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Sample records for abdominis plane block

  1. Transversus abdominis plane block: a cadaveric and radiological evaluation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2011-04-11

    The abdominal wall is a significant source of pain after abdominal surgery. Anterior abdominal wall analgesia may assist in improving postoperative analgesia. We have recently described a novel approach to block the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit, which we have termed a transversus abdominis plane block. The clinical efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block has recently been demonstrated in a randomized controlled clinical trial of adults undergoing abdominal surgery.

  2. Clinical Implications of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block in Adults

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    Mark J. Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a relatively new regional anesthesia technique that provides analgesia to the parietal peritoneum as well as the skin and muscles of the anterior abdominal wall. It has a high margin of safety and is technically simple to perform, especially under ultrasound guidance. A growing body of evidence supports the use of TAP blocks for a variety of abdominal procedures, yet, widespread adoption of this therapeutic adjunct has been slow. In part, this may be related to the limited sources for anesthesiologists to develop an appreciation for its sound anatomical basis and the versatility of its clinical application. As such, we provide a brief historical perspective on the TAP block, describe relevant anatomy, review current techniques, discuss pharmacologic considerations, and summarize the existing literature regarding its clinical utility with an emphasis on recently published studies that have not been included in other systematic reviews or meta-analyses.

  3. Analgesic effect of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block after total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjskjaer, Jesper O; Gade, Erik; Kiel, Louise B

    2015-01-01

    University Hospital. PATIENTS: Forty-six women scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy. INTERVENTION: Women received either ropivacaine 0.75%, 20 mL (n = 24) or 0.9% saline, 20 mL (n = 24) in the transversus abdominis plane on each side. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the 24-h postoperative...... an ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in women undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy. As part of a multimodal regimen the transversus abdominis plane block showed some effect on pain scores at rest only in the early postoperative period....

  4. Continuous postoperative analgesia via quadratus lumborum block - an alternative to transversus abdominis plane block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visoiu, Mihaela; Yakovleva, Nataliya

    2013-10-01

    Different transversus abdominis plane blocks techniques cause variations in postoperative analgesia characteristics. We report the use of unilateral quadratus lumborum catheter for analgesia following colostomy closure. The catheter was placed under direct ultrasound visualization and had good outcomes: low pain scores and minimal use of rescue analgesic medication. No complications were reported in this pediatric patient. More studies are needed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this regional anesthesia technique.

  5. Studies on the spread of local anaesthetic solution in transversus abdominis plane blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, J; Finnerty, O; Rauf, J; Bergin, D; Laffey, J G; Mc Donnell, J G

    2011-11-01

    The extent of analgesia provided by transversus abdominis plane blocks depends upon the site of injection and pattern of spread within the plane. There are currently a number of ultrasound-guided approaches in use, including an anterior oblique-subcostal approach, a mid-axillary approach and a more recently proposed posterior approach. We wished to determine whether the site of injection of local anaesthetic into the transversus abdominis plane affects the spread of the local anaesthetic within that plane, by studying the spread of a local anaesthetic and contrast solution in four groups of volunteers. The first group underwent the classical landmark-based transversus abdominis plane block whereby two different volumes of injectate were studied: 0.3 ml.kg(-1) vs 0.6 ml.kg(-1). The second group underwent transversus abdominis plane block using the anterior subcostal approach. The third group underwent transversus abdominis plane block using the mid-axillary approach. The fourth group underwent transversus abdominis plane block using the posterior approach, in which local anaesthetic was deposited close to the antero-lateral border of the quadratus lumborum. All volunteers subsequently underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 2 and 4 h following each block to determine the spread of local anaesthetic over time. The studies demonstrated that the anterior subcostal and mid-axillary ultrasound approaches resulted in a predominantly anterior spread of the contrast solution within the transversus abdominis plane and relatively little posterior spread. There was no spread to the paravertebral space with the anterior subcostal approach. The mid-axillary transversus abdominis plane block gave faint contrast enhancement in the paravertebral space at T12-L2. In contrast, the posterior approaches, using both landmark and ultrasound identifications, resulted in predominantly posterior spread of contrast around the quadratus lumborum to the paravertebral space from T5 to L1

  6. Distribution patterns, dermatomal anesthesia, and Ropivacaine serum concentrations after bilateral dualtransversus abdominis plane block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Sys Stybe

    2012-01-01

    The ability of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks to anesthetize the upper abdomen remains debatable. We aimed to describe the local anesthetic distribution following ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with repeated magnetic resonance imaging investigations and to relate this to the resulting...

  7. Comparison of transversus abdominis plane block vs spinal morphine for pain relief after Caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2011-05-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an alternative to spinal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section but there are few data on its comparative efficacy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block with and without spinal morphine after Caesarean section in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial.

  8. The transversus abdominis plane block provides effective postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2008-12-01

    Patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy suffer significant postoperative pain. The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a recently described approach to providing analgesia to the anterior abdominal wall. We evaluated the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block in patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  9. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after abdominal surgery: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2007-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a novel approach for blocking the abdominal wall neural afferents via the bilateral lumbar triangles of Petit. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy in patients during the first 24 postoperative hours after abdominal surgery, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  10. Transient Femoral Nerve Palsy Complicating “Blind” Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

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    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of patients who reported quadriceps femoris weakness and hypoesthesia over the anterior thigh after an inguinal hernia repair under transversus abdominis plane (TAP block. Transient femoral nerve palsy is the result of local anesthetic incorrectly injected between transversus abdominis muscle and transversalis fascia and pooling around the femoral nerve. Although it is a minor and self-limiting complication, it requires overnight hospital stay and observation of the patients. Performing the block under ultrasound guidance and injecting the least volume of local anesthetic required are ways of minimizing its incidence.

  11. Transversus abdominis plane block for analgesia in renal transplantation: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Freir, Noelle M

    2012-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has proven effective in reducing opioid requirements and pain scores for some procedures involving the lower abdominal wall. In this study we assessed its efficacy in patients with end-stage renal failure undergoing cadaveric renal transplantation.

  12. The analgesic efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block after cesarean delivery: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonnell, John G

    2008-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.

  13. Transversus Abdominis Plane Block for Surgical Anaesthesia at Multiple Sites-Not Ideal

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    Vasanth RaoKadam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound (US guided Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is commonly used for postoperative analgesia and there are case reports of its use for providing surgical anaesthesia in emergency procedures. We report its use as a regional anaesthetic technique in inguinal hernia and epigastric hernia repair in an elective setting and discuss issues during the intra and postoperative period.

  14. Ipsilateral transversus abdominis plane block provides effective analgesia after appendectomy in children: a randomized controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carney, John

    2010-10-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block provides effective postoperative analgesia in adults undergoing major abdominal surgery. Its efficacy in children remains unclear, with no randomized clinical trials in this population. In this study, we evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after appendectomy performed through an open abdominal incision, in a randomized, controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

  15. The beneficial effect of transversus abdominis plane block after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Stjernholm, Pia; Kristiansen, Viggo B;

    2012-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with postoperative pain of moderate intensity in the early postoperative period. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. We hypothesi...... hypothesized that a TAP block may reduce pain while coughing and at rest for the first 24 postoperative hours, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery....

  16. Ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block: a new four-point approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Maschmann, C; Belhage, B;

    2011-01-01

    Background: We describe a new ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block. Our hypothesis was that we could anaesthetize both the upper (Th6–Th9) and the lower (Th10–Th12) abdominal wall bilaterally using a four-point single-shot technique to provide effective post-operativ......Background: We describe a new ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane block. Our hypothesis was that we could anaesthetize both the upper (Th6–Th9) and the lower (Th10–Th12) abdominal wall bilaterally using a four-point single-shot technique to provide effective post...... scale 0–10) from a mean of 8.2 to a mean of 2.2 10 min after block performance (P

  17. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...... and the abdominal muscle-relaxing effect. RESULTS: The lateral part of the cutaneous sensory block area was a median of 266 cm2 (interquartile range, 191-310 cm2) and the medial part 76 cm 2(interquartile range, 54-127 cm2). In all the volunteers, lateral wall muscle thickness decreased significantly by 9.2 mm (6......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...

  18. Transversus abdominis plane block for an emergency laparotomy in a high-risk, elderly patient

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    Surekha S Patil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old male patient with gall bladder perforation and small intestinal obstruction from impacted gall stone was posted for emergency laparotomy. He had congestive heart failure, severe hypertension at admission and history of multiple other coexisting diseases. On admission, he developed pulmonary oedema from systolic hypertension which was controlled by ventilatory support, nitroglycerine and furosemide. Preoperative international normalized ratio was 2.34 and left ventricular ejection fraction was only 20%. Because of risk of exaggerated fall in blood pressure during induction of anaesthesia (general or neuraxial, a transversus abdominis plane block via combined Petit triangle and subcostal technique was administered and supplemented with Propofol sedation.

  19. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torup, H; Bøgeskov, M; Hansen, E G

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is widely used as a part of pain management after various abdominal surgeries. We evaluated the effect of TAP block as an add-on to the routine analgesic regimen in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy. METHODS......: In a prospective blinded study, 70 patients scheduled for elective robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy were randomised to receive either TAP block (ropivacaine 0.5%, 20 ml on each side) or sham block (isotonic saline 0.9%, 20 ml on each side). All patients had patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with morphine...... and Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) treatment, had no effect on morphine consumption, VAS pain scores, or frequency of nausea and vomiting after robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy compared with paracetamol and NSAID alone....

  20. Can ultrasound-guided subcostal transverse abdominis plane block be used as sole anesthetic technique?

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    Pooja Bihani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcostal transverse abdominis plane (TAP block anesthetizes area of the abdomen with cutaneous innervation of T6–T10 dermatomes. These abdominal field blocks become very advantageous when cardiac patient presents for noncardiac surgeries as sole anesthetic or as a part of multimodal anesthesia. A 58-year-male came for open surgical repair of subxiphoid incisional hernia developed post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG. Echocardiography showed hypokinesia of left ventricle (LV in the left anterior descending (LAD artery territory, dilated LV, and ejection fraction of 30%, and coronary angiography after 6 months of CABG showed 70% stenosis of LAD. Surgery was successfully accomplished under ultrasound-guided bilateral subcostal TAP block except for a brief period of pain and discomfort when hernia was being reduced which required narcotic supplementation. The patient remained comfortable throughout the procedure as well as 24 h postoperatively without any analgesic supplementation. Thus, subcostal TAP block can be a safe alternative to neuraxial or general anesthesia for epigastric hernia repair in selected patients.

  1. Comparison of transversus abdominis plane block vs spinal morphine for pain relief after Caesarean section.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMorrow, R C N

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an alternative to spinal morphine for analgesia after Caesarean section but there are few data on its comparative efficacy. We compared the analgesic efficacy of the TAP block with and without spinal morphine after Caesarean section in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Eighty patients were randomized to one of four groups to receive (in addition to spinal anaesthesia) either spinal morphine 100 microg (S(M)) or saline (S(S)) and a postoperative bilateral TAP block with either bupivacaine (T(LA)) 2 mg kg(-1) or saline (T(S)). RESULTS: Pain on movement and early morphine consumption were lowest in groups receiving spinal morphine and was not improved by TAP block. The rank order of median pain scores on movement at 6 h was: S(M)T(LA) (20 mm)block-improved analgesia after Caesarean section. The addition of TAP block with bupivacaine 2 mg kg(-1) to spinal morphine did not further improve analgesia.

  2. Thoracic epidural catheter for postoperative pain control following an ineffective transversus abdominis plane block using liposome bupivacaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrien, Brian D; Espinoza, David; Stehman, Charles C; Rodriguez, Gabriel A; Connolly, Nicholas C

    2017-01-01

    A 24-year-old female with a history of ulcerative colitis underwent colectomy. The patient received an ineffective transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with liposome bupivacaine (Exparel) intraoperatively and was started on a hydromorphone patient-controlled analgesia 5 hours after the TAP block, which did not relieve her pain. A continuous thoracic epidural (CTE) was then placed after blood levels of bupivacaine were drawn, and the patient immediately experienced significant pain relief. The combined use of liposome bupivacaine and bupivacaine CTE infusion in the postoperative management of this patient demonstrated no safety concerns, provided excellent analgesia and plasma concentrations of bupivacaine remained far below toxic levels. PMID:28144162

  3. Efficacy of trans abdominis plane block for post cesarean delivery analgesia: A double-blind, randomized trial

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    Uma Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The transverse abdominis plane (TAP block, a regional block provides effective analgesia after lower abdominal surgeries if used as part of multimodal analgesia. In this prospective, randomized double-blind study, we determined the efficacy of TAP block in patients undergoing cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Totally, 62 parturients undergoing cesarean section were randomized in a double-blind manner to receive either bilateral TAP block at the end of surgery with 20 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine or no TAP block, in addition to standard analgesic comprising 75 mg diclofenac 8 hourly and intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA tramadol. Each patient was assessed at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 h after surgery by an independent observer for pain at rest and on movement using numeric rating scale of 0-10, time of 1 st demand for tramadol, total consumption of PCA tramadol, satisfaction with pain management and side effects. Results: Use of tramadol was reduced in patients given TAP block by 50% compared to patients given no block during 48 h after surgery (P < 0.001. Pain scores were lower both on rest and activity at each time point for 24 h in study group (P < 0.001, time of first analgesia was significantly longer, satisfaction was higher, and side effects were less in study group compared to control group. Conclusion: Transverse abdominis plane block was effective in providing analgesia with a substantial reduction in tramadol use during 48 h after cesarean section when used as adjunctive to standard analgesia.

  4. Efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair

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    Venkatraman R

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rajagopalan Venkatraman, Ranganathan Jothi Abhinaya, Ayyanar Sakthivel, Govindarajan Sivarajan Department of Anaesthesia, SRM Medical College Hospital and Research Centre, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India Background and aim: Transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block is a novel procedure to provide postoperative analgesia following inguinal hernia surgery. The utilization of ultrasound has greatly augmented the success rate of this block and additionally avoiding complications. The aim of our study was to gauge the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair. Materials and methods: Sixty patients scheduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were selected for the study. At the end of the surgical procedure, they were randomly divided into two groups. Ultrasound-guided TAP block was performed with 20 mL of ropivacaine 0.2% (group A or normal saline (group B. Visual analog scale (VAS scores were used to assess pain. Paracetamol was given if VAS >3 and tramadol was used when VAS >6. Patients were monitored for VAS scores and total analgesic consumption for the 24-hour period. Results: The TAP block with ropivacaine (group A reduced VAS scores at 4, 6, and 12 hours. There was no distinction in VAS scores at 0, 2, and 24 hours between the two groups. The duration of analgesia for TAP block with ropivacaine lasted for 390 minutes. Total analgesics consumption was also significantly reduced in group A than group B. No complication was reported to TAP block in both the groups. Conclusion: The ultrasound-guided TAP block provides good postoperative analgesia, reduces analgesic requirements, and provides good VAS scores with fewer complications following inguinal hernia surgery. Keywords: inguinal hernia repair, postoperative analgesia, ropivacaine, transversus abdominis block, ultrasound

  5. Feasibility and analgesic efficacy of the transversus abdominis plane block after single-port laparoscopy in patients having bariatric surgery

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    Wassef M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael Wassef, David Y Lee, Jun L Levine, Ronald E Ross, Hamza Guend, Catherine Vandepitte, Admir Hadzic, Julio TeixeiraDepartment of Anesthesiology, St Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY, USAPurpose: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is a technique increasingly used for analgesia after surgery on the anterior abdominal wall. We undertook this study to determine the feasibility and analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided TAP blocks in morbidly obese patients. We describe the dermatomal spread of local anesthetic in TAP blocks administered, and test the hypothesis that TAP blocks decrease visual analog scale (VAS scores.Patients and methods: After ethics committee approval and informed consent, 35 patients with body mass index >35 undergoing single-port sleeve gastrectomy (SPSG were enrolled. All patients received balanced general anesthesia, followed by intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA; hydromorphone postoperatively; all reported VAS >3 upon arrival to the recovery room. From the cohort of 35 patients having single-port laparoscopy (SPL, a sealed envelope method was used to randomly select ten patients to the TAP group and 25 patients to the control group. The ten patients in the TAP group received ultrasound-guided TAP blocks with 30 mL of 0.2% Ropivacaine injected bilaterally. The dermatomal distribution of the sensory block (by pinprick test was recorded. VAS scores for the first 24 hours after surgery and opioid use were compared between the IV-PCA+TAP block and IV-PCA only groups.Results: Sensory block ranged from T5–L1. Mean VAS pain scores decreased from 8 ± 2 to 4 ± 3 (P=0.04 within 30 minutes of TAP block administration. Compared with patients given IV-PCA only, significantly fewer patients who received TAP block had moderate or severe pain (VAS 4–10 after block administration at 6 hours and 12 hours post-surgery. However, cumulative consumption of hydromorphone at 24 hours after SPSG surgery

  6. The analgesic efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy: A randomized controlled study

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    Beena K Parikh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is suitable for lower abdominal surgeries. Blind TAP block has many complications and uncertainty of its effects. Use of ultrasonography increases the safety and efficacy. This study was conducted to evaluate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound (USG-guided TAP block for retroperitoneoscopic donor nephrectomy (RDN. Methods: In a prospective randomized double-blind study, 60 patients undergoing laparoscopic donor nephrectomy were randomly divided into two groups by closed envelope method. At the end of surgery, USG-guided TAP block was given to the patients of both the groups. Study group (group S received inj. Bupivacaine (0.375%, whereas control group (group C received normal saline. Inj. Tramadol (1 mg/kg was given as rescue analgesic at visual analog scale (VAS more than 3 in any group at rest or on movement. The analgesic efficacy was judged by VAS both at rest and on movement, time to first dose of rescue analgesic, cumulative dose of tramadol, sedation score, and nausea score, which were also noted at 30 min, 2, 4, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h postoperatively. Total tramadol consumption at 24 h was also assessed. Results: Patients in group S had significantly lower VAS score, longer time to first dose of rescue analgesic (547.13±266.96 min vs. 49.17±24.95 min and lower tramadol consumption (103.8±32.18 mg vs. 235.8±47.5 mg in 24 h. Conclusion: The USG-guided TAP block is easy to perform and effective as a postoperative analgesic regimen in RDN, with opioids-sparing effect and without any complications.

  7. TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK : A COMPLEMENTARY TECHNIQUE FOR POST OPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMINAL GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER SURGERIES

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    Arathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Gynecological cancer surgeries differ from non - cancer surgeries as the former involves extensive dissection , and tissue handling , which contributes to increased nociception perioperatively. Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection is one of the most commonly performed surgeries in gynecological oncological set up. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP block is one of the new promising regional anesthesia technique complementing multi modal analgesic regimen. This is a prospective randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the role of the TAP block in Radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection for periope rative analgesia and reducing the requirement of opioid consumption . METHODS : 100 patients of ASA grade 1 and 2 undergoing radical hysterectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection with below umbilical incision were randomized as block group to undergo TAP blo ck with bupivacaine 0.25% 20ml on each side (n=50 , versus non - block group (n=50. All patients received general anesthethesia. Block was performed before surgical incision bilaterally by using blind double pop technique in patients who were randomized to the block group. Intra operative analgesic regimen was with inj fentanyl 1.5 mic/k.g , repeated with 0.5mic/k.g depending on the requirement as assessed by the anaesthe - siologist based on haemodynamic parameters and post operatively by pain scores on numeri c visual analogue scale with inj . paracetamol 1gm followed by tramadol 2mg/kg and fentany 0.5mic/kg . Each patient was assessed post operatively at 0 , 2 , 4 , 6 , 8 , 12 , 16 , 20 , 24 hours for pain , nausea , vomiting and sedation . The data recorded . Descriptive a nd inferential sta ti stical analysis has been carried out using student t test , chi square/ fisher exact test in the present study. RESULTS : We studied 100 patients , 50 patients in block group and 50 patients in non - block group. The block group had significantly less pain

  8. Intravenous patient-controlled fentanyl with and without transversus abdominis plane block in cirrhotic patients post liver resection

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    Serag Eldin M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Manar Serag Eldin,1 Fatma Mahmoud,1 Rabab El Hassan,2 Mohamed Abdel Raouf,1 Mohamed H Afifi,2 Khaled Yassen,1 Wesam Morad31Department of Anaesthesia, Liver Institute, 2Department of Anaesthesia, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine and Public Health, Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebin El-Kom, EgyptBackground: Coagulation changes can complicate liver resection, particularly in patients with cirrhosis. The aim of this prospective hospital-based comparative study was to compare the postoperative analgesic efficacy of intravenous fentanyl patient-controlled analgesia (IVPCA with and without transversus abdominis plane (TAP block.Methods: Fifty patients with Child’s A cirrhosis undergoing liver resection were randomly divided into two groups for postoperative analgesia, ie, an IVPCA group receiving a 10 µg/mL fentanyl bolus of 15 µg with a 10-minute lockout and a maximum hourly dose of 90 µg, and an IVPCA + TAP group that additionally received TAP block (15 mL of 0.375% bupivacaine on both sides via a posterior approach with ultrasound guidance before skin incision. Postoperatively, bolus injections of bupivacaine 0.375% were given every 8 hours through a TAP catheter inserted by the surgeon in the open space during closure of the inverted L-shaped right subcostal with midline extension (subcostal approach guided by the visual analog scale score (<3, 5 mL; 3 to <6, 10 mL; 6–10, 15–20 mL according to weight (maximum 2 mg/kg. The top-up dosage of local anesthetic could be omitted if the patient was not in pain. Coagulation was monitored using standard coagulation tests.Results: Age, weight, and sex were comparable between the groups (P<0.05. The visual analog scale score was significantly lower at 12, 18, 24, 48, and 72 hours (P<0.01 in IVPCA + TAP group. The Ramsay sedation score was lower only after 72 hours in the IVPCA + TAP group when compared with the IVPCA group (1.57±0.74 versus 2.2±0.41, respectively, P

  9. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BUPIVACAINE 0.25% VERSUS ROPIVACAINE 0.5% IN TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK FOR POSTOPERATIVE ANALGESIA IN LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL

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    Neha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transversus Abdominis Plane Block (TAPB is a regional anesthesia technique. It provides analgesia after lower abdominal surgery particularly where parietal wall pain forms major component of pain. It allows sensory blockade of lower abdominal wall skin and muscles via local anesthetic deposition above Transversus Abdominis muscle. We evaluated efficacy of unilateral TAPB with bupivacaine and ropivacaine for postoperative analgesia in lower abdominal surgeries like hernia repair, appendicectomy in a hospital based, single blind, and prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. METHOD: 75 adult patients undergoing elective unilateral lower abdominal surgery were randomized to undergo TAPB with ropivacaine (n = 25 or bupivacaine (n = 25 or Normal saline (n = 25. At end of surgery performed under spinal anesthesia unilateral TAPB on side of surgery was performed using 20 ml of 0.5 % ropivacaine or 0.25 % bupivacaine or saline. Each patient was assessed postoperatively by a blinded investigator in post-anesthesia care unit every 5 minutes for half an hour, then every 15 minutes till 2 hours and at 4, 6, 12, 24, 48 hours postoperatively in ward. RESULT: Mean duration of analgesia was 420.6 minutes with SD of +14.01 in Bupivacaine group and 2187 minutes with SD of +1011.09 in Ropivacaine group which was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Hence 0.5% ropivacaine provided longer duration of analgesia than 0.25 % bupivacaine when used in TAPB on patients of lower abdominal surgeries. There were no complications attributable to TAPB or drugs under study

  10. TO EVALUATE THE ANALGESIC EFFICACY OF IPSILATERAL TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS PLANE BLOCK FOR LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES IN CHILDREN: A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMISED CONTROLLED STUDY

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    Paleti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appendectomies and lower abdominal surgeries are associated with significant postoperative pain in children. Transversus Abdominis Plane (TAP block provides effective analgesia for patients undergoing lower abdominal surgeries. Our aim is to evaluate its analgesic efficacy for lower abdominal surgeries in children when compared to standard systemic analgesia. METHODOLOGY: After institutional Ethics Committee approval, 50 children, ASA I/II 7-13 yrs. undergoing lower abdominal surgeries were randomized into groups A and B of 25 each. All patients received standard General Anesthetic with standard monitoring. In Group A, TAP block was performed under land mark technique with 2.5mg/kg of 0.5% ropivacaine which is equivalent to 0.3ml/kg after General Anesthesia. In Group B, standard systemic analgesia was given which served as the control group. In addition, patients of both groups received regular IV paracetamol 15mg/kg immediately after completion of surgery. STATISTICS AND RESULTS: Statistical analysis was performed with student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. P<0.05 was considered significant. TAP block with ropivacaine reduced mean tramadol requirements in the 1st 24hrs postoperative period [42+15.89 vs. 80.35+19.16mg; p<0.001]. Postoperative VAS scores significantly reduced in TAP block group until 24hrs after surgery. No complications were reported with TAP block in our study. CONCLUSION: Land mark based TAP block, as a part of balanced analgesia regimen provides superior analgesia than systemic analgesia alone in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries.

  11. Unilateral versus bilateral ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane blocks during ureteric shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective randomized trial

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    Ali Mohamed Ali Elnabtity

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block is as safe and effective analgesic technique as bilateral TAP blocks during unilateral ureteric SWL. It can be used as the sole analgesic technique during ureteric SWL.

  12. A randomised controlled trial of bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane blockade for laparoscopic appendicectomy

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    Tanggaard, K; Jensen, K; Lenz, K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of pre-operative ultrasound-guided bilateral dual transversus abdominis plane blocks on pain when sitting up and pain at rest after laparoscopic appendicectomy. We allocated 28 participants to injection with 60 ml ropivacaine 0.375% and 28 participants to 60 ml isotoni...

  13. The efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane block on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized double-blind study

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    Salman AE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A Ebru Salman,1 Fahri Yetisir,2 Banu Yürekli,3 Mustafa Aksoy,1 Murat Yildirim,2 Mehmet Kiliç21Anesthesiology and Reanimation Department, 2General Surgery Department, Atatürk Research and Training Hospital, Ankara, Turkey; 3Endocrinology Department, Bozyaka Research and Training Hospital, Izmir, TurkeyPurpose: In this prospective, randomized, double-blind study, our aim was to compare the analgesic efficacy of the semi-blind approach of transversus abdominis plane (TAP block with a placebo block in patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair.Methods: After receiving hospital ethical committee approval and informed patient consents, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I–III patients aged 18–80 were enrolled in the study. Standard anesthesia monitoring was applied to all patients. After premedication, spinal anesthesia was administered to all patients with 3.5 mL heavy bupivacaine at the L3-L4 subarachnoid space. Patients were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group I (n = 32 received a placebo block with 20 mL saline, Group II (n = 32 received semi-blind TAP block with 0.25% bupivacaine in 20 mL with a blunt regional anesthesia needle into the neurofascial plane via the lumbar triangle of Petit near the midaxillary line before fascial closure. At the end of the operation, intravenous (IV dexketoprofen was given to all patients. The verbal analog scale (VAS was recorded at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Paracetamol IV was given to patients if their VAS score > 3. A rescue analgesic of 0.05 mg/kg morphine IV was applied if VAS > 3. Total analgesic consumption and morphine requirement in 24 hours were recorded.Results: TAP block reduced VAS scores at all postoperative time points (P < 0.001. Postoperative analgesic and morphine requirement in 24 hours was significantly lower in group II (P < 0.01.Conclusion: Semi-blind TAP block provided effective analgesia, reducing total 24-hour postoperative analgesic

  14. 腹横肌平面阻滞用于患儿腹股沟区术后镇痛的效果%Efficacy of transversus abdominis plane block for postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing operation on inguinal region

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    汪莉; 刘玉华; 冯春

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block for postoperative analgesia in the pediatric patients undergoing operation on the inguinal region.Methods Sixty-four pediatric patients of both sexes, aged 1-3 yr, weighing 8.5-23.6 kg, of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Ⅰ , undergoing elective unilateral high ligation of the hernia sac or high ligation of the processus vaginalis, were equally randomized into either intravenous analgesia group (group VA) or TAP block group (group TAP).In group TAP, after induction of anesthesia, the pediatric patients received ultrasound-guided TAP block with 0.2% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg injected locally.After the laryngeal mask airway was inserted, the pediatric patients were mechanically ventilated, and then inhaled 2%-3% sevoflurane for maintenance of anesthesia.In group VA, postoperative analgesia was performed with fentanyl 0.35 μg · kg-1 · h-1 until 24 h after operation.The level of pain was rated using the FLACC pain scale.When FLACC score>5, fentanyl 0.25 μg/kg was injected intravenously as rescue analgesic.The occurrence of TAP block-related adverse events, time for removal of laryngeal mask airway, and occurrence of fentanyl-related nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression, and emergence agitation were recorded.Results No TAP block-related adverse events were observed in group TAP, and no respiratory depression was found in the two groups.Compared with group VA, the time for removal of laryngeal mask airway was significantly shortened, and the requirement for rescue analgesics and incidence of vomiting and emergence agitation were decreased in group TAP (P< 0.05).Conclusion TAP block with 0.2% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg provides good efficacy for postoperative analgesia with good safety in the pediatric patients undergoing operation on the inguinal region.%目的 评价引导腹横肌平面阻滞用于患儿腹股沟区手术后的镇痛效果.方法 择期行单

  15. Application of Ultrasound-guided Transverses Abdominis Plane Block Assisted with Dexmedetomidine in the Elderly Patients Undergoing Inguinal Hernia Repair%右美托咪定辅助超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞在老年患者腹股沟斜疝修补术中的应用

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    林兰英; 林献忠; 林财珠; 黄庆

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of ultrasound‐guided transverses abdominis plane block assisted with dexmedetomidine in the elderly patients underwent inguinal hernia repair and the influ‐ence on postoperative cognitive function . Methods 60 elderly patients undergoing unilateral inguinal hernia repair were randomly divided into 2 groups . Group Ⅰ was given 0 .5 μg/kg dexmedetomidine by intravenous infusion for 10 min before ultrasound guided transverse abdominis plane block implement ,fol‐lowed by 0 .4 μg · kg -1 · h-1intravenous infusion until 10 min before the end of operation . If anesthesia effect was not satisfactory or it failed ,intravenous fentanyl 50~100μg assisted anesthesia or general anes‐thesia with laryngeal mask would be used . Group Ⅱ was given intravenous combined inhalation general anesthesia with laryngeal mask . Postoperatively the patients were given controlled intravenous analgesia in both groups . Vital signs were observed for both groups during the operation . MAP and HR at skin incision ,30 min after incision and the end of operation were measured ,and pain scores at 6 ,12 ,24 and 48 h after operation and the times of PCA during 48 h post‐operation were compared between the two groups . All patients took the Mini‐Mental State Examination (MMSE) neuropsychological tests before the operation and again two days after the operation . The numbers and the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in both groups were calculated . Results In group Ⅰ HR slowed down during the operation though still in the safe range;anesthesia in 27 cases were satisfactory ,while in 3 ca‐ses it was an incomplete block . There were no complications related to transverses abdominis plane block . The difference in Pain scores at 6 ,12 ,24 h after operation ,the times of PCA during 48 h after operation and the incidence of POCD between two groups were significant . The difference in the scores of MMSE two days after operation

  16. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

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    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  17. Clinical application of different approaches of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block in children undergoing laparoscopic groin surgery%超声引导下不同入路腹横肌平面阻滞用于小儿腹腔镜腹股沟区手术术后镇痛的对照研究

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    薛杭; 赵平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the analgesic efficacy of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and to compare the efficacy of posterior approach and medial approach of ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block (TAPB) in providing postoperative analgesia after children laparoscopic groin surgery.Methods Eligible children 2 ~ 4 years old (n =60),American society of anesthesiologists (ASA) I,undergoing elective laparoscopic unilateral groin surgery were randomly assigned into posterior approach group (Group P),medial approach group (Group M) and control group (Group C).Many parameters were measured and recorded during the study,including funk sedation scores,intraoperative circulation monitoring at time points of T1 (before induction),T2 (skin incision) and T3 (skin closure),length of surgery,the time from post anesthesia care unit (PACU) arrival to the first obtainable pain score,length of PACU stay,modified-children's hospital of eastern ontario pain scale(m-CHEOPS),pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium (PAED) scores,number of children with sufentanil administered in PACU,number of people occurred nausea and vomiting,and satisfaction of parents.Results There were no statistically significant difference in general characteristics,basic emotion score,duration of surgery,the time from PACU arrival to first obtainable score,haemodynamic parameter at T1 and satisfaction of parents among groups P,M,and C.However,the m-CHEOPS scores at the time points of first obtainable,10 min,the number of children received sufentanil administration,PAED scores and haemodynamic parameter at T2 and T3 were significantly lower in groups P and M than in group C.There were no significant difference in parameters mentioned above between groups P and M.Conclusions Ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block could provide efficient and secure postoperative analgesia for children undergoing laparoscopic groin surgery.Both posterior approach and medial approach are

  18. Effect of ultrasound-guided transverses abdominis plane block on postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing lower abdominal operation%超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞用于下腹部手术患者术后镇痛效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔迎帅; 卢锡华

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察研究超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞对下腹部患者术后镇痛效果。方法:全麻下行下腹部手术患者300例,随机分为罗哌卡因组(A组,n =151)和生理盐水组(B组,n =149)。术后行超声引导双侧作TAP 阻滞,分别注射0.375%罗哌卡因20 mL (A 组)或等容量生理盐水(B 组)。术后观察 VAS、Ramsay 及BCS评分。记录术后24 h内不良反应的发生情况。结果:两组VAS及Ramsay评分组间比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。与B组比较,24 h内A组VAS评分下降(P <0.05);BCS评分升高(P <0.05);镇静水平未见统计学差异(P >0.05);两组不良反应未见统计学差异(P >0.05)。结论:超声引导TAP阻滞可满足下腹部手术患者术后镇痛需求。%Objective To investigate the influence and safety of ultrasound-guided transverses abdominis plane block on general analgesia in patients undergoing lower abdominal operation. Methods Three hundred patients scheduled for lower abdominal operation under general anesthesia were randomly divided into 2 groups:ropivacaine group (group A,n = 151) and normal saline group (group B,n = 149). After the operation ultrasound-guided TAP was performed and 0.375% ropivacaine 20 mL was injected in group A while the equal volume of normal saline was used instead in group B. VAS score, Ramsay sedation score, and Bruggrmann comfort scale (BCS) score were recorded at the time points of 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24 hours postoperatively. The adverse reactions such as nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, motor and sensory disorders were also recorded. Results No significant difference in the demographic characteristics such as sex , age , height and weight , was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05). VAS score and BCS score were significantly different (P 0.05) between the two groups in Ramsay score and adverse reactions. Conclusion Ultrasound-guided TAP block can

  19. Analgesic efficacy of the ultrasound-guided blockade of the transversus abdominis plane - a systematic review

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    Javier Ripollés

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transverse abdominal plan blockade is a block of abdominal wall that has diffused rapidly in the clinical practice as part of a multimodal analgesia for abdominal surgery. The performance of the ultrasound-guided technique has allowed the lowering of potential complications, as well as new approaches that were carried out according to the descriptions, and the prospective studies would make it possible to utilize the transverse abdominal plan blockade in different surgical interventions; however, the results obtained in randomized clinical trials are inconsistent.OBJECTIVES: To prepare a systematic review aiming to determine the efficacy of the ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plan blockade for different surgical interventions, as well as the indications according to the approaches and their influences.METHODS: Two research approaches, one manual, and the other in Pubmed returned 28 randomized clinical trials where intervention with ultrasound-guided transverse abdominal plan blockades was performed to compare the analgesic efficacy in contrast to another technique in adults, published between 2007 and October 2013, in English or Spanish, with Jadad score > 1, according to the inclusion criteria for this review. The authors analyzed independently all the randomized clinical trials.CONCLUSIONS: The transverse abdominal plan blockades have been shown to be an effective technique in colorectal surgery, cesarean section, cholecystectomy, hysterectomy, appendectomy, donor nephrectomy, retropubic prostatectomy, and bariatric surgery. However, the data found in randomized clinical trial are not conclusive, and as a result, it is necessary to develop new and well designed randomized clinical trial, with enough statistical power to compare different approaches, drugs, doses, and volumes for the same intervention, aiming to answer the current questions and their effects in the habitual clinical practice.

  20. Efifcacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block during the surgical laparoscopic surgery in children%超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞在小儿腹腔镜手术术后镇痛中的应用

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    翁洪亮; 范成云; 王明敬; 任永颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察超声引导下腹横肌平面(TAP)阻滞应用于小儿腹腔镜下疝囊高位结扎手术术后的镇痛效果。方法择期拟行腹腔镜下疝囊高位结扎术的患儿60例,随机分为T组和L组,T组给予超声引导下TAP阻滞联合喉罩通气全麻、L组单纯喉罩全麻。记录术中瑞芬太尼的用量;记录停止注射药物后患者的苏醒时间;记录术后2 h、4 h、8 h和24 h的疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)评分。记录术后48 h的经静脉自控镇痛(PCIA)的有效按压次数。结果 T组患儿术后2 h、4 h的VAS评分低于L组差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);与L组比较,T组患儿瑞芬太尼用量明显减少,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)、术后48 h PCIA有效按压次数明显减少(P<0.05)。结论在小儿腹腔镜疝囊高位结扎术中应用超声引导下TAP阻滞,可以为术后早期提供良好的镇痛。%Objective To observe the post operative analgesia effect transverse abdominal plane (TAP) block guided by ultrasound applying to pediatric laparoscopic surgery. Methods 60 case of children schduled for elective inguinal hernia repair were randomLy divided into two groups (group T and group L each group has 30 cases).Group T:TAP block combined with laryngeal mask anesthesia;group L:simple laryngeal mask anesthesia. Records of the consumption of remifentanil used during operation,statistics awakening time from stop drug injection. Record postoperative 2 ,4 , 8 and 24h pain visual analogue scale (VAS) score;Record effective pressing PCIA 48 h after operation. Results Group T VAS score less than Group L in 2、4 postoperation (P<0.05), Group T consumption of remifentanil markably reduced(P<0.05), 48 h postoperative PCIA effective pressing numbers decreased signiifcantly (P<0.05) compared with group L. Conculusion TAP block guided by ultrasound in pediatric laparoscopic surgery, it can provide good analgesia for early postoperative.

