization for spacecraft analysis that spans multiple data sources, flexible reconfiguration to support multiple missions, and operator use cases, are driving the need for new capabilities. NASA's Advanced Multi-Mission Operations System (AMMOS), Ames Research Center (ARC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are collaborating to build a new generation of mission operations software for visualization, to enable mission control anywhere, on the desktop, tablet and phone. The software is built on an open source platform that is open for contributions (

  12. Concurrent engineering: Spacecraft and mission operations system design (United States)

    Landshof, J. A.; Harvey, R. J.; Marshall, M. H.


    Despite our awareness of the mission design process, spacecraft historically have been designed and developed by one team and then turned over as a system to the Mission Operations organization to operate on-orbit. By applying concurrent engineering techniques and envisioning operability as an essential characteristic of spacecraft design, tradeoffs can be made in the overall mission design to minimize mission lifetime cost. Lessons learned from previous spacecraft missions will be described, as well as the implementation of concurrent mission operations and spacecraft engineering for the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) program.

  13. System for Contributing and Discovering Derived Mission and Science Data (United States)

    Wallick, Michael N.; Powell, Mark W.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Mickelson, Megan C.; Ohata, Darrick M.; Kurien, James A.; Abramyan, Luch


    A system was developed to provide a new mechanism for members of the mission community to create and contribute new science data to the rest of the community. Mission tools have allowed members of the mission community to share first order data (data that is created by the mission s process in command and control of the spacecraft or the data that is captured by the craft itself, like images, science results, etc.). However, second and higher order data (data that is created after the fact by scientists and other members of the mission) was previously not widely disseminated, nor did it make its way into the mission planning process.

  14. New Hubble Servicing Mission to upgrade instruments (United States)


    The history of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope is dominated by the familiar sharp images and amazing discoveries that have had an unprecedented scientific impact on our view of the world and our understanding of the universe. Nevertheless, such important contributions to science and humankind have only been possible as result of regular upgrades and enhancements to Hubble’s instrumentation. Using the Space Shuttle for this fifth Servicing Mission underlines the important role that astronauts have played and continue to play in increasing the Space Telescope’s lifespan and scientific power. Since the loss of Columbia in 2003, the Shuttle has been successfully launched on three missions, confirming that improvements made to it have established the required high level of safety for the spacecraft and its crew. “There is never going to be an end to the science that we can do with a machine like Hubble”, says David Southwood, ESA’s Director of Science. “Hubble is our way of exploring our origins. Everyone should be proud that there is a European element to it and that we all are part of its success at some level.” This Servicing Mission will not just ensure that Hubble can function for perhaps as much as another ten years; it will also increase its capabilities significantly in key areas. This highly visible mission is expected to take place in 2008 and will feature several space walks. As part of the upgrade, two new scientific instruments will be installed: the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and Wide Field Camera 3. Each has advanced technology sensors that will dramatically improve Hubble’s potential for discovery and enable it to observe faint light from the youngest stars and galaxies in the universe. With such an astounding increase in its science capabilities, this orbital observatory will continue to penetrate the most distant regions of outer space and reveal breathtaking phenomena. “Today, Hubble is producing more science than ever before in

  15. New trade tree for manned mars missions (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc


    Recent studies on human missions to Mars suggest revisiting the parameters that have the most important impact on the complexity, the initial mass in low Earth orbit, the risks and the development costs for the first journey to the red planet. In the last NASA reference mission, a trade tree is proposed. At first level, the parameter is the class of mission, e.g., conjunction (long surface stay) or opposition (short surface stay). This parameter is important but there is an agreement on the best option (conjunction). It is therefore not a relevant parameter of the decision tree. For the other levels, the parameters are as follows: Mars orbit insertion: aerocapture or propulsive. Exploitation of local resources: yes/no. Propulsion for interplanetary flight: chemical/nuclear thermal/electric. The relevance of these parameters is questionable. It is proposed to reexamine all parameters of the mission and to study their interdependency and the complexity and the costs of possible options. The first important parameter should be the size of the crew. It should be assigned to the top node of the tree, because its impact on the initial mass in low Earth orbit, costs and risks is probably higher than any other parameter. Another parameter is the strategy for Mars orbit insertion. It is suggested here that aerocapture is very important and that it brings acceptable constraints for the architecture of the mission. The third parameter should be the strategy for entry, descent and landing. The mass of the landing vehicle is very important, because it is tightly linked to the complexity of the entry, descent and landing phase. With a low mass, a capsule shape and a rigid heat shield can be chosen for this maneuver (lowest risk, highest technology readiness level). With a heavy vehicle, an inflatable heat shield might help but the qualification of the systems would be very difficult and the entry, descent and landing phase would be more complex. This parameter is clearly a

  16. Mission assurance increased with regression testing (United States)

    Lang, R.; Spezio, M.

    Knowing what to test is an important attribute in any testing campaign, especially when it has to be right or the mission could be in jeopardy. The New Horizons mission, developed and operated by the John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, received a planned major upgrade to their Mission Operations and Control (MOC) ground system architecture. Early in the mission planning it was recognized that the ground system platform would require an upgrade to assure continued support of technology used for spacecraft operations. With the planned update to the six year operational ground architecture from Solaris 8 to Solaris 10, it was critical that the new architecture maintain critical operations and control functions. The New Horizons spacecraft is heading to its historic rendezvous with Pluto in July 2015 and then proceeding into the Kuiper Belt. This paper discusses the Independent Software Acceptance Testing (ISAT) Regression test campaign that played a critical role to assure the continued success of the New Horizons mission. The New Horizons ISAT process was designed to assure all the requirements were being met for the ground software functions developed to support the mission objectives. The ISAT team developed a test plan with a series of test case designs. The test objectives were to verify that the software developed from the requirements functioned as expected in the operational environment. As the test cases were developed and executed, a regression test suite was identified at the functional level. This regression test suite would serve as a crucial resource in assuring the operational system continued to function as required with such a large scale change being introduced. Some of the New Horizons ground software changes required modifications to the most critical functions of the operational software. Of particular concern was the new MOC architecture (Solaris 10) is Intel based and little endian, and the legacy architecture (Solaris 8) was SPA

  17. Results from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission and Plans for the Extended Science Mission (United States)

    Keller, J. W.; Vondrak, R. R.; Petro, N. E.; Chin, G.; Garvin, J.


    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft (LRO), launched on June 18, 2009, began with the goal of seeking safe landing sites for future robotic missions or the return of humans to the Moon as part of NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD). In addition, LRO's objectives included the search for surface resources and the measurement of the lunar radiation environment. After spacecraft commissioning, the ESMD phase of the mission began on September 15, 2009 and was completed on September 15, 2010 when operational responsibility for LRO was transferred to NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD). The SMD mission was scheduled for 2 years and completed in September of 2012. Under SMD, the Science Mission focused on a new set of goals related to understanding the history of the Moon, its current state, and what it can tell us about the evolution of the Solar System. Having recently marked the completion of the two-year Science Mission, we will review here the major results from the LRO for both exploration and science and discuss plans and objectives for the Extended Science that will last until September, 2014. Some results from the LRO mission are: the development of comprehensive high resolution maps and digital terrain models of the lunar surface; discoveries on the nature of hydrogen distribution, and by extension water, at the lunar poles; measurement of the daytime and nighttime temperature of the lunar surface including temperature down below 30 K in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs); direct measurement of Hg, H2, and CO deposits in the PSRs; evidence for recent tectonic activity on the Moon; and high resolution maps of the illumination conditions at the poles.

  18. The Economics of NASA Mission Cost Reserves (United States)

    Whitley, Sally; Shinn, Stephen


    Increases in NASA mission costs are well-noted but not well-understood, and there is little evidence that they are decreasing in frequency or amount over time. The need to control spending has led to analysis of the causes and magnitude of historical mission overruns, and many program control efforts are being implemented to attempt to prevent or mitigate the problem (NPR 7120). However, cost overruns have not abated, and while some direct causes of increased spending may be obvious (requirements creep, launch delays, directed changes, etc.), the underlying impetus to spend past the original budget may be more subtle. Gaining better insight into the causes of cost overruns will help NASA and its contracting organizations to avoid .them. This paper hypothesizes that one cause of NASA mission cost overruns is that the availability of reserves gives project team members an incentive to make decisions and behave in ways that increase costs. We theorize that the presence of reserves is a contributing factor to cost overruns because it causes organizations to use their funds less efficiently or to control spending less effectively. We draw a comparison to the insurance industry concept of moral hazard, the phenomenon that the presence of insurance causes insureds to have more frequent and higher insurance losses, and we attempt to apply actuarial techniques to quantifY the increase in the expected cost of a mission due to the availability of reserves. We create a theoretical model of reserve spending motivation by defining a variable ReserveSpending as a function of total reserves. This function has a positive slope; for every dollar of reserves available, there is a positive probability of spending it. Finally, the function should be concave down; the probability of spending each incremental dollar of reserves decreases progressively. We test the model against available NASA CADRe data by examining missions with reserve dollars initially available and testing whether

  19. Round trip landing missions to the asteroid Eros, 1981 opportunity (United States)

    Zambo, G. A.


