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Sample records for abductive diagnostic procedure

  1. Abductive diagnostic procedure based on an and/or/not graph for expected behaviour: application to a gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuster, P. [Dept. Mat. and Infor. UIB, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)] Ligeza, A. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Automation and Electrics, Technical University of Cracow (Poland)] Martin, J.A. [LEA-SICA: LAAS-CNRS Toulouse, France and IIiA-UdG Girona (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation the diagnostic of technical systems is adressed by considering first of all their expected normal behaviour. The formalism that is used is called AND/OR/NOT causal graphs. This approach can be regarded as an extension of abductive models. A symptom can be True. False or Unknown, it can be represented by a propositional formula. The nodes are partitioned into: Manifestations, that characterize each type of misbehaviour, Elementary diagnosis, that correspond to single faulty states and Intermediate, these last are observable or not partial symptoms. An illustration about the on-line diagnosis of a gas turbine shows also some of the steps leading to a causal graph modelisation in which this diagnosis methodology has been applied. (orig.) 5 refs.

  2. 22 CFR 94.7 - Procedures for children abducted from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for children abducted from the United States. 94.7 Section 94.7 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES INTERNATIONAL CHILD ABDUCTION § 94.7 Procedures for children abducted from the United States. Upon receipt of...

  3. A Comparison of Procedures for Teaching Abduction Prevention to Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll-Rowan, Leslie A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    1994-01-01

    Presentation of classroom-based abduction prevention training to preschool children (n=62) indicated that a videotape condition and a training manual condition were both superior to the no treatment control condition. Correspondence between the children's verbal and nonverbal behavior was low. (Author/JDD)

  4. Diagnostics procedures in rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malovrh Tadej

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a major zoonosis for which diagnostic techniques can only be performed in the laboratory. Laboratory techniques are preferably oriented on tissue removed from the cranium: hippocampus (Ammon's horn, cerebellum and the medulla oblongata or tissue liquids. Clinical observation may only lead to a suspicion of rabies. The only way to perform a reliable diagnosis of the disease is to identify the virus or some of its specific components using laboratory tests such as histological identification of characteristic cell lesions, immunochemical identification of rabies virus antigen and virus isolation. Serological tests are rarely used in epidemiological surveys but much more frequently in control of the vaccination programs (e.g. oral vaccination. Most commonly used serological tests are the virus neutralization test on cell culture (FAVN, virus neutralization in mice and ELISA.

  5. Does preoperative abduction value affect functional outcome of combined muscle transfer and release procedures in obstetrical palsy patients with shoulder involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onel Defne

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric palsy is the injury of the brachial plexus during delivery. Although many infants with plexopathy recover with minor or no residual functional deficits, some children don't regain sufficient limb function because of functional limitations, bony deformities and joint contractures. Shoulder is the most frequently affected joint with internal rotation contracture causing limitation of abduction, external rotation. The treatment comprises muscle release procedures such as posterior subscapularis sliding or anterior subscapularis tendon lengtening and muscle transfers to restore the missing external rotation and abduction function. Methods We evaluated whether the preoperative abduction degree affects functional outcome. Between 1998 and 2002, 46 children were operated on to restore shoulder abduction and external rotation. The average age at surgery was 7.6 years and average follow up was 40.8 months. We compared the postoperative results of the patients who had preoperative abduction less than 90° (Group I: n = 37 with the patients who had preoperative abduction greater than 90° (Group II: n = 9, in terms of abduction and external rotation function with angle measurements and Mallet classification. We inquired whether patients in Group I needed another muscle transfer along with latissimus dorsi and teres major transfers. Results In Group I the average abduction improved from 62.5° to 131.4° (a 68.9° ± 22.9°gain and the average external rotation improved from 21.4° to 82.6° (a 61.1° ± 23°gain. In Group II the average abduction improved from 99.4°to 140°(a40.5° ± 16°gain and the average external rotation improved from 33.2°to 82.7° (a 49.5° ± 23.9° gain. Although there was a significant difference between Group I and II for preoperative abduction (p = 0.000 and abduction gain in degrees (p = 0.001, the difference between postoperative values of both groups was not significant (p = 0.268. There was

  6. A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Behavioral Skills Training Procedures for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not…

  7. Novel insights into esophageal diagnostic procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savarino, Edoardo; Ottonello, Andrea; Tolone, Salvatore;

    2016-01-01

    The 21st century offers new advances in diagnostic procedures and protocols in the management of esophageal diseases. This review highlights the most recent advances in esophageal diagnostic technologies, including clinical applications of novel endoscopic devices, such as ultrathin endoscopy and...

  8. Alien Abductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Joe

    2000-03-01

    Since the beginning of the modern UFO craze in 1947, an elaborate mythology has developed concerning alleged extraterrestrial visitations. ``Flying saucer" sightings (typically involving misperceptions of such mundane phenomena as meteors and research balloons) began to be accompanied in the 1950s by reports from ``contactees," persons who claimed to have had close encounters with, even to have been transported to distant planets by, UFO occupants. By the 1960s came reports of sporadic ``abductions" which have proliferated in correlation with media interest. (Indeed, by interaction between claimants and media the portrayal of aliens has evolved from a multiplicity of types into the rather standardized big-eyed humanoid model.) While evidence of alien contact has often been faked--as by spurious photos, ``crop circles," and the notorious ``Alien Autopsy" film--few alien abduction reports appear to be hoaxes. Most seem instead to come from sincere, sane individuals. Nevertheless, not one has been authenticated, and serious investigation shows that such claims can be explained as sleep-related phenomena (notably ``waking dreams"), hypnotic confabulation, and other psychological factors. As is typical of other mythologies, the alien myth involves supernormal beings that may interact with humans, and it purports to explain the workings of the universe and humanity's place within it.

  9. Anemia in pregnancy:laboratory diagnostic procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    Anemia is common condition in pregnancy and laboratory diagnostic procedures are essential for its detection and categorization. Complete blood count, serum iron, TIBC and ferritin are basic clinical laboratory parameters that provide information about iron status of mother’s body and possible presence of anemia.

  10. A Classification of Abduction :Abduction for Logic Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Hirata, Kouichi

    1993-01-01

    Abduction is a methodology of scientific researches. Peirce showed three types of abduction, and expressed them by one syllogism. Recently various researches on abduction or abductive logic have been developed in the fields of automated reasoning and machine learning. In order to systematically understand such researches and to clearly discuss abduction, this paper classifies abduction into five types. This new classification is based on an interpretation of the syllogism in abduction and the...

  11. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomić, Martina; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

  12. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender, race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface.

  13. On the Implementation of Global Abduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2007-01-01

    Global Abduction (GA) is a recently proposed logical formalism for agent oriented programming which allows an agent to collect information about the world and update this in a nonmonotonic way when changes in the world are observed. A distinct feature of Global Abduction is that in case the agent...... to a full implementation of GA, which also confirms CHR as a powerful meta-programming language for advanced reasoning. The construction gives rise to discussing important issues of the semantics and pragmatics of Global Abduction, leading to proposal for a specific procedural semantics and architecture...

  14. Abductive sensemaking through sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes design sketching as a way to make abductive reasoning manifest and concrete. Through sketching, the abductive sensemaking leaves the domain of abstract logics and becomes part of the researchers or practitioner’s reflective practice. This practice is especially evident through...

  15. Abduction Prevention Training: A Review of Findings and Issues for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Olsen, Laurie A.

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed the research evaluating procedures for teaching abduction prevention skills to children. Examination of types of skills, types of abduction scenarios, training procedures, and assessment strategies indicated that children can learn abduction prevention skills through behavioral skills training procedures, and that individual…

  16. Prioritized Abduction with CHR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    A class of Prioritized Abductive Logic Programs (PrioALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with best-first search. Priorities may represent probabilities or a cost function to be optimized. Compared with other...... weighted and probabilistic versions of abductive logic programming, the approach is characterized by higher generality and a flexible and adaptable architecture which incorporates integrity constraints and interaction with external constraint solvers. A PrioALP is translated in a systematic way into a CHR...

  17. Unproven diagnostic procedures in IgE-mediated allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, B; Grüber, C

    2004-08-01

    A considerable body of literature on therapeutic aspects of complementary and alternative medicine has been published in recent years, but little is known on diagnostic procedures. This short review lists complementary and alternative diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of allergic diseases and presents an assessment of their usefulness for the daily practice. The review of the literature revealed that neither the determination of specific immunoglobulin G-antibodies in serum, the hair-analysis, the cytotoxic test, kinesiology, iridology, or electrodermal testing represent useful tests for the daily practice. To date, no complementary or alternative diagnostic procedure can be recommended as a meaningful element in the diagnostic work-up of allergic diseases. This is especially true for food allergy: properly performed oral food challenges still represent the gold standard for implementing specific diets in food allergic individuals. Ineffective diagnostic approaches may be costly for the consumer and delay appropriate therapy.

  18. Postmortem procedure and diagnostic avian pathology

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    A. Bello

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This review paper will highlight the basic systematic procedures involve from submission of carcass for the investigation of disease to diagnosis and will serve as a guide to veterinarians (anatomist and pathologist on postmortem proceedures in clinical practice.

  19. Diagnostic Procedures to Detect Chlamydia trachomatis Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2016-08-05

    The intracellular life style of chlamydia and the ability to cause persistent infections with low-grade replication requires tests with high analytical sensitivity to directly detect C. trachomatis (CT) in medical samples. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) are the most sensitive assays with a specificity similar to cell culture and are considered the method of choice for CT detection. In addition, NAATs can be performed on various clinical specimens that do not depend on specific transport and storage conditions, since NAATs do not require infectious bacteria. In the case of lower genital tract infections, first void urine and vaginal swabs are the recommended specimens for testing males and females, respectively. Infections of anorectal, oropharyngeal and ocular epithelia should also be tested by NAAT analysis of corresponding mucosal swabs. In particular, anorectal infections of men who have sex with men (MSM) should include evaluation of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) by identification of genotypes L1, L2 or L3. Detection of CT antigens by enzyme immunoassay (EIAs) or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are unsuitable due to insufficient sensitivity and specificity. Recent PCR-based RDTs, however, are non-inferior to standard NAATs, and might be used at the point-of-care. Serology finds application in the diagnostic work-up of suspected chronic CT infection but is inappropriate to diagnose acute infections.

  20. Diagnostic procedures for submucosal tumors in the gastrointestinal tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Laura Graves Ponsaing; Katalin Kiss; Annika Loft; Lise Ingemann Jensen; Mark Berner Hansen

    2007-01-01

    This review is part one of three, which will present an update on diagnostic procedures for gastrointestinal (GI) submucosal tumors (SMTs). Part two identifies the classification and part three the therapeutic methods regarding GI SMTs. Submucosal tumors are typically asymptomatic and therefore encountered incidentally.Advances in diagnostic tools for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors have emerged over the past decade.The aim of this paper is to provide the readers with guidelines for the use of diagnostic procedures, when a submucosal tumor is suspected. Literature searches were performed to find information on diagnostics for gastrointestinal submucosal tumors. Based on the searches, the optimal diagnostic procedures and specific features of the submucosal tumors could be outlined.Standard endoscppy, capsule endoscopy and push-and-pull enteroscopy (PPE) together with barium contrast X-ray do not alone provide sufficient information, when examining submucosal tumors. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fiuorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) are recommended as supplementary tools.

  1. Diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); G.J. van Oortmarssen (Gerrit); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); N. van der Lubbe (Nils); H.M.A. van Agt (H. M A)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract The amount of diagnostic and treatment procedures induced by cervical cancer screening has been assessed prospectively and related to mortality reduction. Assumptions are based on data from Dutch screening programmes and on a scenario for future developments. With 5 invita

  2. Knee abduction angular impulses during prolonged running with wedged insoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2013-07-01

    Wedged insoles may produce immediate effects on knee abduction angular impulses during running; however, it is currently not known whether these knee abduction angular impulse magnitudes are maintained throughout a run when fatigue sets in. If changes occur, this could affect the clinical utility of wedged insoles in treating conditions such as patellofemoral pain. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine whether knee abduction angular impulses are altered during a prolonged run with wedged insoles. It was hypothesized that knee abduction angular impulses would be reduced following a prolonged run with wedged insoles. Nine healthy runners participated. Runners were randomly assigned to either a 6-mm medial wedge condition or a 6-mm lateral wedge condition and then ran continuously overground for 30 min. Knee abduction angular impulses were quantified at 0 and 30 min using a gait analysis procedure. After 2 days, participants returned to perform the same test but with the other wedge type. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate main effects of wedge condition and time and interactions between wedge condition and time (α = 0.05). Paired t-tests were used for post hoc analysis (α = 0.01). No interaction effects (p = 0.958) were found, and knee abduction angular impulses were not significantly different over time (p = 0.384). Lateral wedge conditions produced lesser knee abduction angular impulses than medial conditions at 0 min (difference of 2.79 N m s, p = 0.006) and at 30 min (difference of 2.76 N m s, p < 0.001). It is concluded that significant knee abduction angular impulse changes within wedge conditions do not occur during a 30-min run. Additionally, knee abduction angular impulse differences between wedge conditions are maintained during a 30-min run.

  3. Application of Irwin diagnostic procedures for chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-fang FENG

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the advantages and disadvantages of the diagnostic procedures suggested by the Irwin group,and summarize the experiences in diagnosis and treatment,and to beter understand the etiology,diagnosis,differential diagnosis and treatment of chronic cough.Methods Data of 118 patients,who were finally diagnosed as chronic cough according to the diagnostic procedures suggested by Irwin group in the First Affiliated Hospital of General Hospital of PLA in 2009,were retrospectivety analyzed.Results With the Irwin diagnostic procedures of chronic cough,118 patients were diagnosed definitely.The final diagnostic rate reached 100%.The duration to reach the final diagnosis was 1 day to 30 days.Of the 118 patients with chronic cough,113 were cured(96%.32 cases(27.1% were caused by asthma and related diseases(allergic rhinitis,allergic pharyngitis,cough variant asthma and eosinophilic bronchitis;28 cases(23.7% were due to upper airway cough syndrome and related diseases(chronic rhinitis,sinusitis,pharyngeal bursitis,postnasal drip syndrome,chronic laryngitis,and vocal cord polyps;23 cases(19.5% due to gastroesophageal reflux disease;14 cases(11.9% due to lower respiratory tract infection and related diseases(endobronchial tuberculosis,pulmonary tuberculosis,endotracheal mucosal adenocarcinoma,lung cancer,bronchiectasis,and pulmonary fibrosis;10 cases(8.5% due to cardiac insafficiency;6 cases(5.1% due to administration of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor(ACEI-like antihypertensive agents;3 cases(2.5% were psychogenic cough,and 2 cases(1.7% were induced by other causes.Conclusions The Irwin diagnosis of chronic cough is a comprehensive and thorough procedure,and it should be used with delibcration in clinic.The etiology of chronic cough is complicated,mainly including asthma and related diseases,sinusitis and upper airway cough syndrome,and gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  4. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  5. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Şimşek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both. Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%. Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%. Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%. Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%. Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%; bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%; fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%; and BAL, in 2 (11.1%. Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7% of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.

  6. Prenatal diagnosis--principles of diagnostic procedures and genetic counseling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Slezak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of inherited malformations as well as genetic disorders in newborns account for around 3-5%. These frequency is much higher in early stages of pregnancy, because serious malformations and genetic disorders usually lead to spontaneous abortion. Prenatal diagnosis allowed identification of malformations and/or some genetic syndromes in fetuses during the first trimester of pregnancy. Thereafter, taking into account the severity of the disorders the decision should be taken in regard of subsequent course of the pregnancy taking into account a possibilities of treatment, parent's acceptation of a handicapped child but also, in some cases the possibility of termination of the pregnancy. In prenatal testing, both screening and diagnostic procedures are included. Screening procedures such as first and second trimester biochemical and/or ultrasound screening, first trimester combined ultrasound/biochemical screening and integrated screening should be widely offered to pregnant women. However, interpretation of screening results requires awareness of both sensitivity and predictive value of these procedures. In prenatal diagnosis ultrasound/MRI searching as well as genetic procedures are offered to pregnant women. A variety of approaches for genetic prenatal analyses are now available, including preimplantation diagnosis, chorion villi sampling, amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling as well as promising experimental procedures (e.g. fetal cell and DNA isolation from maternal blood. An incredible progress in genetic methods opened new possibilities for valuable genetic diagnosis. Although karyotyping is widely accepted as golden standard, the discussion is ongoing throughout Europe concerning shifting to new genetic techniques which allow obtaining rapid results in prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidy (e.g. RAPID-FISH, MLPA, quantitative PCR.

  7. Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.;

    The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....

  8. Neonatal cholestasis – differential diagnoses, current diagnostic procedures and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eGötze

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholestatic jaundice in early infancy is a complex diagnostic problem. Misdiagnosis of cholestasis as physiologic jaundice delays the identification of severe liver diseases. In the majority of infants it may represent benign cases of breast milk jaundice, but few among them are masked and caused by neonatal cholestasis that requires a prompt diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, a prolonged neonatal jaundice longer than two weeks after birth must always be scrutinized because an early diagnosis is essential for appropriate management. To rapidly identify the cholestatic cases, the conjugated bilirubin needs to be determined in any infant presenting with prolonged jaundice at 14 days of age with or without depigmented stool. Once neonatal cholestasis is confirmed, a systematic approach is the key to reliably achieve the diagnosis in order to promptly initiate the specific, and in many cases, life saving therapy. This strategy is most important to promptly identify and treat infants with biliary atresia, the most common cause of neonatal cholestasis that requires a hepatoportoenterostomy as soon as possible.Here, we provide a detailed work-up approach including initial treatment recommendations and a clinically oriented overview of possible differential diagnoses in order to facilitate an early recognition and a timely diagnosis. This warrants a broad spectrum of diagnostic procedures and investigations including new methods that are described in this review.

  9. False allegation of child abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

    2011-05-01

    Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality.

  10. Diagnostic hysteroscopy in a procedure room setting compared to diagnostic hysteroscopy in the operating room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Oraif

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Diagnostic hysteroscopy is currently considered a valuable investigational tool for endometrial abnormalities and abnormal uterine bleeding. Most of these procedures can be performed in a procedure room setting without I.V. sedation or pre-operative narcotics. In our experience, a utero-sacral block using lidocaine is quite effective in controlling discomfort while passing various instruments through the internal cervical os. These techniques result in good visualization of the endometrial cavity, adequate and appropriate endometrial sampling with tolerable discomfort. The patients spend less time in the hospital, experience a much faster recovery and have less pre-operative restrictions. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(12.000: 4164-4173

  11. Geospatial abduction principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Shakarian, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    Provides the mathematics underlying geospatial abduction and the algorithms to solve them in practice Offers wide applicability in many different fields for practitioners and researchers Includes several lively, real-world examples that will explain the material very clearly to a reader Includes a web site dedicated to geospatial abduction, hosted at University of Maryland. In addition, the authors will record video lectures (30-60 minutes each) devoted to each chapter, as well as slides on each. These materials will supplement the book

  12. Intuitive Minimal Abduction in Sequent Calculi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊波; 陶先平; 等

    1998-01-01

    Sme computational issues on abduction are discussed in a framework of the first order sequent calculus.Starting from revising the meaning of “good” abduction ,a new criterion of abduction called intuitive-minimal abduction(IMA)is introduced.An IMA is an abuctive formula equivalent to the minimal abductive formula under the theory part of a sequent and literally as simple as possible.Abduction algorithms are presented on the basis of a complete natural reduction system.An abductive formula,obtained by the algorithms presented in this paper,is an IMA if the reduction tree,from which the abduction is performed,is fully expanded.Instead of using Skolem functions,a term-ordering is used to indicate dependency between terms.

  13. The Role of Abduction in Proving Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedemonte, Bettina; Reid, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a typology of forms and uses of abduction that can be exploited to better analyze abduction in proving processes. Based on the work of Peirce and Eco, we describe different kinds of abductions that occur in students' mathematical activity and extend Toulmin's model of an argument as a methodological tool to describe students'…

  14. Conditions of existence of fuzzy explanations and approximate solutions in fuzzy abduction; Fuzzy abduction ni okeru setsumei no sonzai joken to kinji kaiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K. [Nagaoka Technical Coll., Niigata (Japan)] Mukaidono, M. [Meiji Univ., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-09-30

    Abduction is a procedure to derive a set of hypotheses which explains a set of observed events under given knowledge. The obtained set of hypotheses is called explanation. Previously, the authors proposed fuzzy abduction that was an extension of the abduction with the fuzzy theory and showed the way to derive fuzzy explanation. In this theory, observed events and hypotheses are expressed and the given knowledge is expressed by a set of implications with a truth value between zero and one. However, there is no guarantee that fuzzy explanations always exist. This paper clarifies the necessary and sufficient conditions of the existence of fuzzy explanations and proposes a method to obtain approximate solutions when fuzzy explanations do not exist. Fuzzy abduction is a procedure similar to the inverse operation of fuzzy relational equations, however, the proposed method does not require iterative calculation whose number of times cannot be obtain beforehand. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Fault detection thermal storage system by expert system using fuzzy abduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Koichi [Yamatake-Honeywell Co., Ltd, Yokohama (Japan). Advanced Technology Center; Kamimura, Kazuyuki [Yamatake-Honeywell Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan). Building Systems Div.

    1996-12-31

    Fuzzy abduction is a procedure for deriving fuzzy sets of hypotheses which explain a given fuzzy set of events using a set of rules with a truth value. The derived fuzzy sets of hypotheses are called fuzzy explanations. This presentation starts with discussion about diagnosis using conventional expert systems and that using fuzzy relational equations. Then, it proposes a new approach using a fuzzy abduction, and applies the technique to fault detection of a thermal storage system. (orig.)

  16. Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garne, E; Loane, M; de Vigan, C; Scarano, G; de Walle, H; Gillerot, Y; Stoll, C; Addor, MC; Stone, D; Gener, B; Feijoo, M; Mosquera-Tenreiro, C; Gatt, M; Queisser-Luft, A; Baena, N; Dolk, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Design

  17. Thymic epithelial turnours : A population-based study of the incidence, diagnostic procedures and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Wouter K.; Blaauwgeers, Johannes L. G.; Schaapveld, Michael; Timens, Wim; Klinkenberg, Theo J.; Groen, Harry J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The population-based incidence, diagnostic procedures, therapy and survival of thymic epithelial tumours were determined using the Netherlands National Pathological Archives and the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Excess mortality compared to the Netherlands standard population was estimated by relativ

  18. National Policy on Health Care Hearing: an evaluative study from covering services and diagnostic procedures

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the National Policy on Hearing Health Care (PNASA) based on the coverage of specialized services and diagnostic procedures in hearing health care in Brazil. METHODS: This is an evaluation study focused on the coverage of specialized services that offer moderate- and high-complexity diagnostic procedures by region and in Brazil as a whole. We analyzed the data for the period of 2004-2011 collected from the Unified Health System's Informatics Department database (DATASUS), ...

  19. Diagnostics of machine parts by means of reverse engineering procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rysinski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an application of a three-dimensional scanner for building a special diagnostic stand is described. An experimental method of detection of material defects is discussed. The considered defects are connected with cooperation of particular surfaces of machine parts. In the discussed experiments, particularly the dimensions of pitting holes can be evaluated. Availability of laboratory facilities required that the investigations were performed using geared wheels. The three-dimensional model which represents a degenerated surface, obtained based upon the diagnostic measurements, was compared with the pattern of an undamaged surface. The latter was generated by means of our pre-processor. The pre-processor enables generation of files which are compatible with the majority of the computer-aided design system formats. Therefore, the analyses were performed by means of commercial system inventor and computer-aided three-dimensional interactive application.

  20. Abduction and Elopement in the Byzantine Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan B. Burton

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Violent abduction of a woman against her will is treated with some sympathy in the twelfth-century novel, especially in Theodore Prodromos, in sharp contrast to the romanticism of the ancient novel; this departure is illuminated by the contemporary conflict between the harsh secular and the more indulgent canon law on abduction.

  1. Police Response to Family Abduction Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines role of police in responding to family abduction episodes using data from a national survey. Addresses questions concerning frequency of police involvement, how abductions to which police respond differ from those to which they don't, actions taken by police, and the effects of their actions on episode outcomes. (LKS)

  2. Discovering Rules by Meta-level Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsumi; Furukawa, Koichi; Kobayashi, Ikuo; Nabeshima, Hidetomo

    This paper addresses discovery of unknown relations from incomplete network data by abduction. Given a network information such as causal relations and metabolic pathways, we want to infer missing links and nodes in the network to account for observations. To this end, we introduce a framework of meta-level abduction, which performs abduction in the meta level. This is implemented in SOLAR, an automated deduction system for consequence finding, using a first-order representation for algebraic properties of causality and the full-clausal form of network information and constraints. Meta-level abduction by SOLAR is powerful enough to infer missing rules, missing facts, and unknown causes that involve predicate invention in the form of existentially quantified hypotheses. We also show an application of rule abduction to discover certain physical techniques and related integrity constraints within the subject area of Skill Science.

  3. Hypnosis before diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheseaux, Nicole; de Saint Lager, Alix Juillet; Walder, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to estimate the efficiency of hypnosis prior to medical procedures. Different databases were analyzed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing hypnosis to control interventions. All RCTs had to report pain or anxiety. Eighteen RCTs with a total of 968 patients were included; study size was from 20 to 200 patients (14 RCTs ≤ 60 patients). Fourteen RCTs included 830 adults and 4 RCTs included 138 children. Twelve of 18 RCTs had major quality limitations related to unclear allocation concealments, provider's experience in hypnosis, patient's adherence to hypnotic procedures, and intention-to-treat design. This systematic review observed major methodological limitations in RCTs on hypnosis prior to medical procedures.

  4. [Hemolytic anemia in adults: Main causes and diagnostic procedure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, Valentine; Guillaud, Constance; Garcon, Loïc; Godeau, Bertrand; Michel, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Hemolytic anemia (HA) is not an exceptional situation in adults. While establishing the hemolytic mechanism of an anemia is usually rather easy, finding the etiology may be quite difficult as both some hereditary (corpuscular) and acquired causes of HA may occur during adulthood. The diagnosis of HA therefore requires a multiple step procedure taking into account both patient's and family history, a careful analysis of the blood smear and a direct antiglobulin test. Based on these first data, the diagnosis procedure may then require more specific tests whose indications are discussed in this review.

  5. Implication of Abduction: Complexity without Organized Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiura, Moto

    2010-11-01

    Abduction, which is articulated by C.S. Peirce, is one of the forms of inference. Abduction has been researched not only in philosophy but also in artificial intelligence and information science. Finlay and Dix's representation of abduction (1996) has almost the same meaning which is given by Peirce. On the other hand, Sawa and Gunji (2010) express three types of inference as operations of arrows on a simple triangular diagram. In the present paper, we show that Sawa-Gunji's representation of abduction is consistent with Finlay-Dix's one, and synthesize the two representations. Both parameter estimation and abduction occupy a similar position on the synthesized representation, but they are not completely corresponding. We present "incomplete" parameter estimation as a sort of "simulated abduction", since abduction has an intrinsic incompleteness, which means that abduction is formally equivalent to "the logical fallacy affirming the consequent". In other words, a numerical aspect of abduction (i.e. the simulated abduction) is formalized as incomplete parameter estimation. The concept of simulated abduction is applied to parameter estimation of auto-regressive models, and the effects of it is investigated. As a result of the numerical analyses, the distribution of the incompletely estimated parameter shows a power law of the slop -2 in the tail, although conventionally estimated parameter is normally distributed. The power law of the incompletely estimated parameter is based on the structure of ratio distribution. In other words, this result shows that the power law can arise when system observers premise a linearity of input and output data which are too small to estimate the system structure. We call the premise of the system observers "linearity bias". As an example of the cause of power law distributions, self-organized criticality (SOC) has been known. These distributions are based on the mechanisms of the systems themselves, which have some organized

  6. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarsingh, Otto R; Dros, Jacquelien; van Weert, Henk C; Schellevis, François G; Bindels, Patrick J; van der Horst, Henriette E

    2009-01-01

    Background Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating dizziness in elderly patients in general practice. Methods We conducted a Delphi procedure with a panel of 16 national and international experts of all relevant medical specialities in the field of dizziness. A selection of 36 diagnostic tests, based on a systematic review and practice guidelines, was presented to the panel. Each test was described extensively, and data on test characteristics and methodological quality (assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, QUADAS) were presented. The threshold for in- or exclusion of a diagnostic test was set at an agreement of 70%. Results During three rounds 21 diagnostic tests were selected, concerning patient history (4 items), physical examination (11 items), and additional tests (6 items). Five tests were excluded, although they are recommended by existing practice guidelines on dizziness. Two tests were included, although several practice guidelines question their diagnostic value. Two more tests were included that have never been recommended by practice guidelines on dizziness. Conclusion In this study we successfully combined empirical evidence with expert opinion for the development of a set of diagnostic tests for evaluating dizziness in elderly patients. This comprehensive set of tests will be evaluated in a cross-sectional diagnostic study. PMID:19200395

  7. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindels Patrick J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating dizziness in elderly patients in general practice. Methods We conducted a Delphi procedure with a panel of 16 national and international experts of all relevant medical specialities in the field of dizziness. A selection of 36 diagnostic tests, based on a systematic review and practice guidelines, was presented to the panel. Each test was described extensively, and data on test characteristics and methodological quality (assessed with the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies, QUADAS were presented. The threshold for in- or exclusion of a diagnostic test was set at an agreement of 70%. Results During three rounds 21 diagnostic tests were selected, concerning patient history (4 items, physical examination (11 items, and additional tests (6 items. Five tests were excluded, although they are recommended by existing practice guidelines on dizziness. Two tests were included, although several practice guidelines question their diagnostic value. Two more tests were included that have never been recommended by practice guidelines on dizziness. Conclusion In this study we successfully combined empirical evidence with expert opinion for the development of a set of diagnostic tests for evaluating dizziness in elderly patients. This comprehensive set of tests will be evaluated in a cross-sectional diagnostic study.

  8. [Fetus radiation doses from nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures. Potential risks and radiation protection instructions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2007-01-01

    Although in pregnancy it is strongly recommended to avoid diagnostic nuclear medicine and radiology procedures, in cases of clinical necessity or when pregnancy is not known to the physician, these diagnostic procedures are to be applied. In such cases, counseling based on accurate information and comprehensive discussion about the risks of radiation exposure to the fetus should follow. In this article, estimations of the absorbed radiation doses due to nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures during the pregnancy and their possible risk effects to the fetus are examined and then discussed. Stochastic and detrimental effects are evaluated with respect to other risk factors and related to the fetus absorbed radiation dose and to the post-conception age. The possible termination of a pregnancy, due to radiation exposure is discussed. Special radiation protection instructions are given for radiation exposures in cases of possible, confirmed or unknown pregnancies. It is concluded that nuclear medicine and radiology diagnostic procedures, if not repeated during the pregnancy, are rarely an indication for the termination of pregnancy, because the dose received by the fetus is expected to be less than 100 mSv, which indicates the threshold dose for having deterministic effects. Therefore, the risk for the fetus due to these diagnostic procedures is low. However, stochastic effects are still possible but will be minimized if the radiation absorbed dose to the fetus is kept as low as possible.

  9. Towards Verification of Operational Procedures Using Auto-Generated Diagnostic Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2009-01-01

    The design, development, and operation of complex space, lunar and planetary exploration systems require the development of general procedures that describe a detailed set of instructions capturing how mission tasks are performed. For both crewed and uncrewed NASA systems, mission safety and the accomplishment of the scientific mission objectives are highly dependent on the correctness of procedures. In this paper, we describe how to use the auto-generated diagnostic trees from existing diagnostic models to improve the verification of standard operating procedures. Specifically, we introduce a systematic method, namely the Diagnostic Tree for Verification (DTV), developed with the goal of leveraging the information contained within auto-generated diagnostic trees in order to check the correctness of procedures, to streamline the procedures in terms of reducing the number of steps or use of resources in them, and to propose alternative procedural steps adaptive to changing operational conditions. The application of the DTV method to a spacecraft electrical power system shows the feasibility of the approach and its range of capabilities

  10. A best-evidence review of diagnostic procedures for neck and low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Sidney M; van Tulder, Maurits

    2008-06-01

    This chapter aims to present an overview of the best available evidence on diagnostic procedures for neck and low-back pain. Relatively little is known about the accuracy of such procedures. Although most spinal conditions are benign and self-limiting, the real challenge to the clinician is to distinguish serious spinal pathology or nerve-root pain from non-specific neck and low-back pain. The use of valid procedures can assist the clinician in this aim. A search was conducted in PubMed to identify relevant systematic reviews and primary studies on diagnostic procedures for the neck and low back. A systematic review was included if at least two independent reviewers were used; a systematic procedure was followed for identifying the literature; and a methodological assessment was conducted. In the absence of systematic reviews, primary studies are reported. Systematic reviews were identified which evaluated evidence for diagnostic procedures in the following categories: history, physical examination, and special studies, including diagnostic imaging, diagnostic blocks, and facet and sacroiliac joint injections. In general, there is much more evidence on diagnostic procedures for the low back than there is for the neck. With regard to the history, a number of factors can be identified which can assist the clinician in identifying sciatica due to disc herniation or serious pathology. With regard to the physical examination, the straight-leg raise is the only sign consistently reported to be sensitive for sciatica due to disc herniation, but is limited by its low specificity. The diagnostic accuracy of other neurological signs and tests is unclear. Orthopaedic tests of the neck, such as Spurling's or the upper-limb tension test, are useful to rule a radiculopathy in or rule out, respectively. In patients 50 years of age or older, plain spinal radiography together with standard laboratory tests are highly accurate in identifying underlying systemic disease; however

  11. Abductive networks applied to electronic combat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Gerard J.; Hess, Paul; Hwang, Jong S.

    1990-08-01

    A practical approach to dealing with combinatorial decision problems and uncertainties associated with electronic combat through the use of networks of high-level functional elements called abductive networks is presented. It describes the application of the Abductory Induction Mechanism (AIMTM) a supervised inductive learning tool for synthesizing polynomial abductive networks to the electronic combat problem domain. From databases of historical expert-generated or simulated combat engagements AIM can often induce compact and robust network models for making effective real-time electronic combat decisions despite significant uncertainties or a combinatorial explosion of possible situations. The feasibility of applying abductive networks to realize advanced combat decision aiding capabilities was demonstrated by applying AIM to a set of electronic combat simulations. The networks synthesized by AIM generated accurate assessments of the intent lethality and overall risk associated with a variety of simulated threats and produced reasonable estimates of the expected effectiveness of a group of electronic countermeasures for a large number of simulated combat scenarios. This paper presents the application of abductive networks to electronic combat summarizes the results of experiments performed using AIM discusses the benefits and limitations of applying abductive networks to electronic combat and indicates why abductive networks can often result in capabilities not attainable using alternative approaches. 1. ELECTRONIC COMBAT. UNCERTAINTY. AND MACHINE LEARNING Electronic combat has become an essential part of the ability to make war and has become increasingly complex since

  12. 42 CFR 413.122 - Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services and other diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for hospital outpatient radiology services... radiology services and other diagnostic procedures. (a) Basis and purpose. (1) This section implements section 1833(n) of the Act and establishes the method for determining Medicare payments for...

  13. EFSUMB Guidelines on Interventional Ultrasound (INVUS), Part II Diagnostic Ultrasound-Guided Interventional Procedures (Long Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidhu, P. S.; Brabrand, K.; Cantisani, V.;

    2015-01-01

    This is the second part of the series on interventional ultrasound guidelines of the Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB). It deals with the diagnostic interventional procedure. General points are discussed which are pertinent to all patients, followed by organ-...

  14. An Overview of Models of Speaking Performance and Its Implications for the Development of Procedural Framework for Diagnostic Speaking Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhongbao

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at developing a procedural framework for the development and validation of diagnostic speaking tests. The researcher reviews the current available models of speaking performance, analyzes the distinctive features and then points out the implications for the development of a procedural framework for diagnostic speaking tests. On…

  15. 21 CFR 890.3665 - Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. 890....3665 Congenital hip dislocation abduction splint. (a) Identification. A congenital hip dislocation abduction splint is a device intended for medical purposes to stabilize the hips of a young child...

  16. 22 CFR 40.103 - International child abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false International child abduction. 40.103 Section... abduction. An alien who would otherwise be ineligible under INA 212(a)(9)(C)(i) shall not be ineligible... which is party to the Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction....

  17. Delaying diagnostic procedure significantly increases mortality in patients with invasive mucormycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Un; Song, Young Goo; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Min Joo

    2015-12-01

    Invasive mucormycosis is an uncommon but increasing life-threatening fungal infection. The present study investigated clinical characteristics and mortality among patients diagnosed as invasive mucormycosis infection. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 24 histologically proven cases of invasive mucormycosis at two tertiary care referral hospitals between November 2005 and February 2014. Overall survival was 50% (n = 12). The time between onset of symptom and diagnostic procedure proved to be associated with mortality (P = 0.009). In addition, preexisting renal failure and thrombocytopenia demonstrated trends toward a poor outcome in our study (P = 0.089 and 0.065, respectively). On multivariate regression analysis, delayed diagnostic procedure (more than 16 days after the onset of symptoms) was an independent predictor of mortality (OR= 12.34, 95% CI, 1.43-10.64; P = 0.022). Mucormycosis is a destructive fungal infection that is associated with high mortality rates, ranging from 40% to 100% depending on the form of disease. When a clinician suspects invasive mucormycosis infection, an early diagnostic procedure performed within 16 days from the onset of symptom and early initiation of antifungal therapy will lead to successful management of this highly fatal disease.

  18. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology: World Allergy Organization Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek L. Kowalski

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin testing, deliberate induction in the office of allergic symptoms to offending compounds (provocation tests or intentional application of potentially dangerous substances (allergy vaccine to sensitized patients. These situations may be associated with a significant risk of unwanted, excessive or even dangerous reactions, which in many instances cannot be completely avoided. However, adverse reactions can be minimized or even avoided if a physician is fully aware of potential risk and is prepared to appropriately handle the situation. Information on the risk of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergic diseases has been accumulated in the medical literature for decades; however, except for allergen specific immunotherapy, it has never been presented in a systematic fashion. Up to now no single document addressed the risk of the most commonly used medical procedures in the allergy office nor attempted to present general requirements necessary to assure the safety of these procedures. Following review of available literature a group of allergy experts within the World Allergy Organization (WAO, representing various continents and areas of allergy expertise, presents this report on risk associated with diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology and proposes a consensus on safety requirements for performing procedures in allergy offices. Optimal safety measures including appropriate location, type and required time of supervision, availability of safety equipment, access to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established

  19. Restoring shoulder abduction in children with Erb's palsy: when to add trapezius transfer to a teres major transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelaziz, T H; Samir, S; Magdy, W

    2012-11-01

    A total of 35 children with Erb's palsy and shoulder abduction of < 90° underwent transfer of teres major. In 18 cases (group 1) a trapezius transfer was added (combined procedure). In 17 cases (group 2) teres major transfer was carried out in isolation (single procedure). The mean gain in abduction was 67.2° (60° to 80°) in group 1 and 37.6° (20° to 70°) in group 2, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.001). Group 2 was further divided into those who had deltoid power of < M3 (group 2a) and those with deltoid power ≥ M3 (group 2b). The difference in improvement of abduction between groups 2a and group 2b was statistically significant (p < 0.001) but the difference between group 2b and group 1 was not (p = 0.07). We recommend the following protocol of management: in children with abduction ≥ 90° a single procedure is indicated. In children with abduction < 90°: a combined procedure is indicated if deltoid power is < M3 and a single procedure is indicated if deltoid power is ≥ M3. If no satisfactory improvement is achieved, the trapezius can be transferred at a later stage.

  20. Using Abduction to Evolve Inconsistent Requirements Specification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Nuseibeh

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available Requirements specifications are often inconsistent. Inconsistencies may arise because multiple conflicting requirements are embodied in these specifications, or because the specifications themselves are in a transient stage of evolutionary development. In this paper we argue that such inconsistencies, rather than being undesirable, are actually useful drivers for changing the requirements specifications in which they arise. We present a formal technique to reason about inconsistency handling changes. Our technique is an adaptation of logical abduction - adapted to generate changes that address some specification inconsistencies, while leaving others. We represent our specifications in quasi-classical (QC logic - an adaptation of classical logic that allows continued reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. The paper develops a sound algorithm for automating our abductive reasoning technique and presents illustrative examples drawn from a library system case study.

  1. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S. [Dept of Radiation Physics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoeping University, Linkoeping(Sweden); Helmrot, E. [Radiology Dept, County Hospital Ryhov, Joenkoeping (Sweden); Persliden, J. [Dept of Medical Physics, Oerebro Univ Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); Cederlund, T. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  2. Determining and Managing Fetal Radiation Dose from Diagnostic Radiology Procedures in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Objective We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. Materials and Methods We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. Results The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Conclusion Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion. PMID:26576117

  3. Determining and managing fetal radiation dose from diagnostic radiology procedures in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbayrak, Mustafa; Cavdar, Iffet; Seven, Mehmet; Uslu, Lebriz; Yeyin, Nami; Tanyildizi, Handan; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Acikgoz, A. Serdar; Tuten, Abdullah; Demir, Mustafa [Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)

    2015-12-15

    We intended to calculate approximate fetal doses in pregnant women who underwent diagnostic radiology procedures and to evaluate the safety of their pregnancies. We contacted hospitals in different cities in Turkey where requests for fetal dose calculation are usually sent. Fetal radiation exposure was calculated for 304 cases in 218 pregnant women with gestational ages ranging from 5 days to 19 weeks, 2 days. FetDose software (ver. 4.0) was used in fetal dose calculations for radiographic and computed tomography (CT) procedures. The body was divided into three zones according to distance from the fetus. The first zone consisted of the head area, the lower extremities below the knee, and the upper extremities; the second consisted of the cervicothoracic region and upper thighs; and the third consisted of the abdominopelvic area. Fetal doses from radiologic procedures between zones were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and a Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-test. The average fetal doses from radiography and CT in the first zone were 0.05 ± 0.01 mGy and 0.81 ± 0.04 mGy, respectively; 0.21 ± 0.05 mGy and 1.77 ± 0.22 mGy, respectively, in the second zone; and 6.42 ± 0.82 mGy and 22.94 ± 1.28 mGy, respectively, in the third zone (p < 0.001). Our results showed that fetal radiation exposures in our group of pregnant women did not reach the level (50 mGy) that is known to increase risk for congenital anomalies. Fetal radiation exposure in the diagnostic radiology procedures in our study did not reach risk levels that might have indicated abortion.

  4. Exposure of the French paediatric population to ionising radiation from diagnostic medical procedures in 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etard, Cecile; Aubert, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Medical Expertise Unit, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Mezzarobba, Myriam [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Bernier, Marie-Odile [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Laboratory of Epidemiology, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PRP-HOM/SRBE/LEPID, Laboratoire d' Epidemiologie, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2014-12-15

    Medical examination is the main source of artificial radiation exposure. Because children present an increased sensitivity to ionising radiation, radiology practices at a national level in paediatrics should be monitored. This study describes the ionising radiation exposure from diagnostic medical examinations of the French paediatric population in 2010. Data on frequency of examinations were provided by the French National Health Insurance through a representative sample including 107,627 children ages 0-15 years. Effective doses for each type of procedure were obtained from the published French literature. Median and mean effective doses were calculated for the studied population. About a third of the children were exposed to at least one examination using ionising radiation in 2010. Conventional radiology, dental exams, CT scans and nuclear medicine and interventional radiology represent respectively 55.3%, 42.3%, 2.1% and 0.3% of the procedures. Children 10-15 years old and babies from birth to 1 year are the most exposed populations, with respectively 1,098 and 734 examinations per 1,000 children per year. Before 1 year of age, chest and pelvis radiographs are the most common imaging tests, 54% and 32%, respectively. Only 1% of the studied population is exposed to CT scan, with 62% of these children exposed to a head-and-neck procedure. The annual median and mean effective doses were respectively 0.03 mSv and 0.7 mSv for the exposed children. This study gives updated reference data on French paediatric exposure to medical ionising radiation that can be used for public health or epidemiological purposes. Paediatric diagnostic use appears much lower than that of the whole French population as estimated in a previous study. (orig.)

  5. Peirce’s Theory of Abduction: Logic, Methodology, and Instinct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Aguayo W.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on Peirce’s theory of abduction have not been free of controversy, given the difficulty to determine clearly the nature and epistemic function of this inference. The article examines three ways of understanding the concept of abduction, developed by Peirce himself throughout his work. The main objective is to reconstruct the logical, methodological, and instinctive conception of this type of reasoning in order to establish the possibility of a theory of abduction.

  6. The effectiveness of drama therapy on preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in children suffering from cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Ilievová

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The integral part of the treatment of pediatric oncological patients is a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures are often associated with the fear and anxiety of the suffering child. We investigated whether a psychological preparation through drama therapy and the therapeutic puppet may reduce the anxiety related to diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the preschool or early school children suffering from cancer.Methods: Twenty consecutive pediatric patients of preschool and early school age, with the diagnosis of lymphoblastic leukemia, were included in the study. The patients were alternatingly assigned to experimental or control group, and subjected or not subjected to drama therapy, respectively. We measured the changes in heart rate, blood pressure and respiratory rate as indicators of anxiety and fear, before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.Results: Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate in pediatric oncological patients before and after the diagnostic or therapeutic procedure were significantly lower in the experimental group of patients.Conclusion: Our results show that psychological preparation using drama therapy and therapeutic puppet reduced the fear and anxiety related to diagnostic or therapeutic procedures in pediatric oncological patients.Key words: drama therapy; therapeutic puppet; children; oncology; psychology 

  7. Initial Local Diagnostic Reference Levels for Conventional Radiological Procedures at the Institute of Radiology Sarajevo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beganovic, A.; Skopljak-Beganovic, A.; Drljevic, A.; Dzanic, S.; Avdic, S

    2006-07-01

    The data collected during the investigations could be important as a useful baseline for future patient dose measurements in the field of the medical diagnostic radiology. Evaluation of patients doses is an important part of quality assurance programme in diagnostic radiology. It seems that the most convenient way to measure patient doses is by using K.A.P.-meter. The procedure could be performed by educated radiographers, it is simple and it does not require a lot of additional measurements. It can be combined with average values of field-size and focus-skin distance, and that would make calculations even easier. If Q.C. data is used to calculate entrance surface dose (E.S.D.) than radiographers would have to write down all the parameters that have been used during the examinations. In most of the cases that is an every day practice, and therefore is very inconvenient. The thermoluminescent dosemeter (T.L.D.) method is good but requires more time and effort. Besides that, Bosnia and Herzegovina does not have facilities to read patients T.L.D.s. The optimal solution for future assessment of national diagnostic reference levels (D.R.L.) is the combination of these three methods. Bigger radiological departments that employ a physicist should have Q.C. equipment (various dosemeters, K.A.P. meter ). In this case values from several methods could be obtained. Regional hospitals that do not employ physicists could have K.A.P. meters that would be operated by educated radiographers. Values in other smaller radiological departments can be derived from the patients records and exposure conditions. Radiation protection centres in the country should be equipped with appropriate T.L.D. readers. in that case some of data could be collected using this method. (N.C.)

  8. A diagnostic procedure for applying the social-ecological systems framework in diverse cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hinkel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems (SES framework of Elinor Ostrom is a multitier collection of concepts and variables that have proven to be relevant for understanding outcomes in diverse SES. The first tier of this framework includes the concepts resource system (RS and resource units (RU, which are then further characterized through lower tier variables such as clarity of system boundaries and mobility. The long-term goal of framework development is to derive conclusions about which combinations of variables explain outcomes across diverse types of SES. This will only be possible if the concepts and variables of the framework can be made operational unambiguously for the different types of SES, which, however, remains a challenge. Reasons for this are that case studies examine other types of RS than those for which the framework has been developed or consider RS for which different actors obtain different kinds of RU. We explore these difficulties and relate them to antecedent work on common-pool resources and public goods. We propose a diagnostic procedure which resolves some of these difficulties by establishing a sequence of questions that facilitate the step-wise and unambiguous application of the SES framework to a given case. The questions relate to the actors benefiting from the SES, the collective goods involved in the generation of those benefits, and the action situations in which the collective goods are provided and appropriated. We illustrate the diagnostic procedure for four case studies in the context of irrigated agriculture in New Mexico, common property meadows in the Swiss Alps, recreational fishery in Germany, and energy regions in Austria. We conclude that the current SES framework has limitations when applied to complex, multiuse SES, because it does not sufficiently capture the actor interdependencies introduced through RS and RU characteristics and dynamics.

  9. Some Aspects of International Children Abduction - Theoretical and Practical Approach from the Perspective of the European Law and Judicial Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Lupşan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Everyday life revealed even in the media by presenting cases of international abduction of minors, on the one hand, and on the other hand, the existence of cases increasingly complex from the national/ EU practice, to which we should add the insufficient analysis in the doctrine of the topic in representing some evidence to support the elaboration of this paper. Through its international and / or European regulations (Hague Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction, which is supplemented by Regulation (EC no. 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003 concerning jurisdiction, the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility, (prevailing the latter and national ones (Law no. 63/2014 amending and supplementing Law no. 369/2004 on the application of the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction which Romania adhered to by the Law no. 100/199, the legislator sought to ensure the prompt return of children abducted in the Member State of origin, the objective being the same: discouraging underage child abduction by a parent or by third parties, usually relatives and, in case of committing an act of international abduction of minors, ensuring the best interests of the child through the cooperation of the competent authorities in the field. The structure includes sections that address theoretical issues (e.g. the notion of international abduction of minors, regulations, procedure for solving the request, the competent authorities and practical aspects, without neglecting the interpretation given by the Court of Justice of the European Union of some texts from the Regulation.