  1. Application of Preemptive Analgesia of Transversus Abdominis Plane Blocking Combined with Oxycodo-ne Hydrochloride in Myomectomy Under Laparoscope%腹横筋膜平面阻滞联合盐酸羟考酮超前镇痛在腹腔镜子宫肌瘤核除术中的应用

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    郝晓燕; 韩利平; 高守琳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the application of preemptive analgesia of TAP blocking combined with oxycodone hydrochloride in myomectomy under laparoscope.Methods Our hospital selected 60 cases of patients to undergo myo-mectomy under laparoscope and randomly divided them into two groups:T and D groups.T group was treated with TAP blocking under ultrasonic guidance after anesthesia and before skin incision and intravenous injection of 0.1 mg/kg oxyc-odone hydrochloride before ending of the surgery.D group was treated with intravenous injection of 1μg/kg remifentanil before ending of the surgery.The patients’ VAS and Ramsay scores as well as the occurrence rate of adverse reaction and the satisfaction of postoperative analgesia of two group patients were recorded at 2 hours, 4 hours, 8 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours after the surgery, respectively.Results VAS of T group was significantly lower than that of D group, while Ramsay score had no statistical difference.The occurrence rate of adverse event of T group was lower than that of D group and the satisfaction rate of analgesia was higher than D group.Conclusions Preemptive analgesia of TAP blocking com-bined with oxycodone hydrochloride in myomectomy under laparoscope can mitigate the patients’ postoperative pain and increase the satisfaction of postoperative analgesia.Besides, it has lower occurrence rate of adverse reaction after opera-tions.%目的:研究腹横筋膜平面阻滞联合盐酸羟考酮超前镇痛在腹腔镜子宫肌瘤核除术中的应用。方法选择腹腔镜下子宫肌瘤核除术患者60例,随机分为两组,T组和D组。 T组在麻醉后切皮前于超声引导下行TAP阻滞和手术结束前给予盐酸羟考酮0.1 mg/kg静脉推注;D组于手术结束前给予芬太尼1μg/kg静脉推注。分别记录术后2 h、4 h、8 h、12 h、24 h患者的VAS评分和Ramsay评分,及两组患者不良反应的发生率和术后镇痛满意度。结果 T组患者的VAS评分明显低

  2. Influence of Ultrasonic?guided Transversus Abdominis Plane Block on the MACBAR of Sevoflurane during Ovarian Cancer Radical Surgery%超声引导腹横肌平面阻滞在卵巢癌根治术中对七氟醚MACBAR的影响

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    包娜仁; 方波; 王俊科; 马虹

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨超声引导腹横肌平面(TAP)阻滞对卵巢癌根治术中七氟醚浓度的影响.方法 全麻下行卵巢癌根治术患者随机、单盲法分为术前TAP阻滞组(T组)和对照组(C组).记录麻醉诱导前、切皮前2 min至切皮后5 min中每分钟的心率、平均动脉压及七氟醚浓度.采用改良上下交叉点法计算得出每组的抑制肾上腺素能反应呼气末肺泡内最低有效浓度(MACBAR).同时观察患者拔管时间及苏醒期躁动情况,并做评分记录.结果 2组患者年龄、身高、体质量、麻醉诱导前基础心率及平均动脉压比较无明显差别(P>0.05).C组平均七氟醚MACBAR为(4.16±0.42)%,T组为(1.96±0.37)%,2组比较有显著差别(P0.05). Average sevoflurane MACBAR of Group C and group T were 4.16±0.42%and 1.96 ± 0.37%respectively,which have significant differences(P<0.05). The average extubation time of group T was 3.5 ± 1.1min,which was significantly shorter than group C(7.2 ± 1.5 min,P<0.05). There was significant difference of the postoperative agitation between group C(12/20 cases)and T group(3/20 cases),(P<0.05). Conclusion Ultrasound?guided TAP block in ovarian cancer radical surgery not only showed effectively analgesia,but also had a frugal effect on the sevoflurane concentra?tion. In addition,it played a positive role in shorten the recovery time after surgery,which significantly reduced the postoperative agitation.

  3. The effect of transversus abdominis plane block or local anaesthetic infiltration in inguinal hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Mathiesen, Ole; Stjernholm, Pia;

    2013-01-01

    measure was pain scores while coughing between group TAP and group placebo calculated as area under the curve for the first 24 h (AUC24 h). Secondary outcomes were pain scores while coughing and at rest, opioid consumption and side effects in groups TAP, infiltration and placebo. RESULTS: Visual analogue...... pain scores while coughing and at rest demonstrated no difference between groups. Pain scores in groups infiltration, TAP and placebo were 19 versus 22 versus 15 mm at rest (P = 1.00) and 37 versus 41 versus 37 mm while coughing (P = 1.00). Pain scores at 6 h (AUC6 h) were significantly lower in group...

  4. The transversus abdominis plane block: a valuable option for postoperative analgesia? A topical review

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    Petersen, P.L.; Mathiesen, O.; Torup, H.;

    2010-01-01

    with a midline abdominal incision, caesarean delivery via the Pfannenstiel incision, abdominal hysterectomy via a transverse lower abdominal wall incision, open appendectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Overall, the results are encouraging and most studies have demonstrated clinically significant reductions...

  5. Liposomal bupivacaine infiltration into the transversus abdominis plane for postsurgical analgesia in open abdominal umbilical hernia repair: results from a cohort of 13 patients

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    Feierman DE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dennis E Feierman, Mark Kronenfeld, Piyush M Gupta, Natalie Younger, Eduard Logvinskiy Department of Anesthesiology, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA Background: Achieving adequate control of postsurgical pain remains a challenge in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP infiltration has been shown to provide postsurgical analgesia following lower abdominal surgery. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a prolonged-release liposomal formulation of the local anesthetic bupivacaine administered via infiltration into the TAP in a cohort of patients undergoing open abdominal umbilical hernia repair. Methods: Patients included in the study were 18–75 years of age, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical classification status 1–3, and underwent open abdominal umbilical hernia repair with ultrasound-guided TAP infiltration immediately after surgery using an equal-volume bilateral infusion of liposomal bupivacaine 266 mg (diluted to 30 mL in normal saline. Outcome measures included patient-reported pain intensity (11-point numeric rating scale, satisfaction with postsurgical analgesia (5-point Likert scale, incidence of opioid-related adverse events, and time to first use of supplemental rescue analgesia. Results: Thirteen patients underwent surgery and received bilateral TAP infiltration with liposomal bupivacaine; TAP infiltration failed in the first patient. Mean numeric rating scale pain scores were 0.6 immediately before TAP infiltration and remained 2.3 through 120 hours after infiltration; mean scores at 120 hours and 10 days were 0.9 and 0.4, respectively. Ten patients (77% required supplemental analgesia; median time to first use was 11 hours. At discharge and day 10, 54% and 62% of patients, respectively, were “extremely satisfied” with postsurgical analgesia (Likert score 5. There were no opioid-related or other adverse events. Conclusion: Although the current study was

  6. Ultrasound-guided truncal blocks: A new frontier in regional anaesthesia

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    Arunangshu Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of regional anaesthesia is rapidly changing with the introduction of ultrasound into the working domain of the anaesthesiologist. New techniques are being pioneered. Among the recent techniques, notable are the truncal blocks, for example, the transversus abdominis plane block, rectus sheath block, hernia block and quadratus lumborum block in the abdomen and the pectoral nerves (Pecs block 1 and 2, serratus anterior plane block and intercostal nerve block. This narrative review covers the brief anatomical discourse along with technical description of the ultrasound-guided truncal blocks.

  7. Ultrasound-guided truncal blocks: A new frontier in regional anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Khemka, Rakhi; Datta, Taniya

    2016-01-01

    The practice of regional anaesthesia is rapidly changing with the introduction of ultrasound into the working domain of the anaesthesiologist. New techniques are being pioneered. Among the recent techniques, notable are the truncal blocks, for example, the transversus abdominis plane block, rectus sheath block, hernia block and quadratus lumborum block in the abdomen and the pectoral nerves (Pecs) block 1 and 2, serratus anterior plane block and intercostal nerve block. This narrative review covers the brief anatomical discourse along with technical description of the ultrasound-guided truncal blocks. PMID:27761032

  8. Analgesic Efficacy of Transverse Abdominal Plane Block after Elective Cesarean Delivery – Bupivacaine with Fentanyl versus Bupivacaine Alone: A Randomized, Double-blind Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Roshan; Ranjan, R. V.; Ramachandran, T. R.; George, Sagiev Koshy

    2017-01-01

    Background: The analgesic benefit of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks for cesarean delivery remains controversial. In our study, we compared the analgesic efficacy of TAP block using local anesthetic bupivacaine and adjunct fentanyl with bupivacaine alone in patients undergoing elective cesarean section. Methods: Our study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial where sixty patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery under subarachanoid block (2 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine) were randomized into two groups, A and B. At the end of the surgical procedure, bilateral TAP block was performed guided by the ultrasound. Group A received 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine and 2 ml of 50 μg of fentanyl, whereas Group B received 38 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine + 2 ml of normal saline. The total volume was divided equally and administered bilaterally. Each patient was assessed for 24 h after TAP block, for time to rescue analgesia, pain using visual analog scale (VAS) score at rest and on movement, hemodynamic parameters (heart rate and blood pressure), nausea, vomiting, and sedation. Diclofenac 75 mg was given as rescue analgesia when the patient complained of pain or when VAS score >4. Results: Prolonged postoperative analgesia was noticed with both the groups, with a mean time to rescue analgesia of approximately 6.5 h. There was no significant difference in time to rescue analgesia (6.49 ± 0.477 vs. 6.5 ± 0.480) when both the groups were compared among themselves. The pain scores among the two groups when compared did not show any added benefit. Incidence of nausea, vomiting, and sedation when compared between both the groups showed no difference. Conclusion: The TAP block as a part of a multimodal analgesic regimen definitely has a role in providing superior analgesia in the postoperative period. However, adjunct fentanyl to local anesthetic bupivacaine was found to have no added advantage when quality and duration of analgesia was compared.

  9. Ultrasound-guided continuous quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Arunangshu; Goswami, Jyotsna; Patro, Viplab

    2015-02-01

    Quadratus lumborum block is a recently introduced variation of transversus abdominis plane block. In this report, we describe the use of ultrasound-guided continuous quadratus lumborum block for postoperative analgesia in a 7-year-old child scheduled to undergo radical nephrectomy (left-sided) for Wilms tumor. The result was excellent postoperative analgesia and minimal requirement for rescue analgesics. The modification described may allow easier placement of a catheter for continuous infusion of local anesthetic.

  10. Monte Carlo homogenized limit analysis model for randomly assembled blocks in-plane loaded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gabriele; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-11-01

    A simple rigid-plastic homogenization model for the limit analysis of masonry walls in-plane loaded and constituted by the random assemblage of blocks with variable dimensions is proposed. In the model, blocks constituting a masonry wall are supposed infinitely resistant with a Gaussian distribution of height and length, whereas joints are reduced to interfaces with frictional behavior and limited tensile and compressive strength. Block by block, a representative element of volume (REV) is considered, constituted by a central block interconnected with its neighbors by means of rigid-plastic interfaces. The model is characterized by a few material parameters, is numerically inexpensive and very stable. A sub-class of elementary deformation modes is a-priori chosen in the REV, mimicking typical failures due to joints cracking and crushing. Masonry strength domains are obtained equating the power dissipated in the heterogeneous model with the power dissipated by a fictitious homogeneous macroscopic plate. Due to the inexpensiveness of the approach proposed, Monte Carlo simulations can be repeated on the REV in order to have a stochastic estimation of in-plane masonry strength at different orientations of the bed joints with respect to external loads accounting for the geometrical statistical variability of blocks dimensions. Two cases are discussed, the former consisting on full stochastic REV assemblages (obtained considering a random variability of both blocks height an length) and the latter assuming the presence of a horizontal alignment along bed joints, i.e. allowing blocks height variability only row by row. The case of deterministic blocks height (quasi-periodic texture) can be obtained as a subclass of this latter case. Masonry homogenized failure surfaces are finally implemented in an upper bound FE limit analysis code for the analysis at collapse of entire walls in-plane loaded. Two cases of engineering practice, consisting on the prediction of the failure

  11. Rectus Abdominis Endometrioma after Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Mishin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis is very uncommon with less than 20 case reports being published to date since its first description in 1984 by Amato and Levitt. We report another case of isolated rectus abdominis endometriosis in a 37-year-old patient with a previous caesarian section. We also discuss the diagnostic and treatment particularities in these patients. In our case, the treatment was only surgical and currently the patient is disease-free during the 24-month follow-up.

  12. Preparation of α-Fe2O3 Nanodisks by Blocking the Growth of (001) Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Lv; Yao Xu; Dong Wu; Yuhan Sun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the difference of hydroxy group configuration on different planes of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles, using the special adsorption and coordination of phosphate on the (001) plane of α-Fe2O3, well-crystallized and well dispersed α-Fe2O3 nanodisks with diameter of 150-200 nm and thickness of 40-80 nm were synthesized via a hydrothermal method. The magnetic properties of synthesized nanodisks were investigated. It was found that the nanodisks possessed a saturation magnetization (Ms) of 0.38 emu/g, a remanent magnetization (Mr) of 0.031 emu/g and a coercivity of 452.91 Oe at room temperature. The Mr and coercivity of synthesized α-Fe2O3 nanodisks are higher and the Ms is lower than those of other previously reported α-Fe2O3 nanostructures.

  13. INNERVATED RECTUS-ABDOMINIS MYOFASCIAL FLAP FOR DYNAMIC CARDIOMYOPLASTY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJNBERG, DS; EBELS, T; ROBINSON, PH

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the rectus abdominis myofascial flap as an innervated nap for dynamic cardiomyoplastic purposes. It is common to use the latissimus dorsi to wrap or patch around or in the heart, but there is a need for more innervated skeletal muscle for a variety of reasons. The rectus abdomini

  14. Many-point classical conformal blocks and geodesic networks on the hyperbolic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Alkalaev, K B

    2016-01-01

    We study the semiclassical holographic correspondence between 2d CFT n-point conformal blocks and massive particle configurations in the asymptotically AdS3 space. On the boundary we use the heavy-light approximation in which case two of primary operators are the background for the other (n-2) operators considered as fluctuations. In the bulk the particle dynamics can be reduced to the hyperbolic time slice. Although lacking exact solutions we nevertheless show that for any n the classical n-point conformal block is equal to the length of the dual geodesic network connecting n-3 cubic vertices of worldline segments. To this end, both the bulk and boundary systems are reformulated as potential vector fields. Gradients of the conformal block and geodesic length are given respectively by accessory parameters of the monodromy problem and particle momenta of the on-shell worldline action represented as a function of insertion points. We show that the accessory parameters and particle momenta are constrained by two...

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Two Ultrasound-Guided Regional Block Techniques for Surgical Anesthesia in Open Unilateral Inguinal Hernia Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffel, Lauren; Kim, T Edward; Howard, Steven K; Ly, Daphne P; Kou, Alex; King, Robert; Mariano, Edward R

    2016-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) and ilioinguinal/iliohypogastric (II/IH) nerve blocks have been described as analgesic adjuncts for inguinal hernia repair, but the efficacy of these techniques in providing intraoperative anesthesia, either individually or together, is not known. We designed this retrospective cohort study to test the hypothesis that combining TAP and II/IH nerve blocks ("double TAP" technique) results in greater accordance between the preoperative anesthetic plan and actual anesthetic technique provided when compared to TAP alone. Based on this study, double TAP may be preferred for patients undergoing open inguinal hernia repair who wish to avoid general anesthesia.

  16. Analysis of the effect of blocking mass at corner interface of two plates at arbitrary angles on transmission of plane bending waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Vibration energy transmission at corner interface of two infinite plates rigidly jointed at arbitrary angles was studied by wave approach so as to investigate the effect of blocking mass used for reducing plane bending wave transmission. Two local coordinate systems were introduced and six new non-dimensional coefficients implying corresponding ratio governing characteristic impedances of plates or blocking mass were introduced to simplify formulations of transmission and reflection coefficients. Five samples were tested in experiment.Discussions were carried out based on the comparison between prediction and experiment in terms of insertion loss. It is concluded that blocking mass at corner interface acts like a "lowpass filter", effective for vibration attenuation above certain frequency. The value of TL and IL in "attenuation band" depends mainly on mass per unit length and band width of "attenuation band" on mass moment of inertia per unit length of the blocking mass.

  17. THE RECTUS-ABDOMINIS CARDIOMYOPLASTIC PROCEDURE - PRELIMINARY-RESULTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIJNBERG, DS; HENSEN, AG; GRANDJEAN, PA; SCHREUDER, JAH; ROBINSON, PH; EBELS, T

    1994-01-01

    The rectus abdominis myofascial flap (RAMF) was investigated as a viable alternative to the latissimus dorsi flap for dynamic cardiomyoplasty. In human and animal cadaver experiments and live sheep, it was possible to use the RAMF for innervated intrathoracic use. The RAMF was stimulated by a specia

  18. In depth fusion flame spreading with a deuterium-tritium plane fuel density profile for plasma block ignition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.Malekynia; S.S.Razavipour

    2012-01-01

    Solid-state fuel ignition was given by Chu and Bobin according to the hydrodynamic theory at x =0 qualitatively.A high threshold energy flux density,i.e.,E* =4.3 x 1012 J/m2,has been reached.Recently,fast ignition by employing clean petawatt-picosecond laser pulses was performed.The anomalous phenomena were observed to be based on suppression of prepulses.The accelerated plasma block was used to ignite deuterium-tritium fuel at solid-state density.The detailed analysis of the thermonuclear wave propagation was investigated.Also the fusion conditions at x ≠ 0 layers were clarified by exactly solving hydrodynamic equations for plasma block ignition.In this paper,the applied physical mechanisms are determined for nonlinear force laser driven plasma blocks,thermonuclear reaction,heat transfer,electron-ion equilibration,stopping power of alpha particles,bremsstrahlung,expansion,density dependence,and fluid dynamics.New ignition conditions may be obtained by using temperature equations,including thc dcnsity profile that is obtained by the continuity equation and expansion velocity.The density is only a function of x and independent of time.The ignition energy flux density,E*t,for the x ≠ 0 layers is 1.95 × 1012 J/m2.Thus threshold ignition energy in comparison with that at x =0 layers would be reduced to less than 50 percent.

  19. Architecture of the rectus abdominis, quadratus lumborum, and erector spinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, S L; Suryanarayanan, S; Murray, W M; Uhlir, J; Triolo, R J

    2001-03-01

    Quantitative descriptions of muscle architecture are needed to characterize the force-generating capabilities of muscles. This study reports the architecture of three major trunk muscles: the rectus abdominis, quadratus lumborum, and three columns of the erector spinae (spinalis thoracis, longissimus thoracis and iliocostalis lumborum). Musculotendon lengths, muscle lengths, fascicle lengths, sarcomere lengths, pennation angles, and muscle masses were measured in five cadavers. Optimal fascicle lengths (the fascicle length at which the muscle generates maximum force) and physiologic cross-sectional areas (the ratio of muscle volume to optimal fascicle length) were computed from these measurements. The rectus abdominis had the longest fascicles of the muscles studied, with a mean (S.D.) optimal fascicle length of 28.3 (4.2)cm. The three columns of the erector spinae had mean optimal fascicle lengths that ranged from 6.4 (0.6)cm in the spinalis thoracis to 14.2 (2.1)cm in the iliocostalis lumborum. The proximal portion of the quadratus lumborum had a mean optimal fascicle length of 8.5 (1.5)cm and the distal segment of this muscle had a mean optimal fascicle length of 5.6 (0.9)cm. The physiologic cross-sectional area of the rectus abdominis was 2.6 (0.9)cm(2), the combined physiologic cross-sectional area of the erector spinae was 11.6 (1.8)cm(2), and the physiologic cross-sectional area of the quadratus lumborum was 2.8 (0.5)cm(2). These data provide the basis for estimation of the force-generating potential of these muscles.

  20. Possible postsynaptic action of aminoglycosides in the frog rectus abdominis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karataş Y

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the postsynaptic effects of aminoglycosides on contractions evoked by acetylcholine (ACh, KCl, electrical field stimulation (EFS and Na(+- and Ca(2+-free Ringer solution with 0.2 mM Na2 EDTA (NaFCaFR in the isolated frog rectus abdominis. Neomycin inhibited contraction elicited by ACh, NaFCaFR, and EFS at the higher frequencies (8 and 10 Hz but not those elicited by KCl and EFS at the lower frequencies (2, 3 and 5 Hz. D-tubocurarine inhibited ACh-induced contractions in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, drug reduced EFS-evoked contractions to a limited extent. Lower concentrations (10(-5, 5 x 10(-5, 10(-4, 2 x 10(-4 and 3 x 10(-4 M but not higher concentrations (4 x 10(-4 and 5 x 10(-4 M of methoxyverapamil exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory action on NaFCaFR-induced contractions. Similar inhibitions of the same type of contraction were displayed by aminoglycosides (neomycin, streptomycin, netilmycin, gentamycin and amikacin. These results suggest that in addition to their antagonistic action on nicotinic receptors in the frog rectus abdominis, aminoglycosides may exert stabilizing effects on some functional components contributing to contractions at the membrane.

  1. Abdominal Closure after TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction with Transversus Abdominis Muscle Release and Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano-Peza, Héctor; Novitsky, Yuri W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Breast reconstruction with a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. Although the pedicled TRAM flap donor area reinforced with mesh results in decreased rates of postoperative abdominal bulging and hernias, the best technique to accomplish that is yet to be elucidated. We present our novel technique of posterior components separation with transversus abdominis muscle release and retromuscular mesh reinforcement for donor-area closure during pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction.

  2. Rectus abdominis muscle free flap harvest by laparoscopic sheath-sparing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensmith, A; Januszkiewicz, J; Poole, G

    2000-04-01

    Previous reports of endoscopic rectus abdominis muscle harvest have described techniques that are hampered by the need for anterior rectus sheath division or mechanical devices to maintain the optical cavity. The authors report the first successful clinical case of a laparoscopic sheath-sparing rectus abdominis muscle harvest for free tissue transfer. It offers considerable advantages over the traditional open method and, with the help of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, it should add little to operative time.

  3. Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain.

  4. Blunt transection of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma with associated small and large bowel injury☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, K.; Doolin, R.; Suggett, N.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Closed rupture of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma is rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the case of a 45 year old female who presented with closed rupture of the rectus abdominis in conjunction with damage to small bowel mesentery and infarction of small and large bowel following a high velocity road traffic accident. Multiple intestinal resections were required resulting in short bowel syndrome and abdominal wall reconstruction with a porcine collagen mesh. Post-operative complications included intra-abdominal sepsis and an enterocutaneous fistula. DISCUSSION The presence of rupture of rectus abdominis muscle secondary to seatbelt injury should raise the suspicion of intra-abdominal injury. CONCLUSION Our case highlights the need for suspicion, investigation and subsequent surgical management of intra-abdominal injury following identification of this rare consequence of seatbelt trauma. PMID:24055917

  5. Perioperative Analgesia After Pediatric Laparoscopic Surgery:A Comparison of Three Different Concentrations ;of Ropivacaine for Transverses Abdominis Plane Block%罗哌卡因行经腹横平面腹壁神经阻滞在儿童腹腔镜手术镇痛效果的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燮; 谭玲; 姚玉笙; 乔芊芊; 尚玉超; 陈本祯; 蒋璐

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察不同浓度、相同容量的罗哌卡因在超声引导下经腹横平面腹壁神经(TAP)阻滞患儿腹腔镜术中、术后镇痛效果的差异。方法选择2012年9月至2013年3月四川大学华西医院儿童外科择期行腹腔镜下疝囊高位结扎术的120例患儿为研究对象,将其通过 SPSS 软件随机分为1组(n=30,采用0.0625%罗哌卡因),2组(n=30,采用0.125%罗哌卡因),3组(n=30,采用0.25%罗哌卡因)和空白对照组(n=30,采用生理盐水)(本研究遵循的程序符合四川大学华西医院人体试验委员会所制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,征得受试患儿监护人的知情同意,并与之签署临床研究知情同意书)。4组患儿年龄、体质量等一般情况比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。其均接受全身麻醉+超声引导下 TAP 阻滞。记录患儿术中生命体征变化、术后不同观察时刻 FALCC评分、Ramsay评分、追加镇痛药物情况、不良反应及家长满意情况。结果①患儿术中生命体征变化方面,1,2,3组与空白对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。②1,2,3组术后0.5 h、1 h、2 h、4 h FLACC评分与空白对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05)。③1,2,3组术后0.5 h、1 h Ramsay评分与空白对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).② There also had significant differences in FLACC scores at 0.5 h,1 h,2 h,4 h after operation between group 1,2,3 and control group respectively(P<0.05).Compared to other 3 groups,FLACC scores in group 3 at 8 h was obviously lower.③The Ramsay scores of control group within 1 h after operation were lower than other 3 groups .Conclusions Using the same capacity but high concentration of local anesthetic can provided the longer duration of analgesia,compared with the same capacity but low concentration of local anesthetic.Increased capacity of lower concentrations of ropivacaine will be provid similar efficacy,and may lead to a lower risk of local anaesthetic toxicity.

  6. Transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, KTC; Kuijpers, HC; van Nieuwenhoven, EJ; van Goor, Harry; Spauwen, PH

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Operative repair for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas is often difficult. We present our experience with ten consecutive patients operated on for complicated pouch and rectal fistulas by transposition of the rectus abdominis muscle. METHODS: Ten patients with high and complex pouch and

  7. SELECTIVE ACTIVATION OF THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE DURING LOW-INTENSITY AND FATIGUING TASKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo H. Marchetti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the potential selective activation of the rectus abdominis muscle, we conducted two experiments. In the first, subjects performed two controlled isometric exercises: the curl up (supine trunk raise and the leg raise (supine bent leg raise at low intensity (in which only a few motor units are recruited. In the second experiment, subjects performed the same exercises, but they were required to maintain a certain force level in order to induce fatigue. We recorded the electromyographic (EMG activities of the lower and upper portions of the rectus abdominis muscle during the exercises and used spatial-temporal and frequency analyses to describe muscle activation patterns. At low-intensity contractions, the ratio between the EMG intensities of the upper and lower portions during the curl up exercise was significantly larger than during the leg raise exercise (p = 0.02. A cross-correlation analysis indicated that the signals of the abdominal portions were related to each other and this relation did not differ between the tasks (p = 0.12. In the fatiguing condition, fatigue for the upper portion was higher than for the lower portion during the curl up exercise (p = 0.008. We conclude that different exercises evoked, to a certain degree, individualized activation of each part of the rectus abdominis muscle, but different portions of the rectus abdominis muscle contributed to the same task, acting like a functional unit. These results corroborate the relevance of varying exercise to modify activation patterns of the rectus abdominis muscle

  8. Intrathecal opioid versus ultrasound guided fascia iliaca plane block for analgesia after primary hip arthroplasty: study protocol for a randomised, blinded, noninferiority controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinsella John

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip replacement surgery is increasingly common due to an ageing population, and rising levels of obesity. The provision of excellent pain relief with minimal side effects is important in order to facilitate patient mobilisation and rehabilitation. Spinal opioids provide excellent analgesia but are associated with adverse effects. The fascia-iliaca block is an alternative technique which provides analgesia to the nerves innervating the hip. The success of fascia iliaca blocks has been demonstrated to be superior when using ultrasound compared to landmark techniques. However, the clinical benefit of this improvement has yet to be investigated. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for hip replacement surgery. Methods/Design This study is a randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled, noninferiority trial. Patients scheduled to undergo unilateral primary hip arthroplasty will receive a study information sheet and consent will be obtained in keeping with the Declaration of Helsinki. Patients will be randomised to receive either; (i Ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block using levobupivacaine, plus spinal anaesthesia with hyperbaric bupivacaine containing no morphine, or (ii sham ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block performed with sterile saline, and spinal anaesthesia containing hyperbaric bupivacaine and 0.1 mg of spinal morphine. A total of 108 patients will be recruited. Primary outcome is post-operative morphine consumption in a 24 hour period. Secondary outcomes include; pain scores at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, episodes of respiratory depression, hypotension, nausea and vomiting, pruritus, sedation, time to first mobilisation and patient satisfaction. Conclusions There are no studies to date comparing ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block with spinal morphine for pain control after hip arthroplasty. If the ultrasound guided fascia iliaca

  9. Ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block in total hip replacement: in-plane technology with vertical scan versus out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan%超声引导下腰丛神经阻滞在全髋关节置换术中的应用:短轴平面内对长轴平面外技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑萍; 赵达强; 王爱忠; 江伟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical outcomes of ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus block in the patients with total hip replacement when in-plane technology with vertical scan or out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan was used. Methods Totally 150 patients (aged 24 - 86 years, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade Ⅰ - Ⅲ) scheduled for total hip replacement were randomized into 2 groups (n = 75). They received ultrasound-guided nerve block of lumbar plexus either by out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan or by in-plane technology with vertical scan. The duration of image acquisition and puncture were recorded. Sensory block was tested in the distributions of femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator and sciatic nerves. Knee movement was assessed by the modified knee motion score. The incidences of bilateral block and other adverse reactions were also observed. Results The image acquisition time was significantly shorter in out-of-plane group than that in in-plane group ([29.20± 14.47] s vs. [39.20±25. 79] s, P0. 05); neither were there differences in the effective block of femoral, lateral femoral cutaneous, obturator and sciatic nerves, the incidence of bilateral block, and the 0 to 2 score rates of motor block of the knee between the two groups at 30 mins after nerve block (all P>0.05). There was no nerve injury and other adverse reactions except that one patient who complained of dizziness after anesthesia in out-of-plane group. The satisfaction degree of the patients and the operators reached 2 or 3 degree and there was no difference between the two groups (all P>0.05). Conclusion Both methods of ultrasonic puncture can provide good nerve block of lumbar plexus, but it is easier to acquire image by out-of-plane technology with longitudinal scan than by in-plane technology with vertical scan.%目的 比较超声引导下短轴平面内技术与长轴平面外技术在全髋关节置换术中行腰丛神经阻滞的操作便捷性、阻

  10. 应用红外热像技术监测硬膜外阻滞平面%Study on plane of sensory block in epidural anaesthesia by medical infrared imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马啸; 陈宁; 吕少文

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To explore the plane of sensory block in epidural anaesthesia by medical infrared imaging technology and the association between needle-punching and infrared imaging technology. [Methods] Lower abdomen sursery patients with epidural catheter inserted to the T12~L1 interspace were detected as study objects. The planes of sensory analgesic to needle-punching were measured at deffrent times. The infrared images were detected. [Results] Compared with the planes of sensory analgesic to needle-punching, the elevating plane of sensory block increased significantly. The color code of temperature in the area of T12~L1 and L4-L5,S1 increased obviously. [Conclusion]The uppermost plane of temperature elevation was higher than the upper limit of sensory analgesic to needle-punching. The Plane of Sensory block in epidural anaesthesia can be assessed by medical infrared imaging technology. The color code of temperature of infrared imaging after epidural anaesthesia have great changes, espectilly in the area of foot (L4~L5 、S1 plane). So the colour changes of foot can be used as a standard to assesse success or failure during epidural anaesthesia.%[目的]应用红外热像技术监测硬膜外麻醉后热图变化,同针刺法测定的痛觉阻滞平面进行比较.[方法]选择下腹部手术患者,在T12~L1椎间隙行硬膜外穿刺置管,监测硬膜外单次注药后痛觉阻滞平面,采集红外热像图.[结果]硬膜外阻滞后5min温度色码较麻醉前上移,红外热图色码平均温度较阻滞前有显著性差异(P<0.01),在神经平面(T12~L1、L4~L5、S1区域温度色码在阻滞后5 min发生明显变化.[结论]硬膜外阻滞后红外热像的最高温度平面高于痛觉阻滞平面,可以间接通过红外热像技术估计痛觉阻滞平面,红外热图色码温区在L4~L5、S1所支配的神经平面色码变化非常显著,可以依据足部的颜色变化来作为判断硬膜外阻滞是否成功的标准.

  11. Soccer attenuates the asymmetry of rectus abdominis muscle observed in non-athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Idoate

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA in professional soccer players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05 and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01 sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42 and in controls (P = 0.75 (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups. Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05 and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05. The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14. CONCLUSIONS: Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury.

  12. Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis in athletes: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Valent, Alessandro; Frizziero, Antonio; Bressan, Stefano; Zanella, Elena; Giannotti, Erika; Masiero, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscu...

  13. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Sanchis-Moysi

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA in professional tennis players. METHODS: The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. RESULTS: Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01, due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02 and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01 sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001. In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75. The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  14. Fabrication of ultra-dense sub-10 nm in-plane Si nanowire arrays by using a novel block copolymer method: optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Tandra; Ntaras, Christos; O'Connell, John; Shaw, Matthew T.; Holmes, Justin D.; Avgeropoulos, Apostolos; Morris, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of a low-χ, symmetric block copolymer as an alternative to the high-χ systems currently being translated towards industrial silicon chip manufacture has been demonstrated. Here, the methodology for generating on-chip, etch resistant masks and subsequent pattern transfer to the substrate using ultra-small dimension, lamellar, microphase separated polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) is described. Well-controlled films of a perpendicularly oriented lamellar pattern with a domain size of ~8 nm were achieved through amplification of an effective interaction parameter (χeff) of the BCP system. The self-assembled films were used as `templates' for the generation of inorganic oxides nanowire arrays through selective metal ion inclusion and subsequent processing. Inclusion is a significant challenge because the lamellar systems have less chemical and mechanical robustness than the cylinder forming materials. The oxide nanowires of uniform diameter (~8 nm) were isolated and their structure mimics the original BCP nanopatterns. We demonstrate that these lamellar phase iron oxide nanowire arrays could be used as a resist mask to fabricate densely packed, identical ordered, good fidelity silicon nanowire arrays on the substrate. Possible applications of the materials prepared are discussed, in particular, in the area of photonics and photoluminescence where the properties are found to be similar to those of surface-oxidized silicon nanocrystals and porous silicon.The use of a low-χ, symmetric block copolymer as an alternative to the high-χ systems currently being translated towards industrial silicon chip manufacture has been demonstrated. Here, the methodology for generating on-chip, etch resistant masks and subsequent pattern transfer to the substrate using ultra-small dimension, lamellar, microphase separated polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) is described. Well-controlled films of a

  15. Using weights in abdominal exercises: electromyography response of the Rectus Abdominis and Rectus Femoris muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A C; Bankoff, A D; Almeida, T L; Simões, E C; Rodrigues, C E; Okano, A H

    2003-12-01

    Among persons who do regular exercises, many include abdominal exercises in their customary routine. For this, there are a growing variety of movements being created for strengthening the abdominal muscles. This work aims to know, through electromyography analysis, the action potencies of the supra and infra umbilical of the Rectus Abdominis and Rectus Femoris muscles during the execution of abdominal exercises with and without the addition of weights. Lying on the backside, seven flexing movements of the trunk--one without weight, three with 2 Kg on the neck, elbow and chest and three with 4 Kg on the same points--were executed. Nine female university students between 18 and 23 years old participated in the study. Surface electrodes were fixed to the supra and infra umbilical areas of the Rectus Abdominis and Rectus Femoris muscles. The results showed that the utilization of weights in the abdominal exercises did not appear to be effective for the Rectus Abdominis muscle since greater action potencies were only verified in the Rectus Femoris muscle. We concluded that the differences observed in the RMS were not relevant to the point of indicating the utilization of weights to improve abdominal exercises because greater action potencies were only observed in the Rectus Femoris muscle.

  16. Intrafascial hematoma of the musculus rectus abdominis as a complication after laparoscopic operations; Intrafasziale Haematome des Musculus rectus abdominis als Komplikation nach laparoskopischen Operationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennekamp, W. [Radiologische Universitaetsklinik am St. Josef-Hospital, Bochum (Germany); Barbera, L. [Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik am St. Josef-Hospital, Bochum (Germany)

    1998-01-01

    We report on two patients with intrafascial hematoma of the musculus rectus abdominis following laparoscopic operations. One patient was operated on a stenosis of the common iliac artery for an aortofemoral bypass. The other patient was operated on an inguinal hernia. Only a CT scan of the abdomen led to the correct diagnosis, because the use of ultrasound was limited by pneumoperitoneum and bandages, and retroperitoneal bleeding could not be recognized. Computed tomography is a valid method for detecting this complication of laparoscopic surgery. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber zwei Patienten berichtet, die nach einer laparoskopischen Operation ein intrafasziales Haematom des Musculus rectus abdominis entwickelten. Bei einem Patienten wurde laparoskopisch ein aortofemoraler Bypass bei hochgradiger A.-iliaca-communis-Stenose, bei dem anderen Patienten ein laparoskopischer Bruchlueckenverschluss bei einer Inguinalhernie durchgefuehrt. Erst die Computertomographie des Abdomens fuehrte in beiden Faellen zur richtigen Diagnose, da Ultraschall aufgrund des Pneumoperitoneous und der Verbandsmaterialien nur bedingt einsetzbar war und retroperitoneale Blutungsansteile nicht erkannt werden konnten. Der Stellenwert der Computertomographie zur Erkennung dieser Komplikation wird hervorgehoben. (orig.)

  17. Imaging-based assessment of rectus abdominis muscle thickness in an adult population: evaluating possible anthropometric relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogugua Augustine Egwu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Very little attention has been paid to muscle architecture in the Sub-Saharan African environment, and the rectus abdominis muscle, being a stabilising agent in the trunk, should not be left out. Considering the incidence of trunk musculoskeletal discomfort, it is necessary to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Aim of the research: To assess the thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle in an apparently healthy adult population using ultrasound and to evaluate its possible relationship with important anthropometric variables. Material and methods : A total of 120 healthy subjects made up of 60 males and 60 females, who gave their written consent, were recruited for this study. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess the rectus abdominis muscle. Anthropometric variables were also assessed. Results: The results show that the rectus abdominis thickness (RAT was 14.68 ±2.92 mm and 14.37 ±2.74 mm for the right (RRAT and left (LRAT sides, respectively. The males had significantly thicker muscles than the females (p = 0.004 and the RAT correlated positively with age, weight, height, body mass index, body surface area, waist circumference, and conicity index. Conclusions: These results show robust myoanthropometric relationships that will assist surgeons in reconstructive procedures involving the muscle. They will also serve as a guidepost in the biomechanical assessment of the muscle in lifting sports for an African population, in the study of muscle flaps, and in the general evaluation of trunk mass.

  18. 岩体结构面精细化空间模型及块体失稳分析%Spatial Modeling of Refined Structural Plane of Rock Mass and Block Stability Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王述红; 穆檄江; 张航; 张世超

    2012-01-01

    提出了将确定性结构面与随机结构面相结合来模拟岩体结构面的方法.确定性结构面依据工程地质勘测等资料通过多源数据耦合获得;而随机结构面则根据采用数字摄像测量技术现场测量的数据,运用三维网络模拟技术生成.同时引入结构面动态校核机制,利用掘进开挖过程中不断测量得到的数据对模拟的结构面进行动态校核及实时调整,从而建立比较精细的结构面空间模型.基于上述结构面模型,采用作者自行研发的GeoSMA-3D系统可以搜索出失稳块体,这对工程岩体稳定性预报和动态设计施工都有重要意义.%A method for modeling structural planes of rock mass was proposea Dy combining definite structural planes with random ones. Definite structural planes were obtained according to the data from engineering geological exploratory survey, while random ones were generated by 3D network simulation technique using the data from digital photogrammetry. A mechanism was introduced to dynamically check/adjust the random structural planes based on the real-time data acquired from the construction in progress,thus a more accurate model was established. Based on the model, unstable blocks can be found out using the GeoSMA-3D system developed by the authors, which has great significance for rock mass stability forecast and dynamic design/ construction.

  19. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balius R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ramon Balius1, Carles Pedret2, Laura Pacheco1, Josep Antoni Gutierrez3, Joan Vives4, Jaume Escoda11Consell Català de l’Esport, Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona; 2Centro Mapfre de Medicina del Tenis, Barcelona; 3Spanish National Handball Team, Spain; 4Granollers Handball Club, Granollers, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.Keywords: rectus abdominis, muscle injury, sonography, MRI, handball 

  20. Delayed Soft Tissue Reconstruction with a Horizontal Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap following Hip Exarticulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jes Christian Rødgaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coverage of large soft tissue defects at the hip region constitutes a challenge for plastic surgeons. We report the case of a 43-year-old female with necrotizing fasciitis of the right thigh, necessitating hip exarticulation and substantial debridement of necrotic tissue. An ipsilateral horizontal rectus abdominis myocutaneous (HRAM flap was used to cover the defect. The reconstruction was carried out after the attempt of local tissue rearrangement. In light of the successful outcome, we propose that this flap be considered in the future planning of soft tissue reconstruction at the hip region.

  1. Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera, Aphelinidae) and redescription of C. abdominis Huang and C. furviflagellatus Huang from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Hong; Huang, Jian; Polaszek, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Three new species of Coccobius Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) are described from China, Coccobius bimaculatus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov., Coccobius jinshanensis Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. and Coccobius leptocerus Wang, Huang & Polaszek sp. nov. Coccobius abdominis Huang 1994 and Coccobius furviflagellatus Huang 1994, originally described in Chinese, are redescribed in English and illustrated by macrophotography based on newly collected material. All five species were reared from Diaspididae (Hemiptera) scale insects on bamboo. Both the male of C. furviflagellatus and the diaspidid host association of C. abdominis and C. furviflagellatus are recorded for the first time.

  2. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball.

