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Sample records for abdominal muscles

  1. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-01-01

    of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. RESULTS: A total of seven...

  2. Electrical muscle stimulation for deep stabilizing muscles in abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coghlan, Simon; Crowe, Louis; McCarthyPersson, Ulrik; Minogue, Conor; Caulfield, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Low back pain is associated with dysfunction in recruitment of muscles in the lumbopelvic region. Effective rehabilitation requires preferential activation of deep stabilizing muscle groups. This study was carried out in order to quantify the response of deep stabilizing muscles (transverses abdominis) and superficial muscle in the abdominal wall (external oblique) to electrical muscle stimulation (EMS). Results demonstrate that EMS can preferentially stimulate contractions in the deep stabilizers and may have significant potential as a therapeutic intervention in this area, pending further refinements to the technology.

  3. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  4. Fiber architecture of canine abdominal muscles.

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    Boriek, Aladin M; Ortize, Jaime; Zhu, Deshen

    2002-02-01

    During respiration, abdominal muscles experience loads, not only in the muscle-fiber direction but also transverse to the fibers. We wondered whether the abdominal muscles exhibit a fiber architecture that is similar to the diaphragm muscle, and, therefore, we chose two adjacent muscles: the internal oblique (IO), with about the same muscle length as the diaphragm, and the transverse abdominis (TA), which is twice as long as the diaphragm. First, we used acetylcholinesterase staining to examine the distribution of neuromuscular junctions on both surfaces of the TA and IO muscles in six dogs. A maximum of four irregular bands of neuromuscular junctions crossed the IO, and as many as six bands crossed the TA, which is consistent with a discontinuous fiber architecture. In six additional dogs, we examined fiber architecture of these muscles by microdissecting 103 fascicles from the IO and 139 from the TA. Each fascicle contained between 20 and 30 muscle fibers. The mean length of nonspanning fibers (NSF) ranged from 2.8 +/- 0.3 cm in the IO to 4.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the TA, and the mean length of spanning fibers ranged from 4.3 +/- 0.5 cm in the IO to 7.6 +/- 1.4 cm in the TA. NSF accounted for 89.6 +/- 1.5% of all fibers dissected from the IO and 99.1 +/- 0.2% of all fibers dissected from the TA. The percentage of NSF with both ends tapered was 6.2 +/- 1.0 and 41.0 +/- 2.3% for IO and TA, respectively. These data show that fiber architecture in either IO or TA is discontinuous, with much more short-tapered fibers in the TA than in the IO. When abdominal muscles are submaximally activated, as during both normal expiration and maximal expiratory efforts, muscle force could be transmitted to the cell membrane and to the extracellular intramuscular connective tissue by shear linkage, presumably via structural transmembrane proteins.

  5. Cardiac function in muscular dystrophy associates with abdominal muscle pathology

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    Gardner, Brandon B.; Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Kim, Gene; Watson, Sydeaka; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The muscular dystrophies target muscle groups differentially. In mouse models of muscular dystrophy, notably the mdx model of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, the diaphragm muscle shows marked fibrosis and at an earlier age than other muscle groups, more reflective of the histopathology seen in human muscular dystrophy. Methods Using a mouse model of limb girdle muscular dystrophy, the Sgcg mouse, we compared muscle pathology across different muscle groups and heart. A cohort of nearly 200 Sgcg mice were studied using multiple measures of pathology including echocardiography, Evans blue dye uptake and hydroxyproline content in multiple muscle groups. Spearman rank correlations were determined among echocardiographic and pathological parameters. Findings The abdominal muscles were found to have more fibrosis than other muscle groups, including the diaphragm muscle. The abdominal muscles also had more Evans blue dye uptake than other muscle groups. The amount of diaphragm fibrosis was found to correlate positively with fibrosis in the left ventricle, and abdominal muscle fibrosis correlated with impaired left ventricular function. Fibrosis in the abdominal muscles negatively correlated with fibrosis in the diaphragm and right ventricles. Together these data reflect the recruitment of abdominal muscles as respiratory muscles in muscular dystrophy, a finding consistent with data from human patients. PMID:26029630

  6. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

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    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents.

  7. Abdominal muscle and quadriceps strength in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Background: Quadriceps muscle weakness is common in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but is not observed in a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis). Although this could be explained by reduced activity in the quadriceps, the observation could also be explained by anatomical location of the muscle or fibre type composition. However, the abdominal muscles are of a similar anatomical and fibre type distribution to the quadriceps, although they remain active in COPD. Cough gastric pre...