  10. [Use of levofloxacin in the antibiotic prophylaxis for diagnostic procedures in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchieri, Alberto; Mangiarotti, Barbara; Lizzano, Renata

    2002-03-01

    Chemoprophylaxis is the use of antimicrobial agents before contamination in the hope of preventing infections. The need for prophylaxis depends on the type of procedure and the risk for each individual patient. The risk for infection from urethral catheterization in a hospital setting is 5% for men and 10-20% for women, after routine cystoscopy is 4.7%, after transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) is 39%, after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is 6-43%, after transrectal biopsy of the prostate is 6.2-87%, and after shock wave lithotripsy is 5.7%. On this basis prophylactic treatment is recommended in all patients for transrectal prostate biopsy and transurethral surgery and in patients with increased risk of infection for diagnostic endoscopy of the urinary tract and SWL. Risk factors such as age, immunosuppression, metabolic dysfunction (e.g., diabetes), reduced general condition, prolonged operative time and bleeding, should be considered. Broad-spectrum cephalosporin, penicillins and fluoroquinolones are most often used. The choice of the drug also depends on its pharmacokinetic properties that should secure effective tissue levels during the procedure. Levofloxacin meets these criteria and reduces the incidence of infection after transrectal prostate biopsy and endoscopy of the urinary tract.

  11. Hamartoma: Diagnostic Procedure of Unspecific Clinical Appearance in the Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ronal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hamartoma is a benign tumor-like lesion composed of overgrowth of mature cells and tissues. Along with its unspecific appearance, it may occur in the oral cavity and bear resemblance to the other lesions. In this report we describes the clini-cal appearance of hamartoma as well as the diagnosis method in the case of a 37-year-old-man. The patient explained that he already has redness plaque lesion on his skin left cheek region since he was born. The lesion was sensed to grow and discomfort at the age of 22. A surgical therapy had been performed to reduce the size of lesion one year after, but the red-ness plaque still existed. Thirteen years following the operation, white lesion appeared on the inner left cheek 10 x 8.5 x 6 cm of size and extended onto lower lips within half a year. Diagnostic procedure was carried out such as biopsy, CT-scan and radiography with neuroma as an initial conclusion. New histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of hamartoma. It is concluded that adequate and appropriate biopsy procedure along with sufficient clinical information are needed to develop a proper diagnosis to distinguish hamartoma from other oral lesions.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v17i3.38

  12. Did He Jump or Was He Pushed? Abductive Practical Reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bex, F.J.; Bench-Capon, T.J.M.; Atkinson, K.; Francesconi, E; Sartor, E; Tiscornia, D

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to abductive reasoning in law by examining it in the context of an argumentation scheme for practical reasoning. We present a particular scheme, based on an established scheme for practical reasoning, that can be used to reason abductively about how an agent migh

  13. Behavioral versus Traditional Approaches to Prevention of Child Abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews literature on prevention of child abduction and states shortcomings of traditional versus behavioral approaches to prevention of child abduction. Reveals that behavioral-skills training appears to be a necessary component in effective prevention programs and suggests children undergo such training, with the focus being on self-protective…

  14. QUALITATIVE STUDIES IN ACCOUNTING: THE ABDUCTIVE. RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia URDARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses to accounting researchers and proposes the use of abductive research strategy to improve the quality of accounting research outcomes. We argue that abductive reasoning has developed as a typical research method in all fields of interpretive studies but is still unrecognized by accounting researchers and practitioners. Therefore, this study aims to raise awareness on the benefits obtained through the implementation of abduction as a research strategy. Starting from Peirce (1903 and Blaikie (1993, we explore two types of abduction designs and discuss the advantages of building accounting research on grounded concepts. While this is a conceptual paper that only describes the bridge abduction reasoning can build between studying the reality and new theory emergence, we do not tackle any ethnographical case studies, social survey, or other exploratory field analyses.

  15. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Daniel Ramskov; Pedersen, Mette Broen; Kastrup, Kristrian

    2014-01-01

    normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... associated with maximal eccentric hip abduction strength from a univariate analysis were included in a multivariate linear regression model. Based on the results from the regression model, a regression equation for normative hip abduction strength is presented. RESULTS: A SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE IN MAXIMAL...

  16. Flight and abduction in witchcraft and UFO lore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, J B; Houran, J

    2000-04-01

    The lore surrounding the mythical Witches' Sabbat and contemporary reports of UFO abductions share three main characteristics: the use of masks, the appearance of "Men in Black," and references to flight and abduction. We review these three commonalities with particular focus on the aspect of flight and abduction. We argue that narratives of the Witches' Sabbat and UFO abductions share the same basic structure, common symbolism, and serve the same psychological needs of providing a coherent explanation for anomalous (ambiguous) experiences while simultaneously giving the experient a sense of freedom, release, and escape from the self. This pattern of similarities suggests the possibility that UFO abductions are a modern version of tales of flight to the Sabbat.

  17. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  18. Evaluation of diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine services of Pernambuco and Alagoas states - Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Ricardo Braz F. da; Hazin, Clovis A., E-mail: chazin@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Lima, Fabiana F., E-mail: fflima@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The medical use of ionizing radiation contributes significantly to population exposure to radiation. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic procedures carried out in nuclear medicine (SMN) in Pernambuco and Alagoas in order to gather data to subsidize the proposal of reference levels for nuclear medicine in Brazil. Data were collected of the SMN in Pernambuco and Alagoas in the period of 2005 to 2009, according by UNSCEAR. The study used data from IBGE. The results showed that the total number of examinations in the period 2005 to 2009 was 34.828 in Pernambuco and 27.700 in Alagoas, corresponding to 6.966 and 5.540 average annual examinations in Pernambuco and Alagoas, respectively. The total number of examinations performed in both states in 2009 was twice the number carried out in 2005. Scintigraphy is the cardiovascular examination most performed in both states, followed by bone scintigraphy. Tc-99m is the radionuclide used most often, followed by I-131. The number of tests using Tc-99m in 2009 doubled when compared with the examinations performed in 2005. The results indicate that there has been a significant increase in the number of examinations in MN, and that females outnumber males, as far as the use of this diagnostic resource is concerned. The study of the activities of the radionuclides administered to patients in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas showed that they are high when compared to the values recommended by the IAEA in its Safety Report Series Document No. 40. (author)

  19. Can diagnostic and procedural skills required to practice cardiology as a specialist be mastered in 3 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Eric H C; Nair, Parvathy; Sibbald, Matthew G; Lee, Douglas S; Dorian, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive and procedural skills required of cardiologists have increased in the past 10 years. What is unknown is whether residents consistently meet recommended volumes during training and what their own subjective assessments of their competency are after training. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine whether current training provides residents with opportunities to develop skills to function independently and (2) identify whether residents perceive gaps in their skills. We surveyed current and recent graduates of adult cardiology programs in Canada. One hundred ten responses from 425 surveys were received. Procedural and diagnostic test interpretation volumes were recorded, as were the optimum number the respondents believed were important to complete to function independently. These volumes were compared with the 2008 American College of Cardiology Core Cardiology Training Symposium (COCATS 3) and the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) recommendations for training. The proportion of residents meeting recommended volumes for diagnostic test interpretation ranged from 7% (Holter monitors) to 91% (echocardiograms). For procedures, the range was from 71% (echocardiography) to 100% (cardioversion). The ratio of residents' perceived minimum numbers believed to be required for proficiency for diagnostic test interpretation to those recommended ranged from 14% (electrocardiograms) to 116% (echocardiograms), and for procedures, the ratio was 66% (temporary pacemaker placement) to 116% (echocardiography). Recent graduates' perception of minimum required numbers to achieve competency is underestimated compared with COCATS 3 and CCS recommendations. Few graduates achieved the recommended volume targets suggested for diagnostic test interpretation.

  20. [Site inspection procedures and methods for evaluation of the quality management system of in vitro diagnostic regents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Shaolei

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, the procedures, logos, methods, essentials as well as notable problems for inspecting the qualification management system of in vitro diagnostic regent manufactures are discussed, with aims of promoting inspector's practical level and consequentially ensuring the quality, standard and efficacy of the inspection.

  1. Developmental Dyslexia: A Diagnostic Screening Procedure on Three Characteristic Patterns of Reading and Spelling. A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boder, Elena

    A diagnostic screening procedure for developmental dyslexia which analyzes how a child reads and writes rather than at what level, is outlined. Briefly, the test entails a presentation of a word list at each reading level to determine the child's sight vocabulary and his ability to employ word-attack skills. Following the administration of the…

  2. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; van Weert, H.C.; Schellevis, F.G.; Bindels, P.J.; van der Horst, H.E.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evalua

  3. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Weert, H.C. van; Schellevis, F.G.; Bindels, P.J.; Horst, H.E. van der

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating dizzi

  4. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: A Delphi procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.R. Maarsingh (Otto); J. Dros (Jacquelien); H.C. van Weert (Henk); F.G. Schellevis (François); P.J.E. Bindels (Patrick); H.E. van der Horst (Henriette)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for eval

  5. Development of a diagnostic protocol for dizziness in elderly patients in general practice: a Delphi procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarsingh, O.R.; Dros, J.; Weert, van H.C.P.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Bindels, P.J.; Horst, van der H.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dizziness in general practice is very common, especially in elderly patients. The empirical evidence for diagnostic tests in the evaluation of dizziness is scarce. Aim of our study was to determine which set of diagnostic tests should be part of a diagnostic protocol for evaluating dizzi

  6. Validating Diagnostic and Screening Procedures for Pre-Motor Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0310 TITLE: Validating Diagnostic and Screening...TYPE Annual Report 3. DATES COVERED 1 April 2011 – 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Validating Diagnostic and... Diagnostic Screening 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC

  7. Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    A class of Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programs (PALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with their probabilities. Both all-explanations and most-probable-explanations versions are given. % Compared with other...... probabilistic versions of abductive logic programming, the approach is characterized by higher generality and a flexible and adaptable architecture which incorporates integrity constraints and interaction with external constraint solvers. % A PALP is translated in a systematic way into a CHR program which...

  8. Implementing Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programming with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2008-01-01

    A class of Probabilistic Abductive Logic Programs (PALPs) is introduced and an implementation is developed in CHR for solving abductive problems, providing minimal explanations with their probabilities. Both all-explanations and most-probable-explanations versions are given. Compared with other...... probabilistic versions of abductive logic programming, the approach is characterized by higher generality and a flexible and adaptable architecture which incorporates integrity constraints and interaction with external constraint solvers. A PALP is transformed in a systematic way into a CHR program which serves...

  9. Logic and Abduction: Cognitive Externalizations in Demonstrative Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Magnani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In her book Abductive Reasoning Atocha Aliseda (2006 stresses the attention to the logical models of abduction, centering on the semantic tableaux as a method for extending and improving both the whole cognitive/philosophical view on it and on other more restricted logical approaches. I will describe the importance of increasing logical knowledge on abduction also taking advantage of some ideas coming from the so-called distributed cognition where logical models are seen as forms of cognitive externalizations of preexistent in-formal human reasoning performances

  10. Normative values of eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K

    2014-01-01

    .354) Nm/kg. CONCLUSION: Normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners can be calculated by taking into account the differences in strength across genders and the decline in strength that occurs with increasing age. Age and gender were associated with maximal eccentric hip......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...... normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...

  11. Complexity Classifications for Propositional Abduction in Post's Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the complexity of abduction, a fundamental and important form of non-monotonic reasoning. Given a knowledge base explaining the world's behavior it aims at finding an explanation for some observed manifestation. In this paper we consider propositional abduction, where the knowledge base and the manifestation are represented by propositional formulae. The problem of deciding whether there exists an explanation has been shown to be \\SigPtwo-complete in general. We focus on formulae in which the allowed connectives are taken from certain sets of Boolean functions. We consider different variants of the abduction problem in restricting both the manifestations and the hypotheses. For all these variants we obtain a complexity classification for all possible sets of Boolean functions. In this way, we identify easier cases, namely \\NP-complete, \\coNP-complete and polynomial cases. Thus, we get a detailed picture of the complexity of the propositional abduction problem, hence highlighting s...

  12. A systematic review on the accuracy of diagnostic procedures for infravesical obstruction in boys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline M L Hennus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infravesical obstruction leads to kidney and bladder dysfunction in a significant proportion of boys. The aim of this review is to determine the value of diagnostic tests for ascertainment of infravesical obstruction in boys. METHODOLOGY: We searched PubMed and EMBASE databases until January 1, 2013, to identify papers that described original diagnostic accuracy research for infravesical obstruction in boys. We extracted information on (1 patient characteristics and clinical presentation of PUV and (2 diagnostic pathway, (3 diagnostic accuracy measures and (4 assessed risk of bias. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We retrieved 15 studies describing various diagnostic pathways in 1,189 boys suspected for infravesical obstruction. The included studies reflect a broad clinical spectrum of patients, but all failed to present a standardised approach to confirm the presence and severity of obstruction. The risk of bias of included studies is rather high due to work-up bias and missing data. CONCLUSIONS: As a consequence of low quality of methods of the available studies we put little confidence in the reported estimates for the diagnostic accuracy of US, VCUG and new additional tests for ruling in or ruling out infravesical obstruction. To date, firm evidence to support common diagnostic pathways is lacking. Hence, we are unable to draw conclusions on diagnostic accuracy of tests for infravesical obstruction. In order to be able to standardise the diagnostic pathway for infravesical obstruction, adequate design and transparent reporting is mandatory.

  13. Working Notes of the 1990 Spring Symposium on Automated Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-27

    intelligent systems: Networks of plausible infer- ence. San Mateo, CA: Morgan Kaufmann. Peirce , C. S. S. (1931-1958). Collected papers of Charles Sanders ...Angeles I I I I I I i I FOREWORD The philosopher Charles an ers Peirce used the ter abduction for a form of inference considered to be as import t...suggested viewing some explanations as deductive ar- Charles Sanders Peirce’s notion of abduction. guments where the thing to be explained follows from a

  14. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper; Madsen, Thomas Moller

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  15. New Polynomial Classes for Logic-Based Abduction

    CERN Document Server

    Zanuttini, B

    2011-01-01

    We address the problem of propositional logic-based abduction, i.e., the problem of searching for a best explanation for a given propositional observation according to a given propositional knowledge base. We give a general algorithm, based on the notion of projection; then we study restrictions over the representations of the knowledge base and of the query, and find new polynomial classes of abduction problems.

  16. Consistency-based abduction with extended disjunctive logic programs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王克文; 陈火旺; 吴泉源

    1997-01-01

    By translating each disjunctive logic program into an abductive framework, a declarative semantics for the class of disjunctive logic programs, called the typical abductive semantics (TAS), is presented, which is quite simple and highly intuitive. TAS is complete and coincides with the stable semantics for the class of disjunctive programs that possess stable models. By the coherence principle, TAS can be easily generalized to extended disjunctive programs and can properly handle some benchmark problems in commonsense reasoning

  17. Unintentional exposure to radiation during pregnancy from nuclear medical diagnostic procedures; Unabsichtliche Strahlenexposition in der Schwangerschaft durch nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moka, D. [Gemeinschaftspraxis fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2005-12-01

    The administration of radiopharmaceuticals during pregnancy is contraindicated due to a lack of vital indications. However, if prenatal exposure to radiation should occur in the framework of a nuclear medical diagnostic procedure then fortunately no longterm side-effects would normally be expected. Radiation damage in the preimplantation phase leads to early abortion. However, if the further course of pregnancy remains uncomplicated then no subsequent side-effects need be expected. On a conservative estimate, it would require doses exceeding 50 mGy to cause radiation damage within the uterus after the preimplantation phase. However, the standard radioactivities applied for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine, can be obtained with doses of less than 20 mGy. On the basis of current knowledge, therefore, there is no reason to terminate pregnancy on medical grounds after diagnostic exposure to radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  18. CT-guided percutaneous aspiration of Tarlov cyst as a useful diagnostic procedure prior to operative intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J-Y; Impekoven, P; Stenzel, W; Löhr, M; Ernestus, R-I; Klug, N

    2004-07-01

    Tarlov or perineural cysts are lesions of the nerve root most often found in the sacral region. Several authors recommend surgical treatment of symptomatic Tarlov cysts. However, successful surgical treatment is dependent on appropriate patient selection. In this article, we report three cases of a sacral perineural cyst, causing sciatic pain, and emphasize the usefulness of CT-guided percutaneous aspiration as an important diagnostic and prognostic procedure prior to definitive operative treatment.

  19. Intercultural caring-an abductive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikberg, Anita; Eriksson, Katie

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to increase the understanding of caring from a transcultural perspective and to develop the first outline of a theory. The theoretical perspective includes Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. Texts on caring by the transcultural theorists, including Campinha-Bacote, Kim-Godwin, Leininger and Ray, are analysed using content analysis. The overall theme that resulted from this analysis was that caring is a complex whole. Three main categories of caring emerged: inner caring, outer caring and the goal of caring. Inner caring consists of caring is a relationship, and caring and culture are seen in different dimensions. Outer caring refers to caring affected by educational, administrative and social and other structures. The goal of caring consists of caring leading to change towards health and well-being. The main categories include categories and subcategories that are compared with Eriksson's theory of caritative caring. A model for intercultural caring is generated abductively. Caring and culture appear in three dimensions: caring as ontology independent of context; caring as a phenomenon emphasised differently in different cultures; caring as nursing care activities is unique. Caring alleviates suffering and leads to health and well-being. This model describes caring from an intercultural perspective as a mutual but asymmetric relationship between the nurse and the patient, including the patient's family and community. The patient's cultural background and acculturation influence caring. The cultural background, cultural competence and organisation of the nurse also influence caring. Caring is seen as a complex whole. This study integrates Campinha-Bacote's, Kim-Godwin's, Leininger's and Ray's views of caring with Eriksson's caritative caring and presents caring from a transcultural perspective in a new way as a model for intercultural caring, which can benefit nursing care, education, research and administration.

  20. Past-life identities, UFO abductions, and satanic ritual abuse: the social construction of memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanos, N P; Burgess, C A; Burgess, M F

    1994-10-01

    People sometimes fantasize entire complex scenarios and later define these experiences as memories of actual events rather than as imaginings. This article examines research associated with three such phenomena: past-life experiences, UFO alien contact and abduction, and memory reports of childhood ritual satanic abuse. In each case, elicitation of the fantasy events is frequently associated with hypnotic procedures and structured interviews which provide strong and repeated demands for the requisite experiences, and which then legitimate the experiences as "real memories." Research associated with these phenomena supports the hypothesis that recall is reconstructive and organized in terms of current expectations and beliefs.

  1. Italian Frontotemporal Dementia Network (FTD Group-SINDEM): sharing clinical and diagnostic procedures in Frontotemporal Dementia in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, B; Turrone, R; Galimberti, D; Nacmias, B; Alberici, A; Benussi, A; Caffarra, P; Caltagirone, C; Cappa, S F; Frisoni, G B; Ghidoni, R; Marra, C; Padovani, A; Rainero, I; Scarpini, E; Silani, V; Sorbi, S; Tagliavini, F; Tremolizzo, L; Bruni, A C

    2015-05-01

    In the prospect of improved disease management and future clinical trials in Frontotemporal Dementia, it is desirable to share common diagnostic procedures. To this aim, the Italian FTD Network, under the aegis of the Italian Neurological Society for Dementia, has been established. Currently, 85 Italian Centers involved in dementia care are part of the network. Each Center completed a questionnaire on the local clinical procedures, focused on (1) clinical assessment, (2) use of neuroimaging and genetics; (3) support for patients and caregivers; (4) an opinion about the prevalence of FTD. The analyses of the results documented a comprehensive clinical and instrumental approach to FTD patients and their caregivers in Italy, with about 1,000 newly diagnosed cases per year and 2,500 patients currently followed by the participating Centers. In analogy to other European FTD consortia, future aims will be devoted to collect data on epidemiology of FTD and its subtypes and to provide harmonization of procedures among Centers.

  2. Child abduction murder: the impact of forensic evidence on solvability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Katherine M; Keppel, Robert D

    2012-03-01

    This study examined 733 child abduction murders (CAMs) occurring from 1968 to 2002 to explore the influence of forensic evidence on case solvability in CAM investigations. It was hypothesized that the presence of forensic evidence connecting the offender to the crime would enhance case solvability in murder investigations of abducted children. This study examined the impact of CAM of different types of forensic evidence and the impact of the summed total of forensic evidence items on case solvability by controlling for victim age, victim race, victim gender, and victim-offender relationship. Time and distance theoretical predictors were also included. Binomial logistic regression models were used to determine whether forensic evidence was a critical solvability factor in murder investigations of abducted children. This research indicated that, while forensic evidence increased case solvability, the impact of forensic evidence on solvability was not as important as other solvability factors examined.

  3. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre-eclampsia showed...... large differences across departments. The diagnoses given to three case stories showed little correlation to the criteria the departments reported using. CONCLUSION: Even in a small country like Denmark with 34 obstetrical departments, there was little consensus on the diagnostic criteria for pre-eclampsia...

  4. Diagnostic criteria and reporting procedures for pre-eclampsia: a national survey among obstetrical departments in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemmensen, Åse Kathrine; Olsen, SF; Wengel, CM;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A precondition for the rational use of obstetric databases in biomedical research is detailed knowledge on how data are being generated. We identified the diagnostic procedures and criteria for pre-eclampsia (PE) and assessed the level of obstetric training of the personnel responsible...... of pregnancy diagnoses to the National Patient Registry differed widely in training. For complicated pregnancies, departments ranged from having only specialists reporting all cases to secretaries reporting up to 50%. Cut off limits of blood pressure (BP) and protein loss used to diagnose pre-eclampsia showed......-eclampsia. The findings emphasize the need for standardizing diagnostic criteria and reporting practice and may have implications on how to interpret data regarding pre-eclampsia....

  5. Computed tomography analysis of acetabular anteversion and abduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stem, Eric S. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States); South Carolina Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Center, North Charleston, SC (United States); O' Connor, Mary I. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Kransdorf, Mark J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Crook, Julia [Mayo Clinic, Biostatistic Unit, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2006-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to define the normal range of acetabular abduction and anteversion in relation to pelvic anatomy as depicted on conventional CT scan. We retrospectively reviewed 100 pelvic CT scans performed on patients presenting for evaluation of non-orthopaedic pathology. The study group consisted of 58 women and 42 men, aged between 18 and 88 years. Standard imaging protocol included an anteroposterior (AP) topogram with contiguous 5-mm thick axial images from the superior margin of the iliac crest to the lesser trochanter of the femur. The acetabular abduction was measured from the AP topogram by obtaining the angle between a line drawn from the acetabular teardrop to the lateral acetabular margin and a horizontal line between the ischial tuberosities. Acetabular anteversion was measured on axial images at the level of the mid-femoral head. We found the mean acetabular abduction to be 39 degrees (standard deviation 4 degrees, range 27 to 51 degrees) and the mean acetabular anteversion to be 23 degrees (standard deviation 5 degrees, range 12 to 39 degrees). Data suggests that acetabular anteversion may average 2.7 degrees lower in males than females and increase slightly with age, while abduction may tend to decrease with age. Ninety percent of patients had acetabular abduction between 31 and 46 degrees; the 90% central range for acetabular anteversion was estimated to be from 14 to 31 degrees. CT scanning is useful in accurately defining the normal range of acetabular abduction and antiversion. Knowledge of this normal anatomy will allow accurate assessment of acetabular component position as delineated on conventional CT scanning. (orig.)

  6. HYPROLOG: A New Logic Programming Language with Assumptions and Abduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2005-01-01

    with the grammar notation provided by the underlying Prolog system. An operational semantics is given which complies with standard declarative semantics for the ``pure'' sublanguages, while for the full HYPROLOG language, it must be taken as definition. The implementation is straightforward and seems to provide...... for abduction, the most efficient of known implementations; the price, however, is a limited use of negations. The main difference wrt.\\ previous implementations of abduction is that we avoid any level of metainterpretation by having Prolog execute the deductive steps directly and by treating abducibles (and...

  7. Major femoral vascular access complications after coronary diagnostic and interventional procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Ditte; Pedersen, Frants; Engstrøm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vascular access complications after coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are known to increase morbidity, prolong hospitalization and raise hospital costs. Therefore, risk factor identification and improvement of safety strategies for vascular...... management are important. We aimed to assess the incidence of major vascular complications related to femoral access, and to identify potential risk factors. METHODS: Over a period of six years, 23,870 index procedures (CAG) were performed in two centres, prospectively entered in the database...... and retrospectively analysed. Data was obtained from the Eastern Danish Heart Registry and cross-matched with data from the Danish Vascular Registry. Index procedures were defined as the first trans-femoral procedure. Demographic, procedural and mortality data, as well as information on access complications requiring...

  8. Diagnostic procedures for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC): recommendations of the European Expert Group

    OpenAIRE

    Dietel, Manfred; Bubendorf, Lukas; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Dooms, Christophe; Elmberger, Göran; García, Rosa Calero; Keith M Kerr; Lim, Eric; López-Ríos, Fernando; Thunnissen, Erik; Van Schil, Paul E.; von Laffert, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Background There is currently no Europe-wide consensus on the appropriate preanalytical measures and workflow to optimise procedures for tissue-based molecular testing of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address this, a group of lung cancer experts (see list of authors) convened to discuss and propose standard operating procedures (SOPs) for NSCLC. Methods Based on earlier meetings and scientific expertise on lung cancer, a multidisciplinary group meeting was aligned. The aim was to inc...

  9. Risk and safety requirements for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in allergology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Marek L; Ansotegui, Ignacio; Aberer, Werner

    2016-01-01

    One of the major concerns in the practice of allergy is related to the safety of procedures for the diagnosis and treatment of allergic disease. Management (diagnosis and treatment) of hypersensitivity disorders involves often intentional exposure to potentially allergenic substances (during skin...... to specialized emergency services, etc. for various procedures have been recommended. This document should be useful for allergists with already established practices and experience as well as to other specialists taking care of patients with allergies....

  10. The Abduction of Children by Strangers and Nonfamily Members: Estimating the Incidence Using Multiple Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Used a national survey of households with children, a national survey of police records, and an analysis of FBI homicide data to estimate the incidence of nonfamily abductions of children. Offers a definition of abduction, analyzes problems in compiling abduction statistics, and discusses public policy on prevention and response. (RJM)

  11. Parental Abduction from the Perspective of the Victims: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Mary Jo L.

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that examined parental abductions from the perspective of the abductee. The results will help counseling professionals better to understand the psychological consequences of parental abduction, coping mechanisms that were used by the abducted children and counseling techniques and strategies that helped the children…

  12. Abductive Science Inquiry Using Mobile Devices in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sohaib; Parsons, David

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in digital technology have attracted the interest of educators and researchers to develop technology-assisted inquiry-based learning environments in the domain of school science education. Traditionally, school science education has followed deductive and inductive forms of inquiry investigation, while the abductive form of…

  13. Theorising and Practitioners in HRD: The Role of Abductive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeff; Walton, John; Cureton, Peter; Anderson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to argue that abductive reasoning is a typical but usually unrecognised process used by HRD scholars and practitioners alike. Design/methodology/approach: This is a conceptual paper that explores recent criticism of traditional views of theory-building, based on the privileging of scientific theorising, which…

  14. On the Complexity of Finding Second-Best Abductive Explanations

    CERN Document Server

    Liberatore, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    While looking for abductive explanations of a given set of manifestations, an ordering between possible solutions is often assumed. The complexity of finding/verifying optimal solutions is already known. In this paper we consider the computational complexity of finding second-best solutions. We consider different orderings, and consider also different possible definitions of what a second-best solution is.

  15. Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunby, Kristin V.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2010-01-01

    Three children with autism were taught abduction-prevention skills using behavioral skills training with in situ feedback. All children acquired the skills, which were maintained at a 1-month follow-up assessment. In addition, 1 of the children demonstrated the skills during a stimulus generalization probe in a community setting. (Contains 1…

  16. Emergence of Abductive Reasoning in Mathematical Problem Solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifarelli, Victor

    This paper examines the novel problem solving actions of a pair of college students. The analysis highlights the role of the solvers' inferential processes including abductions, deductions, and inductions as structuring resources that contribute to both their understanding of the problems they face and the emerging novelty that constitutes their…

  17. Modeling Physical Skill Discovery and Diagnosis by Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ikuo; Furukawa, Koichi

    We investigate an Abductive Logic Programming (ALP) framework to find appropriate hypotheses to explain both professional and amateur skill performance, and to distinguish and diagnose amateur faulty performance. In our approach, we provide two kinds of rules: motion integrity constraints and performance rules. Motion integrity constraints are essential to formulate skillful performance, as they prevent the generation of hypotheses that contradict the constraints.

  18. Evaluation of Peer Training for Teaching Abduction Prevention Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasenko, Melissa A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Brower-Breitwieser, Carrie; Bosch, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Child abduction is a serious problem, with approximately 100 children killed each year by nonfamily abductors. Training programs to teach children the correct skills to use if they ever come into contact with a stranger can be effective when they incorporate behavioral skills training (BST) and in-situ training (IST) into their protocol. However,…

  19. Effects of Correspondence Training in an Abduction Prevention Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen-Woods, Laurie A.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Foreman, Greg

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of adding correspondence training to a behavioral skills training package that taught abduction prevention skills to 31 children, ages 4-5 years. Results indicate that correspondence training did not improve correspondence between saying and doing target behaviors. However, both training approaches were equally effective in…

  20. Perception as Abduction: Turning Sensor Data into Meaningful Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Murray

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a formal theory of robot perception as a form of abduction. The theory pins down the process whereby low-level sensor data is transformed into a symbolic representation of the external world, drawing together aspects such as incompleteness, top-down information flow, active perception, attention, and sensor fusion in a…

  1. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper;

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...

  2. Estimation of hip abduction moment based on body fixed sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W; Bisseling, R

    2004-01-01

    Background During standing and walking, abnormal trunk posture or movements may result from insufficient hip abductor force. Quantifying abduction moments requires inverse dynamics based on an appropriate model and measured data. Contrary to using a force plate and motion analysis system, body fixed

  3. The role of gastrointestinal endosonography in diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M B

    1999-01-01

    and therapeutic purposes. This paper describes the technique and experience with some of the interventional EUS procedures based on the present literature. Many of the techniques must still be considered experimental and will need substantial clinical testing in larger series before any final conclusions can...

  4. The sentinel node procedure in early stage cervical cancer, taking the next step; a diagnostic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tax, C.; Rovers, M.M.; Graaf, C. de; Zusterzeel, P.L.M.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent reviews on the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure in cervical cancer have shown that bilateral SLN detection and ultra staging are safe and superior options compared to a unilateral detection, frozen section and H&E analysis. So far, nobody identified a subgroup of patients in who

  5. Towards A Discretely Actuated Steerable Cannula for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayvali, Elif; Liang, Chia-Pin; Ho, Mingyen; Chen, Yu; Desai, Jaydev P

    2012-04-01

    We have designed, developed, and evaluated the performance of a multi-degree-of-freedom discretely actuated steerable cannula with shape memory alloy (SMA)actuators. This will enable us to deliver diagnostic as well as therapeutic devices to the target location through the hollow inner core of the cannula. We propose to use SMAs to generate bending forces due to its small size and high power density. We annealed the SMA wires through a customized training process in arc shape and mounted them at discrete locations on the outer surface of the cannula to enable joint motion. A pulse width modulation(PWM)-based control scheme was implemented to control all SMA actuators simultaneously to enable multiple joint motion using a single power supply. The proposed controller was validated through an experiment inside gelatin to mimic the motion of the cannula inside a medium which requires a significant amount of force to move the joints of the cannula. Trajectory planning using a suitable metric and trajectory execution were successfully implemented. To demonstrate the delivery of a diagnostic tool through our cannula, we demonstrate that we can pass an optical coherence tomography probe through the cannula and perform in situ micro-scale imaging.

  6. Diagnostic value of performing endocervical curettage at the time of colposcopy procedure; a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Imannezhad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN as a precursor to invasive cervical cancer suggests a considerable need for accurate screening of the patients for the risk of these lesions. This systematic review aimed to study the diagnostic significance of endocervical curettage (ECC at the time of colposcopy in the detection of CIN 2, 3, and preinvasive lesions.Methods: PubMed was searched to obtain the relevant articles based on the following search term: (endocervical curettage OR ECC AND colposcopy. The most relevant articles were included after studying the title, abstract, and full text of the obtained articles at initial search. Only English language articles published after 1992 with at least 500 patients were included in this study.Result: Among 300 articles identified by the first search, only seven articles were in line with the purpose of this systematic review. Majority of the included studies were retrospective observational studies.Conclusion: Performing ECC has higher sensitivity in women older than 40 years and those with unsatisfactory colposcopy results. However exact diagnostic usefulness of ECC at the time of colposcopy needs to be investigated in further studies.

  7. The utility and validity of current diagnostic procedures for defining temporomandibular disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G T; Delcanho, R E; Goulet, J P

    1993-08-01

    This paper describes the evolution of different concepts of classifying and defining Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) for both clinical and research settings. The literature is reviewed with respect to the utility and validity of the different questionnaire and examination procedures that have been used to assess TMD patients. The presented view is that many of these procedures have not been validated, that there is a lack of standardization in the use of the procedures themselves, and that an ideal method of classifying this broad group of patients into better-defined subgroups has not yet been developed. More standardized and better-defined research by trained and calibrated researchers is needed worldwide to elucidate these subgroups so that a better and widely agreed upon research classification system can be developed for widespread use. It also seems clear that as research requirements for defining TMD patient subgroups become more stringent over time, it may not be practical for the clinician to implement them on a day-to-day basis in his or her practice. As such, a practical utilitarian definition of the common subtype of TMD patients is also needed which parallels any research grouping, so that data from research are valuable and generalizable to the practicing clinician.

  8. Cardiac diseases - their clinical features, diagnostic procedures and questions to the radiologist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maisch, B.

    1983-09-01

    When diagnosing cardiac diseases non-invasively either by radiology, radionuclide studies or echocardiography each method has its values and problems. In coronary artery disease exercise stress testing with or without thallium-201 perfusion scintigraphy, the demonstration of coronary artery calcification and echocardiography are valuable non-invasive methods. Only by coronary arteriography, however, can the degree of stenosis, its localisation and its operability be determined. In heart muscle diseases X-ray and radionuclide angiocardiography demonstrate cardiac dilatation and diminished left ventricular function. In addition echocardiography is the method of choice to distinguish dilated from hypertrophic (obstructive or non obstructive) cardiomyopathy. Pericardial diseases are diagnosed most effectively by echocardiography and, more expensively, by computer tomography. In neoplastic pericardial effusions computer tomography assesses mediastinal tumors most effectively. In valvular heart disease the classical chest X-ray is still of great importance, but echocardiography is more specific and more sensitive. Invasive diagnostic measures (heart catherization) are still mandatory in most valvular diseases.

  9. Diagnostic procedures in tularaemia with special focus on molecular and immunological techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splettstoesser, W D; Tomaso, H; Al Dahouk, S; Neubauer, H; Schuff-Werner, P

    2005-08-01

    Tularaemia is a severe bacterial zoonosis caused by the highly infectious agent Francisella tularensis. It is endemic in countries of the northern hemisphere ranging from North America to Europe, Asia and Japan. Very recently, Francisella-like strains causing disease in humans were described from tropical northern Australia. In the last decade, efforts have been made to develop sensitive and specific immunological and molecular techniques for the laboratory diagnosis of tularaemia and also for the definite identification of members of the species F. tularensis and its four subspecies. Screening for the keyword 'Francisella' a Medline search over the last decade was performed and articles describing diagnostic methods for tularaemia and its causative agent were selected. Besides classical microbiological techniques (cultivation, biochemical profiling, susceptibility testing) several new immunological and molecular approaches to identify F. tularensis have been introduced employing highly specific antibodies and various polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods. Whereas direct antigen detection by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or immunofluorescence might allow early presumptive diagnosis of tularaemia, these methods--like all PCR techniques--still await further evaluation. Therefore, diagnosis of tularaemia still relies mainly on the demonstration of specific antibodies in the host. ELISA and immunoblot methods started to replace the standard tube or micro-agglutination assays. However, the diagnostic value of antibody detection in the very early clinical phase of tularaemia is limited. Francisella tularensis is regarded as a 'highest priority' biological agent (category 'A' according to the CDC, Atlanta, GA, USA), thus rapid and reliable diagnosis of tularaemia is required not only for a timely onset of therapy, the handling of outbreak investigations but also for the surveillance of endemic foci. Only very recently, evaluated test kits for

  10. Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of patients with ischemic heart diseases from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, Gunnar, E-mail: gbrix@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Berton, Marc, E-mail: marcberton@web.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Nekolla, Elke, E-mail: enekolla@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Lechel, Ursula, E-mail: ulechel@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Schegerer, Alexander, E-mail: aschegerer@bfs.de [Department of Medical and Occupational Radiation Protection, Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Ingoldstädter Landstraße 1, D-85764 Oberschleissheim (Germany); Süselbeck, Tim, E-mail: Tim.Sueselbeck@umm.de [Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Fink, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Fink@umm.de [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer-Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    Objectives: To present a detailed analysis of the cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk of patients with ischemic heart diseases (IHD) from diagnostic and therapeutic imaging. Methods: For 1219 IHD patients, personal and examination data were retrieved from the information systems of a university hospital. For each patient, cumulative organ doses and the corresponding effective dose (E{sup ¯}) resulting from all imaging procedures performed within 3 months before and 12 months after the date of the diagnosis were calculated. The cumulative lifetime attributable risk (LAR{sup ¯}) of the patients to be diseased by radiation-related cancer was estimated using sex-, age-, and organ-specific risk models. Results: Among the 3870 procedures performed in the IHD patients, the most frequent were radiographic examinations (52.4%) followed by coronary catheter angiographies and percutaneous cardiac interventions (41.3%), CT scans (3.9%), and perfusion SPECT (2.3%). 87% of patient exposure resulted from heart catheter procedures. E{sup ¯} and LAR{sup ¯} were significantly higher in males than females (average, 13.3 vs. 10.3 mSv and 0.09 vs. 0.07%, respectively). Contrary to the effective dose, the cancer risk decreased markedly for both sexes with increasing age. Conclusions: Although IHD patients were partially exposed to considerable amounts of radiation, estimated LAR{sup ¯}s were small as compared to their baseline risk to develop cancer in the remaining life.

  11. A Review of Robust Regression and Diagnostic Procedures in Linear Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nethal K. Jajo

    2005-01-01

    The concern over outliers is old since Bernoulli (see [12]), reviewed historically by [11] and updated with [10] in their encyclopedia textbook. James et al.[46] used simulation technique to compare some recent published outlier detection procedures.The history of adept and diagnosis of outliers is traced from old and presence comments. Theil-type or Rank, Brown-Mood, Lp, M, adaptive M, GM, and Trimmed-Winsorization estimators are the most popular estimators that we will review in this paper as an application to outlier accommodation. We will review and compare the most numerical and graphical displays based on residuals to flag outliers.

  12. Hip abduction strength training in the clinical setting: with or without external loading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, T; Weeke, Karen; Weinold, Christian;

    2010-01-01

    The side-lying hip abduction exercise is one of the most commonly used exercises in rehabilitation to increase hip abduction strength, and is often performed without external loading. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of 6 weeks of side-lying hip abduction training, with and without...... external loading, on hip abduction strength in healthy subjects. Thirty-one healthy, physically active men and women were included in a randomised controlled trial and allocated to side-lying hip abduction training, with or without external loading. Training without external loading was performed using...... only the weight of the leg as resistance, whereas training with external loading was performed with a relative load corresponding to 10 repetition maximum. Hip abduction strength was measured pre- and post-intervention. Isometric and eccentric hip abduction strength of the trained leg increased after...

  13. CT-discography; diagnostic accuracy in lumbar disc herniation and significance of induced pain during procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, En Hao [Yan Bian Medical College, Beijing (China); Chung, Tae Sub; Jeong, Mi Gyoung; Kim, Young Soo; Roh, Sung Woo [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness and the accuracy of CT-discography in lumbar disc disease by analyzing the findings of CT-discogram and types of evoked pain during the procedure. CT-discograms were retrospectively evaluated in 47 intervertebral discs of 20 patients with multilevel involvement of lumbar disc diseases. In 28 herniated discs confirmed at surgery, the findings of CT-discogram (28 disc levels/20 patients), MRI(23/16) and CT(21/15) were comparatively analysed. The type of pain after infusion of contrast media during CT-discography was compared with that prior to the procedure. The accuracy for determining types of the herniated lumbar disc when compared with post-operative results was 96.4%(27 discs/28 discs) in the CT-discogram, 82.6%(19 discs/23 discs) in MRI and 71.4%(15 discs/21 discs) in the CT scan. Pains encountered during discography were radiating pain in 12 discs and back pain in 24 discs. CT-discography was especially helpful in 10 patients with multilevel involvement of the lumbar disc diseases to evaluate the exact location of diseased disc(s) that provoked the pain. CT-discography is a highly accurate method in diagnosis of the herniated lumbar intervertebral discs and is very useful in determining the precise location related to the development of pain in such cases.

  14. Exposures from nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures: the dose impact on the Aosta Valley population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimonetto, S; Arrichiello, C; Peruzzo Cornetto, A; Catuzzo, P; Zeverino, M; Poti, C; Meloni, T; Pasquino, M; Tofani, S

    2013-12-01

    The present work evaluates the per-procedure, annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the Aosta Valley region population from nuclear medicine (NM) examinations performed from 2005 to 2011 at the regional NM department. Based on its demographical and socioeconomics characteristics, this area can be considered as representative of the level I countries, as defined by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The NM per-procedures effective doses were within the range of 0.018-35 mSv. A steady frequency per 10 000 inhabitants has been observed, together with a decrease for thyroid and whole-body bone scintigraphy. Myocardial and bone scintigraphy studies were the major contributors to the total collective effective dose. The mean annual collective and per-capita effective doses to the population were 15 man Sv y(-1) and 120 µSv y(-1), respectively. The NM contribution to the total per-capita effective dose accounts for 5.9 % of that due to the medical ionising radiation examinations overall.

  15. Fructose breath hydrogen test--is it really a harmless diagnostic procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, P; Meier, C; Böhme, H J; Richter, T

    2003-01-01

    Usage of hydrogen breath tests has become one of the standard procedures in diagnosing chronic unspecific abdominal pain. These tests are said to be of sufficient specificity and sensitivity, are easily done, non-invasive and are more often practiced in outpatients. A 13-year-old boy is reported with chronic unspecific abdominal pain and growth retardation and so far misdiagnosed hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI), who developed life-threatening adverse effects during the fructose breath hydrogen test. It is concluded that the possibility of HFI should be excluded first by a carefully explored dietary history before the fructose breath test is performed under medical supervision. If there is any suspicion of HFI, a molecular genetic analysis should be preferred.

  16. The Effectiveness of a Hip Abduction Orthosis for Perthes Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanty RK

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Perthes disease is a rare childhood disorder of femoral head affecting 5-10 per 100,000 children. Prognostic factors remain uncertain after age five which requires careful evaluation of subject, planning for treatment always associated with a slow recovery. Orthoses are provided as a conservative treatment to reduce weight bearing stress across hip joint, maintenance of joint congruity, allowing safe and pain free ambulation for school growing children by keeping the limb in abduction and internal rotation. Though there are different number of orthoses used earlier, the present literature does not provide sufficient evidence to support its use in Perthes disease. We report a case of 8 years old active school going subject with Perthes disease of right hip who was fitted with an ambulatory trilateral hip abduction orthosis and assessed by radiographic examination with satisfactory result

  17. Complexity of Propositional Abduction for Restricted Sets of Boolean Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Creignou, Nadia; Thomas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Abduction is a fundamental and important form of non-monotonic reasoning. Given a knowledge base explaining how the world behaves it aims at finding an explanation for some observed manifestation. In this paper we focus on propositional abduction, where the knowledge base and the manifestation are represented by propositional formulae. The problem of deciding whether there exists an explanation has been shown to be SigmaP2-complete in general. We consider variants obtained by restricting the allowed connectives in the formulae to certain sets of Boolean functions. We give a complete classification of the complexity for all considerable sets of Boolean functions. In this way, we identify easier cases, namely NP-complete and polynomial cases; and we highlight sources of intractability. Further, we address the problem of counting the explanations and draw a complete picture for the counting complexity.

  18. Dynamical Logic Driven by Classified Inferences Including Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Koji; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2010-11-01

    We propose a dynamical model of formal logic which realizes a representation of logical inferences, deduction and induction. In addition, it also represents abduction which is classified by Peirce as the third inference following deduction and induction. The three types of inference are represented as transformations of a directed graph. The state of a relation between objects of the model fluctuates between the collective and the distinctive. In addition, the location of the relation in the sequence of the relation influences its state.

  19. Coherent Integration of Databases by Abductive Logic Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Arieli, O; Denecker, M; Van Nuffelen, B; 10.1613/jair.1322

    2011-01-01

    We introduce an abductive method for a coherent integration of independent data-sources. The idea is to compute a list of data-facts that should be inserted to the amalgamated database or retracted from it in order to restore its consistency. This method is implemented by an abductive solver, called Asystem, that applies SLDNFA-resolution on a meta-theory that relates different, possibly contradicting, input databases. We also give a pure model-theoretic analysis of the possible ways to `recover' consistent data from an inconsistent database in terms of those models of the database that exhibit as minimal inconsistent information as reasonably possible. This allows us to characterize the `recovered databases' in terms of the `preferred' (i.e., most consistent) models of the theory. The outcome is an abductive-based application that is sound and complete with respect to a corresponding model-based, preferential semantics, and -- to the best of our knowledge -- is more expressive (thus more general) than any ot...

  20. Restoration of shoulder abduction by transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach: a clinical study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Shi-bing; HOU Chun-lin; CHEN De-song; GU Yu-dong

    2006-01-01

    Background In recent years, transfer of the spinal accessory nerve to suprascapular nerve has become a routine procedure for restoration of shoulder abduction. However, the operation via the traditional supraclavicular anterior approach often leads to partial denervation of the trapezius muscle. The purpose of the study was to introduce transfer of the spinal accessory nerve through dorsal approach, using distal branch of the spinal accessory nerve, to repair the suprascapular nerve for restoration of shoulder abduction, and to observe its therapeutic effect.Methods From January to October 2003, a total of 11 patients with a brachial plexus injury and an intact or nearly intact spinal accessory nerve were treated by transferring the spinal accessory nerve to the suprascapular nerve through dorsal approach. The patients were followed up for 18 to 26 months [mean (23.5 ±5.2) months] to evaluate their shoulder abduction and function of the trapezius muscle. The outcomes were compared with those of 26 patients treated with traditional anterior approach. And the data were analyzed by Student's t test using SPSS 10.5.Results In the 11 patients, the spinal accessory nerves were transferred to the suprascapular nerve through the dorsal approach successfully. Intact function of the upper trapezius was achieved in all of them. In the patients,the location of the two nerves was relatively stable at the level of superior margin of the scapula, the mean distance between them was (4.2±1.4) cm, both the nerves could be easily dissected and end-to-end anastomosed without any tension. During the follow-up, the first electrophysiological sign of recovery of the infraspinatus appeared at (6.8±2.7) months and the first sign of restoration of the shoulder abduction at (7.6±2.9) months after the operation, which were earlier than that after the traditional operation [(8.7±2.4) months and (9.9±2.8)months, respectively; P<0.05]. The postoperative shoulder abduction was 62.8°± 12

  1. Characteristics of Abductive Inquiry in Earth and Space Science: An Undergraduate Teacher Prospective Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalis, T. R.; Liliasari; Herdiwidjaya, D.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose this case study was to describe characteristic features learning activities in the domain of earth and space science. Context of this study is earth and space learning activities on three groups of student teachers prospective, respectively on the subject of the shape and size of Earth, land and sea breeze, and moon's orbit. The analysis is conducted qualitatively from activity data and analyze students doing project work, student worksheets, group project report documents, note and audio recordings of discussion. Research findings identified the type of abduction: theoretical models abduction, factual abduction, and law abduction during the learning process. Implications for science inquiry learning as well as relevant research were suggested.

  2. Biphasic threat to femoral head perfusion in abduction: arterial hypoperfusion and venous congestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousefzadeh, David K. [Comer Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); University of Chicago, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Jaramillo, Diego [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Johnson, Neil [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Doerger, Kirk [Radiology Associates of Northern Kentucky, Crestview Hills, KY (United States); Sullivan, Christopher [University of Chicago, Department of Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Hip abduction can cause avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head in infants. To compare the US perfusion pattern of femoral head cartilage in neutral position with that in different degrees and duration of abduction, testing the venous congestion theory of post-abduction ischemia. In 20 neonates, the Doppler flow characteristics of the posterosuperior (PS) branch of the femoral head cartilage feeding vessels were evaluated in neutral and at 30 , 45 , and 60 abduction. In three neonates the leg was held in 45-degree abduction and flow was assessed at 5, 10, and 15 min. Male/female ratio was 11/9 with a mean age of 1.86 {+-} 0.7 weeks. The peak systolic velocities (PSV) declined in all three degrees of abduction. After 15 min of 45-degree abduction, the mean PSV declined and showed an absent or reversed diastolic component and undetectable venous return. No perfusion was detected at 60-degree abduction. Abduction-induced femoral head ischemia is biphasic and degree- and duration-dependent. In phase I there is arterial hypoperfusion and in phase II there is venous congestion. A new pathogeneses for femoral head ischemia is offered. (orig.)