  3. Immediate reconstruction following resection of oral cancer with free rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    目的:研究游离腹直肌肌皮瓣即刻修复口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤切除术后缺损的方法并评价其作用.方法:6例患者在进行广泛的口腔癌切除术后,应用游离腹直肌肌皮瓣进行缺损即刻修复,3例颊癌患者分别切除唇,颊,下颌骨及上颌骨后造成大面积洞穿性缺损,2例舌癌及1例下颌骨恶性肿瘤患者在进行舌切除及下颌骨切除后造成大面积及复杂的缺损,缺损修复的转移皮瓣最大面积达110mm×230mm.结果:游离腹直肌肌皮瓣及供区无严重的手术并发症,6例游离腹直肌肌皮瓣有5例愈合无并发症,1例皮瓣出现部分坏死,供皮区腹壁无组织感染及裂开.结论:游离腹直肌肌皮瓣使口腔颌面部缺损修复在功能和美观上达到满意的效果,提高了口腔颌面部恶性肿瘤患者广泛切除术后的生存质量.%Objective:To study the method of rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap for immediate reconstruction of defects resulting from orofacial cancer resections and evaluate the effect of the flap. Methods:There were six patients with oral cancer following extensive surgery received the rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps for immediate reconstruction of defects.In three patients with buccle mucosa carcinoma,extensive perforating defects had resulted from resection of large areas of the lip,cheek,mandible,and maxilla.In two patients with tongue cancer and one patient with mandibular carcinoma,extensive and complex defects had resulted from glossectomy and mandibulectomy.The maximal size of the skin peddle of the transferred flap was 110mm×230mm. Results:There were no serious complications of the transferred rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps and donor sites.Five of six rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flaps healed without immediate complications and one flap had partial necrosis.There were no infections and dehiscences of the abdominal wall. Conclusions:The rectus abdominis myocutaneous free flap provide

  4. Electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis during a traditional crunch and the basic jackknife exercise with the Ab Lounge™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gail A; Bent-Forsythe, Denise A; Roopchand-Martin, Sharmella C

    2012-06-01

    The use of nontraditional exercise devices such as the Ab Lounge™ has been promoted as being as effective as the traditional abdominal crunch in strengthening the abdominal musculature. Evidence for this is lacking, however. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of activation of the upper and lower rectus abdominis using electromyography (EMG) during a traditional crunch with the basic jackknife using the Ab Lounge™. Twenty-two subjects (6 men and 16 women) were randomly selected from the student population at the University of the West Indies (Mona Campus). The mean age of the participants was 20.5 ± 1.5 years, height 166.4 ± 6.2 cm, weight 64 ± 10.3 kg, and waist-hip ratio 0.7 ± 0.1. Surface EMG was used to assess the muscle activity from the upper and lower rectus abdominis while each exercise was performed. The EMG data were full-wave rectified and normalized using a mathematical model that was set up in Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Statistical analysis was performed on the data using a univariate analysis of variance with gender as a covariate. Significance was determined by p crunch when compared with the basic jackknife performed on the Ab Lounge™ (F = 4.39, p = 0.04). The traditional crunch produced a higher level of activity in the lower rectus abdominis when compared with the basic jackknife, but this was not statistically significant (F = 0.249, p = 0.62). There was no significant interaction between gender and the effect of the type of exercise on upper and lower rectus abdominis activation. These results suggest that the traditional abdominal crunch is more effective than the basic jackknife is in activating the rectus abdominis musculature.

  5. RARE CASE OF CYSTICERCOSIS OF RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE PRESENTING AS PELVI ABDOMINAL LUMP DURING PUERPERIUM

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    Bangal V

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium. It is a major public health problem indeveloping countries. Infection is acquired through ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containingthe cysticercus. Man is the intermediate host and pig is definitive host. Cases usually present withvague abdominal discomfort, indigestion and diarrhoea. Cysticerci can be found anywhere in the body, but are most commonly detected in brain, eye, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue.Diagnosis is made by the demonstration of eggs or proglottids (Fig. 1 in faeces and definitive diagnosis is by biopsy of the lesion. We report an unusual case, who presented with a pelvi -abdominal lump during puerperium. Diagnosis of cysticercosis of rectus abdominis muscle was confirmed by histopathology. She was treated by surgery and pharmacotherapy.

  6. A panel data set on harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis

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    Jian Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this dataset, we particularly depicted the harvest and perfusion decellularization of porcine rectus abdominis (RA, accompanied with displaying of the retained vascular trees within the perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle matrix (pM-ECM using vascular corrosion casting. In addition, several important tips for successful pM-ECM preparation were emphasized, which including using anatomically isolated skeletal muscle as tissue source with all main feeding and draining vessels perfused, preserving the internal microcirculation availability, aseptic technique and pyrogen free in all steps, sequential perfusion via artery or vein, and longtime washing after decellularization. The data are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed associations of pM-ECM as a clinically relevant scale, three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template for tissue-specific regeneration, “Perfusion-decellularized skeletal muscle as a three-dimensional scaffold with a vascular network template” Zhang et al. (2016 [1].

  7. Modified Vertical Rectus Abdominis Musculocutaneous Flap for Limb Salvage Procedures in Proximal Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Sarcomas

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    Haitham H. Khalil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and aim. Management of complicated wounds after tumor extipiration of pelvic and proximal lower limb musculoskeletal sarcoma represents an essential component in the outcome of these patients. The authors present modified vertical rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (VRAM flap techniques to reconstruct extensive defects after debridment of these complicated wounds. Material and Methods. Over a period of 4 years (2002–2005, 5 men and 2 women were managed. Median age was 21 years (range 15–49. The patients were managed for complicated lower trunk, groin, and upper thigh wounds after resection of three pelvic chondrosarcomas as well as two pelvic and two proximal femur osteosarcomas. The modifications included a VRAM flap with lateral and tongue-like extension design of the skin paddle (5 cases or a delayed extended VRAM flap (2 cases. Results. All flaps showed complete survival and healing with no ischemic events providing stable coverage. All patients were ambulant with good limb functions in terms of walking and gait after adequate rehabilitation, 2 needed support with crutches. Conclusion. The modified VRAM flaps offer reliable reconstructive tools for coverage of complex groin and thigh defects by providing larger well-vascularized soft tissue with acceptable donor site.

  8. Closure and augmentation of bladder exstrophy using rectus abdominis musculo-peritoneal flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Agarwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the rectus abdominis myo-peritoneal flap (RAMP technique for the closure and augmentation of small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder exstrophies. Materials and Methods: The RAMP technique was used in three boys with bladder exstrophy who presented late with small, non-elastic, non-compliant bladder. The clinical outcome, imaging, cystoscopy, biochemical and microbiological studies were assessed during a follow-up of 36 months. Results: Bladder closure and augmentation was achieved in all patients without any complications. There were no urinary tract infections, metabolic problems or electrolyte disturbances and the kidney function remained normal in all patients. Radiography confirmed intact function and anatomy of the urinary tract and cystoscopy showed complete coverage of the inner peritoneal layer of RAMP with uroepithelium. No stone formation or mucous production was detected. Conclusions: The RAMP technique is a good alternative for closing bladder exstrophies and achieves an increase in bladder capacity and compliance. The technique is indicated in the closure of large bladder defects, bladder exstrophies with small, inelastic, non-compliant bladder remnants and failed primary closures.

  9. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation.

  10. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  11. Association Between Rectus Abdominis Denervation and Ventilation Dysfunction in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Gang Zhang; Shuo Zhang; Ying-Sheng Xu; Nan Zhang; Dong-Sheng Fan

    2016-01-01

    Background:Spontaneous potentials in electromyography (EMG) ofparaspinal muscles are associated with diaphragm denervation and,therefore,poor respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is understandable.EMG changes in the rectus abdominis (RA)display an effect similar to those in paraspinal muscles with respect to the function of lower motor neurons in the thoracic spinal cord.The RA denervation was examined to determine its association with ventilation dysfunction in ALS.Methods:We collected the clinical data of 128 patients with sporadic ALS in Department of Neurology of Peking University Third Hospital from 2009 to 2013.EMG,Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were performed in all patients and the differences in the EMG changes in RA between those with and without FVC ≥ 80% were analysed.Results:The mean FVC value was 83.4% ± 17.1% (range:45%-131%) of the predicted value.A total of 79 patients displayed FVC ≥80%,and 49 patients displayed FVC <80%.Compared with the patients displaying a normal FVC (60/79,75.9%),spontaneous activity in RA was significantly different among those patients displaying an FVC <80% (47/49,95.9%).In addition,spontaneous potentials in RA were more frequently detected in patients exhibiting dyspnea (32/33,97.0%) than in patients without dyspnea (75/95,78.9%).Conclusion:Spontaneous potentials in RA are associated with ventilation dysfunction and dyspnea in ALS patients.

  12. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  13. Effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles and lumbar stabilization exercise on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Da-yeon; Shim, Jae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles (SEDA) and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain. They were equally and randomly assigned to a SEDA group and a LSE group. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured using ultrasound imaging during rest and drawing-in. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured when subjects raised their right and left legs while lying on a Swiss ball. [Results] Initially, there were no differences between the two groups. After the intervention, significant differences were observed in all parameters. A significant interaction between group and period was not found for any parameters. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both SEDA and LSE thickened the transversus abdominis, which is a deep abdominal muscle, thereby adjusting posture, and stabilizing the trunk. These exercises increased the thickness of the deep abdominal muscles. They are important exercises for improving the stability of athletes or patients who need postural adjustment. PMID:25729169

  14. The Effects of Stabilization and Mckenzie Exercises on Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Thickness, Pain, and Disability: A Randomized Controlled Trial in NonSpecific Chronic Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Mohammad; Behtash, Hamid; Amiri, Mohsen; Sarrafzadeh, Javad

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the effectiveness of stabilization and McKenzie exercises on pain, disability, and thickness of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. [Subjects] Thirty patients were randomly assigned into two groups: the McKenzie and stabilization exercise groups. [Methods] Before and after intervention, pain, disability, and thickness of the transverse abdominis and multifidus muscles were evaluated by visual analogue scale, functional rating index, and sonography, respectively. The training program was 18 scheduled sessions of individual training for both groups. [Results] After interventions, the pain score decreased in both groups. The disability score decreased only in the stabilization group. The thickness of the left multifidus was significantly increased during resting and contracting states in the stabilization group. The thickness of the right transverse abdominis during the abdominal draw-in maneuver, and thickness of the left transverse abdominis during the active straight leg raising maneuver were significantly increased in the stabilization group. The intensity of pain, disability score, thickness of the right transverse abdominis during the abdominal draw-in manouver, and thickness of the left transverse abdominis during active straight leg raising in the stabilization group were greater than those on the Mackenzie. [Conclusion] Stabilization exercises are more effective than McKenzie exercises in improving the intensity of pain and function score and in increasing the thickness of the transverse abdominis muscle.

  15. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  16. Fixed Sagittal Plane Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, Jason W.; Patel, Alpesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is ...

  17. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  18. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  19. Free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous and deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps for breast reconstruction: a systematic review of flap complication rates and donor-site morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailon, Alexander M; Schachar, Jeffrey S; Levine, Jamie P

    2009-05-01

    Free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous and deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps represent increasingly popular options for breast reconstruction. Although several retrospective, small-scale studies comparing these flaps have been published, most have failed to find a significant difference in flap complication rates or donor-site morbidity. We systematically reviewed the current literature, and subsequently pooled and analyzed data from included studies. Included studies reported flap complications and/or donor site morbidities for both flap types. Eight studies met the inclusionary criteria. For flap complications, there was a statistically significant difference between deep inferior epigastric perforator and free transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps in fat necrosis rates (25.5 +/- 0.49 vs. 11.3% +/- 0.41%, P flap options.

  20. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  1. EFFECTS OF 2-PAM AND EA 1814 ON NEUROMUSCULAR TRANSMISSION. I. EFFECTS OF 2-PAM AND EA 1814 ON THE FROG RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE PREPARATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contracture of the isolated frog Rectus abdominis muscle was used to study pharmacological properties of 2-PAM (2-pyridine aldoxime methiodide) and...example, concentrations of 2-PAM in excess of 4 x 10 to the -5th power M potentiate contractures of the frog rectus muscle elicited by acetylcholine...2-PAM inhibits the response to the depolarizing agents, decamethonium and carbamylcholine, which are not susceptible to hydrolysis by the ChE of frog

  2. Do various baseline characteristics of transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcomes in nonspecific low back pain? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arnold Y L; Parent, Eric C; Funabashi, Martha; Stanton, Tasha R; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2013-12-01

    Although individual reports suggest that baseline morphometry or activity of transversus abdominis or lumbar multifidus predict clinical outcome of low back pain (LBP), a related systematic review is unavailable. Therefore, this review summarized evidence regarding the predictive value of these muscular characteristics. Candidate publications were identified from 6 electronic medical databases. After review, 5 cohort studies were included. Although this review intended to encompass studies using different muscle assessment methods, all included studies coincidentally used ultrasound imaging. No research investigated the relation between static morphometry and clinical outcomes. Evidence synthesis showed limited evidence supporting poor baseline transversus abdominis contraction thickness ratio as a treatment effect modifier favoring motor control exercise. Limited evidence supported that high baseline transversus abdominis lateral slide was associated with higher pain intensity after various exercise interventions at 1-year follow-up. However, there was limited evidence for the absence of relation between the contraction thickness ratio of transversus abdominis or anticipatory onset of lateral abdominal muscles at baseline and the short- or long-term LBP intensity after exercise interventions. There was conflicting evidence for a relation between baseline percent thickness change of lumbar multifidus during contraction and the clinical outcomes of patients after various conservative treatments. Given study heterogeneity, the small number of included studies and the inability of conventional greyscale B-mode ultrasound imaging to measure muscle activity, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Further large-scale prospective studies that use appropriate technology (ie, electromyography to assess muscle activity) should be conducted to investigate the predictive value of morphometry or activity of these muscles with respect to LBP-related outcomes measures.

  3. Chengzikou Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Chengzikou Block is located in the north of Hekou district, Dongying City, Shandong Province, adjacent to Bohai Bay. It can be geographically divided into three units: onshore, transitional zone and offshore ultrashallow zone, totally covering an area of 470 km2. The southern onshore area is low and gentle in topography;the northern shallow sea is at water depths of 2-8 m below sea level, and the transitional zone occupies more than 60% of the whole block. The climate belongs to temperate zone with seasonal wind. Highways are welldeveloped here, and the traffic is very convenient. The Chengzikou Block is about 80 km away from Dongying City and 290 km from Jinan City in the south. The northern offshore area of the block is 160 km away from Longkou port in the east and only 38 km away in the west from Zhuangxi port.

  4. Longmenshan Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Longmenshan Block is located in Jiange County of Jiangyou City in the northwest of Sichuan Basin. covering an area of 2 628 km2. Geologically, it is situated in the Mid-Longmenshan fault and fold belt, neighbouring Zitong Depression in its southeast. There are mountains surrounding its northwest , the rest area being hilly land,with the elevation of 500-700 m. The BaoCheng railway and the No. 108 highway run through the block, the traffic is very convenient.

  5. A radiologic and anatomic assessment of injectate spread following transmuscular quadratus lumborum block in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, S D; El-Boghdadly, K; Nasralah, Z; Sarwani, N; Nixon, A M; Chin, K J

    2017-01-01

    We performed bilateral transmuscular quadratus lumborum blocks in six cadavers using iodinated contrast and methylene blue. Computed tomography imaging was performed in four cadavers and anatomical dissection was completed in five. This demonstrated spread to the lumbar paravertebral space in 63% of specimens, laterally to the transversus abdominis muscle in 50% and caudally to the anterior superior iliac spine in 63% of specimens. There was no radiographic evidence of spread to the thoracic paravertebral space. Anatomical dissection revealed dye staining of the upper branches of the lumbar plexus and the psoas major muscle in 70% of specimens. Further clinical studies are required to confirm if the quadratus lumborum block might be a suitable alternative to lumbar plexus block.

  6. 超声引导下腹横肌平面阻滞在患儿腹腔镜下腹股沟疝手术中的应用%Ultrasound-guided laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery blocked at transversus abdominal plane in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱丽萍; 陈俊杰; 曹苏

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ultrasound guided transversus abdominal plane block on laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery in children.Methods Fifty-six children undergoing inguinal hernia surgery were randomly divided into two groups with 28 cases in each.All children en-tered into the operation rooms with intravenous access.0.25 levobupivacaine 0.5 ml/kg was given to achieve bilateral transversus abdominal plane block guided under ultrasound after general anesthesia in group A.Children in group B were injected equal amounts of saline.General anesthesia was maintained with 2%-5% sevoflurane and remifentanyl infusion.The wakening time,the incidence of restlessness and restless score in recovery period,postoperative pain scale,parentssatisfaction and the need for additional analgesia agents were evaluated.Results The results included gender,age, weight and height,duration of operation,wakening time.None of them was statistically significant. For group A,the incidence of restlessness and restless score in recovery period,the pain assessment scores at 2,4,8 h after operation were all lower than those in group B (P <0.05).The difference of the pain scores at 12 h between two groups was not statistically significant.Parentssatisfaction was significantly higher in group A than that in group B (P <0.05).More patients used tramadol via in-travenous injection in group B than in group A (P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominal plane block in laparoscopic inguinal hernia surgery can be safe and effective in children.Meanwhile it alleviates postoperative pain and improves parentssatisfaction.%目的:探讨超声引导下腹横肌平面(TAP)阻滞在腹腔镜下患儿腹股沟疝手术中的作用。方法56例患儿斜疝患儿随机均分为两组:A 组静脉全麻诱导后超声引导下双侧 TAP 阻滞,每侧注射0.25%盐酸罗哌卡因0.5 ml/kg,B 组注入等量生理盐水。术中盐酸瑞芬太尼及以2%~5%的七氟醚维持麻醉,

  7. Chadong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ The Chadong Block, located in the east of Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, covers an area of 12 452 km2. It is bounded by Kunlum Mountains in the south and the northwest is closely adjacent to Aimunike Mountain.Rivers are widely distributed, which always run in NWSE direction, including the Sulunguole, Qaidam and Haluwusu Rivers. The traffic condition is good, the Qinghai-Tibet highway stretching through the whole area and the Lan-Qing railway, 20-50 km away from the block, passing from north to west. A lot of Mongolia minority people have settled there, of which herdsmen always live nearby the Qaidam River drainage area.

  8. Individuals with chronic low back pain do not modulate the level of transversus abdominis muscle contraction across different postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takuya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Ukishiro, Kengo; Tohyama, Harukazu; Saito, Hiroshi; Samukawa, Mina; Kobayashi, Takumi; Ino, Takumi; Takeda, Naoki

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle in three basic postures in subjects with and without chronic low back pain. Subjects were classified into a chronic low back pain group (n = 27) and a healthy control group (n = 23). The thickness of the TrA muscle was measured at rest and during the abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) in supine, sitting and standing postures using B-mode ultrasound imaging. Contraction ratio (TrA thickness during the ADIM/TrA thickness at rest) was calculated for each posture. At rest, the TrA thickness in the sitting and standing postures was significantly greater than in the supine posture (p contraction ratio was also significantly higher in the control group than in the chronic low back pain group in all three postures. These results indicate that the automatic postural contraction of the TrA observed in the control subjects in the sitting and standing postures was not demonstrated in subjects with chronic low back pain. The present study revealed the one aspect of different response of the TrA muscle to changing posture between two groups.

  9. Fixed sagittal plane imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jason W; Patel, Alpesh A

    2014-12-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective To discuss the evaluation and management of fixed sagittal plane imbalance. Methods A comprehensive literature review was performed on the preoperative evaluation of patients with sagittal plane malalignment, as well as the surgical strategies to address sagittal plane deformity. Results Sagittal plane imbalance is often caused by de novo scoliosis or iatrogenic flat back deformity. Understanding the etiology and magnitude of sagittal malalignment is crucial in realignment planning. Objective parameters have been developed to guide surgeons in determining how much correction is needed to achieve favorable outcomes. Currently, the goals of surgery are to restore a sagittal vertical axis Sagittal plane malalignment is an increasingly recognized cause of pain and disability. Treatment of sagittal plane imbalance varies according to the etiology, location, and severity of the deformity. Fixed sagittal malalignment often requires complex reconstructive procedures that include osteotomy correction. Reestablishing harmonious spinopelvic alignment is associated with significant improvement in health-related quality-of-life outcome measures and patient satisfaction.

  10. Determining the ice-binding planes of antifreeze proteins by fluorescence-based ice plane affinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Koli; Garnham, Christopher P; Nishimiya, Yoshiyuki; Tsuda, Sakae; Braslavsky, Ido; Davies, Peter

    2014-01-15

    Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are expressed in a variety of cold-hardy organisms to prevent or slow internal ice growth. AFPs bind to specific planes of ice through their ice-binding surfaces. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modified technique used to determine the ice planes to which the AFPs bind. FIPA is based on the original ice-etching method for determining AFP-bound ice-planes. It produces clearer images in a shortened experimental time. In FIPA analysis, AFPs are fluorescently labeled with a chimeric tag or a covalent dye then slowly incorporated into a macroscopic single ice crystal, which has been preformed into a hemisphere and oriented to determine the a- and c-axes. The AFP-bound ice hemisphere is imaged under UV light to visualize AFP-bound planes using filters to block out nonspecific light. Fluorescent labeling of the AFPs allows real-time monitoring of AFP adsorption into ice. The labels have been found not to influence the planes to which AFPs bind. FIPA analysis also introduces the option to bind more than one differently tagged AFP on the same single ice crystal to help differentiate their binding planes. These applications of FIPA are helping to advance our understanding of how AFPs bind to ice to halt its growth and why many AFP-producing organisms express multiple AFP isoforms.

  11. SNAP focal plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampton, Michael L.; Kim, A.; Akerlof, C.W.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Berkovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers Jr., W.C.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.E.; DiGennaro,R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.E.; Harvey, P.R.; Heetderks, H.D.; Holland, S.E.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.S.; Linder,E.V.; Loken, S.C.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.P.; Miquel, R.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tarle, G.; Tomasch,A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.-P.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square-degree field sensitive in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. We describe the requirements for the instrument suite and the evolution of the focal plane design to the present concept in which all the instrumentation--visible and near-infrared imagers, spectrograph, and star guiders--share one common focal plane.

  12. Behavior of the Linea Alba During a Curl-up Task in Diastasis Rectus Abdominis: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Diane; Hodges, Paul W

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional repeated measures. Background Rehabilitation of diastasis rectus abdominis (DRA) generally aims to reduce the inter-rectus distance (IRD). We tested the hypothesis that activation of the transversus abdominis (TrA) before a curl-up would reduce IRD narrowing, with less linea alba (LA) distortion/deformation, which may allow better force transfer between sides of the abdominal wall. Objectives This study investigated behavior of the LA and IRD during curl-ups performed naturally and with preactivation of the TrA. Methods Curl-ups were performed by 26 women with DRA and 17 healthy control participants using a natural strategy (automatic curl-up) and with TrA preactivation (TrA curl-up). Ultrasound images were recorded at 2 points above the umbilicus (U point and UX point). Ultrasound measures of IRD and a novel measure of LA distortion (distortion index: average deviation of the LA from the shortest path between the recti) were compared between 3 tasks (rest, automatic curl-up, TrA curl-up), between groups, and between measurement points (analysis of variance). Results Automatic curl-up by women with DRA narrowed the IRD from resting values (mean U-point between-task difference, -1.19 cm; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.45, -0.93; PUX-point between-task difference, -0.51 cm; 95% CI: -0.69, -0.34; PUX-point between-task difference, 0.025; 95% CI: 0.004, 0.045; P = .02). Although TrA curl-up induced no narrowing or less IRD narrowing than automatic curl-up (mean U-point difference between TrA curl-up versus rest, -0.56 cm; 95% CI: -0.82, -0.31; PUX-point between-task difference, 0.02 cm; 95% CI: -0.22, 0.19; P = .86), LA distortion was less (mean U-point between-task difference, -0.025; 95% CI: -0.037, -0.012; PUX-point between-task difference, -0.021; 95% CI: -0.038, -0.005; P = .01). Inter-rectus distance and the distortion index did not change from rest or differ between tasks for controls (P≥.55). Conclusion Narrowing of the IRD

  13. Beamlet focal plane diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J.A.; Nielsen, N.D.; Patton, H.G.; Seppala, L.G.; Thompson, C.E.; Wegner, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the major optical and mechanical design features of the Beamlet Focal Plane Diagnostic system as well as measurements of the system performance, and typical data obtained to date. We also discuss the NIF requirements on the focal spot that we are interested in measuring, and some of our plans for future work using this system.

  14. PPARβ expression in rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glucolipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yan Zhang; Jing Tan; Yi-Peng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorβ(PPARβ) expression in rectus abdominis as well as abdominal subcutaneous fat of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and glucolipid metabolism.Methods:The pregnant women who received routine antenatal care and planned to receive selective caesarean section in Obstetrics Department of our hospital between May 2012 and March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and 74 healthy pregnant women and 58 pregnant women with GDM were screened and included in the control group and gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group) respectively. Rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat were collected during Cesarean section to determine the expression of PPARβ was measured; peripheral blood was collected at middle-late pregnancy to determine the content of blood glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism indexes as well as adipocytokines.Results:PARβ mRNA expression and protein expression in rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat of GDM group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); homeostasis model assessment insulin secretion index (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and OGTT glucose curve (AUCG) levels as well as serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC), Leptin, Resistin and Chemerin content of GDM group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05) while early insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) and insulin sensitive index composite (ISIcomp) levels as well as serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Omentin-1 and Omentin-1 and adiponectin (ADPN) content were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); PARβ mRNA expression and protein expression were negatively correlated with HOMA-β, HOMA IR, area under the AUCG, LDL-C, TG, TC, Leptin, Resistin and Chemerin, and positively correlated withΔI30/ΔG30, ISIcomp, HDL

  15. Study on the cutting plane friction law of sandstone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Ying-da (翟英达); KANG Li-xun(康立勋)

    2003-01-01

    The friction characteristics of rock damage plane have important impact on the stability of block structure formed after the stratum is broken. The mechanics properties of rock damage plane are described by parameters such as roughness coefficient, wall compress strength and basic friction angle. These three coefficients for fine grain sandstone and medium-granular sandstone and grit sandstone are test. The friction stress is researched at the condition of different normal compressive stress acting on the tension damage plane. The friction law of tension damage plane of sandstone abided by is summed up. This law will provide scientific basis for block structure stability judging in basic roof stratum and roof pressure intensity calculating.

  16. Shamrock versus short-axis in-plane ultrasound guided methods in visualization of lumbar plexus block%三叶草法与短轴平面内法腰丛神经阻滞技术的超声成像对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕锐; 陈妍; 曾静; 杨纯勇; 曹剑; 易斌; 鲁开智

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of ultrasound guided Shamrock and short-axis inplane methods in visualization of lumbar plexus block by comparing their accessibility,range and effect on ultrasonic imaging.Methods Thirty patients that underwent lumbar plexus block anesthesia for unilateral knee meniscus injury in our hospital from June to December 2015 were selected as study subjects.They were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups.The indexes,i.e.image positioning time,lumbar plexus depth,ultrasound visibility score (UVS) and ultrasonic imaging range,were recorded.Results All patients accomplished this study.There were no statistical differences between the 2 groups in the sex,age and weight.The difference of lumbar plexus depth between the 2 groups was not significant either.The positioning time of Shamrock group was shorter than that of short-axis in-plane group (35.9 ± 20.1 vs 53.7 ± 21.2 s,P < 0.01).For both the UVS and imaging range,Shamrock group was significantly higher than short-axis in-plane group (P<0.01),with respective values of UVS (2.8 ±0.4 vs 2.1 ±0.8 points) and range (5.9 ±0.5 vs 3.5 ± 0.6).Conclusion Shamrock method is superior to short-axis in-plane method in ultrasonic visualization of lumbar plexus block.%目的 比较超声引导下腰丛神经阻滞采用三叶草法(shamrock method)与短轴平面内法的超声成像效果差异,探讨两种技术的成像便捷性、显像范围及效果.方法 选择2015年6-12月在第三军医大学西南医院因单侧膝关节半月板损伤需行腰丛神经阻滞麻醉的30例患者为研究对象,按随机数字表法随机分为三叶草法组和短轴平面内法组,每组15例.记录两组腰丛神经超声图像定位时间、腰丛深度、超声评分(UVS)及超声显像区域数量.结果 30例患者均完成研究,三叶草法组和短轴平面内法组患者的年龄、性别、体质量比较差异均无统计学意义.两种方法所测得的腰丛深

  17. Efectos de la vibración sobre la actividad del rectus abdominis y sobre la transmisión de aceleraciones durante la realización de un puente frontal. (Effects of whole body vibration on rectus abdominis activity and transmission of accelerations during a front bridge exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Vera-García

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Durante las dos últimas décadas se ha incrementado notablemente la utilización de la vibración como medio complementario de ejercicio físico. La literatura científica muestra distintos efectos positivos, aunque la mayor parte de ensayos se han centrado en el análisis del ejercicio de squat. El objetivo del presente estudio fue analizar la actividad muscular del rectus abdominis y la transmisión de la vibración en el cuerpo humano durante la realización de un puente frontal sobre una plataforma vibratoria oscilante vibrando a diferentes frecuencias (5, 16, 20 Hz y a una amplitud constante (3 mm. Las aceleraciones máximas en la cabeza (ejes X, Y, Z y la actividad electromiográfica media del rectus abdominis fueron determinadas en 31 sujetos sanos por medio de un acelerómetro triaxial y electromiografía de superficie. Para cada eje se calculó un coeficiente de amortiguación restando la aceleración máxima registrada en la cabeza a la aceleración máxima registrada sobre la plataforma. La actividad electromiográfica del rectus abdominis y los coeficientes de amortiguación en los ejes X y Z aumentaron significativamente con cada incremento en la frecuencia de vibración de la plataforma (p AbstractWhole-body vibration exercise have been widely used during the last two decades, with most scientific publications reporting various positive effects. Most commonly, squat exercises have been studied. Instead, this study explored the rectus abdominis activity and the transmission of sinusoidal vibration to the human body during the performance of front bridges on a oscillating vibration platform at different frequencies (5, 16, 20 Hz with constant amplitude (3 mm. Maximal vibration-induced accelerations at the head (axis X, Y, Z and mean electromyographic activity were assessed in thirty-one healthy subjects using a skin-mounted triaxial accelerometer and surface electromyography. A damping coefficient was calculated for each

  18. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  19. Boundaries in digital planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efim Khalimsky

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of topological connectedness properties in processing digital pictures is well known. A natural way to begin a theory for this is to give a definition of connectedness for subsets of a digital plane which allows one to prove a Jordan curve theorem. The generally accepted approach to this has been a non-topological Jordan curve theorem which requires two different definitions, 4-connectedness, and 8-connectedness, one for the curve and the other for its complement.

  20. Effects of closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kihyun; Lee, Sangyong; Park, Jinsik

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of closed chain exercises performed with local vibration applied to an unstable support surface on the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis. [Subjects] The subjects were 64 healthy university students who were randomly assigned to a bridge exercise with sling and vibration group (BESVG, n=30) and a bridge exercise with sling group (BESG, n=34). [Methods] The bridge exercise was repeated four times per set and a total of 18 sets were performed: 9 sets in a supine position and 9 sets in a prone position. In both the BESVG and the BESG groups, the thickness and length of the transverse abdominis (TrA) were measured using ultrasonography with the abdomen "drawn-in" and the pressure of a biofeedback unit maintained at 40 mmHg, both before and after the intervention. [Results] In intra-group comparisons, the BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA. The BESG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA. The BESVG showed significant increases in the thickness of the TrA and significant decreases in the length of the TrA compared to BESG. [Conclusion] Closed chain exercises for the lumbar region performed with local vibration applied to slings, which are unstable support surfaces, are an effective intervention for altering the thickness and length of the TrA.

  1. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  2. An effective fractal image compression algorithm based on plane fitting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Guo Xing; Zhang Dan-Dan

    2012-01-01

    A new method using plane fitting to decide whether a domain block is similar enough to a given range block is proposed in this paper.First,three coefficients are computed for describing each range and domain block.Then,the best-matched one for every range block is obtained by analysing the relation between their coefficients.Experimental results show that the proposed method can shorten encoding time markedly,while the retrieved image quality is still acceptable.In the decoding step,a kind of simple line fitting on block boundaries is used to reduce blocking effects.At the same time,the proposed method can also achieve a high compression ratio.

  3. Plane and geodetic surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Aylmer

    2004-01-01

    Plane and Geodetic Surveying blends theory and practice, conventional techniques and GPS, to provide the ideal book for students of surveying.Detailed guidance is given on how and when the principle surveying instruments (theodolites, Total Stations, levels and GPS) should be used. Concepts and formulae needed to convert instrument readings into useful results are explained. Rigorous explanations of the theoretical aspects of surveying are given, while at the same time a wealth of useful advice about conducting a survey in practice is provided. An accompanying least squares adjustment program

  4. The MOND Fundamental Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Cardone, V F; Diaferio, A; Tortora, C; Molinaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) has been shown to be able to fit spiral galaxy rotation curves as well as giving a theoretical foundation for empirically determined scaling relations, such as the Tully - Fisher law, without the need for a dark matter halo. As a complementary analysis, one should investigate whether MOND can also reproduce the dynamics of early - type galaxies (ETGs) without dark matter. As a first step, we here show that MOND can indeed fit the observed central velocity dispersion $\\sigma_0$ of a large sample of ETGs assuming a simple MOND interpolating functions and constant anisotropy. We also show that, under some assumptions on the luminosity dependence of the Sersic n parameter and the stellar M/L ratio, MOND predicts a fundamental plane for ETGs : a log - linear relation among the effective radius $R_{eff}$, $\\sigma_0$ and the mean effective intensity $\\langle I_e \\rangle$. However, we predict a tilt between the observed and the MOND fundamental planes.

  5. The Aerodynamic Plane Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahm, A F

    1924-01-01

    This report gives the description and the use of a specially designed aerodynamic plane table. For the accurate and expeditious geometrical measurement of models in an aerodynamic laboratory, and for miscellaneous truing operations, there is frequent need for a specially equipped plan table. For example, one may have to measure truly to 0.001 inch the offsets of an airfoil at many parts of its surface. Or the offsets of a strut, airship hull, or other carefully formed figure may require exact calipering. Again, a complete airplane model may have to be adjusted for correct incidence at all parts of its surfaces or verified in those parts for conformance to specifications. Such work, if but occasional, may be done on a planing or milling machine; but if frequent, justifies the provision of a special table. For this reason it was found desirable in 1918 to make the table described in this report and to equip it with such gauges and measures as the work should require.

  6. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  7. Fourier plane image amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Dane, C. Brent; Tiszauer, Detlev H.

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  8. Rectus abdominis diastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    -term recurrence was reported by one study, while five reported no recurrence. Overall major complications were few, while minor complications were primarily seroma and wound complications. RD is by itself not a true hernia and, therefore, not associated with the risk of strangulation. Repair is mostly done due...

  9. Plane symmetric cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Ray, Saibal; Mallick, A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we perform the Lie symmetry analysis on the Einstein-Maxwell field equations in plane symmetric spacetime. Here Lie point symmetries and optimal system of one dimensional subalgebras are determined. The similarity reductions and exact solutions are obtained in connection to the evolution of universe. The present study deals with the electromagnetic energy of inhomogeneous universe where $F_{12}$ is the non-vanishing component of electromagnetic field tensor. To get a deterministic solution, it is assumed that the free gravitational field is Petrov type-II non-degenerate. The electromagnetic field tensor $F_{12}$ is found to be positive and increasing function of time. As a special case, to validate the solution set, we discuss some physical and geometric properties of a specific sub-model.

  10. Duality and noncommutative planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jøndrup, Søren

    2015-01-01

    We study extensions of simple modules over an associative ring A   and we prove that for twosided ideals mm and nn with artinian factors the condition ExtA1(A/m,A/n)≠0 holds for the left A  -modules A/mA/m and A/nA/n if and only if it holds for the right modules A/nA/n and A/mA/m. The methods pro...... proving this are applied to show that noncommutative models of the plane, i.e. algebras of the form k〈x,y〉/(f)k〈x,y〉/(f), where f∈([x,y])f∈([x,y]) are noetherian only in case (f)=([x,y])...

  11. CLINICAL PHARMACOKINETICS OF NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING-DRUGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AGOSTON, S; VANDENBROM, RHG; WIERDA, JMKH

    1992-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking agents provide muscle relaxation for a great variety of surgical procedures with light planes of general anaesthesia. Besides having a significant impact in the development of anaesthesia and surgery, these agents continue to play an important role as pharmacological tools in

  12. A Comparison of Jump Height, Takeoff Velocities, and Blocking Coverage in the Swing and Traditional Volleyball Blocking Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Ficklin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare traditional and swing blocking techniques on center of mass (COM projectile motion and effective blocking area in nine healthy Division I female volleyball players. Two high-definition (1080 p video cameras (60 Hz were used to collect two-dimensional variables from two separate views. One was placed perpendicular to the plane of the net and the other was directed along the top of the net, and were used to estimate COM locations and blocking area in a plane parallel to the net and hand penetration through the plane of the net respectively. Video of both the traditional and swing techniques were digitized and kinematic variables were calculated. Paired samples t-tests indicated that the swing technique resulted in greater (p < 0.05 vertical and horizontal takeoff velocities (vy and vx, jump height (H, duration of the block (tBLOCK, blocking coverage during the block (C as well as hand penetration above and through the net’s plane (YPEN, ZPEN. The traditional technique had significantly greater approach time (tAPP. The results of this study suggest that the swing technique results in both greater jump height and effective blocking area. However, the shorter tAPP that occurs with swing is associated with longer times in the air during the block which may reduce the ability of the athlete to make adjustments to attacks designed to misdirect the defense.

  13. OUTCOMES OF BREAST RECONSTRUCTION WITH PEDICLED TRANSVERSE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MYOCUTANEOUS (TRAM FLAP AT CANCER INSTITUTE, A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF 10 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Omranipour

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of breast with transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM flap is the standard for reconstruction of breast following mastectomy. In this article, authors report their experience with pedicled TRAM flap reconstruction of the breast. Records for the patients who had undergone breast reconstruction with pedicled TRAM flap were retrieved. Records of outpatient follow-ups were also obtained. Patient satisfaction with the outcome of surgery was assessed using a detailed questionnaire including a linear visual analogue scale ranging from zero (not satisfied to ten (most satisfied. There were 61 reconstructions in 59 patients. In 42 (71.2% cases a synthetic mesh and in 14 (23.7% cases dermal graft was used for closure of the abdominal fascial defect. The mean hospital stay was 10.67 (1 - 72 days. Patients were followed up for a mean period of 621 days. The overall rates of complications were as follows: partial flap necrosis: 11 (18.6%, flap hematoma: 2 (3.4%, flap seroma: 7 (11.9%, flap wound infection: 7 (11.9%, abdominal wound hematoma: 9 (15.3%, abdominal wound seroma: 5 (8.5%, abdominal wound ischemia: 1 (1.7%, abdominal wound incisional hernia: 6 (10.2%, deep vein thrombosis: 1 (1.7%, complication requiring rehospitalization: 9 (15.3%, complication requiring reoperation: 8 (13.6%. There were no abdominal wound infection, no umbilical necrosis, and no pulmonary embolism. Aesthetic results were classified as excellent (62%, good (28%, fair (10%. The mean satisfaction score was 9.5 (range 6-10. Breast reconstruction with pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was associated with a low complication rate and a high level of patient satisfaction in our center.