  8. Trunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing: comparison among muscles and exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeo, Sumiaki; Takahashi, Takumi; Takai, Yohei; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank) and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench) exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax). The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60%) than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%). The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements. Key PointsTrunk muscle activities during abdominal bracing was examined with regard to muscle- and exercise-related differences.Abdominal bracing preferentially activates internal oblique muscles even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements.Abdominal bracing should be

  9. Abdominal expiratory muscle activity in anesthetized vagotomized neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Makito

    2009-05-01

    The pattern of respiratory activity in abdominal muscles was studied in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing, vagotomized neonatal rats at postnatal days 0-3. Anesthesia (2.0% isoflurane, 50% O(2)) depressed breathing and resulted in hypercapnia. Under this condition, abdominal muscles showed discharge late in the expiratory phase (E2 activity) in most rats. As the depth of anesthesia decreased, the amplitude of discharges in the diaphragm and abdominal muscles increased. A small additional burst frequently occurred in abdominal muscles just after the termination of diaphragmatic inspiratory activity (E1 or postinspiratory activity). Since this E1 activity is not often observed in adult rats, the abdominal respiratory pattern likely changes during postnatal development. Anoxia-induced gasping after periodic expiratory activity without inspiratory activity, and in most rats, abdominal expiratory activity disappeared before terminal apnea. These results suggest that a biphasic abdominal motor pattern (a combination of E2 and E1 activity) is a characteristic of vagotomized neonatal rats during normal respiration.

  10. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dongha; Kim, Gayeong; Lee, Wanhee; Shin, Mary Myong Sook

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the effects of inspiratory muscle training on pulmonary function, deep abdominal muscle thickness, and balance ability in stroke patients. [Subjects] Twenty-three stroke patients were randomly allocated to an experimental (n = 11) or control group (n = 12). [Methods] The experimental group received inspiratory muscle training-based abdominal muscle strengthening with conventional physical therapy; the control group received standard abdominal muscle strengthening with conventional physical therapy. Treatment was conducted 20 minutes per day, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function testing was performed using an electronic spirometer. Deep abdominal muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. Balance was measured using the Berg balance scale. [Results] Forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, deep abdominal muscle thickness, and Berg balance scale scores were significantly improved in the experimental group than in the control group. [Conclusion] Abdominal muscle strengthening accompanied by inspiratory muscle training is recommended to improve pulmonary function in stroke patients, and may also be used as a practical adjunct to conventional physical therapy.

  11. Changes in lateral abdominal muscles' thickness immediately after the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and maximum expiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2013-04-01

    All lateral abdominal muscles contract more strongly during maximum expiration than during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM). However, little is known about which of the lateral abdominal muscles is activated during maximum expiration. Thus, the purpose of this study is to quantify changes in the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles immediately after the ADIM and maximum expiration. The thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 healthy men before and after the ADIM and maximum expiration. After the ADIM, there was no significant change in the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles. After maximum expiration, the thickness of the TrA muscle significantly increased, and there was no significant change in the thickness of the IO and EO muscles. Thus, maximum expiration may be an effective method for TrA, rather than IO and EO, muscle training.

  12. Preliminary observations on the microarchitecture of the human abdominal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Stephanie J; Duxson, Marilyn J; Mercer, Susan R

    2007-10-01

    Precise knowledge of muscle architecture and innervation patterns is essential for the development of accurate clinical and biomechanical models. Although the gross anatomy of the human abdominal muscles has been investigated, the finer details of their microanatomy are not well described. Fascicles were systematically sampled from each of the human abdominal muscles, and small fiber bundles from selected fascicles stained with acetylcholinesterase to determine the location of motor endplate bands, myomyonal junctions, and myotendinous junctions. Statistical analysis was used to ascertain the association between fascicular length and number of endplate bands. The number of endplate bands along a fascicle was variable between different portions of each muscle, but was strongly correlated with fascicular length (r = 0.814). In fascicles less than 50 millimeters (mm) in length, only a single endplate band was generally present, while multiple endplate bands (usually two or three) were found in fascicles longer than 50 mm. The presence of myomyonal junctions throughout the longer (>50 mm) fascicles verified that they were composed of short, intrafascicularly terminating fibers, while shorter fascicles comprised fibers spanning the entire fascicular length. This preliminary study provides evidence that multiple endplate bands are contained in some regions of the abdominal muscles, an arrangement that differs from most human appendicular muscles. It is not clear whether the variations in the described fine architectural features reflect regional differences in muscle function.