    A comprehensive, Del V (magnitude of impulsive velocity-change vector) study of short staytime (0 to 30 days), short total trip time (10 to 160 days) round trip landing missions (fast missions) is presented. The characteristics of the following selected round trip landing missions are described: mission A (fast mission) with 120-day total trip time, 0-day stay-time, and 73,000-fps total mission Del V; mission B (opposition class) with 380-day total trip time, 0-day staytime, and 52,000-fps total mission Del V; and mission C (conjuction class) with 540-day total trip time, 175-day staytime, and 39,000-fps total mission Del V. A study of large-tank Agena, chemical propulsion stage (CPS), and nuclear stage was conducted. A payload of 5000 pounds was assumed. The propulsion requirements for mission A were found to be two large-tank Agenas and ten CPSs (or alternatively, two large-tank Agenas and five nuclear stages) while mission B required two large-tank Agenas and two CPSs. Mission C can be performed with one large-tank Agena and one CPS.

  20. CEO Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) (United States)

    Trenchard, Mike


    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade its science site database management tool, which at the time was integrated with the Automated Mission Planning System (AMPS) originally developed for Earth Observations mission planning in the 1980s. Although AMPS had been adapted and was reliably used by CEO for International Space Station (ISS) payload operations support, the database structure was dated, and the compiler required for modifications would not be supported in the Windows 7 64-bit operating system scheduled for implementation the following year. The Sites Mission Management System (SMMS) is now the tool used by CEO to manage a heritage Structured Query Language (SQL) database of more than 2,000 records for Earth science sites. SMMS is a carefully designed and crafted in-house software package with complete and detailed help files available for the user and meticulous internal documentation for future modifications. It was delivered in February 2012 for test and evaluation. Following acceptance, it was implemented for CEO mission operations support in April 2012. The database spans the period from the earliest systematic requests for astronaut photography during the shuttle era to current ISS mission support of the CEO science payload. Besides logging basic image information (site names, locations, broad application categories, and mission requests), the upgraded database management tool now tracks dates of creation, modification, and activation; imagery acquired in response to requests; the status and location of ancillary site information; and affiliations with studies, their sponsors, and collaborators. SMMS was designed to facilitate overall mission planning in terms of site selection and activation and provide the necessary site parameters for the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE), which is used by CEO operations to perform daily ISS mission planning. The CEO team

  1. Future X-ray timing missions

    CERN Document Server

    Barret, D; Staubert, R; Stella, L


    Thanks to the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), it is now widely recognized that fast X-ray timing can be used to probe strong gravity fields around collapsed objects and constrain the equation of state of dense matter in neutron stars. We first discuss some of the outstanding issues which could be solved with an X-ray timing mission building on the great successes of RXTE and providing an order of magnitude better sensitivity. Then we briefly describe the 'Experiment for X-ray timing and Relativistic Astrophysics' (EXTRA) recently proposed to the European Space Agency as a follow-up to RXTE and the related US mission 'Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer' (RAE).

  2. Future X-Ray Timing Missions (United States)

    Barret, Didier; van der Klis, Michiel; Skinner, Gerry K.; Staubert, Rüdiger; Stella, Luigi

    Thanks to the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), it is now widely recognized that fast X-ray timing can be used to probe strong gravity fields around collapsed objects and constrain the equation of state of dense matter in neutron stars. We first discuss some of the outstanding issues which could be solved with an X-ray timing mission building on the great successes of RXTE and providing an order of magnitude better sensitivity. Then we briefly describe the `Experiment for X-ray timing and Relativistic Astrophysics' (EXTRA) recently proposed to the European Space Agency as a follow-up to RXTE and the related US mission `Relativistic Astrophysics Explorer' (RAE).

  3. The Bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning;


    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target....... Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected...... targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus...

  4. Combatting Managerial Complacency in Space Missions (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.


    Human factors techniques have made significant contributions to the safety of space missions. Physiological models help to monitor crew workload and performance. Empirical studies inform the design of operator interfaces to maximize finite cognitive and perceptual resources. Further progress has been made in supporting distributed situation awareness across multi-national teams and in promoting the resilience of complex, time critical missions. Most of this work has focused on operational performance. In contrast, most space-based mishaps stem from organizational problems and miss-management. In particular, this paper focuses on the dangers of complacency when previous successes are wrongly interpreted as guarantees of future safety. The argument is illustrated by the recent loss of NASA's Nuclear Compton Telescope Balloon; during a launch phase that 'no-one considered to be a potential hazard'. The closing sections argue that all senior executives should read at least one mishap report every year in order to better understand the hazards of complacency.

  5. No mission is impossible for LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    Time: 01:37:51 am, 3 October, 2011. The LHC is producing million collisions per second in its detectors. But at that time, one collision is “more special” than the others in the LHCb detector: the milestone of 1 inverse femtobarn of luminosity is surpassed. What was considered as “mission impossible” at the beginning of the year is now “mission accomplished”.   Mike Lamont (Operations Group Leader), Pierluigi Campana (LHCb Spokesperson), Steve Myers (Director for Accelerators and Technology), and Paul Collier (Head of the Beams Department) celebrate the LHCb milestone. LHCb is the CERN experiment specialising in the study of b-quarks, whose properties and behaviour are likely to provide physicists with important hints on several physics processes, including some new physics. “One inverse femtobarn of luminosity corresponds to about seventy billion b-quark pairs decayed in the LHCb detector,” explains Pierluigi Cam...

  6. Organization Mission Planning: Methodology and Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Mission planning of organization is to select best strategy to complete its mission under the conditions of organizational states. A new methodology of generating and optimizing strategy of organizational course of actions (COA) was illuminated with a joint campaign. A process of generating and optimizing COA in military force was modeled. And enumerative and heuristic techniques were employed to search optimal strategy for the case of joint campaign. The complex between the two approaches to find best strategy was analyzed. The results from our case were given and compared with reality of joint campaign, on which deficiency of models was taken apart. The optimal COA, obtained from our new methodology under diverse campaigns conditions, is given and analyzed. Results from the simulation of the COA show that our approach to solve optimal strategy of organizational processes accords with traits of general landing campaign.

  7. Trailblazing Medicine Sustaining Explorers During Interplanetary Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik


    To prepare for the day when astronauts leave low-Earth orbit for long-duration exploration missions, space medicine experts must develop a thorough understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body, as well as ways of mitigating them. To gain a complete understanding of the effects of space on the human body and to create tools and technologies required for successful exploration, space medicince will become an increasingly collaborative discipline incorporating the skills of physicians, biomedical scientists, engineers, and mission planners. Trailblazing Medicine examines the future of space medicine in relation to human space exploration; describes what is necessary to keep a crew alive in space, including the use of surgical robots, surface-based telemedicine, and remote emergency care; discusses bioethical problems such as euthanasia, sex, and precautionary surgery; investigates the medical challenges faced by interplanetary astronauts; details the process of human hibernation.

  8. The Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission

    CERN Document Server

    André, Philippe; Banday, Anthony; Barbosa, Domingos; Barreiro, Belen; Bartlett, James; Bartolo, Nicola; Battistelli, Elia; Battye, Richard; Bendo, George; Benoȋt, Alain; Bernard, Jean-Philippe; Bersanelli, Marco; Béthermin, Matthieu; Bielewicz, Pawel; Bonaldi, Anna; Bouchet, François; Boulanger, François; Brand, Jan; Bucher, Martin; Burigana, Carlo; Cai, Zhen-Yi; Camus, Philippe; Casas, Francisco; Casasola, Viviana; Castex, Guillaume; Challinor, Anthony; Chluba, Jens; Chon, Gayoung; Colafrancesco, Sergio; Comis, Barbara; Cuttaia, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Giuseppe; Da Silva, Antonio; Davis, Richard; de Avillez, Miguel; de Bernardis, Paolo; de Petris, Marco; de Rosa, Adriano; de Zotti, Gianfranco; Delabrouille, Jacques; Désert, François-Xavier; Dickinson, Clive; Diego, Jose Maria; Dunkley, Joanna; Enßlin, Torsten; Errard, Josquin; Falgarone, Edith; Ferreira, Pedro; Ferrière, Katia; Finelli, Fabio; Fletcher, Andrew; Fosalba, Pablo; Fuller, Gary; Galli, Silvia; Ganga, Ken; García-Bellido, Juan; Ghribi, Adnan; Giard, Martin; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Gonzalez-Nuevo, Joaquin; Grainge, Keith; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Hall, Alex; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Haverkorn, Marijke; Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos; Herranz, Diego; Jackson, Mark; Jaffe, Andrew; Khatri, Rishi; Kunz, Martin; Lamagna, Luca; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Leahy, Paddy; Lesgourgues, Julien; Liguori, Michele; Liuzzo, Elisabetta; Lopez-Caniego, Marcos; Macias-Perez, Juan; Maffei, Bruno; Maino, Davide; Mangilli, Anna; Martinez-Gonzalez, Enrique; Martins, Carlos J.A.P.; Masi, Silvia; Massardi, Marcella; Matarrese, Sabino; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Melin, Jean-Baptiste; Mennella, Aniello; Mignano, Arturo; Miville-Deschênes, Marc-Antoine; Monfardini, Alessandro; Murphy, Anthony; Naselsky, Pavel; Nati, Federico; Natoli, Paolo; Negrello, Mattia; Noviello, Fabio; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Paci, Francesco; Pagano, Luca; Paladino, Rosita; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Paoletti, Daniela; Peiris, Hiranya; Perrotta, Francesca; Piacentini, Francesco; Piat, Michel; Piccirillo, Lucio; Pisano, Giampaolo; Polenta, Gianluca; Pollo, Agnieszka; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Remazeilles, Mathieu; Ricciardi, Sara; Roman, Matthieu; Rosset, Cyrille; Rubino-Martin, Jose-Alberto; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Shellard, Paul; Silk, Joseph; Starobinsky, Alexei; Stompor, Radek; Sunyaev, Rashid; Tartari, Andrea; Terenzi, Luca; Toffolatti, Luigi; Tomasi, Maurizio; Trappe, Neil; Tristram, Matthieu; Trombetti, Tiziana; Tucci, Marco; Van de Weijgaert, Rien; Van Tent, Bartjan; Verde, Licia; Vielva, Patricio; Wandelt, Ben; Watson, Robert; Withington, Stafford; Cabrera, Nicolas