  3. Should excretory urography be used as a routine diagnostic procedure in patients with acute ureteric colic: A single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama A Samara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find an accurate, easily available and safe imaging modality as an alternative to intravenous urography for the diagnosis of acute urinary obstruction. This retrospective study included 332 patients, who underwent both excretory urography (EU preceeded by plain radiograph as well as ultrasonography for evaluation of acute flank pain. There were 198 male and 134 female patients. The presence or absence of urinary stones, level of obstruction, excretion delay on EU and dilated excretory system on either or both techniques were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy for plain radiograph, ultrasonography, and for both modalities together were measured considering EU as a standard reference. The sensitivity and specificity of combined plain radiograph and ultrasound were 97% and 67%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values and accuracy rates of 92%, 99%, and 97%, respectively. Our study suggests that the combination of plain radiograph and ultrasonography yields a high sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy in depiction of urinary stones. Thus, EU need not be used as a routine diagnostic procedure in patients with acute obstructive uropathy.

  4. Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure machine (called a sphygmomanometer). Blood pressure readings measure the two parts of blood pressure: systolic and diastolic pressures. Systolic pressure (the higher number listed first) is the force of blood flow through an artery when the heart beats. Diastolic ...

  5. Isolated Ureter Injury After Abduction the Lower Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdal Gullupinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the anatomical structures the ureters are well protected and they%u2019re exposed to trauma rarely. The most common cause of ureteral injuries is iatrogenic. Early clinical diagnosis of ureteral injuries are quiet and clinical suspicion is often essential. Delayed diagnosis of ureteral injuries may cause mortality and morbidity. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography is used as a method of imaging. Treatment is done according to the localization of trauma. On our article we present a rare isolated ureter injury after abduction the lower back of a woman as a case report.

  6. Experiences and directions for Abduction and Induction using Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2005-01-01

    Techniques for doing abduction in a combination of Prolog and Constraint Handling Rules (CHR) are reviewed, and the possible extension to combine with induction is considered. While the indicated implementation for abduction is very efficient, the ideas for induction are at a much more experimental...

  7. Developing a Validity Argument through Abductive Reasoning with an Empirical Demonstration of the Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Amery D.; Stone, Jake E.; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes and demonstrates a methodology for test score validation through abductive reasoning. It describes how abductive reasoning can be utilized in support of the claims made about test score validity. This methodology is demonstrated with a real data example of the Canadian English Language Proficiency Index Program…

  8. Abduction-Induction (Generalization) Processes of Elementary Majors on Figural Patterns in Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, F. D.; Becker, Joanne Rossi

    2007-01-01

    The article deals with issues concerning the abductive-inductive reasoning of 42 preservice elementary majors on patterns that consist of figural and numerical cues. We discuss: ways in which the participants develop generalizations about classes of abstract objects; abductive processes they exhibit which support their induction leading to a…

  9. Abduction of Children by Their Parents: A Survey of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegar, Rebecca L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    Findings from 371 parents who sought help from missing children's organizations provided profile of families in which children were abducted by 1 of parents. Abductors were described as less educated and less likely to be employed than searching parents. Three-fourths of abducted children were younger than seven years of age; most abductions…

  10. Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Jostad, Candice M.; Flessner, Christopher; Gatheridge, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of individual behavioral skills training in conjunction with in situ training in teaching 13 preschool children abduction prevention skills. Children's performance was measured during baseline, training, and at 2-week, 1-month, and 3-month follow-ups using in situ assessments in which abduction prevention…

  11. Abduction of children by their parents: a survey of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegar, R L; Greif, G L

    1991-09-01

    On the basis of a survey of a non-representative national sample of 371 parents who sought help from missing children's organizations, this article provides a profile of families in which children were abducted by one of the parents. Abductors were described as less educated and less likely to be employed than searching parents. In this survey, three-fourths of abducted children were younger than seven years of age; most abductions involved a single child. Although the abducting parents tended to be male (55 percent, n = 205), the proportion of female abductors was higher than in previous research. Mothers whose children were kidnapped by the father described more violence in their marriages, more fault-related reasons for divorce, and more force used in the abduction than did fathers whose children were kidnapped by the mother. The different family and social experiences of these men and women are discussed, and implications for social work practice are explored.

  12. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: bacchim@ibb.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2014-08-15

    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  13. Simple cellular automata to mimic foraging ants submitted to abduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tejera, F

    2015-01-01

    Many species of ants forage by building up two files: an outbound one moving from the nest to the foraging area, and a nestbound one, returning from it to the nest. Those files are eventually submitted to different threats. If the danger is concentrated at one point of the file, one might expect that ants returning to the nest will pass danger information to their nestmates moving in the opposite direction towards the danger area. In this paper, we construct simple cellular automata models for foraging ants submitted to localized abduction, were danger information is transmitted using different protocols, including the possibility of no transmission. The parameters we have used in the simulations have been estimated from actual experiments under natural conditions. So, it would be easy to test our information-transmission hypothese in real experiments. Preliminary experimental results published elsewhere suggest that the behavior of foraging ants of the species Atta insularis is best described using the hypot...

  14. Nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s through the mid-1970s and occupational radiation doses to technologists from diagnostic radioisotope procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Brill, Aaron B; Mettler, Fred A; Beckner, William M; Goldsmith, Stanley J; Gross, Milton D; Hays, Marguerite T; Kirchner, Peter T; Langan, James K; Reba, Richard C; Smith, Gary T; Bouville, André; Linet, Martha S; Melo, Dunstana R; Lee, Choonsik; Simon, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Data on occupational radiation exposure from nuclear medicine procedures for the time period of the 1950s through the 1970s is important for retrospective health risk studies of medical personnel who conducted those activities. However, limited information is available on occupational exposure received by physicians and technologists who performed nuclear medicine procedures during those years. To better understand and characterize historical radiation exposures to technologists, the authors collected information on nuclear medicine practices in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. To collect historical data needed to reconstruct doses to technologists, a focus group interview was held with experts who began using radioisotopes in medicine in the 1950s and the 1960s. Typical protocols and descriptions of clinical practices of diagnostic radioisotope procedures were defined by the focus group and were used to estimate occupational doses received by personnel, per nuclear medicine procedure, conducted in the 1950s to 1960s using radiopharmaceuticals available at that time. The radionuclide activities in the organs of the reference patient were calculated using the biokinetic models described in ICRP Publication 53. Air kerma rates as a function of distance from a reference patient were calculated by Monte Carlo radiation transport calculations using a hybrid computational phantom. Estimates of occupational doses to nuclear medicine technologists per procedure were found to vary from less than 0.01 μSv (thyroid scan with 1.85 MBq of administered I-iodide) to 0.4 μSv (brain scan with 26 MBq of Hg-chlormerodin). Occupational doses for the same diagnostic procedures starting in the mid-1960s but using Tc were also estimated. The doses estimated in this study show that the introduction of Tc resulted in an increase in occupational doses per procedure.

  15. Prenatal Diagnosis Procedures and Techniques to Obtain a Diagnostic Fetal Specimen or Tissue: Maternal and Fetal Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R Douglas; Gagnon, Alain; Audibert, François; Campagnolo, Carla; Carroll, June; Brock, Jo-Ann; Chong, Karen; Johnson, Jo-Ann; MacDonald, William; Okun, Nanette; Pastuck, Melanie; Vallee-Pouliot, Karine

    2015-07-01

    Objectif : Offrir aux fournisseurs de soins de maternité et à leurs patientes des lignes directrices factuelles contemporaines en ce qui concerne les services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels propres à la tenue des interventions diagnostiques prénatales orientées par échographie (et/ou des techniques permettant l’établissement d’un diagnostic génétique) nécessaires dans les cas où il a été établi pendant la période prénatale que la grossesse serait exposée à des risques, ainsi qu’en ce qui concerne la prise de décisions subséquentes quant à la prise en charge de la grossesse (questions abordant des aspects tels que le niveau du fournisseur de soins obstétricaux, la surveillance prénatale, le lieu où devraient se dérouler les soins et l’accouchement, et la décision de poursuivre ou d’interrompre la grossesse). La présente directive clinique se limite aux services de counseling traitant des risques et des avantages maternels, et aux décisions en matière de prise en charge de la grossesse pour les femmes qui nécessitent (ou qui envisagent) la mise en œuvre d’une intervention ou d’une technique effractive orientée par échographie aux fins de l’établissement d’un diagnostic prénatal. Population de patientes : Femmes enceintes identifiées, à la suite de la mise en œuvre de protocoles établis de dépistage prénatal (taux sériques maternels ± imagerie, résultats d’analyse de l’ADN acellulaire indiquant des risques élevés, résultats anormaux au moment de l’imagerie fœtale diagnostique ou antécédents familiaux de troubles héréditaires), comme étant exposées à un risque accru d’anomalie génétique fœtale. Ces femmes pourraient nécessiter ou demander des services de counseling au sujet des risques et des avantages pour la grossesse de la tenue d’une intervention effractive orientée par échographie visant à déterminer l’étiologie, le diagnostic, et/ou la

  16. [First guidelines of Croatian interest group in diagnosing and treating lower back and radicular pain using minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houra, Karlo; Perović, Darko; Kvesić, Drazen; Rados, Ivan; Kovac, Damir; Kapural, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Low back and radicular pain recently became a major public health problem. Medical expenses in general, and surgical procedures associated with overall care for the lower back pain are high and growing. Furthermore, these two chronic pain conditions are also leading causes for missed workdays. Degenerative changes of the intervertebral disc, facet joints, sacroiliac joint or disc herniation as described during imaging diagnostics may or may not be the cause of patients' lower back pain. Diagnostic blocks often precede further interventions in order to confirm or dispute a source of the lower back pain. Chronic lower back pain caused by painful intervertebral disc should be treated using biacuplasty. If the pain of the lumbar spine is caused by facet joints or sacroiliac joint, patient can be offered neuroablative procedures using radiofrequency. In cases where the low back and radicular pain are caused by the central and foraminal spinal stenosis patients are advised epidural steroid injections, unless claudications are present. Patients suffering from the chronic radicular pain may be treated with various nucleoplasty procedures or they may be offered percutaneous radiofrequent neuromodulation. The purpose of above advised procedures is to relieve patients' pain, allow optimal physical therapy, and improved functional capacity, consequently providing better quality of life.

  17. Impact of the phlebotomy training based on CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - procedures for the collection of diagnostic blood specimens by venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The activities involving phlebotomy, a critical task for obtaining diagnostic blood samples, are poorly studied as regards the major sources of errors and the procedures related to laboratory quality control. The aim of this study was to verify the compliance with CLSI documents of clinical laboratories from South America and to assess whether teaching phlebotomists to follow the exact procedure for blood collection by venipuncture from CLSI/NCCLS H03-A6 - Procedures for the Collection of Diagnostic Blood Specimens by Venipuncture might improve the quality of the process. Materials and methods: A survey was sent by mail to 3674 laboratories from South America to verify the use of CLSI documents. Thirty skilled phlebotomists were trained with the CLSI H03-A6 document to perform venipuncture procedures for a period of 20 consecutive working days. The overall performances of the phlebotomists were further compared before and after the training program. Results: 2622 from 2781 laboratories that did answer our survey used CLSI documents to standardize their procedures and process. The phlebotomists’ training for 20 days before our evaluation completely eliminated non-conformity procedures for: i) incorrect friction of the forearm, during the cleaning of the venipuncture site to ease vein location; ii) incorrect sequence of vacuum tubes collection; and iii) inadequate mixing of the blood in primary vacuum tubes containing anticoagulants or clot activators. Unfortunately the CLSI H03-A6 document does not caution against both unsuitable tourniquet application time (i.e., for more than one minute) and inappropriate request to clench the fist repeatedly. These inadequate procedures were observed for all phlebotomists. Conclusion: We showed that strict observance of the CLSI H03-A6 document can remarkably improve quality, although the various steps for collecting diagnostic blood specimens are not a gold standard, since they may still permit errors. Tourniquet

  18. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample--one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD)…

  19. Semi-automatic Synthesis of Security Policies by Invariant-Guided Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlin, Clément; Kirchner, Hélène

    We present a specification approach of secured systems as transition systems and security policies as constraints that guard the transitions. In this context, security properties are expressed as invariants. Then we propose an abduction algorithm to generate possible security policies for a given transition-based system. Because abduction is guided by invariants, the generated security policies enforce security properties specified by these invariants. In this framework we are able to tune abduction in two ways in order to: (i) filter out bad security policies and (ii) generate additional possible security policies. Invariant-guided abduction helps designing policies and thus allows using formal methods much earlier in the process of building secured systems. This approach is illustrated on role-based access control systems.

  20. Methodological levels of abductive logic and its application in analyzing knowledge classification systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khandan

    2015-05-01

    Originality/Value: Introduces methodological levels of abductive logic and provides LIS professionals with a new and alternative way for analyzing knowledge classification systems as interpretative and semantic social constructions.

  1. Sleep paralysis, sexual abuse, and space alien abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-03-01

    Sleep paralysis accompanied by hypnopompic ('upon awakening') hallucinations is an often-frightening manifestation of discordance between the cognitive/perceptual and motor aspects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Awakening sleepers become aware of an inability to move, and sometimes experience intrusion of dream mentation into waking consciousness (e.g. seeing intruders in the bedroom). In this article, we summarize two studies. In the first study, we assessed 10 individuals who reported abduction by space aliens and whose claims were linked to apparent episodes of sleep paralysis during which hypnopompic hallucinations were interpreted as alien beings. In the second study, adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse more often reported sleep paralysis than did a control group. Among the 31 reporting sleep paralysis, only one person linked it to abuse memories. This person was among the six recovered memory participants who reported sleep paralysis (i.e. 17% rate of interpreting it as abuse-related). People rely on personally plausible cultural narratives to interpret these otherwise baffling sleep paralysis episodes.

  2. Agape: Peirce's Abduction Concerning the Growth of Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Janice Marie

    Is the metaphysical articulation of the unity between science and sentiment either possible or desirable? Assuming an affirmative answer to both of these questions, this dissertation contends that the notion of agape may provide such a unity. Though agape has historical roots in the Christian notion of divine love, Charles S. Peirce considered this "law of Love" to be the fundamental principle giving coherence to the otherwise random, spontaneous evolution of the physical and psychical universe. The ability of agape to accomplish this unification is based upon the connection which Peirce drew between it and the logic of abduction, or hypothesis formation. By explicating the way in which agape acts as Peirce's primary evolutionary hypothesis, agape will be shown to act as a bridge between continuous evolutionary processes and discrete evolutionary events. As a similar debate is currently being explored regarding the evolution of quantum mechanical systems, this dissertation has the corollary purpose of indicating precisely how Peirce's notion of agape speaks to questions posed by contemporary quantum theorists.

  3. Air-borne dermatitis from [i]Chrysanthemum[/i] – case report with a discussion of diagnostic procedures and therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obtulowicz Aleksander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne dermatitis belongs to a heterogeneous group of dermatoses of various etiopathology and clinical characteristics. This disease is characterized by acute or chronic inflammation of the uncovered skin exposed to irritants or allergens. Initially skin lesions are transient. The paper presents a description of chrysanthemum growers diagnosed with air-borne dermatitis from chrysanthemum. Etiology, pathomechanism, clinical course, diagnostics and therapeutical methods are described.

  4. Assessment Procedures for Narcissistic Personality Disorder: A Comparison of the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4 and Best-Estimate Clinical Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of correspondence between two assessments for narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in a mixed clinical and community sample—one using a self-report measure (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4) and the other using clinical judgments derived from an assessment based on the longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) methodology. NPD scores demonstrated moderate convergence for the total scores but weak convergence for the individual criteria. The authors also exa...

  5. Microradiography of Microcalcifications in Breast Specimen: A New Histological Correlation Procedure and the Effect of Improved Resolution on Diagnostic Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Langen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Does high-resolution visualization of microcalcifications improve diagnostic reliability? Method. X-rays were taken of mamma specimens with microcalcifications in 32 patients (10 malignant; 22 benign using conventional radiography (12 Lp/mm and high-resolution radiography (2000 Lp/mm. Histological sections were subsequently prepared and correlated to the microradiographic image and every calcification was assigned an exact malignant or benign histological diagnosis. Five radiologists classified single groups of calcifications in both methods according to the BIRADS classification system. Results. Using microradiography microcalcifications can be shown in high resolution at the cell level including histological correlation. In some cases, the diagnostic validity was improved by the high resolution in microradiography. In other cases, the high resolution resulted in more visible calcifications, thus giving benign calcifications a malignant appearance. In the BIRADS 2 and 3 group, the probability of malignancy was 28.6% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 37.8% in the microradiography evaluation. In the BIRADS 4 and 5 group, the probability of malignancy was 34.2% in the conventional radiography evaluation and 24.4% in the microradiography evaluation. The differences were not significant. Summary. Overall, the improved resolution in microradiography did not show an improvement in diagnostic accuracy compared to conventional radiography.

  6. Diagnostic efficiency and complication rate of CT-guided lung biopsy: a single center experience of the procedures conducted over a 10-year period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Dong-mei; SONG Yong; L(U) Yan-ling; YAO Yan-wen; LIU Hong-bing; WANG Qian; XIAO Xin-wu; CAO E-hong; SHI Yi; ZHOU Xiao-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung biopsy is a well-established technique for the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions.The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficiency and complication rate of CT-guided lung biopsy in a Chinese population.Methods CT-guided cutting needle lung biopsies were performed in our institution on 1014 patients between January 2000 and October 2010.A chest radiograph was taken after the biopsy.Data about basic patient information,final diagnosis,and complications secondary to biopsy procedure (pneumothorax and bleeding) were extracted.Results The diagnostic efficiency of CT-guided lung biopsy was 94.8%; only 53 patients did not get a final diagnosis from lung biopsy.Final diagnoses found 639 malignant lesions (63.0%) and 322 benign lesions (31.8%).Pneumothoraxoccurred in 131 patients and 15 required insertion of an intercostal drain.Small hemoptysis occurred in 41 patients and mild parenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 16 patients.The overall complication rate was 18.5%.Conclusions CT-guided cutting needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions is a relatively safe technique with a high diagnostic accuracy.It can be safely performed in clinical trials.

  7. Persistent groin pain following a trans-obturator sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Hazewinkel; P. Hinoul; J.P. Roovers

    2009-01-01

    Groin pain after a tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (TVT-O) procedure can occur but mostly disappears within 4 weeks. Persistent groin pain is extremely rare and there is a paucity of literature on how to diagnose and manage this adverse event. We present two cases with severe persistent groin pa

  8. Improved Efficiency and Reliability of NGS Amplicon Sequencing Data Analysis for Genetic Diagnostic Procedures Using AGSA Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, Axel; Privat, Maud; Ponelle, Flora; Viala, Sandrine; Decousus, Stephanie; Perin, Axel; Lafarge, Laurence; Ollier, Marie; El Saghir, Nagi S; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Bidet, Yannick

    Screening for BRCA mutations in women with familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer is an ideal situation for high-throughput sequencing, providing large amounts of low cost data. However, 454, Roche, and Ion Torrent, Thermo Fisher, technologies produce homopolymer-associated indel errors, complicating their use in routine diagnostics. We developed software, named AGSA, which helps to detect false positive mutations in homopolymeric sequences. Seventy-two familial breast cancer cases were analysed in parallel by amplicon 454 pyrosequencing and Sanger dideoxy sequencing for genetic variations of the BRCA genes. All 565 variants detected by dideoxy sequencing were also detected by pyrosequencing. Furthermore, pyrosequencing detected 42 variants that were missed with Sanger technique. Six amplicons contained homopolymer tracts in the coding sequence that were systematically misread by the software supplied by Roche. Read data plotted as histograms by AGSA software aided the analysis considerably and allowed validation of the majority of homopolymers. As an optimisation, additional 250 patients were analysed using microfluidic amplification of regions of interest (Access Array Fluidigm) of the BRCA genes, followed by 454 sequencing and AGSA analysis. AGSA complements a complete line of high-throughput diagnostic sequence analysis, reducing time and costs while increasing reliability, notably for homopolymer tracts.

  9. Improved Efficiency and Reliability of NGS Amplicon Sequencing Data Analysis for Genetic Diagnostic Procedures Using AGSA Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Poulet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for BRCA mutations in women with familial risk of breast or ovarian cancer is an ideal situation for high-throughput sequencing, providing large amounts of low cost data. However, 454, Roche, and Ion Torrent, Thermo Fisher, technologies produce homopolymer-associated indel errors, complicating their use in routine diagnostics. We developed software, named AGSA, which helps to detect false positive mutations in homopolymeric sequences. Seventy-two familial breast cancer cases were analysed in parallel by amplicon 454 pyrosequencing and Sanger dideoxy sequencing for genetic variations of the BRCA genes. All 565 variants detected by dideoxy sequencing were also detected by pyrosequencing. Furthermore, pyrosequencing detected 42 variants that were missed with Sanger technique. Six amplicons contained homopolymer tracts in the coding sequence that were systematically misread by the software supplied by Roche. Read data plotted as histograms by AGSA software aided the analysis considerably and allowed validation of the majority of homopolymers. As an optimisation, additional 250 patients were analysed using microfluidic amplification of regions of interest (Access Array Fluidigm of the BRCA genes, followed by 454 sequencing and AGSA analysis. AGSA complements a complete line of high-throughput diagnostic sequence analysis, reducing time and costs while increasing reliability, notably for homopolymer tracts.

  10. Bayesian Analysis on Abduction%从贝叶斯方法看溯因推理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁继红; 陈晓平

    2014-01-01

    皮尔斯指出溯因或溯因推理(abduction)是不同于归纳和演绎的第三种推理,然而皮尔斯对溯因概念的定义是模糊的,于是便出现溯因悖论:溯因既属于归纳又不属于归纳。本文基于贝叶斯方法对归纳的理解和处理,考察了当代两种典型的消解溯因悖论的路径,即辛提卡区分定义性规则和策略性规则的措施,以及利普顿的IBE 理论。指出这两种路径均是行不通的,而贝叶斯方法却可以容纳溯因性归纳和溯因,从而消解溯因悖论。%Charles S.Peirce argued that abduction is a third kind of reasoning,different from both deduction and induction.However,Peirce’s concept of abduction is ambiguous,which results in the paradox about abduction:on the one hand,abduction is distinct from induction;one the other hand, abduction belongs to induction.Based on the Bayesian analysis on induction,two typical approaches, Hintikka’s distinction between definitory rules and strategic rules and Lipton’s inference to the best explanation (IBE),are discussed respectively in this paper.As a result,the analysis shows that the paradox about abduction can not be eliminated by the two typical approaches but can be eliminated in Bayesian framework which can contain abductory induction and abduction.

  11. 儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序应用研究%Evaluation of the diagnostic procedure for chronic cough in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓波; 农光民

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore and evaluate the diagnostic procedure for chronic cough in children.Methods One hundred and eleven patients from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University with chronic cough between December 2008 and January 2010 were included in the study. Etiologic diagnostic procedure suggested for children by Pediatric Branch of Chinese Medical Association was implemented to manage the patients,and the etiological data were analyzed. Results The causes of chronic cough were identified in 109 cases (98% of the total cases). A single cause of cough was diagnosed in 60 patients (54%), multiple potential causes of cough were recognized in 49 patients (44%), including two coexisting causes in 47 patients (42%) and three in 2 patients (2%).The causes of chronic cough in children were: 45 (40%) with cough variant asthma, 34 (30%) with upper airway cough syndrome, 19 (17%) with postinfection cough, 5 (5%) with allergic cough, 4 (4%) with Tourette's syndrome, 1 (1%) with psychogenic cough and others 3 (3%). Conclusions Etiologic diagnosis of chronic cough in children could be made by integrating the current diagnostic procedures with individual and dynamic evaluation and individual treatment. Improvement of clinical symptom was a main observation point; diagnosis should be revised timely if new diagnostic clues appear. It is important to pay attention to the possibility of coexistence of multiple causes. The diagnostic procedures coult identify and suggest most causes of chronic cough in children.%目的 探讨儿童慢性咳嗽病因诊断程序的应用和评价.方法 选择2008年12月至2010年1月广西医科大学第一附属医院儿科就诊的慢性咳嗽患儿111例,参考中华医学会儿科学分会,儿童慢性咳嗽指南中的病因诊断程序,对病例进行评估并获得其病因.结果 明确及基本明确诊断109例(98%),原因不明2例(2%).单病因60例(54%),2个病因47例(42%),3个病因2例(2

  12. Higher-level fusion for military operations based on abductive inference: proof of principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleev, Aleksandar V.; Josephson, John

    2006-04-01

    The ability of contemporary military commanders to estimate and understand complicated situations already suffers from information overload, and the situation can only grow worse. We describe a prototype application that uses abductive inferencing to fuse information from multiple sensors to evaluate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses that are close to the levels of abstraction needed for decision making (approximately JDL levels 2 and 3). Abductive inference (abduction, inference to the best explanation) is a pattern of reasoning that occurs naturally in diverse settings such as medical diagnosis, criminal investigations, scientific theory formation, and military intelligence analysis. Because abduction is part of common-sense reasoning, implementations of it can produce reasoning traces that are very human understandable. Automated abductive inferencing can be deployed to augment human reasoning, taking advantage of computation to process large amounts of information, and to bypass limits to human attention and short-term memory. We illustrate the workings of the prototype system by describing an example of its use for small-unit military operations in an urban setting. Knowledge was encoded as it might be captured prior to engagement from a standard military decision making process (MDMP) and analysis of commander's priority intelligence requirements (PIR). The system is able to reasonably estimate the evidence for higher-level hypotheses based on information from multiple sensors. Its inference processes can be examined closely to verify correctness. Decision makers can override conclusions at any level and changes will propagate appropriately.

  13. Role of Scaphoid in the Abduction and Adduction Movements of Wrist Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik I Shaikh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being a carpal bone scaphoid has an important role in wrist movements. Wrist joint is a synovial modified ellipsoid joint where movements like flexion, extension and adduction, abduction take place around two axes (transverse and antero-posterior. These movements at the wrist joint are associated with considerable range of movements at the mid carpal joint, as same group of muscles act on both of these joints. Methodology: A study has been done amongst 120 persons at the tertiary care hospital during the period from 2006-07 to detect the important movements of scaphoid bone specially during the abduction and adduction of wrist joint (which occur in association with the intercarpal joints and also to detect whether such movements have any speciality in the population. Results: In fully abducted position, it was 45o among 53.3% subjects and the average among all the subjects was 60o. So, the degree of abduction was 30o. The extent of movement was more in adduction (ie, 1.90 cm - 1.03 cm = 0.87 cm than in abduction (ie, 1.03 cm - 0.72 cm = 0.31cm. Conclusion: It was found in this study that the scaphoid acts as a link bone between the two rows of carpal bones and prevents the buckling of midcarpal joint especially of the capitato- lunate joint interface. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 253-256

  14. A three-dimensional model of vocal fold abduction/adduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.; Alipour, Fariborz

    2004-04-01

    A three-dimensional biomechanical model of tissue deformation was developed to simulate dynamic vocal fold abduction and adduction. The model was made of 1721 nearly incompressible finite elements. The cricoarytenoid joint was modeled as a rocking-sliding motion, similar to two concentric cylinders. The vocal ligament and the thyroarytenoid muscle's fiber characteristics were implemented as a fiber-gel composite made of an isotropic ground substance imbedded with fibers. These fibers had contractile and/or passive nonlinear stress-strain characteristics. The verification of the model was made by comparing the range and speed of motion to published vocal fold kinematic data. The model simulated abduction to a maximum glottal angle of about 31°. Using the posterior-cricoarytenoid muscle, the model produced an angular abduction speed of 405° per second. The system mechanics seemed to favor abduction over adduction in both peak speed and response time, even when all intrinsic muscle properties were kept identical. The model also verified the notion that the vocalis and muscularis portions of the thyroarytenoid muscle play significantly different roles in posturing, with the muscularis portion having the larger effect on arytenoid movement. Other insights into the mechanisms of abduction/adduction were given.

  15. SU-F-207-14: Low Contrast Detectability (LCD) at Different Diagnostic Reference Levels for Adult Abdominal CT Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y [Mem Sloan-Kettering Cancer Ctr, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose Using diagnostic reference levels (DRL) to optimize CT protocols has potential to reduce radiation dose and meet regulatory requirements. However, DRL’s tend to be misconstrued as dose limits, are typically designed for specific patient populations, and are assumed to have acceptable image quality (AIQ) associated with them. To determine the image quality that is associated with established DRL’s for adult abdominal CT studies, a LCD phantom study was employed. Methods: A CT phantom (CIRS) containing three columns of 7 spherical targets, ranging from 10mm to 2.4 mm, that are 5, 10, and 20 HU below the background (HUBB) matrix was scanned with a GE HD750 64 slice scanner. The phantom was scanned at the NEXT 2006 25th CTDIvol of 12 mGy, the NCRP 172 achievable dose (AD) CTDIvol of 17 mGy and 75th CTDIvol of 25 mGy and at the ACR recommended CTDIvol of 25 mGy. It was also scanned at a CTDIvol 20% greater than the AD at 20 mGy and the ACR maximum threshold of 30 mGy. Results: At the NEXT 2006 25th percentile CTDIvol of 12 mGy, a 6.3 mm low contrast lesion was detectable in the 20 HUBB; 6.3 mm in the 10 HUBB and 10 mm in the 5 HUBB column. Increasing the CTDIvol to the NCRP 172 AD of 17 mGy, an additional 4.8 mm lesion was visualized in the 20 HUBB column. At 20 mGy, an additional 4.8 mm lesion was detectable in the 10 HUBB column. No further lesions were visible between 20 and 30 mGy. However, conspicuity of all lesions increased with each additional step up in CTDI. Conclusion: Optimizing radiation dose to achieve AIQ is a critical aspect of any dose optimization committee. Hence, judicious monitoring of radiation exposure to patients has to be balanced with diagnostic image quality.

  16. Inferences of clinical diagnostic reasoning and diagnostic error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E; Daniel, Erno S

    2011-06-01

    This paper discusses clinical diagnostic reasoning in terms of a pattern of If/then/Therefore reasoning driven by data gathering and the inference of abduction, as defined in the present paper, and the inferences of retroduction, deduction, and induction as defined by philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce. The complex inferential reasoning driving clinical diagnosis often takes place subconsciously and so rapidly that its nature remains largely hidden from the diagnostician. Nevertheless, we propose that raising such reasoning to the conscious level reveals not its basic pattern and basic inferences, it also reveals where errors can and do occur and how such errors might be reduced or even eliminated.

  17. An economic and rapid diagnostic procedure for the detection of salmonella/shigella using the polyvalent salmonella phage O-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, H; Bürgi, E; Margadant, A; Boller, E

    1978-01-01

    An easy, rapid and economic two-step procedure is described for the detection of Salmonella/Shigella. In the first step the susceptibility of suspected colonies for the phage O-1 of FELIX and CALLOW is tested. Positive cultures are serologically confirmed. The test is performed on Triple Sugar Iron Agar and lasts 4-6 hrs. Phage negative cultures which are lactose- and sucrose negative are tested for lysine decarboxylase and, if Shigella is possible (i.e. in human material on primary plates), for indol production and motility in a semisolid tryptophane agar. Of 22880 Salmonella straine 21977, i.e. 96.1% were phage-sensitive. Strains belonging to certain O-groups (OE) or species are lysed at a lower percentage. However, since they are lysine decarboxylase positive they are not lost and can be submitted to a serological examination.

  18. Charles Sanders Peirce and the Abduction of Einstein: On the Comprehensibility of the World

    CERN Document Server

    de Waal, Cornelis

    2016-01-01

    Einstein was deeply puzzled by the success of natural science, and thought that we would never be able to explain it. He came to this conclusion on the ground that we cannot extract the basic laws of physics from experience using induction or deduction, and he took this to mean that they cannot be arrived at in a logical manner at all. In this paper I use Charles Peirce's logic of abduction, a third mode of reasoning different from deduction and induction, and show that it can be used to explain how laws in physics are arrived at, thereby addressing Einstein's puzzle about the incomprehensible comprehensibility of the universe. Interpreting Einstein's reflections in terms of Peirce's abduction also sheds light on abduction itself, by seeing it applied in an area where our common sense, and with that our intuitions, give us little or no guidance, and is even prone to lead us astray.

  19. Transfracture abduction osteotomy: A solution for nonunion of femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairamchander Pingle

    2014-01-01

    femur with or without bone graft, valgus osteotomy or hip arthroplasty. We conducted a retrospective analysis of cases of nonunion of femoral neck fracture treated by transfracture abduction osteotomy (TFAO. Materials and Methods: Over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, 30 patients with nonunion of femoral neck fractures were treated with TFAO over a period of 35 years (1974-2008, All patients were less than 50 years of age. Absence of clinical and radiological signs of union after four months was considered as nonunion. Patients more than 50 years of age were excluded from the study. Union was assessed at 6 months radiologically. Limb length was measured at six months. The mean duration of femoral neck fracture was 19 months (range 4 months 10 years. Results were analyzed in terms of radiological union at six months. Average followup was five years and six months. Results: Consistent union was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. One case was lost to followup after five and one-half months postoperatively. However, the fracture had united in this case at the last followup. Average shortening of the limb at six months was 1.9 cm. Average neck shaft angle was 127° (range 120-145°. Five cases went into AVN but were asymptomatic. Two cases required reoperation due to back out of Moore′s pins. These were reopened and cancellous screws were inserted in the same tracks. Conclusions: Consistent union of nonunion femoral neck fracture was noted at the followup after six months in 29 cases. The major drawback of the procedure is immobilization of the patient in the hip spica for eight weeks.

  20. Quality control procedures of dental diagnostic radiology systems; Elaboracao de um procedimento para controle de qualidade em sistemas de radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Paula Serra Sasaki

    2007-07-01

    This work presents quality control reference procedures for dental diagnostic radiology systems, following the recommendations of the Publication 453 of the Brazilian Health Ministry (PF453), to be applied in dental clinics, in order to achieve an improvement in the radiological image qualities and the patient dose reduction. All tests were applied in an intraoral X rays system, following the methodology developed and the requirements of the PF 453. In order to verify the best quality of the image in relation to the smaller exposition time an object test was also developed in this work. The use of this object allowed the reduction of the exposition time of 0.5 seconds, the maximum value of the linear region of the characteristic curve, for 0.2 seconds. The tested X rays system showed a very good agreement with the applied procedures, detaching the reduction of the skin entrance dose using the film-holding devices. However, the size of the field increased and exceeded the maximum value of 6 cm recommended in the standard. The importance of the quality control in dental diagnostic radiology systems is essential due to the constant use of X radiation in dental clinics. The PF453 recommends the frequency of at least two years for the constancy tests. However, it is suggested that the professional, surgeon-dentist, should be responsible for the internal control of the image quality obtained from the X rays device. This can be done through monthly exposures of the object test developed in this work. (author)

  1. The contribution of the palmaris longus muscle to the strength of thumb abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ndou, Robert; Louw, Graham

    2010-05-01

    The palmaris longus muscle (PLM) is described as a weak flexor of the wrist and a tensor of the palmar aponeurosis, but not a thumb abductor. The PLM is believed to aid thumb abduction through its insertion onto the thenar eminence. Two groups, both right hand dominant, were selected from 1,200 sampled participants. The first group comprised of 38 subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM and was used to determine the strength of thumb abduction. The second group comprised of 30 subjects, with bilateral presence of the PLM, and it was used to calculate the effects of hand dominance. A significant number of subjects with bilateral absence of the PLM were observed and undocumented. Using a dynamometer in subjects with unilateral presence of the PLM, the force of thumb abduction was significantly greater on the hand with a PLM than the one without it (P = 0.014), irrespective of hand dominance. In the second sample with bilateral PLM, thumb abduction on the dominant hand was 10% stronger than on the nondominant hand and was similar to the universally accepted average of 10% increase in grip strength of the dominant hand. Thus, 10% was deducted from all the dominant hands, and the force of thumb abduction remained greater on the hand with PLM than the hand without it (P = 0.049). The results of this study demonstrated the PLM to be involved in thumb abduction, and the authors therefore recommend that this action of the muscle be universally accepted by anatomists and hand surgeons.

  2. Patient Dose During Carotid Artery Stenting With Embolic-Protection Devices: Evaluation With Radiochromic Films and Related Diagnostic Reference Levels According to Factors Influencing the Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ercole, Loredana, E-mail: l.dercole@smatteo.pv.it [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Quaretti, Pietro; Cionfoli, Nicola [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Klersy, Catherine [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology Service, Research Department, (Italy); Bocchiola, Milena [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Rodolico, Giuseppe; Azzaretti, Andrea [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy); Lisciandro, Francesco [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Medical Physics (Italy); Cascella, Tommaso; Zappoli Thyrion, Federico [Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Department of Radiology (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    To measure the maximum entrance skin dose (MESD) on patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS) using embolic-protection devices, to analyze the dependence of dose and exposure parameters on anatomical, clinical, and technical factors affecting the procedure complexity, to obtain some local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), and to evaluate whether overcoming DRLs is related to procedure complexity. MESD were evaluated with radiochromic films in 31 patients (mean age 72 {+-} 7 years). Five of 33 (15 %) procedures used proximal EPD, and 28 of 33 (85 %) procedures used distal EPD. Local DRLs were derived from the recorded exposure parameters in 93 patients (65 men and 28 women, mean age 73 {+-} 9 years) undergoing 96 CAS with proximal (33 %) or distal (67 %) EPD. Four bilateral lesions were included. MESD values (mean 0.96 {+-} 0.42 Gy) were <2 Gy without relevant dependence on procedure complexity. Local DRL values for kerma area product (KAP), fluoroscopy time (FT), and number of frames (N{sub FR}) were 269 Gy cm{sup 2}, 28 minutes, and 251, respectively. Only simultaneous bilateral treatment was associated with KAP (odds ratio [OR] 10.14, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1-102.7, p < 0.05) and N{sub FR} overexposures (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p < 0.05). Type I aortic arch decreased the risk of FT overexposure (OR 0.4, 95 % CI 0.1-0.9, p = 0.042), and stenosis {>=} 90 % increased the risk of N{sub FR} overexposure (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040). At multivariable analysis, stenosis {>=} 90 % (OR 2.8, 95 % CI 1.1-7.4, p = 0.040) and bilateral treatment (OR 10.8, 95 % CI 1.1-109.5, p = 0.027) were associated with overexposure for two or more parameters. Skin doses are not problematic in CAS with EPD because these procedures rarely lead to doses >2 Gy.

  3. Searching for the Unknowable: A Process of Detection — Abductive Research Generated by Projective Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri Levin-Rozalis

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the process of doing research ‘from scratch.’ The author began a project investigating children of Ethiopian origin living in Israel to see how ones who attended a kindergartern program years earlier differed from those who had not attended. However, the problem from the outset was that there may not be a difference to find. In this article, the author compares inductive, deductive, and abductive reasoning, and argues that abductive reasoning is the proper technique when nothing is known about the research at the outset.

  4. Genetic and Non-Genetic Cystic Kidney: An Overview, Morphological Classification and Diagnostic Value of Imaging Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mearadji

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital renal cystic disease comprises a mixed group of developmental anomalies with different etiology, histology and clinical presentation. Progress in molecular genetics as well as use of prenatal and postnatal ultrasound contributed in early diagnosis and differentiation of congenital cystic diseases of the kidney. "nIn a retrospective study clinical and imaging findings of 131 infants and children with cystic diseases of kidney were collected with reviewing of clinical and imaging findings."nThis patient material is categorized in two groups: inherited renal cystic diseases and non-inherited cystic kidney diseases."nThe group of inherited renal diseases includes 28 patients with an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD. Eleven infants and children suffered from an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD. The remaining 6 of the 45 inherited cystic kidney diseases were 4 children with nephronophtisis and 2 with syndromal related cysts in kidney."nWithin the large group of patients with a non-inherited cystic kidney disease 79 infants and chil-dren were with one-sided non-functioning multicystic dysplastic kidney disease (MCKD. An ectopic ureter was found in 11 patients in this group and in 2 cases the ureter of the affected kidney was atretic. Lung hypoplasia was found in 2 cases with double-sided multicystic dysplastic kid-ney."nCystic nephroma (2 cases, renal cysts in malforma-tion syndromes (2 cases and the medullary sponge kidney (one case are the diagnosis of the remaining patients with a non-inherited renal cystic disease. "nSpecial attention should be payed to hepatic in-volvement in cases with ADPKD (hepatic cysts and ARPKD (liver fibrosis."nWithin the scope of this meeting the importance of early diagnostic and the incredible value of ultra-sound in prenatal and postnatal life will be empha-sized. The mode of inheritance in different genetic renal cystic diseases, complications and other addi

  5. Bovine tuberculosis: prevalence and diagnostic efficacy of routine meat inspection procedure in Woldiya municipality abattoir north Wollo zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylate, Alemu; Shah, Shahid Nazir; Aleme, Haileluel; Gizaw, Tarkegn Tintagu

    2013-03-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a widespread and endemic disease of cattle in Ethiopia posing a significant threat to public health. Regular surveillance by skin test, bacteriology, and molecular methods is not feasible due to lack of resources. Thus, routine abattoir (RA) inspection will continue to play a key role for national surveillance. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Woldiya municipal abattoir from April 1, 2009 to April 5, 2010 to estimate the prevalence of BTB in slaughtered cattle on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection and to compare efficacy of RA inspection with respect to detailed abattoir inspection and isolation and identification of Mycobacterium. Diagnostic accuracies (with corresponding measures of statistical uncertainty) were determined by computing test property statistics (sensitivity and specificity). Agreement between RA and detailed abattoir inspections was measured using kappa statistics. Out of 1,029 slaughtered heads of cattle examined during the study period, 63 (6.12 %) and 15 (1.45 %) were diagnosed with gross tuberculous lesions by detailed abattoir meat inspections and RA meat inspections, respectively, making a prevalence of 6.12 % (95 % CI: 5.2-7.1) on the basis of detailed abattoir inspection. About 59.45 % of tuberculous lesions were observed in the lungs and associated lymph nodes, whereas 35.13 % lesions were from the lymph nodes of the head. From 63 cattle suspected with tuberculosis (TB) based on detailed abattoir meat inspection, nine (19.05 %) were identified as Mycobacterium bovis, while three (4.8 %) as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The sensitivity of RA meat inspection was 23.8 % in comparison to the detailed abattoir meat inspection and 25 % in comparison to culture, respectively. Poor agreement (k = 0.37) was seen between RA meat examination and detailed abattoir meat examination methods. Similarly, poor agreement (k = 0.013) was seen between RA meat examination and culture results. In

  6. [Diagnostic and therapeutic procedure for two popular but quite distinct adverse reactions to food - fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, I

    2012-04-01

    Claiming to suffer from adverse food reactions is popular. In contrast to the classical food allergy, there are some pathomechanisms which are evidently dose-dependent. Thus the procedure in diagnosis and therapy must undoubtedly differ from the practice when food allergy is suspected or proven. Nevertheless many patients suffering from dose-dependent adverse reactions to food are given strict elimination diets, which is neither necessary nor helpful and decreases their quality of life broadly. This holds especially true for fructose malabsorption and histamine intolerance. For the latter, the term adverse reaction to ingested histamine is preferred, because histamine intolerance implies that symptoms are caused entirely by an enzyme defect. Why this is not very likely to be the only reason is discussed in this article. Both adverse reactions require an individual approach especially with regard to nutrition therapy. Therefore the task of diagnosis should be to establish an individual profile of tolerated and not tolerated foods taking into account that tolerance can greatly vary by meal composition, frequency and individual triggering factors. In view of this, therapeutic recommendations should not be based on the absolute quantities of the eliciting substance to be eliminated but on a feasible transfer into daily life. Thereby food restriction can be minimized and a high quality of life will be maintained.

  7. One-step antibody immobilization-based rapid and highly-sensitive sandwich ELISA procedure for potential in vitro diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Marion Schneider, E; Lam, Edmond; Hrapovic, Sabahudin; Luong, John H T

    2014-03-18

    An improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) assay using one-step antibody immobilization has been developed for the detection of human fetuin A (HFA), a specific biomarker for atherosclerosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The anti-HFA formed a stable complex with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) by ionic and hydrophobic interactions. The complex adsorbed on microtiter plates exhibited a detection range of 4.9 pg mL(-1) to 20 ng mL(-1) HFA, with a limit of detection of 7 pg mL(-1). Furthermore, an analytical sensitivity of 10 pg mL(-1) was achieved, representing a 51-fold increase in sensitivity over the commercial sandwich ELISA kit. The results obtained for HFA spiked in diluted human whole blood and plasma showed the same precision as the commercial kit. When stored at 4°C in 0.1 M phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4), the anti-HFA bound microtiter plates displayed no significant decrease in their functional activity after two months. The new ELISA procedure was extended for the detection of C-reactive protein, human albumin and human lipocalin-2 with excellent analytical performance.

  8. Evaluation of a Commercially Available Program and in Situ Training by Parents to Teach Abduction-Prevention Skills to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kimberly V.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2009-01-01

    Child abduction is a serious problem; therefore, it is essential that researchers evaluate the efficacy of commercially available abduction-prevention programs. A multiple baseline design across participants (ages 6 to 8 years) was used to evaluate the effects of a training program, The Safe Side. Experimenters assessed safety responses in situ in…

  9. The Influence of Task Constraints on the Glenohumeral Horizontal Abduction Angle of the Overarm Throw of Novice Throwers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, Casey M.; Garner, John C.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Parish, Loraine E.; St. Onge, Paul M.; Campbell, Brian J.; Weimar, Wendi H.

    2009-01-01

    This study determines the effects of three baseballs and softballs of different masses (0.113 kg, 0.198 kg, 0.340 kg) and regulation diameters (22.86 and 30.48 cm, respectively) on the glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle of an overarm throw performed by young children who were novice throwers. Glenohumeral horizontal abduction angle was…

  10. Diagnostic Performance of Endoscopic and Microscopic Procedures for Identifying Different Middle Ear Structures and Remaining Disease in Patients with Chronic Otitis Media: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Farahani

    Full Text Available The diagnostic performance of endoscopic and microscopic procedures for detecting diseases of the middle ear in patients with chronic otitis media (COM has rarely been investigated. This study was conducted to compare the performance of these procedures for identifying middle ear structures and their associated diseases in COM patients.In this prospective cohort study, 58 patients with chronic COM, who were candidates for tympanoplasty with or without a mastoidectomy, were enrolled. Before the surgical intervention, the middle ear was examined via an operating microscope and then through an endoscope to identify the middle ear structures as well as diseases associated with the middle ear.The patients were 15 years of age or older. The anatomical parts of the middle ear - the epitympanic, posterior mesotympanic, and hypotympanic structures - were more visible through an endoscope than through a microscope. In addition, the various segments of the mesotympanum, oval window, round window, and Eustachian tube were more visible via endoscopy. The post-operative endoscopic reevaluation of the middle ear revealed that a cholesteatoma had remained in four of 13 patients after surgery.According to the results of this study, in cases in which there is poor visibility with the operating microscope or the surgeon suspects remaining disease within the middle ear, endoscopy could be utilized to improve the evaluation of more hidden middle ear pits and structures, particularly if there is a potentially recrudescent pathology.

  11. Stuty of Abductive Reasoning :State of the Art and Problems%溯因推理研究:现状与问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣; 姜云飞; 林笠

    2003-01-01

    The notion of abduction was first introduced by the philosopher and logician C. S. Pierce, who claims de-duction, abduction and induction are three different forms of human reasoning. Broadly speaking, abduction is a rea-soning process invoked to explain a puzzling observation. The study of logic-based abduction has been the most activeresearch in AI, and there are many results around the subject. This paper surveys the state-of-the-art research andpresents some problems for future work.

  12. Evaluation of movements of lower limbs in non-professional ballet dancers: hip abduction and flexion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenti Erica E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature indicated that the majority of professional ballet dancers present static and active dynamic range of motion difference between left and right lower limbs, however, no previous study focused this difference in non-professional ballet dancers. In this study we aimed to evaluate active movements of the hip in non-professional classical dancers. Methods We evaluated 10 non professional ballet dancers (16-23 years old. We measured the active range of motion and flexibility through Well Banks. We compared active range of motion between left and right sides (hip flexion and abduction and performed correlation between active movements and flexibility. Results There was a small difference between the right and left sides of the hip in relation to the movements of flexion and abduction, which suggest the dominant side of the subjects, however, there was no statistical significance. Bank of Wells test revealed statistical difference only between the 1st and the 3rd measurement. There was no correlation between the movements of the hip (abduction and flexion, right and left sides with the three test measurements of the bank of Wells. Conclusion There is no imbalance between the sides of the hip with respect to active abduction and flexion movements in non-professional ballet dancers.

  13. High- compared to low-arched athletes exhibit smaller knee abduction moments in walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas W; Andrews, Samantha; Stickley, Cris; Williams, D S Blaise

    2016-12-01

    High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes.

  14. Abduction? Deduction? Induction? Is There a Logic of Exploratory Data Analysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chong Ho

    The philosophical notions introduced by Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914) are helpful for researchers in understanding the nature of knowledge and reality. In the Peircean logical system, the logic of abduction and deduction contribute to our conceptual understanding of a phenomenon, while the logic of induction adds quantitative details to the…

  15. FOLKLORE MOTIF OF A WOMAN’S ABDUCTION BY A SERPENT IN THE LITERARY TRADITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyzlova A. S.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a motif of a woman’s abduction by a Serpent, widely spread in Russian fairy tales, which also appears in the apocryphal "Heroic Deeds of Theodore Tiron". The author tries to compare this Old Russian apocryphal work with folk fairy-tale texts.