  13. TRUNK MUSCLE ACTIVITIES DURING ABDOMINAL BRACING: COMPARISON AMONG MUSCLES AND EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiaki Maeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal bracing is often adopted in fitness and sports conditioning programs. However, there is little information on how muscular activities during the task differ among the muscle groups located in the trunk and from those during other trunk exercises. The present study aimed to quantify muscular activity levels during abdominal bracing with respect to muscle- and exercise-related differences. Ten healthy young adult men performed five static (abdominal bracing, abdominal hollowing, prone, side, and supine plank and five dynamic (V- sits, curl-ups, sit-ups, and back extensions on the floor and on a bench exercises. Surface electromyogram (EMG activities of the rectus abdominis (RA, external oblique (EO, internal oblique (IO, and erector spinae (ES muscles were recorded in each of the exercises. The EMG data were normalized to those obtained during maximal voluntary contraction of each muscle (% EMGmax. The % EMGmax value during abdominal bracing was significantly higher in IO (60% than in the other muscles (RA: 18%, EO: 27%, ES: 19%. The % EMGmax values for RA, EO, and ES were significantly lower in the abdominal bracing than in some of the other exercises such as V-sits and sit-ups for RA and EO and back extensions for ES muscle. However, the % EMGmax value for IO during the abdominal bracing was significantly higher than those in most of the other exercises including dynamic ones such as curl-ups and sit-ups. These results suggest that abdominal bracing is one of the most effective techniques for inducing a higher activation in deep abdominal muscles, such as IO muscle, even compared to dynamic exercises involving trunk flexion/extension movements

  14. Localization of motoneurons innervating individual abdominal muscles of the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a systematic investigation of the innervation of the cat's individual abdominal muscles. The segmental distribution of the different motor pools was determined by using electrical microstimulation of the ventral horn to produce visible localized muscle twitches and by retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase injected into individual muscles. The segmental distribution of each motor pool was as follows: rectus abdominis, T4-L3; external oblique, T6-L3; transverse abdominis, T9-L3; and internal oblique, T13-L3.

  15. REPEATED ABDOMINAL EXERCISE INDUCES RESPIRATORY MUSCLE FATIGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Coast

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged bouts of hyperpnea or resisted breathing are known to result in respiratory muscle fatigue, as are primarily non respiratory exercises such as maximal running and cycling. These exercises have a large ventilatory component, though, and can still be argued to be respiratory activities. Sit-up training has been used to increase respiratory muscle strength, but no studies have been done to determine whether this type of non-respiratory activity can lead to respiratory fatigue. The purpose of the study was to test the effect of sit-ups on various respiratory muscle strength and endurance parameters. Eight subjects performed pulmonary function, maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (MEP measurements, and an incremental breathing test before and after completing a one-time fatiguing exercise bout of sit-ups. Each subject acted as their own control performing the same measurements 3-5 days following the exercise bout, substituting rest for exercise. Following sit-up induced fatigue, significant decreases were measured in MIP [121.6 ± 26 to 113.8 ± 23 cmH2O (P <0.025], and incremental breathing test duration [9.6 ± 1.5 to 8.5 ± 0.7 minutes (P <0.05]. No significant decreases were observed from control pre-test to control post-test measurements. We conclude that after a one-time fatiguing sit-up exercise bout there is a reduction in respiratory muscle strength (MIP, MEP and endurance (incremental breathing test duration but not spirometric pulmonary function

  16. Abdominal muscle fatigue following exercise in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moxham John

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a restriction on maximum ventilatory capacity contributes to exercise limitation. It has been demonstrated that the diaphragm in COPD is relatively protected from fatigue during exercise. Because of expiratory flow limitation the abdominal muscles are activated early during exercise in COPD. This adds significantly to the work of breathing and may therefore contribute to exercise limitation. In healthy subjects, prior expiratory muscle fatigue has been shown itself to contribute to the development of quadriceps fatigue. It is not known whether fatigue of the abdominal muscles occurs during exercise in COPD. Methods Twitch gastric pressure (TwT10Pga, elicited by magnetic stimulation over the 10th thoracic vertebra and twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure (TwPdi, elicited by bilateral anterolateral magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation were measured before and after symptom-limited, incremental cycle ergometry in patients with COPD. Results Twenty-three COPD patients, with a mean (SD FEV1 40.8(23.1% predicted, achieved a mean peak workload of 53.5(15.9 W. Following exercise, TwT10Pga fell from 51.3(27.1 cmH2O to 47.4(25.2 cmH2O (p = 0.011. TwPdi did not change significantly; pre 17.0(6.4 cmH2O post 17.5(5.9 cmH2O (p = 0.7. Fatiguers, defined as having a fall TwT10Pga ≥ 10% had significantly worse lung gas transfer, but did not differ in other exercise parameters. Conclusions In patients with COPD, abdominal muscle but not diaphragm fatigue develops following symptom limited incremental cycle ergometry. Further work is needed to establish whether abdominal muscle fatigue is relevant to exercise limitation in COPD, perhaps indirectly through an effect on quadriceps fatigability.

  17. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

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    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful.