    PRISM (Polarized Radiation Imaging and Spectroscopy Mission) was proposed to ESA in May 2013 as a large-class mission for investigating within the framework of the ESA Cosmic Vision program a set of important scientific questions that require high resolution, high sensitivity, full-sky observations of the sky emission at wavelengths ranging from millimeter-wave to the far-infrared. PRISM's main objective is to explore the distant universe, probing cosmic history from very early times until now as well as the structures, distribution of matter, and velocity flows throughout our Hubble volume. PRISM will survey the full sky in a large number of frequency bands in both intensity and polarization and will measure the absolute spectrum of sky emission more than three orders of magnitude better than COBE FIRAS. The aim of this Extended White Paper is to provide a more detailed overview of the highlights of the new science that will be made possible by PRISM

  9. The Difficult Birth of NASA's Pluto Mission (United States)

    Neufeld, Michael J.


    The complex and contested origins of the New Horizons mission to Pluto, launched by NASA in 2006, provides a window on how space science policy has been formulated in the United States before and after the turn of the twenty-first century, and how the shifting network of institutions that support and shape space science have changed since 1989. Those decades that have so far been little studied except by policy scholars seeking lessons from the NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin's attempt to force a small-spacecraft technological revolution on space science in the 1990s. The New Horizons case study reveals a shift in the balance of power around 2000 among the important players in the field, increasing the influence of non-NASA actors—notably Congress, science groups and planetary-exploration lobbies. In addition, the origins of New Horizons reveals how contingent the emergence of a particular space science mission can be.

  10. A mission planner for an autonomous tractor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis; Vougioukas, S.G.; Griepentrog, Hans W.


    that should be taken once the tractor reaches the desired point (e.g., raising or lowering the attached tool, turning on or turning off the ower take-off). In order to automatically create the XML mission files, a program was developed using the MATLAB technical programming language. The program uses data...... regarding the field (geometry, dimensions, field sub-regions, working direction, initial and final desired locations of the tractor), the operating width, and the operation type (mowing, spraying) as inputs. The planning method is based on an algorithmic approach where field coverage planning is transformed......; in the second set, three neighboring fields were covered as part of a single tractor mission; and in the third set of experiments, a single field was covered during a hypothetical spraying operation for two different locations of the refilling facility....

  11. Technology demonstration by the BIRD-mission (United States)

    Brieß, K.; Bärwald, W.; Gill, E.; Kayal, H.; Montenbruck, O.; Montenegro, S.; Halle, W.; Skrbek, W.; Studemund, H.; Terzibaschian, T.; Venus, H.


    Small satellites have to meet a big challenge: to answer high-performance requirements by means of small equipment and especially of small budgets. Out of all aspects the cost aspect is one of the most important driver for small satellite missions. To keep the costs within the low-budget frame (in comparison to big missions) the demonstration of new and not space-qualified technologies for the spacecraft is one key point in fulfilling high-performance mission requirements. Taking this into account the German DLR micro-satellite mission BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra-Red Detection) has to demonstrate a high-performance capability of spacecraft bus by using and testing new technologies basing on a mixed parts and components qualification level. The basic approach for accomplishing high-performance capability for scientific mission objectives under low-budget constraints is characterized by using state-of-the-art technologies, a mixed strategy in the definition of the quality level of the EEE parts and components, a tailored quality management system according to ISO 9000 and ECSS, a risk management system, extensive redundancy strategies, extensive tests especially on system level, large designs margins (over-design), robust design principles. The BIRD-mission is dedicated to the remote sensing of hot spot events like vegetation fires, coal seam fires or active volcanoes from space and to the space demonstration of new technologies. For these objectives a lot of new small satellite technologies and a new generation of cooled infrared array sensors suitable for small satellite missions are developed to fulfil the high scientific requirements of the mission. Some basic features of the BIRD spacecraft bus are compact micro satellite structure with high mechanical stability and stiffness, envelope qualification for several launchers, cubic shape in launch configuration with dimensions of about 620×620×550mm3 and variable launcher interface, mass ratio bus:payload = 62 kg:30

  12. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren


    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  13. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations (United States)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry


    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  14. Radiation Risk and the Mission to Mars (United States)

    Durante, Marco


    Space radiation represents a major showstopper for human space exploration. While solar particle events and trapped protons can be effectively shielded, high-energy nuclei in the galactic cosmic radiation have a high biological effectiveness and cannot be shielded with the limited mass available on a spacecraft. A mission to Mars has been recently proposed (Inspiration Mars), consisting of a flyby with a crew of two astronauts starting in 2018 and lasting 501 days. Based on the recent measurements of the galactic cosmic ray dose on the Mars Science Laboratory and on the most recent update on the risk coefficients from the Atomic bomb survivors, it can be shown that the mission to Mars with current technology may expose the crew to a significant cancer risk.

  15. An aerial 3D printing test mission (United States)

    Hirsch, Michael; McGuire, Thomas; Parsons, Michael; Leake, Skye; Straub, Jeremy


    This paper provides an overview of an aerial 3D printing technology, its development and its testing. This technology is potentially useful in its own right. In addition, this work advances the development of a related in-space 3D printing technology. A series of aerial 3D printing test missions, used to test the aerial printing technology, are discussed. Through completing these test missions, the design for an in-space 3D printer may be advanced. The current design for the in-space 3D printer involves focusing thermal energy to heat an extrusion head and allow for the extrusion of molten print material. Plastics can be used as well as composites including metal, allowing for the extrusion of conductive material. A variety of experiments will be used to test this initial 3D printer design. High altitude balloons will be used to test the effects of microgravity on 3D printing, as well as parabolic flight tests. Zero pressure balloons can be used to test the effect of long 3D printing missions subjected to low temperatures. Vacuum chambers will be used to test 3D printing in a vacuum environment. The results will be used to adapt a current prototype of an in-space 3D printer. Then, a small scale prototype can be sent into low-Earth orbit as a 3-U cube satellite. With the ability to 3D print in space demonstrated, future missions can launch production hardware through which the sustainability and durability of structures in space will be greatly improved.

  16. Digital Spectrometers for Interplanetary Science Missions (United States)

    Jarnot, Robert F.; Padmanabhan, Sharmila; Raffanti, Richard; Richards, Brian; Stek, Paul; Werthimer, Dan; Nikolic, Borivoje


    A fully digital polyphase spectrometer recently developed by the University of California Berkeley Wireless Research Center in conjunction with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides a low mass, power, and cost implementation of a spectrum channelizer for submillimeter spectrometers for future missions to the Inner and Outer Solar System. The digital polyphase filter bank spectrometer (PFB) offers broad bandwidth with high spectral resolution, minimal channel-to-channel overlap, and high out-of-band rejection.

  17. System Design for Commercial Microsatellite Missions


    Lorenzini, Dino; Violi, Vincenzo


    This paper presents the results of a Microsat Feasibility Study conducted by Telespazio S.p.A and Interferometrics Inc. The study examined the feasibility of three possible near term space missions: (1) data collection and relay for environmental monitoring, (2) mobile messaging and digital communications, and (3) remote sensing of sulfur dioxide content in the atmosphere and detection of wild fires. The generalized system architecture consists of a network of low Earth orbit microsatellites,...