  16. Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of these…

  17. Missing and Abducted Children: The School's Role in Prevention. Fastback 249.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishon, Phillip M.; Broderius, Bruce W.

    The purpose of this pamphlet is to aid teachers, counselors, administrators, paraprofessionals, and other support personnel in alleviating the problem of missing and abducted children. After an introductory overview of the national incidence of missing children, three specific categories of missing children are identified and discussed: runaways,…

  18. Efficacy of the Stranger Safety Abduction-Prevention Program and Parent-Conducted in Situ Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Fogel, Victoria A.; Beck, Kimberly V.; Koehler, Shannon; Shayne, Rachel; Noah, Jennifer; McFee, Krystal; Perdomo, Andrea; Chan, Paula; Simmons, Danica; Godish, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Using a control group design, we evaluated the effectiveness of the "Stranger Safety" DVD (The Safe Side, 2004) and parent training of abduction-prevention skills with 6- to 8-year-old children. Children in the training or control group who did not demonstrate the safety skills received in situ training from their parents. There was no…

  19. Programming for Preventing Sexual Abuse and Abduction: What Does It Mean When It Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraizer, Sherryll Kerns; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an effective program for teaching children about the dangers of sexual abuse and abduction. The program does not introduce negative stories, examples, and other warnings that tend to create anxieties in children. Reports a study evaluating the program's effectiveness. (SKC)

  20. Confidentiality-Preserving Data Publishing for Credulous Users by Extended Abduction

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Katsumi; Wiese, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Publishing private data on external servers incurs the problem of how to avoid unwanted disclosure of confidential data. We study a problem of confidentiality in extended disjunctive logic programs and show how it can be solved by extended abduction. In particular, we analyze how credulous non-monotonic reasoning affects confidentiality.

  1. Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength in elite soccer players and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, K; Couppé, C; Petersen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of groin injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity strength deficits of less than 10% on the injured side, compared to the uninjured side, have been suggested as the clinical milestone before...

  2. Attempted and Completed Incidents of Stranger-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse and Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Bernard; Bradford, Michael; Pease, Ken

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the prevalence, typology and nature of attempted or completed incidents of stranger-perpetrated sexual abuse or abduction of children "away from home". Methods: A questionnaire was completed by 2,420 children (83% response rate) aged 9-16 years in 26 elementary and high schools in North-West England. Results: Of…

  3. Examining the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Two Delivery Models to Teach Children Abduction Prevention Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckinger-Bancroft, Kimberly E.

    2010-01-01

    Nearly all children receive abduction prevention training. Most traditional education programs increase the learner's knowledge, but often fail to produce concomitant behavior change. Behavioral Skills Training (BST) is a multi-component, behavior-based training strategy with empirical support demonstrating its effectiveness in teaching children…

  4. Assessing the Long-Term Maintenance of Abduction Prevention Skills by Disadvantaged Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two preschool children, both of whom had displayed susceptibility to lures, were taught to prevent opportunities for abduction. Both children learned and demonstrated appropriate responses to lures in school and community settings, and follow-up measures at 64 weeks showed high levels of maintenance, although some retraining was required to…

  5. Family Abduction Outcomes: Factors Associated with Duration and Emotional Trauma to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plass, Peggy S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines influences surrounding two specific outcomes of family abduction events: duration of the episode and the likelihood of emotional trauma to children involved. Findings indicate duration is influenced by preparedness, planning and intent, and with difficulty in physically locating the child. Emotional harm is associated with child…

  6. Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength in elite soccer players and matched controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Couppé, C; Petersen, J;

    2011-01-01

    Eccentric hip adduction and abduction strength plays an important role in the treatment and prevention of groin injuries in soccer players. Lower extremity strength deficits of less than 10% on the injured side, compared to the uninjured side, have been suggested as the clinical milestone before...... returning to sports following injury....

  7. Optimization of diagnostic RT-PCR protocols and sampling procedures for the reliable and cost-effective detection of Cassava brown streak virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarshi, M M; Mohammed, I U; Wasswa, P; Hillocks, R J; Holt, J; Legg, J P; Seal, S E; Maruthi, M N

    2010-02-01

    Sampling procedures and diagnostic protocols were optimized for accurate diagnosis of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) (genus Ipomovirus, family Potyviridae). A cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was optimized for sample preparation from infected cassava plants and compared with the RNeasy plant mini kit (Qiagen) for sensitivity, reproducibility and costs. CBSV was detectable readily in total RNAs extracted using either method. The major difference between the two methods was in the cost of consumables, with the CTAB 10x cheaper (0.53 pounds sterling=US$0.80 per sample) than the RNeasy method (5.91 pounds sterling=US$8.86 per sample). A two-step RT-PCR (1.34 pounds sterling=US$2.01 per sample), although less sensitive, was at least 3-times cheaper than a one-step RT-PCR (4.48 pounds sterling=US$6.72). The two RT-PCR tests revealed consistently the presence of CBSV both in symptomatic and asymptomatic leaves and indicated that asymptomatic leaves can be used reliably for virus diagnosis. Depending on the accuracy required, sampling 100-400 plants per field is an appropriate recommendation for CBSD diagnosis, giving a 99.9% probability of detecting a disease incidence of 6.7-1.7%, respectively. CBSV was detected at 10(-4)-fold dilutions in composite sampling, indicating that the most efficient way to index many samples for CBSV will be to screen pooled samples. The diagnostic protocols described below are reliable and the most cost-effective methods available currently for detecting CBSV.

  8. Population radiation dose from diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures in the Tehran population in 1999-2003: striking changes in only one decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabeie, Faraj; Mohammadi, Hooshang; Asli, Isa Neshandar

    2013-02-01

    Use of unsealed radiopharmaceuticals in Iran's nuclear medicine centers has expanded rapidly in the last decade. As part of a nationwide survey, this study was undertaken to estimate the radiation risk due to the diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures performed in Tehran in 1999-2003. During the five years of the study, the data of 101,540 yearly examinations of diagnostic nuclear medicine were obtained for 34 (out of 40) active nuclear medicine centers in Tehran. The patients studied were aged 1 y, 5 y, 10 y, 15 y, and adults (>15 y). Compared to an earlier investigation in 1989 (which was published in 1995), striking changes were found to be occurring in the trends of nuclear medicine in Tehran in a matter of a decade. The frequency of cardiac examinations increased from less than 1% in 1989 to 43.2% (mean of 5 y) in 2003; thyroid examinations, with the relative frequency of higher than 80% in 1989, decreased to 26.7% in the current investigation (averaged for 2001); and the number of overall examinations per 1,000 population of Tehran increased from 1.9 in 1989 to 8.8 in this study (about fourfold). The decrease in relative frequency of thyroid examinations could be attributed to the lower referral policy (mainly by specialists), decreased incidence of goiter due to implementation of programs for iodine enrichment diets, introduction of fine needle aspiration (FNA), and sonography techniques for diagnosis of thyroid disease. The large increase in relative frequency of cardiac examinations could be due to the increase in the number of single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) systems in recent years as compared to 1989 in Tehran. The collective effective dose increased from 400 (person-Sv) in 1999 to 529 (person-Sv) in 2003, and the effective dose per capita increased from 34.80 μSv in 1999 to 44.06 μSv in 2003 (average, 35.60 μSv).

  9. MR arthrography including abduction and external rotation images in the assessment of atraumatic multidirectional instability of the shoulder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffeler, Christoph [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Musculoskeletal Imaging, Chur (Switzerland); Waldt, Simone; Bauer, Jan S.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Woertler, Klaus [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kirchhoff, Chlodwig [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Traumatology, Munich (Germany); Haller, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Munich (Germany); Schroeder, Michael [Center for Sports Orthopedics and Medicine, Orthosportiv, Munich (Germany); Imhoff, Andreas B. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Orthopedic Sports Medicine, Munich (Germany)

    2014-06-15

    To evaluate diagnostic signs and measurements in the assessment of capsular redundancy in atraumatic multidirectional instability (MDI) of the shoulder on MR arthrography (MR-A) including abduction/external rotation (ABER) images. Twenty-one MR-A including ABER position of 20 patients with clinically diagnosed MDI and 17 patients without instability were assessed by three radiologists. On ABER images, presence of a layer of contrast between the humeral head (HH) and the anteroinferior glenohumeral ligament (AIGHL) (crescent sign) and a triangular-shaped space between the HH, AIGHL and glenoid (triangle sign) were evaluated; centring of the HH was measured. Anterosuperior herniation of the rotator interval (RI) capsule and glenoid version were determined on standard imaging planes. The crescent sign had a sensitivity of 57 %/62 %/48 % (observers 1/2/3) and specificity of 100 %/100 %/94 % in the diagnosis of MDI. The triangle sign had a sensitivity of 48 %/57 %/48 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/100 %. The combination of both signs had a sensitivity of 86 %/90 %/81 % and specificity of 94 %/94 %/94 %. A positive triangle sign was significantly associated with decentring of the HH. Measurements of RI herniation, RI width and glenoid were not significantly different between both groups. Combined assessment of redundancy signs on ABER position MR-A allows for accurate differentiation between patients with atraumatic MDI and patients with clinically stable shoulders; measurements on standard imaging planes appear inappropriate. (orig.)

  10. Construction and Analysis of Educational Tests Using Abductive Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Alfy, El-Sayed M.; Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in educational technologies and the wide-spread use of computers in schools have fueled innovations in test construction and analysis. As the measurement accuracy of a test depends on the quality of the items it includes, item selection procedures play a central role in this process. Mathematical programming and the item response…

  11. Neurological Diagnostic Tests and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been fully anesthetized or loses consciousness, and confirm brain death. This painless, risk-free test can be performed ... monitor brain activity among coma patients, and confirm brain death. Testing may take place in a doctor’s office ...

  12. Proteinuria: diagnostic principles and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, J G

    1983-02-01

    Proteinuria has been thought of as the first sign of serious renal disease. However, in some patients proteinuria may last for years without other evidence of kidney damage, and in other patients it may only be an insignificant and transient laboratory finding. The nature and severity of renal involvement in a particular patient are often suggested by the clinical picture, and the pattern and amount of proteinuria. The physician should use this information in evaluating the severity of the patient's disease. An approach for such evaluations is offered by briefly reviewing the causes and prognosis of the various types of proteinuria and by suggesting steps to take in treating patients with increased protein excretion.

  13. Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures in twin gestations%介入性产前诊断技术在双胎妊娠中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩振艳; 方群; 罗艳敏; 陈宝江; 陈敏玲; 陈健生; 陈筠虹; 陈涌珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of invasive procedures of prenatal diagnosis for twin gestations through analysing the results and outcomes of twins.Methods Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures guided by ultrasound were introduced to 164 twin pregnancies with various indications,including 111 amniocentesis,and 53 cordocentesis.The results of prenatal diagnosis,complications and outcomes of these twins were analyzed with Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test.Results (1) Chromosome was examined in 261 fetuses and 6.13% (16/261)had abnormal karyotypes.(2) Comparing amniocentesis with cordocentesis,the fetal loss rate within two weeks after the procedure were 0.00% (0/191) and 3.85% (3/78),respectively (P=0.024).The total fetal loss rate and preterm delivery rates in amniocentesis and cordocentesis group were 3.87% (6/155) and 5.45% (3/55),51.22% (42/82)and 38.71% (12/31),respectively (P=0.235and 0.618).(3) Selective feticide was performed on 18 cases after prenatal diagnosis.Fifteen cases had survival neonates,two cases suffered from spontaneous abortion,and two cases had preterm labor with neonatal death.Conclusions (1) Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures are effective and feasible in twins.Amniocentesis is a relative safer and simpler alternative to cordocentesis,which demanding higher skill and carrying higher fetal loss rate.(2) Mid-trimester selective feticide after prenatal diagnosis appears safety.Before the procedure,the chorionicity and fetal condition should be considered,in order to choose suitable feticide procedures.%目的 通过分析双胎妊娠产前诊断结果 及妊娠结局,探讨双胎介入性产前诊断技术的有效性及安全性.方法 超声介导下对有各种产前诊断指征的164例双胎妊娠行介入性产前诊断操作,包括羊膜腔穿刺(简称羊穿)111例、脐带穿刺(简称脐穿)53例,分析产前诊断结果,追踪术后并发症及妊娠结局.率的比较采用x2

  14. Use of an abduction brace for developmental dysplasia of the hip after failure of Pavlik harness use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedequist, Daniel; Kasser, James; Emans, John

    2003-01-01

    The authors reviewed the records of 15 infants who were treated with an abduction brace after Pavlik harness use for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) failed. Failure was defined as persistent dislocation or instability of the hip. Thirteen of these 15 patients had resolution of DDH with the use of an abduction brace. The median time spent in the brace before stabilization of examination findings was 24 days; the median time in the brace before normalization of ultrasound parameters was 46 days. There were no complications with regard to use of the abduction orthosis. At final follow-up of an average of 3 years and 7 months, no patient had undergone surgery and no patient had residual dysplasia or avascular necrosis of the hip. The two patients in whom both the Pavlik harness and abduction brace failed went on to successful closed reduction and spica cast application.

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT AND INTERNATIONAL LAW: CROSS-BORDER RELOCATIONS AND ABDUCTION OF CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rodríguez Domínguez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation has produced a new world order of profound socio-economic transformations that have caused dramatic changes, unprecedented in history, and together with the women's revolution they have introduced new challenges for the model of family and society. Divorce between spouses of different nationalities has significantly increased the number of international relocations of children - with or without abduction-, affecting both the judicial decision-making regarding the care and custody, as well as the forensic psychological evaluations. The objective of this article is to reflect upon the task of the expert forensic psychologist in cases of international transfers or child abduction that will help to deepen our understanding of these cases, for which it is necessary to understand the current legislative framework, among other issues.

  16. Uninformed sacrifice: Evidence against long-range alarm transmission in foraging ants exposed to localized abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera, F.; Reyes, A.; Altshuler, E.

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that danger information can be transmitted by ants through relatively small distances, provoking either a state of alarm when they move away from potentially dangerous stimulus, or charge toward it aggressively. There is almost no knowledge if danger information can be transmitted along large distances. In this paper, we abduct leaf cutting ants of the species Atta insularis while they forage in their natural environment at a certain point of the foraging line, so ants make a "U" turn to escape from the danger zone and go back to the nest. Our results strongly suggest that those ants do not transmit "danger information" to other nestmates marching towards the abduction area. The individualistic behavior of the ants returning from the danger zone results in a depression of the foraging activity due to the systematic sacrifice of non-informed individuals.

  17. Kinematic design of a finger abduction mechanism for an anthropomorphic robotic hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.-A. A. Demers

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the kinematic design of an abduction mechanism for the fingers of an underactuated anthropomorphic robotic hand. This mechanism will enhance the range of feasible grasps of the underactuated hand without significantly increasing its complexity. The analysis of the link between the index finger and the third finger is first assessed, where the parameters are studied in order to follow the amplitude constraint and to minimize the coordination error. Then, the study of the mechanism joining the third finger and the little finger is summarized. Finally, a prototype of the finger's abduction system is presented.

    This paper was presented at the IFToMM/ASME International Workshop on Underactuated Grasping (UG2010, 19 August 2010, Montréal, Canada.

  18. Strategic knowledge management assessment of SMEs based on value creation and opportunities abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Alibeyki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management plays essential role for the success of organizations. Strategy formulation is one of the modern environmental requirements in the field of knowledge management and it helps and supports different parts of the organization to identify opportunities. The primary objective of this research is to evaluate the relationship between strategic knowledge management and value creation as well as opportunities abduction. Statistical population of our study is small and medium businesses in Shams Abad, Tehran. The survey is accomplished in three industries including textiles, drinking and edible. The study investigates different hypotheses on knowledge management and the results indicate that the strategies of business and saving knowledge did not have any direct effect on opportunity abduction.

  19. The urgent need for universally applicable simple screening procedures and diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus – lessons from projects funded by the World Diabetes Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian de Courten

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To address the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes and future type 2 diabetes associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, its early detection and timely treatment is essential. In the absence of an international consensus, multiple different guidelines on screening and diagnosis of GDM have existed for a long time. This may be changing with the publication of the recommendations by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. However, none of these guidelines take into account evidence from or ground realities of resource-poor settings. Objective: This study aimed to investigate whether GDM projects supported by the World Diabetes Foundation in developing countries utilize any of the internationally recommended guidelines for screening and diagnosis of GDM, explore experiences on applicability and usefulness of the guidelines and barriers if any, in implementing the guidelines. These projects have reached out to thousands of pregnant women through capacity building and improvement of access to GDM screening and diagnosis in the developing world and therefore provide a rich field experience on the applicability of the guidelines in resource-poor settings. Design: A mixed methods approach using questionnaires and interviews was utilised to review 11 GDM projects. Two projects were conducted by the same partner; interviews were conducted in person or via phone by the first author with nine project partners and one responded via email. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results: The projects use seven different screening procedures and diagnostic criteria and many do not completely adhere to one guideline alone. Various challenges in adhering to the recommendations emerged in the interviews, including problems with screening women during the recommended time period, applicability of some of the listed risk factors used for (pre-screening, difficulties with reaching women for testing in

  20. [Have Case Loads of Radical Surgery for Prostate Cancer Been Concentrated in Hospitals with Robotic Equipment ?--Analyses with Questionnaire Survey and Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) Data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Taiji; Tanaka, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether installation of robot-assisted surgical equipment in hospitals resulted in concentration of the case loads of radical prostatectomy. We selected 11 areas with populations of around 1 million or more where there were one or more hospitals with robotic equipment and 4 or more without it. In addition, annual changes of case loads for prostatectomy over 4 years from 2010 to 2013 were clearly determined in these areas. The case loads were determined based on the results of a questionnaire survey for the hospitals with robots and on the Diagnostic Procedures Combination data provided by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Wealth for those without such equipment. The concentration of the case loads was principally defined as when hospitals with robots had more predominant proportion of cases than those without them in the comparison between case loads prior to instillation of robots (or in the initial year of the study) and those in the final years. The 11 selected areas included 44 hospitals with robots and 156 without them. Concentration of case loads was found in 5 areas. In 4 areas, installation of robots did not have a specific relation to the distribution pattern s of case loads in hospitals with or without the equipment. The remaining 2 areas tended to have a weak but not definite concentration of case loads. In the areas in which installation did not influence case loads the further analysis revealed that their case loads had already been concentrated in the initial year (2010) of the study. Although the current results were found in a single department of the hospital, robotic installation may result in concentration of prostatectomy case loads for such hospitals in some areas. The current results are intriguing when we consider the future roles of acute care hospitals and beds in our country where the number of aged patients having chronic diseases will increase. In conclusion, installation of robotic equipment may result in concentration

  1. Classification and molecular diagnostic procedure for Chacort-Marie-Tooth disease%腓骨肌萎缩症的分型与分子诊断流程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张如旭; 唐北沙

    2012-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common form of hereditary neuropathy with significant clinical and genetic heterogeneity.So far 28 genes have been cloned.The main clinical manifestations of CMT include progressive distal muscle wasting and weakness,impaired distal sensation,and diminishing or loss of tendon reflex.Patients may be classified into demyelinating type (CMT1) and axonal type (CMT2) according to electrophysiological and pathological characteristics.Establishment of a standard diagnostic procedure based on clinical,electrophysiological and pathological findings will enable accurate diagnosis in most CMT patients and provide guidance for gene consulting and prognosis.%腓骨肌萎缩症(Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease,CMT)是一组最常见的具有高度临床和遗传异质性的周围神经单基因遗传病,目前已有28个疾病基因被克隆.主要临床症状包括进行性对称性肢体远端肌无力和肌萎缩,感觉障碍和腱反射减退或消失.根据电生理和病理特点,CMT可分为脱髓鞘型和轴突型.通过临床表现、电生理病理特点进行临床和遗传学分型,选择可能的疾病基因进行突变分析等一系列具有逻辑性的诊断流程,可明确分子诊断,为疾病预后和遗传咨询提供指导性意见.

  2. Rotator cuff tears: should abduction and external rotation (ABER) positioning be performed before image acquisition? A CT arthrography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, Hubert [Hopital Cardiologique du Haut-Leveque, CHU Bordeaux, Unite d' Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Pessac (France); Couderc, Stephane; Pele, Eric; Moreau-Durieux, Marie-Helene; Hauger, Olivier [Hopital Pellegrin, CHU Bordeaux, Unite d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Bordeaux (France); Amoretti, Nicolas [CHU Archet, Unite d' Imagerie Osteo-articulaire, Nice (France)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate the impact of abduction and external rotation (ABER) positioning performed before image acquisition on the assessment of rotator cuff tears. Twenty-seven consecutive patients with clinically suspected rotator cuff tears underwent an initial CT arthrogram of the shoulder in neutral position, immediately followed by temporary ABER positioning, before a second CT acquisition in neutral position. Two observers blinded to potential pre-procedure ABER positioning independently analysed the randomly distributed images. Lesions were classified into partial-thickness (PT) and full-thickness (FT) tear subtypes. Lesion detection and measurements of pre- and post-ABER studies were compared. We found no influence of pre-test ABER positioning on FT detection or measurements. Every PT detected on pre-ABER study was also detected on post-ABER study (28/28 for reader 1, and 32/32 for reader 2). Seven and eight additional PT were found by readers 1 and 2, respectively, on post-ABER study. Lesion size increased after ABER in terms of area (P < 0.001 for both readers) and Ellman's grade (P = 0.02 and 0.002 for reader 1 and 2, respectively). ABER positioning before CT is associated with improved delineation of partial tears, a higher number of detected tears and modification of treatment planning. (orig.)

  3. Reproducibility of a 3-dimensional gyroscope in measuring shoulder anteflexion and abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penning Ludo I F

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated the use of a 3-dimensional gyroscope for measuring the range of motion (ROM in the impaired shoulder. Reproducibility of digital inclinometer and visual estimation is poor. This study aims to investigate the reproducibility of a tri axial gyroscope in measurement of anteflexion, abduction and related rotations in the impaired shoulder. Methods Fifty-eight patients with either subacromial impingement (27 or osteoarthritis of the shoulder (31 participated. Active anteflexion, abduction and related rotations were measured with a tri axial gyroscope according to a test retest protocol. Severity of shoulder impairment and patient perceived pain were assessed by the Disability of Arm Shoulder and Hand score (DASH and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. VAS scores were recorded before and after testing. Results In two out of three hospitals patients with osteoarthritis (n = 31 were measured, in the third hospital patients with subacromial impingement (n = 27. There were significant differences among hospitals for the VAS and DASH scores measured before and after testing. The mean differences between the test and retest means for anteflexion were −6 degrees (affected side, 9 (contralateral side and for abduction 15 degrees (affected side and 10 degrees (contralateral side. Bland & Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals for the mean differences fall within −6 up to 15 degrees, individual test - retest differences could exceed these limits. A simulation according to ‘Generalizability Theory’ produces very good coefficients for anteflexion and related rotation as a comprehensive measure of reproducibility. Optimal reproducibility is achieved with 2 repetitions for anteflexion. Conclusions Measurements were influenced by patient perceived pain. Differences in VAS and DASH might be explained by different underlying pathology. These differences in shoulder pathology however did not alter

  4. Behavioural processes in social context: female abductions, male herding and female grooming in hamadryas baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Pablo; Colmenares, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    The formation of bonds between strangers is an event that occurs routinely in many social animals, including humans, and, as social bonds in general, they affect the individuals' welfare and biological fitness. The present study was motivated by an interest in the behavioural processes that drive bond formation in a social context of hostility, in which the incumbent partners vary greatly in physical power and reproductive interests, a situation in which individuals of many group-living species find themselves often throughout their lives. We focused on the quantitative analysis of female abductions via male aggressive herding in a nonhuman primate, the hamadryas baboon, in which intersexual bonds are known to be strong. We tested three hypotheses informed by sexual conflict/sexual coercion theory (male herding-as-conditioning and female grooming-as-appeasement) and by socioecological theory (unit size and female competition). The results supported the predictions: males resorted to coercive tactics (aggressive herding) with abducted females, and abducted females elevated the amount of grooming directed at their new unit males; in fact, they escaped from the otherwise negative effect of unit size on female-to-male grooming. These findings reveal that conflicts of interest are natural ingredients underpinning social bonds and that resorting to coercive aggression may be an option especially when partners differ greatly in their physical power.

  5. Sensitivity of Symptomatology Versus Diagnostic Procedures and Concentration of CEA and CA19–9 in the Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukobrat-Bijedic, Zora; Husic-Selimovic, Azra; Bijedic, Nina; Mujkic, Admir; Sofic, Amela; Gogov, Bisera; Mehmedovic, Amila; Bjelogrlic, Ivana; Glavas, Sanjin; Djuran, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    important symptom. We can say that after the age of 74 years cancer of the rectum and sigmoid is more common in men and in women dominate sigma and other locations in the colon. In patients under the 70 years of age with short time of bleeding, cancer predominates in rectum. In patients younger than 63 years can be concluded that weight loss is greater than 8 kg follows rectal cancer. In patients with bleeding that lasted one month or more as classifier occurring the age and gender. Patients younger than 74 years have rectal cancer, while older than 73 years have cancer at other sites. In women these locations are sigma and rectum. Conclusion: Based on this study we can conclude that regardless of the technical advances in medicine must pay special attention to the symptoms that doctors will refer to the localization of the tumor, stenosis of the intestine and possibly metastasis. Key words: Colorectal cancer, diagnostic procedures, concentration of CEA and CA19-9. PMID:24825931

  6. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in medical practice: a critical review of the concept and new diagnostic procedure. Report of the MCI Working Group of the European Consortium on Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portet, F; Ousset, P J; Visser, P J; Frisoni, G B; Nobili, F; Scheltens, Ph; Vellas, B; Touchon, J

    2006-06-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was proposed as a nosological entity referring to elderly people with mild cognitive deficit but no dementia. MCI is a heterogeneous clinical entity with multiple sources of heterogeneity. The concept of MCI was reviewed and a diagnostic procedure with three different stages was proposed by the European Consortium on Alzheimer's Disease Working Group on MCI. Firstly, MCI should correspond to cognitive complaints coming from the patients or their families; the reporting of a relative decline in cognitive functioning during the past year by a patient or informant; cognitive disorders as evidenced by clinical evaluation; absence of major repercussions on daily life; and absence of dementia. These criteria, similar to those defined during an international workshop in Stockholm, make it possible to identify an MCI syndrome, which is the first stage of the diagnostic procedure. Secondly, subtypes of MCI had to be recognised. Finally, the aetiopathogenic subtype could be identified. Identifying patients at a high risk for progression to dementia and establishing more specific and adapted therapeutic strategies at an early stage, together with more structured overall management, is made possible by the diagnostic procedure proposed.

  7. A comparison of the boomerang wire vascular access management system versus manual compression alone during percutaneous diagnostic and interventional cardiovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverria, Angela; Krajcer, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    Vascular closure devices allow for early sheath removal, allowing for earlier patient mobilization The Boomerang vascular access management system does not alter arterial integrity for future interventions Access site complications provide significant morbidity in diagnostic and therapeutic interventions.

  8. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner.

  9. Disrupt, Support and Document: The Role of Social Media in International Parental Child Abduction Cases Involving Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Carney

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I examine the use of social media by parents involved in cases of international parental abduction to and from Japan, with a focus on cases of abduction to Japan. I argue that the use of social media in these cases is a symptom of and a counter to a legal system which has been outpaced by changes in society, particularly the creation and dissolution of international families. This article discusses a number of case studies of social media usage and locates these in the context of the contemporary Japanese legal system. While not ignoring the nefarious potential of social media usage, I come to a positive assessment of its use in cases of international parental child abduction involving Japan. I also question how its utility will change over time, depending on the legal system’s ability to adapt to societal changes and expectations.

  10. The Analysis on Abduction%浅析溯因推理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张淑慧

    2014-01-01

    美国哲学家皮尔斯基于亚里士多德和康德的思想,提出了溯因推理。作为唯一一种提供新的概念的推理形式,皮尔斯把它作为与演绎和归纳相并列的、不可或缺的三大推理形式之一。但是通过对亚里士多德三段论形式的扬弃,皮尔斯在由假说推理过渡到溯因推理的过程中,溯因从独立的推理形式转变成为科学方法论中的一部分。%On the basis of the idea of Aristoteles and Kant,the American philosopher Peirce introduced the abduction.As the only inference to povide new knowledge,with reduction and induction,Peirce regard it as one of the three indispensable inference form.By sublating Aristoteles’s syllogism form,during the process fron hypothesis to abduction,the independent inference form becomes a part of science methodology.

  11. Geometric pattern of the hominoid hallucal tarsometatarsal complex. Quantifying the degree of hallux abduction in early hominids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berillon, Gilles

    1999-05-01

    The degree of hallux abduction in extant and fossil hominoids is analysed in terms of geometric relationships between the first metatarsal and the medial cuneiform and quantified by angular data, in relation to grasping ability and locomotor pattern. The 'australopithecine' pattern corresponds to an abducted first podal ray with some grasping abilities and seems to be derived from a ' Proconsul-like' pattern rather than a 'living African great ape-like' pattern. The Olduvai Hominid 8 condition closely resembles that of the modern human which corresponds to a full bipedalism.

  12. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0...

  13. The clash of legal cultures over the ‘best interests of the child’ principle in cases of international parental child abduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, Wibo van

    2010-01-01

    Because of the increase in international love traffic, transnational problems in divorce, maintenance issues, visitation rights, custody over children, and cases of child abduction are here to stay. A clash of cultures is obvious in international child abduction cases in which Islamic legal cultures

  14. Abduction, Deduction and Induction: Can These Concepts Be Used for an Understanding of Methodological Processes in Interpretative Case Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åsvoll, Håvard

    2014-01-01

    Within the area of interpretative case studies, there appears to be a vast amount of literature about theoretical interpretations as the main analytical strategy. In light of this theoretically based strategy in case studies, this article presents an extended perspective based on Charles Sanders Peirce's concepts of abduction, deduction and…

  15. Coping with life in rebel captivity and the challenge of reintegrating formerly abducted boys in Northern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amone-P'Olak, Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative study of 134 formerly abducted adolescent boys at four rehabilitation centres in Northern Uganda, the boys described their lives in rebel captivity and coping strategies and suggested ways of reintegration. They witnessed, endured and participated in hideous atrocities while in r

  16. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  17. The Use of Behavioral Skills Training and in situ Feedback to Protect Children with Autism from Abduction Lures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunby, Kristin V.; Rapp, John T.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of behavioral skills training with in situ feedback on safe responding by children with autism to abduction lures that were presented after a high-probability (high-p) request sequence. This sequence was intended to simulate a grooming or recruitment process. Results show that all 3 participants ultimately acquired the…

  18. Thyroid diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scriba, P.C.; Boerner, W.; Emrich, S.; Gutekunst, R.; Herrmann, J.; Horn, K.; Klett, M.; Krueskemper, H.L.; Pfannenstiel, P.; Pickardt, C.R.

    1985-03-01

    None of the in-vitro and in-vivo methods listed permits on unambiguous diagnosis when applied alone, owing to the fact that similar or even identical findings are obtained for various individual parameters in different thyroid diseases. Further, especially the in-vitro tests are also subject to extrathyroidal effects which may mask the typical findings. The limited and varying specificity and sensitivity of the tests applied, as well as the falsification of results caused by the patients' idiosyncracies and the methodology, make it necessary to interpret and evaluate the in-vivo and in-vitro findings only if the clinical situation (anamnesis and physical examination) is known. For maximum diagnostic quality of the tests, the initial probability of the assumed type of thyroid disease must be increased (formulation of the clinical problem). The concepts of exclusion diagnosis and identification must be distinguished as well as the diagnosis of functional disturbances on the one hand and of thyroid diseases on the other. Both of this requires a qualified, specific and detailed anamnesis and examination procedure, and the clinical examination remains the obligatory basis of clinical diagnostics. In case of inexplicable discrepancies between the clinical manifestations and the findings obtained with specific methods, or between the findings obtained with a specific method, the patient should be referred to an expert institution, or the expert institution should be consulted.

  19. Abductive Equivalential Translation and its application to Natural Language Database Interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Rayner, M

    1994-01-01

    The thesis describes a logical formalization of natural-language database interfacing. We assume the existence of a ``natural language engine'' capable of mediating between surface linguistic string and their representations as ``literal'' logical forms: the focus of interest will be the question of relating ``literal'' logical forms to representations in terms of primitives meaningful to the underlying database engine. We begin by describing the nature of the problem, and show how a variety of interface functionalities can be considered as instances of a type of formal inference task which we call ``Abductive Equivalential Translation'' (AET); functionalities which can be reduced to this form include answering questions, responding to commands, reasoning about the completeness of answers, answering meta-questions of type ``Do you know...'', and generating assertions and questions. In each case, a ``linguistic domain theory'' (LDT) $\\Gamma$ and an input formula $F$ are given, and the goal is to construct a fo...

  20. Diagnostic thoracoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plavec Goran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic thoracoscopy in patients with pleural effusion of unclear origin mostly provides the correct diagnosis. Results from published reports of previous researches are not uniform. In 47 male and 20 female patients with pleural effusion of unknown etiology, after receiving negative results obtained from cytological finding of pleural effusion and percutaneous needle biopsy, thoracoscopy with biopsy of one or both pleurae was performed. Procedure was done in local anesthesia using Stortz rigid thoracoscope. In 37 patients with malignant disease (primary or metastatic diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 31 patient (81.12%. In 27 patients with inflammatory pleural disease diagnosis was confirmed histopathologically in 22 patients (81.4%. Among 11 patients with specific pleural effusions, tuberculosis was confirmed in 10 (90.91%. Normal finding in cases of spontaneous pneumothorax and pulmonary embolism was taken as a positive result. Total number of positive findings was 55 (82.10%. In one patient, the third spontaneous pneumothorax was the indication for thoracoscopy, and after numerous bullae were seen during the procedure, talcum powder pleurodesis was done. In four patients low intensity subcutaneous emphysema occurred one day after thoracoscopy. It can be concluded that thoracoscopy in local anesthesia out of the operating room is good and practical method for solving the unclear pleural effusions, with neglectable rate of complications.

  1. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: dealing with slow Mohs procedures employing formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissue in a busy diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, G E; Shams, M

    2012-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a relatively uncommon tumour that arises in the dermis and underlying soft tissue. Surgical removal is the preferred treatment, with relatively wide clearance margins of 3 cm or more. Slow Mohs procedures are often employed successfully to treat patients with such tumours. Slow Mohs procedures offer the benefit of improved cure rates and maximal tissue conservation. However, dealing with such tissue successfully presents the laboratory with a host of technical problems. This report advocates a set protocol to follow for slow Mohs, based on the experience acquired from dealing with 37 cases of DFSP over a 12-year period. The report establishes the benefits of slow Mohs paraffin wax-embedded tissue over frozen sections in terms of improved morphology, tissue preservation and immunocytochemical labelling with anti-CD34.

  2. SCAI/CCAS/SPA expert consensus statement for anesthesia and sedation practice: Recommendations for patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures in the pediatric and congenital cardiac catheterization laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odegard, Kirsten C; Vincent, Robert; Baijal, Rahul; Daves, SuAnne; Gray, Robert; Javois, Alex; Love, Barry; Moore, Phil; Nykanen, David; Riegger, Lori; Walker, Scott G; Wilson, Elizabeth C

    2016-11-15

    Current practice of sedation and anesthesia for patients undergoing pediatric congenital cardiac catheterization laboratory (PCCCL) procedures is known to vary among institutions, a multi-society expert panel with representatives from the Congenital Heart Disease Council of the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI), the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) and the Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Society (CCAS) was convened to evaluate the types of sedation and personnel necessary for procedures performed in the PCCCL. The goal of this panel was to provide practitioners and institutions performing these procedures with guidance consistent with national standards and to provide clinicians and institutions with consensus-based recommendations and the supporting references to encourage their application in quality improvement programs. Recommendations can neither encompass all clinical circumstances nor replace the judgment of individual clinicians in the management of each patient. The science of medicine is rooted in evidence, and the art of medicine is based on the application of this evidence to the individual patient. This expert consensus statement has adhered to these principles for optimal management of patients requiring sedation and anesthesia. What follows are recommendations for patient monitoring in the PCCCL regardless of whether minimal or no sedation is being used or general anesthesia is being provided by an anesthesiologist. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc.

  3. Magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back during humeral abduction and external rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borrero, Camilo G.; Casagranda, Bethany U.; Towers, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bradley, James P. [Department of Orthopedics, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance appearance of posterosuperior labral peel back and determine the reliability of MR in the abducted and externally rotated (ABER) position for the prospective diagnosis of arthroscopically proven cases of posterosuperior labral peel back. After approval by the institutional review board (IRB) of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, USA, databases of patients who underwent arthroscopy over a 2-year period for one of three clinical diagnoses [suspected type 2 superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears, posterior instability, or multidirectional instability] were reviewed after anonymization by an honest broker. Sixty-three cases were selected by the following inclusion criteria: operative report documenting labral peel back in the ABER position, age <40 years, and preceding MR arthrogram evaluations with images in the ABER position (n = 34). Inclusion criteria for the control group differed from those for the case group insofar as the operative note documented the absence of posterosuperior labral peel back (n = 29). Cases and controls were randomized in one list and evaluated independently by two fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologists unaware of the surgical results and using a three-point grading system (0 = posterosuperior labrum normally positioned lateral/craniad to glenoid articular plane in ABER; 1 = posterosuperior labral tissue flush with the glenoid articular plane in ABER; 2 = posterosuperior labral tissue identified medial/caudal to glenoid articular plane in ABER). Only one image in ABER showing abnormal posterosuperior labral position was required for a grade of 1 or 2 to be assigned. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value were calculated as well as the level of agreement between readers (kappa). Both readers assigned a grade of 2 to 25 of 34 patients with surgically proven labral peel back. Of the patients with surgically proven SLAP tears with peel back in ABER

  4. Current Trends and Healthcare Resource Usage in the Hospital Treatment of Primary Malignant Brain Tumor in Japan: A National Survey Using the Diagnostic Procedure Combination Database (J-ASPECT Study-Brain Tumor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Koji; Kada, Akiko; Kuga, Daisuke; Hatae, Ryusuke; Murata, Hideki; Akagi, Yojiro; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Kurogi, Ryota; Nishimura, Ataru; Hata, Nobuhiro; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Sayama, Tetsuro; Iihara, Koji

    2016-11-15

    We conducted this study to clarify the current trends and healthcare resource usage in the treatment of inpatients with primary malignant brain tumors. The Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) data of all inpatients treated between 2013 and 2014 in the 370 core and branch hospitals enrolled in the Japanese Neurosurgical Society training program were collected. DPC is a discharge abstract and administrative claims database of inpatients. We assessed 6,142 primary, malignant brain tumor patients. Patient information, diagnostic information, treatment procedure, and healthcare resource usage were analyzed. Chemotherapy was the most frequent treatment (27% of cases), followed by surgery (13%) and surgery + chemo-radiotherapy (11%). Temozolomide (TMZ), the most frequently used chemotherapeutic drug, was administered to 1,236 patients. Concomitant TMZ and radiotherapy was administered to 816 patients, and was performed according to the Stupp regimen in many cases. The mean length of hospital stay (LOS) was 16 days, and the mean medical cost was 1,077,690 yen. The average medical cost of TMZ-only treatment was 1,138,620 yen whilst it was 4,424,300 yen in concomitant TMZ patients. The LOS was significantly shorter in high-volume than in low-volume hospitals, and the medical cost was higher in hospitals treating 21-50 patients compared to those treating 1-10 patients. However, the direct medical cost of TMZ treatment was the same across different volume hospitals. This is the first report of current trends and healthcare resource usage in the treatment of primary malignant brain tumor inpatients in the TMZ era in Japan.

  5. Current Trends and Healthcare Resource Usage in the Hospital Treatment of Primary Malignant Brain Tumor in Japan: A National Survey Using the Diagnostic Procedure Combination Database (J-ASPECT Study-Brain Tumor)

    Science.gov (United States)

    YOSHIMOTO, Koji; KADA, Akiko; KUGA, Daisuke; HATAE, Ryusuke; MURATA, Hideki; AKAGI, Yojiro; NISHIMURA, Kunihiro; KUROGI, Ryota; NISHIMURA, Ataru; HATA, Nobuhiro; MIZOGUCHI, Masahiro; SAYAMA, Tetsuro; IIHARA, Koji

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this study to clarify the current trends and healthcare resource usage in the treatment of inpatients with primary malignant brain tumors. The Diagnostic Procedure Combination (DPC) data of all inpatients treated between 2013 and 2014 in the 370 core and branch hospitals enrolled in the Japanese Neurosurgical Society training program were collected. DPC is a discharge abstract and administrative claims database of inpatients. We assessed 6,142 primary, malignant brain tumor patients. Patient information, diagnostic information, treatment procedure, and healthcare resource usage were analyzed. Chemotherapy was the most frequent treatment (27% of cases), followed by surgery (13%) and surgery + chemo-radiotherapy (11%). Temozolomide (TMZ), the most frequently used chemotherapeutic drug, was administered to 1,236 patients. Concomitant TMZ and radiotherapy was administered to 816 patients, and was performed according to the Stupp regimen in many cases. The mean length of hospital stay (LOS) was 16 days, and the mean medical cost was 1,077,690 yen. The average medical cost of TMZ-only treatment was 1,138,620 yen whilst it was 4,424,300 yen in concomitant TMZ patients. The LOS was significantly shorter in high-volume than in low-volume hospitals, and the medical cost was higher in hospitals treating 21–50 patients compared to those treating 1–10 patients. However, the direct medical cost of TMZ treatment was the same across different volume hospitals. This is the first report of current trends and healthcare resource usage in the treatment of primary malignant brain tumor inpatients in the TMZ era in Japan. PMID:27680329

  6. Ultra-low iodine concentrations iso-attenuating with diagnostic 0.5 M gadolinium in endovascular procedures to minimize the risk of contrast nephropathy: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanberg, Jakob, E-mail: jakob.swanberg@radiol.uu.se [Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Section of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Åslund, Per-Erik J., E-mail: per-erik.aslund@akademiska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Nyman, Rickard S. [Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Sciences, Section of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, SE-751 85 Uppsala (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf R.O., E-mail: ulf.nyman@bredband.net [Institution of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To establish the concentrations of iodine contrast media (I-CM) iso-attenuating with 0.5 M gadolinium contrast media (Gd-CM), regarded diagnostic in catheter angiography and vascular interventions in azotemic patients, at various X-ray tube potentials with correlation to skin radiation dose. Materials and method: 20-mL syringes filled with 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 mg I/mL, 0.5 M Gd-CM and air were placed in a water-equivalent phantom and exposed at about 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 kV in an X-ray angiographic system. Relative contrast between the contrast materials and the background phantom material was measured on a PACS workstation. Radiation entrance dose, measured with a dose meter and estimated from the dose-area-product (DAP), was adjusted for radiation backscatter to simulate absorbed skin dose. Result: The iodine concentrations 30, 40, 50, 70 and 90 mg/mL resulted in the same relative contrast as 0.5 M gadolinium at 53, 57, 62, 71 and 85 kVp, respectively. Air had lower relative contrast than all iodine concentrations at all kVp-settings except for 30 mg I/mL above 84 kVp. The measured skin radiation dose was less than 1 mGy per exposure at all kVp-settings, and around 25–30% lower than the dose estimations derived from the angiographic system's in-built DAP meter. Conclusion: Low-kilovoltage X-ray technique and ultra-low concentrations of I-CM iso-attenuating with 0.5 M Gd-CM may be utilizable in peripheral arteriography and endovascular interventions, to minimize the total CM-dose to avoid CIN in azotemic patients.

  7. Visuomotor correction is a robust contributor to force variability during index finger abduction by older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Tracy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined aging-related differences in the contribution of visuomotor correction to force fluctuations during index finger abduction via the analysis of two datasets from similar subjects. Study 1 Young (N= 27, 23+/-8 yrs and older adults (N=14, 72+/- 9 yrs underwent assessment of maximum voluntary contraction force (MVC and force steadiness during constant-force (CF index finger abduction (2.5, 30, 65% MVC. For each trial, visual feedback of the force (VIS was provided for 8-10 s and removed for 8-10s (NOVIS. Visual gain of the force feedback at 2.5% MVC was high; 12- and 26-fold greater than the 30% and 65% MVC targets. Mean force, standard deviation (SD of force, and coefficient of variation (CV of force was calculated for detrended (<0.5Hz drift removed VIS and NOVIS data segments. Study 2 A similar group of 14 older adults performed discrete, randomly-ordered VIS or NOVIS trials at low target forces (1-3% MVC and high visual gain. Study 1 For young adults the CV of force was similar between VIS and NOVIS for the 2.5% (4.8 vs. 4.3%, 30% (3.2 vs. 3.2% and 65% (3.5 vs. 4.2% target forces. In contrast, for older adults the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS for 2.5% MVC (6.6 vs. 4.2%, P<0.001, but not for the 30% (2.4 vs. 2.4% and 65% (3.1 vs. 3.3% target forces. At 2.5% MVC, the increase in CV of force for VIS compared with NOVIS was significantly greater (age x visual condition P=0.008 for older than young adults. Study 2 Similarly, for older adults performing discrete, randomly ordered trials the CV of force was greater for VIS than NOVIS (6.04 vs. 3.81%, P=0.01. When visual force feedback was a dominant source of information at low forces, normalized force variability was ~58% greater for older adults, but only 11% greater for young adults. The significant effect of visual feedback for older adults was not dependent on the order of presentation of visual conditions. The results indicate that impaired processing of visuomotor

  8. Effect of elbow flexion, forearm rotation and upper arm abduction on MVC grip and grip endurance time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was designed to know the effect of upper limb postural deviations on grip strength and grip endurance time. A full factorial design of experiment, i.e., 3 (0°, 45°, 90° abduction angles of upper arm) × 3 (45°, 90°, 135° angles of elbow flexion) × 3 (0°, -60° prone, +60° supine angles of forearm rotation) was used to find the effect of 27 combinations of postures on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) grip strength and grip endurance time. The results showed that none of the main factors were significant on MVC grip, although there was a change in MVC grip. Grip endurance time significantly decreased with an increase in upper arm abduction. Also, grip endurance significantly increased with the elbow flexion angle and decreased with forearm rotation from neutral. These data will help designers and engineers to improve the workplace and tools to reduce the risk of injuries.

  9. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne Hamish R; Quinlan John F; Allison Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  10. Effects of experimental muscle pain on shoulder-abduction force steadiness and muscle activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per;

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that the steadiness of shoulder abduction is reduced in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), which might be related to shoulder pain associated with the SIS. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of experimental shoulder muscle p...... explanation may be that, even though the adopted experimental pain-paradigm may reflect the SIS in terms of the painful structures, it might not reflect the adaptations in the central nervous system seen with chronic pain....

  11. Definition of anatomical zero positions for assessing shoulder pose with 3D motion capture during bilateral abduction of the arms

    OpenAIRE

    Rettig, Oliver; Krautwurst, Britta; Maier, Michael W.; Wolf, Sebastian I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgical interventions at the shoulder may alter function of the shoulder complex. Clinically, the outcome can be assessed by universal goniometry. Marker-based motion capture may not resemble these results due to differing angle definitions. Methods: The clinical inspection of bilateral arm abduction for assessing shoulder dysfunction is performed with a marker based 3D optical measurement method. An anatomical zero position of shoulder pose is proposed to determine absolute an...

  12. Protection of the unborn child in diagnostic and interventional radiological procedures; Schutz des ungeborenen Lebens bei diagnostischen und interventionellen radiologischen Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojreh, A.; Prosch, H.; Karanikas, G.; Trattnig, S. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Homolka, P. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Zentrum fuer medizinische Physik und biomedizinische Technik, Wien (Austria)

    2015-08-15

    The radiation exposure of an unborn child should be principally avoided, whenever it is medically reasonably possible; therefore, the identification of pregnant patients is the first and the most important step in radiation protection of the unborn child. However, in cases of emergency saving the life of the patient has a higher priority than the radiation protection of the unborn child. In this review article, we present a longitudinal section through the national and international literature and guidelines as a basis for radiological management of a (possibly) pregnant patient. We also list some radiological procedures recommended in the literature for a series of maternal indications considering the contraindications of each method during pregnancy and radiation protection of the unborn child. (orig.) [German] Die Strahlenexposition eines ungeborenen Kindes ist prinzipiell, wann immer dieses medizinisch sinnvoll moeglich ist, zu vermeiden. Daher ist die Identifizierung der schwangeren Patientinnen der erste und wichtigste Schritt zum Strahlenschutz des ungeborenen Kindes. In einer Notfallsituation hat allerdings das Leben der Patientin hoechste Prioritaet. In dieser Uebersichtsarbeit praesentieren wir einen Laengsschnitt durch die nationale und internationale Literatur und Leitlinien, die als Grundlage fuer das radiologische Management einer (moeglicherweise) schwangeren Patientin angewendet werden kann. Wir stellen auch einige in der Literatur empfohlene radiologische Verfahren fuer eine Reihe von Indikationen in der Schwangerschaft vor. Dabei werden sowohl die Kontraindikationen der jeweiligen Methode waehrend der Schwangerschaft als auch der Strahlenschutz des ungeborenen Kindes beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  13. An evaluation of the dot-ELISA procedure as a diagnostic test in an area with a high prevalence of human Toxocara canis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María V Bojanich

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate a dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA using excretory-secretory antigens from the larval stages of Toxocara canis for the diagnosis of toxocariasis. A secondary aim was to establish the optimal conditions for its use in an area with a high prevalence of human T. canis infection. The dot-ELISA test was standardised using different concentrations of the antigen fixed on nitrocellulose paper strips and increasing dilutions of the serum and conjugate. Both the dot-ELISA and standard ELISA methods were tested in parallel with the same batch of sera from controls and from individuals living in the problem area. The best results were obtained with 1.33 µg/mL of antigen, dilutions of 1/80 for the samples and controls and a dilution of 1/5,000 for the anti-human IgG-peroxidase conjugate. All steps of the procedure were performed at room temperature. The coincidence between ELISA and dot-ELISA was 85% and the kappa index was 0.72. The dot-ELISA test described here is rapid, easy to perform and does not require expensive equipment. Thus, this test is suitable for the serological diagnosis of human T. canis infection in field surveys and in the primary health care centres of endemic regions.