  18. The Pilates Method increases respiratory muscle strength and performance as well as abdominal muscle thickness.

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    Giacomini, Mateus Beltrame; da Silva, Antônio Marcos Vargas; Weber, Laura Menezes; Monteiro, Mariane Borba

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the Pilates Method (PM) training program on the thickness of the abdominal wall muscles, respiratory muscle strength and performance, and lung function. This uncontrolled clinical trial involved 16 sedentary women who were assessed before and after eight weeks of PM training. The thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique (EO) muscles was assessed. The respiratory muscle strength was assessed by measuring the maximum inspiratory (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) pressure. The lung function and respiratory muscle performance were assessed by spirometry. An increase was found in MIP (p = 0.001), MEP (p = 0.031), maximum voluntary ventilation (p = 0.020) and the TrA (p abdominal wall muscle hypertrophy and an increase in respiratory muscle strength and performance, preventing weakness in abdominal muscles and dysfunction in ventilatory mechanics, which could favor the appearance of illnesses.

  19. Ecdysone signaling at metamorphosis triggers apoptosis of Drosophila abdominal muscles.

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    Zirin, Jonathan; Cheng, Daojun; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Cho, Julio; Dura, Jean-Maurice; Vijayraghavan, Krishnaswamy; Perrimon, Norbert

    2013-11-15

    One of the most dramatic examples of programmed cell death occurs during Drosophila metamorphosis, when most of the larval tissues are destroyed in a process termed histolysis. Much of our understanding of this process comes from analyses of salivary gland and midgut cell death. In contrast, relatively little is known about the degradation of the larval musculature. Here, we analyze the programmed destruction of the abdominal dorsal exterior oblique muscle (DEOM) which occurs during the first 24h of metamorphosis. We find that ecdysone signaling through Ecdysone receptor isoform B1 is required cell autonomously for the muscle death. Furthermore, we show that the orphan nuclear receptor FTZ-F1, opposed by another nuclear receptor, HR39, plays a critical role in the timing of DEOM histolysis. Finally, we show that unlike the histolysis of salivary gland and midgut, abdominal muscle death occurs by apoptosis, and does not require autophagy. Thus, there is no set rule as to the role of autophagy and apoptosis during Drosophila histolysis.

  20. Comparison of abdominal muscle thickness according to feedback method used during abdominal hollowing exercise.

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    Lee, Sangyong; Han, Seulki; Lee, Daehee

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] This study was intended to examine the most effective feedback method for contracting the musculus transversus abdominis muscle by using basic training, a pressure biofeedback unit, and real-time ultrasonographic imaging during abdominal hollowing exercise training. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects in this study were 30 healthy young students in their twenties. Thirty subjects were divided randomly and equally into the basic training, the pressure biofeedback unit, and real-time ultrasonographic imaging groups. All of the subjects received abdominal hollowing exercise training for 15 minutes. The subjects in the pressure biofeedback unit group were trained by using a pressure biofeedback unit. Those in the real-time ultrasonographic imaging group received training with monitoring of possible contraction of their musculus transversus abdominis muscles on ultrasonography. [Results] In all the three groups, the musculus transversus abdominis became significantly thicker, but more significantly in the real-time ultrasonographic imaging group than in the basic training group. [Conclusion] The feedback method using real-time ultrasonographic imaging may be more effective in thickening the musculus transversus abdominis muscle during exercise than the traditional feedback method with manual contact only. However, it is insufficient in terms of overall qualitative improvement of exercise outcome.

  1. Is Abdominal Muscle Activity Different from Lumbar Muscle Activity during Four-Point Kneeling?

    OpenAIRE

    Soraya Pirouzi; Farahnaz Emami; Shohreh Taghizadeh; Ali Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Stabilization exercises can improve the performance of trunk and back muscles, which are effective in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The four-point kneeling exercise is one of the most common types of stabilization exercises. This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate and compare the level of activation between abdominal and lumbar muscles in the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. Methods: The present study was conducted on 30 healthy wom...

  2. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-08-01

    Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. A total of seven studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients with VIH, but very few studies have evaluated AMF in VIH. There are no randomized controlled studies to describe the impact of VIH repair on AMF, and no optimal surgical treatment in relation to AMF after VIH repair can be advocated for at this time.

  3. Functional electrical stimulation to the abdominal wall muscles synchronized with the expiratory flow does not induce muscle fatigue.

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    Okuno, Yukako; Takahashi, Ryoichi; Sewa, Yoko; Ohse, Hirotaka; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] Continuous electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles is known to induce mild muscle fatigue. However, it is not clear whether this is also true for functional electrical stimulation delivered only during the expiratory phase of breathing. This study aimed to examine whether or not intermittent electrical stimulation delivered to abdominal wall muscles induces muscle fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults. Abdominal electrical stimulation was applied for 1.5 seconds from the start of expiration and then turned off during inspiration. The electrodes were attached to both sides of the abdomen at the lower margin of the 12th rib. Abdominal electrical stimulation was delivered for 15 minutes with the subject in a seated position. Expiratory flow was measured during stimulus. Trunk flexor torque and electromyography activity were measured to evaluate abdominal muscle fatigue. [Results] The mean stimulation on/off ratio was 1:2.3. The declining rate of abdominal muscle torque was 61.1 ± 19.1% before stimulus and 56.5 ± 20.9% after stimulus, not significantly different. The declining rate of mean power frequency was 47.8 ± 11.7% before stimulus and 47.9 ± 10.2% after stimulus, not significantly different. [Conclusion] It was found that intermittent electrical stimulation to abdominal muscles synchronized with the expiratory would not induce muscle fatigue.