  18. Directed energy missions for planetary defense (United States)

    Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; Eskenazi, Mike; Kosmo, Kelly; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Pryor, Mark; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Riley, Jordan; Zhang, Qicheng; Walsh, Kevin; Melis, Carl; Kangas, Miikka; Motta, Caio; Brashears, Travis


    Directed energy for planetary defense is now a viable option and is superior in many ways to other proposed technologies, being able to defend the Earth against all known threats. This paper presents basic ideas behind a directed energy planetary defense system that utilizes laser ablation of an asteroid to impart a deflecting force on the target. A conceptual philosophy called DE-STAR, which stands for Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploration, is an orbiting stand-off system, which has been described in other papers. This paper describes a smaller, stand-on system known as DE-STARLITE as a reduced-scale version of DE-STAR. Both share the same basic heritage of a directed energy array that heats the surface of the target to the point of high surface vapor pressure that causes significant mass ejection thus forming an ejection plume of material from the target that acts as a rocket to deflect the object. This is generally classified as laser ablation. DE-STARLITE uses conventional propellant for launch to LEO and then ion engines to propel the spacecraft from LEO to the near-Earth asteroid (NEA). During laser ablation, the asteroid itself provides the propellant source material; thus a very modest spacecraft can deflect an asteroid much larger than would be possible with a system of similar mission mass using ion beam deflection (IBD) or a gravity tractor. DE-STARLITE is capable of deflecting an Apophis-class (325 m diameter) asteroid with a 1- to 15-year targeting time (laser on time) depending on the system design. The mission fits within the rough mission parameters of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) program in terms of mass and size. DE-STARLITE also has much greater capability for planetary defense than current proposals and is readily scalable to match the threat. It can deflect all known threats with sufficient warning.

  19. Dawn Mission's Education and Public Outreach Program (United States)

    McFadden, Lucy-Ann A.; Wise, J.; Ristvey, J.; Warner, E. M.


    NASA's Dawn mission, the 9th Discovery mission, is the first to orbit two solar system bodies: Vesta (Oct 2011-Apr 2012), then Ceres (Feb-Jul 2015), the most massive Main Belt asteroids. The Education and Public Outreach (EPO) goals are to inspire the next generation of explorers; motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM); to enhance the quality of STEM education at the K-13 level and engage the public in exploration and discovery. Dawn's website ( is central to the dissemination of products and activities. The Dawn E-Newsletter, with 2,301 subscribers, is produced on a quarterly basis. Leonard Nimoy narrated the mission video available on Google videos. Dawn Young Engineers build a paper model of the Dawn spacecraft and submit photos with their constructions. 366,050 names were collected to send to the asteroids. Speaker's kits for the Solar System Ambassadors are online and a poster can be printed via web at a local Office Max. Educational materials about dwarf planets, history and discovery of asteroids, ion propulsion and finding meteorites have been developed. In addition, numerous activities including an interactive activity on ion propulsion, identifying craters (ClickWorkers) and observing asteroids (Telescopes in Education and Amateur Observers' Program) appeal to formal and informal educational audiences. Educators from over 20 states convened in Florida for a workshop in June with the opportunity to meet mission scientists, learn about the modules and activities, observe Vesta through a telescope and tour KSFC. Plans for the coming years include developing modules on instrumentation, theories of the origin of the solar system and data analysis. A planetarium show, museum displays, a video field trip to the asteroid belt and additional educator workshops are planned. This work is funded by NASA's Discovery Program.

  20. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission (United States)

    Graham, Lee


    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  1. Safety and Mission Assurance Knowledge Management Retention (United States)

    Johnson, Teresa A.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the issues surrounding the management of knowledge in regards to safety and mission assurance. The JSC workers who were hired in the 1960's are slated to retire in the next two to three years. The experiences and knowledge of these NASA workers must be identified, and disseminated. This paper reviews some of the strategies that the S&MA is developing to capture that valuable institutional knowledge.

  2. General relativistic observables of the GRAIL mission


    Turyshev, Slava G.; Toth, Viktor T.; Sazhin, Mikhail V.


    We present a realization of astronomical relativistic reference frames in the solar system and its application to the GRAIL mission. We model the necessary spacetime coordinate transformations for light-trip time computations and address some practical aspects of the implementation of the resulting model. We develop all the relevant relativistic coordinate transformations that are needed to describe the motion of the GRAIL spacecraft and to compute all observable quantities. We take into acco...

  3. MACSAT - A Near Equatorial Earth Observation Mission (United States)

    Kim, B. J.; Park, S.; Kim, E.-E.; Park, W.; Chang, H.; Seon, J.

    MACSAT mission was initiated by Malaysia to launch a high-resolution remote sensing satellite into Near Equatorial Orbit (NEO). Due to its geographical location, Malaysia can have large benefits from NEO satellite operation. From the baseline circular orbit of 685 km altitude with 7 degrees of inclination, the neighboring regions around Malaysian territory can be frequently monitored. The equatorial environment around the globe can also be regularly observed with unique revisit characteristics. The primary mission objective of MACSAT program is to develop and validate technologies for a near equatorial orbit remote sensing satellite system. MACSAT is optimally designed to accommodate an electro-optic Earth observation payload, Medium-sized Aperture Camera (MAC). Malaysian and Korean joint engineering teams are formed for the effective implementation of the satellite system. An integrated team approach is adopted for the joint development for MACSAT. MAC is a pushbroom type camera with 2.5 m of Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) in panchromatic band and 5 m of GSD in four multi-spectral bands. The satellite platform is a mini-class satellite. Including MAC payload, the satellite weighs under 200 kg. Spacecraft bus is designed optimally to support payload operations during 3 years of mission life. The payload has 20 km of swath width with +/- 30 o of tilting capability. 32 Gbits of solid state recorder is implemented as the mass image storage. The ground element is an integrated ground station for mission control and payload operation. It is equipped with S- band up/down link for commanding and telemetry reception as well as 30 Mbps class X-band down link for image reception and processing. The MACSAT system is capable of generating 1:25,000-scale image maps. It is also anticipated to have capability for cross-track stereo imaging for Digital elevation Model (DEM) generation.

  4. Controlling UCAVs by JTACs in CAS missions (United States)

    Kumaş, A. E.


    By means of evolving technology, capabilities of UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle)s are increasing rapidly. This development provides UAVs to be used in many different areas. One of these areas is CAS (Close Air Support) mission. UAVs have several advantages compared to manned aircraft, however there are also some problematic areas. The remote controlling of these vehicles from thousands of nautical miles away via satellite may lead to various problems both ethical and tactical aspects. Therefore, CAS missions require a good level of ALI (Air-Land Integration), a high SA (situational awareness) and precision engagement. In fact, there is an aware friendly element in the target area in CAS missions, unlike the other UAV operations. This element is an Airman called JTAC (Joint Terminal Attack Controller). Unlike the JTAC, UAV operators are too far away from target area and use the limited FOV (Field of View) provided by camera and some other sensor data. In this study, target area situational awareness of a UAV operator and a JTAC, in a high-risk mission for friendly ground forces and civilians such as CAS, are compared. As a result of this comparison, answer to the question who should control the UCAV (Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicle) in which circumstances is sought. A literature review is made in UAV and CAS fields and recent air operations are examined. The control of UCAV by the JTAC is assessed by SWOT analysis and as a result it is deduced that both control methods can be used in different situations within the framework of the ROE (Rules Of Engagement) is reached.

  5. The Stellar Imager (SI) Vision Mission


    Carpenter, Kenneth G.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Karovska, Margarita; Team, SI Vision Mission


    The Stellar Imager (SI) is a UV-Optical, Space-Based Interferometer designed to enable 0.1 milli-arcsecond (mas) spectral imaging of stellar surfaces and of the Universe in general and asteroseismic imaging of stellar interiors. SI is identified as a "Flagship and Landmark Discovery Mission" in the 2005 Sun Solar System Connection (SSSC) Roadmap and as a candidate for a "Pathways to Life Observatory" in the Exploration of the Universe Division (EUD) Roadmap (May, 2005). SI will revolutionize ...

  6. Sensors and detectors in NASA's future missions (United States)

    Rubin, B.


    Advances in electronics are responsible for major improvements in NASA's sensing and detection capabilities for future space missions. Technologies such as charge-transfer devices, tunable diode lasers, millimeter and submillimeter wave solid-state receiver components, large-scale circuit integration, new electronic materials and processing techniques, and novel detector electronics are contributing to the goal of a tenfold increase in the capacity of data collection from future platforms and will be used for space exploration and utilization.

  7. Combining meteorites and missions to explore Mars


    Mccoy, Timothy J.,; Corrigan, Catherine M.; Herd, Christopher D. K.


    Laboratory studies of meteorites and robotic exploration of Mars reveal scant atmosphere, no evidence of plate tectonics, past evidence for abundant water, and a protracted igneous evolution. Despite indirect hints, direct evidence of a martian origin came with the discovery of trapped atmospheric gases in one meteorite. Since then, the study of martian meteorites and findings from missions have been linked. Although the meteorite source locations are unknown, impact ejection modeling and spe...

  8. The Role of Overseas Missions in Plastic Surgery Resident Education. (United States)

    Lim, Rizal; Thaller, Seth


    Surgical mission work serves an important role in the education of plastic surgeons. Here, we examine the ways that participation in surgical mission work enhances resident education from the trainee's perspective. PMID:26080142

  9. Idaho National Laboratory Mission Accomplishments, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Todd Randall [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wright, Virginia Latta [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    A summary of mission accomplishments for the research organizations at the Idaho National Laboratory for FY 2015. Areas include Nuclear Energy, National and Homeland Security, Science and Technology Addressing Broad DOE Missions; Collaborations; and Stewardship and Operation of Research Facilities.