  14. "Abduction"逻辑推理与《测候丛谈》译介研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危春红; 轩芳; 陈志杰

    2015-01-01

    皮尔士在本能的"Hypothesis"基础上提出了不同于归纳演绎的"Abduction"——溯因逻辑.通过"Abduction"对译介过程中译者思路的影响,得出"Abduction"构成译者猜测的本能与多种可能性的假设的结论.本文以晚清气象译著《测候丛谈》的译介经过,译者对原语知识的归纳,目的语知识的演绎论证,发现这个过程最终会使译文以一种"全新"于原文式凸显出来,不仅能加快翻译速度,而且有助于帮助译者形成翻译思维习惯.

  15. Effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the mechanical interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons for the intact, partial-thickness torn, and repaired supraspinatus tendon conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andarawis-Puri, Nelly; Kuntz, Andrew F; Ramsey, Matthew L; Soslowsky, Louis J

    2010-07-01

    Rotator cuff tears are difficult to manage because of the structural and mechanical inhomogeneity of the supraspinatus tendon. Previously, we showed that with the arm at the side, the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons mechanically interact such that conditions that increase supraspinatus tendon strain, such as load or full-thickness tears, also increase infraspinatus tendon strain. This suggests that the infraspinatus tendon may shield the supraspinatus tendon from further injury while becoming at increased risk of injury itself. In this study, the effect of glenohumeral abduction angle on the interaction between the two tendons was evaluated for supraspinatus tendon partial-thickness tears and two repair techniques. Principal strains were quantified in both tendons for 0 degrees , 30 degrees , and 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction. Results showed that interaction between the two tendons is interrupted by an increase in abduction angle for all supraspinatus tendon conditions evaluated. Infraspinatus tendon strain was lower at 30 degrees and 60 degrees than at 0 degrees abduction angle. In conclusion, interaction between the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons is interrupted with increase in abduction angle. Additionally, 30 degrees abduction should be further evaluated for management of rotator cuff tears and repairs as it is the angle at which both supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendon strain is decreased.

  16. An ABOX abduction algorithm for the description logic ALC%描述逻辑ALC中的ABOX反绎推理算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马严伟; 古天龙; 常亮

    2012-01-01

    An existed ABOX abductive reasoning algorithm for description logic ALC needs transforming into FOL, which has a shortage of using a large number of arguments and Skolem terms, but ABOX abduction problem in ALC can be avoided based on the ALC-Tableau. So an algorithm doing abductive reasoning directly in description logic ALC is presented. The algorithm transforms the ABOX abduction problem into the consistency of the description logic ALC knowledge base and then expands the traditional Tableau tectonic process according to the characteristics of abductive reasoning. Finally the explanation of the abduction problem can be found through a process of backtracking.%鉴于已有的描述逻辑ALC中ABOX反绎推理算法需要转化到FOL上处理,涉及了大量变元和Skolem项的使用.ALC-Tableau可以避免大量变元和斯科伦项,给出了一种直接在ALC上处理ABOX反绎推理问题的算法.该算法将ABOX反绎推理问题转化为知识库的一致性问题,在此基础上结合反绎推理的自身特性对传统的Tableau构造过程进行扩充,最终借助一个回溯过程找出反绎问题的所有解.

  17. Utility of combined hip abduction angle for hip surveillance in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Divecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous hip lateralization complicates the management of non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP. It can be diagnosed early using radiographs, but it involves standardization of positioning and exposure to radiation. Hence, the aim of this study was to assess the utility of Combined hip abduction angle (CHAA in the clinical setting to identify those children with CP who were at greater risk to develop spontaneous progressive hip lateralization. Materials and Methods: One hundred and three children (206 hips with CP formed our study population. There were 48 boys and 55 girls aged 2-11 years (mean 5.03 years. 61 children were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS level 5, while 42 were GMFCS level 4. Clinical measurements of CHAA were statistically correlated with radiographic measurements of Reimer′s migration percentage (MP for bivariate associations using c2 and t tests. Results: CHAA is evaluated against MP which is considered as a reliable measure of hip subluxation. Thus, for CHAA, sensitivity was 74.07% and specificity was 67.35%. False-positive rate was 32.65% and false-negative rate was 25.93%. Conclusions: Our study shows that correlation exists between CHAA and MP, which has been proved to be useful for hip screening in CP children at risk of hip dislocation. CHAA is an easy, rapid, cost-effective clinical test which can be performed by paraclinical health practitioners (physiotherapists and orthopedic surgeons.

  18. The Abduction of Geographic Information Science: Transporting Spatial Reasoning to the Realm of Purpose and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couclelis, Helen

    People intuitively understand that function and purpose are critical parts of what human-configured entities are about, but these notions have proved difficult to capture formally. Even though most geographical landscapes bear traces of human purposes, visibly expressed in the spatial configurations meant to serve these purposes, the capability of GIS to represent means-ends relationships and to support associated reasoning and queries is currently quite limited. This is because spatial thinking as examined and codified in geographic information science is overwhelmingly of the descriptive, analytic kind that underlies traditional science, where notions of means and ends play a negligible role. This paper argues for the need to expand the reach of formalized spatial thinking to also encompass the normative, synthetic kinds of reasoning characterizing planning, engineering and the design sciences in general. Key elements in a more comprehensive approach to spatial thinking would be the inclusion of abductive modes of inference along with the deductive and inductive ones, and the development of an expanded geographic ontology that integrates analysis and synthesis, form and function, landscape and purpose, description and design.

  19. Abduction and external rotation (ABER) MR arthrography of the shoulder. Benefits and limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa, A.; Gokan, Takehiko; Munechika, Hirotsugu; Ogawa, Takashi [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; El-Feky, A.A.

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to show the benefits and limitations of using abduction and external rotation (ABER) positions of the arm during MR arthrography of the shoulder in the evaluation of the rotator-cuff tendon, the capsulolabral complex and the shoulder joint after surgery. Forty-seven patients complaining of either shoulder instability, chronic shoulder pain, pain of unknown cause or pain following shoulder surgery were studied using the direct MR arthrography technique in both the standard neutral position with the arm adducted as well as with the arm in the ABER position. A correlation was obtained between the MR arthrography findings and the surgical findings in 10 reports and clinical presentations of the examined patients. Three patients [6%] were unable to perform ABER positioning. ABER oblique axial images were better than standard oblique coronal images in revealing undersurface tears of the rotator cuff particularly of the grade I type. Four tears were missed in standard images. Oblique axial images were better than standard axial images in demonstrating non-displaced anterior labral tears. One tear was missed and two tears were suspected in the standard images. Oblique axial images were less sensitive than oblique coronal images in the diagnosis of superior labral tears. Two tears were missed in ABER images. The ABER oblique axial MR arthrogram is a useful adjunct to the standard axial and oblique coronal MR arthrograms for assessment of capsulolabral abnormalities and rotator-cuff tendon tears despite some limitations. (author)

  20. 一种基于TC-CPN的城轨列车车门故障溯因诊断方法%An Abductive Diagnosis Method for Urban Rail Train Door Faults Based on Cyber Petri Net of Time Constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈碧波; 佘维; 叶阳东; 贾利民

    2016-01-01

    本文针对城轨列车车门开门控制系统故障诊断问题,定义一种时间约束自控Petri网(TC-CPN),提出一种故障溯因诊断方法.该方法主要依据捕获的故障表征和监控系统采集的状态与时间信息进行诊断分析.该Petri网引入时序一致性判定函数,定义相对应的变迁触发规则.通过对捕获的时间信息进行计算和溯因推理,分析系统可能存在的故障源或隐患.应用算例表明,时间约束自控Petri网对城轨列车车门开门控制系统的建模有效,时间约束为系统故障溯因诊断提供了时间层面的有力证据.该方法对于此类控制系统故障诊断问题具有一定的普适性.%Aiming at the fault diagnosis of on-off control system of urban rail train doors ,an abductive fault di-agnosis method was proposed by defining a novel type of Cyber Petri Net of Time Constraint (TC-CPN) .Diag-nostic analysis was carried out with the proposed method ,based on the captured fault characterization and the status and time information collected by the monitoring system .The Petri net adopted the judgment function of temporal consistency and defined the corresponding transition firing rules .By calculation and abductive reason-ing of the captured time information ,the fault origins or the potential problems that may remain in the control system were analyzed .The sample application showed that the TC-CPN was effective to model the on-off con-trol system of the doors of urban rail trains ,while time constraint provided strong evidence for fault abductive diagnosis in terms of time .The proposed method suggested general applicability to such fault diagnosis prob-lems of control systems .

  1. On the Abduction of Pragmaticism%论实效主义的探效逻辑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯华庆

    2010-01-01

    @@ 实效主义不是一种形而上学原理,而是一种逻辑方法,即探效逻辑--这是实效主义哲学创始人皮尔斯的基本观点:"如果你仔细考虑实效主义的问题,你会发现除了探效逻辑(logic of abduction)的问题外就再也没有什么."(Peirce,p.121)另一方面,皮尔斯把逻辑归为规范科学的一种.规范科学是研究与目的有关的现象的:"规范科学是区分什么是好的和什么是坏的的理论研究.三个规范科学分别为逻辑学、伦理学和美学."(ibid,p.26)皮尔斯甚至把逻辑学看成是伦理学的一个特殊分支,而伦理学又是美学的一个特殊分支.(ibid,pp.70-71)迄今为止,这些使哲学界和逻辑学界诧异的论述并未得到很好的阐释.本文试图从皮尔斯实效主义的哲学体系出发,来建构实效主义的逻辑,即探效逻辑.

  2. 基于模型预测和溯因推理网络的电网故障诊断方法%Method of Power Grid Fault Diagnosis Based on Model Prediction and Abductive Reasoning Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓琴; 王大志; 张翠玲; 宁一

    2016-01-01

    Considering the power grid fault,the diagnostic information redundancy is low based only on protective relays and circuit breakers(switch)for diagnosis,and the accuracy of diagnosis will be affected under complex fault cases.The electric data information was introduced to propose the model prediction and data cleaning method,as well as to establish the power network fault diagnosis system.By using the model to predict the electric quantity information accurately, the cleaning rules and the logical inference rules were established,and the data cleaning and verification of the switch were carried out respectively.On this basis,the abductive reasoning network (ARN )was used to diagnose the fault information,and the candidate faults were obtained.The simulation results verified the validity and accuracy of this method.%考虑电网出现故障时,仅依靠开关量状态信息进行诊断,诊断信息冗余度低,复杂故障情况下会影响诊断结果的准确性。引入电气量信息,提出了模型预测和数据清洗方法,建立电网故障诊断系统。利用模型预测得到准确的电气量信息,建立清洗规则和逻辑推理规则,分别对开关量进行数据清洗和验证故障信息。在此基础上,利用溯因推理网络(abductive reasoning network,ARN)对故障信息进行诊断,得出候选故障。仿真结果验证了该方法的有效性和准确性。

  3. The effect of hip abduction on the EMG activity of vastus medialis obliquus, vastus lateralis longus and vastus lateralis obliquus in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arakaki Juliano

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Controlled laboratory study. Objectives The purposes of this paper were to investigate (d whether vastus medialis obliquus (VMO, vastus lateralis longus (VLL and vastus lateralis obliquus (VLO EMG activity can be influenced by hip abduction performed by healthy subjects. Background Some clinicians contraindicate hip abduction for patellofemoral patients (with based on the premise that hip abduction could facilitate the VLL muscle activation leading to a VLL and VMO imbalance Methods and measures Twenty-one clinically healthy subjects were involved in the study, 10 women and 11 men (aged X = 23.3 ± 2.9. The EMG signals were collected using a computerized EMG VIKING II, with 8 channels and three pairs of surface electrodes. EMG activity was obtained from MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in a seated position and MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° with patients in side-lying position with the knee in full extension. The data were normalized in the MVIC knee extension at 50° of flexion in a seated position, and were submitted to ANOVA test with subsequent application of the Bonferroni multiple comparisons analysis test. The level of significance was defined as p ≤ 0.05. Results The VLO muscle demonstrated a similar pattern to the VMO muscle showing higher EMG activity in MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion compared with MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction for male (p Conclusion The results showed that no selective EMG activation was observed when comparison was made between the VMO, VLL and VLO muscles while performing MVIC hip abduction at 0° and 30° of abduction and MVIC knee extension at 90° of flexion in both male and female subjects. Our findings demonstrate that hip abduction do not facilitated VLL and VLO activity in relation to the VMO, however, this study included only healthy subjects performing maximum voluntary isometric contraction contractions, therefore much remains to be discovered by

  4. The clash of legal cultures over the ‘best interests of the child’ principle in cases of international parental child abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wibo van Rossum

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Because of the increase in international love traffic, transnational problems in divorce, maintenance issues, visitation rights, custody over children, and cases of child abduction are here to stay. A clash of cultures is obvious in international child abduction cases in which Islamic legal cultures are involved, because ‘the best interests of the child’ principle as mentioned in several treaties functions as a site of struggle. This paper shows, firstly, in what ways the clash manifests itself by describing abduction cases in which Dutch legal professionals become involved, and how they act in such cases. The second part of the paper takes a look underneath the surface of legal practice in order to better understand it and to trace possible future developments. I describe the developments in the Dutch legal profession, such as how legal professionals keep their ‘cultural knowledge’ up to date, and whether they develop alternative ways to deal with culture clashes in child abduction cases. Developments seem to be haphazard and piecemeal in the form of knowledge and network development, court-annexed mediation, and specialized liaison judges. These developments do lead to a broadening of horizons, but not necessarily to a consensus handshake between legal cultures. A solid ‘stalemate’ in actual abduction cases can usually be prevented because Dutch legal professionals search for pragmatic solutions in individual cases.

  5. Diagnostic and interventional radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J. [Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie; Reith, Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Rummeny, Ernst J. (ed.) [Technische Univ. Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiologie

    2016-08-01

    This exceptional book covers all aspects of diagnostic and interventional radiology within one volume, at a level appropriate for the specialist. From the basics through diagnosis to intervention: the reader will find a complete overview of all areas of radiology. The clear, uniform structure, with chapters organized according to organ system, facilitates the rapid retrieval of information. Features include: Presentation of the normal radiological anatomy Classification of the different imaging procedures according to their diagnostic relevance Imaging diagnosis with many reference images Precise description of the interventional options The inclusion of many instructive aids will be of particular value to novices in decision making: Important take home messages and summaries of key radiological findings smooth the path through the jungle of facts Numerous tables on differential diagnosis and typical findings in the most common diseases offer a rapid overview and orientation Diagnostic flow charts outline the sequence of diagnostic evaluation All standard procedures within the field of interventional radiology are presented in a clinically relevant and readily understandable way, with an abundance of illustrations. This is a textbook, atlas, and reference in one: with more than 2500 images for comparison with the reader's own findings. This comprehensive and totally up-to-date book provides a superb overview of everything that the radiology specialist of today needs to know.

  6. Effects of stance width on postural movement pattern and anticipatory postural control associated with unilateral arm abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Katsuo; Tomita, Hidehito; Kurokawa, Nozomi; Asai, Hitoshi; Maeda, Kaoru

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effects of stance width on postural movement pattern and activation timing of postural muscles during unilateral arm abduction. Thirty-two healthy subjects abducted the right arm at their own timing. Stance width was 0, 9, 18 or 27 cm. Movement angles of leg lateral inclination and trunk lateral flexion to the leg in the frontal plane were analyzed. Based on movement angles at 0 cm width, subjects were classified into three groups: contralateral whole body leaning (CWBLg); ipsilateral trunk flexion (ITFg); and contralateral trunk flexion (CTFg). A high correlation between the movement angles was obtained at 0 cm width (r=0.82). With increasing stance width, postural movement pattern in the ITFg shifted to patterns characterized by lateral flexion of the trunk toward the side opposite to arm movement, and movement angle of leg-inclination in ITFg and CWBLg decreased. At 0 cm width, left gluteus medius and tensor fascia latae were activated significantly about 40 ms ahead of the right middle deltoid in CWBLg and CTFg, but not in ITFg. However, preceding activation became prominent (about 20 ms) in ITFg for wide stances. Moreover, bilateral activation of the tensor fascia latae was observed in CTFg for all widths.

  7. Biomechanical Comparison of the Latarjet Procedure with and without Capsular Repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Matthew T.; Payne, William B.; McGarry, Michelle H.; Tibone, James E.; Lee, Thay Q.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine if capsular repair used in conjunction with the Latarjet procedure results in significant alterations in glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation. Methods Glenohumeral rotational range of motion and translation were measured in eight cadaveric shoulders in 90° of abduction in both the scapular and coronal planes under the following four conditions: intact glenoid, 20% bony Bankart lesion, modified Latarjet without capsular r...

  8. [Ultrasound diagnostics in ophthalmology (standardized echography): part 2: diseases of the orbit - ultrasound biomicroscopy diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenfratz, G; Mardin, C

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound diagnostics have been one of the most important noninvasive supplementary diagnostic procedures in ophthalmology for many decades and are indispensable for many intraocular and orbital diseases. When the echography examination and analysis of the echograms obtained are correctly carried out, ultrasound diagnostics are characterized by a high measure of specificity and sensitivity.

  9. Astrovirus Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérot, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Eloit, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Various methods exist to detect an astrovirus infection. Current methods include electron microscopy (EM), cell culture, immunoassays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and various other molecular approaches that can be applied in the context of diagnostic or in surveillance studies. With the advent of metagenomics, novel human astrovirus (HAstV) strains have been found in immunocompromised individuals in association with central nervous system (CNS) infections. This work reviews the past and current methods for astrovirus detection and their uses in both research laboratories and for medical diagnostic purposes. PMID:28085120

  10. Increase in twitch force of the adductor pollicis muscle with stabilized preload at constant thumb abduction before and after administration of muscle relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH; Fidler, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the twitch force of the adductor pollicis remains stable when 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation is started after stabilization of the thumb preload at a constant degree of thumb abduction; also to study any possible increase in twitch force before the onset of and afte

  11. High Eccentric Hip Abduction Strength Reduces the Risk of Developing Patellofemoral Pain Among Novice Runners Initiating a Self-Structured Running Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramskov, Daniel; Barton, Christian; Nielsen, R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Observational prospective cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Objectives To investigate the relationship between eccentric hip abduction strength and the development of patellofemoral pain (PFP) in novice runners, during a self-structured running regime. Background Recent research in...

  12. Arguing at Play in the Fields of the Lord; or, Abducting Charles Peirce's Rhetorical Theory in "A Neglected Argument for the Reality of God"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article argues that the ideas of "play" and "abduction" in Charles Peirce's work represent an inventive theory of argument that opens up the kinds of activities that can be called "arguments" and avoids some of the struggles over imposed beliefs with which recent argument theory has grappled. (Contains 12 notes.)

  13. How can Teachers Help Students Formulate Scientific Hypotheses? Some Strategies Found in Abductive Inquiry Activities of Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Phil Seok

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to find how the teacher could help students formulate scientific hypotheses. Data came from two microteaching episodes in which two groups of pre-service secondary science teachers taught high school students as they were engaged in abductive inquiry activities of earth science. Multiple data sources including video recordings of the microteaching, the pre-service teachers' oral and written reports, student worksheets, and instructional materials were examined. The analysis identified four categories of teaching strategies which could be used by science teachers to help students in hypothesis-generating inquiry. These included: (1) expanding and activating students' background knowledge, (2) providing analogies, (3) questioning, and (4) encouraging students to use alternative forms of representation. Implications for science education as well as for further research are suggested.

  14. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Hamish R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

  15. The effect of geometry and abduction angle on the stresses in cemented UHMWPE acetabular cups – finite element simulations and experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santavirta Seppo S

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contact pressure of UHMWPE acetabular cup has been shown to correlate with wear in total hip replacement (THR. The aim of the present study was to test the hypotheses that the cup geometry, abduction angle, thickness and clearance can modify the stresses in cemented polyethylene cups. Methods Acetabular cups with different geometries (Link®: IP and Lubinus eccentric were tested cyclically in a simulator at 45° and 60° abduction angles. Finite element (FE meshes were generated and two additional designs were reconstructed to test the effects of the cup clearance and thickness. Contact pressures at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces were calculated as a function of loading force at 45°, 60° and 80° abduction angles. Results At the cup-head interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures than the Lubinus eccentric at low loading forces. However, at higher loading forces, much higher contact pressures were produced on the surface of IP cup. An increase in the abduction angle increased contact pressure in the IP model, but this did not occur to any major extent with the Lubinus eccentric model. At the cup-cement interface, IP experienced lower contact pressures. Increased clearance between cup and head increased contact pressure both at cup-head and cup-cement interfaces, whereas a decreased thickness of polyethylene layer increased contact pressure only at the cup-cement interface. FE results were consistent with experimental tests and acetabular cup deformations. Conclusion FE analyses showed that geometrical design, thickness and abduction angle of the acetabular cup, as well as the clearance between the cup and head do change significantly the mechanical stresses experienced by a cemented UHMWPE acetabular cup. These factors should be taken into account in future development of THR prostheses. FE technique is a useful tool with which to address these issues.

  16. The wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb (WHAT) test: a more specific and sensitive test to diagnose de Quervain tenosynovitis than the Eichhoff's Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goubau, J F; Goubau, L; Van Tongel, A; Van Hoonacker, P; Kerckhove, D; Berghs, B

    2014-03-01

    De Quervain's disease has different clinical features. Different tests have been described in the past, the most popular test being the Eichhoff's test, often wrongly named as the Finkelstein's test. Over the years, a misinterpretation has occurred between these two tests, the latter being confused with the first. To compare the Eichhoff's test with a new test, the wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test, we set up a prospective study over a period of three years for a cohort of 100 patients (88 women, 12 men) presenting spontaneous pain over the radial side of the styloid of the radius (de Quervain tendinopathy). The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the Eichhoff's test and wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test to diagnose correctly de Quervain's disease by comparing clinical findings using those tests with the results on ultrasound. The wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test revealed greater sensitivity (0.99) and an improved specificity (0.29) together with a slightly better positive predictive value (0.95) and an improved negative predictive value (0.67). Moreover, the study showed us that the wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test is very valuable in diagnosing dynamic instability after successful decompression of the first extensor compartment. Our results support that the wrist hyperflexion and abduction of the thumb test is a more precise tool for the diagnosis of de Quervain's disease than the Eichhoff's test and thus could be adopted to guide clinical diagnosis in the early stages of de Quervain's tendinopathy.

  17. [Diagnostic approach to infectious endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parize, Perrine; Mainardi, Jean-Luc

    2012-04-01

    Major advances in imaging and microbiological procedures have changed the diagnostic approach of infective endocarditis. New imaging tools have improved the search of local complications, systemic embolism and diagnosis of infection of cardiac devices. Moreover, microbiological diagnosis has been transformed by molecular techniques as long as these procedures have highlighted microorganisms thus far neglected by classical techniques. Despite these advances, endocarditis remained a clinical diagnosis which still depends on a high index of clinical suspicion.

  18. Kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the normal shoulder: assessment of the shapes and signals of the superior and inferior labra with abductive movement using an open-type imager.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Togami I

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the superior and inferior glenoid labra with abductive movement using an open-type MR unit in asymptomatic healthy volunteers. Both fast low angle shot (FLASH and turbo spin echo (TSE images were obtained to evaluate the shapes of both the superior and inferior labra, as well as to assess changes in signal at these sites. As the abduction angle was increased, the shape of the superior labrum changed from round or triangular to crescentic and a higher signal was frequently seen. At an abduction angle of 150 degrees, an increase in signal was seen in one-half of the superior labra; this increase was noted more frequently in volunteers over 40 years of age. In some of the superior labra, the increase in signal seen at 150 degrees abduction disappeared on subsequent images obtained at 0 degrees abduction. Hence, the increase in signal was considered to be a reversible change. The shape of the inferior labrum tended to change from crescentic to triangular or round. An increase in signal in the inferior labrum was unrelated to the abduction angle. Abductive kinematic studies using an open-type MR unit provides information about the morphology of the superior and inferior labra, as well as information about signal changes occurring at these sites.

  19. Kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the normal shoulder. Assessment of the shapes and signals of the superior and inferior labra with abductive movement using an open-type imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togami, Izumi; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsunoda, Masatoshi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] (and others)

    2001-08-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the superior and inferior glenoid labra with abductive movement using an open-type MR unit in asymptomatic healthy volunteers. Both fast low angle shot (FLASH) and turbo spin echo (TSE) images were obtained to evaluate the shapes of both the superior and inferior labra, as well as to assess changes in signal at these sites. As the abduction angle was increased, the shape of the superior labrum changed from round or triangular to crescentic and a higher signal was frequently seen. At an abduction angle of 150deg, an increase in signal was seen in one-half of the superior labra; this increase was noted more frequently in volunteers over 40 years of age. In some of the superior labra, the increase in signal seen at 150deg abduction disappeared on subsequent images obtained at 0deg abduction. Hence, the increase in signal was considered to be a reversible change. The shape of the inferior labrum tended to change from crescentic to triangular or round. An increase in signal in the inferior labrum was unrelated to the abduction angle. Abductive kinematic studies using an open-type MR unit provides information about the morphology of the superior and inferior labra, as well as information about signal changes occurring at these sites. (author)

  20. Diagnostic Research : improvements in design and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    In the era of evidence-based medicine, diagnostic procedures also need to undergo critical evaluations. In contrast to guidelines for randomised trials and observational etiologic studies, principles and methods for diagnostic evaluations are still incomplete. The research described in this thesis w

  1. Effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support on shoulder and scapular muscle activity and maximum strength during isometric shoulder abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-jeong; Kim, Suhn-yeop; Oh, Duck-won

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of augmented trunk stabilization with external compression support (ECS) on the electromyography (EMG) activity of shoulder and scapular muscles and shoulder abductor strength during isometric shoulder abduction. Twenty-six women volunteered for the study. Surface EMG was used to monitor the activity of the upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), serratus anterior (SA), and middle deltoid (MD), and shoulder abductor strength was measured using a dynamometer during three experimental conditions: (1) no external support (condition-1), (2) pelvic support (condition-2), and (3) pelvic and thoracic supports (condition-3) in an active therapeutic movement device. EMG activities were significantly lower for UT and higher for MD during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p Shoulder abductor strength was significantly higher during condition 3 than during condition 1 (p shoulder abduction and increasing shoulder abductor strength.

  2. The effects of performing a one-legged bridge with hip abduction and use of a sling on trunk and lower extremity muscle activation in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyuju; Bak, Jongwoo; Cho, Minkwon; Chung, Yijung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the changes in the muscle activities of the trunk and lower limbs of healthy adults during a one-legged bridge exercise using a sling, and with the addition of hip abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-seven healthy individuals participated in this study (14 males and 13 females). The participants were instructed to perform the bridge exercises under five different conditions. Trunk and lower limb muscle activation of the erector spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), gluteus maximus (GM), and biceps femoris (BF) was measured using surface electromyography. Data analysis was performed using the mean scores of three trials performed under each condition. [Results] There was a significant increase in bilateral EO and contralateral GM with the one-legged bridge compared with the one-legged bridge with sling exercise. Muscle activation of the ipsilateral GM and BF was significantly less during the one-legged bridge exercise compared to the one-legged bridge with sling exercise, and was significantly greater during the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of the contralateral GM and BF was significantly greater with the one-legged bridge with hip abduction compared to the general bridge exercise. [Conclusion] With the one-legged bridge with hip abduction, the ipsilateral EO, GM and BF muscle activities were significantly greater than those of the one-legged bridge exercise. The muscle activation of all trunk and contralateral lower extremity muscles increased with the bridge with sling exercises compared with general bridge exercises. PMID:27799708

  3. PROcess Based Diagnostics PROBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, T.; Schmidt, G.; Kuo, K.; Bauer, M.; Oloso, H.

    2013-01-01

    Many of the aspects of the climate system that are of the greatest interest (e.g., the sensitivity of the system to external forcings) are emergent properties that arise via the complex interplay between disparate processes. This is also true for climate models most diagnostics are not a function of an isolated portion of source code, but rather are affected by multiple components and procedures. Thus any model-observation mismatch is hard to attribute to any specific piece of code or imperfection in a specific model assumption. An alternative approach is to identify diagnostics that are more closely tied to specific processes -- implying that if a mismatch is found, it should be much easier to identify and address specific algorithmic choices that will improve the simulation. However, this approach requires looking at model output and observational data in a more sophisticated way than the more traditional production of monthly or annual mean quantities. The data must instead be filtered in time and space for examples of the specific process being targeted.We are developing a data analysis environment called PROcess-Based Explorer (PROBE) that seeks to enable efficient and systematic computation of process-based diagnostics on very large sets of data. In this environment, investigators can define arbitrarily complex filters and then seamlessly perform computations in parallel on the filtered output from their model. The same analysis can be performed on additional related data sets (e.g., reanalyses) thereby enabling routine comparisons between model and observational data. PROBE also incorporates workflow technology to automatically update computed diagnostics for subsequent executions of a model. In this presentation, we will discuss the design and current status of PROBE as well as share results from some preliminary use cases.

  4. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  5. Impairment-Based 3-D Robotic Intervention Improves Upper Extremity Work Area in Chronic Stroke: Targeting Abnormal Joint Torque Coupling With Progressive Shoulder Abduction Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Michael D.; Sukal-Moulton, Theresa M.; Dewald, Julius P. A.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of a robotic system (ACT3D) that allowed for a quantitative measurement of abnormal joint torque coupling in chronic stroke survivors and, most importantly, a quantitative means of initiating and progressing an impairment-based intervention, is described. Individuals with chronic moderate to severe stroke (n = 8) participated in this single-group pretest-posttest design study. Subjects were trained over eight weeks by progressively increasing the level of shoulder abduction loading experienced by the participant during reaching repetitions as performance improved. Reaching work area was evaluated pre- and postintervention for ten different shoulder abduction loading levels along with isometric single-joint strength and a qualitative clinical assessment of impairment. There was a significant effect of session (pre versus post) with an increase in reaching work area, despite no change in single-joint strength. This data suggests that specifically targeting the abnormal joint torque coupling impairment through progressive shoulder abduction loading is an effective strategy for improving reaching work area following hemiparetic stroke. Application of robotics, namely, the ACT3D, allowed for quantitative control of the exercise parameters needed to directly target the synergistic coupling impairment. The targeted reduction of abnormal joint torque coupling is likely the key factor explaining the improvements in reaching range of motion achieved with this intervention. PMID:20657711

  6. Training for advanced endoscopic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurer, Matthew E; Draganov, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    Advanced endoscopy has evolved from diagnostic ERCP to an ever-increasing array of therapeutic procedures including EUS with FNA, ablative therapies, deep enteroscopy, luminal stenting, endoscopic suturing and endoscopic mucosal resection among others. As these procedures have become increasingly more complex, the risk of potential complications has also risen. Training in advanced endoscopy involves more than obtaining a minimum number of therapeutic procedures. The means of assessing a trainee's competence level and ability to practice independently continues to be a matter of debate. The use of quality indicators to measure performance levels may be beneficial as more advanced techniques and procedures become available.

  7. Investigation on application frequency of diagnostic X-ray procedures in 2009 in Jinshan medical institutions, Shanghai%上海市金山区医疗机构2009年X射线诊断的应用频率调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊哲优; 王丽华

    2012-01-01

    目的 掌握金山区医疗机构X射线诊断设备及应用频率情况.方法 采用横断面流行病学研究方法,以调查表形式对金山区28家X射线诊断单位进行全面调查.结果 金山区2009年共有各类X射线诊断设备79台,全区常住人口平均拥有X射线诊断设备量为1.14台/万人.X射线诊断应用频率为612.70人次/千人口.其中,胸部摄影、X-CT检查、四肢及关节摄影、胸部透视、脊柱摄影等频率较高,分别占27.94%、22.78%、17.91%、15.03%、10.22%.受检者以男性为主,年龄分布以> 40岁年龄组为最高.结论 较全面地掌握了金山区2009年X射线诊断的应用频率,为加强放射诊疗单位的监督管理及强化医疗照射的放射防护与安全提供了科学依据.%OBJECTIVE To determine the X-ray equipments and the frequency distribution of medical exposure of diagnostic X-ray procedures in Jinshan Medical institutions. METHODS A cross-sectional study was conducted on 28 X-ray diagnostic institutions in Jinshan district by collecting the questionnaires. RESULTS A total of 79 sets of X-ray equipments were engaged in X-ray diagnostic radiology in 2009 in Jinshan district. There were 1.14 sets per 10 thousand resident population, and the total frequency of diagnostic X-ray procedures was 612.70 patients per 1 000 persons. Higher frequencies were found in chest radiography, X-ray CT scans, limbs and joints radiography, chest fluoroscopy, as well as vertebrarium radiography, with the percentages of 27.94% , 22.78% , 17.91% , 15.03% and 10.22% , respectively. Diagnostic X-ray procedure was frequent in men, and older than 40-year-old group was the highest one. CONCLUSION In this study, the frequency of medical exposure of diagnostic X-ray procedures in Jinshan district is determined. This provides scientific bases for strengthening the supervision and administration of X-ray diagnostic institutions and radiation protection.

  8. How nova endoscopic procedures altered the diagnostic and therapeutic modality of early gastrointestinal cancer%消化内镜技术用于消化道早癌诊断治疗价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙曦; 王向东; 卢忠生; 令狐恩强; 王淑芳; 杨竞; 杜红; 孟江云; 王红斌

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨内镜新技术用于消化道早癌诊治临床价值.方法 应用解放军总医院内镜中心数据库系统,对2002-2011年消化内镜检查数据进行统计分析,探讨消化道早癌的诊断及治疗最佳方式.结果 近十年来,随着内镜新技术的不断应用,解放军总医院消化内镜中心对消化道早癌的检出率逐年上升,由最初2002年的0.90%上升至2011年的2.02%.自2006年至2011年,共871例消化道早癌接受内镜治疗,其中分别有207例早期食管癌、429例早期胃癌及235例早期大肠癌,内镜根治切除的比例分别为37.8%(207/547),36.7%(429/1167)和40.2%(235/584),其中239例使用内镜下黏膜切除术(EMR)或内镜下分次切除术(EMPR)术,542例使用内镜下黏膜剥离术(ESD)术治疗,术前使用内镜新技术的诊断准确率为97.5%(849/871).使用内镜治疗的病变的平均尺寸为:早期食管癌2.59 cm×1.91 cm,早期胃癌2.98 cm×2.18 cm,早期大肠癌3.37 cm×2.21 cm.结论 消化内镜新诊治技术的出现不但明显提高了消化道早癌的检出率、同时深刻改变了消化道早癌的治疗模式.%Objective To make an analysis on how new endoscopic techniques and procedures influence the detection rate and therapeutic modality choice of early gastrointestinal cancer. Methods We entered the data base of Chinese PLA's General Hospital's endoscopy center, searching all the data for the last decade (2002 2011). Data were later analyzed and compared. Results During the last decade, the detection rate of early gastrointestinal cancer in Chinese PLA's General Hospital had been increasing, from 0. 90% (2002) to 2. 02% (2011). Since 2006, when new endoscopic therapeutic means were first introduced to our center, a total of 871 patients were treated endoscopically, 329 of which were through EMR or EPMR means and 542 were using ESD. The rate of endoscopic therapy were 37. 8% (207/547) for early esophageal cancer, 36. 7% (429/1167)for early

  9. Defining Characteristics of Diagnostic Classification Models and the Problem of Retrofitting in Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Cui, Ying

    2008-01-01

    One promising application of diagnostic classification models (DCM) is in the area of cognitive diagnostic assessment in education. However, the successful application of DCM in educational testing will likely come with a price--and this price may be in the form of new test development procedures and practices required to yield data that satisfy…

  10. Distribution of certain drug products by registered blood establishments and comprehensive hemophilia diagnostic treatment centers that qualify as health care entities; Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements and administrative procedures. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending its regulations to allow certain registered blood establishments and comprehensive hemophilia diagnostic treatment centers that are also health care entities to distribute certain drug products. The final rule amends limited provisions of the regulations implementing the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA). These regulations, among other things, restrict the sale, purchase, or trade of, or the offer to sell, purchase, or trade, prescription drugs purchased by hospitals and other health care entities.

  11. Diagnostic and forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galey, F D

    1995-12-01

    In most competent veterinary diagnostic laboratories, analytical findings are interpreted by the veterinary toxicologist to determine the significance of the finding in view of historic, clinical, and pathologic findings. A veterinary toxicologist also will provide consultation about possible toxic rule-outs for a case, treatment of affected animals, and prevention of additional cases. Once all of the information is available, a complete summary of the findings can be provided to the client. When the procedures outlined are followed, including a systematic approach to collecting all the evidence (historic, clinical, pathologic, and analytic), proper sampling techniques, and good communication between the clinician and the client and laboratory, the usefulness of the toxicology investigation will be maximized.

  12. Diagnostic approaches for cholangiocarcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinomas arise from the epithelial cells of the bile ducts and are associated with poor prognosis. Despite new diagnostic approaches, the definite diagnosis of this malignancy continues to be challenging. Cholangiocarcinomas often grow longitudinally along the bile duct rather than in a radial direction. Thus, large tumor masses are frequently absent and imaging techniques, including ultrasound, CT, and MRI have only limited sensitivity. Tissue collection during endoscopic (ERCP) and/or percutaneous transhepatic (PTC) procedures are usually used to confirm a definitive diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. However, forceps biopsy and brush cytology provide positive results for malignancy in about only 50% of patients. Percutaneous and peroral cholangioscopy using fiber-optic techniques were therefore developed for direct visualization of the biliary tree, yielding additional information about endoscopic appearance and tumor extension, as well as a guided biopsy acquistion. Finally, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) complements endoscopic and percutaneous approaches and may provide a tissue diagnosis of tumors in the biliary region through fine- needle aspiration. In the future, new techniques allowing for early detection, including molecular markers, should be developed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity in this increasing tumor entity.

  13. Capnografia volumétrica como auxílio diagnóstico não-invasivo no tromboembolismo pulmonar agudo Volumetric capnography as a noninvasive diagnostic procedure in acute pulmonary thromboembolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Mello Moreira

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O tromboembolismo pulmonar é uma situação freqüente que pode ser diagnosticada pela cintilografia pulmonar, angiotomografia computadorizada, arteriografia pulmonar e, como método de exclusão, dosagem do dímero-D. Como estes exames nem sempre estão disponíveis, a validação de outros métodos diagnósticos é fundamental. Relata-se o caso de uma paciente com hipertensão pulmonar crônica, agudizada por tromboembolismo pulmonar. Confirmou-se o diagnóstico por cintilografia, angiotomografia computadorizada, arteriografia pulmonar; a dosagem do dímero-D resultou positiva. A capnografia volumétrica associada à gasometria arterial foi realizada na admissão e após o tratamento. As variáveis obtidas foram comparadas com os resultados dos exames de imagem.Pulmonary thromboembolism is a common condition. Its diagnosis usually requires pulmonary scintigraphy, computed angiotomography, pulmonary arteriography and, in order to rule out other diagnoses, the measurement of D-dimer levels. Due to the fact that these diagnostic methods are not available in most Brazilian hospitals, the validation of other diagnostic techniques is of fundamental importance. We describe a case of a woman with chronic pulmonary hypertension who experienced a pulmonary thromboembolism event. Pulmonary scintigraphy, computed angiotomography and pulmonary arteriography were used in the diagnosis. The D-dimer test result was positive. Volumetric capnography was performed at admission and after treatment. The values obtained were compared with the imaging test results.

  14. Effects of the pelvic compression belt on gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and lumbar multifidus activities during side-lying hip abduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the pelvic compression belt on the electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus medius (GM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and lumbar multifidus (LM) during side-lying hip abduction. Thirty-one volunteers (15 men and 16 women) with no history of pathology volunteered for this study. Subjects were instructed to perform hip abduction in side-lying position with and without applying the pelvic compression belt. The pelvic compression belt was adjusted just below the anterior superior iliac spines with the stabilizing pressure using elastic compression bands. Surface EMG data were collected from the GM, QL, and LM of the dominant limb. Significantly decreased EMG activity in the QL (without the pelvic compression belt, 60.19±23.66% maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; with the pelvic compression belt, 51.44±23.00% MVIC) and significantly increased EMG activity in the GM (without the pelvic compression belt, 26.71±12.88% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 35.02±18.28% MVIC) and in the LM (without the pelvic compression belt, 30.28±14.60% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 37.47±18.94% MVIC) were found when the pelvic compression belt was applied (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences of the EMG activity between male and female subjects. The findings suggest that the pelvic compression belt may be helpful to prevent unwanted substitution movement during side-lying hip abduction, through increasing the GM and LM and decreasing the QL.

  15. A pilot study of a family focused, psychosocial intervention with war-exposed youth at risk of attack and abduction in north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Branham, Lindsay; Shannon, Ciarán; Betancourt, Theresa S; Dempster, Martin; McMullen, John

    2014-07-01

    Rural communities in the Haut-Uele Province of northern Democratic Republic of Congo live in constant danger of attack and/or abduction by units of the Lord's Resistance Army operating in the region. This pilot study sought to develop and evaluate a community-participative psychosocial intervention involving life skills and relaxation training and Mobile Cinema screenings with this war-affected population living under current threat. 159 war-affected children and young people (aged 7-18) from the villages of Kiliwa and Li-May in north-eastern DR Congo took part in this study. In total, 22% of participants had been abduction previously while 73% had a family member abducted. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions, internalising problems, conduct problems and pro-social behaviour were assessed by blinded interviewers at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Participants were randomised (with an accompanying caregiver) to 8 sessions of a group-based, community-participative, psychosocial intervention (n=79) carried out by supervised local, lay facilitators or a wait-list control group (n=80). Average seminar attendance rates were high: 88% for participants and 84% for caregivers. Drop-out was low: 97% of participants were assessed at post-intervention and 88% at 3 month follow-up. At post-test, participants reported significantly fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress reactions compared to controls (Cohen's d=0.40). At 3 month follow up, large improvements in internalising symptoms and moderate improvements in pro-social scores were reported, with caregivers noting a moderate to large decline in conduct problems among the young people. Trial Registration clinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT01542398.

  16. Examination of the torque required to passively palmar abduct the thumb CMC joint in a pediatric population with hemiplegia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Ahmad, Mona Qureshi; Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Correia, Annette

    2015-12-16

    Many activities of daily living involve precision grasping and bimanual manipulation, such as putting toothpaste on a toothbrush or feeding oneself. However, children afflicted by stroke, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury may have lost or never had the ability to actively and accurately control the thumb. To translate insights from adult rehabilitation robotics to innovative therapies for hand rehabilitation in pediatric care, specifically for thumb deformities, an understanding of the torque needed to abduct the thumb to assist grasping tasks is required. Participants (n=16, 10 female, 13.2±3.1 years) had an upper extremity evaluation and measures were made of their passive range of motion, anthropometrics, and torques to abduct the thumb for both their affected and non-affected sides. Torque measures were made using a custom wrist orthosis that was adjusted for each participant. The torque to achieve maximum abduction was 1.47±0.61inlb for the non-affected side and 1.51±0.68inlb for the affected side, with a maximum recorded value of 4.87inlb. The overall maximum applied torque was observed during adduction and was 5.10inlb. We saw variation in the applied torque, which could have been due to the applied torques by the Occupational Therapist or the participant actively assisting or resisting the motion rather than remaining passive. We expect similar muscle and participant variation to exist with an assistive device. Thus, the data presented here can be used to inform the specifications for the development of an assistive thumb orthosis for children with "thumb-in-palm" deformity.

  17. Diagnostic randomized controlled trials: the final frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Marc; Ramsay, Tim; Fergusson, Dean

    2012-08-16

    Clinicians, patients, governments, third-party payers, and the public take for granted that diagnostic tests are accurate, safe and effective. However, we may be seriously misled if we are relying on robust study design to ensure accurate, safe, and effective diagnostic tests. Properly conducted, randomized controlled trials are the gold standard for assessing the effectiveness and safety of interventions, yet are rarely conducted in the assessment of diagnostic tests. Instead, diagnostic cohort studies are commonly performed to assess the characteristics of a diagnostic test including sensitivity and specificity. While diagnostic cohort studies can inform us about the relative accuracy of an experimental diagnostic intervention compared to a reference standard, they do not inform us about whether the differences in accuracy are clinically important, or the degree of clinical importance (in other words, the impact on patient outcomes). In this commentary we provide the advantages of the diagnostic randomized controlled trial and suggest a greater awareness and uptake in their conduct. Doing so will better ensure that patients are offered diagnostic procedures that will make a clinical difference.

  18. Analysis of change in length of glenohumeral ligaments in vivo during shoulder abduction%肩关节外展过程中盂肱韧带长度变化的体内三维分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晨; 齐欣; 宫宇宝; 刘建国

    2009-01-01

    下移的作用.外展60°时,中盂肱韧带稳定着盂肱关节的前方.外展120°时,下盂肱韧带前束发挥了主要的前方稳定作用.当外展至180°时,腋囊维持着盂肱关节前方的稳定,同时下盂肱韧带后束维持着下方的稳定.%° of abduction. AIGHL prevents anterior dislocation of the humeral head at 120° of abduction. In 180° abduction, pouch provided anterior stability and PIGHL has the contribution to the inferior stability.

  19. Interpretation as Abduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    34bridging inference". The fourth example is a determinative definite noun phrase, rather than an anaphoric one; all the information required for its...passing. Charniak (1986) pointed out that marker passing can be viewed as a search through a set of axioms for a proof, where the bindings of variables...possible ways and then to prove its second argument with one of the resulting bindings . The superscripts on the disjuncts are probabilities that result in

  20. Adversarial Geospatial Abduction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Technology, Vol. , No. , 20. 38 · Paulo Shakarian et al. Rossmo, D. K. and Rombouts, S. 2008. Geographic Profiling. In Enviromental Criminology and Crime...mlsapino/Conferma-I-fascia/TIST.pdf). Stollsteimer, J. F. 1963. A Working Model for Plant Numbers and Locations. Journal of Farm Economics 45, 3 (Aug.), 631

  1. Abductive Logic Grammars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Dahl, Veronica

    2009-01-01

    By extending logic grammars with constraint logic, we give them the ability to create knowledge bases that represent the meaning of an input string. Semantic information is thus defined through extra-grammatical means, and a sentence's meaning logically follows as a by-product of string rewriting...

  2. A Framework to Debug Diagnostic Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodal, Anuradha; Robinson, Peter; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Diagnostics is an important concept in system health and monitoring of space operations. Many of the existing diagnostic algorithms utilize system knowledge in the form of diagnostic matrix (D-matrix, also popularly known as diagnostic dictionary, fault signature matrix or reachability matrix) gleaned from physical models. But, sometimes, this may not be coherent to obtain high diagnostic performance. In such a case, it is important to modify this D-matrix based on knowledge obtained from other sources such as time-series data stream (simulated or maintenance data) within the context of a framework that includes the diagnostic/inference algorithm. A systematic and sequential update procedure, diagnostic modeling evaluator (DME) is proposed to modify D-matrix and wrapper logic considering least expensive solution first. This iterative procedure includes conditions ranging from modifying 0s and 1s in the matrix, or adding/removing the rows (failure sources) columns (tests). We will experiment this framework on datasets from DX challenge 2009.

  3. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris: Status Report and FY16 Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced. This is a planning document only.

  4. Dental Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramponi, Denise R

    2016-01-01

    Dental problems are a common complaint in emergency departments in the United States. There are a wide variety of dental issues addressed in emergency department visits such as dental caries, loose teeth, dental trauma, gingival infections, and dry socket syndrome. Review of the most common dental blocks and dental procedures will allow the practitioner the opportunity to make the patient more comfortable and reduce the amount of analgesia the patient will need upon discharge. Familiarity with the dental equipment, tooth, and mouth anatomy will help prepare the practitioner for to perform these dental procedures.