  14. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  15. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in children with umbilical hernia: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Alsaeed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Umbilical hernia repair, a common day-case surgery procedure in children, is associated with a significant postoperative pain. The most popular peripheral nerve blocks used in umbilical hernia repair are rectus sheath infiltration and caudal block. The rectus sheath block may offer improved pain relief following umbilical hernia repair with no undesired effects such as lower limb motor weakness or urinary retention seen with caudal block which might delay discharge from the hospital. Ultrasound guidance of peripheral nerve blocks has reduced the number of complications and improved the quality of blocks.The aim of this case series is to assess the post rectus sheath block pain relief in pediatric patients coming for umbilical surgery. Methods: Twenty two (22 children (age range: 1.5-8 years scheduled for umbilical hernia repair were included in the study. Following the induction of general anesthesia, the ultrasonographic anatomy of the umbilical region was studied with a 5-16 MHz 50 mm linear probe. An ultrasound-guided posterior rectus sheath block of both rectus abdominis muscles (RMs was performed (total of 44 punctures. An in-plain technique using Stimuplex A insulated facet tip needle 22G 50mm. Surgical conditions, intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, and postoperative analgesia by means of the modified CHEOPS scale were evaluated. Results: ultrasonograghic visualization of the posterior sheath was possible in all patients. The ultrasound guided rectus sheath blockade provided sufficient analgesia in all children with no need for additional analgesia except for one patient who postoperatively required morphine 0.1 mg/kg intravenously. There were no complications. Conclusions: Ultrasound guidance enables performances of an effective rectus sheath block for umbilical hernia. Use of the Stimuplex A insulated facet tip needle 22G 50mm provides easy, less traumatic skin and rectus muscle penetration and satisfactory needle

  16. Plane Mercury librations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrandiz, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    theory of Mercury librations in longitude by using three characteristics of Mercury rotation determined in the paper [3]. Two from these parameters are values of angle of librations in longitude and angular velocity in moment of passage of perihelion of Mercury orbit on 17 April 2002: (^g)0 = 0007 ± 0001, (^?•? )0 = (2.10± 0.06)•? ars/d. Third parameter determined in [3] is a dynamical coefficient: K = (B -A)•(4Cm ) = (5.08± 0.30) × 10-5. B > A are principal moment of inertia, corresponding to equatorial axes of inertia; Cm is a polar moment of inertia of the mantle of Mercury. 1 Analytical theory of plane Mercury librations. This theory describes forced and free librations of Mercury in longitude in the frame of plane problem about resonant librations of Mercury considered or as non-spherical rigid body, or as system of rigid non-spherical mantle and liquid ellipsoidal core. Saving the main terms for the perturbations of angle of librations ^g and angular velocity ^? in both mentioned cases we will have formulae [6]: ^g = K(E sin M + E sin2M + E sin 3M + E sin4M + E sin5M ) 1 2 3 4 5+K0 sin(E šKM- - φ) (A)

  17. Gravitational Couplings for Gop-Planes and y-Op-Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino actions for generalized orientifold planes (GOp-planes) and y-deformed orientifold planes (yOp-planes) are presented and two series power expantions are realized from whiches processes that involves GOp-planes,yOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard GOp-planes and y-Op-planes are showed.

  18. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto en...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular.......Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto...... ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...

  19. Conceptual Design of Wave Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Trewers, Andrew; Kofoed, Jens Peter;

    The Wave Plane is a patented Wave Energy device of the overtopping type, designed to capture potential as well as kinetic energy. This is as such different to other overtopping devices, who usually only focus on potential energy. If Wave Plane A/S can deliver the turbine technology to utilize both...

  20. Evolutes of Hyperbolic Plane Curves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyuichi IZUMIYA; Dong He PEI; Takashi SANO; Erika TORII

    2004-01-01

    We define the notion of evolutes of curves in a hyperbolic plane and establish the relationships between singularities of these subjects and geometric invariants of curves under the action of the Lorentz group. We also describe how we can draw the picture of an evolute of a hyperbolic plane curve in the Poincar(e) disk.

  1. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  2. Conformal blocks in the QCD Pomeron formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H

    1996-01-01

    The conformal invariance properties of the QCD Pomeron in the transverse plane allow us to give an explicit analytical expression for the conformal eigenvectors in the mixed representation in terms of two conformal blocks, each block being the product of an holomorphic times an antiholomorphic function. This property is used to give an exact expression for various functions of interest, the Pomeron amplitude in both momentum and impact-parameter variables, the QCD dipole multiplicities and dipole-dipole cross-sections in the whole parameter space, and we recover the expression of the four-point gluon Green function given recently by Lipatov

  3. Epidemic Propagation of Control Plane Failures in GMPLS Controlled Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Fagertun, Anna Manolova

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the behaviour of a dataplane-decoupled GMPLS control plane, when it is affected by failures that spread in the network in an epidemic manner. In particular, we consider network nodes to be either fully functional, or having a failed control plane, or having both...... a failed control and data plane. Through large-scale network simulation, we evaluate the effect of epidemically spreading control plane failures in terms of blocked connections requests and the amount of stranded capacity due to a dysfunctional control plane. Furthermore, we investigate the effect...... of the epidemic and the epidemic spreading intensity. In particular, networks with long epidemic durations do not necessarily result in worst performance in terms of blocked requests and capacity. Also epidemic scenarios, resulting in worst impact on the network availability does not necessarily result in worst...

  4. On the types and number of plane waves in hypoelastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushchitsky, J. J.

    2005-11-01

    General principles are formulated for modeling the elastic deformation of materials and analyzing plane waves in nonlinearly elastic materials such as hyperelastic, hypoelastic, and those governed by the general law of elasticity. The results of studying the propagation of plane waves in hypoelastic materials are further outlined. The influence of initial stresses and initial velocities on the types and number of plane waves is studied. Wave effects characteristic of hypoelastic materials are predicted theoretically. One of such effects is blocking of certain types of plane waves by initial stresses

  5. Ultrasound evaluation of muscle thickness changes in the external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles considering the influence of posture and muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Tomoaki; Abe, Yota; Sakamoto, Masaaki

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate muscle thickness changes in the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) muscles between the neutral position and trunk rotation, under a state of rest without voluntary contractions, and isometric contractions to both sides with resistance of 50% of the maximum trunk rotation strength. [Subjects] The subjects of this study were 21 healthy young men. [Methods] Muscle thickness changes in the EO, IO, and TrA in each position and state were evaluated by ultrasound. The range of motion at maximum trunk rotation and the maximum strength of trunk rotation were measured using a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] In the neutral position and at 50% trunk rotation to the right side, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased with resistance. In both states, the thicknesses of the IO and TrA significantly increased at 50% trunk rotation to the right side. [Conclusion] The muscular contractions of the IO and TrA were stronger during ipsilateral rotation than in the neutral position and with resistance than at rest. Moreover, the muscular contraction was strongest in the resistive state during ipsilateral rotation.

  6. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-02-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB.

  7. Shear heating by translational brittle reverse faulting along a single, sharp and straight fault plane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumyajit Mukherjee

    2017-02-01

    Shear heating by reverse faulting on a sharp straight fault plane is modelled. Increase in temperature (Ti) of faulted hangingwall and footwall blocks by frictional/shear heating for planar rough reverse faults is proportional to the coefficient of friction (μ), density and thickness of the hangingwall block (ρ). Ti increases as movement progresses with time. Thermal conductivity (Ki) and thermal diffusivity (k'i) of faulted blocks govern Ti but they do not bear simple relation. Ti is significant only near the fault plane. If the lithology is dry and faulting brings adjacent hangingwall and footwall blocks of the same lithology in contact, those blocks undergo the same rate of increase in shear heating per unit area per unit time.

  8. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  9. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  10. Plane and parabolic solar panels

    CERN Document Server

    Sales, J H O

    2009-01-01

    We present a plane and parabolic collector that absorbs radiant energy and transforms it in heat. Therefore we have a panel to heat water. We study how to increment this capture of solar beams onto the panel in order to increase its efficiency in heating water.

  11. Affine Contractions on the Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, D.; Ozdemir, Y.; Ureyen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Contractions play a considerable role in the theory of fractals. However, it is not easy to find contractions which are not similitudes. In this study, it is shown by counter examples that an affine transformation of the plane carrying a given triangle onto another triangle may not be a contraction even if it contracts edges, heights or medians.…

  12. Arnold's Projective Plane and -Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Uchino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We will explain Arnold's 2-dimensional (shortly, 2D projective geometry (Arnold, 2005 by means of lattice theory. It will be shown that the projection of the set of nontrivial triangular -matrices is the pencil of tangent lines of a quadratic curve on Arnold's projective plane.

  13. Distributed storage in the plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Goseling, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can

  14. Distributed storage in the plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altman, Eitan; Avrachenkov, Konstatin; Goseling, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    We consider storage devices located in the plane according to a general point process and specialize the results for the homogeneous Poisson process. A large data file is stored at the storage devices, which have limited storage capabilities. Hence, they can only store parts of the data. Clients can

  15. Block TERM factorization of block matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Yiyuan; HAO Pengwei

    2004-01-01

    Reversible integer mapping (or integer transform) is a useful way to realize Iossless coding, and this technique has been used for multi-component image compression in the new international image compression standard JPEG 2000. For any nonsingular linear transform of finite dimension, its integer transform can be implemented by factorizing the transform matrix into 3 triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs) or a series of single-row elementary reversible matrices (SERMs). To speed up and parallelize integer transforms, we study block TERM and SERM factorizations in this paper. First, to guarantee flexible scaling manners, the classical determinant (det) is generalized to a matrix function, DET, which is shown to have many important properties analogous to those of det. Then based on DET, a generic block TERM factorization,BLUS, is presented for any nonsingular block matrix. Our conclusions can cover the early optimal point factorizations and provide an efficient way to implement integer transforms for large matrices.

  16. Slickenside developed in chert block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, J.; Hayasaka, Y.; Nishiwaki, T.

    2011-12-01

    We observe the microstructures of slickenside developed in chert block mainly with a TEM, in order to clarify generation mechanism of the slickenside. This chert block occurs in the Jurassic accretionary complex in eastern Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. The complex, chaotic sediment, is composed of allochthonous blocks, mainly of chert, limestone, sandstone and mudstone in the argillaceous matrix. The color of the undeformed chert is pale blue to white, while the surface of slickenside is black. The stereo microscopy indicates the top surface of slickenside is covered with a transparent material, whose composition is mainly Si, measured by EPMA. The striation is well developed on the transparent-Si-material. We made thin sections, parallel and perpendicular to striation and slickenside, respectively. On the thin sections, the elongated quartz grains are oriented obliquely to the slickenside with 20-30 degree. Many fluid inclusions, which represent healed microcracks, are observed within the quartz grains. These quartz grains show strong undulose extinction and bulging-recrystallization. Apatite grains are also observed as a main constituent mineral. We made TEM foils from the above thin section by FIB. TEM observation indicates the amorphous layer with several ten nanometers in width distributes along the slickenside. (We speculate the most part of the amorphous layer are taken away during polishing of the thin section, because the strength of the amorphous layer is weak. Therefore we now make thin section again with care.) The tangled dislocations are developed within the quartz grains. They make subgrains with ca. 1 micrometer in size. These results suggest the slickenside was generated by the frictional melting of quartz grains on slip plane under very high stress condition, same as pseudotachylyte.

  17. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  18. Gravitational Couplings for y-Gop-Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Ospina-Giraldo, J F

    2000-01-01

    The Wess-Zumino action for y deformed and generalized orientifold planes (yGOp-planes) is presented and one power expantion is realized from which processes that involves yGOp-planes, RR-forms, gravitons and gaugeons, are obtained. Finally non-standard yGOp-planes are showed.

  19. Linear Instability of the Plane Couette and Plane Poiseuille Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chefranov, Sergey G

    2015-01-01

    We show possibility of the Plane Couette (PC) flow instability for Reynolds number Re>Reth=140. This new result of the linear hydrodynamic stability theory is obtained on the base of refusal from the traditionally used assumption on longitudinal periodicity of the disturbances along the direction of the fluid flow. We found that earlier existing understanding on the linear stability of this flow for any arbitrary large Reynolds number is directly related with an assumption on the separation of the variables of the spatial variability for the disturbance field and their periodicity in linear theory of stability. By the refusal from the pointed assumptions also for the Plane Poiseuille (PP) flow, we get a new threshold Reynolds value Reth=1040 that with 4% accuracy agrees with the experiment contrary to more than 500% discrepancy for the earlier known estimate Reth=5772 obtained in the frame of the linear theory but when using the "normal" disturbance form (S. A. Orszag, 1971).

  20. Ultrasonography for measuring rectus abdominis muscles diastasis Ultra-sonografia para medir a diástase dos músculos retos do abdome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Almeida Mendes

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preoperative imaging evaluation may be useful for determining the position of recti abdominis muscles before their correction. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography to measure the width of rectus abdominis muscle diastasis. METHODS: Rectus diastasis was measured by ultrasonography preoperatively in 20 females. Rectus diastasis was measured in seven levels along the anterior rectus sheath by ultrasound after sustained deep inspiration and after expiration. Rectus diastasis, at the same levels, was also measured after its exposition during abdominoplasty by two independent observers, using a surgical compass. These values were compared using Wilcoxon's statistical text, for non independent values. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the values obtained by ultrasound and those measured during surgery in the supra-umbilical levels and at the level of the umbilicus. However, below the umbilicus these values differed significantly, showing smaller values in the imaging evaluation. CONCLUSION: Ultrasonography is an accurate method to measure rectus diastasis above the umbilicus and at the umbilical level.OBJETIVO: Estudos radiológicos pré-operatórios podem ser úteis para determinar a posição dos músculos retos do abdome antes de sua correção. O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a acurácia da ultra-sonografia para medir a largura da diástase dos músculos retos do abdome. MÉTODOS: A diástase dos músculos retos foi medida pela ultra-sonografia, no pré-operatório em 20 mulheres. A diástase dos retos foi medida em sete níveis da bainha anterior dos retos foram examinados com ultra-som após inspiração profunda sustentada e após expiração. A diástase dos retos, nos mesmos níveis, foi também medida após sua exposição durante a abdominoplastia, por dois observadores independentes, usando compasso cirúrgico. As medidas foram comparadas usando o teste estatístico de

  1. Endoscopic-assisted linea alba reconstruction plus mesh augmentation (ELAR plus for treatment of umbilical and/or epigastric hernias and rectus abdominis diastasis – Early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand eKöckerling

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSymptomatic umbilical and/or epigastric hernias are often seen concomitantly with rectus abdominis diastasis (RAD, and suture repair of such defects has a high recurrence rate. In the literature there are reports of both endoscopic and open techniques for repair of symptomatic umbilical and/or epigastric hernias in association with RAD. This paper now reports on the early results of a hybrid technique used for reconstruction of the linea alba and mesh augmentation (ELAR plus.Material and methodsBetween 15 June 2015 and 31 January 2016, 40 patients with symptomatic umbilical and /or epigastric hernia and concomitant RAD underwent reconstruction of the linea alba using a hybrid technique involving a small umbilical incision and the use of video endoscopic equipment. The patients comprised 29 men and 11 women with a mean age of 53.6 years and mean BMI of 32.6. The mean operating time was 120 minutes. The mesh had a mean longitudinal extension of 18.6 cm and transverse extension of 9.1 cm. ResultsThirty-day follow-up results are available for all patients. Thirty-seven out of 40 patients (92.5 % experienced no postoperative complication. Two cases of discrete impaired umbilical wound healing and one seroma were successfully managed with conservative treatment. On 30-day follow-up, three out of 40 patients (7.5 % complained of intermittent pain on exertion, and two out of 40 patients (5 % still took painkillers when required.ConclusionEndoscopic-assisted linea alba reconstruction plus mesh augmentation (ELAR plus is a novel minimally invasive procedure for repair of symptomatic umbilical and/or epigastric hernias with concomitant RAD. Reconstruction of the linea alba via a minimally invasive access route is able to restore the normal anatomy of the abdominal wall.

  2. COMPARISION OF POTENCY OF DIFFERENT TYPES NEURO-MUSCULAR JUNCTION (NMJ BLOCKERS ON ISOLATED RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE OF RANA TIGRINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghishetty Vijay Prasad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important use of neuromuscular blockers is as adjuvant to general anaesthesia whereadequate muscle relaxation can be achieved at lighter plane. They also reduce reflex muscle contraction in the regionundergoing surgery and assist maintenance of controlled ventilation during anaesthesia. They are particularly helpfulin abdominal and thoracic surgery, intubations and endoscopies, orthopedic manipulation, etc. Thus, the risk ofrespiratory and cardiovascular depression is minimized, and post anesthetic recovery is shortened. The potency ratioof two commonly used neuromuscular agents depolarizing succinylcholine and non depolarizing pancuronium.Double pith a frog and fasten it to a frog board with ventral side up. The sternum was cut through just above thexiphisternum at its base and a pair of muscle attached to it were dissected out and transferred to a dish containingfrog Ringer solution at room temperature. All the drug containing solutions were freshly prepared before theexperiments Succinyl choline, Pancuronium (1,10,100μg/ml and 1mg/dl respectively Acetyl choline (10,100μg/mland 1mg/dl. Acetylcholine solution in various strength were prepared starting from 0.1% to 0.0001%.NMJblockerPancuroniumwas added to the biophase in addition to selected dose (128μgor 256μgand the contraction ofmuscle till the 70-80% of inhibition is produced and the difference from sub maximal contractions. The medianED50was interpolated from the figure taking 50%of inhibition from Height of contractionin mm. The ‘t’ test wasperformed to compare the ED50value were interpolated from the regression line to find out the ED50of the drug. Themedian doses (ED50 of both of them were calculated graphically and compared. The mean ED50 value ofsuccinylcholine was found to be 1.59 ± 0.08μg (95% confidential limit was from 1.53 to 1.66μg. The ED50ofpancuronium was found to be 0.52 ± 0.10μg with 95% confidence limit being from 0.44 to 0.60μg. The ED50valueof the

  3. Hydrodynamics of planing monohull watercraft

    CERN Document Server

    Vorus, William S

    2017-01-01

    This book addresses the principles involved in the design and engineering of planing monohull power boats, with an emphasis on the theoretical fundamentals that readers need in order to be fully functional in marine design and engineering. Author William Vorus focuses on three topics: boat resistance, seaway response, and propulsion and explains the physical principles, mathematical details, and theoretical details that support physical understanding. In particular, he explains the approximations and simplifications in mathematics that lead to success in the applications of planing craft design engineering, and begins with the simplest configuration that embodies the basic physics. He leads readers, step-by-step, through the physical complications that occur, leading to a useful working knowledge of marine design and engineering. Included in the book are a wealth of examples that exemplify some of the most important naval architecture and marine engineering problems that challenge many of today’s engineers.

  4. Plane waves as tractor beams

    CERN Document Server

    Forgács, Péter; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems plane waves can act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode having a larger wave number, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. Such a tractor beam or negative radiation pressure effect arises naturally in systems where the coupling between the scattering channels is due to Aharonov-Bohm (AB) gauge potentials. It is demonstrated that this effect is also present if the AB potential is an induced, ("artificial") gauge potential such as the one found in J. March-Russell, J. Preskill, F. Wilczek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58 2567 (1992).

  5. On rank 5 projective planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Bachmann

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we continue the study of projective planes which admit collineation groups of low rank (Kallaher [1] and Bachmann [2,3]. A rank 5 collineation group of a projective plane ℙ of order n≠3 is proved to be flag-transitive. As in the rank 3 and rank 4 case this implies that is ℙ not desarguesian and that n is (a prime power of the form m4 if m is odd and n=m2 with m≡0mod4 if n is even. Our proof relies on the classification of all doubly transitive groups of finite degree (which follows from the classification of all finite simple groups.

  6. Force Lines in Plane Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathkjen, Arne

    A state of plane stress is illustrated by means of two families of curves, each family representing constant values of a derivative of Airy's stress function. The two families of curves form a map giving in the first place an overall picture of regions of high and low stress, and in the second...... place, the map comprises a complete graphic representation of the stress at any point....

  7. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blocked Urethral Valves Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Blocked Urethral Valves Page Content Article Body Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra, which in boys passes through the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in ...

  8. Types of Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... P wave as it normally would. If an electrical signal is blocked before it reaches the ventricles, they won't contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Second-degree heart block is divided into two ...

  9. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  10. The Block Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We define the block neighborhood of a reversible CA, which is related both to its decomposition into a product of block permutations and to quantum computing. We give a purely combinatorial characterization of the block neighborhood, which helps in two ways. First, it makes the computation of the block neighborhood of a given CA relatively easy. Second, it allows us to derive upper bounds on the block neighborhood: for a single CA as function of the classical and inverse neighborhoods, and for the composition of several CAs. One consequence of that is a characterization of a class of "elementary" CAs that cannot be written as the composition of two simpler parts whose neighborhoods and inverse neighborhoods would be reduced by one half.

  11. 3D synthetic aperture imaging using a virtual source element in the elevation plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2000-01-01

    The conventional scanning techniques are not directly extendable for 3D real-time imaging because of the time necessary to acquire one volume. Using a linear array and synthetic transmit aperture, the volume can be scanned plane by plane. Up to 1000 planes per second can be scanned for a typical...... dynamic focusing in the elevation plane. A 0.1 mm point scatterer was mounted in an agar block and scanned in a water bath. The transducer is a 64 elements linear array with a pitch of 209 μm. The transducer height is 4 mm in the elevation plane and it is focused at 20 mm giving a F-number of 5. The point...

  12. SNAP Satellite Focal Plane Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebek, C.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Baltay, C.; Barrelet, E.; Basa, S.; Bercovitz, J.; Bergstrom, L.; Berstein, G.P.; Bester, M.; Bohlin, R.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Campbell, M.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, A.; Ellis, R.; Emmett, W.; Eriksson, M.; Fouchez,D.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Johnson, W.; Kadel, R.; Karcher,A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureaux, J.; Lampton, M.; Lefevre, O.; Levi, M.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Mazure, A.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Miquel, R.; Morgan, N.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Roe, N.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Prieto, E.; Rabinowitz,D.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Schubnell, M.; Sholl, M.; Smadja, G.; Smith, R.; Smoot, G.; Snyder, J.; Spadafora, A.; Szymkowiak, A.; Tarle,G.; Taylor, K.; Tilquin, A.; Tomasch, A.; Vincent, D.; von der Lippe, H.; Walder, J-P.; Wang, G.

    2003-07-07

    The proposed SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) mission will have a two-meter class telescope delivering diffraction-limited images to an instrumented 0.7 square degree field in the visible and near-infrared wavelength regime. The requirements for the instrument suite and the present configuration of the focal plane concept are presented. A two year R&D phase, largely supported by the Department of Energy, is just beginning. We describe the development activities that are taking place to advance our preparedness for mission proposal in the areas of detectors and electronics.

  13. On free fermions and plane partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O; Zuparic, M

    2008-01-01

    We use free fermion methods to re-derive a result of Okounkov and Reshetikhin relating charged fermions to random plane partitions, and to extend it to relate neutral fermions to strict plane partitions.

  14. Reconstrucción mamaria con el colgajo musculocutáneo recto abdominal transverso (TRAM Breast reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Lozano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El colgajo musculocutáneo de recto abdominal transverso ha sido la técnica quirúrgica más utilizada en reconstrucción mamaria autógena. Proporciona una nueva mama con volumen adecuado, ptosis, aspecto natural y no requiere la implantación de prótesis, obteniéndose una buena simetría con la mama contralateral, que perdura en el tiempo. El inconveniente de esta técnica es la morbilidad de la pared abdominal. Este colgajo sacrifica el músculo y la vaina anterior del recto que puede tener consecuencias como hernias y eventraciones. Para minimizar este problema se desarrolló el colgajo de recto abdominal microquirúrgico, que sólo sacrifica una porción muscular, disminuyendo significativamente el número de secuelas. Como inconveniente presenta la dificultad de la técnica quirúrgica, requiriendo dominio de la microcirugía vasculonerviosa. En conclusión, se puede devolver a la mujer mastectomizada una nueva mama de forma completamente autógena, con volumen, forma y textura similares al lado sano que ayude, en definitiva, a recuperar la autoestima perdida.The transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM flap has been the most employed technique in autogenous breast reconstruction. It provides a new breast of adequate volume, ptosis and natural appearance, and does not require the implantation of prosthesis; a good symmetry with the contralateral breast is obtained, which lasts over time. The drawback of this technique is the morbidity of the abdominal wall. This flap sacrifices the muscle and the anterior rectus sheath which can result in consequences such as hernias and eventrations. To minimise this problem the microsurgical TRAM flap was developed, which only sacrifices a portion of muscle, significantly reducing the number of sequels. A drawback is the difficulty of the surgical technique, which requires mastery of vascular-nervous microsurgery. In conclusion, a new breast can be returned to the mastectomised woman in a

  15. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  16. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  17. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K

    1998-01-01

    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  18. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  19. The HAWC Galactic Plane Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Michelle

    2016-03-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory is an all-sky surveying instrument that covers 2/3 of the sky in 24 hours. It is designed with an emphasis on continuous sky coverage for transient events, and on the measurement of extended and large-scale structures. The array is located in Sierra Negra, Mexico at an elevation of 4,100 m and was inaugurated in March 2015. The HAWC array consists of 300 water Cherenkov detectors and is sensitive to extensive air showers triggered by cosmic rays and gamma rays from 100 GeV to >100 TeV. Thanks to its modular design, data taking began in Summer 2013 with 1/3 of the array. Analysis of the first year of data with the partial array shows detections that are coincident with known TeV supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae along the Galactic plane. Spectral and morphological analyses are ongoing to study the particle population and acceleration mechanism of these objects. With a growing data set taken with the completed array, source searches are underway for both point-like and extended emission along the Galactic plane, which contain many objects such as pulsar wind nebulae, young star clusters, and binaries.

  20. The INTEGRAL Galactic Plane Scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Fiocchi, Mariateresa

    2013-01-01

    After the first nine years of INTEGRAL operational life, the discovery of new sources and source types, a large fraction of which are highly transient or highly absorbed, is certainly one of the most compelling results and legacies of INTEGRAL. Frequent monitoring of the Galactic Plane in AO8 and AO9 campaigns allowed us to detect transient sources, both known and new, confirming that the gamma-ray sky is dominated by the extreme variability of different classes of objects. Regular scans of the Galactic Plane by INTEGRAL provide the most sensitive hard X-ray wide survey to date of our Galaxy, with flux limits of the order of 0.3 mCrab for an exposure time of ~2Ms. Many transient sources have been detected on a wide range of time scales (~hours to months) and identified by triggered followup observations, mainly by Swift/XRT and optical/infrared telescopes. These discoveries are very important to characterize the X-ray binary population in our Galaxy, that is necessary input for evolution studies. The transien...

  1. Lines, Circles, Planes and Spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Purdy, George B

    2009-01-01

    Let $S$ be a set of $n$ points in $\\mathbb{R}^3$, no three collinear and not all coplanar. If at most $n-k$ are coplanar and $n$ is sufficiently large, the total number of planes determined is at least $1 + k \\binom{n-k}{2}-\\binom{k}{2}(\\frac{n-k}{2})$. For similar conditions and sufficiently large $n$, (inspired by the work of P. D. T. A. Elliott in \\cite{Ell67}) we also show that the number of spheres determined by $n$ points is at least $1+\\binom{n-1}{3}-t_3^{orchard}(n-1)$, and this bound is best possible under its hypothesis. (By $t_3^{orchard}(n)$, we are denoting the maximum number of three-point lines attainable by a configuration of $n$ points, no four collinear, in the plane, i.e., the classic Orchard Problem.) New lower bounds are also given for both lines and circles.

  2. Image plane sweep volume illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundén, Erik; Ynnerman, Anders; Ropinski, Timo

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, many volumetric illumination models have been proposed, which have the potential to simulate advanced lighting effects and thus support improved image comprehension. Although volume ray-casting is widely accepted as the volume rendering technique which achieves the highest image quality, so far no volumetric illumination algorithm has been designed to be directly incorporated into the ray-casting process. In this paper we propose image plane sweep volume illumination (IPSVI), which allows the integration of advanced illumination effects into a GPU-based volume ray-caster by exploiting the plane sweep paradigm. Thus, we are able to reduce the problem complexity and achieve interactive frame rates, while supporting scattering as well as shadowing. Since all illumination computations are performed directly within a single rendering pass, IPSVI does not require any preprocessing nor does it need to store intermediate results within an illumination volume. It therefore has a significantly lower memory footprint than other techniques. This makes IPSVI directly applicable to large data sets. Furthermore, the integration into a GPU-based ray-caster allows for high image quality as well as improved rendering performance by exploiting early ray termination. This paper discusses the theory behind IPSVI, describes its implementation, demonstrates its visual results and provides performance measurements.

  3. Evolved stars in galactic plane surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, K.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in history the entire Galactic Plane is digitally mapped from La Palma and Chile by the European Galactic Plane surveys EGAPS (UVEX, IPHAS and VPHAS+, see http://www.uvexsurvey.org http://www.iphas.org and http://www.vphasplus.org). The complete Galactic plane (3600 square degrees

  4. Singularities from colliding plane gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, Frank J.

    1980-12-01

    A simple geometrical argument is given which shows that a collision between two plane gravitational waves must result in singularities. The argument suggests that these singularities are a peculiar feature of plane waves, because singularities are also a consequence of a collision between self-gravitating plane waves of other fields with arbitrarily small energy density.

  5. Singularities from colliding plane gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1980-12-15

    A simple geometrical argument is given which shows that a collision between two plane gravitational waves must result in singularities. The argument suggests that these singularities are a peculiar feature of plane waves, because singularities are also a consequence of a collision between self-gravitating plane waves of other fields with arbitrarily small energy density.

  6. An introduction to finite projective planes

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Abraham Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Geared toward both beginning and advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this self-contained treatment offers an elementary approach to finite projective planes. Following a review of the basics of projective geometry, the text examines finite planes, field planes, and coordinates in an arbitrary plane. Additional topics include central collineations and the little Desargues' property, the fundamental theorem, and examples of finite non-Desarguesian planes.Virtually no knowledge or sophistication on the part of the student is assumed, and every algebraic system that arises is defined and

  7. Thermodynamics of black plane solution

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Manuel E; Houndjo, Stéphane J M

    2012-01-01

    We obtain a new phantom black plane solution in 4D of the Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled with a cosmological constant. We analyse their basic properties and obtain the extensive and intensive thermodynamic variables, as well as the specific heat and the first law. Through the specific heat and the so-called geometric methods, we analyse in detail their thermodynamic properties, the extreme and phase transition limits, as well as the local and global stabilities of the system. The normal case is shown with an extreme limit and the phantom one with a phase transition only for null mass. The systems present local and global stabilities for certain values of the entropy density with respect to the electric charge, for the canonical and grand canonical ensembles.

  8. Thermodynamics of black plane solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Manuel E.; Jardim, Deborah F.; Houndjo, Stéphane J. M.; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2013-11-01

    We obtain a new phantom black plane solution in D of the Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled with a cosmological constant. We analyse their basic properties, as well as its causal structure, and obtain the extensive and intensive thermodynamic variables, as well as the specific heat and the first law. Through the specific heat and the so-called geometric methods, we analyse in detail their thermodynamic properties, the extreme and phase transition limits, as well as the local and global stabilities of the system. The normal case is shown with an extreme limit and the phantom one with a phase transition only for null mass, which is physically inaccessible. The systems present local and global stabilities for certain values of the entropy density with respect to the electric charge, for the canonical and grand canonical ensembles.

  9. On plane submerged laminar jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Wilfried; Sanchez, Antonio L.

    2016-11-01

    We address the laminar flow generated when a developed stream of liquid of kinematic viscosity ν flowing along channel of width 2 h discharges into an open space bounded by two symmetric plane walls departing from the channel rim with an angle α 1 . Attention is focused on values of the jet volume flux 2 Q such that the associated Reynolds number Re = Qh / ν is of order unity. The formulation requires specification of the boundary conditions far from the channel exit. If the flow is driven by the volume flux, then the far-field solution corresponds to Jeffery-Hamel self-similar flow. However, as noted by Fraenkel (1962), such solutions exist only for α potential flow driven by the jet entrainment, and a Falkner-Skan near-wall boundary layer. Numerical integrations of the Navier-Stokes equations are used to ascertain the existence of these different solutions.

  10. Truncal blocks for perioperative pain management: a review of the literature and evolving techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ramon; Huang, Yolanda Y; Weyker, Paul D; Webb, Christopher Aj

    2016-10-01

    As the American healthcare system continues to evolve and reimbursement becomes tied to value-based incentive programs, perioperative pain management will become increasingly important. Regional anesthetic techniques are only one component of a successful multimodal pain regimen. In recent years, the use of peripheral and paraneuraxial blocks to provide chest wall and abdominal analgesia has gained popularity. When used within a multimodal regimen, truncal blocks may provide similar analgesia when compared with other regional anesthetic techniques. While there are other reviews that cover this topic, our review will also highlight the emerging role for serratus plane blocks, pectoral nerve blocks and quadratus lumborum blocks in providing thoracic and abdominal analgesia.

  11. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  12. Performance of an Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin; Belikov, Ruslan; Pluzhnik, Eugene; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Coronagraph technology combined with wavefront control is close to achieving the contrast and inner working angle requirements in the lab necessary to observe the faint signal of an Earth-like exoplanet in monochromatic light. An important remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light. Coronagraph bandwidth is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask, which is responsible for blocking the stellar PSF. The size of a stellar PSF scales linearly with wavelength; ideally, the size of the focal plane mask would also scale with wavelength. A conventional hard-edge focal plane mask has a fixed size, normally sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. The conventional mask is oversized for shorter wavelengths and blocks useful discovery space. Recently we presented a solution to the size chromaticity challenge with a focal plane mask designed to scale its effective size with wavelength. In this paper, we analyze performance of the achromatic size-scaling focal plane mask within a Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization (PIAA) coronagraph. We present results from wavefront control around the achromatic focal plane mask, and demonstrate the size-scaling effect of the mask with wavelength. The edge of the dark zone, and therefore the inner working angle of the coronagraph, scale with wavelength. The achromatic mask enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths compared with a conventional hard-edge occulter.

  13. Generalized plane gravitational waves of non-symmetric unified field theories in plane symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv R. Bhoyar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigated the plane wave solutions of both the weak and strong non-symmetric unified field equations of Einstein and Bonner in a generalized plane symmetric space-time in the sense of Taub [Ann. Math. 53, 472 (1951] for plane gravitational waves. We show that the plane wave solutions of Einstein and Bonner field equations exist in plane symmetry.

  14. Achromatic Focal Plane Mask for Exoplanet Imaging Coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Kevin Edward; Belikov, Ruslan; Guyon, Olivier; Balasubramanian, Kunjithapatham; Wilson, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in coronagraph technologies for exoplanet imaging have achieved contrasts close to 1e10 at 4 lambda/D and 1e-9 at 2 lambda/D in monochromatic light. A remaining technological challenge is to achieve high contrast in broadband light; a challenge that is largely limited by chromaticity of the focal plane mask. The size of a star image scales linearly with wavelength. Focal plane masks are typically the same size at all wavelengths, and must be sized for the longest wavelength in the observational band to avoid starlight leakage. However, this oversized mask blocks useful discovery space from the shorter wavelengths. We present here the design, development, and testing of an achromatic focal plane mask based on the concept of optical filtering by a diffractive optical element (DOE). The mask consists of an array of DOE cells, the combination of which functions as a wavelength filter with any desired amplitude and phase transmission. The effective size of the mask scales nearly linearly with wavelength, and allows significant improvement in the inner working angle of the coronagraph at shorter wavelengths. The design is applicable to almost any coronagraph configuration, and enables operation in a wider band of wavelengths than would otherwise be possible. We include initial results from a laboratory demonstration of the mask with the Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph.

  15. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  16. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  17. Concrete Block Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  18. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... along with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major ...

  19. Radioactivity in the galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walraven, G. D.; Haymes, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reports the detection of a large concentration of interstellar radioactivity during balloon-altitude measurements of gamma-ray energy spectra in the band between 0.02 and 12.27 MeV from galactic and extragalactic sources. Enhanced counting rates were observed in three directions towards the plane of the Galaxy; a power-law energy spectrum is computed for one of these directions (designated B 10). A large statistical deviation from the power law in a 1.0-FWHM interval centered near 1.16 MeV is discussed, and the existence of a nuclear gamma-ray line at 1.15 MeV in B 10 is postulated. It is suggested that Ca-44, which emits gamma radiation at 1.156 MeV following the decay of radioactive Sc-44, is a likely candidate for this line, noting that Sc-44 arises from Ti-44 according to explosive models of supernova nucleosynthesis. The 1.16-MeV line flux inferred from the present data is shown to equal the predicted flux for a supernova at a distance of approximately 3 kpc and an age not exceeding about 100 years.

  20. Focal Plane Instrumentation of VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Nagai, T; Sleege, G; Petry, D

    2007-01-01

    VERITAS is a new atmospheric Cherenkov imaging telescope array to detect very high energy gamma rays above 100 GeV. The array is located in southern Arizona, USA, at an altitude of 1268m above sea level. The array consists of four 12-m telescopes of Davies-Cotton design and structurally resembling the Whipple 10-m telescope. The four focal plane instruments are equipped with high-resolution (499 pixels) fast photo-multiplier-tube (PMT) cameras covering a 3.5 degree field of view with 0.15 degree pixel separation. Light concentrators reduce the dead-space between PMTs to 25% and shield the PMTs from ambient light. The PMTs are connected to high-speed preamplifiers allowing operation at modest anode current and giving good single photoelectron peaks in situ. Electronics in the focus box provides real-time monitoring of the anode currents for each pixel and ambient environmental conditions. A charge injection subsystem installed in the focus box allows daytime testing of the trigger and data acquisition system b...

  1. A Collaborative Knowledge Plane for Autonomic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaye, Maïssa; Krief, Francine

    Autonomic networking aims to give network components self-managing capabilities. Several autonomic architectures have been proposed. Each of these architectures includes sort of a knowledge plane which is very important to mimic an autonomic behavior. Knowledge plane has a central role for self-functions by providing suitable knowledge to equipment and needs to learn new strategies for more accuracy.However, defining knowledge plane's architecture is still a challenge for researchers. Specially, defining the way cognitive supports interact each other in knowledge plane and implementing them. Decision making process depends on these interactions between reasoning and learning parts of knowledge plane. In this paper we propose a knowledge plane's architecture based on machine learning (inductive logic programming) paradigm and situated view to deal with distributed environment. This architecture is focused on two self-functions that include all other self-functions: self-adaptation and self-organization. Study cases are given and implemented.

  2. RF/Optical Demonstration: Focal Plane Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, D. J.; Chung, S.; Kovalik, J.; Gama, E.; Fernandez, M. M.

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we describe the second-generation focal plane optical assembly employed in the RF/optical demonstration at DSS-13. This assembly receives reflected light from the two mirror segments mounted on the RF primary. The focal plane assembly contains a fast steering mirror (FSM) to stabilize the focal plane spot, a pupil camera to aid in aligning the two segments, and several additional cameras for receiving the optical signal prior to as well as after the FSM loop.

  3. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Black Forest Engineering has identified innovative modifications in uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) architecture and processing that allows development of large...

  4. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  5. Electric Field Reconstruction in the Image Plane of a High-Contrast Coronagraph Using a Set of Pinholes around the Lyot Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giveona, Amir; Shaklan, Stuart; Kern, Brian; Noecker, Charley; Kendrick, Steve; Wallace, Kent

    2012-01-01

    In a setup similar to the self coherent camera, we have added a set of pinholes in the diffraction ring of the Lyot plane in a high-contrast stellar Lyot coronagraph. We describe a novel complex electric field reconstruction from image plane intensity measurements consisting of light in the coronagraph's dark hole interfering with light from the pinholes. The image plane field is modified by letting light through one pinhole at a time. In addition to estimation of the field at the science camera, this method allows for self-calibration of the probes by letting light through the pinholes in various permutations while blocking the main Lyot opening. We present results of estimation and calibration from the High Contrast Imaging Testbed along with a comparison to the pair-wise deformable mirror diversity based estimation technique. Tests are carried out in narrow-band light and over a composite 10% bandpass.