  10. Human Robotic Systems (HRS): Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions Element (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During 2014, the Robotic Technologies for Asteroid Missions activity has four tasks:Asteroid Retrieval Capture Mechanism Development and Testbed;Mission Operations...

  11. Parallel Enhancements of the General Mission Analysis Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a state of the art spacecraft mission design tool under active development at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)....

  12. 5 in 1 Drill For Mars Sample Return Mission Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is investigating a Mars Sample Return Mission, consisting of at least three separate missions: 1) Mars Astrobiology Explorer-Cacher, MAX-C (sample acquisition...

  13. Multi-mission, autonomous, synthetic aperture radar (United States)

    Walls, Thomas J.; Wilson, Michael L.; Madsen, David; Jensen, Mark; Sullivan, Stephanie; Addario, Michael; Hally, Iain


    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) have become a critical asset in current battlespaces and continue to play an increasing role for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. With the development of medium-to-low altitude, rapidly deployable aircraft platforms, the ISR community has seen an increasing push to develop ISR sensors and systems with real-time mission support capabilities. This paper describes recent flight demonstrations and test results of the RASAR (Real-time, Autonomous, Synthetic Aperture Radar) sensor system. RASAR is a modular, multi-band (L and X) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging sensor designed for self-contained, autonomous, real-time operation with mission flexibility to support a wide range of ISR needs within the size, weight and power constraints of Group III UASs. The sensor command and control and real-time image formation processing are designed to allow integration of RASAR into a larger, multi-intelligence system of systems. The multi-intelligence architecture and a demonstration of real-time autonomous cross-cueing of a separate optical sensor will be presented.

  14. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) (United States)

    Schoeberl, Mark


    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  15. Science Parametrics for TPF-Type Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Robert A


    We propose a science metric for pure-search missions of the scale of the Terrestrial Planet Finder. The metric is the expected number $N$ of discovered earthlike planets as a function of total exposure time $\\Sigma\\tau$. We estimate $N(\\Sigma\\tau)$ for a range of mission parameters: aperture $D=4-16$ m, inner working angle $IWA=0.0196''-0.3135''$, and $\\Sigma\\tau=10-1000$ d. Our technique involves (1) building a prioritized stack of all possible search observations of stars in the input catalog, including revisits, (2) constructing design reference missions by repeatedly selecting the observation with highest merit from the top of the stack, (3) estimating the density of $N$ by convolving the Bernoullian densities of executed observations, and (4) investigating the parametrical variations of $N$, $D$, $IWA$, and $\\Sigma\\tau$. For example, near the center of the range of parameters -- at $D=8$ m, $IWA=0.0784''$, $\\Sigma\\tau=100$ d -- we estimate $N=40$, that $N\\sim\\Sigma\\tau^{0.272}$, and that a factor-two imp...

  16. The TPF Mission at L2 (United States)

    Lo, Martin; Romans, Larry; Masdemont, Josep; Gomez, Gerard


    The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) is one of the center pieces of NASA's Origins Program. The goal of TPF is to identify terrestrial planets around stars nearby the Sun. For this purpose, a space-based interferometer with a baseline of approximately 100 m is required. To achieve such a large baseline, a distributed system of five spacecraft flying in formation is an efficient approach. Since the TPF instruments need a cold and stable environment, a halo orbit about 4 is ideal. First, we describe formation flight near the Lagrange point is feasible for the TPF mission. Second, we propose a novel approach for human servicing of Lagrange point missions by placing a Lunar service station in an Lunar L1 orbit. The TPF spacecraft can be transferred to a Lunar L1 orbit in a few days and requires relatively little delta-V. This efficient transfer results from the system of low energy pathways connecting the entire Solar System generated by the Lagrange points. The halo orbits are the portals of this Interplanetary . A Lunar Station at the L,portal, in addition to servicing missions from the Sun-Earth Lagrange points, may play an even more important role in the future development of space.

  17. Robust, affordable, semi-direct Mars mission (United States)

    Salotti, Jean-Marc


    A new architecture is proposed for the first manned Mars mission, based on current NASA developments (SLS and Orion), chemical propulsion for interplanetary transit, aerocapture for all vehicles, a split strategy, and a long stay on the surface. Two important choices make this architecture affordable and appropriate for the first mission. The first is splitting the Earth return vehicle into two parts that are launched separately and dock in Mars orbit. This is necessary to make aerocapture feasible and efficient, which considerably reduces mass. The second is reducing the crew to 3 astronauts. This simplifies the mission and reduces the SLS payload mass under the 45-metric ton limit for a direct TMI (trans-Mars injection) burn without LEO assembly. Only 4 SLS launches are required. The first takes the Mars ascent vehicle and in situ resource utilization systems to the planet's surface. The second takes the first part of the Earth return vehicle, the habitat, into Mars orbit. Two years later, two further SLS launches take a dual-use habitat (outbound trip and surface), Orion, and an enhanced service module to LEO, and then into Mars orbit, followed by the landing of the habitat on the surface. Transit time is demonstrated to be easily reduced to less than 6 months, with relatively low impact on propellant mass and none at all on the architecture.

  18. The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) Omega

    CERN Document Server

    Gehrels, Neil


    [JDEM-Omega is one of the three concepts that contributed to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission advocated by the Astro2010 Decadal Survey. It is the concept on which the recommended observatory configuration is based.] The Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM) is a space-based observatory designed to perform precision measurements of the nature of dark energy in the Universe. It will make an order of magnitude progress in measuring the equation of state parameters of the Universe of most importance for understanding dark energy. JDEM-Omega is a wide-field space telescope operating in the near infrared. Dark energy measurements will be made via large surveys of galaxies and supernova monitoring. These will be an order of magnitude larger surveys than currently available and will provide enormous catalogs of astrophysical objects for many communities ranging from solar system to galaxy to galaxies/clusters to cosmology. JDEM-Omega is a mission concept collaboratively developed by NASA and the ...

  19. Agent-Supported Mission Operations Teamwork (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.


    This slide presentation reviews the development of software agents to support of mission operations teamwork. The goals of the work was to make automation by agents easy to use, supervise and direct, manage information and communication to decrease distraction, interruptions, workload and errors, reduce mission impact of off-nominal situations and increase morale and decrease turnover. The accomplishments or the project are: 1. Collaborative agents - mixed initiative and creation of instructions for mediating agent 2. Methods for prototyping, evaluating and evolving socio-technical systems 3. Technology infusion: teamwork tools in mISSIons 4. Demonstrations in simulation testbed An example of the use of agent is given, the use of an agent to monitor a N2 tank leak. An incomplete instruction to the agent is handled with mediating assistants, or Intelligent Briefing and Response Assistant (IBRA). The IBRA Engine also watches data stream for triggers and executes Act-Whenever actions. There is also a Briefing and Response Instruction (BRI) which is easy for a discipline specialist to create through a BRI editor.

  20. Target Analysis for the Twinkle Space Mission (United States)

    Rice, Malena; Tinetti, Giovanna; Zingales, Tiziano; Twinkle Consortium


    Twinkle is a dedicated exoplanet space mission planned for launch in 2019 to observe and characterize the atmospheres of planets around F, G, K, and M type stars. By obtaining high-resolution near-infrared transit spectra (0.5 – 4.5 microns), Twinkle will identify molecules of interest within planetary atmospheres. Twinkle will provide critical data for the characterization of individual exoplanets, leading to an improved understanding of planetary systems as a whole. In this study, we provide an analysis of potential targets for the Twinkle space mission, and we find that the spacecraft will be capable of observing a wide range of planet types, including Earths, Super Earths, Sub Neptunes, Large Neptunes, and Hot Jupiters. We discuss the population distribution of observable targets in terms of planet temperature and radius, host star temperature, and observation time necessary to achieve the desired signal-to-noise ratios. We also include sample Twinkle spectra from a simulated data set, as well as an example retrieval using the TauRex program to retrieve molecules in these simulated spectra. We conclude with a discussion of these results and their implications for the Twinkle mission.

  1. The importance of batteries in unmanned missions (United States)

    Klein, John W.


    The planetary program has historically used batteries to supply peak power needs for mission specific applications. Any time that additional power has been required in order to meet peak power demands or those applications where only limited amounts of power were required, batteries have always been used. Up until the mid to late 70's they have performed their task admirably. Recently, however, we have all become aware of the growing problem of developing reliable NiCd batteries for long mission and high cycle life applications. Here, the role rechargeable batteries will play for future planetary and earth observing spacecraft is discussed. In conclusion, NiCds have been and will continue to be the mainstay of the power system engineers tools for peak power production. Recent experience has tarnished its once sterling reputation. However, the industry has stood up to this challenge and implemented wide ranging plans to rectify the situation. These efforts should be applauded and supported as new designs and materials become available. In addition, project managers must become aware of their responsibility to test their batteries and insure quality and mission operating characteristics. Without this teamwork, the role of NiCds in the future will diminish, and other batteries, not as optimum for high performance applications (low mass and volume) will take their place.