  5. Diagnostic guidlines for occupational epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Krawczyk-Szulc

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Making final decisions on the occupational etiology of musculoskeletal diseases is often difficult and problematic at every stage of the diagnostic procedure. Taking into account the need to facilitate decision-making about the causal relationship between the diagnosed disease entity and the working conditions guidelines for the recognition of work-related musculoskeletal diseases have been developed. This paper presents the guidelines for the diagnosis of occupational etiology of humeral epicondylitis, one of the most common occupational disease of the musculoskeletal system in Poland. The developed guidelines have been based on the literature data concerning occupational risk factors of humeral epicondylitis, workload classification, including repetitive movements, awkward postures, and force. Some criteria applied in ergonomic evaluation methods were also included. The presented diagnostic guidelines define approximate benchmarks for stating (after excluding non-occupational etiology that the identified humeral epicondylitis, is related to the way of working. Crucial work factors that should be analyzed include an operating time of movements overloading tendons connecting to the epicondyle, repetition and force used to perform occupational activities. The developed guidelines are aimed to facilitate occupational physicians diagnostic and certification procedures in case of humeral epicondylitis and determination whether there is a likelihood of its occupational etiology. Med Pr 2015;66(3:443–450

  6. [Diagnostic guidlines for occupational epicondylitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk-Szulc, Patrycja; Wągrowska-Koski, Ewa; Puzder, Anna; Markowski, Przemysław; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Making final decisions on the occupational etiology of musculoskeletal diseases is often difficult and problematic at every stage of the diagnostic procedure. Taking into account the need to facilitate decision-making about the causal relationship between the diagnosed disease entity and the working conditions guidelines for the recognition of work-related musculoskeletal diseases have been developed. This paper presents the guidelines for the diagnosis of occupational etiology of humeral epicondylitis, one of the most common occupational disease of the musculoskeletal system in Poland. The developed guidelines have been based on the literature data concerning occupational risk factors of humeral epicondylitis, workload classification, including repetitive movements, awkward postures, and force. Some criteria applied in ergonomic evaluation methods were also included. The presented diagnostic guidelines define approximate benchmarks for stating (after excluding non-occupational etiology) that the identified humeral epicondylitis, is related to the way of working. Crucial work factors that should be analyzed include an operating time of movements overloading tendons connecting to the epicondyle, repetition and force used to perform occupational activities. The developed guidelines are aimed to facilitate occupational physicians diagnostic and certification procedures in case of humeral epicondylitis and determination whether there is a likelihood of its occupational etiology.

  7. I will follow him through woody mountains and water: Semantic-pragmatic analysis of a formula within the context of consensual abduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubarac-Matić Đorđina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The starting points for this paper are Vuk’s testimony about the bride kidnapping in the Serbia of his time and the formulaic parts of speech pronounced during the trials, which Vuk mentions. Through a semantic-pragmatic analysis of the formulae used in trials, the author draws attention to some indicators of faux archaism perceived in them. A special attention is paid to the formula I will follow him through woody mountains and water, which the girls would pronounce when they wanted to admit their willingness to abduction. In order to reach the full pragmatic function and meaning of this formula within the specific communication context of the trial, the author compares the relevant elements from the Vuk’s testimony with the historical and legal archive materials and traces them further on through the folk songs in which those elements appear. The results of the comparative analysis of those songs, within their own pragmatic contexts, point towards certain mythic patterns related to the idea of fertility. This leads the author to the hypothesis that in the past the marriage by consensual abduction was a recognized institution in the customary law and that this practice had its foothold in mythological ideas and beliefs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog portala ‘Pojmovnik srpske kulture’

  8. The Abduction, Manipulation of Xinjiang Juvenile Delinquency Problem Research%拐骗、操纵新疆籍未成年人违法犯罪问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左晶

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, Xinjiang region a few criminals of abduction,organization,stress Xinjiang juvenile in the mainland in the theft, robbery, drug trafficking and other crimes have become increasingly prominent.In the light of my area the abduction, manipulation of the minor illegal crime characteristic,we should perfect legislation as soon as possible, increase the blow strength of illegal crime organization, improve rescued minor assistance system to protect the legitimate rights and interests of minors in Xinjiang Province, to promote national unity, to safeguard of Xinjiang and the national social security and stability.%近年来,新疆地区少数违法犯罪分子拐骗、组织、胁迫新疆籍未成年人在内地从事扒窃、抢夺、贩毒等违法犯罪情况日益突出,针对我区拐骗、操纵未成年人违法犯罪的特点,应当尽快完善立法,加大对违法犯罪组织的打击力度,完善被解救未成年人的救助体系,切实保护新疆籍未成年人合法权益,增进民族团结,维护新疆和全国社会治安与稳定。

  9. A layered abduction model of perception: Integrating bottom-up and top-down processing in a multi-sense agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, John R.

    1989-01-01

    A layered-abduction model of perception is presented which unifies bottom-up and top-down processing in a single logical and information-processing framework. The process of interpreting the input from each sense is broken down into discrete layers of interpretation, where at each layer a best explanation hypothesis is formed of the data presented by the layer or layers below, with the help of information available laterally and from above. The formation of this hypothesis is treated as a problem of abductive inference, similar to diagnosis and theory formation. Thus this model brings a knowledge-based problem-solving approach to the analysis of perception, treating perception as a kind of compiled cognition. The bottom-up passing of information from layer to layer defines channels of information flow, which separate and converge in a specific way for any specific sense modality. Multi-modal perception occurs where channels converge from more than one sense. This model has not yet been implemented, though it is based on systems which have been successful in medical and mechanical diagnosis and medical test interpretation.

  10. A randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of dietary energy sources, feed supplements, and the presence of super-shedders on the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle using different diagnostic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicchiaro, Natalia; Pearl, David L; McEwen, Scott A; Zerby, Henry N; Fluharty, Francis L; Loerch, Steve C; Kauffman, Michael D; Bard, Jaime L; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Alteration of the gastro-intestinal tract through manipulation of cattle diets has been proposed as a preharvest control measure to reduce fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of the energy source's moisture content (high moisture corn and dry whole-shelled corn), two natural feed supplements (Saccaromyces cerevisiae boulardii CNCM 1079-Levucell and Aspergillus oryzae-Amaferm), and two levels of vitamin A (2200 IU/kg and no supplementation) on the fecal excretion of E. coli O157:H7 in naturally infected cattle. One hundred sixty-eight Angus-cross beef steers were randomly allocated to 24 pens, and each pen was assigned 1 of 12 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by rectoanal mucosal swab (RAMS) and fecal grab samples using immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and standard microbiological techniques. On the basis of multivariable multilevel logistic regression models, we found a statistically significant (p 10(4) colony forming units of E. coli O157:H7 per gram of feces) was present in the pen at the time of testing relative to animals fed high moisture corn and nonexposed to super-shedders. However, in similar models based on RAMS-IMS testing, the effect of corn type on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 varied with the type of feed additive used. Being exposed to a super-shedding pen-mate also increased the odds of being positive to E. coli O157:H7 in the RAMS-IMS models. These models demonstrate that the impact of different supplements may vary with the diagnostic test used, and that further research into the biological significance of differences between RAMS- and fecal-IMS test results is warranted.

  11. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  12. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) will develop a diagnostic system in response to SBIR Topic X10.01 Reusable Diagnostic Lab Technology that will simultaneously detect and...

  13. 42 CFR 410.32 - Diagnostic x-ray tests, diagnostic laboratory tests, and other diagnostic tests: Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in section 1861(ll)(3) of the Act. (iii) Diagnostic psychological testing services when— (A... Procedural Terminology published by the American Medical Association. (3) Levels of supervision. Except where... consideration current rules and regulations on patient confidentiality. (4) Automatic denial and manual...

  14. Interventional procedures in the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer Torrubiano, I; Sánchez González, M

    2016-05-01

    Many thoracic conditions will require an interventional procedure for diagnosis and/or treatment. For this reason, radiologists need to know the indications and the technique for each procedure. In this article, we review the various interventional procedures that radiologists should know and the indications for each procedure. We place special emphasis on the potential differences in the diagnostic results and complications between fine-needle aspiration and biopsy. We also discuss the indications for radiofrequency ablation of lung tumors and review the concepts related to the drainage of pulmonary abscesses. We devote special attention to the management of pleural effusion, covering the indications for thoracocentesis and when to use imaging guidance, and to the protocol for pleural drainage. We also discuss the indications for percutaneous treatment of pericardial effusion and the possible complications of this treatment. Finally, we discuss the interventional management of mediastinal lesions and provide practical advice about how to approach these lesions to avoid serious complications.

  15. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2012-02-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  16. Interventional chest procedures in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morgan, Ross K

    2011-03-01

    Interventional pulmonology encompasses diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic procedures, and pleural interventions. In the last 10 years older techniques have been refined and exciting new technologies have extended the reach and application of the instruments used. The main areas within pulmonary medicine for which these interventions have a role are malignant and nonmalignant airway disease, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, and artificial airways. There are no data from well-designed prospective trials to guide recommendations for interventional pulmonary procedures in pregnancy. The recommendations provided in this article are based on critical review of reported case series, opinion from recognized experts, and personal observations.

  17. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    vahid karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging produce tremendous outcomes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Nowadays, more than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures are perform around the world. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. It is estimated that radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and united states of America, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing of x-ray procedures during two past decades and also reports of the substantial fraction of patients undergoing multiple x-ray procedures have been concerned due to the deterministic and stochastic effects of ionizing radiations. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Obtain to the desirable image quality associated with reduce radiation dose to patients is the aim of any diagnostic x-ray procedure. Correctly use of various factors such as collimating the primary beam to the region of diagnostic interest, optimal exposure parameters (high Kvp and low MAS, using of techniques and views that are desirable to reach higher radiation protection, reducing exposure time and shielding can reduce the patients' exposure besides the saving of image quality. Accurately following of the recommended protection instructions considerably decrease the exposure risks.

  18. A Construct Validation of the Administrative Diagnostic Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Theodore B.

    In November 1996, the National Association of Elementary School Principals (NAESP) approved the revision of the Administrative Diagnostic Inventory (ADI), the diagnostic procedure conducted in their assessment center. To assist the NAESP in the use of the ADI for the assessment of current and prospective school principals, the construct validity…

  19. Cordotomy for bilateral cord abductal paralysis%声带切断术治疗双侧声带外展麻痹

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪审清; 周水洪; 徐盈盈

    2001-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effects of cordotomy on bilateral cord abductal paralysis. Methods With unilateral cordotomy, we treated 4 patients with bilateral cord paralysis whose glottis size was about 2.0 mm to 2.5 mm. They were followed up for over one year.Results One week after surgery, the tracheotomy tubes of all 4 patients were plugged and no dyspnea occurred during rest and mild action. Their voices were more hoarse than before surgery. After 3 months,the tracheotomy tubes were successfully decannulated, and in the following one year, their respiration was normal and then speech was clear, although their voices were still a little hoarse.Conclusion We suggest that cordotomy be one option in the treatment of bilateral cord abductal paralysis.%目的探讨声带切断术治疗双侧声带外展的临床效果。方法对4例双侧声带外展麻痹,声门裂约2-2.5 mm患者作单侧声带切除术,并随访一年。结果全部4例均在术后一周阻管,安静及轻微活动后均无呼吸困难,发声较术前嘶哑。带管出院3个月后拔管。随访一年,呼吸正常,发声略嘶哑,但语言清晰。结论声带切除术可作为治疗双侧声带外展麻痹的一种方法。

  20. 宫颈液基细胞学检查、HPV分型、LEEP环状电切术在宫颈疾病中的诊治意义%Diagnostic and therapeutic significance of thinprep cytologic test, HPV genotyping and loop electrosurgical excision procedure for cervical diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷新; 邓雷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic and therapeutic significance and clinical value of thinprep cytologic test, HPV genotyping and loop electrosurgical excision procedure for cervical diseases. Methods From January to December 2010 in Enshi center hospital, 4 613 patients were taken gynecological examination and thinprep cytologic test, 336 cases with the positivity of thinprep cytologic test were taken electronic colposcopy and colposcopic cervical biopsy, diagnosed 125 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-like lesions and cervical cancer, they were taken HPV genotyping. cervical severe erosion and repeated physical therapy chronic cervicitis of CIN Ⅱ and some CIN I , and early diagnosis of cervical cancer conization were treated with loop electrosurgical excision procedure, the surgical removal of tissue were taken pathological examination. Results The diagnosis rate was 98.6% for cervical liquid-based brush cytology proposed line cervical biopsy of electronic colposcopy and colposcopy, HPV genotyping check, HPV genotyping check positive 125 cases and the the loop electrosurgical excision procedure after excision pathological examination, no case of intraoperative bleeding in the surgery, 5 cases with cervical wound after the scab off bleeding, and no case of postoperative infection. Conclusion Electronic colposcopy, thinprep cytologic test, HPV genotyping and cervical biopsy has important diagnostic value for cervical precancerous lesions; the loop electrosurgical excision procedure in the treatment of cervical disease has small risk of surgery, and simple operation, less bleeding and high success rate, loop electrosurgical excision has important clinical value in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical disease.%目的 探讨宫颈液基细胞学检查、HPV分型、LEEP环状电切术在宫颈疾病中的诊治意义及临床价值.方法 对2010年1~12月在恩施州中心医院就诊的4 613例患者行妇检、宫颈液基细胞学刷片检查,

  1. Optimisation of interventional cardiology procedures; Optimisation des procedures en cardiologie interventionnelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bar, Olivier [SELARL, Cardiologie Interventionnelle Imagerie Cardiaque - CIIC, 8, place de la Cathedrale - 37042 Tours (France)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation-guided procedures in interventional cardiology include diagnostic and/or therapeutic procedures, primarily coronary catheterization and coronary angioplasty. Application of the principles of radiation protection and the use of optimised procedures are contributing to dose reduction while maintaining the radiological image quality necessary for performance of the procedures. The mandatory training in patient radiation protection and technical training in the use of radiology devices mean that implementing continuous optimisation of procedures is possible in practice. This optimisation approach is the basis of patient radiation protection; when associated with the wearing of protective equipment it also contributes to the radiation protection of the cardiologists. (author)

  2. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  3. Diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate for bacterial meningitis after neurosurgical procedure: a meta-analysis%脑脊液乳酸对神经外科术后细菌性脑膜炎诊断价值的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖雄; 张扬; 张力伟; 季楠

    2016-01-01

    目的 系统评价脑脊液乳酸对神经外科术后细菌性脑膜炎的诊断价值.方法 检索PubMed、EBSCO、Cochrane Library、Clinical Trials数据库中有关脑脊液乳酸浓度对神经外科术后细菌性脑膜炎诊断价值的文献,检索时间均从数据库建立至2014年12月.采用诊断性试验准确性质量评价工具(QUADAS)评价纳入文献的质量,应用Meta-DiSc 1.4及Review Manager 5.3等软件对纳入的文献进行分析,并绘制森林图和受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)曲线.结果 共检索文献1 471篇,根据纳入标准筛选出5篇(404例)文献.其中前瞻性研究4项,回顾性研究1项.随机效应模型合并统计显示,脑脊液乳酸对神经外科术后细菌性脑膜炎诊断的敏感度为0.92(95%CI:0.85 ~ 0.96,I2 =0.0%,P=0.6699),特异性为0.88(95% CI:0.84~0.92,,=79.5%,P=0.0006),阳性似然比为7.70(95% CI:3.94 ~ 15.05,I2=59.5%,P=0.0428),阴性似然比为0.11(95% CI:0.06 ~0.19,I2 =0%,P=0.8504),诊断优势比为83.09(95% CI:36.83 ~ 187.46,I2=1.8%,P=0.3960),ROC曲线下面积(AUC)=0.9601(Q*=0.9046).结论 Meta分析显示,脑脊液乳酸浓度对神经外科术后细菌性脑膜炎的诊断具有较高的敏感度和特异性,具有较好的诊断效能.%Objective To systematically evaluate the diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate for bacterial meningitis after neurosurgical procedure.Methods The literature about the diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate concentration for bacterial meningitis after neurosurgical procedure were retrieved from PubMed,EBSCO,Cochrane Library,and ClinicalTrials database.The retrieval time was from the establishment of the databases to December 2014.A tool for the quality assessment of studies of diagnostic accuracy (QUADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature.The Meta-DiSc 1.4 and Review Manager 5.3 softwares were used to analyze the included literature;and the Forest plots and receiver

  4. Current advances in diagnostic methods of Acanthamoeba keratitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yuehua; Feng Xianmin; Jiang Linzhe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article was to review the current advances in diagnostic methods for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK).Data sources Data used in this review were retrieved from PubMed (1970-2013).The terms "Acanthamoeba keratitis" and "diagnosis" were used for the literature search.Study selection Data from published articles regarding AK and diagnosis in clinical trials were identified and reviewed.Results The diagnostic methods for the eight species implicated in AK were reviewed.Among all diagnostic procedures,corneal scraping and smear examination was an essential diagnostic method.Polymerase chain reaction was the most sensitive and accurate detection method.Culturing of Acanthamoeba was a reliable method for final diagnosis of AK.Confocal microscopy to detect Acanthamoeba was also effective,without any invasive procedure,and was helpful in the early diagnosis of AK.Conclusion Clinically,conjunction of various diagnostic methods to diagnose AK was necessary.

  5. [Sedation using ketamine for pain procedures in Pediatric Oncology.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, C; Tichit, R; Troncin, R; Bernard, F

    2009-09-01

    Procedural sedation and analgesia for children is widely practiced. Since 2005 to 2007, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of ketamine to control pain induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. Eight hundred fifty procedures were carried out in 125 patients aged 2 to 16 years. We associated EMNO (inhaled equimolar mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen), atropin (oral or rectal), midazolam (oral or rectal) and ketamin (intravenous). An anesthesiologist injected ketamin. Average dose of ketamine was 0.33 to 2 mg/kg depending on number and invasiveness of procedures. This method requires careful monitoring and proper precautions. With these conditions, no complication was observed. All patients were effectively sedated. These results indicate that ketamine - in association with EMNO, atropine and midazolam - is safe and effective in pain management induced by diagnostic procedures in pediatric oncology patients. The sedative regimen of intravenous ketamine has greatly reduced patient, family and practitioners anxiety for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures.

  6. A Diagnostic Procedural Model for Identifying Real Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoner, Carroll

    This study evaluated educational problems and needs in the administrative management council of Bloomington Hospital, Bloomington, Indiana, in order to help produce a more effective task group within the hospital's institutional framework. Over a seven week period, the investigator observed department heads in their weekly conferences by means of…

  7. Acute dizziness in rural practice: Proposal of a diagnostic procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Ehab; Dastan, Sajed; Heckmann, Josef G.

    2015-01-01

    Acute dizziness is a frequent index symptom in the emergency department as well as in the rural practice office. Most acute dizziness, however, is not dangerous, but some types are highly dangerous. Clinical routine acute dizziness can be separated into frequent benign syndromes including benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), vestibular neuritis, Meniθre's disease or vestibular migraine, and what is here referred to as the “white shark” of dizziness, i.e. a stroke in the posterior circulation or more rarely a tumor in the posterior fossa. A practical concept is presented to clarify most frequent acute dizziness syndromes using clinical and low budget methods. PMID:25883501

  8. Acute dizziness in rural practice: Proposal of a diagnostic procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab Eid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute dizziness is a frequent index symptom in the emergency department as well as in the rural practice office. Most acute dizziness, however, is not dangerous, but some types are highly dangerous. Clinical routine acute dizziness can be separated into frequent benign syndromes including benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, vestibular neuritis, Meniθre′s disease or vestibular migraine, and what is here referred to as the "white shark" of dizziness, i.e. a stroke in the posterior circulation or more rarely a tumor in the posterior fossa. A practical concept is presented to clarify most frequent acute dizziness syndromes using clinical and low budget methods.

  9. Invasive prenatal diagnostic procedures: a developing countries' perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Kashyap

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: With appropriate prenatal invasive test were able to prevent birth of affected fetus which is of huge importance considering the patients who give birth to abnormal babies only to see them suffering and frequently dying also. Prenatal invasive test were able to prevent this psychological, mental as well as physical trauma in these patients. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(1.000: 41-47

  10. Nanotechnology based diagnostics for neurological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurek, Nicholas S.; Chandra, Sathees B., E-mail: schandra@roosevelt.edu [Department of Biological, Chemical and Physical Sciences, Roosevelt University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Nanotechnology involves probing and manipulating matter at the molecular level. Nanotechnology based molecular diagnostics have the potential to alleviate the suffering caused by many diseases, including neurological disorders, due to the unique properties of nanomaterials. Most neurological illnesses are multifactorial conditions and many of these are also classified as neurobehavioral disorders. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington disease, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorders like Rett syndrome are some examples of neurological disorders that could be better treated, diagnosed, prevented and possibly cured using nanotechnology. In order to improve the quality of life for disease afflicted people, a wide range of nanomaterials that include gold and silica nanoparticles, quantum dots and DNA along with countless other forms of nanotechnology have been investigated regarding their usefulness in advancing molecular diagnostics. Other small scaled materials like viruses and proteins also have potential for use as molecular diagnostic tools. Information obtained from nanotechnology based diagnostics can be stored and manipulated using bioinformatics software. More advanced nanotechnology based diagnostic procedures for the acquisition of even greater proteomic and genomic knowledge can then be developed along with better ways to fight various diseases. Nanotechnology also has numerous applications besides those related to biotechnology and medicine. In this article, we will discuss and analyze many novel nanotechnology based diagnostic techniques at our disposal today. (author)

  11. 两种外展枕用于人工全髋关节置换术后的疗效观察%Effective observation on application of two kinds of abduction pillow in postoperative artificial total hip arthroplasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾尚琼; 徐支南; 李舜尧; 蒋丽华; 罗红梅; 王丽晖

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the ettects of two kinds of abduction pillow used in postoperative artificial total hip arthro-plasty(THA). Methods 160 cases of artificial THA in our hospital from January 2007 to October 2010 were divided into two groups,80 cases in each group. The experimental group used the introduced new technological ladder-shaped abduction pillow,and the control group was given the improved abduction pillow. The effects of two kinds of abduction pillow used in postoperative artificial total hip replacement were compared. Results In experimental group, the position turning over took 5 - 10 min,the tolerance time of lateral lying position was (10. 0+1. 3)min. The comfort level and the satisfaction level were 31. 2% and 65. 0%. But in the control group,the position turning over took 3 - 5 min,the tolerance time of lateral lying position was (30. 0±2. L)min. The comfort level and the satisfaction level were 56. 2% and 90. 0%. The results showed statistical difference between the two groups(P< 0. 05). Conclusion The improved abduction pillow is better than introduced new technological ladder-like abduction pillow.%目的 比较两种外展枕用于人工全髋关节置换术(THA)后的效果.方法 选择2007年1月至2010年10月行THA的患者160例随机分为实验组和对照组,每组80例,实验组使用引进的新技术梯形外展枕,对照组为改良后的外展枕.比较两组外展枕用于THA后的效果.结果 实验组患者翻身时间(5~10)min、侧卧耐受时间(10.0±1.3)min,舒适度(31.2%)和满意度(65.0%),与对照组[分别为(3~5)、(30.0±2.1)min、56.2%和90.0%]比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 改良后的外展枕更利于THA后的患者.

  12. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  13. National NIF Diagnostic Program Interim Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, B

    2002-04-25

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) has the mission of supporting Stockpile Stewardship and Basic Science research in high-energy-density plasmas. To execute those missions, the facility must provide diagnostic instrumentation capable of observing and resolving in time events and radiation emissions characteristic of the plasmas of interest. The diagnostic instrumentation must conform to high standards of operability and reliability within the NIF environment. These exacting standards, together with the facility mission of supporting a diverse user base, has led to the need for a central organization charged with delivering diagnostic capability to the NIF. The National NIF Diagnostics Program (NNDP) has been set up under the aegis of the NIF Director to provide that organization authority and accountability to the wide user community for NIF. The funds necessary to perform the work of developing diagnostics for NIF will be allocated from the National NIF Diagnostics Program to the participating laboratories and organizations. The participating laboratories and organizations will design, build, and commission the diagnostics for NIF. Restricted availability of funding has had an adverse impact, unforeseen at the time of the original decision to projectize NIF Core Diagnostics Systems and Cryogenic Target Handing Systems, on the planning and initiation of these efforts. The purpose of this document is to provide an interim project management plan describing the organizational structure and management processes currently in place for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems. Preparation of a Program Execution Plan for NIF Core Diagnostics Systems has been initiated and a current draft is provided as Attachment 1 to this document. The National NIF Diagnostics Program Interim Management Plan provides a summary of primary design criteria and functional requirements, current organizational structure, tracking and reporting procedures, and current planning estimates of project scope

  14. Utility of 18FDG-PET/CT in breast cancer diagnostics--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warning, Karina; Hildebrandt, Malene Grubbe; Kristensen, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    as a primary diagnostic procedure in breast cancer; but it has the potential to be useful for the detection of distant metastases and for monitoring response to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. PET/CT should still be regarded as a supplement to conventional diagnostic procedures such as CT and MRI....

  15. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N.

    2014-08-01

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ-ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  16. Research at ITER towards DEMO: Specific reactor diagnostic studies to be carried out on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kaschuck, Y. A.; Vershkov, V. A.; Petrov, A. A.; Petrov, V. G.; Tugarinov, S. N. [Institution Project center ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-21

    In ITER diagnostics will operate in the very hard radiation environment of fusion reactor. Extensive technology studies are carried out during development of the ITER diagnostics and procedures of their calibration and remote handling. Results of these studies and practical application of the developed diagnostics on ITER will provide the direct input to DEMO diagnostic development. The list of DEMO measurement requirements and diagnostics will be determined during ITER experiments on the bases of ITER plasma physics results and success of particular diagnostic application in reactor-like ITER plasma. Majority of ITER diagnostic already passed the conceptual design phase and represent the state of the art in fusion plasma diagnostic development. The number of related to DEMO results of ITER diagnostic studies such as design and prototype manufacture of: neutron and γ–ray diagnostics, neutral particle analyzers, optical spectroscopy including first mirror protection and cleaning technics, reflectometry, refractometry, tritium retention measurements etc. are discussed.

  17. The Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on the Expression of the Flexor Synergy in the Paretic Arm in Chronic Stroke is Dependent on Shoulder Abduction Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eYao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reaching ability of the paretic upper extremity in individuals with stroke decreases with increased shoulder abduction (SABD loads. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been implemented to improve movement ability following stroke. However, results from previous studies vary, perhaps due to the influence of impairment level and the type of motor tasks that were used to study the effects of tDCS. This study specifically examines the impact of SABD loading on the effects of tDCS in 9 individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke.In 3 different sessions, participants repeated a reaching assessment with various SABD loads (supported on a haptic table, 25%, and 50% of maximum voluntary SABD torque in random order, pre and post one of the following 15-minute tDCS protocols: anodal stimulation of lesioned M1, cathodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1, or anodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1. Sham stimulation was also conducted preceding one of the tDCS sessions. The averaged maximum reaching distance over valid trials was calculated for each condition.We observed significant interactions between SABD load, tDCS protocol and time (i.e. pre or post-tDCS. Post-hoc test showed that anodal stimulation of the lesioned M1 caused a clear trend (p=0.058 of increasing the reaching ability at a medium level of SABD loading (25%, but not for higher loads (50%. This suggests that anodal stimulation increases residual corticospinal tract activity, which successfully increases reaching ability at moderate loads; however, is insufficient to make significant changes at higher SABD loads. We also found that cathodal stimulation of the non-lesioned M1 significantly (p=0.018 decreased the reaching distance with high level of SABD loading (50%. This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the effect of tDCS on the reaching ability is dependent on shoulder abduction loads in individuals with moderate to severe stroke.

  18. 英语词汇形义联系中的溯因推理%Abduction in Form-meaning Connections of English Vocabulary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永亮; 黄剑

    2015-01-01

    The strength of the connection between the form and its meaning will determine how readily the learner can retrieve the meaning or the word form ,while the establishment of the connection be‐tween the form and its meaning depends on the application of the word part strategy .Abduction in re‐expressing the meaning of a given word meaning may transform the connection between the form and its meaning into a process of dynamic logical reasoning as well as offer solutions to the core problem of re‐expression of the given word meaning :starting from the given Chinese meaning of English words ,com‐bining with related background knowledge such as word parts ,to the deconstructed formation of spell‐ing .Abduction may facilitate and optimize the establishment of the connection between the form and its meaning ,and furthermore ,improve the learning efficiency of vocabulary learners .%英语单词形义联系的紧密程度决定着词义或词形提取的轻松程度;英语单词形义联系的建立有赖于构词成分策略的使用。在运用构词成分策略重述已知词义的过程中溯因推理,把英语词汇形义联系的过程转化为动态逻辑推理,也可解决英语词汇的已知词义重述问题:从待解释项“单词的汉语词义”出发,结合构词成分等背景知识,到解释项“单词英文拼写的意义拆分”进行逆推。溯因推理有利于促进并优化单词形义联系的建立,进而提高学习者的词汇学习效率。

  19. A abdução dos artelhos e o sinal do leque (Babinski, 1903 The abduction of the toes and the fan sign (Babinski, 1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo De Oliveira-Souza

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available A abdução dos artelhos menores ("sinal do leque" concomitante à adoção da atitude sentada a partir do decúbito (movimento associado ou em resposta à excitação plantar externa (resposta reflexa foi formalmente descrita por Babinski em 1903 e contrastada com a dorsiflexão do hálux em termos dos seus respectivos valores de localização. No presente ensaio traduzimos as duas comunicações em que a abdução dos artelhos recebeu sua caracterização semiológica final e enfatizamos a distinção entre o fenômeno da abdução e a extensão reflexa dos artelhos, particularmente do grande. Aduzimos, ainda, evidências de que, na literatura anátomo-clínica e neurofisiológica dos anos subsequentes, o assim chamado "sinal de Babinski" e respostas coadjuvantes continuam gerando imprecisões conceituais, descrições inadequadas e investigações imperfeitas.The abduction of the lesser toes which may be observed as an associated movement or as a reflex response to stroking of the lateral plantar surface of the foot (the fan sign was formally described in 1903 by Babinski, who compared it to the dorsiflexion of the great toe in terms of their respective values as localizing signs. In the present essay we translated into Portuguese and review the two communications in which the characterization of the abduction of the toes was made, emphasizing the distinction between this phenomenon and the reflex dorsiflexion of the toes, particularly the great toe. Evidence is adduced from the clinical and physiological literature of the succeeding years that shows that the so-called "sign of Babinski" is still surrounded by mists of inadequate clinico-anatomic concepts whence the wealth of incrogruous pathophysiological interpretations which abound in the literature of the past decades.

  20. Diagnostics in critical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SadchikovD.V.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores

  1. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  2. Video integrated measurement system. [Diagnostic display devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, B.; Eilbert, L.; Finando, S.; Fukuda, F.

    1982-06-01

    A Video Integrated Measurement (VIM) System is described which incorporates the use of various noninvasive diagnostic procedures (moire contourography, electromyography, posturometry, infrared thermography, etc.), used individually or in combination, for the evaluation of neuromusculoskeletal and other disorders and their management with biofeedback and other therapeutic procedures. The system provides for measuring individual diagnostic and therapeutic modes, or multiple modes by split screen superimposition, of real time (actual) images of the patient and idealized (ideal-normal) models on a video monitor, along with analog and digital data, graphics, color, and other transduced symbolic information. It is concluded that this system provides an innovative and efficient method by which the therapist and patient can interact in biofeedback training/learning processes and holds considerable promise for more effective measurement and treatment of a wide variety of physical and behavioral disorders.

  3. 论证明过程中的设证推理--以南京彭宇案为例%Abduction in Process of Proof-A Case Study of Peng Yu Case in Nanjing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑苒

    2014-01-01

    Compared with deduction and induction, abduction is the most creative reasoning, it can produce new ideas , which is of great signiifcance in the fact-ifnding and the legal discovery processes. Meanwhile, as an inference method, abduction is also used in fact-ifnding activities of the court, speciifcally in the reasoning part of the written judgment. However, due to errors of reasoning made by the fact ifnder and its inherent limitations, abduction would be used improperly, so it is necessary to set the limits and rules of using abduction in fact-ifnding activities to pursue truth ascertainment.%设证推理相对于演绎推理和归纳推理而言是最具有创造性的推理,设证推理能产生新的思想,这在事实发现和法律发现过程中具有重要的意义。同时设证推理作为一种推理方法也在法院的事实认定活动中被运用,具体在判决书的说理部分有所反映。但是设证推理由于裁判者的错误判断和其本身具有的局限性容易造成不适当的使用,所以在进行事实认定活动时需要对设证推理的运用设置范围和规则,以求达到更好地追求事实真相的目的。

  4. A case study of the abductive reasoning processes of pre-service elementary education students in a role playing setting concerning a mock senate hearing on global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Michael Eugene

    Science education has a rich history of studies into the impact of analogical reasoning upon researcher and student alike. These have focused on how induction and deduction are utilized in determining the appropriateness of the analogy being scrutinized. Research in artificial intelligence has demonstrated that human cognition cannot be modeled with only inductive and deductive forms of logic. Charles S. Peirce proposed abduction as a form of logic central to the process of inquiry and discovery. This involves reasoning from observation to best explanation or hypothesis. Peirce's Theory of Signs provided the theoretical foundation and a model of abduction developed by Shank and Cunningham from Peirce's theory offered the conceptual basis for the study. This study uses discourse analysis to attempt to understand the abductive reasoning processes of two groups of students as they interpret new information concerning the political and scientific perspective of the Greening Earth Society and the Center for Disease Control in an authentic, undergraduate-level classroom setting. The five students were members of a capstone course in science education for pre-service elementary education majors who had an interest in science education. The entire class was comprised of fourteen students partitioned into five groups for the culminating exercise for the course. Analysis was carried out using journal entries, audiotapes of planning sessions, a brief summary of their understanding, and videotapes of the mock Senate hearings. The results demonstrated that different members of the group arrived at their understanding using different pathways suggested by the model. While some proceeded linearly, others skipped some stages and later came back to find supportive evidence to strengthen their beliefs. The model is useful in understanding their abductive processes and may provide insight into how we might consider the process in the design of future curriculum for elementary science

  5. Patient dosimetry in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciraj-Bjelac Olivera F.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to assess patient organ doses, effective doses and entrance surface doses in conventional diagnostic radiology procedures for standard adult patient. The survey consists of measurements of doses delivered to 239 patients in nine types of X-ray examinations. Three types of data were collected: X-ray machine data, patient data, and output measurements. Entrance surface dose was assessed based on the survey data and subsequently, using conversion coefficients, the organ doses and effective doses were calculated. Values of the entrance surface dose and the effective dose were estimated to be 0.4 to 5.8 mGy and 0.03 to 3.00 mSv for different examinations. Derived doses were compared with recommended general diagnostic reference levels. The impact of examination parameters on dose values was discussed. Except for posterior-anterior chest examination, all estimated doses are lower than stated reference levels. Survey data are aimed at helping development of national quality control and radiation protection programmed for medical exposures.

  6. Ultrasound diagnostics of thyroid diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharchenko, Vladimir P. [Russian Radiology Research Center, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kotlyarov, Peter M. [Russian Center of Roentgenradiology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mogutov, Mikhail S.; Sencha, Alexander N.; Patrunov, Yury N.; Belyaev, Denis V. [Yaroslavl Railway Clinic (Russian Federation); Alexandrov, Yury K. [State Medical Academy, Yaroslavl (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    This book is based on the authors' extensive practical experience in the use of modern ultrasound, and other radiological methods, in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. The authors have analyzed more than 100,000 ultrasound examinations performed between 1995 and 2008 in patients with thyroid and parathyroid disease, as well as many thousands of diagnostic and therapeutic ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures. The opening chapters include discussion of current ultrasound techniques, pitfalls, and the specifics of ultrasound examination of the thyroid in children. Detailed attention is then devoted to findings in the normal thyroid and in the presence of diffuse and focal changes. Further chapters focus on such topics as ultrasound examination after thyroid surgery and ultrasound diagnosis of parathyroid disease, recurrent goiter, and neck masses. Ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques, such as fine-needle aspiration biopsy, percutaneous laser ablation, and ethanol and glucocorticoid injections, are considered in depth. This up-to-date and richly illustrated book will interest and assist specialists in ultrasound diagnostics, radiologists, endocrinologists, and neck surgeons. (orig.)

  7. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  8. Radiation Safety in Nuclear Medicine Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Since the nuclear disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011, radiation safety has become an important issue in nuclear medicine. Many structured guidelines or recommendations of various academic societies or international campaigns demonstrate important issues of radiation safety in nuclear medicine procedures. There are ongoing efforts to fulfill the basic principles of radiation protection in daily nuclear medicine practice. This article reviews important principles of radiation protection in nuclear medicine procedures. Useful references, important issues, future perspectives of the optimization of nuclear medicine procedures, and diagnostic reference level are also discussed.

  9. Thioaptamer Diagnostic System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...

  10. Rotorcraft Diagnostics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Under this SBIR program, Ridgetop will introduce the first low-cost, low-power, and lightweight data monitoring solution for rotorcraft diagnostics. The solution is...

  11. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  12. Prenatal Genetic Diagnostic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are offered to all pregnant women. What is amniocentesis? Amniocentesis is a diagnostic test. It usually is done ... a very small chance of pregnancy loss with amniocentesis. Leakage of amniotic fluid and slight bleeding can ...

  13. The clinical study on classification and diagnostic procedures of diffuse parenchymal lung disease/interstitial lung disease in 349 children%儿童弥漫性实质性肺疾病349例分类及诊断程序研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晶莹; 刘秀云; 彭芸; 周春菊

    2013-01-01

    Objective To better understand the spectrum of the disease and to explore the clinical significance of diagnostic procedures in clinical application. Method The medical records of 349 children with diffuse parenchymal lung disease /interstitial lung disease admitted to Beijing Children's hospital from July 2001 to September 2011 were studied retrospectively. The diagnostic approaches were applied, including the history, physical examination, non-invasive examination and invasive examination. Result The 321 cases were made specific diagnosis through the diagnostic procedures and 28 cases were unclassified. The classification of the 349 cases were as follows:146 cases were with primary lung diseases, 14 cases were with lung disease secondary to systemic disease, 161 cases had the lung disease of known causes, and the 28 cases were unclassified. The 160/349(45.85%) cases were diagnosed based on the noninvasive examination, including all 147 cases of bronchiolitis obliterans, 3 cases of hypersensitive pneumonitis, 2 cases secondary to aspiration, 2 cases of systemic lupus erythematosus, 2 cases of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, 1 case infected by CMV, 1 case of Langerhans cell histocytosis, 1 case of undifferentiated connective tissue disease and 1 case of Wegener's granulo-matosis. The others were diagnosed by invasive examination, including 2 cases of Langerhans cell histocytosis and 1 case of dermatomyositis by skin biopsies, 1 case of Langerhans cell histocytosis by lymphaden biopsy, all 113 cases of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, 2 cases of eosinophilic pneumonia and 2 cases of hypersensitive pneumonitis by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; 40 cases were diagnosied by the lung biopsy, including 23 cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Conclusion Diffuse parenchymal lung disease in children is a heterogeneous group of respiratory disorders. Bronchiolitis obliterans, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia are the most common

  14. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  15. 论关联理论语用推理的溯因特征%On the Abductive Nature of Pragmatic Reasoning in Relevance Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾凡桂

    2004-01-01

    本文从关联理论非论证性推理和溯因推理的比较出发,应用后期皮尔士溯因逻辑思想和Hobbs等人的"解释即溯因"(Interpretation as Abduction)的自然语言理解理论,论述语用推理实际上就是溯因推理在话语交际中的具体体现.语用推理具有湖因推理的所有特征,但不等于溯因推理.它包括溯因、演绎和归纳,是动态的溯因-演绎-归纳的逻辑整合过程.溯因在整个语用推理过程中是提出假设(大前提)的最重要推理,演绎是必然推导,归纳的作用是验证大前提的正确与否,即验证对话语涵义/隐义理解的正确与否.

  16. [Diagnostics in osteology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakob, F; Genest, F; Seefried, L; Tsourdi, E; Lapa, C; Hofbauer, L C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical diagnostics in metabolic bone diseases cover a broad spectrum of conventional and state of the art methods ranging from the medical history and clinical examination to molecular imaging. Patient treatment is carried out in an interdisciplinary team due to the multiple interactions of bone with other organ systems. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is supported by high level national guidelines. A paradigm shift concerning the clinical relevance of bone mineral density measurement renders this now to be a strong risk factor rather than a diagnostic parameter, while strengthening the value of other clinical factors for risk assessment. The impact of parameters for muscle mass, structure and function is steadily increasing in all age groups. In order to identify underlying diseases that influence bone metabolism a panel of general laboratory diagnostic parameters is recommended. Markers for bone formation and resorption and specific parameters for the regulation of calcium and phosphate metabolism should be evaluated by specialists because they require diligence in preanalytics and experience in interpretation. Genetic diagnosis is well established for rare bone diseases while diagnostic panels are not yet available for routine diagnostics in polygenetic diseases such as osteoporosis. Conventional radiology is still very important to identify, e. g. fractures, osteolytic and osteoblastic lesions and extraosseous calcifications; however tomography-based methods which combine, e. g. scintigraphy or positron emission technologies with anatomical imaging are of increasing significance. Clinical diagnostics in osteology require profound knowledge and are subject to a dynamic evolution.

  17. Long distance transmission of diagnostic cardiovascular information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, M A; Miles, R; Barrington, W

    1996-01-01

    Availability of advanced cardiac diagnostic procedures has proven to decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with common cardiovascular diseases. It was requested that the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) provide a rural hospital with advanced cardiology services. The services included monitoring of inpatients and rapid interpretation of cardiac diagnostic tests. UNMC proposed to solve this problem by building a computer-based system to transmit diagnostic cardiac information from a rural hospital to UNMC for interpretation by a cardiologist. The information transmitted to UNMC was grouped into two categories: 1) cardiovascular ultrasound, 2) ambulatory and 12-lead electrocardiograms. The information consisted of digital and analog waveform information, static images, and 30 fps video. The system provided rapid data transmission to UNMC over a T-1 line. The system utilized a compression technology which did not degrade the interpretation quality of the data. This system has increased the availability of advanced cardiac diagnostic services to general medical practitioners in a rural hospital. In addition, the system has significantly reduced the time and cost to transmit vital cardiac diagnostic information, thus improving the quality of care received by rural patients.

  18. Diagnostic strategies in nasal congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Krouse

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available John Krouse1, Valerie Lund2, Wytske Fokkens3, Eli O Meltzer41Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Ear Institute, University College London, UK; 3Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Amsterdam Medical Centre, Netherlands; 4Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Nasal congestion is a major symptom of upper respiratory tract disorders, and its characterization an important part of the diagnosis of these illnesses. Patient history and assessment of nasal symptoms are essential components of diagnosis, providing an initial evaluation that may be adequate to rule out serious conditions. However, current congestion medications are not always fully effective. Thus, if symptoms do not respond adequately to therapy, or symptoms suggestive of more serious conditions are present, specialized assessments may be needed. Various techniques are available for diagnosing patients, including those used chiefly by primary care clinicians and those requiring the expertise of otolaryngologists, allergists, and other specialists. Endoscopy remains a mainstay for evaluating nasal blockage and its causes, while modalities such as peak nasal inspiratory flow and acoustic rhinometry are evolving to provide easy-to-use, noninvasive procedures that are sensitive enough to measure small but clinically important abnormalities and therapeutic changes. Several imaging modalities are available to the specialist for severe or unusual cases, as are specialized diagnostic procedures that measure adjunctive features of congestion, such as impaired mucociliary function.Keywords: allergic rhinitis, congestion, diagnosis, obstruction, rhinosinusitis

  19. Development of Companion Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankoff, David A; Edmonds, Christine E; Farwell, Michael D; Pryma, Daniel A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of individualized and targeted treatment and precision medicine requires the assessment of potential therapeutic targets to direct treatment selection. The biomarkers used to direct precision medicine, often termed companion diagnostics, for highly targeted drugs have thus far been almost entirely based on in vitro assay of biopsy material. Molecular imaging companion diagnostics offer a number of features complementary to those from in vitro assay, including the ability to measure the heterogeneity of each patient's cancer across the entire disease burden and to measure early changes in response to treatment. We discuss the use of molecular imaging methods as companion diagnostics for cancer therapy with the goal of predicting response to targeted therapy and measuring early (pharmacodynamic) response as an indication of whether the treatment has "hit" the target. We also discuss considerations for probe development for molecular imaging companion diagnostics, including both small-molecule probes and larger molecules such as labeled antibodies and related constructs. We then describe two examples where both predictive and pharmacodynamic molecular imaging markers have been tested in humans: endocrine therapy for breast cancer and human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2-targeted therapy. The review closes with a summary of the items needed to move molecular imaging companion diagnostics from early studies into multicenter trials and into the clinic.

  20. MJO Simulation Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waliser, D; Sperber, K; Hendon, H; Kim, D; Maloney, E; Wheeler, M; Weickmann, K; Zhang, C; Donner, L; Gottschalck, J; Higgins, W; Kang, I; Legler, D; Moncrieff, M; Schubert, S; Stern, W; Vitart, F; Wang, B; Wang, W; Woolnough, S

    2008-06-02

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) interacts with, and influences, a wide range of weather and climate phenomena (e.g., monsoons, ENSO, tropical storms, mid-latitude weather), and represents an important, and as yet unexploited, source of predictability at the subseasonal time scale. Despite the important role of the MJO in our climate and weather systems, current global circulation models (GCMs) exhibit considerable shortcomings in representing this phenomenon. These shortcomings have been documented in a number of multi-model comparison studies over the last decade. However, diagnosis of model performance has been challenging, and model progress has been difficult to track, due to the lack of a coherent and standardized set of MJO diagnostics. One of the chief objectives of the US CLIVAR MJO Working Group is the development of observation-based diagnostics for objectively evaluating global model simulations of the MJO in a consistent framework. Motivation for this activity is reviewed, and the intent and justification for a set of diagnostics is provided, along with specification for their calculation, and illustrations of their application. The diagnostics range from relatively simple analyses of variance and correlation, to more sophisticated space-time spectral and empirical orthogonal function analyses. These diagnostic techniques are used to detect MJO signals, to construct composite life-cycles, to identify associations of MJO activity with the mean state, and to describe interannual variability of the MJO.

  1. Pitfalls in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peh, Wilfred C.G. (ed.) [Khoo Teck Puat Hospital (Singapore). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    2015-04-01

    Only textbook to focus primarily on the topic of pitfalls in diagnostic radiology. Highlights the pitfalls in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Written by experts in different imaging modalities and subspecialties from reputable centers across the world. The practice of diagnostic radiology has become increasingly complex, with the use of numerous imaging modalities and division into many subspecialty areas. It is becoming ever more difficult for subspecialist radiologists, general radiologists, and residents to keep up with the advances that are occurring year on year, and this is particularly true for less familiar topics. Failure to appreciate imaging pitfalls often leads to diagnostic error and misinterpretation, and potential medicolegal problems. Diagnostic errors may be due to various factors such as inadequate imaging technique, imaging artifacts, failure to recognize normal structures or variants, lack of correlation with clinical and other imaging findings, and poor training or inexperience. Many, if not most, of these factors are potentially recognizable, preventable, or correctable. This textbook, written by experts from reputable centers across the world, systematically and comprehensively highlights the pitfalls that may occur in diagnostic radiology. Both pitfalls specific to different modalities and techniques and those specific to particular organ systems are described with the help of numerous high-quality illustrations. Recognition of these pitfalls is crucial in helping the practicing radiologist to achieve a more accurate diagnosis.

  2. Diagnostic Laparoscopy for Small Intestinal Intussusception in a Horse

    OpenAIRE

    P. Holak, M. Jałyński, Z. Peczyński, Z. Adamiak, M. Jaskólska and W. Pesta*

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopy is a low-invasive diagnostic and surgical technique for examining and performing surgical procedures in the equine peritoneal cavity. This article is a case study of a horse with weakly expressed, irregular symptoms of colic occurring over a period of four weeks. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, and liver and spleen tissue samples were collected for a histopathological analysis. An endoscopic examination of the abdominal cavity ruled out small intestinal intussusception, and ...

  3. Recent improvements of the JET lithium beam diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brix, M.; Morgan, P.; Stamp, M.; Zastrow, K.-D. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB Abingdon (United Kingdom); Dodt, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Dunai, D.; Meszaros, B.; Petravich, G.; Refy, D. I.; Szabolics, T.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner RCP, Association EURATOM, Pf. 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Lupelli, I. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA - University of Rome ' Tor Vergata' , Roma (Italy); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Ass., D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Melson, T. F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Garching (Germany); Silva, C. [EURATOM/IST, Inst. de Plasma e Fusao Nuclear, Inst. Superior Tecnico, Lisboa (Portugal); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    A 60 kV neutral lithium diagnostic beam probes the edge plasma of JET for the measurement of electron density profiles. This paper describes recent enhancements of the diagnostic setup, new procedures for calibration and protection measures for the lithium ion gun during massive gas puffs for disruption mitigation. New light splitting optics allow in parallel beam emission measurements with a new double entrance slit CCD spectrometer (spectrally resolved) and a new interference filter avalanche photodiode camera (fast density and fluctuation studies).

  4. ORION laser target diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C. D.; Edwards, R. D.; Andrew, J. E.; James, S. F.; Gardner, M. D.; Comley, A. J.; Vaughan, K.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Rothman, S. D.; Daykin, S.; Masoero, S. J.; Palmer, J. B.; Meadowcroft, A. L.; Williams, B. M.; Gumbrell, E. T.; Fyrth, J. D.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Oades, K. [Plasma Physics Department, Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); and others

    2012-10-15

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  5. Beamlet laser diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhart, S.C.; Behrendt, W.C.; Smith, I.

    1996-06-01

    Beamlet is instrumented extensively to monitor the performance of the overall laser system and many of its subsystems. Beam diagnostics, installed in key locations, are used to fully characterize the beam during its propagation through the multipass cavity and the laser`s output section. This article describes the diagnostics stations located on Beamlet and discusses the design, calibration, and performance of the Beamlet calorimeters. The authors used Nova`s diagnostics packages to develop the Beamlet design to determine beam energy, spatial profile, temporal profile, and other beam parameters. Technologic improvements within the last several years in controls, charge-coupled device (CCD) cameras, and fast oscilloscopes have allowed the authors to obtain more accurate measurements on the Beamlet laser system. They briefly cover some of these techniques, including a description of their LabVIEW based data acquisition system.