  6. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  7. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  8. The European Galactic Plane Surveys: EGAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, P.J.; Drew, J.; Greimel, R.; Gaensicke, B.; Knigge, C.; Irwin, M.; Mampaso, A.; Augusteijn, T.; Morales-Rueda, L.; Barlow, M.; Iphas, C.; Uvex, C.; Vphas, C.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The European Galactic Plane Surveys (EGAPS) will for the first time ever map the complete galactic plane (10x360 degrees) down to 21st magnitude in u', g', r', i' and H-alpha and partly in He I 5875. It will complete a database of ~1 billion objects. The aim of EGAPS is to study popula

  9. Slipping and Rolling on an Inclined Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina; Aghamohammadi, Amir

    2011-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ([mu]). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is…

  10. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korkiakoski, V.A.; Keller, C.U.; Doelman, N.; Kenworthy, M.; Otten, G.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high-spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast &

  11. Slipping and rolling on an inclined plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamohammadi, Cina [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, PO Box 11365-11155, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghamohammadi, Amir, E-mail: mohamadi@alzahra.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Alzahra University, Tehran 19938-91176 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-07-15

    In the first part of the paper, using a direct calculation two-dimensional motion of a particle sliding on an inclined plane is investigated for general values of friction coefficient ({mu}). A parametric equation for the trajectory of the particle is also obtained. In the second part of the paper, the motion of a sphere on the inclined plane is studied. It is shown that the evolution equation for the contact point of a sliding sphere is similar to that of a point particle sliding on an inclined plane whose friction coefficient is 7/2 {mu}. If {mu} > 2/7 tan {theta}, for any arbitrary initial velocity and angular velocity, the sphere will roll on the inclined plane after some finite time. In other cases, it will slip on the inclined plane. In the case of rolling, the centre of the sphere moves on a parabola. Finally the velocity and angular velocity of the sphere are exactly computed.

  12. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  13. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  14. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  15. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  16. Properties of blocked linear systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  17. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  18. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  19. Slip patterns and preferred dislocation boundary planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, G.

    2003-01-01

    The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single and polycryst......The planes of deformation induced extended planar dislocation boundaries are analysed in two different co-ordinate systems, namely the macroscopic system defined by the deformation axes and the crystallographic system given by the crystallographic lattice. The analysis covers single...... and polycrystals of fcc metals in three deformation modes (rolling, tension and torsion). In the macroscopic system, boundaries lie close to the macroscopically most stressed planes. In the crystallographic system, the boundary plane depends on the grain/crystal orientation. The boundary planes in both co......-ordinate systems are rationalised based on the slip. The more the slip is concentrated on a slip plane, the closer the boundaries lie to this. The macroscopic preference arises from the macroscopic directionality of the slip. The established relations are applied to (a) prediction of boundary planes from slip...

  20. Property Blocks: Games and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  1. Influence of mandibular fixation method on stability of the maxillary occlusal plane after occlusal plane alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosano, Akira; Katakura, Akira; Takaki, Takashi; Shibahara, Takahiko

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we investigated how method of mandibular fixation influenced longterm postoperative stability of the maxilla in Class III cases. In particular, we investigated change in the maxillary occlusal plane after Occlusal Plane Alteration. Therefore, we focused on change in the palatal plane to evaluate stability of the maxillary occlusal plane, as the position of the palatal plane affects the maxillary occlusal plane. This study included 16 patients diagnosed with mandibular protrusion. Alteration of the occlusal plane was achieved by clockwise rotation of the maxilla by Le Fort I osteotomy and mandibular setback was performed by bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy. We analyzed and examined lateral cephalometric radiographs taken at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after surgery. Stability achieved by two methods of mandibular fixation was compared. In one group of patients (group S) titanium screws were used, and in the other group (group P) titanium-locking mini-plates were used. No significant displacement was recognized in group S, whereas an approximately 0.7mm upward vertical displacement was recognized in the anterior nasal spine in group P. As a result, not only the angle of the palatal plane and S-N plane, but also occlusal plane angle in group P showed a greater decrease than that in group S. The results suggest that fixing the mandible with screws yielded greater stability of the maxilla and maxillary occlusal plane than fixing the mandible with titanium plates.

  2. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  3. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  4. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermacore Inc. proposes an innovative titanium heat pipe thermal plane for passive thermal control of individual cells within a fuel cell stack. The proposed...

  5. Equivalent boundary integral equations for plane elasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡海昌; 丁皓江; 何文军

    1997-01-01

    Indirect and direct boundary integral equations equivalent to the original boundary value problem of differential equation of plane elasticity are established rigorously. The unnecessity or deficiency of some customary boundary integral equations is indicated by examples and numerical comparison.

  6. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  7. Causal inheritence in plane wave quotients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund; Ross, Simon F.

    2003-11-24

    We investigate the appearance of closed timelike curves in quotients of plane waves along spacelike isometries. First we formulate a necessary and sufficient condition for a quotient of a general spacetime to preserve stable causality. We explicitly show that the plane waves are stably causal; in passing, we observe that some pp-waves are not even distinguishing. We then consider the classification of all quotients of the maximally supersymmetric ten-dimensional plane wave under a spacelike isometry, and show that the quotient will lead to closed timelike curves iff the isometry involves a translation along the u direction. The appearance of these closed timelike curves is thus connected to the special properties of the light cones in plane wave spacetimes. We show that all other quotients preserve stable causality.

  8. Large Format Uncooled Focal Plane Array Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Uncooled focal plane arrays have improved dramatically and array sizes of 320x240 elements in a 50-?m pitch are commercially available at affordable cost. Black...

  9. Linear connections on the quantum plane

    CERN Document Server

    Dubois-Violette, M; Masson, T; Mourad, J; Dubois-Violette, Michel; Madore, John; Masson, Thierry; Mourad, Jihad

    1994-01-01

    A general definition has been proposed recently of a linear connection and a metric in noncommutative geometry. It is shown that to within normalization there is a unique linear connection on the quantum plane and there is no metric.

  10. Parallels plane projection and its geometric features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU ChengHu; MA Ting; YANG Liao; QIN Biao

    2007-01-01

    A new equivalent map projection called the parallels plane projection is proposed in this paper. The transverse axis of the parallels plane projection is the expansion of the equator and its vertical axis equals half the length of the central meridian. On the parallels plane projection, meridians are projected as sine curves and parallels are a series of straight, parallel lines. No distortion of length occurs along the central meridian or on any parallels of this projection. Angular distortion and the proportion of length along meridians (except the central meridian) introduced by the projection transformation increase with increasing longitude and latitude. A potential application of the parallels plane projection is that it can provide an efficient projection transformation for global discrete grid systems.

  11. Metrics and causality on Moyal planes

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Metrics structures stemming from the Connes distance promote Moyal planes to the status of quantum metric spaces. We discuss this aspect in the light of recent developments, emphasizing the role of Moyal planes as representative examples of a recently introduced notion of quantum (noncommutative) locally compact space. We move then to the framework of Lorentzian noncommutative geometry and we examine the possibility of defining a notion of causality on Moyal plane, which is somewhat controversial in the area of mathematical physics. We show the actual existence of causal relations between the elements of a particular class of pure (coherent) states on Moyal plane with related causal structure similar to the one of the usual Minkowski space, up to the notion of locality.

  12. An automatic recognition and parameter extraction method for structural planes in borehole image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuanying; Zou, Xianjian; Han, Zengqiang; Wang, Yiteng; Wang, Jinchao

    2016-12-01

    As a breakthrough in borehole imaging technology, digital panoramic borehole camera technology has been widely employed. The high-resolution panoramic borehole images can accurately reproduce the geometric features of structural planes. However, the detection of these features is usually done manually, which is both time-consuming and introduces human errors. To solve this problem, this paper presents a method for the automatic recognition and parameter extraction of borehole geometric features of camera images. In this method, the image's gray and gradient level, and also their projection on the depth axis are used to identify the locations of structural planes. Afterwards, iterative matching is employed by using a template of sinusoidal function to search for structural planes in the identified image blocks. Finally, optimal sine curves are selected as the feature curves of structural planes, and their related parameters are converted into structural plane parameters required for engineering, such as their positions, dip directions, dip angles and fracture widths. The method can automatically identify all of structural planes throughout the whole borehole camera image in a continuous and rapid manner, and obtain the corresponding structural parameters. It has proven highly reliable, accurate and efficient.

  13. Ostrowski Type Inequalities in the Grushin Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Heng-Xing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the work of B.-S. Lian and Q.-H. Yang (2010 we proved an Ostrowski inequality associated with Carnot-Carathéodory distance in the Grushin plane. The procedure is based on a representation formula. Using the same representation formula, we prove some Hardy type inequalities associated with Carnot-Carathéodory distance in the Grushin plane.

  14. Deep-Plane Lipoabdominoplasty in East Asians

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, June-kyu; Jang, Jun-Young; Hong, Yoon Gi; Sim, Hyung Bo; Sun, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a new surgical technique by combining traditional abdominoplasty with liposuction. This combination of operations permits simpler and more accurate management of various abdominal deformities. In lipoabdominoplasty, the combination of techniques is of paramount concern. Herein, we introduce a new combination of liposuction and abdominoplasty using deep-plane flap sliding to maximize the benefits of both techniques. Methods Deep-plane lipoa...

  15. Faddeev Null Plane Model of Proton

    CERN Document Server

    D'Araújo, W R B; Frederico, T

    1998-01-01

    The proton is formulated as a relativistic system of three constituent quarks interacting via a zero-range two-body force in the null-plane. The covariance of the null-plane Faddeev-like equation under kinematical front-form boosts is discussed. A simplified three-boson model of the nucleon wave-function is obtained numerically. The proton electric form-factor reproduces the experimental data for low momentum transfers and qualitatively describes the asymptotic region.

  16. Does obturator nerve block always occur in 3-1 block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tekdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the femoral “3-in-1 block”, obturator nerve block is routinely unsuccessful. Anatomical studies are not available to explain why blockade of obturator nerve or lumbar plexus does not occur. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of femoral “3-in-1 block” obturator nerve block on a cadaver model.Materials and methods: Totally, 12 mature adult human cadavers were selected. Methylene blue dye (30 ml was injected under the fascia iliaca in eight cadavers and into the femoral nerve sheath in four cadavers. Careful bilateral dissections were performed following dye injections.Results: It was seen that the dye did not spread to the medial part of the psoas major muscle and the obturator nerve was not stained with the dye in eight cadavers in whom dye was injected laterally into the femoral sheat. In four cadavers in whom dye was injected into the femoral nerve sheat, metylene blue spread through fascial layers in the plane under the psoas muscle and stained the obturator nerve just before emerging medially from the fascia psoas. At this point, the obturator nerve pierced the psoas fascia and extended extrafascially in the medial and deep borders of the psoas muscle. In this area, the upper section of the obturator nerve was found also to be stained with the dye.Conclusion: We concluded that the cause of an unsuccessful obturator nerve block might be the fascial anatomy of this region. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve and the femoral nerve easily can be blocked in the fascia iliaca compartment, but the obturator nerve block fails because of its being extrafascial in this region. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:149-51

  17. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  18. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  19. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  20. Celiac ganglia block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: oakhan@hacettepe.edu.tr

    2005-09-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  1. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  2. Center-blocked field technique for treatment of extensive chest wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podgorsak, E.B.; Pla, M.; Kim, T.H.; Freeman, C.R.

    1981-10-01

    Our treatment technique for patients with extensive chest wall disese is presented. A rotational center-blocked radiation field is used to cover the large tumor volume to a dose with +/- 10% while sparing the lungs and the spinal cord. The center block is tapered to match both the patient's mediastinal slope in the sagittal plane and the outline of the lungs in the coronal plane. Ten patients treated with this technique to a tumor dose of 50 Gy tolerated the treatment well, despite a high integral dose. The local responses were excellent, particularly in view of the initial extent of the disease.

  3. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  4. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  5. GLAMER Part II: Multiple Plane Gravitational Lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, Margarita; Giocoli, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code {\\small GLAMER}. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone onto a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as halos, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic halos (NFW, NSIE, power-law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models ({\\small MOKA}). Likewise, there are several different options for modeling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be e...

  6. GLAMER - II. Multiple-plane gravitational lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Margarita; Metcalf, R. Benton; Giocoli, Carlo

    2014-12-01

    We present an extension to multiple planes of the gravitational lensing code GLAMER. The method entails projecting the mass in the observed light-cone on to a discrete number of lens planes and inverse ray-shooting from the image to the source plane. The mass on each plane can be represented as haloes, simulation particles, a projected mass map extracted form a numerical simulation or any combination of these. The image finding is done in a source-oriented fashion, where only regions of interest are iteratively refined on an initially coarse image plane grid. The calculations are performed in parallel on shared memory machines. The code is able to handle different types of analytic haloes (NFW, NSIE, power law, etc.), haloes extracted from numerical simulations and clusters constructed from semi-analytic models (MOKA). Likewise, there are several different options for modelling the source(s) which can be distributed throughout the light-cone. The distribution of matter in the light-cone can be either taken from a pre-existing N-body numerical simulations, from halo catalogues, or are generated from an analytic mass function. We present several tests of the code and demonstrate some of its applications such as generating mock images of galaxy and galaxy cluster lenses.

  7. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  8. Eikonalization of Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Walters, Matthew T; Wang, Junpu

    2015-01-01

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the $t$-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the `eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator $T$ appears in the OPE $\\mathcal{O}(x) \\mathcal{O}(0)$, then the large spin $\\ell$ Fock space states $[TT \\cdots T]_{\\ell}$ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an $\\langle \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\rangle$ correlator build the classical `$T$ field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single $T$ exchange in the 4-pt correlator of $\\mathcal{O}$. Our results should be useful for systematizing $1/\\ell$ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading $\\log \\ell$...

  9. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  10. Spiral CT localization of the point where superior epigastric artery perforates rectus abdominis muscle%对腹壁上动脉穿腹直肌点的螺旋电子计算机断层扫描定位及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳琦; 张金明; 陈宇宏; 冀晨阳

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过应用螺旋电子计算机断层扫描(CT)血管造影对腹壁上动脉进行定位,以评估乳房再造术后其预防供区并发症的意义.方法 对50例无上腹部手术史患者进行螺旋CT血管造影.建立坐标系,以脐为原点,平脐水平线为X轴,脐垂直线为Y轴.在上述坐标系中定位腹壁上动脉穿腹直肌点(下简称穿肌点)的位置.结果 50例患者在CT检测下共发现392个穿肌点,平均每例7.84个穿肌点.第1象限的穿肌点横轴主要分布在1.45~5.47 cm,纵轴主要分布在2.52~16.38 cm.第2象限的穿肌点横轴主要分布在2.02~6.80 cm,纵轴主要分布在2.30~14.46 cm.结论 螺旋CT血管造影具有高度的敏感性和特异性,进行腹壁上动脉穿肌点的定位可以避免术中切取多余的腹直肌,对减少腹壁供区的并发症有很大意义.%Objective To locate the points where the superior epigastric artery perforates the rectus abdominis muscle by using the spiral CT,in order to evaluate its control on abdominal complications after breast reconstruction.Methods Fifty cases had received abdominal spiral CT angiography,respectively.Then the coordinate system was established,with the umbilicus as the origin,the umbilicus horizontal line as X axis,vertical umbilical level line as Y axis.The point where superior epigastric artery perforates the rectus abdominis muscle in the coordinate system was located as described above.Results There were 392 perforating points in the rectus abdominis muscle in all 50 cases,with a mean of 7.84 perforators per patient.In the first quadrant,the points where superior epigastric artery perforate the rectus abdominis muscle were located in the range from 1.45 cm to 5.47 cm on the X axis,and in the range from 2.52 cm to 16.38 cm on the Y axis,respectively.In the second quadrant,the points where superior epigastric artery perforates the rectus abdominis muscle were located in the range from 2.02 cm to 6.80 cm on the X axis,and in

  11. A Miniature Robotic Plane Meteorological Sounding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马舒庆; 陈洪滨; 汪改; 潘毅; 李强

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  12. Are rotating planes of satellite galaxies ubiquitous?

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, John I; Bullock, James S; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We compare the dynamics of satellite galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to simple models in order to test the hypothesis that a large fraction of satellites co-rotate in coherent planes. We confirm the previously-reported excess of co-rotating satellite pairs located near diametric opposition with respect to the host, but show that this signal is unlikely to be due to rotating discs (or planes) of satellites. In particular, no overabundance of co-rotating satellites pairs is observed within $\\sim 20^{\\circ}-50^{\\circ}$ of direct opposition, as would be expected for planar distributions inclined relative to the line-of-sight. Instead, the excess co-rotation for satellite pairs within $\\sim 10^{\\circ}$ of opposition is consistent with random noise associated with undersampling of an underlying isotropic velocity distribution. We conclude that at most $10\\%$ of the hosts in our sample harbor co-rotating satellite planes (as traced by the luminous satellite population).

  13. Optimal plane change by low aerodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Ma, Der-Ming

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the exact dimensionless equations of motion and the necessary conditions for the computation of the optimal trajectories of a hypervelocity vehicle flying through a nonrotating spherical planetary atmosphere. It is shown that there are two types of maneuvers with nearly identical plane change. In the hard maneuver, the vehicle is pulled down to low altitude for aerodyamic plane change before exit at the prescribed final speed. In the slow maneuver which is described in detail in this paper, the vehicle remains in orbital flight with a small incremental plane change during each passage through the perigee. This maneuver requires several revolutions, and the technique for computation is similar to that in the problem of contraction of orbit.

  14. 延伸蒂部的腹直肌肌皮瓣修复颈胸部创面的研究%LENGTHENED PEDICLE OF RECTUS ABDOMINIS FLAP TO REPAIR DEFECT ON NECK AND CHEST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳琦; 张金明; 梁伟强; 冀晨阳; 潘淑娟; 陈宇宏; 高守铨; 姚媛媛

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过CT血管造影(CT angiography,CTA)三维重建测量肋软骨宽度、厚度以及肋间隙距离,探讨采用截断下位肋软骨延伸蒂部的腹直肌肌皮瓣修复颈胸部创面的可行性.方法 以2013年7月-12月行胸部CTA的30例患者作为研究对象,其中男17例,女13例;年龄44~70岁,平均56岁.于CTA三维重建图像上测量第3~7肋软骨宽度、厚度以及第3~6肋肋间隙距离,计算顺序截断第7、6、5、4肋软骨后蒂部延伸长度.2012年7月-2013年11月,采用该方法延长带蒂腹直肌肌皮瓣的蒂部后修复4例颈胸部创面.结果 常规方法切取腹直肌肌皮瓣蒂部长度约为6 cm;按顺序截断左侧第7、6、5、4肋软骨后,皮瓣蒂部可平均延长4.07、7.99、12.50、17.48 cm;按顺序截断右侧第7、6、5、4肋软骨后,皮瓣蒂部平均延长4.63、10.82、16.64、22.05 cm.临床应用4例中,术后3例皮瓣顺利成活,1例皮瓣远端发生部分坏死,经对症处理后成活.除1例失访外,其余3例均获随访6个月,皮瓣外观、质地均较满意.结论 截断下位肋软骨可以延伸带蒂腹直肌肌皮瓣的蒂部,能满足修复颈胸部创面的要求.%Objective To explore the feasibility to repair defect on the neck and chest with the rectus abdominis flap which pedicle is lengthened by measuring the width,thickness,and the intercostal space of the inferior costicartilage using CT angiography (CTA).Methods Thirty cases receiving CTA and three-dimensional reconstruction between July and December 2013 were included in the study.Of 30 cases,17 were male and 13 were female,aged 44-70 years (mean,56 years).The width and thickness of the 3rd to 7th costicarfilages and the distance of the 3rd to 6th intercostal spaces were measured,and the lengthened pedicle was calculated after the 4th to 7th costicartilage was cut off.Between July 2012 and November 2013,the lengthened pedicle of the rectus abdominis flap was clinically used to repair the defect on

  15. Breast reconstruction with the bipedical transverse rectus abdominis%双蒂横行腹直肌肌皮瓣乳房再造术的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖春花; 张学慧; 尹健; 宁连胜

    2006-01-01

    目的探讨乳腺癌根治术后双蒂横行腹直肌肌皮瓣(transverse rectus abdominis musculo-cutaneous flap,TRAM)乳房再造的手术方法及临床应用.方法对5例伴有剖腹产史的乳腺癌患者行双蒂TRAM瓣乳房再造术,术中切取双侧腹直肌作为转移皮瓣的蒂,转移至根治术后胸壁缺损处,塑造乳房外形,采用局部皮瓣再造乳头,游离皮瓣再造乳晕.结果4例患者再造乳房完全成活,形态自然,外形逼真,手感好;1例部分皮瓣坏死,面积3 cm×2 cm.结论双蒂TRAM瓣乳房再造术对有剖宫产史的乳腺癌患者是值得推荐的好方法,并非禁忌证.

  16. Horizons and plane waves: A review

    CERN Document Server

    Hubeny, V E; Hubeny, Veronika E.; Rangamani, Mukund

    2003-01-01

    We review the attempts to construct black hole/string solutions in asymptotically plane wave spacetimes. First, we demonstrate that geometries admitting a covariantly constant null Killing vector cannot admit event horizons, which implies that pp-waves can't describe black holes. However, relaxing the symmetry requirements allows us to generate solutions which do possess regular event horizons while retaining the requisite asymptotic properties. In particular, we present two solution generating techniques and use them to construct asymptotically plane wave black string/brane geometries.

  17. Translation planes foundations and construction principles

    CERN Document Server

    Knarr, Norbert

    1995-01-01

    The book discusses various construction principles for translation planes and spreads from a general and unifying point of view and relates them to the theory of kinematic spaces. The book is intended for people working in the field of incidence geometry and can be read by everyone who knows the basic facts about projective and affine planes. The methods developed work especially well for topological spreads of real and complex vector spaces. In particular, a complete classification of all semifield spreads of finite dimensional complex vector spaces is obtained.

  18. Predicting division plane position and orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minc, Nicolas; Piel, Matthieu

    2012-04-01

    Predicting cellular behavior is a major challenge in cell and developmental biology. Since the late nineteenth century, empirical rules have been formulated to predict the position and orientation of mitotic cleavage planes in plant and animal cells. Here, we review the history of division plane orientation rules and discuss recent experimental and theoretical studies that refine these rules and provide mechanistic insights into how division can be predicted. We describe why some of these rules may better apply to certain cell types and developmental contexts and discuss how they could be integrated in the future to allow the prediction of division positioning in tissues.

  19. Note: A novel integrated microforce measurement system for plane-plane contact research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, W.; Rostoucher, D.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-11-01

    The evaluation of plane-plane contact force has become a big issue in micro-/nano research, for example in microassembly. However with the lack of effective experimental equipments, the research on plane-plane contact has been limited to theoretical formulations or virtual simulation. In this paper, a microforce sensor and precision parallel robot integrated system is proposed for the microforce measurement of plane-plane contact. In the proposed system, the two objects are fixed on the parallel robot end-platform and the microforce sensor probe tip, respectively, and the high precision robot system is employed to provide six degree-of-freedom motions between both objects. So it is convenient for the microforce measurement between the planar objects with different orientations. As a significant application, the proposed system is utilized for measurements of pull-off force between planar objects, in which the validation of the system is demonstrated in practice. The proposed microforce measurement system is generic, which can be extended to a variety of microforce measurements in plane-plane contact.

  20. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  1. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  2. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  3. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  4. Effects of Substrate Interactions on Out-of-Plane Order in Thin Films of Lamellar Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Indranil; Mahadevapuram, Nikhila; Bozhchenko, Alona; Strzalka, Joseph; Stein, Gila E.

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymer (BCP) thin films are widely studied and applied for low cost, large area nanopatterning of semiconductor devices and has a very low tolerance for both in-plane or out of plane defects. Here we study, defects in lamellar diblock copolymers as a function of film thickness and the types of interactions at the substrate interface. Thin films of poly (styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) (PS-PMMA) with equilibrium periodicity 46nm were prepared and annealed on silicon substrates that were functionalized with a random copolymer P(s-r-MMA) brush. The resulting structures were evaluated with optical, scanning force and, scanning electron microscopy, along with grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). The in-plane correlation length (OCL) increased with brush grafting density, and increased with distance from the substrate interface. Out-of-plane order improved with brush grafting density, but thick films always contain a high density of misoriented domains. Based on these findings, we propose that (1) substrate pinning either induces or traps the mis-oriented domains, and (2) out-of-plane orientation defects are difficult to remove, from a thick film, because the energetic penalty for bending a ``tall'' domain is very low. Funding from NHARP and the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston.

  5. Microscale out-of-plane anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang (Inventor); Chen, Jack (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A microscale out-of-plane thermal sensor. A resistive heater is suspended over a substrate by supports raised with respect to the substrate to provide a clearance underneath the resistive heater for fluid flow. A preferred fabrication process for the thermal sensor uses surface micromachining and a three-dimensional assembly to raise the supports and lift the resistive heater over the substrate.

  6. Deep-Plane Lipoabdominoplasty in East Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jun-Young; Hong, Yoon Gi; Sim, Hyung Bo; Sun, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to develop a new surgical technique by combining traditional abdominoplasty with liposuction. This combination of operations permits simpler and more accurate management of various abdominal deformities. In lipoabdominoplasty, the combination of techniques is of paramount concern. Herein, we introduce a new combination of liposuction and abdominoplasty using deep-plane flap sliding to maximize the benefits of both techniques. Methods Deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty was performed in 143 patients between January 2007 and May 2014. We applied extensive liposuction on the entire abdomen followed by a sliding flap through the deep plane after repairing the diastasis recti. The abdominal wound closure was completed with repair of Scarpa's fascia. Results The average amount of liposuction aspirate was 1,400 mL (700–3,100 mL), and the size of the average excised skin ellipse was 21.78×12.81 cm (from 15×10 to 25×15 cm). There were no major complications such as deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. We encountered 22 cases of minor complications: one wound infection, one case of skin necrosis, two cases of undercorrection, nine hypertrophic scars, and nine seromas. These complications were solved by conservative management or simple revision. Conclusions The use of deep-plane lipoabdominoplasty can correct abdominal deformities more effectively and with fewer complications than traditional abdominoplasty. PMID:27462568

  7. Spectral distance on the Moyal plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinetti, Pierre [Universitaet Goettingen (Germany). Courant Centre

    2010-07-01

    We compute the spectral distance, defined in Connes' noncommutative geometry, in the Moyal plane. We find that the distance between the eigenstates m,m+1 of the quantum harmonic oscillator is proportional to m{sup -1/2}. We also show how to truncate the Moyal spectral triple in order to obtain quantum metric spaces in the sense of Rieffel.

  8. MTI Focal Plane Assembly Design and Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, M.; Rienstra, J.L.

    1999-06-17

    The focal plane assembly for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) consists of sensor chip assemblies, optical filters, and a vacuum enclosure. Sensor chip assemblies, composed of linear detector arrays and readout integrated circuits, provide spatial resolution in the cross-track direction for the pushbroom imager. Optical filters define 15 spectral bands in a range from 0.45 {micro}m to 10.7 {micro}m. All the detector arrays are mounted on a single focal plane and are designed to operate at 75 K. Three pairs of sensor chip assemblies (SCAs) are required to provide cross-track coverage in all 15 spectral bands. Each pair of SCAs includes detector arrays made from silicon, iridium antimonide, and mercury cadmium telluride. Read out integrated circuits multiplex the signals from the detectors to 18 separate video channels. Optical filter assemblies defining the spectral bands are mounted over the linear detector arrays. Each filter assembly consists of several filter strips bonded together side-by-side. The MTI focal plane assembly has been integrated with the rest of the payload and has undergone detailed testing and calibration. This paper includes representative test data for the various spectral bands and the overall performance of the focal plane assembly.

  9. Optical interconnections to focal plane arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienstra, J.L.; Hinckley, M.K.

    2000-11-01

    The authors have successfully demonstrated an optical data interconnection from the output of a focal plane array to the downstream data acquisition electronics. The demonstrated approach included a continuous wave laser beam directed at a multiple quantum well reflectance modulator connected to the focal plane array analog output. The output waveform from the optical interconnect was observed on an oscilloscope to be a replica of the input signal. They fed the output of the optical data link to the same data acquisition system used to characterize focal plane array performance. Measurements of the signal to noise ratio at the input and output of the optical interconnection showed that the signal to noise ratio was reduced by a factor of 10 or more. Analysis of the noise and link gain showed that the primary contributors to the additional noise were laser intensity noise and photodetector receiver noise. Subsequent efforts should be able to reduce these noise sources considerably and should result in substantially improved signal to noise performance. They also observed significant photocurrent generation in the reflectance modulator that imposes a current load on the focal plane array output amplifier. This current loading is an issue with the demonstrated approach because it tends to negate the power saving feature of the reflectance modulator interconnection concept.

  10. Corner diffraction coefficients for the quarter plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thorkild B.

    1991-01-01

    The current near a right-angled corner on a perfectly conducting flat scatterer illuminated by a plane wave is expressed as a sum of three currents. The first is the physical optics current, which describes the surface effect. The second is the fringe wave current, which is found from the half-pl...

  11. Nonlinear Inequalities and Entropy-Concurrence Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Bovino, F A

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear inequalities based on the quadratic Renyi entropy for mixed two-qubit states are characterized on the Entropy-Concurrence plane. This class of inequalities is stronger than Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequalities and, in particular, are violated "in toto" by the set of Type I Maximally-Entangled-Mixture States (MEMS I).

  12. Liquid drops sliding down an inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Inwon

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a one-dimensional model describing the motion of liquid drops sliding down an inclined plane (the so-called quasi-static approximation model). We prove existence and uniqueness of a solution and investigate its long time behavior for both homogeneous and inhomogeneous medium (i.e. constant and non-constant contact angle). We also obtain some homogenization results.

  13. Angular Momentum Distribution in the Transverse Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, Lekha

    2016-01-01

    Several possibilities to relate the $t$-dependence of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) to the distribution of angular momentum in the transverse plane are discussed. Using a simple spectator model we demonstrate that non of them correctly describes the orbital angular momentum distribution that for a longitudinally polarized nucleon obtained directly from light-front wavefunctions.

  14. Geometry of the quantum projective plane

    CERN Document Server

    D'Andrea, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We review some of the geometry of the quantum projective plane with emphasis on the construction of a differential calculus and of the Dirac operator (of a spin^c-structure). We also report on anti-self-dual connections on line bundles, the spectrum of the associated Laplacians, and the definition of classical and quantum characteristic classes.

  15. In plane oscillation of a bifilar pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Peter F.

    2016-11-01

    The line tensions, the horizontal and vertical accelerations as well as the period of large angle oscillations parallel to the plane of a bifilar suspension are presented and have been experimentally investigated using strain gauges and a smart phone. This system has a number of advantages over the simple pendulum for studying large angle oscillations, and for measuring the acceleration due to gravity.

  16. Elastic Constants of Plane Orthotropic Elasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The four independent material parameters of plane orthotropic elasti city are introduced as the effective stiffness, the effective Poisson ratio, the stiffness ratio and the shear parameter. It is proved that stress boundary value problems with zero resulting force on internal contours lead to st...

  17. Representation of spectra of algebras of block-symmetric analytic functions of bounded type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravtsiv

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of symmetric convolution of the algebra of block-symmetric analytic functions of bounded type on $\\ell_{1}$-sum of the space $\\mathbb{C}^{2}.$ We show that the specrum of such algebra does not coincide of point evaluation functionals and described characters of the algebra as functions of exponential type with plane zeros.

  18. On building 4-critical plane and projective plane multiwheels from odd wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Zeps, Dainis

    2012-01-01

    We build unbounded classes of plane and projective plane multiwheels that are 4-critical that are received summing odd wheels as edge sums modulo two. These classes can be considered as ascending from single common graph that can be received as edge sum modulo two of the octahedron graph O and the minimal wheel W3. All graphs of these classes belong to 2n-2-edges-class of graphs, among which are those that quadrangulate projective plane, i.e., graphs from Gr\\"otzsch class, received applying Mycielski's Construction to odd cycle.

  19. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-03-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  20. Effect of dislocation blocking on fracture behavior of Al and {alpha}-Fe: a multiscale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noronha, S.J.; Farkas, D

    2004-01-25

    We use a multiscale approach in which results from atomistic simulations are combined with discrete dislocation (DD) dynamics simulations of crack-tip plasticity. The method is used to study the effects of dislocation blocking on the fracture behavior of {alpha}-iron and aluminum. We studied the effects of blocking for distances ranging from 5 nm to 1 mm and find that the fracture resistance is increased with increasing blocking distance. The atomistic and dislocation dynamics simulations show that the blocking of dislocations causes a net decrease in the shear stress projected on the slip plane, preventing further dislocation emission. Semi-brittle cleavage occurs after a certain number of dislocations are emitted, explicitly demonstrating the embrittling effects of dislocation blocking. This effect can contribute to the brittle behavior observed in some nanocrystalline metals.

  1. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment resources...

  2. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  3. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  4. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...

  5. Waveguide metacouplers for in-plane polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Pors, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The state of polarization (SOP) is an inherent property of the vectorial nature of light and a crucial parameter in a wide range of remote sensing applications. Nevertheless, the SOP is rather cumbersome to probe experimentally, as conventional detectors only respond to the intensity of the light, hence loosing the phase information between orthogonal vector components. In this work, we propose a new type of polarimeter that is compact and well-suited for in-plane optical circuitry, while allowing for immediate determination of the SOP through simultaneous retrieval of the associated Stokes parameters. The polarimeter is based on plasmonic phase-gradient birefringent metasurfaces that facilitate normal incident light to launch in-plane photonic waveguide modes propagating in six predefined directions with the coupling efficiencies providing a direct measure of the incident SOP. The functionality and accuracy of the polarimeter, which essentially is an all-polarization sensitive waveguide metacoupler, is confi...

  6. Generalized fractional programming and cutting plane algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, A.; Frenk, J.B.G.

    1994-12-31

    In this presentation we introduce a variant of a cutting plane algorithm and show that this algorithm reduces to the well-known Dinkelbach type procedure of Crouzeix, Ferland and Schaible if our optimization problem is a generalized fractional program. By this observation an easy geometrical interpretation of one of the most important algorithms in generalized fractional programming is obtained. Moreover, it is shown that the convergence of the Dinkelbach type procedure is a direct consequence of the properties of this cutting plane method. Finally, a class of generalized fractional programs is considered where the standard positivity assumption on the denominators of the ratios of the objective function has to be explicitly imposed. It is also shown when using a Dinkelbach type approach for this class of programs that the constraints ensuring the positivity on the denominators can be dropped.

  7. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow

    CERN Document Server

    Zammert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace reveal several interior and exterior crisis bifurcations. They appear in the upper branch that emerges in a saddle-node bifurcation near $Re_{SN}=641$ and then undergoes several bifurcations into a chaotic attractor. Near $Re_{XC}=785.95$ the attractor collides with the lower-branch state and turns into a chaotic saddle in a exterior crisis, with a characteristic $(Re-Re_{XC})^{-\\delta}$ variation in lifetimes. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. They contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space. The exterior crisis marks the onset of transient turbulence in this subspace of plane Poiseuille flow.

  8. Progress on VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Fengchun; Jiang, Wu; McCallum, Jamie; Yi, Sang-oh; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Li, Jinling; Lovell, Jim

    2016-01-01

    We launched the VLBI Ecliptic Plane Survey program in 2015. The goal of this program is to find all compact sources within 7.5 degrees of the ecliptic plane which are suitable as phase calibrators for anticipated phase referencing observations of spacecrafts. We planned to observe a complete sample of the sources brighter than 50 mJy at 5 GHz listed in the PMN and GB6 catalogues that have not yet been observed with VLBI. By April 2016, eight 24-hour sessions have been performed and processed. Among 2227 observed sources, 435 sources were detected in three or more observations. We have also run three 8-hour segments with VLBA for improving positions of 71 ecliptic sources.

  9. Focal Plane Image Assembly of Subpixel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the scanning assembly principle and construction of scanning assembly sample.The factors that affect assembly accuracy are analyzed.There are two steps in CCD focal plane scanning assembly.The first is rough assembly,and the second is accurate assembly.In this paper,the moiré fringe is introduced in judging assembly accuracy directly and accurately.The equation for optical transmission characteristics of CCD Moiré fringes is presented.The measurement of Moiré fringes can be completed when some conditions are satisfied.2D-assembly error can be obtained by using digital correlation filtering technique.Finally,the result of focal plane scanning assembly is presented.The result is in good accordance with theory.

  10. Formal study of plane Delaunay triangulation

    CERN Document Server

    Dufourd, Jean-François

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the formal proof of correctness for a plane Delaunay triangulation algorithm. It consists in repeating a sequence of edge flippings from an initial triangulation until the Delaunay property is achieved. To describe triangulations, we rely on a combinatorial hypermap specification framework we have been developing for years. We embed hypermaps in the plane by attaching coordinates to elements in a consistent way. We then describe what are legal and illegal Delaunay edges and a flipping operation which we show preserves hypermap, triangulation, and embedding invariants. To prove the termination of the algorithm, we use a generic approach expressing that any non-cyclic relation is well-founded when working on a finite set.

  11. Multidimensional Coded Modulation in Block-Fading Channnels

    CERN Document Server

    Fabregas, Albert Guillen i

    2007-01-01

    We study the problem of constructing coded modulation schemes over multidimensional signal sets in Nakagami-$m$ block-fading channels. In particular, we consider the optimal diversity reliability exponent of the error probability when the multidimensional constellation is obtained as the rotation of classical complex-plane signal constellations. We show that multidimensional rotations of full dimension achieve the optimal diversity reliability exponent, also achieved by Gaussian constellations. Multidimensional rotations of full dimension induce a large decoding complexity, and in some cases it might be beneficial to use multiple rotations of smaller dimension. We also study the diversity reliability exponent in this case, which yields the optimal rate-diversity-complexity tradeoff in block-fading channels with discrete inputs.

  12. Fisioterapia para redução da diástase dos músculos retos abdominais no pós-parto Physiotherapy for reduction of diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles in the postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Aparecida Mesquita

    1999-06-01

    reduction in the diastasis of the recti abdominis muscles (DRAM after every treatment session, as well as a relevant reduction when compared to the control group, positively contributing to the earlier recovery of the recti abdominis muscles.

  13. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  14. Microscanner with Vertical out of Plane Combdrive

    OpenAIRE

    Sandner, Thilo; Jung, Denis; Kallweit, David; Grasshoff, T.; Schenk, Harald

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a new concept of quasi-static micro scanning mirrors enabling large static deflections and linearized scanning using vertical out-of-plane comb drives. The vertical combs are realized from a planar scanner substrate by a functionalized wafer bonding process The new device concept is highly flexible by design; different kinds of vertical combs (e. g. staggered and angular) can be realized without changing the process flow. First demonstrator devices are presented: a) quasi-s...

  15. Staring Focal Plane Array System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    mod- eling. This chapter presents background material needed to understand basic Focal Plane Array technology, the linear systems theory commonly... Linear systems theory is commonly used to assess the performance of imaging systems by describing the system’s response to different spatial frequencies...account for the nonlinearities (edge enhancement, adaptive spatial filtering) intro- duced by the eye/brain is not clear. How far can linear systems theory and

  16. STABLE AND UNSTABLE IDEAL PLANE FLOWS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigate the stability of a steady ideal plane flow in an arbitrary domain in terms of the L2 norm of the vorticity. Linear stability implies nonlinear instability provided the growth rate of the linearized system exceeds the Liapunov exponent of the flow. In contrast,a maximizer of the entropy subject to constant energy and mass is stable. This implies the stability of certain solutions of the mean field equation.

  17. Free string evolution across plane wave singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    In these proceedings, we summarize our studies of free string propagation in (near-)singular scale-invariant plane wave geometries. We analyze the singular limit of the evolution for the center-of-mass motion and all excited string modes. The requirement that the entire excitation energy of the string should be finite excludes consistent propagation across the singularity, in case no dimensionful scales are introduced at the singular locus (in an otherwise scale-invariant space-time).

  18. Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields

    OpenAIRE

    Enrico MontanariUniversity of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy; Mirco Calura(University of Ferrara and INFN sezione di Ferrara, Italy)

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exact gravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's general relativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations as a Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to a set of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solution in the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressed our ...

  19. Plane strain problem in microstretch elastic solid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kumar; Ranjit Singh; T K Chadha

    2003-12-01

    The eigenvalue approach is developed for the two-dimensional plane strain problem in a microstretch elastic medium. Applying Laplace and Fourier transforms, an infinite space subjected to a concentrated force is studied. The integral transforms are inverted using a numerical technique to get displacement, force stress, couple stress and first moment, which are also shown graphically. The results of micropolar elasticity are deduced as a special case from the present formulation.