  2. The MARS2013 Mars analog mission. (United States)

    Groemer, Gernot; Soucek, Alexander; Frischauf, Norbert; Stumptner, Willibald; Ragonig, Christoph; Sams, Sebastian; Bartenstein, Thomas; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Petrova, Polina; Evetts, Simon; Sivenesan, Chan; Bothe, Claudia; Boyd, Andrea; Dinkelaker, Aline; Dissertori, Markus; Fasching, David; Fischer, Monika; Föger, Daniel; Foresta, Luca; Fritsch, Lukas; Fuchs, Harald; Gautsch, Christoph; Gerard, Stephan; Goetzloff, Linda; Gołebiowska, Izabella; Gorur, Paavan; Groemer, Gerhard; Groll, Petra; Haider, Christian; Haider, Olivia; Hauth, Eva; Hauth, Stefan; Hettrich, Sebastian; Jais, Wolfgang; Jones, Natalie; Taj-Eddine, Kamal; Karl, Alexander; Kauerhoff, Tilo; Khan, Muhammad Shadab; Kjeldsen, Andreas; Klauck, Jan; Losiak, Anna; Luger, Markus; Luger, Thomas; Luger, Ulrich; McArthur, Jane; Moser, Linda; Neuner, Julia; Orgel, Csilla; Ori, Gian Gabriele; Paternesi, Roberta; Peschier, Jarno; Pfeil, Isabella; Prock, Silvia; Radinger, Josef; Ramirez, Barbara; Ramo, Wissam; Rampey, Mike; Sams, Arnold; Sams, Elisabeth; Sandu, Oana; Sans, Alejandra; Sansone, Petra; Scheer, Daniela; Schildhammer, Daniel; Scornet, Quentin; Sejkora, Nina; Stadler, Andrea; Stummer, Florian; Taraba, Michael; Tlustos, Reinhard; Toferer, Ernst; Turetschek, Thomas; Winter, Egon; Zanella-Kux, Katja


    We report on the MARS2013 mission, a 4-week Mars analog field test in the northern Sahara. Nineteen experiments were conducted by a field crew in Morocco under simulated martian surface exploration conditions, supervised by a Mission Support Center in Innsbruck, Austria. A Remote Science Support team analyzed field data in near real time, providing planning input for the management of a complex system of field assets; two advanced space suit simulators, four robotic vehicles, an emergency shelter, and a stationary sensor platform in a realistic work flow were coordinated by a Flight Control Team. A dedicated flight planning group, external control centers for rover tele-operations, and a biomedical monitoring team supported the field operations. A 10 min satellite communication delay and other limitations pertinent to human planetary surface activities were introduced. The fields of research for the experiments were geology, human factors, astrobiology, robotics, tele-science, exploration, and operations research. This paper provides an overview of the geological context and environmental conditions of the test site and the mission architecture, in particular the communication infrastructure emulating the signal travel time between Earth and Mars. We report on the operational work flows and the experiments conducted, including a deployable shelter prototype for multiple-day extravehicular activities and contingency situations.

  3. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph (United States)


    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  4. STS-121: Discovery Mission Overview Briefing (United States)


    Tony Ceccacci, Lead STS-121 Space Shuttle Flight director, and Rick LaBrode, Lead STS-121 ULF 1.1 International Space Station Flight Director, are shown in this STS-121 Discovery mission overview. Ceccacci begins with an overview of the mission and gives the mission goals. He also presents various slides of the STS-121 payload that includes: 1) Orbiter Docking System; 2) Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC); 3) Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM); 4) TPS Sample Box Assembly; 5) Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS); and 6) Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS). He shows a video presentation on the various processes involved in the inspections of the Orbiter that include: 1) Unberthing OBSS; 2) Starboard wing leading edge survey; 3) Wing leading edge passes; 4) Nose cap surveys; 5) Port side surveys; and 6) Docking with the International Space Station. Ceccacci ends his presentation with discussing the work performed from flight day 1 to flight day 14. Rick LaBrode begins with discussing the on-orbit status of the Expedition 13 crew. He then presents a video of the MPLM installation, forward hatch of MPLM, resupply stowage platform, resupply stowage racks, and Oxygen Generator System (OGS) rack. Questions are answered from the media.

  5. Juno at Jupiter: Mission and Science (United States)

    Bolton, Scott


    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the atmosphere of Jupiter will be presented.

  6. The SVOM gamma-ray burst mission

    CERN Document Server

    Cordier, B; Atteia, J -L; Basa, S; Claret, A; Daigne, F; Deng, J; Dong, Y; Godet, O; Goldwurm, A; Götz, D; Han, X; Klotz, A; Lachaud, C; Osborne, J; Qiu, Y; Schanne, S; Wu, B; Wang, J; Wu, C; Xin, L; Zhang, B; Zhang, S -N


    We briefly present the science capabilities, the instruments, the operations, and the expected performance of the SVOM mission. SVOM (Space-based multiband astronomical Variable Objects Monitor) is a Chinese-French space mission dedicated to the study of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) in the next decade. The SVOM mission encompasses a satellite carrying four instruments to detect and localize the prompt GRB emission and measure the evolution of the afterglow in the visible band and in X-rays, a VHF communication system enabling the fast transmission of SVOM alerts to the ground, and a ground segment including a wide angle camera and two follow-up telescopes. The pointing strategy of the satellite has been optimized to favor the detection of GRBs located in the night hemisphere. This strategy enables the study of the optical emission in the first minutes after the GRB with robotic observatories and the early spectroscopy of the optical afterglow with large telescopes to measure the redshifts. The study of GRBs in the...

  7. The system design of TRIO cinema Mission (United States)

    Jin, Ho; Seon, Jongho; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Kap-Sung; Lin, Robert; Parks, George; Tindall, Craig; Horbury, T. S.; Larson, Davin; Sample, John

    TRIO (Triplet Ionospheric Observatory) CINEMA ( Cubesat for Ion, Neutral, Electron, MAg-netic fields) is a space science mission with three identical cubesats. The main scientific objec-tives are a multi-observation of ionospheric ENA (Energetic Neutral Atom) imaging, ionospheric signature of suprathermal electrons and ions and complementary measurements of magnetic fields for particle data. For this, Main payloads consist of a suprathermal electron, ion, neutral (STEIN) instrument and a 3-axis magnetometer of magnetoresistive sensors. The CINEMA is a 3-unit CubeSat, which translates to a 10 cm x 10 cm x 30 cm in volume and no more than four kilograms in mass. An attitude control system (ACS) uses torque coils, a sun sensor and the magnetometers and spin CINEMA spcaecraft 4 rpm with the spin axis perpendicular to the ecliptic plane. CINEMA will be placed into a high inclination low earth orbit that crosses the auroral zone and cusp. Three institutes are collaborating to develop CINEMA cubesats: i) two cubesats by Kyung Hee University (KHU) under their World Class University (WCU) program, ii) one cubesat by UC Berkeley under the NSF support, and iii) three magnetometers are provide by Imperial College, respectively. In this paper, we describe the system design and their performance of TR IO cinema mission. TRIO cinema's development of miniature in-strument and spacecraft spinning operation will play an important role for future nanosatellite space missions

  8. Mission Benefits Analysis of Logistics Reduction Technologies (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K.; Broyan, James Lee, Jr.


    Future space exploration missions will need to use less logistical supplies if humans are to live for longer periods away from our home planet. Anything that can be done to reduce initial mass and volume of supplies or reuse or recycle items that have been launched will be very valuable. Reuse and recycling also reduce the trash burden and associated nuisances, such as smell, but require good systems engineering and operations integration to reap the greatest benefits. A systems analysis was conducted to quantify the mass and volume savings of four different technologies currently under development by NASA s Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing project. Advanced clothing systems lead to savings by direct mass reduction and increased wear duration. Reuse of logistical items, such as packaging, for a second purpose allows fewer items to be launched. A device known as a heat melt compactor drastically reduces the volume of trash, recovers water and produces a stable tile that can be used instead of launching additional radiation protection. The fourth technology, called trash-to-gas, can benefit a mission by supplying fuel such as methane to the propulsion system. This systems engineering work will help improve logistics planning and overall mission architectures by determining the most effective use, and reuse, of all resources.

  9. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge (United States)

    Lloyd, Charles W.


    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  10. Indian Space Science and Exploration Missions (United States)

    Chakravarty, S. C.

    mission life of ˜ 5 years. Based on an expert report, ISRO has announced its plan to launch the first moon mission (Chandrayaan-1), which could be realised with the existing ISRO capabilities of launch vehicle, satellite and related technologies. The mission has specific scientific goals to study the three-dimensional lunar surface geological features and distribution of elemental and mineralogical species to help understand the origin and evolution of lunar system. The mission goal is to place a lunar-craft, weighing about 525 kg and carrying ˜ 55 kg payload mass, at ˜ 100 km polar orbit of moon for high spatial resolution (5-20 km) mapping. The rationale for selecting these and other future space science missions along with the expected scientific results would be discussed.