  6. ORION laser target diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, C D; Edwards, R D; Andrew, J E; James, S F; Gardner, M D; Comley, A J; Vaughan, K; Horsfield, C J; Rubery, M S; Rothman, S D; Daykin, S; Masoero, S J; Palmer, J B; Meadowcroft, A L; Williams, B M; Gumbrell, E T; Fyrth, J D; Brown, C R D; Hill, M P; Oades, K; Wright, M J; Hood, B A; Kemshall, P

    2012-10-01

    The ORION laser facility is one of the UK's premier laser facilities which became operational at AWE in 2010. Its primary mission is one of stockpile stewardship, ORION will extend the UK's experimental plasma physics capability to the high temperature, high density regime relevant to Atomic Weapons Establishment's (AWE) program. The ORION laser combines ten laser beams operating in the ns regime with two sub ps short pulse chirped pulse amplification beams. This gives the UK a unique combined long pulse/short pulse laser capability which is not only available to AWE personnel but also gives access to our international partners and visiting UK academia. The ORION laser facility is equipped with a comprehensive suite of some 45 diagnostics covering optical, particle, and x-ray diagnostics all able to image the laser target interaction point. This paper focuses on a small selection of these diagnostics.

  7. Bariatric Surgery Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Access to Care Toolkit EHB Access Toolkit Bariatric Surgery Procedures Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by ... Bariatric procedures also often cause hormonal changes. Most weight loss surgeries today are performed using minimally invasive techniques (laparoscopic ...

  8. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  9. [Molecular diagnostics and imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christian; Fisseler-Eckhoff, Annette; Huss, Ralf; Nestle, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Molecular diagnostic methods and biological imaging techniques can make a major contribution to tailoring patients' treatment needs with regard to medical, ethical and pharmaco-economic aspects. Modern diagnostic methods are already being used to help identify different sub-groups of patients with thoracic tumours who are most likely to benefit significantly from a particular type of treatment. This contribution looks at the most recent developments that have been made in the field of thoracic tumour diagnosis and analyses the pros and cons of new molecular and other imaging techniques in day-to-day clinical practice.

  10. Marketing diagnostics in consumer cooperatives trade enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.S. Krivoruchko

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The article highlights main demands and levels of realization of consumer cooperatives trade enterprises` diagnostics.We demonstrate the chain of marketing diagnostics; we offer the model of diagnostics process of marketing problems (opportunities of cooperative trade enterprises.The results of the analysis. Marketing diagnostics is one of the marketing researches directions, which is matching of the researched object characteristics with comparison base for definition of objects quality condition (its diagnosis. In the context of our research marketing diagnostics should be considered as separate technological module which enables to form development backgrounds of competitive marketing strategies of consumer cooperatives trade enterprises according to conditions of inner and outer environment.We consider the following demands of marketing diagnostics conduction of consumer cooperatives trade enterprises: authenticity, objectivity, accuracy, resultativity, systematicness, sequence, scientific foundation, flexibility, timeliness, effectiveness, validity.Strategic diagnostics is the direction of researches that is responsible for receiving the information, necessary for further functioning of the enterprise. We should refer to comparative researches of strategic state of enterprise economy portfolio, enterprise competitiveness estimation, and enterprise activity threats and possibilities definition.Tactical diagnostics is the researches direction which forms information for plans programs development. Economy interest matching of marketing activity participants in this situation gains special meaning. Due to this meaning the procedures of their sequence can be developed. We consider the mentioned type of diagnostics to be insufficiently researched nowadays, though it has significant importance in the process of managerial decisions supporting and making.The main task of operative diagnostics is defining deviation borders

  11. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on the expression of the flexor synergy in the paretic arm in chronic stroke is dependent on shoulder abduction loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jun; Drogos, Justin; Veltink, Fleur; Anderson, Caitlyn; Concha Urday Zaa, Janny; Hanson, Laura Imming; Dewald, Julius P A

    2015-01-01

    Reaching ability of the paretic upper extremity in individuals with stroke decreases with increased shoulder abduction (SABD) loads. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been implemented to improve movement ability following stroke. However, results from previous studies vary, perhaps due to the influence of impairment level and the type of motor tasks that were used to study the effects of tDCS. This study specifically examines the impact of SABD loading on the effects of tDCS in 9 individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke. In 3 different sessions, participants repeated a reaching assessment with various SABD loads (supported on a haptic table, 25%, and 50% of maximum voluntary SABD torque) in random order, pre and post one of the following 15-min tDCS protocols: anodal stimulation of lesioned M1, cathodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1, or anodal stimulation of non-lesioned M1. Sham stimulation was also conducted preceding one of the tDCS sessions. The averaged maximum reaching distance over valid trials was calculated for each condition. We observed significant interactions between SABD load, tDCS protocol and time (i.e., pre or post-tDCS). Post hoc test showed that anodal stimulation of the lesioned M1 caused a clear trend (p = 0.058) of increasing the reaching ability at a medium level of SABD loading (25%), but not for higher loads (50%). This suggests that anodal stimulation increases residual corticospinal tract activity, which successfully increases reaching ability at moderate loads; however, is insufficient to make significant changes at higher SABD loads. We also found that cathodal stimulation of the non-lesioned M1 significantly (p = 0.018) decreased the reaching distance at a high level of SABD loading (50%). This study demonstrated, for the first time, that the effect of tDCS on the reaching ability is dependent on SABD loads in individuals with moderate to severe stroke.

  12. Advances in nucleic acid-based diagnostics of bacterial infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barken, Kim Bundvig; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2007-01-01

    of these pathogens is important to isolate patients and prevent further spreading of the diseases. Newly developed diagnostic procedures are superior with respect to turnaround time, sensitivity and specificity. Methods like multiplex real time PCR and different array-based technologies offer the possibility......Methods for rapid detection of infectious bacteria and antimicrobial-resistant pathogens have evolved significantly over the last decade. Many of the new procedures are nucleic acid-based and replace conventional diagnostic methods like culturing which is time consuming especially with fastidious...

  13. 动态测量非生理状态下髋臼外展角及临床意义%The dynamic measurement of acetabulum abduction angle under non-physiological state and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 耿左军; 赵秀娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:通过MSCT三维重建骨盆,测得骨盆在不同倾斜程度下髋臼外展角数值,探讨非生理状态下全髋关节置换术( THA)个体化置入髋臼假体的放置角度。方法选择100位患者(即200个髋臼)为研究对象行螺旋CT扫描,利用容积再现(VRT)技术把骨盆重建为立体图像,为模拟病理状态进而对骨盆进行不同程度的前倾(以10°为间隔,从10°前倾到90°),利用多平面重组(MPR)重建出冠状位图像,进而分别测得两侧髋臼外展角。计算平均值和标准差,绘制出非生理状态下髋臼外展角随骨盆倾度改变而发生变化的相关性变化曲线,找到规律。结果 MSCT法检测髋臼外展角结果如下:当骨盆倾度从10°逐渐增至90°时,外展角的变化曲线呈抛物线。当骨盆倾度为70°时,外展角最大为48°,说明此状态下的髋臼对股骨头覆盖最好,关节的稳定性也最佳。性别对髋臼外展角的影响结果表明在相同条件下,不同性别间的外展角差异无统计学意义( P >0殮.05)。结论髋臼的外展角随着骨盆倾度的变化而发生改变,外展角的变化曲线呈抛物线,不同性别之间的髋臼外展角没有显著性差异;说明性别因素对髋臼外展角的影响不大,髋臼外展角随骨盆倾度动态变化的规律,可以为临床THA髋臼假体放置角度提供理论依据。%Objective To detect acetabulum abduction angle of pelvis at different sloping degrees through multi -slice spiral CT ( MSCT ) three-dimensional reconstruction pelvis , and to explore the reasonable placing angle during total hip arthroplasty ( THA) under non-physiological state .Methods One hundred patients ( 50 males and 50 females ) including 200 acetabulums were scanned by MSCT to reconstruct pelvis into stereoscopic picture by means of valume rendering technique (VRT),then to make pelvis at different inclination (10°~90°) in

  14. Clinical study of cup abduction angle after total hip aithroplasty%全髋关节置换术后髋臼假体外倾角的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢伟杰; 金大地; 李之琛; 陈东峰; 余楠生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess cup inclination ofTHAs by measuring the abduction angle and to find out if the abduction angle relate to polyethylene wear or not. Methods Cup abduction angle and polyethylene wear were measured on the X-ray with a series of 145 hips undergone THA before 2011 May. The rates of abduction angle greater than 50 degree and 55 degree were calculated. The relationship between cup abduction angle and polyethylene linear wear was evaluated. Results It happened in 32 (22.1%, 95% CI: 15.3%~28.9% ) hips that abduction angle exceeded 55 degree and 61 (42.1%, 95%C1: 34.1%~50.1%) hips'abduction angle greater than 50 degree. Abduction angle that greater than 50 degree significantly caused polyethylene liner wear. In 107 unilateral THA, positive correlation between abduction angle and liner wear was revealed by a scatter diagram and then a curve estimation was taken. R square was up to 0.697 using Quadratic curve. Regression equation was y=4.431-0.21x+0.003x'. Conclusions Incorrect abduction angle may cause polyethylene wear in THA. Measurement should be made to place the cup at appropriate position.%目的 了解广医一院人工全髋关节置换术后髋臼假体外倾角的情况及外倾角大小与聚乙烯磨损的关系.方法 选取2011年5月前广医一院骨外科THA术后126例145髋患者骨盆前后位X线片,其中男47例,女79例,年龄23~85岁,末次随访时平均年龄60.1岁.采用DR拍摄骨盆前后位照片,测量髋臼外倾角,统计外倾角≥50°及≥55°的发生率.对单侧全髋关节置换患者测量股骨头中心位移,评估髋臼外倾角与聚乙烯磨损的相关性,使用时间超过5年的内衬的线性磨损值与使用时间少于5年的内衬比较有无差异.结果 126例145髋中61个髋的外倾角大于等于50°,百分率为42.1%(34.1%~50.1%),大于等于55°者32个,百分率为22.1%(15.3%~28.9%).外倾角<50°组聚乙烯线性磨损比外倾角≥50°组

  15. Amniocentesis is a safe and effective prenatal diagnostic tool: a clinical study in Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanchan Mukherjee

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: Two factors, indications for amniocentesis as well as the procedure itself, contribute to the risk of miscarriage. The procedure-related risk is very low and the total risk of miscarriage is around one percent. Amniocentesis is a safe and effective prenatal diagnostic procedure. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1330-1334

  16. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  17. Review on radiation protection in diagnostic radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Karami

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of x-ray and using of it for medical imaging have produced tremendous outcomes for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. More than 10 million diagnostic radiological procedures and 100,000 nuclear medicine exams are being performed daily around the world. According to the national commission on radiological protection and measurements (NCRP-report 160, medical x-ray is contribute to approximately 95% of all radiological examinations that is responsible for 74% of the collective dose to the US population. Despite of unique benefits of ionizing radiations, in the field of radiation protection, they are associated with potential risks such as cancer and genetically abnormalities. The cancer risk attributable to diagnostic radiology is estimated about 0.6% to 3%. It is estimated that the radiation dose from diagnostic x-ray procedures are annually responsible for 7,587 and 5,695 cases of radiation induced cancer in the population of Japan and US, respectively. Although the radiation dose associated with most radiological procedures are very low, but rapid increasing use of radiography procedures during two past decades have been concerned due to the cancer risk associated with ionizing radiations. On the base of linear no-threshold (LNT model of dose-response curve, any level of exposure is dangerous. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA is the main target of ionizing radiation. For radiological exposure with low dose, the stochastic effects such as genetic damages and leukemia are concerned. According to the recommendations of the radiation protection regulatory organizations, radiological procedure must be done with respect to social and economic factors in which exposure of patient and population kept as low as reasonable and achievable. Hence, prescription of a radiological test is acceptable only when its advantages are higher than its damages. Optimizing the different parameters such as: collimating the primary beam field to the area of

  18. Diagnostic imaging of shoulder impingement; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Schultergelenkes bei Impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merl, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Weinhardt, H. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie; Oettl, G. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie; Lenz, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik; Riel, K.A. [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Orthopaedie

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a method that has been advancing in the last few years to the modality of choice for diagnostic evaluation of the bone joints, as the method is capable of imaging not only the ossous but also the soft tissue components of the joint. MRI likewise has become an accepted method for diagnostic evaluation of syndromes of the shoulder, with high diagnostic accuracy in detecting rotator cuff lesions, or as an efficient MRI arthrography for evaluation of the instability or lesions of the labrocapsular complex. In the evaluation of early stages of shoulder impingement, the conventional MRI technique as a static technique yields indirect signs which in many cases do not provide the diagnostic certainty required in order to do justice to the functional nature of the syndrome. In these cases, functional MRI for imaging of the arm in abducted position and in rotational movement may offer a chance to early detect impingement and thus identify patients who will profit from treatment at an early stage. [Deutsch] Die Magnetresonanztomographie hat sich in den letzten Jahren zur Methode der Wahl in der Diagnostik der Gelenke entwickelt, sie erlaubt neben der Abbildung aller knoechernen auch die Abbildung aller Weichteilelemente eines Gelenkes. Auch in der Diagnostik der Schultergelenkserkrankungen besitzt die Magnetresonanztomographie einen festen Stellenwert mit hoher diagnostischer Treffsicherheit in der Beurteilung der Rotatorenmanschette, als MR-Arthrographie auch in der Beurteilung der Instabilitaet bzw von Laesionen des labrokapsulaeren Komplexes. In der Bewertung frueher Stadien des Impingement ist die klassische Magnetresonanztomographie als statische Methode auf indirekte Zeichen angewiesen, die in vielen Faellen nicht ausreichende Sicherheit bieten und dem funktionellen Charakter des Krankheitsbildes nicht ausreichend Rechnung tragen. Hier koennte die funktionelle Magnetresonanztomographie unter Abbildung des Arms in Abduktion und Rotation eine

  19. Cardiovascular modeling and diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.; Hashem, S.; Kouzes, R.T. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a novel approach to modeling and diagnosing the cardiovascular system is introduced. A model exhibits a subset of the dynamics of the cardiovascular behavior of an individual by using a recurrent artificial neural network. Potentially, a model will be incorporated into a cardiovascular diagnostic system. This approach is unique in that each cardiovascular model is developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled variables and the variables of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. This approach also exploits sensor fusion to optimize the utilization of biomedical sensors. The advantage of sensor fusion has been demonstrated in applications including control and diagnostics of mechanical and chemical processes.

  20. Gene Disease Diagnostic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国亮; 张腾飞; 程京; 周玉祥; 刘诚迅; 金国藩; 邬敏贤; 严瑛白; 杨蓉

    2002-01-01

    Binary optics, where the optical element can be fabricated on a thin glass plate with micro-ion-etching film layer, has been widely applied in recent years. A novel optical scanning system for gene disease diagnostics described in this paper has four kinds of optical devices, including beam splitters, an array lens, an array filter and detection arrays. A software was developed to design the binary optics system using an iterative method. Two beam splitters were designed and fabricated, which can divide a beam into a 9×9 array or into a 13×13 array. The beam splitters have good diffraction efficiencies (>70%) and an even energy distribution. The gene disease diagnostic system is a portable biochip and binary optics technology. The binary optical devices in the non-confocal scanning system can raise the fluorescence detection sensitivity of the micro-array hybrid biochip.

  1. Idiopathic chondrolysis - diagnostic difficulties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Scougall, J.

    1984-07-01

    Four cases of idiopathic chondrolysis of the hip in three white girls and one Maori girl are reported. The authors stress the causes why a disease with characteristic clinical and radiographic appearances and normal biochemical findings presents diagnostic difficulties. It is suspected that idiopathic chondrolysis is a metabolic disorder of chondrocytes, triggered by environment circumstances in susceptible individuals. Idiopathic chondrolysis is probably one of the most common causes of coxarthrosis in women.

  2. STELLA Experiment - Microbunch Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, P.; Liu, Y.; Cline, D. B.; Babzien, M.; Gallardo, J. C.; Kusche, K. P.; Pogorelsky, I. V.; Skaritka, J.; van Steenbergen, A.; Yakimenko, V.; Kimura, W. D.

    1998-07-01

    A microbunch diagnostic system is built at the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) of Brookhaven National Laboratory for monitoring microbunches (10-fs bunch length) produced by the Inverse Free Electron Laser accelerator in Staged Electron Laser Acceleration experiment. It is similar to one already demonstrated at the ATF. With greatly improved beam optics conditions higher order harmonic coherent transition radiation will be measurable to determine the microbunch length and shape.

  3. SNS Diagnostics Timing Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Cary D; Murphy, Darryl J; Pogge, James; Purcell, John D; Sundaram, Madhan

    2005-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator systems will deliver a 1.0 GeV, 1.4 MW proton beam to a liquid mercury target for neutron scattering research. The accelerator complex consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator, an accumulator ring and associated transport lines. The SNS diagnostics platform is PC-based running Windows XP Embedded for its OS and LabVIEW as its programming language. Coordinating timing among the various diagnostics instruments with the generation of the beam pulse is a challenging task that we have chosen to divide into three phases. First, timing was derived from VME based systems. In the second phase, described in this paper, timing pulses are generated by an in house designed PCI timing card installed in ten diagnostics PCs. Using fan-out modules, enough triggers were generated for all instruments. This paper describes how the Timing NAD (Network Attached Device) was rapidly developed using our NAD template, LabVIEW's PCI driver wizard, and LabVIEW Channel Access library. The NAD...

  4. [Histopathological meniscus diagnostic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisseler-Eckhoff, A; Müller, K-M

    2009-06-01

    Menisci fulfill many functions within the complex biomechanics of the knee joint. In the case of meniscus lesions, sparing arthroscopic resections and operative refixation are the treatments of choice. With regard to diagnostics, this means that in general terms, the histopathologic diagnostics are carried out on detached meniscus fragments of between 5 mm and 2 cm in size. An experienced pathologist's knowledge of physiologically possible cellular and fibrous histological meniscus damage, as opposed to nonphysiological change regarded as normal with respect to age, is essential during a diagnostic meniscus evaluation. The clinician expects clear statements from the pathologist regarding the severity of previous or secondary degenerative meniscus damage, the age and type of traumatic tears, and appraisal of the relationship between trauma and meniscus damage from an insurance point of view. Close cooperation between the clinician and the pathologist allows for fast and unambiguous correlation of anamnesis, the clinical picture, and morphological reporting so that cases involving insurance problems - which are numerous, often long-term, and often unsatisfactory - can be clarified quickly.

  5. Diagnostics for Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth McNerney

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  6. Altering Knee Abduction Angular Impulse Using Wedged Insoles for Treatment of Patellofemoral Pain in Runners: A Six-Week Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan T Lewinson

    Full Text Available Determine if a change in internal knee abduction angular impulse (KAAI is related to pain reduction for runners with patellofemoral pain (PFP by comparing lateral and medial wedge insole interventions, and increased KAAI and decreased KAAI groups.Randomized controlled clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov ID# NCT01332110.Biomechanics laboratory and community.Thirty-six runners with physician-diagnosed PFP enrolled in the trial, and 27 were analyzed.Runners with PFP were randomly assigned to either an experimental 3 mm lateral wedge or control 6 mm medial wedge group. Participants completed a biomechanical gait analysis to quantify KAAIs with their assigned insole, and then used their assigned insole for six-weeks during their regular runs. Usual pain during running was measured at baseline and at six-week follow-up using a visual analog scale. Statistical tests were performed to identify differences between wedge types, differences between biomechanical response types (i.e. increase or decrease KAAI, as well as predictors of pain reduction.Percent change in KAAI relative to neutral, and % change in pain over six weeks.Clinically meaningful reductions in pain (>33% were measured for both footwear groups; however, no significant differences between footwear groups were found (p = 0.697. When participants were regrouped based on KAAI change (i.e., increase or decrease, again, no significant differences in pain reduction were noted (p = 0.146. Interestingly, when evaluating absolute change in KAAI, a significant relationship between absolute % change in KAAI and % pain reduction was observed (R2 = 0.21; p = 0.030, after adjusting for baseline pain levels.The greater the absolute % change in KAAI during running, the greater the % reduction in pain over six weeks, regardless of wedge type, and whether KAAIs increased or decreased. Lateral and medial wedge insoles were similar in effectiveness for treatment of PFP.Altering KAAI should be a focus of future

  7. Comparison between conventional MR arthrograhphy and abduction and external rotation MR arthrography in revealing tears of the antero-inferior glenoid labrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Ah; Suh, Sang Il; Kim, Baek Hyun; Cha, Sang Hoon [Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myung Gyu; Lee, Ki Yeol [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee [Konkok University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-01

    To compare, in terms of their demonstration of tears of the anterior glenoid labrum, oblique axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's shoulder in the abduction and external rotation (ABER) position, with conventional axial MR arthrography obtained with the patient's arm in the neutral position. MR arthrography of the shoulder, including additional oblique axial sequences with the patient in the ABER position, was performed in 30 patients with a clinical history of recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation. The degree of anterior glenoid labral tear or defect was evaluated in both the conventional axial and the ABER position by two radiologists. Decisions were reached by consensus, and a three-point scale was used: grade 1=normal; grade 2=probable tear, diagnosed when subtle increased signal intensity in the labrum was apparent; grade 3=definite tear/defect, when a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim or deficient labrum was present. The scores for each imaging sequence were averaged and to compare conventional axial and ABER position scans, Student's t test was performed. In 21 (70%) of 30 patients, the same degree of anterior instability was revealed by both imaging sequences. Eight (27%) had a lower grade in the axial position than in the ABER position, while one (3%) had a higher grade in the axial position. Three whose axial scan was grade 1 showed only equivocal evidence of tearing, but their ABER-position scan, in which a contrast material-filled gap between the labrum and the glenoid rim was present, was grade 3. The average grade was 2.5 (SD=0.73) for axial scans and 2.8 (SD=0.46) for the ABER position. The difference between axial and ABER-position scans was statistically significant (p<0.05). MR arthrography with the patient's shoulder in the ABER position is more efficient than conventional axial scanning in revealing the degree of tear or defect of the anterior glenoid labrum. When equivocal

  8. [Clinical psychodiagnosis using psychophysiologic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberger, J; Linzmayer, L; Saletu, B

    1984-01-31

    The present paper presents several new psychophysiological test methods and measures, which have been developed by the authors for utilization in the field of psychopathology and psychopharmacology. The main advantage of these new techniques seems to lie in the fact, that control and evaluation procedures are microprocessor-assisted which ensures objectivity, reliability and validity. The multidimensionality, e.g. the possibility to concomitantly evaluate several variables at the same time, and the economics, e.g. the short time effort involved in completing the tests, are further advantages. By means of the newly developed techniques several sensitive measures may be obtained which are of great value in the diagnostic process as well as in the assessment of drug effects in clinical psychopharmacology.

  9. Computerized procedures system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Melvin H.; Mundy, Roger A.; Franusich, Michael D.

    2010-10-12

    An online data driven computerized procedures system that guides an operator through a complex process facility's operating procedures. The system monitors plant data, processes the data and then, based upon this processing, presents the status of the current procedure step and/or substep to the operator. The system supports multiple users and a single procedure definition supports several interface formats that can be tailored to the individual user. Layered security controls access privileges and revisions are version controlled. The procedures run on a server that is platform independent of the user workstations that the server interfaces with and the user interface supports diverse procedural views.

  10. Case-Deletion Diagnostics for Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Lu, Bin

    2003-01-01

    In this article, a case-deletion procedure is proposed to detect influential observations in a nonlinear structural equation model. The key idea is to develop the diagnostic measures based on the conditional expectation of the complete-data log-likelihood function in the EM algorithm. An one-step pseudo approximation is proposed to reduce the…

  11. Assessing Fit of Cognitive Diagnostic Models: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Almond, Russell G.

    2007-01-01

    A cognitive diagnostic model uses information from educational experts to describe the relationships between item performances and posited proficiencies. When the cognitive relationships can be described using a fully Bayesian model, Bayesian model checking procedures become available. Checking models tied to cognitive theory of the domains…

  12. Do diagnostic blocks have beneficial effects on pain processing?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chua Hai Liang, N.; Vissers, K.C.P.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic blocks of cervical zygapophysial joints have been used as part of the management strategy for patients with chronic neck pain. Little information is available regarding the sensory processing changes that occur after these common procedures. In a hypothesis-gene

  13. RADON DIAGNOSTIC MEASUREMENT GUIDANCE FOR LARGE BUILDINGS - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses the development of radon diagnostic procedures and mitigation strategies applicable to a variety of large non-residential buildings commonly found in Florida. The investigations document and evaluate the nature of radon occurrence and entry mechanisms for rad...

  14. A Framework for Determining the Value of Diagnostic Information for Instructional Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David G.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure designed to help instructional decision-makers evaluate individual sources of diagnostic information in terms of their functional utility may add a desirable measure of precision to their instructional prescriptions for learners. (Author)

  15. Diagnostic accuracy of 64 slice multidetector coronary computed tomographic angiography in left ventricular systolic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Lee

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Sixty-four slice multidetector CCTA is a very sensitive and fairly specific noninvasive diagnostic procedure for detecting coronary stenosis in patients with chest pain regardless of LV systolic function at presentation.

  16. Rational use of diagnostic imaging in paediatrics. The report of a World Health Organization study group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merten, D.F.; Palmer, P.E.S.; Sweet, E.M.; Fendel, H.; Faure, C.; Fujioka, M.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of WHO Technical Report 757 is to provide guidance to physicians who must decide what imaging techniques are best suited to specific clinical problems in paediatric practice, and to those who perform these various diagnostic procedures.

  17. Diagnostics of anterior eye segment in cats and dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadži-Milić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of the anterior segment of the eye present the most frequent diagnostics implemented in ophthalmology and by most veterinary practicians as well. This paper presents the complete diagnostics in the most concise form possible. The procedure with animals is presented first, followed by the equipment, and then anamnesis. The following diagnostic methods are presented: examination in a lighted room which include an examination from a distance, taking a smear, the Schirmer tear test (STT, an examination from close by, examination in a dark room which comprises the elementary examinations, such as the use of focal lighting and examination using a direct ophthalmoscope, and special examination in a dark room, such as biomicroscopy, gonioscopy and keratoscopy. Additional examination methods are also included.

  18. 75 FR 15443 - Advancing the Development of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis; Public Workshop...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ...-resistant TB (MDR TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR TB). Both plans addressed domestic and global... of Diagnostic Tests and Biomarkers for Tuberculosis (TB).'' The purpose of the workshop is to provide... and procedural gaps in the current development of TB diagnostic tests, and in exploring models...

  19. System-related factors contributing to diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Thammasitboon, Supat; Singhal, Geeta

    2013-10-01

    Several studies in primary care, internal medicine, and emergency departments show that rates of errors in test requests and result interpretations are unacceptably high and translate into missed, delayed, or erroneous diagnoses. Ineffective follow-up of diagnostic test results could lead to patient harm if appropriate therapeutic interventions are not delivered in a timely manner. The frequency of system-related factors that contribute directly to diagnostic errors depends on the types and sources of errors involved. Recent studies reveal that the errors and patient harm in the diagnostic testing loop have occurred mainly at the pre- and post-analytic phases, which are directed primarily by clinicians who may have limited expertise in the rapidly expanding field of clinical pathology. These errors may include inappropriate test requests, failure/delay in receiving results, and erroneous interpretation and application of test results to patient care. Efforts to address system-related factors often focus on technical errors in laboratory testing or failures in delivery of intended treatment. System-improvement strategies related to diagnostic errors tend to focus on technical aspects of laboratory medicine or delivery of treatment after completion of the diagnostic process. System failures and cognitive errors, more often than not, coexist and together contribute to the incidents of errors in diagnostic process and in laboratory testing. The use of highly structured hand-off procedures and pre-planned follow-up for any diagnostic test could improve efficiency and reliability of the follow-up process. Many feedback pathways should be established so that providers can learn if or when a diagnosis is changed. Patients can participate in the effort to reduce diagnostic errors. Providers should educate their patients about diagnostic probabilities and uncertainties. The patient-safety strategies focusing on the interface between diagnostic system and therapeutic

  20. Invasive mycoses: diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction- or other nucleic acid- or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.

  1. Determinants of procedural pain intensity in the intensive care unit. The Europain® study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puntillo, Kathleen A; Max, Adeline; Timsit, Jean-Francois;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE: Intensive care unit (ICU) patients undergo several diagnostic and therapeutic procedures every day. The prevalence, intensity, and risk factors of pain related to these procedures are not well known. OBJECTIVES: To assess self-reported procedural pain intensity versus baseline pain, ex...

  2. Conflict among Testing Procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    AM4ONG TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 ( i’ 4:3 rpis tsnlb u lailtsd P-6765 8 8 O1 V 068 The Rand Paper Series Papers are issued by...TESTING PROCEDURES? Daniel F . Kohler April 1982 : i ! ,I I CONFLICT AMONG TESTING PROCEDURES? 1. Introduction "- Savin [1976] and Berndt and Savin [19771

  3. Diagnostic electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickersin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    In this book the author presents a comprehensive reference text on diagnostic electron microscopy. Throughout the book he illustrates how ultrastructural identification can be helpful for the recognition of cell type and the identification of mechanisms of pathogenesis in various diseases. In addition to electron microscopy photographs, there are also numerous light microscopy photographs for comparison. This text presents the classification of neoplasms in the order and arrangement most familiar to the pathologist. Contents: Introduction; Diagram of a Normal Cell; Normal Cell Function; Embryology; Neoplasms; Infectious Agents; Metabolic Diseases; Renal Diseases; Skeletal Muscle and Peripheral Nerve Diseases; Index.

  4. Assessing use of a standardized dental diagnostic terminology in an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel; Stark, Paul C; Vaderhobli, Ram; Walji, Muhammad F; Ramoni, Rachel; Schoonheim-Klein, Meta; Kimmes, Nicole; Tavares, Anamaria; Kalenderian, Elsbeth

    2013-01-01

    Although standardized terminologies such as the International Classification of Diseases have been in use in medicine for over a century, efforts in the dental profession to standardize dental diagnostic terms have not achieved widespread acceptance. To address this gap, a standardized dental diagnostic terminology, the EZCodes, was developed in 2009. Fifteen dental education institutions in the United States and Europe have implemented the EZCodes dental diagnostic terminology. This article reports on the utilization and valid entry of the EZCodes at three of the dental schools that have adopted this standardized dental diagnostic terminology. Electronic data on the use of procedure codes with diagnostic terms from the three schools over a period from July 2010 to June 2011 were aggregated. The diagnostic term and procedure code pairs were adjudicated by three calibrated dentists. Analyses were conducted to gain insight into the utilization and valid entry of the EZCodes diagnostic terminology in the one-year period. Error proportions in the entry of diagnostic term (and by diagnostic category) were also computed. In the twelve-month period, 29,965 diagnostic terms and 249,411 procedure codes were entered at the three institutions resulting in a utilization proportion of 12 percent. Caries and periodontics were the most frequently used categories. More than 1,000 of the available 1,321 diagnostic terms were never used. Overall, 60.5 percent of the EZCodes entries were found to be valid. The results demonstrate low utilization of EZCodes in an electronic health record and raise the need for specific training of dental providers on the importance of using dental diagnostic terminology and specifically how to use the terms in the electronic record. These findings will serve to increase the use/correct use of the EZCodes dental diagnostic terminology and ultimately create a reliable platform for undertaking clinical, outcomes, and quality improvement-related research.

  5. Decision of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress Regarding the Severe Punishment of Criminals Who Abduct and Traffic in or Kidnap Women or Children (Adopted at the 21st Meeting of the Standing Committee of the Seventh National People’

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    With a view to severely punishing criminals who abduct and traffic in or kidnap women or children so as to protect the personal safety of women and children and maintain the public security order, the relevant provisions of the Criminal Law are supplemented or amended as follows: 1. Whoever abducts and traffics in a woman or a child shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five years and not more than ten years, and shall concurrently be punished with a fine

  6. Advances in paper-based point-of-care diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jie; Wang, ShuQi; Wang, Lin; Li, Fei; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Lu, Tian Jian; Xu, Feng

    2014-04-15

    Advanced diagnostic technologies, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), have been widely used in well-equipped laboratories. However, they are not affordable or accessible in resource-limited settings due to the lack of basic infrastructure and/or trained operators. Paper-based diagnostic technologies are affordable, user-friendly, rapid, robust, and scalable for manufacturing, thus holding great potential to deliver point-of-care (POC) diagnostics to resource-limited settings. In this review, we present the working principles and reaction mechanism of paper-based diagnostics, including dipstick assays, lateral flow assays (LFAs), and microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs), as well as the selection of substrates and fabrication methods. Further, we report the advances in improving detection sensitivity, quantification readout, procedure simplification and multi-functionalization of paper-based diagnostics, and discuss the disadvantages of paper-based diagnostics. We envision that miniaturized and integrated paper-based diagnostic devices with the sample-in-answer-out capability will meet the diverse requirements for diagnosis and treatment monitoring at the POC.

  7. The Control Study of Treatment for Shoulder Joint Dislocation by Abduction, Lifting, Push and Squeeze%外展上举旋转推挤法治疗肩关节脱位的对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈巍; 李彬; 李宣隆; 汪永泉; 吴滨

    2015-01-01

    目的:比较外展上举推挤法和手牵足蹬复位法治疗肩关节脱位的疗效,探索一种更加安全、有效的复位手法。方法2011年7月至2014年7月,收治肩关节前脱位患者123例,年龄19~82岁,其中120例按随机数字表法分为A组(实验组60例)和B组(对照组60例)。实验组采用外展上举推挤复位法;对照组采用传统手牵足蹬复位法,余3例同时伴有其他部位损伤或特殊类型脱位而不能采用Hippocrates复位者为C组,直接采用外展上举推挤法。结果对照组60例成功复位56例,1例导致医源性外科颈骨折而最终改为手术治疗,3例复位不能而采用外展上举推挤法后成功复位;实验组共60例均完成良好复位。结论外展上举推挤法整复肩关节脱位成功率高,患者痛苦少,复位方法易掌握,尤其对Hippocrates法不能成功复位者仍能取得较好复位效果。%Objective To compare the clinical effect between abduction, lifting, push and squeeze method and Hippocrates, explore a safer and more effective way of replacement for shoulder joint dislocation. Methods From July 2011 to July 2014, 123 patients with anterior dislocation of shoulder joint, ranging in age from 19 to 82.The patients were randomly divided into group A (treatment group, 60 cases) and group B (control group, 60 cases). Treatment group were treated by abduction, lifting, push and squeeze. Control group were treated with Hippocrates. The other three cases with other injuries and special dislocation were put in group C, and they were treated by abduction, lifting, push and squeeze directly. Results 56 patients in control group got replacement.1 patient was operated

  8. Current possibilities of chorioretinites diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chudinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to study the morphometric changes in retina and the state of regional hemodynamics for chorioretinites of different etiology, to draw parallels between these methods of study with evaluation of their diagnostical significance.Methods: Clinical and instrumental examination was performed in 15 patients (15 eyes — group 1 — with the verified diagnosis of toxoplasmous chorioretinitis and in 13 patients (13 eyes — group 2 — with the diagnosis of tuberculous chorioretinitis. Control (group 3 consisted of 20 subjects (40 eyes, 9 males, 11 females, without any pathology of organ of vision. Complex ophthalmologic examination was performed in all the patients; the examination included the following procedures: determination of visual acuity with correction, computer perimetry, biomicroscopy of eye fundus, inspection of eye fundus using Goldman lens, optic coherent tomogra- phy (OCt, ultrasound Dopplerography (USDG of eye vessels.Results: the following was determined by OCt data: subclinical serous retinal detachment, isolated cells of cyst-like edema, cyst- like edema in macular zone, unevenness of hyperreflective band of pigment epithelium, thinning of neurosensory retina in the area of scarry focus, hyperreflectivity of the zone of the fibrosis being formed, architectonics disorder of NE layers in foveolar zone and para- foveally at the expense of the presence of small hyperreflective parts. In the presence of proliferative process in the vascular coat the reliable decrease of blood flow maximal and minimal velocities in the posterior short ciliary arteries, maximal and minimal velocities of blood flow in the posterior long ciliary arteries in comparison with the values of patients from control group. the data obtained are supposed that proliferative processes in the vascular coat are accompanied by marked local hemodynamic disorders, which should be taken into consideration when complex therapy is prescribed.Conclusion: Dynamic

  9. The impact of elective diagnostic laparoscopy in chronic abominal disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akeely Mohammed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Diagnostic laparoscopy has become an integral part of general surgical procedures with the recent advancements in laparoscopic technology. Since surgeons are more oriented in viewing and dissection of different intra-abdominal areas and are proficient in the definitive management of complications in the procedures, diagnostic laparoscopy may be better off in the hands of surgeons. Laparoscopy has proved to be an important tool in final minimally invasive exploration for selected medical patients with chronic abdominal disorders, the diagnosis of which remains uncertain despite employing the requisite laboratory and non-invasive imaging investigations. This retrospective study was done to evaluate the accuracy of elective diagnostic laparoscopy in patients with chronic abdominal disorders and its impact on the management of these patients. Methods: The records of 35 patients, admitted to Riyadh Medical Complex with chronic abdominal disorders and referred to the author by physicians for elective diagnostic laparoscopy from 1999 through 2004, were evaluated for the accuracy and impact of this procedure in the further management of these patients. All 35 patients were investigated by the referring physician. Investigations included hematology, biochemistry, radiology, ascitic fluid analysis, endoscopic and imaging studies and the Mantoux test. These investigations suggested abdominal tuberculosis in 22 patients and intra-abdominal malignancy in 13 patients. They were referred for elective diagnostic laparoscopy and tissue biopsy. Results: Diagnostic laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis in all patients suspected of malignancy. In patients with suspected abdominal tuberculosis, the laparoscopic diagnosis and biopsy revealed tuberculosis (16 patients, liver cirrhosis (2 patients, Crohn′s disease (1 patient, and metastatic carcinoma of terminal ileum (1 patient. In 2 patients the procedure did not reveal any specific pathology. The

  10. An overview of nuclear medicine imaging procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Peter; Lawson, Richard

    2015-11-25

    Nuclear medicine imaging is not generally well understood by nurses who work outside this area. Consequently, nurses can find themselves unable to answer patients' questions about nuclear medicine imaging procedures or give them proper information before they attend for a test. This article aims to explain what is involved in some common diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging procedures so that nurses are able to discuss this with patients. It also addresses some common issues about radiation protection that nurses might encounter in their usual working routine. The article includes links to videos showing some typical nuclear medicine imaging procedures from a patient's point of view and links to an e-Learning for Healthcare online resource that provides detailed information for nurses.

  11. Breast ductal endoscopy: how many procedures qualify?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papalabros Alexandros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast ductal endoscopy is a relatively new diagnostic method with ever growing importance in the work-up of patients with bloody nipple discharge. The ability to perform ductal endoscopy is very important and useful for breast fellows. Learning curve in breast ductal endoscopy remains a terra incognita, since no systematic studies have addressed this topic. The purpose of this study is to determine the point (number of procedures during training beyond which ductal endoscopy is successfully performed. Findings Ten breast fellows received training in our Breast Unit. For the training process, an ex vivo model was adopted. Fellows were trained on 20 surgical specimens derived from modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. The target of the education program was to acquire proficiency in performing ductoscopy. The achievement of four consecutively successful ductal endoscopies was determined as the point beyond which proficiency had been achieved. The number of procedures needed for the achievement of proficiency as defined above ranged between 9 and 17 procedures. The median value was 13 procedures; i.e. 50% of trainees had achieved proficiency at the 13th procedure or earlier. Conclusion These pilot findings point to approximately 13 procedures as a point beyond which ductal endoscopy is successfully performed; studies on a larger number of fellows are nevertheless needed. Further research, focusing on the learning curves of different training models of ductal endoscopy, seems desirable.

  12. Breast ductal endoscopy: how many procedures qualify?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagouri, Flora; Sergentanis, Theodoros N; Giannakopoulou, Georgia; Panopoulou, Effrosyni; Chrysikos, Dimosthenis; Bletsa, Garifallia; Flessas, John; Filippakis, George; Papalabros, Alexandros; Bramis, Kostas J; Zografos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast ductal endoscopy is a relatively new diagnostic method with ever growing importance in the work-up of patients with bloody nipple discharge. The ability to perform ductal endoscopy is very important and useful for breast fellows. Learning curve in breast ductal endoscopy remains a terra incognita, since no systematic studies have addressed this topic. The purpose of this study is to determine the point (number of procedures during training) beyond which ductal endoscopy is successfully performed. Findings Ten breast fellows received training in our Breast Unit. For the training process, an ex vivo model was adopted. Fellows were trained on 20 surgical specimens derived from modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer. The target of the education program was to acquire proficiency in performing ductoscopy. The achievement of four consecutively successful ductal endoscopies was determined as the point beyond which proficiency had been achieved. The number of procedures needed for the achievement of proficiency as defined above ranged between 9 and 17 procedures. The median value was 13 procedures; i.e. 50% of trainees had achieved proficiency at the 13th procedure or earlier. Conclusion These pilot findings point to approximately 13 procedures as a point beyond which ductal endoscopy is successfully performed; studies on a larger number of fellows are nevertheless needed. Further research, focusing on the learning curves of different training models of ductal endoscopy, seems desirable. PMID:19566939

  13. Energy diagnosis; Diagnostic energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vivien, P. [Centre Technique des Industries Mecaniques (CETIM), Franche-Comte (France)

    1996-12-31

    Through a partnership with regional authorities and the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME), the CETIM (Technical Agency for Mechanical Industries) is proposing energy audits in industrial plants with the aim to increase the plant performances, reduce energy costs and work out environmental issues. Concrete improvement solutions are proposed with profitability calculations. The audit procedure is presented. The most efficient solutions generally involve energy tariff rate shifts, heating regulation, power cut-off, reactive energy compensation and lighting management

  14. Diagnostics for Hypersonic Engine Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2015-0037 DIAGNOSTICS FOR HYPERSONIC ENGINE CONTROL Michael S. Brown and Jeffrey M. Donbar Hypersonic Sciences Branch...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) February 2015 Interim 01 March 2013 – 24 February 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DIAGNOSTICS FOR...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES PA Case Number: 88ABW-2015-0636; Clearance Date: 23 Feb 2015. 14. ABSTRACT The overall goal of the research is to find diagnostic

  15. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  16. Diagnostic Challenges at SNS

    CERN Document Server

    Plum, M A

    2003-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source now being built in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA, accelerates an H- ion beam to 1000 MeV with an average power of 1.4 MW. The H- beam is then stripped to H+, compressed in a storage ring to a pulse length of 695 ns, and then directed onto a mercury neutron spallation target. Most of the acceleration is accomplished with superconducting rf cavities. The presence of these cavities, the high average beam power, and the large range of beam intensity in the storage ring, provide unique challenges to the beam diagnostics systems. In this talk we will discuss these challenges and some of our solutions, including the laser profile monitor system, the residual gas ionization profile monitors, and network attached devices. Measurements performed using prototype instrumentation will also be presented.

  17. Oral vs. salivary diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Joana; Corby, Patricia M.; Barber, Cheryl A.; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The field of "salivary diagnostics" includes studies utilizing samples obtained from a variety of sources within the oral cavity. These samples include; whole unstimulated saliva, stimulated whole saliva, duct saliva collected directly from the parotid, submandibular/sublingual glands or minor salivary glands, swabs of the buccal mucosa, tongue or tonsils, and gingival crevicular fluid. Many publications state "we collected saliva from subjects" without fully describing the process or source of the oral fluid. Factors that need to be documented in any study include the time of day of the collection, the method used to stimulate and collect the fluid, and how much fluid is being collected and for how long. The handling of the oral fluid during and post-collection is also critical and may include addition of protease or nuclease inhibitors, centrifugation, and cold or frozen storage prior to assay. In an effort to create a standard protocol for determining a biomarker's origin we carried out a pilot study collecting oral fluid from 5 different sites in the mouth and monitoring the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines detected using MesoScaleDiscovery (MSD) electrochemiluminesence assays. Our data suggested that 3 of the cytokines are primarily derived from the submandibular gland, while 7 of the cytokines come from a source other than the major salivary glands such as the minor salivary glands or cells in the oral mucosae. Here we review the literature on monitoring biomarkers in oral samples and stress the need for determining the blood/saliva ratio when a quantitative determination is needed and suggest that the term oral diagnostic be used if the source of an analyte in the oral cavity is unknown.

  18. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  19. Patient dose monitoring in Dubai in radiography and interventional procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSuwaidi, J S; AlMazrouei, N K; Pottybindu, S; Siraj, M; Mathew, D; Al Blooshi, A A; Kuriakose, V P

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents ongoing actions in Dubai on patient dose monitoring in digital radiographic examinations, mammography, interventional procedures, and dental radiological procedures. The aim of Dubai Health Authority (DHA) is to move towards the establishment of local diagnostic reference levels. DHA has participated in national and regional projects under the umbrella of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The need for local radiation protection educational programmes and wider patient dosimetry monitoring and recording emerged from this work.

  20. Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment via Bayesian Evaluation of Informative Diagnostic Hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, Herbert; Beland, Sebastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A.

    2014-01-01

    There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric perspec

  1. Cognitive diagnostic assessment via Bayesian evaluation of informative diagnostic hypotheses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, Herbert; Béland, Sébastien; Vermeulen, Jorine A.

    2014-01-01

    There exist diverse approaches that can be used for cognitive diagnostic assessment, such as mastery testing, constrained latent class analysis, rule space methodology, diagnostic cognitive modeling, and person-fit analysis. Each of these approaches can be used within 1 of the 4 psychometric perspec

  2. Finite element procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  3. Evolution of diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houshmand, Azadeh; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2013-01-01

    and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes study demonstrated that maternal hyperglycemia is associated with perinatal risk in a linear way with no obvious threshold. The International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group has translated these results into clinical practice by proposing new diagnostic...... criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus, based for the first time on perinatal outcome.......The establishment of universal diagnostic guidelines for gestational diabetes mellitus has been a long time coming. The lack of consensus and uniformity in procedures for diagnosing this disease has been a problem ever since its existence was recognized. The USA, European countries, and Australia...

  4. Diagnostic Laparoscopy for Small Intestinal Intussusception in a Horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Holak, M. Jałyński, Z. Peczyński, Z. Adamiak, M. Jaskólska and W. Pesta*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopy is a low-invasive diagnostic and surgical technique for examining and performing surgical procedures in the equine peritoneal cavity. This article is a case study of a horse with weakly expressed, irregular symptoms of colic occurring over a period of four weeks. Diagnostic laparoscopy was performed, and liver and spleen tissue samples were collected for a histopathological analysis. An endoscopic examination of the abdominal cavity ruled out small intestinal intussusception, and a histopathological analysis supported the identification of the causes of colic.

  5. Estimation and significance of patient doses from diagnostic X ray practices in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supe, S.J.; Iyer, P.S.; Sasane, J.B.; Sawant, S.G.; Shirva, V.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiological Protection)

    1992-01-01

    Population exposure resulting from diagnostic X ray examinations is quite considerable. This exposure of the population of India was estimated from the data collected about the number of examinations per 1000 persons per year, the doses measured at the entrance surface in diagnostic examinations, conversion factors measured and organ doses estimated therefrom. The per caput effective dose equivalent from diagnostic radiology is estimated to be 0.021 mSv per year. Even though this is low compared to the values reported for developed countries there is good scope for its reduction by properly optimising the X ray procedures and by ensuring Quality Assurance in diagnostic radiology. (author).

  6. How to Reduce Radiation Exposure to Physicians Performing Fluoroscopy Procedures?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Pyo [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    Fluoroscopy procedures refer to a group of procedures which use real-time moving radiological images of patient internal organs and blood vessels. The procedure can be diagnostic, therapeutic, or both. The fluoroscopy procedures have substantially expanded both in scope and in number. Currently various medical specialties, including radiology, neurology, cardiology, electrophysiology, surgery, orthopedics, urology, gastroenterology etc. perform fluoroscopy procedures One concern of the fluoroscopy procedures is radiation exposure to physicians and thus potential cancer risk. Physicians generally stand close to a patient during a procedure and are exposed radiation scattered from the patient. Physicians perform numbers of procedures during the lifetime and receive cumulative radiation doses. According to a recent systematic review of occupation radiation dose from cardiac fluoroscopy procedures, physician doses varied by 100-1000 times for the same type of procedure. The large variation in the doses suggests that occupational dose can be greatly reduced by considering what factors and how much these factor influence physician doses from fluoroscopy procedures. The present study identifies and discusses various factors that affect radiation dose to physicians performing fluoroscopy procedures.

  7. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  8. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  9. Pyomyositis tropicans: a diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitow, J; Martin, H C; Knight, P; Buchanan, N

    1980-11-01

    Pyomyositis tropicans is a rare disease in non-tropical climates and thus presents diagnostic difficulties. Two children with single staphylococcal psoas muscle abscesses were recently successfully treated. Computerized axial tomography was found to be a useful diagnostic aid, allowing exact localization of the lesion. The diagnosis and therapy of these abscesses are discussed.