  4. Functional electrical stimulation to the abdominal wall muscles synchronized with the expiratory flow does not induce muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, Yukako; Takahashi, Ryoichi; Sewa, Yoko; Ohse, Hirotaka; Imura, Shigeyuki; Tomita, Kazuhide

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Continuous electrical stimulation of abdominal wall muscles is known to induce mild muscle fatigue. However, it is not clear whether this is also true for functional electrical stimulation delivered only during the expiratory phase of breathing. This study aimed to examine whether or not intermittent electrical stimulation delivered to abdominal wall muscles induces muscle fatigue. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were nine healthy adults. Abdominal electrical stimulation was applied for 1.5 seconds from the start of expiration and then turned off during inspiration. The electrodes were attached to both sides of the abdomen at the lower margin of the 12th rib. Abdominal electrical stimulation was delivered for 15 minutes with the subject in a seated position. Expiratory flow was measured during stimulus. Trunk flexor torque and electromyography activity were measured to evaluate abdominal muscle fatigue. [Results] The mean stimulation on/off ratio was 1:2.3. The declining rate of abdominal muscle torque was 61.1 ± 19.1% before stimulus and 56.5 ± 20.9% after stimulus, not significantly different. The declining rate of mean power frequency was 47.8 ± 11.7% before stimulus and 47.9 ± 10.2% after stimulus, not significantly different. [Conclusion] It was found that intermittent electrical stimulation to abdominal muscles synchronized with the expiratory would not induce muscle fatigue. PMID:28356636

  5. Pelvic floor muscle contraction and abdominal hollowing during walking can selectively activate local trunk stabilizing muscles.

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    Lee, Ah Young; Baek, Seung Ok; Cho, Yun Woo; Lim, Tae Hong; Jones, Rodney; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2016-11-21

    Trunk muscle exercises are widely performed, and many studies have been performed to examine their effects on low back pains. However, the effect of trunk muscles activations during walking with pelvic floor muscle contraction (PFMC) and abdominal hollowing (AH) has not been clarified. To investigate whether walking with PFMC and AH is more effective for promoting local trunk muscle activation than walking without PFMC and AH. Twenty healthy men (28.9 ± 3.14 years, 177.2 ± 4.25 cm, 72.1 ± 6.39 kg, body mass index 22.78 ± 2.38 kg/m2) were participated in this study. Surface electrodes were attached over the multifidus (MF), lumbar erector spinae (LES), thoracic erector spinae (TES), transverse abdominus-internal oblique abdominals (TrA-IO), external oblique abdominals (EO), and rectus abdominus (RA). The amplitudes of electromyographic signals were measured during a normal walking with and without PFMC and AH. PFMC and AH while walking was found to result in significant bilateral increases in the normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of MFs and TrA-IOs (pmuscle activity to global muscle activities were increased while performing PFMC and AH during normal walking. Bilateral TrA-IO/EO activity ratios were significantly increased by PFMC and AH (pmuscles. This study suggests that PFMC and AH during normal daily walking improves activation of muscles responsible for spinal dynamic stabilization and might be useful if integrated into low back disability and pain physical rehabilitation efforts.

  6. Muscle Patterning in Mouse and Human Abdominal Wall Development and Omphalocele Specimens of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nichol, Peter F.; Corliss, Robert F.; Yamada, Shigehito; SHIOTA, KOHEI; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and p...

  7. The effect of food consumption on the thickness of abdominal muscles, employing ultrasound measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Rostami, Mohsen; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2011-08-01

    Recently, the roles of transabdominal muscles particularly TrA (transverse abdominis) muscle in spinal stability leading to treatment of low back pain have been suggested. Both in clinical setting and follow up studies, abdominal muscle thickness measurements need to be repeated at a later point in time to demonstrate efficacy of a therapeutic intervention. Different issues have been suggested as source of error in the repeated measurements of abdominal muscle thickness in different days such as patient position and stability of probe location. The level of stomach fullness has not been investigated as a source of error in ultrasonic measurements of transabdominal muscles thickness. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of food consumption on thickness of lateral abdominal muscles. Lateral abdominal muscles thicknesses of 63 healthy volunteer men were measured before and after food consumption. All the measurements were performed in two transducer positions and both sides. Waist circumference and body weight of participants were also measured before and post-food consumption. The thickness measures of all three muscles layers of lateral abdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) in both sides and measured positions were significantly reduced after food consumption. We found no correlation between the increase of waist circumference and reduction of muscle layer thicknesses after food consumption. In case of comparison between the values of transabdominal muscle thicknesses over the time, the effect of food consumption on muscle thickness might be assumed as a potential source of error.