  11. Reusable space tug concept and mission (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona


    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a space tug to be used in support to Earth satellites transfer manoeuvres. Usually Earth satellites are released in a non-definitive low orbit, depending on the adopted launcher, and they need to be equipped with an adequate propulsion system able to perform the transfer to their final operational location. In order to reduce the mass at launch of the satellite system, an element pre-deployed on orbit, i.e. the space tug, can be exploited to perform the transfer manoeuvres; this allows simplifying the propulsion requirements for the satellite, with a consequent decrease of mass and volume, in favour of larger payloads. The space tug here presented is conceived to be used for the transfer of a few satellites from low to high orbits, and vice versa, if needed. To support these manoeuvres, dedicated refuelling operations are envisaged. The paper starts from on overview of the mission scenario, the concept of operations and the related architecture elements. Then it focuses on the detailed definition of the space tug, from the requirements' assessment up to the budgets' development, through an iterative and recursive design process. The overall mission scenario has been derived from a set of trade-off analyses that have been performed to choose the mission architecture and operations that better satisfy stakeholder expectations: the most important features of these analyses and their results are described within the paper. Eventually, in the last part of the work main conclusions are drawn on the selected mission scenario and space tug and further utilizations of this innovative system in the frame of future space exploration are discussed. Specifically, an enhanced version of the space tug that has been described in the paper could be used to support on orbit assembly of large spacecraft for distant and long exploration missions. The Space Tug development is an activity carried on in the frame of the SAPERE project (Space

  12. The ExoMars 2016 Mission (United States)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf; McCoy, Don


    ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, EDM, named Schiaparelli, and the ExoMars 2018 mission, which carries a lander and a rover. The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector to search for subsurface hydrogen (as proxy for water ice and hydrated minerals). The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The EDM is carried to Mars by the TGO and is separated three days before arrival at Mars. In addition to demonstrating the landing capability two scientific investigations are included with the EDM. The AMELIA investigation aims at characterising the Martian atmosphere during the entry and descent using technical and engineering sensors of the EDM, and the DREAMS suite of sensors that will characterise the environment of the landing site for a few days after the landing. ESA provides the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator, ESA member states provide two of the TGO instruments and Roscosmos provides the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle all communications between the Earth and the Rover. The communication between TGO and the rover/lander is done through a UHF communications system, a contribution from NASA. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in March 2016 (launch window 14-25 March) and will arrive at Mars on 19 October. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft

  13. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats

  14. 78 FR 7752 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait (United States)


    ... technologies will have an advantage in these export opportunities. Mission Goals The goal of the trade mission... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, to... FR 33439, June 6, 2012. In 77 FR 71777, December 4, 2012, the Department of Commerce announced...

  15. 78 FR 55762 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission (United States)


    ... scientific investigations of Mars with a long-term landed mission to explore the planet's surface. On April... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission AGENCY: National Aeronautics... (EIS) for the Mars 2020 mission and to conduct scoping for the EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  16. Optimization of Positioning of Ground Stations for Space Optical Missions


    Grishechkin, Boris; Braun, Armin; Wickler, Martin


    Every space mission which uses optical band, e.g. ground-satellite/satellite-ground laser telecommunication, optical earth observation, on-ground optical space debris tracking system, is drastically affected by the clouds in the troposphere of the Earth. Mission planning group of the German Space Operations Center (GSOC) is investigating the possibility to achieve the maximum performance of future optical space missions.

  17. Mission Status at Aura Science Team MOWG Meeting: EOS Aura (United States)

    Fisher, Dominic


    Presentation at the 24797-16 Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura Science Team Meeting (Mission Operations Work Group (MOWG)) at Rotterdam, Netherlands August 29, 2016. Presentation topics include mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, spacecraft anomalies, data capture, propellant usage and lifetime estimates, spacecraft maneuvers and ground track history, mission highlights and past spacecraft anomalies and reliability estimates.

  18. 78 FR 22237 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International Trade... executive led education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from... the Philippines and Malaysia. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  19. 78 FR 57620 - Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia (United States)


    ... FR 22237, April 15, 2013, regarding the education industry trade mission to Manila, Philippines and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia scheduled for October 23-October 30, 2013, to revise the mission description from... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Philippines and Malaysia AGENCY: International...

  20. Antenna System for Nano-satelite Mission GOMX-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.; Christiansen, J.;


    In this paper, we present the antenna design for a nano-satellite mission launched in September, the GOMX-3 mission. Some of the key design challenges are discussed and the chosen solutions are presented. In an effort to minimize development and manufacturing costs for future missions, this study...

  1. 76 FR 1600 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade.... Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada on May 2-4, 2011. This aerospace mission is an ] ideal opportunity for U.S. aerospace companies to gain valuable international business leads in a...

  2. 76 FR 58776 - U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission AGENCY: International Trade... Trade Administration, U.S. and Foreign Commercial Service (CS) is organizing a U.S. Aerospace Supplier & Investment Mission to Montreal, Canada, May 6-9, 2012. This aerospace mission is an ideal opportunity for...

  3. EOS Aqua: Mission Status at Earth Science Constellation (United States)

    Guit, Bill


    This is an EOS Aqua Mission Status presentation to be given at the MOWG meeting in Albuquerque NM. The topics to discus are: mission summary, spacecraft subsystems summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage and lifetime estimate, and mission summary.

  4. 13 CFR 108.120 - Economic development primary mission. (United States)


    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Economic development primary mission. 108.120 Section 108.120 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS... Economic development primary mission. The primary mission of a NMVC Company must be economic development...

  5. 76 FR 17622 - U.S. Education Mission to India (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Education Mission to India AGENCY: International Trade Administration... India (New Delhi, Chennai, and Mumbai) from October 10-15, 2011. This mission will include... education consultants in India. The mission will include one-on-one appointments with potential...

  6. 77 FR 71777 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait (United States)


    ... Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012 to revise... Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June 6, 2012. Due to the... is needed to allow for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission....

  7. 75 FR 54300 - Energy and Infrastructure Mission to Saudi Arabia (United States)


    ... Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) trade mission to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, April 2-5, 2011... representatives from a variety of U.S. ICT industry suppliers and service providers. This trade mission will...'s primary ICT hubs. Trade mission participants will have the opportunity to interact with...

  8. Automated Design of Multiphase Space Missions Using Hybrid Optimal Control (United States)

    Chilan, Christian Miguel


    A modern space mission is assembled from multiple phases or events such as impulsive maneuvers, coast arcs, thrust arcs and planetary flybys. Traditionally, a mission planner would resort to intuition and experience to develop a sequence of events for the multiphase mission and to find the space trajectory that minimizes propellant use by solving…

  9. 78 FR 14979 - Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait (United States)


    ... business in the target markets, including likelihood of exports resulting from the mission Consistency of... Trade Mission to Egypt April 14-16, 2013, published at 78 FR 7752, February 4, 2013. The effect of this... participation in the U.S. Trade Mission to Egypt and Kuwait March 10-14, 2013, published at 77 FR 33439, June...

  10. 77 FR 35353 - Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia (United States)


    ... International Trade Administration Biotech Life Sciences Trade Mission to Australia AGENCY: International Trade... Biotech Life Sciences trade mission to Australia, October 29-November 2, 2012. The mission to Australia is... prominent biotech organizations, government meetings, and briefings and receptions during the...

  11. Why we need asteroid sample return mission? (United States)

    Barucci, Maria Antonietta


    Small bodies retain evidence of the primordial solar nebula and the earliest solar system processes that shaped their evolution. They may also contain pre-solar material as well as complex organic molecules, which could have a major role to the development of life on Earth. For these reasons, asteroids and comets have been targets of interest for missions for over three decades. However, our knowledge of these bodies is still very limited, and each asteroid or comet visited by space mission has revealed unexpected scientific results, e.g. the structure and nature of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P/C-G) visited by the Rosetta mission. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms a small body regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. For those reasons, sample return missions are considered a high priority by a number of the leading space agencies. Abundant within the inner Solar System and the main impactors on terrestrial planets, small bodies may have been the principal contributors of the water and organic material essential to create life on Earth. Small bodies can therefore be considered to be equivalent to DNA for unravelling our solar system's history, offering us a unique window to investigate both the formation of planets and the origin of life. A sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) has been study at ESA from 2008 in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision (CV) programme, with the objective to answer to the fundamental CV questions "How does the Solar System work?" and "What are the conditions for life and planetary formations?". The returned material

  12. ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission - An overview on the mission's performance and scientific results (United States)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne


    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. This paper will provide an overview on the various aspects of the SMOS mission, such as 1. The performance of the mission after more than 5 years in orbit: The SMOS mission has been in routine operations since May 2010, following the successful completion of the 6-months commissioning phase. The paper will summarise the technical and scientific status of the mission, including the status of the RFI detection and mitigation and its effect on the data products. SMOS has so far provided very reliable instrument operations, data processing and dissemination to users. The paper will also provide an overview on the MIRAS instrument performance, including the instrument calibration and level 1 brightness temperature data processing. 2. An overview on the SMOS data products: SMOS provides continuously level 1 (brightness temperature) and level 2 (soil moisture and ocean salinity) to its scientific user community since summer 2010. SMOS also provides brightness temperature data (level 1 data) to ECMWF in near-real time (NRT), who assimilates the data into their forecasting system. New services have been established to deliver a tailored NRT data product via the WMO's GTS and EUMETSAT's EUMETCast data dissemination systems to other operational agencies. This will open up new operational applications for SMOS data. Other data products are under development

  13. Improving the Operations of the Earth Observing One Mission via Automated Mission Planning (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel; Rabideau, Gregg; Schaffer, Steve; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart


    We describe the modeling and reasoning about operations constraints in an automated mission planning system for an earth observing satellite - EO-1. We first discuss the large number of elements that can be naturally represented in an expressive planning and scheduling framework. We then describe a number of constraints that challenge the current state of the art in automated planning systems and discuss how we modeled these constraints as well as discuss tradeoffs in representation versus efficiency. Finally we describe the challenges in efficiently generating operations plans for this mission. These discussions involve lessons learned from an operations model that has been in use since Fall 2004 (called R4) as well as a newer more accurate operations model operational since June 2009 (called R5). We present analysis of the R5 software documenting a significant (greater than 50%) increase in the number of weekly observations scheduled by the EO-1 mission. We also show that the R5 mission planning system produces schedules within 15% of an upper bound on optimal schedules. This operational enhancement has created value of millions of dollars US over the projected remaining lifetime of the EO-1 mission.