  10. Motor neurone disease: diagnostic pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Timothy L

    2013-02-01

    The misdiagnosis of MND (particularly of the ALS phenotype), is uncommon. Atypical presentations, particularly of focal onset and with pure LMN or UMN signs, present a more difficult diagnostic challenge, although perhaps reassuringly, treatable mimics are rare. A working knowledge of potential alternative conditions and MND diagnostic pitfalls should help to reduce the misdiagnosis rate, particularly if the key points are considered.

  11. Status of US ITER Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.; Pablant, N.; Barnsley, R.; Bertschinger, G.; de Bock, M. F. M.; Reichle, R.; Udintsev, V. S.; Watts, C.; Austin, M.; Phillips, P.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Biewer, T. M.; Hanson, G.; Klepper, C. C.; Carlstrom, T.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Brower, D.; Doyle, E.; Peebles, A.; Ellis, R.; Levinton, F.; Yuh, H.

    2013-10-01

    The US is providing 7 diagnostics to ITER: the Upper Visible/IR cameras, the Low Field Side Reflectometer, the Motional Stark Effect diagnostic, the Electron Cyclotron Emission diagnostic, the Toroidal Interferometer/Polarimeter, the Core Imaging X-Ray Spectrometer, and the Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer. The front-end components of these systems must operate with high reliability in conditions of long pulse operation, high neutron and gamma fluxes, very high neutron fluence, significant neutron heating (up to 7 MW/m3) , large radiant and charge exchange heat flux (0.35 MW/m2) , and high electromagnetic loads. Opportunities for repair and maintenance of these components will be limited. These conditions lead to significant challenges for the design of the diagnostics. Space constraints, provision of adequate radiation shielding, and development of repair and maintenance strategies are challenges for diagnostic integration into the port plugs that also affect diagnostic design. The current status of design of the US ITER diagnostics is presented and R&D needs are identified. Supported by DOE contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC05-00OR22725 (UT-Battelle, LLC).

  12. Surgical procedures in pinniped and cetacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jennifer L; Hendrickson, Dean A

    2013-12-01

    Significant advances in veterinary diagnostic and surgical techniques have been made over the past several decades. Many of these advances, however, have not reached the field of marine mammal medicine. A number of limitations exist: risks of anesthesia, anatomical challenges, difficulties with wound closure, environmental constraints, equipment limitations, and perceived risks. Despite these limitations, surgical treatments have been successfully utilized in marine mammals. While surgery is performed in pinnipeds more frequently than in cetaceans, studies conducted in the 1960s and 1970s on dolphin sleep and hearing demonstrated that general anesthesia can be successfully induced in cetaceans. Since this pioneering work, a small number of successful surgeries have been performed in dolphins under both general anesthesia and heavy sedation. While these surgical procedures in pinnipeds and cetaceans have typically been limited to wound management, dentistry, ophthalmic procedures, fracture repair, and superficial biopsy, a number of abdominal surgeries have also been performed. Recently there have been pioneering successes in the application of minimally invasive surgery in marine mammals. Many of the anatomical challenges that almost prohibit traditional laparotomies in cetacean species and present challenges in pinnipeds can be overcome through the use of laparoscopic techniques. Due to the limited number of pinnipeds and cetaceans in captivity and, thus, the limited case load for veterinarians serving marine mammal species, it is vital for knowledge of surgical procedures to be shared among those in the field. This paper reviews case reports of surgical procedures, both traditional and laparoscopic, in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Limitations to performing surgical procedures in marine mammals are discussed and surgical case reports analyzed in an effort to determine challenges that must be overcome in order to make surgery a more feasible diagnostic and treatment

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of diagnostic options for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R Harris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP is challenging, particularly in developing countries. Highly sensitive diagnostic methods are costly, while less expensive methods often lack sensitivity or specificity. Cost-effectiveness comparisons of the various diagnostic options have not been presented. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We compared cost-effectiveness, as measured by cost per life-years gained and proportion of patients successfully diagnosed and treated, of 33 PCP diagnostic options, involving combinations of specimen collection methods [oral washes, induced and expectorated sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL] and laboratory diagnostic procedures [various staining procedures or polymerase chain reactions (PCR], or clinical diagnosis with chest x-ray alone. Our analyses were conducted from the perspective of the government payer among ambulatory, HIV-infected patients with symptoms of pneumonia presenting to HIV clinics and hospitals in South Africa. Costing data were obtained from the National Institutes of Communicable Diseases in South Africa. At 50% disease prevalence, diagnostic procedures involving expectorated sputum with any PCR method, or induced sputum with nested or real-time PCR, were all highly cost-effective, successfully treating 77-90% of patients at $26-51 per life-year gained. Procedures using BAL specimens were significantly more expensive without added benefit, successfully treating 68-90% of patients at costs of $189-232 per life-year gained. A relatively cost-effective diagnostic procedure that did not require PCR was Toluidine Blue O staining of induced sputum ($25 per life-year gained, successfully treating 68% of patients. Diagnosis using chest x-rays alone resulted in successful treatment of 77% of patients, though cost-effectiveness was reduced ($109 per life-year gained compared with several molecular diagnostic options. CONCLUSIONS: For diagnosis of PCP, use of PCR technologies, when

  14. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Updated:Sep 16,2016 If you've had ... degree of coronary artery disease (CAD) you have. Cardiac Procedures and Surgeries Angioplasty Also known as Percutaneous Coronary Interventions [PCI], ...

  15. Decision-making Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is a persistent finding in psychology and experimental economics that people's behavior is not only shaped by outcomes but also by decision-making procedures. In this paper we develop a general framework capable of modelling these procedural concerns. Within the context of psychological games we...

  16. Civil Procedure In Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    The book contains an up-to-date survey of Danish civil procedure after the profound Danish procedural reforms in 2007. It deals with questions concerning competence and function of Danish courts, commencement and preparation of civil cases, questions of evidence and burden of proof, international...

  17. Comparative analyses of plasma probe diagnostics techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godyak, V. A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA and RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States); Alexandrovich, B. M. [Plasma Sensors, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The subject of this paper is a comparative analysis of the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir probe procedure, from different theories of the ion current to the probe, and from measured electron energy distribution function (EEDF) obtained by double differentiation of the probe characteristic. We concluded that the plasma parameters inferred from the classical Langmuir procedure can be subjected to significant inaccuracy due to the non-Maxwellian EEDF, uncertainty of locating the plasma potential, and the arbitrariness of the ion current approximation. The plasma densities derived from the ion part of the probe characteristics diverge by as much as an order of magnitude from the density calculated according to Langmuir procedure or calculated as corresponding integral of the measured EEDF. The electron temperature extracted from the ion part is always subjected to uncertainty. Such inaccuracy is attributed to modification of the EEDF for fast electrons due to inelastic electron collisions, and to deficiencies in the existing ion current theories; i.e., unrealistic assumptions about Maxwellian EEDFs, underestimation of the ion collisions and the ion ambipolar drift, and discounting deformation of the one-dimensional structure of the region perturbed by the probe. We concluded that EEDF measurement is the single reliable probe diagnostics for the basic research and industrial applications of highly non-equilibrium gas discharge plasmas. Examples of EEDF measurements point up importance of examining the probe current derivatives in real time and reiterate significance of the equipment technical characteristics, such as high energy resolution and wide dynamic range.

  18. Comparison of MRI and arthrography in the preoperative work up of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease; Bilan preoperatoire des osteochondrites de hanches: comparaison de l'arthrographie et de l'IRM avec des cliches en abduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, C.; Leclet, H.; Sutter, B.; Delforge, P.M. [Institut Calot, Service de l' Unite d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, 62 - Berck sur Mer (France)

    2001-05-01

    Purpose. Comparison between conventional arthrography and MRI in the preoperative work up of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. Material and methods. We studied 17 children (18 hips) who had arthrography and MRI (open-magnet configuration) the same day. Coronal and sagittal T1 weighted were realised with the hip in neutral position. Additional coronal T1 weighted with abduction of the hip were obtained. Two readers analysed individually MRI and arthrographic findings: shape of femoral head, index of Heyman (antero-external covering), came effect, re-centering of femoral head and quality of examination. Results. No statistical difference between MRI and arthrography could be noted-exception made for the index of Heyman. Conclusion. MRI can replace arthrography in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. (authors)

  19. The Present Situation and Counter Measures of the Campaign against the Cross - border Abduction and Sales of Women and Children%打击跨境诱拐儿童妇女的现状及措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙小迎; 李碧华

    2005-01-01

    Like many other countries in the world, China and Vietnam are now faced with criminals who abduct and sell women and children, which is the ugliest form of human behavior. The purpose for this crime is a common concern and different social situations and changes will generate different purposes, which can be roughly divided into categories such as sex exploitation, labor exploitation, marriage of the poor, reproduction of the male offspring and old age care. Besides, the purposes of cross-border crime might be different because of their different nationalities. The Chinese government spares no effort to crack down such crimes, no matter whether they are committed inside or outside its territory. However, to eradicate the crimes needs the uprooting of their bases and the full cooperation in the international community.

  20. Verification of Loop Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mok, Y.; Linker, J.; Mikic, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Many different techniques have been used to characterize the plasma in the solar corona: density-sensitive spectral line ratios are used to infer the density, the evolution of coronal structures in different passbands is used to infer the temperature evolution, and the simultaneous intensities measured in multiple passbands are used to determine the emission measure. All these analysis techniques assume that the intensity of the structures can be isolated through background subtraction. In this paper, we use simulated observations from a 3D hydrodynamic simulation of a coronal active region to verify these diagnostics. The density and temperature from the simulation are used to generate images in several passbands and spectral lines. We identify loop structures in the simulated images and calculate the loop background. We then determine the density, temperature and emission measure distribution as a function of time from the observations and compare with the true temperature and density of the loop. We find that the overall characteristics of the temperature, density, and emission measure are recovered by the analysis methods, but the details of the true temperature and density are not. For instance, the emission measure curves calculated from the simulated observations are much broader than the true emission measure distribution, though the average temperature evolution is similar. These differences are due, in part, to inadequate background subtraction, but also indicate a limitation of the analysis methods.

  1. Diagnostic of Horndeski Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Perenon, Louis; Piazza, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into {\\it Late dark energy}, {\\it Early dark energy} and {\\it Early modified gravity} scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant $\\mu$, the gravitational slip parameter $\\eta$, the light deflection parameter $\\Sigma$ and the growth function $f\\sigma_8$ and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the $\\mu(z)-\\Sigma(z)$ and the $f\\sigma_8(z)-\\Sigma(z)$ planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either $\\Sigma-10$ at high redshifts or $\\mu-1>0$ with $\\Sigma-11.5$ then Early dark energy models are definitel...

  2. Diagnostic of Horndeski theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenon, Louis; Marinoni, Christian; Piazza, Federico

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of Horndeski models of dark energy on the observables of the large-scale structure in the late time universe. A novel classification into Late dark energy, Early dark energy and Early modified gravity scenarios is proposed, according to whether such models predict deviations from the standard paradigm persistent at early time in the matter domination epoch. We discuss the physical imprints left by each specific class of models on the effective Newton constant μ, the gravitational slip parameter η, the light deflection parameter Σ and the growth function fσ8 and demonstrate that a convenient way to dress a complete portrait of the viability of the Horndeski accelerating mechanism is via two, redshift-dependent, diagnostics: the μ(z) ‑ Σ(z) and the fσ8(z) ‑ Σ(z) planes. If future, model-independent, measurements point to either Σ ‑ 1 zero or μ ‑ 1 0 at high redshifts or μ ‑ 1 > 0 with Σ ‑ 1 1.5 then Early dark energy models are definitely ruled out. On the opposite case, Late dark energy models are rejected by data if Σ 1, only Early modifications of gravity provide a viable framework to interpret data.

  3. Gonorrhoea diagnostics: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Verma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of gonorrhoea is an ongoing challenge. The organism is fastidious requiring meticulous collection and transport for successful cultivation. Asymptomatic infections are common which go undetected by conventional methods thereby leading to continued transmission and the risk of complications. The nucleic acid amplification tests, now increasingly used in developed countries, offer improved sensitivity compared to bacterial culture. However, these continue to suffer sequence related problems leading to false positive and false negative results. Further, these cannot be used for generation of data on antibiotic susceptibility because genetic markers of antibiotic resistance to recommended therapies have not been fully characterised. They are unaffordable in a setting like ours where reliance is placed on syndromic approach for sexually transmitted infection (STI management. The use of syndromic approach has resulted in a considerable decline in the number of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates that have been cultured for diagnostic purposes. Many laboratories formerly doing so are no longer performing culture for gonococci, and the basic skills have been lost. There is a need to not only revive this skill but also adopt newer technologies that can aid in accurate diagnosis in a cost-effective manner. There is room for innovation that can facilitate the development of a point-of-care test for this bacterial STI.

  4. Ethic Trend in Narration of Abducted and Trafficked Women:on Jia Pingwa’s Jihua%被拐女性叙事中的伦理走向--论贾平凹的新作《极花》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继超

    2016-01-01

    贾平凹的新作《极花》依然用城乡生活为参照点和立足点,重点关注了转型时期农村妇女被拐卖的社会现实问题,延续了作为乡土作家对城乡发展现状的持续关注。作家站在民间乡土立场对文本本身的故事伦理进行批判,同时更深层的是对“被拐女性留下”这一主题寻找叙述伦理上的合理性,以此消减了对故事在道德上的谴责,达到了对故事背后的问题和原因进行理性审视和智性思考的效果。%In the new book, JiHua, Jia Pingwa focuses the fact rural women are abducted and trafficked during the transition period, showing constant attention to the status quo of urban-rural development as a local writer. On the one hand, the writer criticized the story itself. On the other hand, he tried to seek the rationality for the fact the abducted women should stay, by which the moral condemnation of the story can be cut down, to achieve the rational examination and the intellectual thinking on the problems and reasons behind the story.

  5. Plasma diagnostics for tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, P. E.; Sanchez, J.

    1994-07-01

    A collection of papers on plasma diagnostics is presented. The papers show the state of the art developments in a series of techniques: Magnetic diagnostics, Edge diagnostics, Langmuir probes, Spectroscopy, Microwave and FIR diagnostics as well as Thomson Scattering. Special interest was focused on those diagnostics oriented to fluctuations measurements in the plasma. (Author) 451 refs.

  6. THE PROBLEMS OF EARLY CLINICAL DEFECTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar CORDIC

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Clinical defectological diagnostics, related to diagnostics of each individual's impairment of his cognitive and socializing abilities, has been applied in our country for a long time. Since it is a new area in the clinical defectological work and a new form of research in defectology, it poses a series of problems which have not been met so far. We shall to recognize some of them in this paper and to aim at their solution.This time we shall consider only the most prominent problems towards which we direct our interventions:· When does defectological diagnostics take part in diagnosis as treatment of impairments of the handicapped person? When does it function in the process of rehabilitation? For example, is working with a dyslexic child treatment or rehabilitation?· When does the early diagnostics reveal a problem arising from inappropriate intersection of different development courses, which can sometimes be solved without any particular treatment (early stuttering, various convulsions, and when does it reveal actual condition, such as oligophrenia or autism. Thereby we ask ourselves if early stimulative treatment of oligophrenic children or children with early childhood psychosis is treatment or rehabilitation.We tried to classify end explain the problems of diagnostics in the context of treatment and rehabilitation and to define the theoretical grounds for our standpoints.We wanted to point out the unity of the process of any impairment of the handicapped person from early childhood to the end of his life. Treatment and rehabilitation should be a united process and follow the course of development of early disorders which sometimes end up as handicaps, and sometimes, thanks to the treatment, may end up in successful socialization, for example, persons with impaired hearing or sight.We establish defectology as a complete theoretical standpoint and expert procedure which is parallel to and complementary with medicine. The only difference we

  7. Botulism and Diagnostic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Baysallar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary Clostridium botulinum which causes botulism, a neuroparalytic disease, attracts attention recently because of having an important role on classification of biological warfare agents. The diagnosis of botulism is not possible with routine laboratory tests. Culture from stool and food samples or toxin detection from the same samples and sera are preferable procedures. Early diagnosis and supportive treatment are important. Botulism is a notice required disease and its neurological signs are regressive after recovery.This agent which has a much lethal toxin must be considered important and the employee must comply with the biosafety measures during laboratory testing. Key words: Clostridium botulinum; Botulism; Bacteria, anaerobic; Diagnosis [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 343-350

  8. [Novel methods for dementia diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltfang, J

    2015-04-01

    Novel diagnostic methods, such as cerebrospinal fluid-based neurochemical dementia diagnostics (CSF-NDD) and [18F] amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) are meanwhile recommended for specific indications by international guidelines for the improved early and differential diagnostics of multigenic (sporadic) Alzheimer's dementia (AD). In the case of CSF-NDD the German neuropsychiatric guidelines have already been validated on the S3 level of evidence (http://www.DGPPN.de) and the additional consideration of [18F] amyloid-PET in the current update of the guidelines is to be expected. By means of CSF-NDD and/or [18F] amyloid-PET a predictive diagnosis of incipient (preclinical) AD is also possible for patients at high risk for AD who are in prodromal stages, such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As accompanying (secondary) preventive therapy of AD cannot be offered a predictive molecular dementia diagnostics is not recommended by the German neuropsychiatric dementia guidelines (http://www.DGPPN.de). However, novel diagnostic approaches, which offer molecular positive diagnostics of AD have already gained high relevance in therapy research as they allow promising preventive treatment avenues to be validated directly in the clinical trial. Moreover, future blood-based dementia diagnostics by means of multiplex assays is becoming increasingly more feasible; however, so far corresponding proteomic or epigenetic assays could not be consistently validated in independent studies.

  9. [BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsueda, Kei

    2006-08-01

    Rome I diagnostic criteria for IBS was published in 1992 and it became a global diagnostic criteria. However, the criteria was not practical and somewhat complicated. Moreover, its symptomatic duration was too long (defined as more than 3 months) to be introduced in clinical practice. Therefore, Japanese member of BMW(Bowel Motility Workshop) tried to develop a new diagnostic criteria for IBS and it was established in 1995 by way of the Delphi method. The criteria was named as BMW diagnostic criteria and it was shown below: BMW diagnostic criteria for IBS (1995) At least one month or more of repetitive symptoms of the following 1) and 2) and no evidence of organic disease that likely to explain the symptoms. 1) Existence of abdominal pain, abdominal discomfort or abdominal distension 2) Existence of abnormal bowel movement (diarrhea, constipation) Abnormal bowel movement includes at least one of the below; (1) Abnormal stool frequency (2) Abnormal stool form (lumpy/hard or loose/wartery stool) Moreover, the following test should be performed as a rule to exclude organic diseases. (1) Urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, CBC, chemistry (2) Barium enema or colonofiberscopic examination The other diagnostic criteria for IBS was also reviewed and their characteristics were compared with BMW diagnostic criteria.

  10. Diagnostic Challenges in AIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Taghavi Ardakani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatitis that occurs in children and adults of all ages. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic serologic and histologic findings and the exclusion of other forms of chronic liver disease. Guidelines issued by the AASLD suggest the following diagnostic considerations: The diagnosis should be made in patients with compatible clinical signs, symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities. Other conditions that can cause chronic hepatitis should be excluded. In unclear cases a standardized scoring system should be used in the assessment. In those who are negative for conventional autoantibodies, additional autoantibodies should be sought. All patients with autoimmune hepatitis and inflammatory bowel disease should undergo cholangiographic studies to exclude primary sclerosing cholangitis.   Scoring systems- A scoring system developed and subsequently revised by the International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group to standardize the diagnosis with using simplified criteria based upon titers of autoantibodies, IgG levels, liver histology, and the exclusion of viral hepatitis. Autoantibodies: assign one point if the ANA or SMA are 1:40 OR assign two points if the ANA or SMA are ≥1:80 (OR if the LKM ≥1:40 OR if the SLA is positive. IgG: assign one point if the IgG is > the upper limit of normal OR assign two points if the IgG is >1.10 times the upper limit of normal. Liver histology: assign one point if the histological features are compatible with autoimmune hepatitis OR two points if the histological features are typical of autoimmune hepatitis. Absence of viral hepatitis A probable diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis is made if the total points are six, while a definite diagnosis is made if the total points are ≥seven.  

  11. Urological conditions in pregnancy: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrotri, K N; Morrison, I D; Shrotri, N C

    2007-10-01

    Urological conditions in pregnancy represent a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The potential adverse effects of anaesthesia, radiation and drugs on the fetus often complicate traditional diagnostic and treatment measures. As frontline clinicians, obstetricians need an awareness of symptoms, associated obstetric complications and an appreciation of available current diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and their associated risks. This article describes common urinary problems encountered in pregnancy: infection, hydronephrosis and urolithiasis specifically. The aim of this paper is to review the safety, efficacy and role of different imaging studies available for the diagnosis of urolithiasis in pregnancy. Conservative management as first line treatment and a variety of interventional urological procedures with postoperative management are also discussed. Such a background may facilitate a rational management protocol for urological problems in a pregnant woman.

  12. Play vs. Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammar, Emil

    Through the theories of play by Gadamer (2004) and Henricks (2006), I will show how the relationship between play and game can be understood as dialectic and disruptive, thus challenging understandings of how the procedures of games determine player activity and vice versa. As such, I posit some...... analytical consequences for understandings of digital games as procedurally fixed (Boghost, 2006; Flannagan, 2009; Bathwaite & Sharp, 2010). That is, if digital games are argued to be procedurally fixed and if play is an appropriative and dialectic activity, then it could be argued that the latter affects...

  13. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as gonioscopy that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  14. Semiconductor lasers vs LEDs in diagnostic and therapeutic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej; Szymanska, Justyna; Blaszczak, Urszula; Palkowska, Anna; Kulesza, Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Semiconductor emitters are used in many areas of medicine, allowing for new methods of diagnosis, treatment and effective prevention of many diseases. The article presents selected areas of application of semiconductor sources in UVVIS- NIR range, where in recent years competition in semiconductor lasers and LEDs applications has been observed. Examples of applications of analyzed sources are indicated for LLLT, PDT and optical diagnostics using the procedure of color contrast. Selected results of LLLT research of the authors are presented that were obtained by means of the developed optoelectronic system for objectified irradiation and studies on the impact of low-energy laser and LED on lines of endothelial cells of umbilical vein. Usefulness of the spectrally tunable LED lighting system for diagnostic purposes is also demonstrated, also as an illuminator for surface applications - in procedure of variable color contrast of the illuminated object.

  15. Industrial applications of laser diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Deguchi, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Tighter regulations of harmful substances such as NOx, CO, heavy metals, particles, emissions from commercial plants and automobiles reflect a growing demand for lowering the anthropogenic burdens on the environment. It is equally important to monitor controlling factors to improve the operation of industrial machinery and plants. Among the many methods for doing this, laser diagnostics stands out. Taking a practical approach, Industrial Applications of Laser Diagnostics discusses how to apply laser diagnostics to engines, gas turbines, thermal and chemical plant systems, and disposal faciliti

  16. Short Nuss bar procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years and then removed. This procedure significantly improves quality of life and, in most cases, also improves cardiac performance. Previously, the modified Ravitch procedure was used with resection of cartilage and the use of posterior support. This article details the new modified Nuss procedure, which requires the use of shorter bars than specified by the original technique. This technique facilitates the operation as the bar may be guided manually through the chest wall and no additional stabilizing sutures are necessary. PMID:27747185

  17. Hemodialysis access procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007641.htm Hemodialysis access procedures To use the sharing features on ... An access is needed for you to get hemodialysis. The access is where you receive hemodialysis . Using ...

  18. Canalith Repositioning Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... repositioning procedure can help relieve benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), a condition in which you have brief, ... dizziness that occur when you move your head. Vertigo usually comes from a problem with the part ...

  19. Cosmetic Procedure Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... does it cost? As a rule, almost all cosmetic surgery is considered “elective” and is not typically covered ... premier specialty group representing dermatologists performing all procedures – cosmetic, general, ... Reserved. / Disclaimer / Terms of Use / ...

  20. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  1. Speckle methods for diagnostics of the human oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharish, Natalia A.; Sedykh, Alexey V.; Ulyanov, Sergey S.; Lepilin, Alexander V.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    1999-11-01

    Possibility of application of speckle interferometry for diagnostics in dentistry has been analyzed. Problem of standardization of the measuring procedure has been studied. Deviation of output characteristics of Doppler system for blood microcirculation measurements has been investigated. Dependence of form of Doppler spectrum on the degree of seriousness of diseases has been studied in experiments in vivo. Behavior of spectral moments of measuring signal during the treatment of parodontitis has been analyzed.

  2. Verification and validation of diagnostic laboratory tests in clinical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenau, Holger F; Kessler, Harald H; Kortenbusch, Marhild; Steinhorst, Andreas; Raggam, Reinhard B; Berger, Annemarie

    2007-10-01

    This review summarizes major issues of verification and validation procedures and describes minimum requirements for verification and validation of diagnostic assays in clinical virology including instructions for CE/IVD-labeled as well as for self-developed ("home-brewed") tests or test systems. It covers techniques useful for detection of virus specific antibodies, for detection of viral antigens, for detection of viral nucleic acids, and for isolation of viruses on cell cultures in the routine virology laboratory.

  3. An Integrated Procedure for Bayesian Reliability Inference Using MCMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent proliferation of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approaches has led to the use of the Bayesian inference in a wide variety of fields. To facilitate MCMC applications, this paper proposes an integrated procedure for Bayesian inference using MCMC methods, from a reliability perspective. The goal is to build a framework for related academic research and engineering applications to implement modern computational-based Bayesian approaches, especially for reliability inferences. The procedure developed here is a continuous improvement process with four stages (Plan, Do, Study, and Action and 11 steps, including: (1 data preparation; (2 prior inspection and integration; (3 prior selection; (4 model selection; (5 posterior sampling; (6 MCMC convergence diagnostic; (7 Monte Carlo error diagnostic; (8 model improvement; (9 model comparison; (10 inference making; (11 data updating and inference improvement. The paper illustrates the proposed procedure using a case study.

  4. Diagnostic radiology dosimetry: status and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera M, T., E-mail: trivera@ipn.mx [IPN, Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Av. Legaria 694, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Full text: Medical radiation is by far the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. Since 1970 the expression of protection standards shifted from a dose- to a risk-based approach, with dose limits established to yield risks to radiation workers comparable with those for workers in other safe industries. Another hand, worldwide interest in patient dose measurement was stimulated by the publication of Patient Dose Reduction in Diagnostic Radiology by the UK National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB). In response to heightened awareness of the importance of patient dose contributed by radiology procedures, there has been a general trend to effect control of patient doses by applying the principles of optimization coupled with an increase in regulatory enforcement. In this sense, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) has been actively proposed in the last 3 decades thanks to their successful applications in diagnostic radiology. At the same time, it is emerged as the best radiation dosimetry method. The present work presents advantages of thermoluminescent dosimetry for X-ray beams measurements and its optimization. (Author)

  5. [Klatskin tumors--diagnostic and interventional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, M A

    2006-10-18

    Klatskin tumors are defined as malignant tumors of the bile duct involving the bifurcation and intrahepatic bile ducts. The most common presenting clinical feature, obstructive jaundice, usually occurs with advanced disease. Diagnostic tools currently available are therefore either performed too late or are not able to detect early disease stage. Imaging procedures for diagnosis and staging are ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging with cholangiopancreaticography, intravenous bolus-enhanced spiral computed tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography. Before initiating any palliative measure, a proper staging and a surgical consultation at a hepatobiliary center is necessary. To assess resectability, additional diagnostic methods like angiography, positron emission tomography, cholangioscopy, endoscopic or intraluminal ultrasonography and finally even explorative laparoscopy may be required. At time of diagnosis only a small percentage of Klatskin tumors is curative resectable. Therefore, palliative treatment options play an important role. Endoprostheses insertion is the method of choice to relieve jaundice. Although it improves quality of life, it does not seem to improve survival time. Definitive evidence for a benefit of additional radio and/or chemotherapy is still missing. Photodynamic therapy, a light therapy, is the first approach leading to an improvement of cholestasis and quality of life as well as to a prolongation of survival time. PDT should therefore be offered to all patients with nonresectable cholangiocarcinoma.

  6. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  7. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  8. The architecture of diagnostic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colli, Agostino; Fraquelli, Mirella; Casazza, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic research process can be divided into five phases, designed to establish the clinical utility of a new diagnostic test - the index test. The aim of the present review is to illustrate the study designs that are appropriate for each diagnostic phase, using clinical examples regarding...... the present strategy. Phase 4 comprises large surveillance cohort studies that aim to assess the effectiveness of the new diagnostic-therapeutic strategy in clinical practice. As common in clinical research, putting excessive weight on the results of single studies and trials is likely to divert from...... the totality of evidence reached through the systematic reviews of these studies, conducted with rigorous methodology and statistical methods. (Hepatology 2013;)....

  9. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  10. Diagnostic Process of Company Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emese Tokarˇcíková

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with an actual topic of how key factors of enterprise diagnostics can help to increase company productivity. Recognition and use of relevant internal and external information in this field determines the success of the enterprise. Application of the general diagnostic model of company productivity to the net income has been a frequent problem of company practice. This problem is of profit showing, which is an inevitable precondition for long-term company development and growth. Diagnostic access of company productivity allows recognition of specific problems in greater detail, which results from the activity of each company. This article also presents an introduction to the researched area of enterprise diagnostics, which opens opportunities for other publishing activities and can lead to information exchange.

  11. Molecular diagnostics of myeloproliferative neoplasms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langabeer, S. E.; Andrikovics, H.; Asp, J.;

    2015-01-01

    identified. These discoveries have been rapidly incorporated into evolving molecular diagnostic algorithms. Whilst many of these mutations appear to have prognostic implications, establishing MPN diagnosis is of immediate clinical importance with selection, implementation and the continual evaluation...... of the appropriate laboratory methodology to achieve this diagnosis similarly vital. The advantages and limitations of these approaches in identifying and quantitating the common MPN-associated mutations are considered herein with particular regard to their clinical utility. The evolution of molecular diagnostic...

  12. Diagnostic indices for vertiginous diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warninghoff Jan-Christian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertigo and dizziness are symptoms which are reported frequently in clinical practice. We aimed to develop diagnostic indices for four prevalent vertiginous diseases: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Menière's disease (MD, vestibular migraine (VM, and phobic postural vertigo (PPV. Methods Based on a detailed questionnaire handed out to consecutive patients presenting for the first time in our dizziness clinic we preselected a set of seven questions with desirable diagnostic properties when compared with the final diagnosis after medical workup. Using exact logistic regression analysis diagnostic scores, each comprising of four to six items that can simply be added up, were built for each of the four diagnoses. Results Of 193 patients 131 questionnaires were left after excluding those with missing consent or data. Applying the suggested cut-off points, sensitivity and specificity were 87.5 and 93.5% for BPPV, 100 and 87.4% for MD, 92.3 and 83.7% for VM, 73.7 and 84.1% for PPV, respectively. By changing the cut-off points sensitivity and specificity can be adjusted to meet diagnostic needs. Conclusions The diagnostic indices showed promising diagnostic properties. Once further validated, they could provide an ease to use and yet flexible tool for screening vertigo in clinical practice and epidemiological research.

  13. Stochastic Engine Convergence Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, R

    2001-12-11

    ;'burn-in'' period. The MCMC process begins at a particular state, which is selected at random or by design, according to the wish of the user of the engine. After the burn-in period, the chain has essentially forgotten where it started. Moreover, the sample x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (T{sub 0}+1)},... can be used for most purposes as a random sample from f, even though the x{sup (T{sub 0}+t)}, because of Markovian dependency, are not independent. For example, averages involving x{sup (t{sub 0})}, x{sup (t{sub 0}+1)},... may have an approximate normal distribution. The purpose of this note is to discuss the monitoring techniques currently in place in the stochastic engine software that addresses the issues of burn-in, stationarity, and normality. They are loosely termed ''convergence diagnostics'', in reference to the underlying Markov chains, which converge asymptotically to the desired posterior distribution.

  14. Current practices of diagnostic techniques requir- ing the use of ophthalmic drugs among KwaZulu- Natal optometrists*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In anendeavour to improve the quality of optometric eye care services in South Africa, the scope of practice was expanded to include the use of ocular diagnostic procedures such as goniosco-py that require the use of ophthalmic drugs. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices of specific diagnostic techniques (contact tonometry, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and gonioscopy requiring the use of ophthalmic drugs among optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN province. These specific techniques are referred to as diagnostic procedures in this article. A questionnaire containing information on demography and practice of these specific techniques was sent to all 213 KwaZulu-Natal registered optometrists who owned private practices. One hundred and thirty two completed questionnaires were received, a response rate of 62%. One hundred and seventeen (55% of the questionnaires were included in the analysis of which 55% of the respondents were females and 45% were males. Sixty two optometrists (53% were certified in di-agnostic procedures but many procedures were not being practiced. These procedures and the percentage respondents were: Contact tonometry (60%, 78 D/90 D lens fundus examination (60%, binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy (84% and gonioscopy (78%. Also, among these certified respondents (62 optometrists, a significant proportion (60% disagreed when asked if they were confident and proficient in performing the relevant diagnostic procedures. Many, (61% agreed that lack of incentives discouraged them from routinely performing the procedures. More than half (58%, agreed that chair time was an important factor in deciding whether or not to perform these diagnostic procedures. Of the total respondents (117, 86% agreed that they were confident about the accuracy of their referrals and less than half (45% disagreed that diagnostic procedures should be the sole responsibility of ophthalmologists. Less than

  15. Mobile Energy Laboratory Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.R.; Batishko, C.R.; Dittmer, A.L.; Hadley, D.L.; Stoops, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has been tasked to plan and implement a framework for measuring and analyzing the efficiency of on-site energy conversion, distribution, and end-use application on federal facilities as part of its overall technical support to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) Procedures establish guidelines for specific activities performed by PNL staff. PNL provided sophisticated energy monitoring, auditing, and analysis equipment for on-site evaluation of energy use efficiency. Specially trained engineers and technicians were provided to conduct tests in a safe and efficient manner with the assistance of host facility staff and contractors. Reports were produced to describe test procedures, results, and suggested courses of action. These reports may be used to justify changes in operating procedures, maintenance efforts, system designs, or energy-using equipment. The MEL capabilities can subsequently be used to assess the results of energy conservation projects. These procedures recognize the need for centralized NM administration, test procedure development, operator training, and technical oversight. This need is evidenced by increasing requests fbr MEL use and the economies available by having trained, full-time MEL operators and near continuous MEL operation. DOE will assign new equipment and upgrade existing equipment as new capabilities are developed. The equipment and trained technicians will be made available to federal agencies that provide funding for the direct costs associated with MEL use.

  16. Combining principles of Cognitive Load Theory and diagnostic error analysis for designing job aids: Effects on motivation and diagnostic performance in a process control task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Grauel, Britta; Burkolter, Dina

    2013-03-01

    Two studies are presented in which the design of a procedural aid and the impact of an additional decision aid for process control were assessed. In Study 1, a procedural aid was developed that avoids imposing unnecessary extraneous cognitive load on novices when controlling a complex technical system. This newly designed procedural aid positively affected germane load, attention, satisfaction, motivation, knowledge acquisition and diagnostic speed for novel faults. In Study 2, the effect of a decision aid for use before the procedural aid was investigated, which was developed based on an analysis of diagnostic errors committed in Study 1. Results showed that novices were able to diagnose both novel faults and practised faults, and were even faster at diagnosing novel faults. This research contributes to the question of how to optimally support novices in dealing with technical faults in process control.

  17. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  18. Arianespace streamlines launch procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenorovitch, Jeffrey M.

    1992-06-01

    Ariane has entered a new operational phase in which launch procedures have been enhanced to reduce the length of launch campaigns, lower mission costs, and increase operational availability/flexibility of the three-stage vehicle. The V50 mission utilized the first vehicle from a 50-launcher production lot ordered by Arianespace, and was the initial flight with a stretched third stage that enhances Ariane's performance. New operational procedures were introduced gradually over more than a year, starting with the V42 launch in January 1991.

  19. Procedure and Program Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Dieter

    Here some modules, procedures and whole programs are described, that may be useful to the reader, as they have been, to the author. They are all in Fortran 90/95 and start with a generally useful module, that will be used in most procedures and programs in the examples, and another module useful for programs using a Rosenbrock variant. The source texts (except for the two modules) are not reproduced here, but can be downloaded from the web site www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=issue &issn=1616-6361&volume=666 (the two lines form one contiguous URL!).

  20. Diagnostics for the ATA beam propagation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessenden, T.J.; Atchison, W.L.; Barletta, W.A.

    1981-11-01

    This report contains a discussion of the diagnostics required for the beam propagation experiment to be done with the ATA accelerator. Included are a list of the diagnostics needed; a description of the ATA experimental environment; the status of beam diagnostics available at Livermore including recent developments, and a prioritized list of accelerator and propagation diagnostics under consideration or in various stages of development.

  1. Microarray Technologies in Fungal Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Microarray technologies have been a major research tool in the last decades. In addition they have been introduced into several fields of diagnostics including diagnostics of infectious diseases. Microarrays are highly parallelized assay systems that initially were developed for multiparametric nucleic acid detection. From there on they rapidly developed towards a tool for the detection of all kind of biological compounds (DNA, RNA, proteins, cells, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, etc.) or their modifications (methylation, phosphorylation, etc.). The combination of closed-tube systems and lab on chip devices with microarrays further enabled a higher automation degree with a reduced contamination risk. Microarray-based diagnostic applications currently complement and may in the future replace classical methods in clinical microbiology like blood cultures, resistance determination, microscopic and metabolic analyses as well as biochemical or immunohistochemical assays. In addition, novel diagnostic markers appear, like noncoding RNAs and miRNAs providing additional room for novel nucleic acid based biomarkers. Here I focus an microarray technologies in diagnostics and as research tools, based on nucleic acid-based arrays.

  2. From miniature to nano robots for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menciassi, Arianna; Sinibaldi, Edoardo; Pensabene, Virginia; Dario, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the evolution of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures as a process of convergence of technologies coming from different fields and involving different disciplines. In particular, it illustrates how modern surgery evolved thanks to fundamental biology knowledge; thus, with the introduction of imaging techniques intra-operatively and with the introduction of robotics, surgical procedures became much more predictable, precise and effective. Finally, the recent developments of optics (with CMOS and CCD technologies, and with the introduction of fiber optic technologies) allowed to "see" inside the human body, thus reducing the invasiveness of surgical procedures and making diagnostic procedures adequate for an effective early discovery of pathologies. Nowadays, we are assisting to a concrete merging between microrobotics technologies and bioengineering, with the potential to bring therapeutic tools where requested and when requested, with high precision and with very limited side effects. Furthermore, nanotechnology offers the possibility to fully implement this merging, thanks to the development of dedicated theranostic nanotools suitably fitting the considered convergence scenario.

  3. Infectious Disease Management through Point-of-Care Personalized Medicine Molecular Diagnostic Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Luc Bissonnette; Bergeron, Michel G.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious disease management essentially consists in identifying the microbial cause(s) of an infection, initiating if necessary antimicrobial therapy against microbes, and controlling host reactions to infection. In clinical microbiology, the turnaround time of the diagnostic cycle (>24 hours) often leads to unnecessary suffering and deaths; approaches to relieve this burden include rapid diagnostic procedures and more efficient transmission or interpretation of molecular microbiology re...

  4. Evaluation of agreement in diagnostic imaging trials: a review of the quality of published data

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG-YIN, Jules Tyaniu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relevance of imaging procedures may notably vary according to clinical setting which calls for valid evaluation methods applicable to diverse clinical settings. The problem of reproducibility of the results concerns also the diagnostic imaging studies. Key issues center on substitution potential for novel radiopharmaceuticals, or easier to use medical devices vs. reference diagnostic tools. A clearly defined step wise methodology is required to plan the study and adequate stat...

  5. Diagnostic Yield of Fiberoptic Bronchoscopy (FOB in Three Common Lung Conditions at a Rural Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimit V Khara

    2013-08-01

    Conclusion: Routine flexible bronchoscopy technique has a reasonably high diagnostic yield in current clinical practice. Our study concludes that the diagnostic yield of FOB at our rural setting is comparable with the studies from other centres within the country and abroad. The procedure is more useful in diagnosis when combined with a sound clinical judgment and other supportive investigations. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(4.000: 392-395

  6. Short Nuss bar procedure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Hans Kristian

    2016-01-01

    The Nuss procedure is now the preferred operation for surgical correction of pectus excavatum (PE). It is a minimally invasive technique, whereby one to three curved metal bars are inserted behind the sternum in order to push it into a normal position. The bars are left in situ for three years...

  7. Straightening out Legal Procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s top legislature mulls giving the green light to class action litigations The long-awaited amendment of China’s Civil Procedure Law has taken a crucial step.On October 28,the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress(NPC),China’s top legislature,reviewed a draft amendment to the law for the first time.

  8. Educational Accounting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, Sam B.

    This chapter of "Principles of School Business Management" reviews the functions, procedures, and reports with which school business officials must be familiar in order to interpret and make decisions regarding the school district's financial position. Among the accounting functions discussed are financial management, internal auditing,…

  9. Anxiety Around Medical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... understand that these procedures are necessary for fighting cancer, your child may not understand — and it is often hard ... Deaths Per Year 5-Year Survival Rate Childhood Cancer Infographics Webinars Parents Webinars Child Life Specialist Webinars School Personnel Webinars Video Library ...

  10. Optical diagnostics of intermittent flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of combined use of different optical techniques for flow diagnostics is demonstrated with the practically important case of intense swirling flows. It is shown that, when applied separately, commonly used optical measuring techniques, such as laser Doppler anemometry and particle...... image velocimetry, frequently give erroneous results, especially for the transition flow and developed nonstationary flow. However, their combined use in diagnostics of unsteady (intermittent) flows significantly improves both the temporal and spatial resolution of measurements. Such a complex approach...... is for the first time applied for diagnostics of the flow pattern in a closed cylinder with a rotating end face with the aim of studying the changeover from the steady axisymmetric to unsteady asymmetric flow over a wide range of flow parameters. It is found that such a transition is notable for azimuthal...

  11. Diagnostic accuracy in virtual dermatopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mooney, E.; Kempf, W.; Jemec, G.B.E.;

    2012-01-01

    Background Virtual microscopy is used for teaching medical students and residents and for in-training and certification examinations in the United States. However, no existing studies compare diagnostic accuracy using virtual slides and photomicrographs. The objective of this study was to compare...... slides and photomicrographs with corresponding clinical photographs and information in a self-assessment examination format. Descriptive data analysis and comparison of groups were performed using a chi-square test. Results Diagnostic accuracy in dermatopathology using virtual dermatopathology...... represented a useful tool for learning; 90% felt that virtual dermatopathology is useful tool for teaching dermatopathology. Conclusion No significant difference was observed in diagnostic accuracy using virtual dermatopathology compared to photomicrographs. Most participants felt virtual dermatopathology...

  12. A Diagnostic Approach to Hemochromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S Tavill

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present clinical review, a diagnostic approach to hemochromatosis is discussed from the perspective of two clinicians with extensive experience in this area. The introduction of genetic testing and large-scale population screening studies have broadened our understanding of the clinical expression of disease and the utility of biochemical iron tests for the detection of disease and for the assessment of disease severity. Liver biopsy has become more of a prognostic test than a diagnostic test. The authors offer a stepwise, diagnostic algorithm based on current evidence-based data, that they regard as most cost-effective. An early diagnosis can lead to phlebotomy therapy to prevent the development of cirrhosis.

  13. Enhanced NIF neutron activation diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeamans, C B; Bleuel, D L; Bernstein, L A

    2012-10-01

    The NIF neutron activation diagnostic suite relies on removable activation samples, leading to operational inefficiencies and a fundamental lower limit on the half-life of the activated product that can be observed. A neutron diagnostic system measuring activation of permanently installed samples could remove these limitations and significantly enhance overall neutron diagnostic capabilities. The physics and engineering aspects of two proposed systems are considered: one measuring the (89)Zr/(89 m)Zr isomer ratio in the existing Zr activation medium and the other using potassium zirconate as the activation medium. Both proposed systems could improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the current system by at least a factor of 5 and would allow independent measurement of fusion core velocity and fuel areal density.

  14. Molecular diagnostics of neurodegenerative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha eAgrawal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular diagnostics provide a powerful method to detect and diagnose various neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. The confirmation of such diagnosis allows early detection and subsequent medical counseling that help specific patients to undergo clinically important drug trials. This provides a medical pathway to have better insight of neurogenesis and eventual cure of the neurodegenerative diseases. In this short review, we present recent advances in molecular diagnostics especially biomarkers and imaging spectroscopy for neurological diseases. We describe advances made in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Huntington’s disease, and finally present a perspective on the future directions to provide a framework for further developments and refinements of molecular diagnostics to combat neurodegenerative disorders.

  15. Audiologic diagnostics of vestibular schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komazec Zoran

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma is a rare, but important cause of sensorineural hearing loss. Patients with asymmetric hearing loss, or unilateral tinnitus should be evaluated expeditiously, to prevent further neurological damage. Audiologic diagnostics Audiologic diagnostics represents the basic diagnosis for early detection of vestibular schwannoma. Patients with vestibular schwannomas may present with a variety of clinical features, including retrocochlear pattern of sensorineural hearing loss. Supraliminary audiometry, tympano- metry, stapedius reflex and otoacoustic emissions as well as vestibular response to caloric testing are methods for selection of patients with suspicion of this tumor. Conclusion The golden standard for audiologic diagnostics of vestibular schwannoma is BAEP (Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials. Patients with pathological findings of BAEP should undergo MRI of the posterior fossa. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is the best and final tool for making a diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma.

  16. Imaging Techniques for Microwave Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donne, T. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, PO Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Luhmann Jr, N.C. [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Park, H.K. [POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Tobias, B.

    2011-07-01

    Advances in microwave technology have made it possible to develop a new generation of microwave imaging diagnostics for measuring the parameters of magnetic fusion devices. The most prominent of these diagnostics is electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECE-I). After the first generation of ECE-I diagnostics utilized at the TEXT-U, RTP and TEXTOR tokamaks and the LHD stellarator, new systems have recently come into operation on ASDEX-UG and DIII-D, soon to be followed by a system on KSTAR. The DIII-D and KSTAR systems feature dual imaging arrays that observe different parts of the plasma. The ECE-I diagnostic yields two-dimensional movies of the electron temperature in the plasma and has given already new insights into the physics of sawtooth oscillations, tearing modes and edge localized modes. Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) is used on LHD to measure electron density fluctuations. A pilot MIR system has been tested at TEXTOR and, based on the promising results, a new system is now under design for KSTAR. The system at TEXTOR was used to measure the plasma rotation velocity. The system at KSTAR and also the one on LHD will be/are used for measuring the profile of the electron density fluctuations in the plasma. Other microwave imaging diagnostics are phase imaging interferometry, and imaging microwave scattering. The emphasis in this paper will be largely focused on ECE-I. First an overview of the advances in microwave technology are discussed, followed by a description of a typical ECE-I system along with some typical experimental results. Also the utilization of imaging techniques in other types of microwave diagnostics will be briefly reviewed. This document is composed of the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  17. [The diagnostic possibilities of saliva].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochurova, E V; Kozlov, S V

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is a clinically informative biological fluid which contains multitude of bio-markers. This characteristic makes it possible to carry out numerous analyzes for developing mode to test patient in situ, express-tests included. The diagnostic by saliva is a new area of more simple application both markers and analyzers that can be useful in diagnostic of diseases of oral cavity, oncological diseases included. The using of saliva expands perspectives for making clinical diagnosis and establishment of dynamics and monitoring of disease.

  18. First Wall and Operational Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C; Allen, S; Boedo, J; Groth, M; Brooks, N; McLean, A; LaBombard, B; Sharpe, J; Skinner, C; Whyte, D; Rudakov, D; West, W; Wong, C

    2006-06-19

    In this chapter we review numerous diagnostics capable of measurements at or near the first wall, many of which contribute information useful for safe operation of a tokamak. There are sections discussing infrared cameras, visible and VUV cameras, pressure gauges and RGAs, Langmuir probes, thermocouples, and erosion and deposition measurements by insertable probes and quartz microbalance. Also discussed are dust measurements by electrostatic detectors, laser scattering, visible and IR cameras, and manual collection of samples after machine opening. In each case the diagnostic is discussed with a view toward application to a burning plasma machine such as ITER.

  19. Diagnostic testing for Giardia infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Martin F

    2014-03-01

    The traditional method for diagnosing Giardia infections involves microscopic examination of faecal specimens for Giardia cysts. This method is subjective and relies on observer experience. From the 1980s onwards, objective techniques have been developed for diagnosing Giardia infections, and are superseding diagnostic techniques reliant on microscopy. Detection of Giardia antigen(s) by immunoassay is the basis of commercially available diagnostic kits. Various nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAATs) can demonstrate DNA of Giardia intestinalis, and have the potential to become standard approaches for diagnosing Giardia infections. Of such techniques, methods involving either fluorescent microspheres (Luminex) or isothermal amplification of DNA (loop-mediated isothermal amplification; LAMP) are especially promising.

  20. Diagnostic imaging in bovine orthopedics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Johann; Geissbühler, Urs; Steiner, Adrian

    2014-03-01

    Although a radiographic unit is not standard equipment for bovine practitioners in hospital or field situations, ultrasound machines with 7.5-MHz linear transducers have been used in bovine reproduction for many years, and are eminently suitable for evaluation of orthopedic disorders. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use radiology and ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. These diagnostic imaging techniques improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis in every bovine patient but especially in highly valuable cattle, whose owners demand increasingly more diagnostic and surgical interventions that require high-level specialized techniques.