  20. Analytical modeling of PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane electromechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamas, Tuncay; Lin, Bin; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2013-04-01

    This paper discusses theoretical analysis of electro-mechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) of piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS). Both free and constrained PWAS EMIS models are developed for in-plane (lengthwise) and outof plane (thickness wise) mode. The paper starts with the general piezoelectric constitutive equations that express the linear relation between stress, strain, electric field and electric displacement. This is followed by the PWAS EMIS models with two assumptions: 1) constant electric displacement in thickness direction (D3) for out-of-plane mode; 2) constant electric field in thickness direction (E3) for in-plane mode. The effects of these assumptions on the free PWAS in-plane and out-of-plane EMIS models are studied and compared. The effects of internal damping of PWAS are considered in the analytical EMIS models. The analytical EMIS models are verified by Coupled Field Finite Element Method (CF-FEM) simulations and by experimental measurements. The extent of the agreement between the analytical and experimental EMIS results is discussed. The paper ends with summary, conclusions, and suggestions for future work.

  1. Blackfolds, Plane Waves and Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Armas, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid...

  2. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-07-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and compact. We use the blackfold approach in order to scan for possible black hole horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat, plane wave and de Sitter space-times. In the process we uncover several new configurations, such as black helicoids and catenoids, some of which have an asymptotically flat counterpart. In particular, we find that the ultraspinning regime of singly-spinning Myers-Perry black holes, described in terms of the simplest minimal surface (the plane), can be obtained as a limit of a black helicoid, suggesting that these two families of black holes are connected. We also show that minimal surfaces embedded in spheres rather than Euclidean space can be used to construct static compact horizons in asymptotically de Sitter space-times.

  3. Fundamental Plane of Sunyaev-Zeldovich clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Afshordi, Niayesh

    2007-01-01

    Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) cluster surveys are considered among the most promising methods for probing dark energy up to large redshifts. However, their premise is hinged upon an accurate mass-observable relationship, which could be affected by the (rather poorly understood) physics of the intracluster gas. In this letter, using a semi-analytic model of the intracluster gas that accommodates various theoretical uncertainties, I develop a Fundamental Plane relationship between the observed size, thermal energy, and mass of galaxy clusters. In particular, I find that M ~ (Y_{SZ}/R_{SZ,2})^{3/4}, where M is the mass, Y_{SZ} is the total SZ flux or thermal energy, and R_{SZ,2} is the SZ half-light radius of the cluster. I show that, within this model, using the Fundamental Plane relationship reduces the (systematic+random) errors in mass estimates to 14%, from 22% for a simple mass-flux relationship. Since measurement of the cluster sizes is an inevitable part of observing the SZ clusters, the Fundamental Plane rela...

  4. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-12-30

    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  5. High contrast imaging through adaptive transmittance control in the focal plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Rastegar, Jahangir; Feng, Dake

    2016-05-01

    High contrast imaging, in the presence of a bright background, is a challenging problem encountered in diverse applications ranging from the daily chore of driving into a sun-drenched scene to in vivo use of biomedical imaging in various types of keyhole surgeries. Imaging in the presence of bright sources saturates the vision system, resulting in loss of scene fidelity, corresponding to low image contrast and reduced resolution. The problem is exacerbated in retro-reflective imaging systems where the light sources illuminating the object are unavoidably strong, typically masking the object features. This manuscript presents a novel theoretical framework, based on nonlinear analysis and adaptive focal plane transmittance, to selectively remove object domain sources of background light from the image plane, resulting in local and global increases in image contrast. The background signal can either be of a global specular nature, giving rise to parallel illumination from the entire object surface or can be represented by a mosaic of randomly orientated, small specular surfaces. The latter is more representative of real world practical imaging systems. Thus, the background signal comprises of groups of oblique rays corresponding to distributions of the mosaic surfaces. Through the imaging system, light from group of like surfaces, converges to a localized spot in the focal plane of the lens and then diverges to cast a localized bright spot in the image plane. Thus, transmittance of a spatial light modulator, positioned in the focal plane, can be adaptively controlled to block a particular source of background light. Consequently, the image plane intensity is entirely due to the object features. Experimental image data is presented to verify the efficacy of the methodology.

  6. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  7. Simulation Exploration through Immersive Parallel Planes: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunhart-Lupo, Nicholas; Bush, Brian W.; Gruchalla, Kenny; Smith, Steve

    2016-03-01

    We present a visualization-driven simulation system that tightly couples systems dynamics simulations with an immersive virtual environment to allow analysts to rapidly develop and test hypotheses in a high-dimensional parameter space. To accomplish this, we generalize the two-dimensional parallel-coordinates statistical graphic as an immersive 'parallel-planes' visualization for multivariate time series emitted by simulations running in parallel with the visualization. In contrast to traditional parallel coordinate's mapping the multivariate dimensions onto coordinate axes represented by a series of parallel lines, we map pairs of the multivariate dimensions onto a series of parallel rectangles. As in the case of parallel coordinates, each individual observation in the dataset is mapped to a polyline whose vertices coincide with its coordinate values. Regions of the rectangles can be 'brushed' to highlight and select observations of interest: a 'slider' control allows the user to filter the observations by their time coordinate. In an immersive virtual environment, users interact with the parallel planes using a joystick that can select regions on the planes, manipulate selection, and filter time. The brushing and selection actions are used to both explore existing data as well as to launch additional simulations corresponding to the visually selected portions of the input parameter space. As soon as the new simulations complete, their resulting observations are displayed in the virtual environment. This tight feedback loop between simulation and immersive analytics accelerates users' realization of insights about the simulation and its output.

  8. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2007-07-01

    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  9. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  10. In-Plane Elastic Buckling of Arch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    剧锦三; 郭彦林

    2002-01-01

    The in-plane elastic buckling behavior of arches is investigated using a new finite-element approach for the nonlinear analysis. The linear buckling, nonlinear primary buckling, and secondary bifurcation buckling behavior of arches are compared taking into account the large deformation and the effects of initial geometric imperfections or perturbations. The theoretical investigation emphasizes the nonlinear secondary bifurcation buckling behavior for a full span uniformly distributed load. The efficiency of compact method for tracing secondary buckling path is shown through several examples. Finally, a new structural design, which prevents the secondary bifurcation buckling by adding some crossed cables across the arch, is proposed to improve the limit load carrying capacity.

  11. Next Generation Network Routing and Control Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Rong

    proved, the dominating Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) cannot address all the issues that in inter-domain QoS routing. Thus a new protocol or network architecture has to be developed to be able to carry the inter-domain traffic with the QoS and TE consideration. Moreover, the current network control also......-domain. It is a routing component that flexibly supports path computation with different requirements, constraints and areas. It is also can be seen as part of NGN transport control plane, which integrates with the other functions. In the aspect of resource control, an NGN release Resource and Admission Control Functions...

  12. Locating a minisum circle in the plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schöbel, Anita

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities in the plane such that the sum of weighted distances between the circle and the facilities is minimized, i.e., we approximate a set of given points by a circle regarding the sum of weighted distances. If the radius...... of the circle is a variable we show that there always exists an optimal circle passing through two of the existing facilities. For the case of a fixed radius we provide characterizations of optimal circles in special cases. Solution procedures are suggested....

  13. Blackfolds, plane waves and minimal surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Minimal surfaces in Euclidean space provide examples of possible non-compact horizon geometries and topologies in asymptotically flat space-time. On the other hand, the existence of limiting surfaces in the space-time provides a simple mechanism for making these configurations compact. Limiting surfaces appear naturally in a given space-time by making minimal surfaces rotate but they are also inherent to plane wave or de Sitter space-times in which case minimal surfaces can be static and comp...

  14. Conformal field theory on the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Ribault, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    We provide an introduction to conformal field theory on the plane in the conformal bootstrap approach. We introduce the main ideas of the bootstrap approach to quantum field theory, and how they apply to two-dimensional theories with local conformal symmetry. We describe the mathematical structures which appear in such theories, from the Virasoro algebra and its representations, to the BPZ equations and their solutions. As examples, we study a number of models: Liouville theory, (generalized) minimal models, free bosonic theories, the $H_3^+$ model, and the $SU_2$ and $\\widetilde{SL}_2(\\mathbb{R})$ WZW models.

  15. Optimal multiple-pass aeroassisted plane change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Nguyen X.; Ma, Der-Ming

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the exact dimensionless equation of motion and the necessary conditions for the computation of the optimal trajectories of a hypervelocity vehicle flying through a non-rotating spherical planetary atmosphere. Numerical solution is then presented for the case when the vehicle makes several passages through the atmosphere near the perigee of its orbit. While the orbit is slowly contracting, aerodynamic maneuver is performed to obtain the maximum plane change. Several plots were presented to show the optimal variations of the lift coefficient and the bank angle and the various elements of the orbit.

  16. Colliding Plane Waves in String Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, B; Furuta, K; Lin, F L; Chen, Bin; Chu, Chong-Sun; Furuta, Ko; Lin, Feng-Li

    2004-01-01

    We construct colliding plane wave solutions in higher dimensional gravity theory with dilaton and higher form flux, which appears naturally in the low energy theory of string theory. Especially, the role of the junction condition in constructing the solutions is emphasized. Our results not only include the previously known CPW solutions, but also provide a wide class of new solutions that is not known in the literature before. We find that late time curvature singularity is always developed for the solutions we obtained in this paper. This supports the generalized version of Tipler's theorem in higher dimensional supergravity.

  17. Optimizing snake locomotion on an inclined plane

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaolin; Alben, Silas

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model to study the locomotion of snakes on an inclined plane. We determine numerically which snake motions are optimal for two retrograde traveling-wave body shapes---triangular and sinusoidal waves---across a wide range of frictional parameters and incline angles. In the regime of large transverse friction coefficient, we find power-law scalings for the optimal wave amplitudes and corresponding costs of locomotion. We give an asymptotic analysis to show that the optimal snake motions are traveling-wave motions with amplitudes given by the same scaling laws found in the numerics.

  18. Failure Plane Orientations for Fiber Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.M.; DeTeresa, S.J.

    2002-07-12

    Using a recently developed failure theory for transversely isotropic fiber composites, it is shown how the orientation of the failure surface can be determined for transverse tension and compression. Experimental data on failure surface orientations have been obtained for four carbon fiber composite systems based on both thermoplastic and thermosetting matrix materials. Average compression failure planes for the different composite materials were measured to range from 31{sup o} to 38{sup o} from the load axis. Reasonable agreement was obtained between these measured angles and those predicted from application of the new failure theory.

  19. Characterization of DECam focal plane detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, H.Thomas; Angstadt, Robert; Campa, Julia; Cease, Herman; Derylo, Greg; Emes, John H.; Estrada, Juan; Kibik, Donna; Flaugher, Brenna L.; Holland, Steve E.; Jonas, Michelle; /Fermilab /Madrid, CIEMAT /LBL, Berkeley /Argonne /Pennsylvania U.

    2008-06-01

    DECam is a 520 Mpix, 3 square-deg FOV imager being built for the Blanco 4m Telescope at CTIO. This facility instrument will be used for the 'Dark Energy Survey' of the southern galactic cap. DECam has chosen 250 ?m thick CCDs, developed at LBNL, with good QE in the near IR for the focal plane. In this work we present the characterization of these detectors done by the DES team, and compare it to the DECam technical requirements. The results demonstrate that the detectors satisfy the needs for instrument.

  20. National aero-space plane: Flight mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mciver, Duncan E.; Morrell, Frederick R.

    1990-01-01

    The current status and plans of the U.S. National Aero-Space Plane (NASP) program are reviewed. The goal of the program is to develop technology for single stage, hypersonic vehicles which use airbreathing propulsion to fly directly to orbit. The program features an X-30 flight research vehicle to explore altitude-speed regimes not amenable to ground testing. The decision to build the X-30 is now scheduled for 1993, with the first flight in the late 1990's. The flight mechanics, controls, flight management, and flight test considerations for the X-30 are discussed.

  1. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alp Akman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21-84 years. Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78-102°. On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP; instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P0 < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively. Combined correlation is perfect (R[2] = 1 as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component

  2. Femoral bowing plane adaptation to femoral anteversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akman, Alp; Demirkan, Fahir; Sabir, Nuran; Oto, Murat; Yorukoglu, Cagdas; Kiter, Esat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Femoral bowing plane (FBP) is the unattended subject in the literature. More over the femoral shaft with its bowing is neglected in established anteversion determination methods. There is limited information about the relationship between FBP and anteversion. Thus we focused on this subject and hypothesized that there could be an adaptation of FBP to anteversion. Materials and Methods: FBP is determined on three-dimensional solid models derived from the left femoral computerized tomography data of 47 patients which were taken before for another reason and comparatively evaluated with anteversion. There were 20 women and 27 men. The mean age of patients was 56 years (range 21–84 years). Results: The anteversion values were found as the angle between a distal condylar axis (DCA) and femoral neck anteversion axis (FNAA) along an imaginary longitudinal femoral axis (LFA) in the true cranio-caudal view. The FBP was determined as a plane that passes through the centre-points of three pre-determinated sections on the femoral shaft. The angles between DCA, FNAA and FBP were comparatively evaluated. The independent samples t-test was used for statistical analysis. At the end, it was found that FBP lies nearly perpendicular to the anteversion axis for the mean of our sample which is around 89° in females and 93° in males (range 78–102°). On the other hand, FBP does not lie close to the sagittal femoral plane (SFP); instead, there is an average 12.5° external rotation relative to the SFP. FBP is correlated well with anteversion in terms of FBP inclination from SFP and femoral torsion (i.e., angle between FBP and femoral neck anteversion axis (P < 0.001; r = 0.680 and r = −0.682, respectively). Combined correlation is perfect (R2 = 1) as the FBP, SFP, and posterior femoral plane forms a triangle in the cranio-caudal view. Conclusions: We found that FBP adapts to anteversion. As FBP lies close to perpendicularity for the mean, femoral component positioning

  3. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  4. ARC Code TI: X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The X-Plane Communications Toolbox (XPC) is an open source research tool used to interact with the commercial flight simulator software X-Plane. XPC allows users to...

  5. Multiaxial fatigue crack path prediction using critical plane concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Albinmousa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of fatigue crack orientation can be an essential step for estimating fatigue crack path. Critical plane concept is widely used due to its physical basis that fatigue failure is associated with certain plane(s. However, recent investigations suggest that critical plane concept might need revision. In this paper, fatigue experiments that involve careful measurement of fatigue crack were reviewed. Predictions of fatigue crack orientation using critical plane concept were examined. Projected length and angle were used to characterize fatigue crack. Considering the entire fatigue life, this average representation suggests that it is more reasonable to assume the plane of maximum normal strain as the critical plane even though fundamentally the plane of maximum shear strain is more likely to be the critical one at early initiation stage.

  6. The periodic domino problem is undecidable in the hyperbolic plane

    CERN Document Server

    Margenstern, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the periodic tiling problem which was proved undecidable in the Euclidean plane by Yu. Gurevich and I. Koriakov in 1972. Here, we prove that the same problem for the hyperbolic plane is also undecidable.

  7. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  8. Fast & Furious focal-plane wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Korkiakoski, Visa; Doelman, Niek; Kenworthy, Matthew; Otten, Gilles; Verhaegen, Michel

    2014-01-01

    We present two complementary algorithms suitable for using focal-plane measurements to control a wavefront corrector with an extremely high spatial resolution. The algorithms use linear approximations to iteratively minimize the aberrations seen by the focal-plane camera. The first algorithm, Fast & Furious (FF), uses a weak-aberration assumption and pupil symmetries to achieve fast wavefront reconstruction. The second algorithm, an extension to FF, can deal with an arbitrary pupil shape; it uses a Gerchberg-Saxton style error reduction to determine the pupil amplitudes. Simulations and experimental results are shown for a spatial light modulator controlling the wavefront with a resolution of 170 x 170 pixels. The algorithms increase the Strehl ratio from ~0.75 to 0.98-0.99, and the intensity of the scattered light is reduced throughout the whole recorded image of 320 x 320 pixels. The remaining wavefront rms error is estimated to be ~0.15 rad with FF and ~0.10 rad with FF-GS.

  9. The orientation of Listing's Plane in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H; Haslwanter, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    The orientation of Listing's Plane (LP) was examined under one-g and zero-g conditions during parabolic flight. Ten healthy subjects participated in the experiment. In zero-g the orientation of LP was consistently altered. LP elevation was tilted backwards by approx. 10 degrees (p=0.003). The azimuth angles of the left and right eyes also diverged in zero-g, with a statistically significant change (p=0.04) in the vergence angle between 6.1 degrees and 11.8 degrees . A discernible dissociation in torsional eye position was also observed, which proved to be statistically significant (p=0.03). The thickness of LP was found to be of the order of 1 degrees , and was not significantly altered by the transitions between one-g and zero-g. Additional control experiments involving repeated measurements of LP under normal laboratory conditions demonstrated that the parameters of LP remain stable in the individual. The parabolic flight results demonstrate that in contrast to re-orientation in the one-g gravitational field, the elimination of gravity represents a qualitative change for the vestibular and oculomotor systems. It appears that given the lack of voluntary control of ocular torsion, the tonic otolith afferences are instrumental in the stabilisation of torsional eye position and consequently of Listing's Plane. The observed torsional divergence also provides support for the so-called otolith asymmetry hypothesis.

  10. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting II: Isometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the second part of a study of plane transformations using a complex setting. The first part was devoted to homotheties and translations, now attention is turned towards plane isometries. The group theoretic properties of plane isometries are easy to derive and images of classical geometrical objects by these transformations are…

  11. A Nonlinear Stability Theory for Plane Boundary-Layer Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    flows , Poiseuille flows and Couette flows . For example, 3 for plane Polseutlle flow with...published results for plane Poiseuille flow and the Orr-Sonunerfeld solutions for ~lasius flow and a numerical solution of Navier-Stokes flow along a flat...TWO-POINT BOUNDARY-VALUE PROBLEM .......... 21 4. NUMERICAL RESULTS ............................................. 44 4.1 Plane Poiseuille Flow

  12. Sympathetic blocks for visceral cancer pain management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Klepstad, Pal; Kurita, Geana Paula

    2015-01-01

    The neurolytic blocks of sympathetic pathways, including celiac plexus block (CPB) and superior hypogastric plexus block (SHPB) , have been used for years. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence to support the performance of sympathetic blocks in cancer patients with abdominal visceral...

  13. A physical model for measuring thermally-induced block displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakun-Mazor, Dagan; Feldhiem, Aviran; Keissar, Yuval; Hatzor, Yossef H.

    2016-04-01

    A new model for thermally-induced block displacement in discontinuous rock slopes has been recently suggested. The model consists of a discrete block that is separated from the rock mass by a tension crack and rests on an inclined plane. The tension crack is filled with a wedge block or rock fragments. Irreversible block sliding is assumed to develop in response to climatic thermal fluctuations and consequent contraction and expansion of the sliding block material. While a tentative analytical solution for this model is already available, we are exploring here the possibility of obtaining such a permanent, thermally-induced, rock block displacement, under fully controlled conditions at the laboratory, and the sensitivity of the mechanism to geometry, mechanical properties, and temperature fluctuations. A large scale concrete physical model (50x150x60 cm^3) is being examined in a Climate-Controlled Room (CCR). The CCR permits accurate control of ambient temperature from 5 to 45 Celsius degrees. The permanent plastic displacement is being measured using four displacement transducers and a high resolution (29M pixel) visual range camera. A series of thermocouples measure the heating front inside the sliding block, hence thermal diffusivity is evaluated from the measured thermal gradient and heat flow. In order to select the appropriate concrete mixture, the mechanical and thermo-physical properties of concrete samples are determined in the lab. Friction angle and shear stiffness of the sliding interface are determined utilizing a hydraulic, servo-controlled direct shear apparatus. Uniaxial compression tests are performed to determine the uniaxial compressive strength, Young's modulus and Poison's ratio of the intact block material using a stiff triaxial load frame. Thermal conductivity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined experimentally using a self-constructed measuring system. Due to the fact that this experiment is still in progress, preliminary

  14. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  15. Architectures for block Toeplitz systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouras, Ilias; Glentis, George-Othon; Kalouptsidis, Nicholas

    1996-01-01

    In this paper efficient VLSI architectures of highly concurrent algorithms for the solution of block linear systems with Toeplitz or near-to-Toeplitz entries are presented. The main features of the proposed scheme are the use of scalar only operations, multiplications/divisions and additions, and th

  16. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  17. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  18. Dynamical Analysis of Blocking Events: Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations of Covariant Lyapunov Vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schubert, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet stream to the emergence of so-called blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we will test whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. We examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient $\\Delta T$. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blockin...

  19. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Mysore Chandramouli Basappji; Pai, Rohini B; Rao, Raghavendra P

    2013-04-01

    Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner's syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner's syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  20. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  1. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  2. Experimental observation on the analgesic effect of NT on frog rectus abdominis N2 -receptor%中华眼镜蛇神经毒素的活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红瑾; 许云禄; 王少明; 陈燕

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the analgesic effect and the drug-receptor interactions with frog rectus abdominis N2-receptor of the neurotoxin from Naja atra venom( NT). Methods Three model of pain( tail electric stimulation-vocali-zation test ,the hot-plate test ,and writhing responses in mice)were used. The effects of NT on acetylcholine-induced i-solated frog rectus abdoninis were observed. Results NT could dose-dependently raise the pain threshold in hot-plate test in mice and inhibit the writhing reaction induce by acetic acid in mice . The analgesic effect of NT effect at 2 h and peaked at 5 h. NT produced a concentration-dependent parallel shift to the right of dose-response curve of acetylcholine applied exogenously with no change in the maximal asymptotic response. Conclusion NT had a better analgesic effect on the pain due to hot- plate ,acetic acid and electric stimulation. NT was determined as the competitive antagonists of N2 -AChR.%目的:研究中华眼镜蛇神经毒素( NT)的镇痛活性和对离体蛙腹直肌N2-AChR的拮抗作用。方法采用三种模型(电刺激-嘶叫法,热板法,醋酸扭体法)观察NT的镇痛活性,并观察NT对ACh所致蛙离体腹直肌收缩的影响。结果 NT能提高电刺激-嘶叫法,热板法的痛阈,抑制醋酸引起的扭体次数。NT镇痛具有剂量-效应关系,给药后2 h起效,5 h达峰。NT能使ACh引起的蛙腹直肌收缩的量效曲线平行右移。结论 NT对三种致痛模型均有确切的镇痛活性,NT对N2-AChR的拮抗作用为竞争性拮抗。

  3. Error Analysis on Plane-to-Plane Linear Approximate Coordinate Transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Q. F. Zhang; Q. Y. Peng; J. H. Fan

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the error analysis has been done for the linear approximate transformation between two tangent planes in celestial sphere in a simple case. The results demonstrate that the error from the linear transformation does not meet the requirement of high-precision astrometry under some conditions, so the linear approximate transformation should be taken seriously.

  4. Optimal plane changes using third-body forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villac, B F; Scheeres, D J

    2004-05-01

    The fuel optimality of third-body driven plane changes (i.e., plane changes performed by using third-body forces) over one-impulse transfers is investigated numerically and analytically. In particular, the range of third-body driven plane changes that are realizable is shown to be restricted and one impulse must be used in the uncovered regions. However, when third-body driven plane changes are realizable, it is shown that they are always optimal above a certain critical value (about 40 degrees ) that depends on the initial condition. Contour plots of optimal DeltaV values to perform a desired plane changes are given.

  5. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  6. Smart trigger logic for focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, James E; Campbell, David V; Holmes, Michael L; Lovejoy, Robert; Wojciechowski, Kenneth; Kay, Randolph R; Cavanaugh, William S; Gurrieri, Thomas M

    2014-03-25

    An electronic device includes a memory configured to receive data representing light intensity values from pixels in a focal plane array and a processor that analyzes the received data to determine which light values correspond to triggered pixels, where the triggered pixels are those pixels that meet a predefined set of criteria, and determines, for each triggered pixel, a set of neighbor pixels for which light intensity values are to be stored. The electronic device also includes a buffer that temporarily stores light intensity values for at least one previously processed row of pixels, so that when a triggered pixel is identified in a current row, light intensity values for the neighbor pixels in the previously processed row and for the triggered pixel are persistently stored, as well as a data transmitter that transmits the persistently stored light intensity values for the triggered and neighbor pixels to a data receiver.

  7. The Fundamental Plane of Galaxy Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Schäffer, R; Cappi, A; Bernardeau, F

    1993-01-01

    Velocity dispersion $\\sigma$, radius $R$ and luminosity $L$ of elliptical galaxies are known to be related, leaving only two degrees of freedom and defining the so-called ``fundamental plane". In this {\\em Letter} we present observational evidence that rich galaxy clusters exhibit a similar behaviour. Assuming a relation $L \\propto R^{\\alpha}\\sigma^{2 \\beta}$, the best-fit values of $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ are very close to those defined by galaxies. The dispersion of this relation is lower than 10 percent, i.e. significantly smaller than the dispersion observed in the $L-\\sigma$ and $L-R$ relations. We briefly suggest some possible implications on the spread of formation times of objects and on peculiar velocities of galaxy clusters.

  8. Crisis bifurcations in plane Poiseuille flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zammert, Stefan; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Many shear flows follow a route to turbulence that has striking similarities to bifurcation scenarios in low-dimensional dynamical systems. Among the bifurcations that appear, crisis bifurcations are important because they cause global transitions between open and closed attractors, or indicate drastic increases in the range of the state space that is covered by the dynamics. We here study exterior and interior crisis bifurcations in direct numerical simulations of transitional plane Poiseuille flow in a mirror-symmetric subspace. We trace the state space dynamics from the appearance of the first three-dimensional exact coherent structures to the transition from an attractor to a chaotic saddle in an exterior crisis. For intermediate Reynolds numbers, the attractor undergoes several interior crises, in which new states appear and intermittent behavior can be observed. The bifurcations contribute to increasing the complexity of the dynamics and to a more dense coverage of state space.

  9. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long

    2012-09-01

    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  10. Ion distributions in plane and cylindrical chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R; George, E P

    1975-11-01

    The ion chamber equations of Thomson include both ion recombination and space-charge terms. Neglecting the space-charge term, an exact solution is obtained for the ion densities across a plane ionization chamber. The method is extended to the cylindrical chamber, and examples are given of the expected ion distributions in both geometries. Current-voltage relationships are derived for both chambers and compared with those of other workers. If the space-charge term is retained, the ion chamber equations for both geometries are not soluble in closed form. The cylindrical chamber is considered and a computer solution is obtained for the ion distributions and current. Comparison with the nonspace-charge solution shows that while there is only a small difference in the current-voltage relationship, a significant difference can occur in the ion concentrations.

  11. Exact plane gravitational waves and electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, E; Montanari, Enrico; Calura, Mirco

    2000-01-01

    The behaviour of a "test" electromagnetic field in the background of an exactgravitational plane wave is investigated in the framework of Einstein's generalrelativity. We have expressed the general solution to the de Rham equations asa Fourier-like integral. In the general case we have reduced the problem to aset of ordinary differential equations and have explicitly written the solutionin the case of linear polarization of the gravitational wave. We have expressedour results by means of Fermi Normal Coordinates (FNC), which define the properreference frame of the laboratory. Moreover we have provided some "gedankenexperiments", showing that an external gravitational wave induces measurableeffects of non tidal nature via electromagnetic interaction. Consequently it isnot possible to eliminate gravitational effects on electromagnetic field, evenin an arbitrarily small spatial region around an observer freely falling in thefield of a gravitational wave. This is opposite to the case of mechanicalinteraction invo...

  12. Plane wave fast color flow mode imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Ibrahim; Udesen, Jesper; Gran, Fredrik

    2006-01-01

    A new Plane wave fast color flow imaging method (PWM) has been investigated, and performance evaluation of the PWM based on experimental measurements has been made. The results show that it is possible to obtain a CFM image using only 8 echo-pulse emissions for beam to flow angles between 45...... degrees and 75 degrees. Compared to the conventional ultrasound imaging the frame rate is similar to 30 - 60 times higher. The bias, B-est of the velocity profile estimate, based on 8 pulse-echo emissions, is between 3.3% and 6.1% for beam to flow angles between 45 degrees and 75 degrees, and the standard....... It is hereby shown that, by carefully choosing the set of parameters, PWM is feasible for fast CFM imaging with an acceptable bias and standard deviation....

  13. Hypersonic characteristics of an advanced aerospace plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccandless, R. S.; Cruz, C. I.

    1985-01-01

    A series of hypersonic wind-tunnel tests have been conducted in the NASA Langley Hypersonic Facilities Complex to obtain the static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics of an advanced aerospace plane. Data were obtained at 0 to 20 deg angles of attack and -3 to 3 deg angles of sideslip at Mach numbers of 6 and 10 in air and 20 in helium. Results show that stable trim capability exists at angles of attack near maximum lift-drag ratio (L/D). Both performance and stability exhibited some Mach number dependency. The vehicle was longitudinally unstable at low angles of attack but stable at angles of attack near and above maximum L/D. It was directionally unstable with positive dihedral effect. The rudder showed an inability to provide lateral-directional control, and removing the vertical tail resulted in increased directional instability. Analytical predictions of the static longitudinal aerodynamic coefficients gave relatively good comparisons with the experimental data.

  14. Optics in a nonlinear gravitational plane wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Abraham I.

    2015-09-01

    Gravitational waves can act like gravitational lenses, affecting the observed positions, brightnesses, and redshifts of distant objects. Exact expressions for such effects are derived here in general relativity, allowing for arbitrarily-moving sources and observers in the presence of plane-symmetric gravitational waves. At least for freely falling sources and observers, it is shown that the commonly-used predictions of linear perturbation theory can be generically overshadowed by nonlinear effects; even for very weak gravitational waves, higher-order perturbative corrections involve secularly-growing terms which cannot necessarily be neglected when considering observations of sufficiently distant sources. Even on more moderate scales where linear effects remain at least marginally dominant, nonlinear corrections are qualitatively different from their linear counterparts. There is a sense in which they can, for example, mimic the existence of a third type of gravitational wave polarization.

  15. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Zero-field spin-transfer oscillators combining in-plane and out-of-plane magnetized layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowley, Ciarán; Sluka, Volker; Bernert, Kerstin; Lindner, Jürgen; Fassbender, Jürgen; Rippard, William H.; Pufall, Matthew R.; Russek, Stephen E.; Deac, Alina M.

    2014-04-01

    Excited magnetization dynamics in a spin-valve device consisting of an in-plane polarizer and an out-of-plane free layer were studied numerically. In the case where the free layer is assumed to lack any in-plane anisotropy components, a finite external field is required to generate steady-state dynamics, in agreement with previous reports. We demonstrate that this constraint can be removed and precession can be stabilized in zero applied field by introducing an additional in-plane anisotropy axis. Moreover, the in-plane anisotropy offers an additional degree of freedom for tuning the frequency response of the device.

  17. Graphs obtained from collections of blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colton Magnant

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Given a collection of $d$-dimensional rectangular solids called blocks, no two of which sharing interior points, construct a block graph by adding a vertex for each block and an edge if the faces of the two corresponding blocks intersect nontrivially.  It is known that if $d \\geq 3$, such block graphs can have arbitrarily large chromatic number.  We prove that the chromatic number can be bounded with only a mild restriction on the sizes of the blocks.  We also show that block graphs of block configurations arising from partitions of $d$-dimensional hypercubes into sub-hypercubes are at least $d$-connected.  Bounds on the diameter and the hamiltonicity of such block graphs are also discussed.

  18. High performance word level sequential and parallel coding methods and architectures for bit plane coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG ChengYi; TIAN JinWen; LIU Jian

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced a novel high performance algorithm and VLSI architectures for achieving bit plane coding (BPC) in word level sequential and parallel mode. The proposed BPC algorithm adopts the techniques of coding pass prediction and par-allel & pipeline to reduce the number of accessing memory and to increase the ability of concurrently processing of the system, where all the coefficient bits of a code block could be coded by only one scan. A new parallel bit plane architecture (PA) was proposed to achieve word-level sequential coding. Moreover, an efficient high-speed architecture (HA) was presented to achieve multi-word parallel coding. Compared to the state of the art, the proposed PA could reduce the hardware cost more efficiently, though the throughput retains one coefficient coded per clock. While the proposed HA could perform coding for 4 coefficients belonging to a stripe column at one intra-clock cycle, so that coding for an N×N code-block could be completed in approximate N2/4 intra-clock cycles. Theoretical analysis and ex-perimental results demonstrate that the proposed designs have high throughput rate with good performance in terms of speedup to cost, which can be good alter-natives for low power applications.

  19. Experimental and numerical response of rigid slender blocks with geometrical defects under seismic excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathey Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigates on the influence of small geometrical defects on the behavior of slender rigid blocks. A comprehensive experimental campaign was carried out on one of the shake tables of CEA/Saclay in France. The tested model was a massive steel block with standard manufacturing quality. Release, free oscillations tests as well as shake table tests revealed a non-negligible out-of-plane motion even in the case of apparently plane initial conditions or excitations. This motion exhibits a highly reproducible part for a short duration that was used to calibrate a numerical geometrically asymmetrical model. The stability of this model when subjected to 2 000 artificial seismic horizontal bidirectional signals was compared to the stability of a symmetrical one. This study showed that the geometrical imperfections slightly increase the rocking and overturning probabilities under bidirectional seismic excitations in a narrow range of peak ground acceleration.

  20. Design of corrugated-horn-coupled MKID focal plane for CMB B-mode polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekimoto, Yutaro; Sekiguchi, Shigeyuki; Shu, Shibo; Sekine, Masakazu; Nitta, Tom; Naruse, Masato; Dominjon, Agnes; Hasebe, Takashi; Shan, Wenlei; Noguchi, Takashi; Miyachi, Akihira; Mita, Makoto; Kawasaki, Shigeo

    2016-07-01

    A focal plane based on MKID has been designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization experiments. We are designing and developing a focal plane with broadband corrugated horn array, planar OMT, 180 degree hybrid, bandpass filters, and MKIDs. The focal plane consists of 3 octave bands (55 - 108 GHz, 80 - 160 GHz, 160 - 320 GHz), 10 hexagonal modules. Broadband corrugated horn-array has been directly machined from an Al block and measured to have a good beam shape which is consistent with electromagnetic field simulations in octave bands. The horn array is designed to be low standing-wave, light weight, and electromagnetic shield. The broadband 4 probes ortho-mode transducer (OMT) is fabricated on Si membrane of an SOI wafer. A broadband 180 degree hybrid made with coplanar waveguide (CPW) is used to reduce higher modes of the circular waveguide. Two bandpass filters of each polarization are patterned with Nb microstrip. A prototype of the broadband corrugated horn coupled MKIDs has been fabricated and tested.

  1. Dynamical Analysis of Blocking Events: Spatial and Temporal Fluctuations of Covariant Lyapunov Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Sebastian; Lucarini, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    One of the most relevant weather regimes in the mid latitudes atmosphere is the persistent deviation from the approximately zonally symmetric jet stream to the emergence of so-called blocking patterns. Such configurations are usually connected to exceptional local stability properties of the flow which come along with an improved local forecast skills during the phenomenon. It is instead extremely hard to predict onset and decay of blockings. Covariant Lyapunov Vectors (CLVs) offer a suitable characterization of the linear stability of a chaotic flow, since they represent the full tangent linear dynamics by a covariant basis which explores linear perturbations at all time scales. Therefore, we will test whether CLVs feature a signature of the blockings. We examine the CLVs for a quasi-geostrophic beta-plane two-layer model in a periodic channel baroclinically driven by a meridional temperature gradient ΔT. An orographic forcing enhances the emergence of localized blocked regimes. We detect the blocking events of the channel flow with a Tibaldi-Molteni scheme adapted to the periodic channel. When blocking occurs, the global growth rates of the fastest growing CLVs are significantly higher. Hence against intuition, globally the circulation is more unstable in blocked phases. Such an increase in the finite time Lyapunov exponents with respect to the long term average is attributed to stronger barotropic and baroclinic conversion in the case of high temperature gradients, while for low values of ΔT, the effect is only due to stronger barotropic instability. For the localization of the CLVs, we compare the meridionally averaged variance of the CLVs during blocked and unblocked phases. We find that on average the variance of the CLVs is clustered around the center of blocking. These results show that the blocked flow affects all time scales and processes described by the CLVs.

  2. Proposal of probability block theory for the purpose of information working of large-scale underground cavity; Daikibo chika kudo no johoka seko wo mokuteki to shita kakuritsu block riron no teian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mito, Y.; Kito, T.; Kikuchi, H. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-01-05

    For the purpose of information working of the large-scale underground cavity, such as underground cavity for underground power plant and underground cavity for fuel storage, this paper proposes a probability block theory, by which the mobility of base rock blocks can be evaluated. For the search of blocks having mobility, the discontinuous plane is assumed to be a complete flat having sufficient extent in the base rock. The discontinuous plane and the excavating surface can be expressed by the strike and dip. The discontinuous plane in this paper is joint. Applicability of the probability block theory has been examined by using a probability model of joint distribution. Validity of this method could be confirmed by the simulation. For the probability block theory, information of state of joint distribution is accumulated with progressing the excavation. With accumulation of the information, the estimation accuracy of analyzed values can be expected to be improved. This paper focuses on the excavation in the horizontal direction. It was suggested that the proposed theory can be also applied to the excavation in the vertical direction. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  3. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  4. Hybrid Inflation in the Complex Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Buchmuller, Wilfried; Kamada, Kohei; Schmitz, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane---an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the delta-N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often time...

  5. Hybrid inflation in the complex plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.

    2014-07-01

    Supersymmetric hybrid inflation is an exquisite framework to connect inflationary cosmology to particle physics at the scale of grand unification. Ending in a phase transition associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking, it can naturally explain the generation of entropy, matter and dark matter. Coupling F-term hybrid inflation to soft supersymmetry breaking distorts the rotational invariance in the complex inflaton plane — an important fact, which has been neglected in all previous studies. Based on the δ N formalism, we analyze the cosmological perturbations for the first time in the full two-field model, also taking into account the fast-roll dynamics at and after the end of inflation. As a consequence of the two-field nature of hybrid inflation, the predictions for the primordial fluctuations depend not only on the parameters of the Lagrangian, but are eventually fixed by the choice of the inflationary trajectory. Recognizing hybrid inflation as a two-field model resolves two shortcomings often times attributed to it: the fine-tuning problem of the initial conditions is greatly relaxed and a spectral index in accordance with the PLANCK data can be achieved in a large part of the parameter space without the aid of supergravity corrections. Our analysis can be easily generalized to other (including large-field) scenarios of inflation in which soft supersymmetry breaking transforms an initially single-field model into a multi-field model.

  6. Avalanche dynamics on a rough inclined plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Halsey, Thomas C; Ecke, Robert E

    2008-07-01

    The avalanche behavior of gravitationally forced granular layers on a rough inclined plane is investigated experimentally for different materials and for a variety of grain shapes ranging from spherical beads to highly anisotropic particles with dendritic shape. We measure the front velocity, area, and height of many avalanches and correlate the motion with the area and height. We also measure the avalanche profiles for several example cases. As the shape irregularity of the grains is increased, there is a dramatic qualitative change in avalanche properties. For rough nonspherical grains, avalanches are faster, bigger, and overturning in the sense that individual particles have down-slope speeds u p that exceed the front speed uf as compared with avalanches of spherical glass beads that are quantitatively slower and smaller and where particles always travel slower than the front speed. There is a linear increase of three quantities: (i) dimensionless avalanche height, (ii) ratio of particle to front speed, and (iii) the growth rate of avalanche speed with increasing avalanche size with increasing tan theta r where theta r is the bulk angle of repose, or with increasing beta P, the slope of the depth averaged flow rule, where both theta r and beta P reflect the grain shape irregularity. These relations provide a tool for predicting important dynamical properties of avalanches as a function of grain shape irregularity. A relatively simple depth-averaged theoretical description captures some important elements of the avalanche motion, notably the existence of two regimes of this motion.