  8. Innovative exercise device for the abdominal trunk muscles: An early validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Hideki; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Demura, Satoru; Nakase, Junsuke; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Yokogawa, Noriaki; Igarashi, Takashi; Takahashi, Naoki; Yonezawa, Noritaka; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Background Exercise is one of the few treatments that provide significant improvements in chronic low back pain (CLBP). We developed an innovative exercise device for abdominal trunk muscles. This device can be used in a sitting or standing position and contains a built-in system to measure abdominal trunk muscle strength. We examined whether subjects can adequately use the device to perform the exercises and measure their abdominal trunk muscle strength. Methods We collected data on the body height, body weight, body mass index, and girth of 30 healthy male volunteers, and measured their grip power and trunk extensor muscle strength using a dynamometer. The volunteers performed a sit-up test as an indicator of trunk flexor muscle strength, and we measured their abdominal muscle strength using the device. We then evaluated the correlations between abdominal trunk muscle strength and anthropometric parameters as well as the strength of other muscles. In subsequent tests, 5 of the 30 subjects participated in two positron emission tomography (PET) series consisting of examinations after a resting period (control study) and during exercise (exercise study). For the exercise study, the subjects performed 2 sets of exercises for 20 minutes using the device before and after an injection of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET-computed tomography images were obtained 60 minutes after FDG injection in each study. We compared the skeletal muscle metabolism of the participants in both studies using the standardized uptake value. Results The muscle strength measured by the device and the 30-second sit-up frequency were correlated. FDG accumulation within the diaphragm and abdominal rectus muscles was significantly higher in the exercise study. Conclusion Our innovative exercise device facilitates a coordinated contraction of the abdominal trunk muscles at the anterior aspect and the roof of the core, and enables subjects to measure the strength of these muscles. PMID:28235060

  9. Effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in sedentary, healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Iván; Navarro, Ximena; Gatica, Darwin; Manterola, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Respiratory muscle training is the most commonly used method to revert respiratory muscle weakness; however, the effect of protocols based on non-respiratory maneuvers has not been adequately studied in the pediatric population. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of abdominal muscle training on respiratory muscle strength and forced expiratory flows in healthy adolescents. This was a quasi-experiment. The sample was made up of healthy adolescents divided into two groups: an experimental group who completed eight weeks of active abdominal muscle training, and an equivalent control group. The following indicators were measured: abdominal muscle strength, maximal inspiratory pressure, maximal expiratory pressure (MEP), peak expiratory flow, and peak cough flow, before and after protocol completion. A value of p training, MEP and peak expiratory flow increased in healthy (sedentary) adolescents. Such effects were associated with intervention-induced increases in cough peak flow. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  10. Architectural and morphological assessment of rat abdominal wall muscles: comparison for use as a human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Banuelos, Karina; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2010-09-01

    The abdominal wall is a composite of muscles that are important for the mechanical stability of the spine and pelvis. Tremendous clinical attention is given to these muscles, yet little is known about how they function in isolation or how they interact with one another. Given the morphological, vascular, and innervation complexities associated with these muscles and their proximity to the internal organs, an appropriate animal model is important for understanding their physiological and mechanical significance during function. To determine the extent to which the rat abdominal wall resembles that of human, 10 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were killed and formalin-fixed for architectural and morphological analyses of the four abdominal wall muscles (rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis). Physiological cross-sectional areas and optimal fascicle lengths demonstrated a pattern that was similar to human abdominal wall muscles. In addition, sarcomere lengths measured in the neutral spine posture were similar to human in their relation to optimal sarcomere length. These data indicate that the force-generating and length change capabilities of these muscles, relative to one another, are similar in rat and human. Finally, the fiber lines of action of each abdominal muscle were similar to human over most of the abdominal wall. The main exception was in the lower abdominal region (inferior to the pelvic crest), where the external oblique becomes aponeurotic in human but continues as muscle fibers into its pelvic insertion in the rat. We conclude that, based on the morphology and architecture of the abdominal wall muscles, the adult male Sprague-Dawley rat is a good candidate for a model representation of human, particularly in the middle and upper abdominal wall regions.

  11. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padjabdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor).