  14. The 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue. Report; Mission collegiale de concertation Granite. Rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisson, P.; Huet, Ph.; Mingasson, J


    The aim of the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue is to inform the French authorities, associations and population about the project of construction of an underground laboratory for the study of the disposal of high level and long-life radioactive wastes in a granitic environment. The aim of the dialogue was not to select a site but to collect the public reactions and advices about such a project. However, such a dialogue has partially failed because of a misunderstanding of the population about the aims of the mission. However, the mission has collected many point of views and questions which are developed in this report. The first and second chapters recall the process of the mission and its progress, while a third chapter stresses on the questions asked by the public and which concern the fear of nuclear wastes and the incompatibility between the disposal of wastes and the socio-economical development of the region concerned. Thanks to the lessons drawn from this experience, the mission has formulated some recommendations (chapter 4) concerning the need for a better information of the population about any topic in relation with the radioactive wastes. Some complementary information is provided in appendixes. (J.S.)

  15. IMPaCT - Integration of Missions, Programs, and Core Technologies (United States)

    Balacuit, Carlos P.; Cutts, James A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Beauchamp, Patricia M.; Jones, Susan K.; Hang, Winnie N.; Dastur, Shahin D.


    IMPaCT enables comprehensive information on current NASA missions, prospective future missions, and the technologies that NASA is investing in, or considering investing in, to be accessed from a common Web-based interface. It allows dependencies to be established between missions and technology, and from this, the benefits of investing in individual technologies can be determined. The software also allows various scenarios for future missions to be explored against resource constraints, and the nominal cost and schedule of each mission to be modified in an effort to fit within a prescribed budget.

  16. AIDA: the Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment mission (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Baptiste


    The Asteroid Impact & Deflection Assessment (AIDA) mission is a joint cooperation between European and US space agencies that consists of two separate and independent spacecraft that will be launched to a binary asteroid system, the near-Earth asteroid Didymos, to assess the possibility of deflecting an asteroid trajectory by using a kinetic impactor. The European Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is under Phase A/B1 study at ESA from March 2015 until summer 2016. AIM is set to rendez-vous with the asteroid system a few months prior to the impact by the US Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft to fully characterize the smaller of the two binary components. AIM is a unique mission as it will be the first time that a spacecraft will investigate the surface, subsurface, and internal properties of a small binary near Earth asteroid. In addition it will perform various important technology demonstrations that can serve other space missions: AIM will release a set of CubeSats in deep space and a lander on the surface of the smaller asteroid and for the first time, deep-space inter-satellite linking will be demonstrated between the main spacecraft, the CubeSats, and the lander, and data will also be transmitted from interplanetary space to Earth by a laser communication system. The knowledge obtained by this mission will have great implications for our understanding of the history of the Solar System. Small asteroids are believed to result from collisions and other processes (e.g., spinup, shaking) that made them what they are now. Having direct information on their surface and internal properties will allow us to understand how these processes work and transform these small bodies as well as, for this particular case, how a binary system forms. So far, our understanding of the collisional process and the validation of numerical simulations of the impact process rely on impact experiments at laboratory scales. With DART, thanks to the characterization of the

  17. Recent Hydrologic Developments in the SWOT Mission (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Mognard, N. M.; Cretaux, J.; Calmant, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Rodriguez, E.


    The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is designed to measure the elevations of the world's water surfaces including both terrestrial surface waters and the oceans. CNES, NASA, and the CSA are partners in the mission as are hydrologists, oceanographers, and an international engineering team. Recent hydrologic and mission related advances include the following. (1) An airborne version of SWOT called AirSWOT has been developed to provide calibration and validation for the mission when on orbit as well as to support science and technology during mission development. AirSWOT flights are in the planning stage. (2) In early 2012, NASA and CNES issued calls for proposals to participate in the forthcoming SWOT Science Definition Team. Results are expected in time for a Fall 2012 start of the SDT. (3) A workshop held in June 2012 addressed the problem of estimating river discharge from SWOT measurements. SWOT discharge estimates will be developed for river reaches rather than individual cross-sections. Errors will result from algorithm unknowns of bathymetry and roughness, from errors in SWOT measurements of water surface height and inundation, from the incomplete temporal record dictated by the SWOT orbit, and from fluvial features such as unmeasured inflows and outflows within the reach used to estimate discharge. To overcome these issues, in-situ and airborne field data are required in order to validate and refine algorithms. (4) Two modeling methods are using the Amazon Basin as a test case for demonstrating the utility of SWOT observables for constraining water balances. In one case, parameters used to minimize differences between SWOT and model water surface elevations should be adjusted locally in space and time. In the other case, using actual altimetry data as a proxy for SWOT's water surface elevations, it was determined that model water surface elevations were less than 1.6m different from the altimetry measurements: a considerable match

  18. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems (United States)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry


    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  19. The NASA X-Ray Mission Concepts Study (United States)

    Petre, Robert; Ptak, A.; Bookbinder, J.; Garcia, M.; Smith, R.; Bautz, M.; Bregman, J.; Burrows, D.; Cash, W.; Jones-Forman, C.; Murray, S.; Plucinsky, P.; Ramsey, B.; Remillard, R.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Daelemans, G.; Karpati, G.; Nicoletti, A.; Reid, P.


    The 2010 Astrophysics Decadal Survey recommended a significant technology development program towards realizing the scientific goals of the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). NASA has undertaken an X-ray mission concepts study to determine alternative approaches to accomplishing IXO's high ranking scientific objectives over the next decade given the budget realities, which make a flagship mission challenging to implement. The goal of the study is to determine the degree to which missions in various cost ranges from $300M to $2B could fulfill these objectives. The study process involved several steps. NASA released a Request for Information in October 2011, seeking mission concepts and enabling technology ideas from the community. The responses included a total of 14 mission concepts and 13 enabling technologies. NASA also solicited membership for and selected a Community Science Team (CST) to guide the process. A workshop was held in December 2011 in which the mission concepts and technology were presented and discussed. Based on the RFI responses and the workshop, the CST then chose a small group of notional mission concepts, representing a range of cost points, for further study. These notional missions concepts were developed through mission design laboratory activities in early 2012. The results of all these activities were captured in the final X-ray mission concepts study report, submitted to NASA in July 2012. In this presentation, we summarize the outcome of the study. We discuss background, methodology, the notional missions, and the conclusions of the study report.

  20. MITA: An Italian minisatellite for small missions (United States)

    Falvella, M. C.; Crisconio, M.; Lupi, T.; Sabatini, P.; Valentini, G.; Viola, F.

    On July 15th 2000 the first MITA (Italian Advanced Technology Minisatellite) was launched from Plesetsk (Russia) by a Cosmos rocket as a piggy-back of the CHAMP satellite. The main purpose of the first MITA mission is its in-flight validation. Furthermore the scientific payload NINA-2 of INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and the technological payload MTS-AOMS (Micro Tech Sensor for Attitude and Orbit Measurement System) were embarked. The NINA-2 goal is the survey of galactic and solar cosmic rays at 450 km altitude. MTS is an ESA multi-tasking autonomous sensor based on Active Pixel Sensor (star and horizon sensor), Angular Rate Sensor and Magnetic Field Sensor. In this paper the main MITA bus characteristics are reported, together with the description of the launch and the first commissioning phase. The first mission nominal orbit is circular, with a 450 Km altitude and a 87° inclination. The satellite attitude is nadir pointing, 3 axes stabilised. Spacecraft mass is 169.9 Kg. Two fixed solar panels provide an average power of 85 W EOL. The configuration of the satellite main body is based on a cubic shape module, made of Aluminium beams and honeycomb panels. The Mission Control Center is placed in Rome, while the TT&C stations are in Cordoba (Argentina) and, only during the commissioning phase, in Malindi (Kenia); Malindi TT&C station will then be replaced by Fucino (Italy). Since the contacts between spacecraft and the TT&C stations do not occur every orbit, the satellite on board S/W was designed in order to reach the nominal mode without telecommand from ground.