  7. A Cool Tool for Deicing Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Nicknamed the "ice zapper," the Electro Expulsive Separation System (EESS) is an aircraft ice removal system that "pulverizes ice and removes layers of ice as thin as frost or as thick as an inch of glaze," according to the principle inventor of the technology. Patented by NASA's Ames Research Center, the EESS consists of layers of conductors encased in materials that are bonded directly to the airframe structure. When ice accumulates on the aircraft, an electric current is sent through the conductors, causing them to pulse. Even though the conductors move less than a twenty-thousandth of an inch in just a millisecond, the movement is sufficient to pulverize the ice. It is this highly accelerated motion that shatters the ice into particles the size of table salt; too small to be harmful to the aircraft. When compared with other systems in use, such as thermal deicers and pneumatic boots, the ice zapper does very well. Thermal deicers are fairly common, although they use an enormous amount of energy and present the possibility of ice refreezing. Pneumatic boots are not always effective because they require an inflation device that is unable to work until a quarter inch of ice has accumulated. With both systems, the ice that is loosened may still be large enough to cause problems for the plane once dislodged.

  8. NASA's Orbital Space Plane Risk Reduction Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbacher, Dan

    2003-01-01

    This paper documents the transformation of NASA s Space Launch Initiative (SLI) Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Program under the revised Integrated Space Transportation Plan, announced November 2002. Outlining the technology development approach followed by the original SLI, this paper gives insight into the current risk-reduction strategy that will enable confident development of the Nation s first orbital space plane (OSP). The OSP will perform an astronaut and contingency cargo transportation function, with an early crew rescue capability, thus enabling increased crew size and enhanced science operations aboard the International Space Station. The OSP design chosen for full-scale development will take advantage of the latest innovations American industry has to offer. The OSP Program identifies critical technologies that must be advanced to field a safe, reliable, affordable space transportation system for U.S. access to the Station and low-Earth orbit. OSP flight demonstrators will test crew safety features, validate autonomous operations, and mature thermal protection systems. Additional enabling technologies may be identified during the OSP design process as part of an overall risk-management strategy. The OSP Program uses a comprehensive and evolutionary systems acquisition approach, while applying appropriate lessons learned.

  9. Elasticplastic discs under plane stress conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandrov, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    This Volume presents a unified approach to calculate the plane stress distribution of stress and strain in thin elastic/plastic discs subject to various loading conditions. There is a vast amount of literature on analytical and semi-analytical solutions for such discs obeying Tresca’s yield criterion and its associated flow rule. On the other hand, most of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for Mises yield criterion are based on the deformation theory of plasticity. A distinguished feature of the solutions given in the present volume is that the flow theory of plasticity and Mises yield criterion are adopted. The solutions are semi-analytical in the sense that numerical methods are only necessary to evaluate ordinary integrals and solve transcendental equations. The book shows that under certain conditions solutions based on the deformation and flow theories of plasticity coincide. All the solutions are illustrated with numerical examples. The goal of the book is to provide the reader with a vision an...

  10. Collaborative Search on the Plane without Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Feinerman, Ofer; Lotker, Zvi; Sereni, Jean-Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    We use distributed computing tools to provide a new perspective on the behavior of cooperative biological ensembles. We introduce the Ants Nearby Treasure Search (ANTS) problem, a generalization of the classical cow-path problem, which is relevant for collective foraging in animal groups. In the ANTS problem, k identical (probabilistic) agents, initially placed at some central location, collectively search for a treasure in the two-dimensional plane. The treasure is placed at a target location by an adversary and the goal is to find it as fast as possible as a function of both k and D, where D is the distance between the central location and the target. This is biologically motivated by cooperative, central place foraging, such as performed by ants around their nest. In this type of search there is a strong preference to locate nearby food sources before those that are further away. We focus on trying to find what can be achieved if communication is limited or altogether absent. Indeed, to avoid overlaps agen...

  11. Head rotation and sound image localization in the median plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2005-01-01

    The effect of head rotation on median plane sound source (or image) localization is studied. It is suggested that, at low frequency, the change of interaural time difference (ITD) caused by head rotation supplies information for determining sound source direction in the median plane. Based on the suggestion, the summed sound image localization equations for multiple loudspeakers arranged in the median plane are derived. Especially, for a pair of loudspeakers arranged front-back symmetrically in the median plane, the localization equations are similar to that of stereophonic sound in horizontal plane. A sound image localization experiment was carried out to prove the theoretical analysis. The results of this paper are not only available to virtual spatial auditory, but also supply a quantitative validation of the hypothesis that head rotation is a cue for sound source localization in the median plane at low frequency.

  12. Phase measurement profilometry based on a virtual reference plane method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongbing; Lee, Jinlong; Gao, Xiaorong

    2016-09-01

    In Phase Measurement Profilometry(PMP), the setting of the reference plane plays an important role. It is a critical step to capture the grating fringe projected onto the reference plane in PMP. However, it is sometimes difficult to choose and place the reference plane in practical applications. In this paper, a virtual reference plane is introduced into PMP, with which 3D measurement can be realized without using the physical reference plane. The virtual reference plane is generated through extracting a partial area of the deformed fringe image that corresponds to a planar region and employing the interpolation algorithm. The method is proved theoretically through simulation experiments, providing a new suggestion for actual measurement by PMP.

  13. Optimization of Bit Plane Combination for Efficient Digital Image Watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Kejgir, Sushma

    2009-01-01

    In view of the frequent multimedia data transfer authentication and protection of images has gained importance in todays world. In this paper we propose a new watermarking technique, based on bit plane, which enhances robustness and capacity of the watermark, as well as maintains transparency of the watermark and fidelity of the image. In the proposed technique, higher strength bit plane of digital signature watermark is embedded in to a significant bit plane of the original image. The combination of bit planes (image and watermark) selection is an important issue. Therefore, a mechanism is developed for appropriate bit plane selection. Ten different attacks are selected to test different alternatives. These attacks are given different weightings as appropriate to user requirement. A weighted correlation coefficient for retrieved watermark is estimated for each of the alternatives. Based on these estimated values optimal bit plane combination is identified for a given user requirement. The proposed method is ...

  14. Hillslope-derived blocks retard river incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobe, Charles M.; Tucker, Gregory E.; Anderson, Robert S.

    2016-05-01

    The most common detachment-limited river incision models ignore the effects of sediment on fluvial erosion, yet steep reaches of mountain rivers often host clusters of large (>1 m) blocks. We argue that this distribution of blocks is a manifestation of an autogenic negative feedback in which fast vertical river incision steepens adjacent hillslopes, which deliver blocks to the channel. Blocks inhibit incision by shielding the bed and enhancing form drag. We explore this feedback with a 1-D channel-reach model in which block delivery by hillslopes depends on the river incision rate. Results indicate that incision-dependent block delivery can explain the block distribution in Boulder Creek, Colorado. The proposed negative feedback may significantly slow knickpoint retreat, channel adjustment, and landscape response compared to rates predicted by current theory. The influence of hillslope-derived blocks may complicate efforts to extract base level histories from river profiles.

  15. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster...

  16. A HIGH-PERFORMANCE VLSI ARCHITECTURE OF EBCOT BLOCK CODING IN JPEG2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Kai; Wu Chengke; Li Yunsong

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a new architecture composed of bit plane-parallel coder for Embedded Block Coding with Optimized Truncation (EBCOT) entropy encoder used in JPEG2000. In the architecture, the coding information of each bit plane can be obtained simultaneously and processed parallel. Compared with other architectures, it has advantages of high parallelism, and no waste clock cycles for a single point. The experimental results show that it reduces the processing time about 86% than that of bit plane sequential scheme. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) prototype chip is designed and simulation results show that it can process 512×512 gray-scaled images with more than 30 frames per second at 52MHz.

  17. Context based Coding of Quantized Alpha Planes for Video Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aghito, Shankar Manuel; Forchhammer, Søren

    2002-01-01

    In object based video, each frame is a composition of objects that are coded separately. The composition is performed through the alpha plane that represents the transparency of the object. We present an alternative to MPEG-4 for coding of alpha planes that considers their specific properties....... Comparisons in terms of rate and distortion are provided, showing that the proposed coding scheme for still alpha planes is better than the algorithms for I-frames used in MPEG-4....

  18. Novel CCD image processor for Z-plane architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, S. E.; Eid, E.-S.; Fossum, E. R.

    1989-09-01

    The use of charge-coupled device (CCD) circuits in Z-plane architectures for focal-plane image processing is discussed. The low-power, compact layout nature of CCDs makes them attractive for Z-plane application. Three application areas are addressed: non-uniformity compensation using CCD MDAC circuits, neighborhood image processing functions implemented with CCD circuits, and the use of CCDs for buffering multiple image frames. Such buffering enables spatial-temporal image transformation for lossless compression.

  19. Loads and responses for planing craft in waves

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and numerical analysis of loads and responses for planing craft in waves is considered. Extensive experiments have been performed on a planing craft, in full-scale as well as in model scale. The test set-ups and significant results are reviewed. The required resolution in experiments on planing craft in waves, concerning sampling frequencies, filtering and pressure transducer areas, is investigated. The aspects of peak identification in transient signals, fitting of analytical cu...

  20. Auditory spatial resolution in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, D Wesley; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y; Erpenbeck, Eric A

    2003-08-01

    Minimum audible angle (MAA) and minimum audible movement angle (MAMA) thresholds were measured for stimuli in horizontal, vertical, and diagonal (60 degrees) planes. A pseudovirtual technique was employed in which signals were recorded through KEMAR's ears and played back to subjects through insert earphones. Thresholds were obtained for wideband, high-pass, and low-pass noises. Only 6 of 20 subjects obtained wideband vertical-plane MAAs less than 10 degrees, and only these 6 subjects were retained for the complete study. For all three filter conditions thresholds were lowest in the horizontal plane, slightly (but significantly) higher in the diagonal plane, and highest for the vertical plane. These results were similar in magnitude and pattern to those reported by Perrott and Saberi [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 87, 1728-1731 (1990)] and Saberi and Perrott [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 88, 2639-2644 (1990)], except that these investigators generally found that thresholds for diagonal planes were as good as those for the horizontal plane. The present results are consistent with the hypothesis that diagonal-plane performance is based on independent contributions from a horizontal-plane system (sensitive to interaural differences) and a vertical-plane system (sensitive to pinna-based spectral changes). Measurements of the stimuli recorded through KEMAR indicated that sources presented from diagonal planes can produce larger interaural level differences (ILDs) in certain frequency regions than would be expected based on the horizontal projection of the trajectory. Such frequency-specific ILD cues may underlie the very good performance reported in previous studies for diagonal spatial resolution. Subjects in the present study could apparently not take advantage of these cues in the diagonal-plane condition, possibly because they did not externalize the images to their appropriate positions in space or possibly because of the absence of a patterned visual field.

  1. Information Model for Resource of ASON Control Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yun-bin; SONG Hong-sheng; GUI Xuan; ZHANG Jie; GU Wan-yi

    2004-01-01

    Automatic Switched Optical network (ASON) is the key technology for the next generation optical networks, and the recommendations for ASON were also developed by ITU-T. However, the recommendations for the management plane have not been made yet. In this paper, the management information model for the resources of control plane is proposed based on the management requirements of ASON for the first time. The managed objects for control plane could be used for the management of control Network Elements(NEs) and control channels, they can also be used for route areas division in control plane, parameter configuration and performance inspection for the control modules in a control NEs.

  2. The plane wave spectrum representation of electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clemmow, P C

    1966-01-01

    The Plane Wave Spectrum Representation of Electromagnetic Fields presents the theory of the electromagnetic field with emphasis to the plane wave. This book explains how fundamental electromagnetic fields can be represented by the superstition of plane waves traveling in different directions. Organized into two parts encompassing eight chapters, this book starts with an overview of the methods whereby plane wave spectrum representation can be used in attacking different characteristic problems belonging to the theories of radiation, diffraction, and propagation. This book then discusses the co

  3. Practical Binary Adaptive Block Coder

    CERN Document Server

    Reznik, Yuriy A

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes design of a low-complexity algorithm for adaptive encoding/ decoding of binary sequences produced by memoryless sources. The algorithm implements universal block codes constructed for a set of contexts identified by the numbers of non-zero bits in previous bits in a sequence. We derive a precise formula for asymptotic redundancy of such codes, which refines previous well-known estimate by Krichevsky and Trofimov, and provide experimental verification of this result. In our experimental study we also compare our implementation with existing binary adaptive encoders, such as JBIG's Q-coder, and MPEG AVC (ITU-T H.264)'s CABAC algorithms.

  4. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  5. Writer's block in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sy-Ying; Krashen, Stephen

    2003-10-01

    To assess whether writer's block occurs in languages other than English, a Chinese language translation of Rose's Writer's Block questionnaire was administered to 98 university students in Taiwan. Analysis suggests that writer's block occurs for Chinese students, and, as in English, it is related to premature editing and to a lack of strategies for dealing with complex writing tasks.

  6. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block leng...

  7. The Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Dan P.; Pinnick, A. F.; Pavel, M. D.; Taylor, B. W.

    2012-06-01

    The scientific motivation, data collection strategy, data reduction, and analysis methods are presented for the Galactic Plane Infrared Polarization Survey (GPIPS). The chief goal for the Survey was to reveal the nature of the magnetic field threading the Galactic disk, in particular through regions of low to moderate extinction (1-20 mag of AV ) and star formation in the cool interstellar medium. The Survey region spans 76 deg2 of the northern Milky Way disk, from l = 18° to 56° and b =-1° to +1°. Linear polarimetric imaging observations began in 2006 in the near-infrared H band (1.6 μm) using the Mimir instrument on the 1.8 m Perkins telescope, located outside Flagstaff, AZ. Mimir used a cold, fixed wire grid and a rotateable cold, compound half-wave plate to obtain "step-and-integrate" polarimetry over its full 10 × 10 arcmin field of view. The GPIPS bright and faint polarimetric limits are approximately 7th and 15th mag, respectively, set by saturation and photon noise. Polarimetric uncertainties track with stellar magnitude, from about 0.1% to 25%, on average, from the brightest to faintest stars. Across the 3237 field GPIPS region, approximately 0.5 million stars are estimated to show detectable linear polarization (P/σ P > 3); most of these have mH < 12. This represents many orders of magnitude improvement in the number of polarization measurements across this region. GPIPS observations are more than 90% complete and should finish in 2012.

  8. Fascia iliaca block, for fractured femur, in Emergency Departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Majeed*

    2013-12-01

    Discussion: We have traditionally been using opiates for severe pain but they don’t come without side effects, especially the elderly group takes most of the blow. As discussed above, NOF fracture makes a significant number of patients presenting to ED. Therefore having a non-opiates based pain relief like FIB, makes it very useful. The above papers suggest a beneficial role of ultrasound guided FIB in femoral fractures either as an alternative or adjunct to the routinely used analgesia. Evidence suggests that the placement of local anaesthetic in the wrong plane will reduce the success of any regional anaesthetic technique. The use of ultrasound guidance will permit the identification of the fascia iliaca and neurovascular bundle. It will also provide help in the needle guidance and direct observation of local anaesthetic spread in real time. Therefore the chances of effective block are extremely high when done under ultrasound guidance.

  9. Reinvestigation of the Block Copolymer Modulated Lamellar Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.; Vigild, Martin Etchells

    2009-01-01

    We report extended crystallographic studies on shear-aligned block copolymer systems within the metastable modulated lamellae (ML) state. With studies limited to the "classical" orientations parallel and perpendicular to shear plane, the apparent modulated state would likely have been assigned...... simple lamellar. Surprisingly, upon rotating the sample to intermediate angles additional scattering reflections appear, which reveal the apparent ML phase much beyond what was expected. The modulated structure is a slightly distorted fcc structure. With the sample sheared at relatively low temperature......, presumably below the stable gyroid phase. we find a very well resolved ML texture corresponding to a simple twin structure of the distorted fcc structure. When shear-aligned within the hexagonal cylinder phase, and quenced to the gyroid phase or slightly below. we find ML alignment into a two...

  10. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  11. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  12. System Synthesis for Networks of Programmable Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mannion, Ryan; Cotterell, Susan; Vahid, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The advent of sensor networks presents untapped opportunities for synthesis. We examine the problem of synthesis of behavioral specifications into networks of programmable sensor blocks. The particular behavioral specification we consider is an intuitive user-created network diagram of sensor blocks, each block having a pre-defined combinational or sequential behavior. We synthesize this specification to a new network that utilizes a minimum number of programmable blocks in place of the pre-defined blocks, thus reducing network size and hence network cost and power. We focus on the main task of this synthesis problem, namely partitioning pre-defined blocks onto a minimum number of programmable blocks, introducing the efficient but effective PareDown decomposition algorithm for the task. We describe the synthesis and simulation tools we developed. We provide results showing excellent network size reductions through such synthesis, and significant speedups of our algorithm over exhaustive search while obtaining...

  13. Plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Wei

    2013-06-03

    A plane-wave least-squares reverse-time migration (LSRTM) is formulated with a new parameterization, where the migration image of each shot gather is updated separately and an ensemble of prestack images is produced along with common image gathers. The merits of plane-wave prestack LSRTM are the following: (1) plane-wave prestack LSRTM can sometimes offer stable convergence even when the migration velocity has bulk errors of up to 5%; (2) to significantly reduce computation cost, linear phase-shift encoding is applied to hundreds of shot gathers to produce dozens of plane waves. Unlike phase-shift encoding with random time shifts applied to each shot gather, plane-wave encoding can be effectively applied to data with a marine streamer geometry. (3) Plane-wave prestack LSRTM can provide higher-quality images than standard reverse-time migration. Numerical tests on the Marmousi2 model and a marine field data set are performed to illustrate the benefits of plane-wave LSRTM. Empirical results show that LSRTM in the plane-wave domain, compared to standard reversetime migration, produces images efficiently with fewer artifacts and better spatial resolution. Moreover, the prestack image ensemble accommodates more unknowns to makes it more robust than conventional least-squares migration in the presence of migration velocity errors. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. THE PROJECTIVE PLANE CROSSING NUMBERS OF CIRCULAR GRAPHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengju MA; Han REN

    2008-01-01

    The authors give an upper bound for the projective plane crossing number of a circular graph. Also, the authors prove the projective plane crossing numbers of circular graph C (8,3) and C (9,3) are 2 and 1, respectively.

  15. ON A PERIMETER-PRESERVING PLANE CURVE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PanShengliang

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate a new type of evolution problem for closedconvex plane curves which will preserves the perimeter of the curve but expands the enclosedarea and the final limiting curve is a circle in the Hausdorff metric in the plane.

  16. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.

  17. With US$5 Billion,China Purchases 42 Boeing Planes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      On August 8, Air China, China Eastern Airlines, Shanghai Airlines, Xiamen Airlines signed the final Purchase agreement of 42 Boeing planes with Boeing. The price in catalogue is US$5.04 billion. The first plane will be delivered in 2008.……

  18. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  19. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting III: Similarities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This is the third part of a study of plane transformations described in a complex setting. After the study of homotheties, translations, rotations and reflections, we proceed now to the study of plane similarities, either direct or inverse. Their group theoretical properties are described, and their action on classical geometrical objects is…

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  1. Plane Transformations in a Complex Setting I: Homotheties-Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, T.

    2006-01-01

    A previous note described how complex numbers can be used for elementary analytic geometry in the plane, describing lines, circles and their intersections using complex Cartesian equations. In the present note, a description of elementary plane transformations, namely homotheties and translations, their group structure and their operations on…

  2. Solitary plane waves in an isotropic hexagonal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Yaroslav; Savin, A.V.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1998-01-01

    Solitary plane-wave solutions in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice which can propagate in different directions on the plane are found by using the pseudospectral method. The main point of our studies is that the lattice model is isotropic and we show that the sound velocity is the same for diff...

  3. Elastic Sturmian spirals in the Lorentz-Minkowski plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uçum Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider some elastic spacelike and timelike curves in the Lorentz-Minkowski plane and obtain the respective vectorial equations of their position vectors in explicit analytical form. We study in more details the generalized Sturmian spirals in the Lorentz-Minkowski plane which simultaneously are elastics in this space.

  4. Gain induced stability of active plane-parallel resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, W.J.; Ernst, G.J.

    1975-01-01

    It has been observed for a plane-parallel resonator with a saturated medium that under certain conditions confined beams mainly concentrated near the axis are present. The experiments have been done with a sealed-off plane-parallel CO2 laser of one meter length and with an internal diameter of 20 mm

  5. Plane Stratified Flow in a Room Ventilated by Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm; Nickel, J.; Baron, D. J. G.

    2004-01-01

    The air movement in the occupied zone of a room ventilated by displacement ventilation exists as a stratified flow along the floor. This flow can be radial or plane according to the number of wall-mounted diffusers and the room geometry. The paper addresses the situations where plane flow...

  6. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  7. In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2013-08-23

    The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.

  8. Analysis of nulling phase functions suitable to image plane coronagraphy

    CERN Document Server

    Henault, Francois; Verinaud, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Coronagraphy is a very efficient technique for identifying and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, especially when used in a space environment. An important family of coronagraphs is based on phase plates located at an intermediate image plane of the optical system, that spread the starlight outside the "Lyot" exit pupil plane of the instrument. In this communication we present a set of candidate phase functions generating a central null at the Lyot plane, and study how it propagates to the image plane of the coronagraph. These functions include linear azimuthal phase ramps (the well-known optical vortex), azimuthally cosine-modulated phase profiles, and circular phase gratings. Numerical simulations of the expected null depth, inner working angle, sensitivity to pointing errors, effect of central obscuration located at the pupil or image planes, and effective throughput including image mask and Lyot stop transmissions are presented and discussed. The prelim...

  9. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    thoroughly, no security assessment is given. We present a series of observations on the presented construction that, in some cases, yield attacks, while in other cases may provide basis of further analysis by the cryptographic community. Specifically, The attacks obtained are using classical- as well...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...... PRINTcipher for a significant fraction of its keys. This new attack also gives us new insights into other, more well-established attacks. In addition, we also show that for weak keys, strongly biased linear approximations exists for any number of rounds. Furthermore, we provide variety of attacks...

  10. Development of Ray Tracing Algorithms for Scanning Plane and Transverse Plane Analysis for Satellite Multibeam Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Abd Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflector antennas have been widely used in many areas. In the implementation of parabolic reflector antenna for broadcasting satellite applications, it is essential for the spacecraft antenna to provide precise contoured beam to effectively serve the required region. For this purpose, combinations of more than one beam are required. Therefore, a tool utilizing ray tracing method is developed to calculate precise off-axis beams for multibeam antenna system. In the multibeam system, each beam will be fed from different feed positions to allow the main beam to be radiated at the exact direction on the coverage area. Thus, detailed study on caustics of a parabolic reflector antenna is performed and presented in this paper, which is to investigate the behaviour of the rays and its relation to various antenna parameters. In order to produce accurate data for the analysis, the caustic behaviours are investigated in two distinctive modes: scanning plane and transverse plane. This paper presents the detailed discussions on the derivation of the ray tracing algorithms, the establishment of the equations of caustic loci, and the verification of the method through calculation of radiation pattern.

  11. [Ultrasound for peripheral neural block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefalianakis, F

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasound is well established in medicine. Unfortunately, ultrasound is still rarely used in the area of anesthesia. The purpose of the article is to illustrate the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound in regional anesthesia. The basic principles of ultrasound are the piezoelectric effect and the behaviour of acoustic waveforms in human tissue. Ultrasound imaging in medicine uses high frequency pulses of sound waves (2.5-10 MHz). The following images are built up from the reflected sounds. The ultrasound devices used in regional anesthesia (commonly by 10 MHz) deliver a two-dimensional view. The main step for a successful regional anaesthesia is to identify the exact position of the nerve. In addition, specific surface landmarks and the use of peripheral nerve stimulator help to detect the correct position of the needle. Nerves are demonstrated as an composition of hyperechogenic (white) and hypoechogenic (black) areas. The surrounding hyperechogenic parts are epi- and perineurium, the dark hypoechogenic part is the neural tissue. The composition of peripheral nerves are always similar, but the quantities of each part, of surrounding perineurium and nerval structures, differ. Further the imaging of nerves is significantly influenced by the angle of beam to the nerve and the surrounding anatomic structures. Only experience and correct interpretation make the ultrasound a valid method in clinical practice. Correct interpretation has to be learned by standardized education. Three examples of peripheral nerve blocks are described. The detection of nerves and the visualization of the correct spread of local anesthetics to the nerves are the main principles of effective ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia, whereas closest proximity of the needle to the target nerve is not necessary. The described examples of ultrasound guidance for nerval block illustrates the specific procedures with reduced probability of nerval irritation, high success and low rate of

  12. Mobility-Aware Modeling and Analysis of Dense Cellular Networks With $C$ -Plane/ $U$ -Plane Split Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Hazem

    2016-09-19

    The unrelenting increase in the population of mobile users and their traffic demands drive cellular network operators to densify their network infrastructure. Network densification shrinks the footprint of base stations (BSs) and reduces the number of users associated with each BS, leading to an improved spatial frequency reuse and spectral efficiency, and thus, higher network capacity. However, the densification gain comes at the expense of higher handover rates and network control overhead. Hence, user’s mobility can diminish or even nullifies the foreseen densification gain. In this context, splitting the control plane ( C -plane) and user plane ( U -plane) is proposed as a potential solution to harvest densification gain with reduced cost in terms of handover rate and network control overhead. In this paper, we use stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mobility-aware model for a two-tier downlink cellular network with ultra-dense small cells and C -plane/ U -plane split architecture. The developed model is then used to quantify the effect of mobility on the foreseen densification gain with and without C -plane/ U -plane split. To this end, we shed light on the handover problem in dense cellular environments, show scenarios where the network fails to support certain mobility profiles, and obtain network design insights.

  13. An uncooled microbolometer focal plane array using heating based resistance nonuniformity compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Oguz, Alp; Toprak, Alperen; Senveli, S. Ufuk; Canga, Eren; Tanrikulu, M. Yusuf; Akin, Tayfun

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of a unique method called heating based resistance nonuniformity compensation (HB-RNUC). The HB-RNUC method utilizes a configurable bias heating duration for each pixel in order to minimize the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) output voltage distribution range. The outputs of each individual pixel in a resistive type microbolometer differ from each other by a certain amount due to the resistance non-uniformity throughout the focal plane array (FPA), which is an inevitable result of the microfabrication process. This output distribution consumes a considerable portion of the available voltage headroom of the ROIC unless compensated properly. The conventional compensation method is using on-chip DACs to apply specific bias voltages to each pixel such that the output distribution is confined around a certain point. However, on-chip DACs typically occupy large silicon area, increase the output noise, and consume high power. The HB-RNUC method proposes modifying the resistances of the pixels instead of the bias voltages, and this task can be accomplished by very simple circuit blocks. The simplicity of the required blocks allows utilizing a low power, low noise, and high resolution resistance nonuniformity compensation operation. A 9-bit HB-RNUC structure has been designed, fabricated, and tested on a 384x288 microbolometer FPA ROIC on which 35μm pixel size detectors are monolithically implemented, in order to evaluate its performance. The compensation operation reduces the standard deviation of the ROIC output distribution from 470 mV to 9 mV under the same readout gain and bias settings. The analog heating channels of the HB-RNUC block dissipate around 4.1 mW electrical power in this condition, and the increase in the output noise due to these blocks is lower than 10%.

  14. Planes of satellite galaxies and the cosmic web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeskind, Noam I.; Hoffman, Yehuda; Tully, R. Brent; Courtois, Helene M.; Pomarède, Daniel; Gottlöber, Stefan; Steinmetz, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Recent observational studies have demonstrated that the majority of satellite galaxies tend to orbit their hosts on highly flattened, vast, possibly corotating planes. Two nearly parallel planes of satellites have been confirmed around the M31 galaxy and around the Centaurus A galaxy, while the Milky Way also sports a plane of satellites. It has been argued that such an alignment of satellites on vast planes is unexpected in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model of cosmology if not even in contradiction to its generic predictions. Guided by ΛCDM numerical simulations, which suggest that satellites are channelled towards hosts along the axis of the slowest collapse as dictated by the ambient velocity shear tensor, we re-examine the planes of local satellites systems within the framework of the local shear tensor derived from the Cosmicflows-2 data set. The analysis reveals that the Local Group and Centaurus A reside in a filament stretched by the Virgo cluster and compressed by the expansion of the Local Void. Four out of five thin planes of satellite galaxies are indeed closely aligned with the axis of compression induced by the Local Void. Being the less massive system, the moderate misalignment of the Milky Way's satellite plane can likely be ascribed to its greater susceptibility to tidal torques, as suggested by numerical simulations. The alignment of satellite systems in the local Universe with the ambient shear field is thus in general agreement with predictions of the ΛCDM model.

  15. Pad Plane Design and Readout for SAMURAI TPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Estee, J.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yenello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The SAMURAI TPC is being built at Michigan State University to be used in the SAMURAI spectrometer at RIKEN in Japan, as part of the Symmetry Energy project, which focuses on obtaining constraints on the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The presentation will discuss the development of the TPC as well as design for readout plane design for the TPC. These involve enabling the use of existing and future front end electronics (FEE), making the most of limited space, designing a circuit board for the pad plane, and techniques to glue the pad plane. The pad plane has been designed to work with either STAR or AGET electronics. The pad plane is made of a circuit board designed to minimize crosstalk and capacitance. The board must be built in smaller pieces and tiled, using alignment pins and precision gluing. Prototypes for the pad plane to FEE connection, pad plane gluing and STAR card mounting will be presented. Supported by the Department of Energy under Grant DE-SC0004835.

  16. In-plane propagation of electromagnetic waves in planar metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Changhyun; Rhee, Joo Yull; Kim, Ki Won; Lee, YoungPak

    2016-08-01

    Some planar metamaterials (MMs) or subwavelength antenna/hole arrays have a considerable amount of in-plane propagation when certain conditions are met. In this paper, the in-plane propagation caused by a wave incident on a MM absorber was studied by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique. By using a FDTD simulation, we were able to observe a nonnegligible amount of in-plane propagation after the incident wave had arrived at the surface of the planar structure and gradually decreased propagation of the electromagnetic wave in the planar direction gradually decreased. We performed the FDTD simulation carefully to reproduce valid results and to verify the existence of in-plane propagation. For verification of the in-plane propagation explicitly, Poynting vectors were calculated and visualized inside the dielectric substrate between the metallic back-plate and an array of square patches. We also investigated several different structures with resonators of various shapes and found that the amount of facing edges of adjacent metallic patches critically determined the strength of the in-plane propagation. Through this study, we could establish the basis for the existence of in-plane propagation in MMs.

  17. Testing the two planes of satellites in the Centaurus group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Oliver; Jerjen, Helmut; Pawlowski, Marcel S.; Binggeli, Bruno

    2016-11-01

    Context. The existence of satellite galaxy planes poses a major challenge for the standard picture of structure formation with non-baryonic dark matter. Recently Tully et al. (2015, ApJ, 802, L25) reported the discovery of two almost parallel planes in the nearby Cen A group using mostly high-mass galaxies (MBteam detected a large number of new group member candidates in the Cen A group. This dwarf galaxy sample, combined with other recent results from the literature, enables us to test the galaxy distribution in the direction of the Cen A group and to determine the statistical significance of the geometric alignment. Methods: Taking advantage of the fact that the two galaxy planes lie almost edge-on along the line of sight, the newly found group members can be assigned relative to the two planes. We used various statistical methods to test whether the distribution of galaxies follows a single normal distribution or shows evidence of bimodality as has been reported earlier. Results: We confirm that the data used for the Tully et al. study support the picture of a bimodal structure. When the new galaxy samples are included, however, the gap between the two galaxy planes is closing and the significance level of the bimodality is reduced. Instead, the plane that contains Cen A becomes more prominent. Conclusions: We found evidence that the galaxy system around Cen A is made up of only one plane of satellites. This plane is almost orthogonal to the dust plane of Cen A. Accurate distances to the new dwarf galaxies will be required to measure the precise 3D distribution of the galaxies around Cen A.

  18. Efficient Distribution of Triggered Synchronous Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    called a trigger. At a given synchronous step, if the trigger is true , the block fires normally; otherwise, the block stutters , that is, keeps its...outputs have the same value as in the previous step, but they are still transmitted to downstream blocks. In this paper we present an implementation...optimizations that apply to general Triggered SBDs, we also present further optimizations for the case of Timed SBDs. 1.1 Motivating Examples Fig. 1

  19. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M

    2016-04-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  20. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  1. Two Planes of Satellites in the Centaurus A Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tully, R. Brent; Libeskind, Noam I.; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E.; Rizzi, Luca; Shaya, Edward J.

    2015-04-01

    Tip of the red giant branch measurements based on Hubble Space Telescope and ground-based imaging have resulted in accurate distances to 29 galaxies in the nearby Centaurus A Group. All but 2 of the 29 galaxies lie in either of two thin planes roughly parallel with the supergalactic equator. The planes are only slightly tilted from the line of sight, leaving little ambiguity regarding the morphology of the structure. The planes have characteristic rms long axis dimensions of ∼300 kpc and short axis dimensions of ∼60 kpc, hence axial ratios ∼0.2, and are separated in the short axis direction by 303 kpc.

  2. Fermionic out-of-plane structure of polarization singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, Mark R

    2011-01-01

    A new classification of circular polarization C points in three-dimensional polarization ellipse fields is proposed. The classification type depends on the out-of-plane variation of the polarization ellipse axis, in particular, whether the ellipse axes are in the plane of circular polarization one or three times. A minimal set of parameters for this classification are derived, and discussed in the context of the familiar in-plane C point classification into lemon, star, and monstar types. This new geometric classification is related to the M\\"obius index of polarization singularities recently introduced by Freund.

  3. Planed defects in (Cr,Fe)7C3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉清

    1996-01-01

    The characteristics of planed defects in (Cr,Fe)7C3 in a chromium steel and two kinds of cast alloys have been delineated.Combining matrix analysis of electron diffraction pattern with calculated angle between planed detect traces and using compound reciprocal space composed of matrix cell and two rotative cells,the [011] and [013] planed defects in (Cr,Fe)-C3 have been determined in an all-round way.A crystallographic model for (Cr.Fe)2C3 has been proposed.

  4. Goldstone's Theorem on a Light-Like Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Beane, Silas R

    2015-01-01

    I review various aspects of chiral symmetry and its spontaneous breaking on null planes, including the interesting manner in which Goldstone's theorem is realized and the constraints that chiral symmetry imposes on the null-plane Hamiltonians. Specializing to QCD with N massless flavors, I show that there is an interesting limit in which the chiral constraints on the null-plane Hamiltonians can be solved to give the spin-flavor algebra SU(2N), recovering a result originally found by Weinberg using different methods.

  5. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  6. Modelling of multi-block data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Svinning, K.

    2006-01-01

    Here is presented a unified approach to modelling multi-block regression data. The starting point is a partition of the data X into L data blocks, X = (X-1, X-2,...X-L), and the data Y into M data-blocks, Y = (Y-1, Y-2,...,Y-M). The methods of linear regression, X -> Y, are extended to the case...... these methods can be extended to a network of data blocks. Examples of the optimisation procedures in a network are shown. The examples chosen are the ones that are useful to work within industrial production environments. The methods are illustrated by simulated data and data from cement production....

  7. A New Relationship between Block Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shramchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure of constructing new block designs starting from a given one by looking at the intersections of its blocks with various sets and grouping those sets according to the structure of the intersections. We introduce a symmetric relationship of friendship between block designs built on a set V and consider families of block designs where all designs are friends of each other, the so-called friendly families. We show that a friendly family admits a partial ordering. Furthermore, we exhibit a map from the power set of V, partially ordered by inclusion, to a friendly family of a particular type which preserves the partial order.

  8. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  9. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kiss, Cs; Balog, Z; Billot, N; Marton, G

    2013-01-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5% (standard deviation) or about 8% peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2% (stdev) or 2% in the blue, 3% in the green and 5% in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic h...

  10. Basic design of shield blocks for a spallation neutron source under the high-intensity proton accelerator project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Maekawa, Fujio; Takada, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    Under the JAERI-KEK High-Intensity Proton Accelerator Project (J-PARC), a spallation neutron source driven by a 3 GeV-1 MW proton beam is planed to be constructed as a main part of the Materials and Life Science Facility. Overall dimensions of a biological shield of the neutron source had been determined by evaluation of shielding performance by Monte Carlo calculations. This report describes results of design studies on an optimum dividing scheme in terms of cost and treatment and mechanical strength of shield blocks for the biological shield. As for mechanical strength, it was studied whether the shield blocks would be stable, fall down or move to a horizontal direction in case of an earthquake of seismic intensity of 5.5 (250 Gal) as an abnormal load. For ceiling shielding blocks being supported by both ends of the long blocks, maximum bending moment and an amount of maximum deflection of their center were evaluated. (author)

  11. Histology of the rectus abdominis muscle in rats subjected to cranial and caudal devascularization Histologia do músculo reto do abdome de ratos submetidos à desvascularização cranial e caudal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walder Costa

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the microscopic changes in the rectus abdominis muscle in rats subjected to five delay procedure. METHODS: 30 male holtzmann rats, weighting between 250 and 350 grams, were used. The animals were divided into five groups (n=6: A - cranial section of the right muscle; B - caudal section of the right muscle; C - craniocaudal section of the right muscle; D - cranial section reflecting the right muscle in the craniocaudal direction; E - caudal section reflecting the right muscle in the caudocranial direction. On the seventh day after surgery, a resection of the cranial and caudal fragments of the right and left muscles, respectively, was performed for microscopic analysis. Histological alterations were quantified and the right and left (control muscle fragments compared. Fisher's exact test was used for statistical purposes with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The comparison between right and left muscles showed statistically significant differences in group A - inflammatory infiltrate in the cranial fragment (p=0.015; in group C - inflammatory infiltrate (p=0.000 and necrosis (p=0.015 in the caudal fragment; and in group E - edema in the caudal fragment (p=0.000. No significant alterations were noted in groups B and D. CONCLUSIONS: Irrigation exclusively through the perforating muscle vessels is inappropriate; irrigation exclusively through the cranial pedicle causes milder, insignificant histological alterations, when compared with irrigation exclusively through the caudal pedicle; irrigation exclusively through the caudal pedicle causes more pronounced, but still insignificant, histological alterations when compared with other forms of devascularization.OBJETIVO: Investigar as alterações microscópicas no músculo reto do abdome de ratos submetidos a cinco técnicas de autonomização. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 30 ratos machos Holtzmann, pesando entre 250 e 350 gramas. Os animais foram distribuídos em cinco grupos (n

  12. Locating a circle on the plane using the minimax criterion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities on the plane, such that the largest weighted distance between the circle and the facilities is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and a solution procedure proposed.

  13. Regularized plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2013-09-22

    A Kirchhoff least-squares migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images. A regularization term is included that accounts for mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity model. Both synthetic and field results show that: 1) LSM with a reflectivity model common for all the plane-wave gathers provides the best image when the migration velocity model is accurate, but it is more sensitive to the velocity errors, 2) the regularized plane-wave LSM is more robust in the presence of velocity errors, and 3) LSM achieves both computational and IO saving by plane-wave encoding compared to shot-domain LSM for the models tested.

  14. Generalized dual-plane digital holographic imaging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengpeng; Wang, Dayong; Panezai, Spozmai; Rong, Lu; Wang, Yunxin; Zhao, Jie

    2016-12-01

    A generalized dual-plane technique for digital holographic imaging is proposed. Two holograms are recorded at two slightly displaced planes. The complex amplitude of the plane reference wave is obtained according to the measured intensity of the reference beam and the spectrum of hologram. The holograms are modified with the known information of the reference wave. Then, the modified holograms are reconstructed by the dual-plane algorithm. The zero-order and the twin images are removed in the reconstructed image. The simulation and experiments demonstrate that this method is valid for both on-axis and off-axis digital holography and high resolution reconstruction is achieved even with a very small offset angle of the reference beam.