  12. Is Abdominal Muscle Activity Different from Lumbar Muscle Activity during Four-Point Kneeling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Pirouzi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stabilization exercises can improve the performance of trunk and back muscles, which are effective in the prevention and treatment of low back pain. The four-point kneeling exercise is one of the most common types of stabilization exercises. This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate and compare the level of activation between abdominal and lumbar muscles in the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. Methods: The present study was conducted on 30 healthy women between 20 and 30 years old. Muscle activity was recorded bilaterally from transversus abdominis, internal oblique, and multifidus muscles with an electromyography (EMG device during the different stages of the four-point kneeling exercise. All the collected EMG data were normalized to the percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. The repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-test were used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results: A comparison between mean muscle activation in right arm extension and left leg extension showed that left internal oblique and left transverse abdominis muscles produced greater activation during left leg extension (P<0.05. The comparison of mean muscle activation between right arm extension and the bird-dog position showed that, except for the right internal oblique, all the muscles produced higher activation in the bird-dog stage (P<0.05. In comparison to the bird-dog stage, the left multifidus showed high activation during left leg extension (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the activity of all the above-mentioned muscles during quadruped exercise can provide stability, coordination, and smoothness of movements.

  13. Effects of respiratory muscle training and electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles on respiratory capabilities in tetraplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan, A; Savrin, R; Erjavec, T; Kralj, A; Karcnik, T; Skorjanc, T; Benko, H; Obreza, P

    1997-08-01

    Thirteen tetraplegic patients were included in the study of the effects of respiratory muscle training and of electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles on their respiratory capabilities. Each patient was subjected for three 1 month lasting periods of the study: for inspiratory muscle training, expiratory muscle training and for a period without training. The sequence of these three periods was random for each patient. Respiratory tests (RT) measuring forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) were conducted before and following each monthly period. Measurements were taken under four sets of conditions: the patients' unassisted efforts, their efforts combined with pressure manually applied by a therapist to the upper part of their abdomen, and their efforts accompanied by electrical stimulation (ES) of the abdominal muscles during the early phase of expirium, once triggered by the therapist and once by the patients themselves. RT values were increasing following respiratory muscle training and inspiratory training apparently had a slightly greater effect than its expiratory counterpart. The increments of values of RT were statistically significant (P muscle training. RT measurements were greater when the patient's voluntary effort was combined with ES of abdominal muscles than when it was not. This study concludes that respiratory muscle training is a potentially effective approach and that ES of the abdominal muscles has potentials to improve coughing in tetraplegic patients.

  14. POSTOPERATIVE RECOVERY OF MUSCLE FORCE THROUGH MUSCLE TONING IN ABDOMINAL PARIETAL DEFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Monica Moacă

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper’s aim is to elaborate a program of postoperative recovery for patients suffering from abdominal parietal defects, and to indicate the beneficial implications, both of the preoperative preparations and of the postoperative physiotherapist actions. The programs of functional postoperative recovery have been elaborated individually for the 254 patients under study – of which 139 belong to lot A (operated under a scheduled regime, after the preoperative preparation and 115 belong to lot B (operated in an emergency regime, in the General Surgery Clinic III of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest, between 1998 and 2009. The postoperative recovery program has been individualized for each patient, depending on his / her pathology and co-morbidities, and the physiotherapist has trained and took care that the patients should execute exercises of respiratory re-education, active mobilization of their limbs, coordinated with the breath, isometric exercises for the toning of their arms and legs and of the abdomen muscles. They started the muscle toning exercises slowly and increased them progressively in duration and intensity. The recovery started with isometric-type exercises and continued with the isotonic-type ones. Though mainly the abdominal muscles are aimed at, respectively the flexor muscles of the torso, the physiotherapy program shall comprise the toning of the other muscle groups of the torso, as well. It has been noticed - for the patients in lot A, compared to those of lot B - an obvious net favorable postoperative evolution, characterized through: a reduction of the respiratory, cardiac and thromboembolic complications, a quick postoperative recovery and the immediate social reintegration. An overview of the two lots proves the importance of the cardio-respiratory and locomotive preparation of the patients suffering from big abdominal parietal defects. The simple gestures of respiratory re-education, of

  15. Extended mesh repair with external oblique muscle reinforcement for abdominal wall contour abnormalities following TRAM flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israeli, Ron; Hazani, Ron; Feingold, Randall S; DeNoto, George; Scheiner, Marc S

    2009-12-01

    Many patients undergoing reconstructive surgery after mastectomy opt for reconstruction with the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap. Among the morbidities related to TRAM flap reconstruction is the development of abdominal wall contour abnormalities, including bulges or hernias. Several repair techniques at the flap abdominal wall donor site have been described for use at the time of flap harvest in an attempt to reduce the risk of such abdominal wall complications. For patients that develop abdominal wall contour abnormalities, numerous reconstructive options have been reported, with mixed results. Ten patients were identified as having abdominal wall contour abnormalities after a TRAM flap and underwent an extended mesh repair with external oblique muscle reinforcement. The mesh was secured to the bony landmarks of the lower abdomen and the abdominal wall fascia. All patients achieved complete resolution of abdominal wall bulging. In the follow-up period, no recurrences, infections, or seromas were noted. One patient, who failed an earlier repair at the inferior abdominal wall, reported symptoms consistent with a scar neuroma. Symptoms were treated successfully with gabapentin and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. We propose a novel and reliable method of lower abdominal wall reconstruction for patients with post-TRAM flap abdominal wall contour abnormalities. This technique incorporates the use of a large Marlex mesh reinforced with bilateral external oblique muscle flaps. We report a series of 10 patients who have achieved resolution of their symptoms and have regained a natural, flat-appearing abdominal wall contour.