  15. Illuminating traffic control for cell-division planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robatzek, Silke

    2014-01-01

    When a plant cell divides, four related proteins control the trafficking of vesicles and ensure that cargo that is normally recycled to the plasma membrane is instead re-routed to the plane of cell division.

  16. Mergers of elliptical galaxies and the fundamental plane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, AC; van Albada, TS; AvilaReese,; Firmani, C; Frenk, CS; Allen, YC

    2003-01-01

    N-body simulations have been carried out in order to explore the final state of elliptical galaxies after encounters and more expecifically whether the Fundamental Plane (FP hereafter) relation is affected by merging.

  17. Lumbar pedicle screw placement: Using only AP plane imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Placement of pedicle screws under fluoroscopic guidance using AP plane imaging alone with tactile guidance is safe, fast, and reliable. However, a good understanding of the radiographic landmarks is a prerequisite.

  18. Conformal Killing Vectors Of Plane Symmetric Four Dimensional Lorentzian Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Suhail; Bokhari, Ashfaque H; Khan, Gulzar Ali; Mathematics, Department of; Peshawar, University of; Pakhtoonkhwa, Peshawar Khyber; Pakistan.,; Petroleum, King Fahd University of; Minerals,; 31261, Dhahran; Arabia, Saudi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate conformal Killing's vectors (CKVs) admitted by some plane symmetric spacetimes. Ten conformal Killing's equations and their general forms of CKVs are derived along with their conformal factor. The existence of conformal Killing's symmetry imposes restrictions on the metric functions. The conditions imposing restrictions on these metric functions are obtained as a set of integrability conditions. Considering the cases of time-like and inheriting CKVs, we obtain spacetimes admitting plane conformal symmetry. Integrability conditions are solved completely for some known non-conformally flat and conformally flat classes of plane symmetric spacetimes. A special vacuum plane symmetric spacetime is obtained, and it is shown that for such a metric CKVs are just the homothetic vectors (HVs). Among all the examples considered, there exists only one case with a six dimensional algebra of special CKVs admitting one proper CKV. In all other examples of non-conformally flat metrics, no proper ...

  19. Effect of periodontal root planing on dentin permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, H M; Pashley, D H

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitate the effects of root planing on the permeability of human root dentin in vitro. Unerupted 3rd molars were used. The crowns were removed and longitudinal slices made of the root. The hydraulic conductance of the root dentin was measured before and after root planing, acid etching and potassium oxalate application using a fluid filtration method. The results showed that root planing creates a smear layer that reduces the permeability of the underlying dentin. However, this smear layer is acid labile. Thus, root planing may ultimately cause increased dentin permeability and the associated sequelae of sensitive dentin, bacterial invasion of tubules, reduced periodontal reattachment and pulpal irritation.

  20. Translation planes of odd order and odd dimension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Ostrom

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available The author considers one of the main problems in finite translation planes to be the identification of the abstract groups which can act as collineation groups and how those groups can act.

  1. Optimal aeroassisted return from high earth orbit with plane change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winh, N. X.; Hanson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the problem of aeroassisted return from a high earth orbit to LEO is presented. The approach taken is that of the minimum fuel aeroassisted return from the higher to the lower orbit with occasional maneuvers within the atmosphere while performing a plane change. The plane changes are calculated for different angular alterations, and a model is developed for optimized atmospheric turning. It is found that larger plane changers demand deeper penetration into the denser regions of the atmosphere, where greater velocity depletion will also occur. Attention is given to lift effects and their optimized solution, and an atmospheric exit condition is characterized which will require one post atmospheric impulse to achieve a LEO of 380 km. Finally, it is shown that application of an impulse will always result in a plane change.

  2. The Vertical Structure of the F Ring of Saturn from Ring-Plane Crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Scharringhausen, Britt R

    2013-01-01

    We present a photometric model of the rings of Saturn which includes the main rings and an F ring, inclined to the main rings, with a Gaussian vertical profile of optical depth. This model reproduces the asymmetry in brightness between the east and west ansae of the rings of Saturn that was observed by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) within a few hours after the Earth ring-plane crossing (RPX) of 10 August 1995. The model shows that during this observation the inclined F ring unevenly blocked the east and west ansae of the main rings. The brightness asymmetry produced by the model is highly sensitive to the vertical thickness and radial optical depth of the F ring. The F ring model that best matches the observations has a vertical full width at half maximum of 13 +/- 7 km and an equivalent depth of 10 +/- 4 km. The model also reproduces the shape of the HST profiles of ring brightness vs. distance from Saturn, both before and after the time of ring-plane crossing. Smaller asymmetries observed before the RPX,...

  3. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-20

    grant, “Coupled Modes in Elastic Bottoms” (1) is the publication “ Traveling wave modes of a plane layered anelastic earth” accepted for...UW Office of Sponsored Programs, UW APL Library for submission to Defense Technical Information Center Traveling wave modes of a plane layered...anelastic earth Robert I. Odom Applied Physics Laboratory and Department of Earth and Space Sciences University of Washington, 1013 NE 40th St., Seattle

  4. Plane-wave scattering from half-wave dipole arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels E.

    1970-01-01

    A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays.......A matrix equation for determination of plane-wave scattering from arrays of thin short-circuited dipoles of lengths about half a wavelength is derived. Numerical and experimental results are presented for linear, circular, and concentric circular arrays....

  5. Locating a circle on the plane using the minimax criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brimberg, Jack; Juel, Henrik; Schoebel, Anita

    2006-01-01

    We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities on the plane, such that the largest weighted distance between the circle and the facilities is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and a solution procedure proposed.......We consider the problem of locating a circle with respect to existing facilities on the plane, such that the largest weighted distance between the circle and the facilities is minimized. The problem properties are analyzed, and a solution procedure proposed....

  6. Optimal Layout of Transshipment Facilities on An Infinite Homogeneous Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Weijun; Ouyang, Yanfeng

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies optimal spatial layout of transshipment facilities and the corresponding service regions on an infinite homogeneous plane $\\mathbb{R}^2$ that minimize the total cost for facility set-up, outbound delivery and inbound replenishment transportation. The problem has strong implications in the context of freight logistics and transit system design. This paper first focuses on a Euclidean plane and presents a new proof for the known Gersho's conjecture, which states that the opti...

  7. The Domino Problem of the Hyperbolic Plane Is Undecidable

    CERN Document Server

    Margenstern, Maurice

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove that the general tiling problem of the hyperbolic plane is undecidable by proving a slightly stronger version using only a regular polygon as the basic shape of the tiles. The problem was raised by a paper of Raphael Robinson in 1971, in his famous simplified proof that the general tiling problem is undecidable for the Euclidean plane, initially proved by Robert Berger in 1966.

  8. A MATLAB Function for Plotting Phase Planes Interactively

    OpenAIRE

    Forsman, Krister

    1992-01-01

    A MATLAB-function serving as a sort of graphical interface to the MATLAB ODE-solver ode45 is presented. The main use of it is to facilitate phase plane analysis of nonlinear 2-D systems via simulation. The numerical integration of the system is mouse-operated via the ginput-function. After each choice of initial value a simulation is made and plotted in the phase plane.

  9. Integral Representation of Harmonic Function in a Half-Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong Wei; DENG Guan Tie

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we consider the integral representation of harmonic functions. Using a property of the modified Poisson kernel in a half plane, we prove that a harmonic function u(z) in a half plane with its positive part u+(z)=max{u(z), 0} satisfying a slowly growing condition can be represented by its integral of a measure on the boundary of the half plan.

  10. Diffraction by a plane angular sector, a new derivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thokild B.

    1990-01-01

    An alternative derivation is given for the exact solution to the scattering problem in which a Hertz dipole illuminates a perfectly conducting plane angular sector. Specifically, the Ohm-Rayleigh method is used rather than that of Satterwhite (1969)......An alternative derivation is given for the exact solution to the scattering problem in which a Hertz dipole illuminates a perfectly conducting plane angular sector. Specifically, the Ohm-Rayleigh method is used rather than that of Satterwhite (1969)...

  11. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Generalised k-Steiner Tree Problems in Normed Planes

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The 1-Steiner tree problem, the problem of constructing a Steiner minimum tree containing at most one Steiner point, has been solved in the Euclidean plane by Georgakopoulos and Papadimitriou using plane subdivisions called oriented Dirichlet cell partitions. Their algorithm produces an optimal solution within $O(n^2)$ time. In this paper we generalise their approach in order to solve the $k$-Steiner tree problem, in which the Steiner minimum tree may contain up to $k$ Steiner points for a gi...

  13. Transformation of frequency-magnitude relation prior to large events in the model of block structure dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soloviev

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The b-value change in the frequency-magnitude (FM distribution for a synthetic earthquake catalogue obtained by means of the model of block structure dynamics has been studied. The catalogue is divided into time periods preceding strong earthquakes and time periods that do not precede strong earthquakes. The separate analysis of these periods shows that the b-value is smaller before strong earthquakes. The similar phenomenon has been found also for the observed seismicity of the Southern California. The model of block structure dynamics represents a seismic region as a system of perfectly rigid blocks divided by infinitely thin plane faults. The blocks interact between themselves and with the underlying medium. The system of blocks moves as a consequence of prescribed motion of the boundary blocks and of the underlying medium. As the blocks are perfectly rigid, all deformation takes place in the fault zones and at the block base in contact with the underlying medium. Relative block displacements take place along the fault zones. Block motion is defined so that the system is in a quasistatic equilibrium state. The interaction of blocks along the fault zones is viscous-elastic ("normal state" while the ratio of the stress to the pressure remains below a certain strength level. When the critical level is exceeded in some part of a fault zone, a stress-drop ("failure" occurs (in accordance with the dry friction model, possibly causing failure in other parts of the fault zones. These failures produce earthquakes. Immediately after the earthquake and for some time after, the affected parts of the fault zones are in a state of creep. This state differs from the normal state because of a faster growth of inelastic displacements, lasting until the stress falls below some other level. This numerical simulation gives rise a synthetic earthquake catalogue.

  14. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  15. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  16. Block-based image hashing with restricted blocking strategy for rotational robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shijun; Yang, Jianquan

    2012-12-01

    Image hashing is a potential solution for image content authentication (a desired image hashing algorithm should be robust to common image processing operations and various geometric distortions). In the literature, researchers pay more attention to block-based image hashing algorithms due to their robustness to common image processing operations (such as lossy compression, low-pass filtering, and additive noise). However, the block-based hashing strategies are sensitive to rotation processing operations. This indicates that the robustness of the block-based hashing methods against rotation operations is an important issue. Towards this direction, in this article we propose a restricted blocking strategy by investigating effect of two rotation operations on an image and its blocks in both theoretical and experimental ways. Furthermore, we apply the proposed blocking strategy for the recently reported non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) hashing. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the block-based hashing algorithms with restricted blocking strategy for rotation operations.

  17. 3D plane-wave least-squares Kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2014-08-05

    A three dimensional least-squares Kirchhoff migration (LSM) is developed in the prestack plane-wave domain to increase the quality of migration images and the computational efficiency. Due to the limitation of current 3D marine acquisition geometries, a cylindrical-wave encoding is adopted for the narrow azimuth streamer data. To account for the mispositioning of reflectors due to errors in the velocity model, a regularized LSM is devised so that each plane-wave or cylindrical-wave gather gives rise to an individual migration image, and a regularization term is included to encourage the similarities between the migration images of similar encoding schemes. Both synthetic and field results show that: 1) plane-wave or cylindrical-wave encoding LSM can achieve both computational and IO saving, compared to shot-domain LSM, however, plane-wave LSM is still about 5 times more expensive than plane-wave migration; 2) the regularized LSM is more robust compared to LSM with one reflectivity model common for all the plane-wave or cylindrical-wave gathers.

  18. New exact coherent states in plane Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masato; Deguchi, Kengo

    2012-11-01

    Two new classes of traveling wave solution are found in plane Poiseuille flow by continuing the stationary and traveling hairpin vortex states in plane Couette flow. One of them, referred to as MS hereafter, arises from a saddle-node bifurcation, characterized by two planes of mirror-symmetry perpendicular to the span-wise direction. The second new class solution, referred to as AS hereafter, bifurcates by breaking the mid-plane symmetry of the first class. Both MS and AS are characterized by two quasi-stream-wise low-speed streaks within one span-wise period. The low-speed streaks are aligned with the vertical planes of mirror symmetry, with their width varying in a varicose fashion in the stream-wise direction. These streaks appear close to both top and bottom channel walls for MS, and to only one of the channel walls for AS. We find that the Reynolds numbers at the saddle-node bifurcation for MS and AS are smaller than that of the exact coherent state in plane Poiseuille flow known to date found by Waleffe (2003).

  19. Securing SDN Southbound and Data Plane Communication with IBC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunHuy Lam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In software-defined network (SDN, the southbound protocol defines the communication between the control plane and the data plane. The agreed protocol, OpenFlow, suggests securing the southbound communication with Transport Layer Security (TLS. However, most current SDN projects do not implement the security segment, with only a few exceptions such as OpenDayLight, HP VAN SDN, and ONOS implementing TLS in the southbound communication. From the telecommunication providers’ perspective, one of the major SDN consumers besides data centers, the data plane becomes much more complicated with the addition of wireless data plane as it involves numerous wireless technologies. Therefore, the complicated resource management along with the security of such a data plane can hinder the migration to SDN. In this paper, we propose securing the distributed SDN communication with a multidomain capable Identity-Based Cryptography (IBC protocol, particularly for the southbound and wireless data plane communication. We also analyze the TLS-secured Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT message exchanges to find out the possible bandwidth saved with IBC.

  20. Data-plane Defenses against Routing Attacks on Tor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tor is susceptible to traffic correlation attacks in which an adversary who observes flows entering and leaving the anonymity network can apply statistical techniques to correlate flows and de-anonymize their endpoints. While an adversary may not be naturally positioned to conduct such attacks, a recent study shows that the Internet’s control-plane can be manipulated to increase an adversary’s view of the network, and consequently, improve its ability to perform traffic correlation. This paper explores, in-depth, the effects of control-plane attacks on the security of the Tor network. Using accurate models of the live Tor network, we quantify Tor’s susceptibility to these attacks by measuring the fraction of the Tor network that is vulnerable and the advantage to the adversary of performing the attacks. We further propose defense mechanisms that protect Tor users from manipulations at the control-plane. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that by leveraging existing trust anchors in Tor, defenses deployed only in the data-plane are sufficient to detect most control-plane attacks. Our defenses do not assume the active participation of Internet Service Providers, and require only very small changes to Tor. We show that our defenses result in a more than tenfold decrease in the effectiveness of certain control-plane attacks.

  1. In-plane anisotropy of 1545 aluminum alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yong-yi; YIN Zhi-min; YANG Jin; DU Yu-xuan

    2005-01-01

    The microstructures and the tensile mechanical properties in the rolling plane of 1545 aluminum alloy sheet at different orientations with respect to the rolling direction were studied by means of tensile test,X-ray diffractometer(XRD),optical microscope and transmission electron microscope.The in-plane anisotropy of tensile mechanical properties was calculated and the inverse pole figures of the rolling plane,transversal section and longitudinal section were obtained by Harris method.The results show that the 1545 Al alloy sheet has remarkable in-plane anisotropy of mechanical properties and the main texture component is{110}texture.On the basis of the model that regards the sheet containing only{110}texture as a monocrystal,the relationship of in-plane anisotropy and the anisotropy of crystallography was analyzed.The study shows that it is the combined effects of the anisotropy of crystallography and microstructures that cause the in-plane anisotropy of mechanical properties,but the main cause is the crystallographic texture.

  2. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  3. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  4. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for W

  5. The Block Grant Record: Lessons from Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Anne H.

    1982-01-01

    Evaluates the performance of federal block grants in health, law enforcement, peoplepower training, community development, and Social Security programs, to help forecast the effects of such grants in education. Finds that block grants did not improve local control, accountability, citizen participation, efficiency, targeting of funds, or program…

  6. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  7. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems ...

  8. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  9. Micellization and Characterization of Block Copolymer Detergents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are used widely in industry as emulsifiers, anti-foaming agents, and in delayed drug release. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depen...

  10. Haplotype block structure is conserved across mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guryev, Victor; Smits, Bart M G; van de Belt, Jose; Verheul, Mark; Hubner, Norbert; Cuppen, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Genetic variation in genomes is organized in haplotype blocks, and species-specific block structure is defined by differential contribution of population history effects in combination with mutation and recombination events. Haplotype maps characterize the common patterns of linkage disequilibrium i

  11. C++ application development with Code::Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Biplab Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a comprehensive tutorial with step-by-step instructions on how to develop applications with Code::Blocks.This book is for C++ developers who wish to use Code::Blocks to create applications with a consistent look and feel across multiple platforms. This book assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the C++ programming language.

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of neck hematoma and block salvage after failed neurostimulation-guided interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Unger, M W Todd; Colson, James D; Serafini, Mario

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthetic techniques have shown some advantages over conventional paresthesia and neurostimulation techniques. We report the case of a neurostimulation-guided continuous interscalene block that would have ended in complication were it not for experience with ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Familiarity with ultrasound-guided block techniques permitted assessment of a neck hematoma during interscalene block and ultimately allowed successful peripheral nerve block.

  13. Blending of styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene copolymer with sulfonated vinyl aromatic polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggeri, Giacomo; Passaglia, Elisa; Giorgi, Ivan; Picchioni, Francesco; Aglietto, Mauro

    2001-01-01

    Different polymers containing sulfonic groups attached to the phenyl rings were prepared by sulfonation of polystyrene (PS) and styrene-block-(ethylene-co-1-butene)-block-styrene (SEBS). The sulfonation degree (SD) was varied between 1 and 20 mol% of the styrene units. Polyphase materials containing sulfonated units were prepared by blending styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS), with both sulfonated PS and sulfonated SEBS in a Brabender mixer. Such a procedure was performed as an alter...

  14. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  15. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  16. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  17. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.

  18. A note on "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhou; HUANG Ze-jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we make further discussions and improvements on the results presented in the previously published work "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices". Furthermore, a new bound for eigenvalues of block matrices is given with examples to show advantages of the new result.

  19. Artificial impedance ground planes for low profile antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Ian T.

    Recent interest in artificial impedance surfaces for low-profile antennas has led to extensive research with the goal of optimizing the ground plane's characteristics for a given antenna configuration and broadening the operational bandwidth, or alternatively creating a multi-band functionality. A method of determining the optimal reflection phase for a low-profile dipole antenna over an electromagnetic band gap (EBG) ground plane has been developed based on image theory and is presented with experimental and numerical validation. A new artificial impedance surface has also been developed, which is composed of an annular slot ring on a thin grounded dielectric. The main difference between the proposed ground plane and a conventional EBG is that the high impedance condition exists only in the vicinity of the slot and is therefore best suited for antennas with a current distribution that has a similar shape as the annular slot ring. It is shown that a loop antenna positioned closely over an annular slot loaded ground plane exhibits approximately the same gain as a loop antenna over a conventional EBG ground plane. The advantage of the new structure is its lack of periodicity, which significantly eases manufacturing. Additionally, it is shown that multiple concentric slot rings can be designed into the ground plane, which excites multiple resonances in low-profile wideband antennas. The result is a multi-band high impedance ground plane constructed using a simple arrangement of annular slots. Finally, a manufacturing technique is presented for the application of arbitrarily configured EBG antennas to handheld dual-sensor landmine detection systems. It is shown that creating an EBG antenna using very thin layers of metal will enable it to be used for ground penetrating radar (GPR) when it is co-located with a low frequency metal detector without compromising the operation of the metal detector. The potential benefit of such an antenna would be a lower profile sensor

  20. Photos taken during the assembly of the first 4-plane wheel prototype, built in 1998.

    CERN Multimedia

    Dixon, N.

    1998-01-01

    Photo 1 - End Cap. 4 -plane wheel prototype - One plane complete. Photo 2 - End Cap. 4 -plane wheel prototype - Radiator Foil. Photo 3 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing technique. Photo 4 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing ring. Photo 5 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing ring. Photo 6 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Completed straw plane. Photo 7 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Webs on assembly table. Photo 8 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Operations on inner ring. Photo 9 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing operations. Photo 10 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glueing equipment. Photo 11 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Assembly of 4-plane wheel. Photo 12 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Positioning tool. Photo 13 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Testing. Photo 14 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Glued to web ring 2. Photo 15 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Positioning tool. Photo 16 - End Cap. 4-plane wheel prototype - Detail o...

  1. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TYRE TREAD BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tyre tread pattern is the arrangement of blocks, grooves and voids, sipes and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip on the road. Tread is the uppermost part of any tyre which contact into the road and it has its own performance towards mileage, traction, low noise and heat built up properties. It would be meaningful to conduct an extended analysis on the tyre tread blocks for its performance in static and dynamic condition to predict its behavior and wear of tread block in on-road condition. The Finite Element software Abaqus is used for the present analysis of the tread block and its behavior was studied on two different contact surfaces. The tread block is modeled in six different shapes and analyzed for is performance. The deformation stress strain characteristic of different blocks is studied which will be useful in deciding the contact behavior, friction and road grip. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and the mixed type geometry shows a distinguished variation in the analysis. The dynamic stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has its own effect in tyre design. The tread block dynamics study by geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization to enhance the traction, better hydroplaning and rolling resistance under all operating conditions.

  2. Development of Alkali Activated Geopolymer Masonry Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, K.; Radhakrishna; Sasalatti, Vinod

    2016-09-01

    Cement masonry units are not considered as sustainable since their production involves consumption of fuel, cement and natural resources and therefore it is essential to find alternatives. This paper reports on making of geopolymer solid & hollow blocks and masonry prisms using non conventional materials like fly ash, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and manufactured sand and curing at ambient temperature. They were tested for water absorption, initial rate of water absorption, dry density, dimensionality, compressive, flexural and bond-strength which were tested for bond strength with and without lateral confinement, modulus of elasticity, alternative drying & wetting and masonry efficiency. The properties of geopolymer blocks were found superior to traditional masonry blocks and the masonry efficiency was found to increase with decrease in thickness of cement mortar joints. There was marginal difference in strength between rendered and unrendered geopolymer masonry blocks. The percentage weight gain after 7 cycles was less than 6% and the percentage reduction in strength of geopolymer solid blocks and hollow blocks were 26% and 28% respectively. Since the properties of geopolymer blocks are comparatively better than the traditional masonry they can be strongly recommended for structural masonry.

  3. Circular block matching based video stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lidong; Fu, Fangwen; Lin, Xinggang

    2005-07-01

    Video sequences captured by handheld digital camera need to be stabilized to eliminate the tiresome effects caused by camera"s undesirable shake or jiggle. The key issue of video stabilization is to estimate the global motion parameters between two successive frames. In this paper, a novel circular block matching algorithm is proposed to estimate the global motion parameters. This algorithm can deal with not only translational motion but even large rotational motion. For an appointed circular block in current frame, a four-dimensional rotation invariant feature vector is firstly extracted from it and used to judge if it is an effective block. Then the rotation invariant features based circular block matching process is performed to find the best matching blocks in reference frame for those effective blocks. With the matching results of any two effective blocks, a two-dimensional motion model is constructed to produce one group of frame motion parameters. A statistical method is proposed to calculate the estimated global motion parameters with all groups of global motion parameters. Finally, using the estimated motion parameters as the initial values, an iteration algorithm is introduced to obtain the refined global motion parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent in stabilizing frames with even burst global translational and rotational motions.

  4. Gaussian curvature analysis allows for automatic block placement in multi-block hexahedral meshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Shivanna, Kiran H; Magnotta, Vincent A; Grosland, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    Musculoskeletal finite element analysis (FEA) has been essential to research in orthopaedic biomechanics. The generation of a volumetric mesh is often the most challenging step in a FEA. Hexahedral meshing tools that are based on a multi-block approach rely on the manual placement of building blocks for their mesh generation scheme. We hypothesise that Gaussian curvature analysis could be used to automatically develop a building block structure for multi-block hexahedral mesh generation. The Automated Building Block Algorithm incorporates principles from differential geometry, combinatorics, statistical analysis and computer science to automatically generate a building block structure to represent a given surface without prior information. We have applied this algorithm to 29 bones of varying geometries and successfully generated a usable mesh in all cases. This work represents a significant advancement in automating the definition of building blocks.

  5. Analysis of nulling phase functions suitable to image plane coronagraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault, François; Carlotti, Alexis; Vérinaud, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Coronagraphy is a very efficient technique for identifying and characterizing extra-solar planets orbiting in the habitable zone of their parent star, especially in a space environment. An important family of coronagraphs is actually based on phase plates located at an intermediate image plane of the optical system, and spreading the starlight outside the "Lyot" exit pupil plane of the instrument. In this commutation we present a set of candidate phase functions generating a central null at the Lyot plane, and study how it propagates to the image plane of the coronagraph. These functions include linear azimuthal phase ramps (the well-known optical vortex), azimuthally cosine-modulated phase profiles, and circular phase gratings. Nnumerical simulations of the expected null depth, inner working angle, sensitivity to pointing errors, effect of central obscuration located at the pupil or image planes, and effective throughput including image mask and Lyot stop transmissions are presented and discussed. The preliminary conclusion is that azimuthal cosine functions appear as an interesting alternative to the classical optical vortex of integer topological charge.

  6. Critical plane approach to multiaxial variable amplitude fatigue loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingyu Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new critical plane approach based on the modified Manson-Coffin curve method (MMCCM is presented in this paper for predicting fatigue lifetime under variable amplitude (VA multiaxial fatigue loading. The critical plane is assumed to coincide with that material plane experiencing the maximum variance of the resolved shear strain. Fatigue damage is hypothesized to be a function of both the amplitude of the resolved shear strain and the so-called critical plane stress ratio. The latter quantity depends on the mean value and the variance of the stress perpendicular to the critical plane as well as on the variance of the shear stress resolved along the direction experiencing the maximum variance of the resolved shear strain. Load cycles are counted from the resolved shear strain time history by using the classic rain flow counting method. Palmgren-Miner’s linear damage rule is applied to estimate cumulative fatigue damage. The accuracy and reliability of the proposed approach is checked by using several experimental data taken from the literature. The estimated fatigue lives based on the new approach are seen to be in sound agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Off-plane x-ray reflection grating fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Thomas J.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Miles, Drew M.; Tutt, James H.; Schultz, Ted B.

    2015-09-01

    Off-plane X-ray diffraction gratings with precision groove profiles at the submicron scale will be used in next generation X-ray spectrometers. Such gratings will be used on a current NASA suborbital rocket mission, the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), and have application for future grating missions. The fabrication of these gratings does not come without challenges. High performance off-plane gratings must be fabricated with precise radial grating patterns, optically at surfaces, and specific facet angles. Such gratings can be made using a series of common micro-fabrication techniques. The resulting process is highly customizable, making it useful for a variety of different mission architectures. In this paper, we detail the fabrication method used to produce high performance off-plane gratings and report the results of a preliminary qualification test of a grating fabricated in this manner. The grating was tested in the off-plane `Littrow' configuration, for which the grating is most efficient for a given diffraction order, and found to achieve 42% relative efficiency in the blaze order with respect to all diffracted light.

  8. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  9. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  10. Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels

    OpenAIRE

    Bean, BP; Cohen, CJ; Tsien, RW

    1983-01-01

    Lidocaine block of cardiac sodium channels was studied in voltage-clamped rabbit purkinje fibers at drug concentrations ranging from 1 mM down to effective antiarrhythmic doses (5-20 μM). Dose-response curves indicated that lidocaine blocks the channel by binding one-to-one, with a voltage-dependent K(d). The half-blocking concentration varied from more than 300 μM, at a negative holding potential where inactivation was completely removed, to approximately 10 μM, at a depolarized holding pote...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Sandcrete Hollow Blocks and Laterite Interlocking Blocks as Walling Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akeem Ayinde Raheem

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the production and testing of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks with a view to comparing their physical characteristics and production cost. Some units of sandcrete hollow blocks and laterite interlocking blocks were made using machine vibrated sandcrete block mould and hydraulic interlocking block making machine respectively. The blocks were tested to determine their density and compressive strength. The results obtained from the tests were compared with the specifications of Nigerian Building and Road Research Institute (2006, Nigerian Building Code (2006, and Nigerian Industrial Standards (2000. The results indicated that the compressive strength of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks varies from 1.59 N/mm2 to 4.25 N/mm2 and 1.48N/mm2 to 3.35N/mm2 respectively, as the curing age increases from 7 to 28 days. For laterite interlocking blocks, the strength varies from 1.70N/mm2 at 7 days to 5.03N/mm2 at 28 days. All the blocks produced satisfied the minimum requirements in terms of compressive strength, by all available codes. The cost per square metre of 225mm and 150mm sandcrete hollow blocks are ₦2,808:00 and ₦2,340:00 respectively, while that of laterite interlocking blocks is ₦2,121:20.It was concluded that laterite interlocking blocks have better strength and are cheaper than sandcrete hollow blocks.

  12. The role of deformation and other quantities in an equation for enstrophy as applied to atmospheric blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Andrew D.; Lupo, Anthony R.

    2014-06-01

    In this note, equations for enstrophy and enstrophy advection are derived in terms of well-known quantities, assuming horizontal frictionless flow on a beta-plane. Specifically, enstrophy can be written in terms of the geopotential (or pressure), relative vorticity, zonal wind, and resultant deformation. Enstrophy advection is shown to be related to the time evolution of deformation and ageostrophic relative vorticity. Based on previous research, these terms may contribute to instability associated with atmospheric blocking development and decay.

  13. Immunohistochemical analysis of collagen content and types in the rectus abdominis muscle of cadavers of different ages Imunohistoquímica do colágeno no músculo reto do abdome de cadáveres de diferentes grupos etários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliziane Nitz de Carvalho Calvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the collagen content and types in the rectus abdominis muscle of cadavers of different ages. METHODS: Forty fresh adult male cadavers, at room temperature, were obtained from the Institute of Legal Medicine of Franca and dissected within 24 hours of death. The cadavers were divided into two groups: Group A (n=20, 18 to 30 years of age, and Group B (n=20, 31 to 60 years of age. Bilateral incisions were made in the middle portion of anterior rectus sheath 3 cm superiorly and 2 cm inferiorly to the umbilicus and four fragments of the rectus abdominis muscle were dissected. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin and sent for immunohistochemical analysis to determine collagen content and types. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical results revealed higher amounts of type I and type III collagen in Group A. However, no difference in the amount of type IV collagen was found between the groups. CONCLUSION: The amount of type I and type III collagen was higher in group A.OBJETIVO: Avaliar o colágeno no músculo reto do abdome em cadáveres de diferentes faixas etárias. MÉTODOS: Foram dissecados 40 cadáveres adultos masculinos, não fixados, com tempo de óbito de até 24 horas, em temperatura ambiente, provenientes do Instituto Médico-Legal de Franca (SP - Brasil. Os cadáveres foram distribuídos em dois grupos: GRUPO A (n=20 - 18 a 30 anos e GRUPO B (n=20 -31 a 60 anos. Realizou-se incisão na porção mediana da lâmina anterior da bainha do músculo reto a 3 cm superiormente e 2 cm inferiormente ao umbigo em ambos os lados, sendo retirados quatro fragmentos de músculo reto do abdome. Esse material foi conservado em formalina tamponado a 10% e enviado para imuno-histoquímica para determinação do tipo de colágeno. RESULTADOS: Na Imunihistoquímica os colágenos I e III foram estatisticamente maiores no grupo A, porém não houve diferença entre os grupos em relação ao colágeno IV. CONCLUSÃO: A quantidade de col

  14. Morphological Evolution of Gyroid-Forming Block Copolymer Thin Films with Varying Solvent Evaporation Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Lo, Ting-Ya; She, Ming-Shiuan; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2015-08-05

    In this study, we aim to examine the morphological evolution of block copolymer (BCP) nanostructured thin films through solvent evaporation at different rates for solvent swollen polystyrene-block-poly(l-lactide) (PS-PLLA). Interesting phase transitions from disorder to perpendicular cylinder and then gyroid can be found while using a partially selective solvent for PS to swell PS-PLLA thin film followed by solvent evaporation. During the transitions, gyroid-forming BCP thin film with characteristic crystallographic planes of (111)G, (110)G, and (211)G parallel to air surface can be observed, and will gradually transform into coexisting (110)G and (211)G planes, and finally transforms to (211)G plane due to the preferential segregation of constituted block to the surface (i.e., the thermodynamic origin for self-assembly) that affects the relative amount of each component at the air surface. With the decrease on the evaporation rate, the disorder phase will transform to parallel cylinder and then directly to (211)G without transition to perpendicular cylinder phase. Most importantly, the morphological evolution of PS-PLLA thin films is strongly dependent upon the solvent removal rate only in the initial stage of the evaporation process due to the anisotropy of cylinder structure. Once the morphology is transformed back to the isotropic gyroid structure after long evaporation, the morphological evolution will only relate to the variation of the surface composition. Similar phase transitions at the substrate can also be obtained by controlling the ratio of PLLA-OH to PS-OH homopolymers to functionalize the substrate. As a result, the fabrication of well-defined nanostructured thin films with controlled orientation can be achieved by simple swelling and deswelling with controlled evaporation rate.

  15. A Statistical Framework for Utilization of Simultaneous Pupil Plane and Focal Plane Telemetry for Exoplanet Imaging, Part I: Accounting for Polarization Aberration in Multiple Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Frazin, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    A new generation of telescopes with mirror diameters of 20 m or more, called extremely large telescopes (ELTs) has the potential to provide unprecedented imaging and spectroscopy of exo-planetary systems, if the difficulties in achieving the extremely high dynamic range required to differentiate the planetary signal from the star can be overcome to a sufficient degree. Fully utilizing the potential of ELTs for exoplanet imaging will likely require simultaneous and self-consistent determination both the planetary image and the unknown aberrations in multiple planes of the optical system, using statistical inference based on the wavefront sensor and science camera data streams. This paper is the first in a series on this subject, in which a formalism is established for the exoplanet imaging problem in a polarizing optical system that has optical aberrations in multiple planes. Every effort has been made to be rigorous and complete, so that that validity of approximations to be made later can be assessed. It is ...

  16. Cutting solid figures by plane - analytical solution and spreadsheet implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benacka, Jan

    2012-07-01

    In some secondary mathematics curricula, there is a topic called Stereometry that deals with investigating the position and finding the intersection, angle, and distance of lines and planes defined within a prism or pyramid. Coordinate system is not used. The metric tasks are solved using Pythagoras' theorem, trigonometric functions, and sine and cosine rules. The basic problem is to find the section of the figure by a plane that is defined by three points related to the figure. In this article, a formula is derived that gives the positions of the intersection points of such a plane and the figure edges, that is, the vertices of the section polygon. Spreadsheet implementations of the formula for cuboid and right rectangular pyramids are presented. The user can check his/her graphical solution, or proceed if he/she is not able to complete the section.

  17. An Improved Event Plane Detector for the STAR Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewigleben, Justin; STAR EPD Group Team

    2017-01-01

    The BES program at RHIC has shown hints of a critical point and first order phase transition at the BES energies. Key measurements for locating the critical point and determining the first order phase transition are limited by poor event plane resolution, limited statistics and a TPC-only centrality determination. Therefore, phase II of the BES program was proposed to take data with upgraded detectors and increased statistics for the further investigation. A new event plane and collision centrality detector is planned to replace the existing detector, the BBC, with higher granularity and acceptance. The design of the EPD consists of two scintillator discs at z= +/- 3.75m from the center of STAR, covering 2.2 design was decided in order to maximize event plane resolution, , centrality estimation and flow harmonic measurements. We will discuss the plans to install one quarter of a disc into STAR for the 2017 run.

  18. In-plane elastic stability of fixed parabolic shallow arches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI JianGuo; FENG Jian; CHEN Yao; HUANG LiFeng

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of fixed parabolic shallow arches subjected to a vertical uniform load is inves-tigated to evaluate the in-plane buckling load. The virtual work principle method is used to establish the non-linear equilibrium and buckling equations. Analytical solutions for the non-linear in-plane sym-metric snap-through and antisymmetric bifurcation buckling loads are obtained. Based on the least square method, an approximation for the symmetric buckling load of fixed parabolic arch is proposedto simplify the solution process. And the relation between modified slenderness and buckling modes are discussed. Comparisons with the results of finite element analysis demonstrate that the solutions are accurate. A cable-arch structure is presented to improve the in-plane stability of parabolic arches. The comparison of buckling loads between cable-arch systems and arches only show that the effect of cables becomes more evident with the increase of arch's modified slenderness.

  19. In-plane elastic stability of fixed parabolic shallow arches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of fixed parabolic shallow arches subjected to a vertical uniform load is inves- tigated to evaluate the in-plane buckling load. The virtual work principle method is used to establish the non-linear equilibrium and buckling equations. Analytical solutions for the non-linear in-plane sym- metric snap-through and antisymmetric bifurcation buckling loads are obtained. Based on the least square method, an approximation for the symmetric buckling load of fixed parabolic arch is proposed to simplify the solution process. And the relation between modified slenderness and buckling modes are discussed. Comparisons with the results of finite element analysis demonstrate that the solutions are accurate. A cable-arch structure is presented to improve the in-plane stability of parabolic arches. The comparison of buckling loads between cable-arch systems and arches only show that the effect of cables becomes more evident with the increase of arch’s modified slenderness.

  20. LiteBIRD: Mission Overview and Focal Plane Layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, T.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Borrill, J.; Chendra, R.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Dominjon, A.; Elleflot, T.; Errard, J.; Fujino, T.; Fuke, H.; Goeckner-wald, N.; Halverson, N.; Harvey, P.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hattori, M.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Hilton, G.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Hubmayr, J.; Ichiki, K.; Inatani, J.; Inoue, M.; Inoue, Y.; Irie, F.; Irwin, K.; Ishino, H.; Ishitsuka, H.; Jeong, O.; Karatsu, K.; Kashima, S.; Katayama, N.; Kawano, I.; Keating, B.; Kibayashi, A.; Kibe, Y.; Kida, Y.; Kimura, K.; Kimura, N.; Kohri, K.; Komatsu, E.; Kuo, C. L.; Kuromiya, S.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Linder, E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsuoka, S.; Matsuura, S.; Mima, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Mizukami, K.; Morii, H.; Morishima, T.; Nagai, M.; Nagasaki, T.; Nagata, R.; Nakajima, M.; Nakamura, S.; Namikawa, T.; Naruse, M.; Natsume, K.; Nishibori, T.; Nishijo, K.; Nishino, H.; Nitta, T.; Noda, A.; Noguchi, T.; Ogawa, H.; Oguri, S.; Ohta, I. S.; Otani, C.; Okada, N.; Okamoto, A.; Okamoto, A.; Okamura, T.; Rebeiz, G.; Richards, P.; Sakai, S.; Sato, N.; Sato, Y.; Segawa, Y.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Sekine, M.; Seljak, U.; Sherwin, B.; Shinozaki, K.; Shu, S.; Stompor, R.; Sugai, H.; Sugita, H.; Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takada, S.; Takakura, S.; Takano, K.; Takei, Y.; Tomaru, T.; Tomita, N.; Turin, P.; Utsunomiya, S.; Uzawa, Y.; Wada, T.; Watanabe, H.; Westbrook, B.; Whitehorn, N.; Yamada, Y.; Yamasaki, N.; Yamashita, T.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshida, T.; Yotsumoto, Y.

    2016-08-01

    LiteBIRD is a proposed CMB polarization satellite project to probe the inflationary B-mode signal. The satellite is designed to measure the tensor-to-scalar ratio with a 68 % confidence level uncertainty of σ _r<10^{-3}, including statistical, instrumental systematic, and foreground uncertainties. LiteBIRD will observe the full sky from the second Lagrange point for 3 years. We have a focal plane layout for observing frequency coverage that spans 40-402 GHz to characterize the galactic foregrounds. We have two detector candidates, transition-edge sensor bolometers and microwave kinetic inductance detectors. In both cases, a telecentric focal plane consists of approximately 2× 10^3 superconducting detectors. We will present the mission overview of LiteBIRD, the project status, and the TES focal plane layout.