  16. Ureteral reconstruction with abdominal wall muscle flap: experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alfred Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors detail the experimental development of a technique for the reconstruction of the ureter using a tubular shape, muscle flap of the abdominal wall. the preliminary results indicate the feasibility of this surgical technique.

  17. Ureteral reconstruction with abdominal wall muscle flap: experimental study in rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Alfred Smith; Paulo Cesar Silva; Manoel Luiz Ferreira; Alberto Schanaider

    2014-01-01

    The authors detail the experimental development of a technique for the reconstruction of the ureter using a tubular shape, muscle flap of the abdominal wall. the preliminary results indicate the feasibility of this surgical technique.

  18. Abdominal Closure after TRAM Flap Breast Reconstruction with Transversus Abdominis Muscle Release and Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendano-Peza, Héctor; Novitsky, Yuri W.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Breast reconstruction with a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis muscle (TRAM) flap can result in significant abdominal wall donor-site morbidity. Although the pedicled TRAM flap donor area reinforced with mesh results in decreased rates of postoperative abdominal bulging and hernias, the best technique to accomplish that is yet to be elucidated. We present our novel technique of posterior components separation with transversus abdominis muscle release and retromuscular mesh reinforcement for donor-area closure during pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction.

  19. Abdominal muscle strength is related to the quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Suenimeire; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Brandino, Hugo Evangelista; Ferreira, Vânia Tie Koga; Scheicher, Marcos Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the association between abdominal muscle strength and quality of life among older adults with lumbar osteoarthritis. A blind, cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 older adults: 20 with lumbar osteoarthritis (12 women and 8 men, mean age of 65.90 ± 4.80 years) and 20 controls (14 women and 6 men, mean age of 67.90 ± 4.60 years). The volunteers were submitted to an abdominal muscle strength test. Quality of life was evaluated using the SF-36 questionnaire. Both abdominal muscle strength and quality of life scores were significantly lower in the group with lumbar osteoarthritis in comparison to the controls (p muscle strength and the subscales of the SF-36 questionnaire (p muscle strength have a better quality of life.

  20. Why Do Abdominal Muscles Sometimes Separate during Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... birth weight Have repeated pregnancies During pregnancy, aggressive abdominal exercises after the first trimester also might contribute to the development of diastasis recti. If you think you have ...

  1. Effect of abdominal bracing training on strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Maeo, Sumiaki; Usui, Seiji; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2016-09-01

    It is unknown whether maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles, called abdominal bracing, can be a training maneuver for improving strength and power of trunk and lower limb muscles. The present study aimed to elucidate this. Twenty young adult men (23.3 ± 1.8 years) were allocated to training (TG, n = 11) or control (CG, n = 9) group. TG conducted an 8-week training program (3 days/week) consisting of 2-s maximal abdominal bracing followed by 2-s muscle relaxation (5 × 10 repetitions/day). Maximal voluntary isometric strength during trunk flexion and extension, hip extension, and knee extension, maximal lifting power from sitting position, and the thicknesses of abdominal muscles were measured before and after the intervention. In addition, surface electromyograms from trunk and lower limb muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during the maximal abdominal bracing and maximal lifting tasks were also determined. After the intervention, TG showed significant increases in isometric trunk extension (+14.4 %) and hip extension (+34.7 %) strength and maximal lifting power (+15.6 %), while CG did not show any changes in strength and power variables. Furthermore, TG had significant gains in the muscle thickness of the oblique internal (+22.4 %), maximal IAP during abdominal bracing (+36.8 %), and the rate of IAP rise during lifting task (+58.8 %), without corresponding changes in CG. The current study indicates that a training style with maximal voluntary co-contraction of abdominal muscles can be an effective maneuver for increasing strength and power during movements involving trunk and hip extensions, without using external load.

  2. An oblique muscle hematoma as a rare cause of severe abdominal pain: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimodaira Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abdominal wall hematomas are an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain and are often misdiagnosed. They are more common in elderly individuals, particularly in those under anticoagulant therapy. Most abdominal wall hematomas occur in the rectus sheath, and hematomas within the oblique muscle are very rare and are poorly described in the literature. Here we report the case of an oblique muscle hematoma in a middle-aged patient who was not under anticoagulant therapy. Case presentation A 42-year-old Japanese man presented with a painful, enlarging, lateral abdominal wall mass, which appeared after playing baseball. Abdominal computed tomography and ultrasonography showed a large soft tissue mass located in the patient’s left internal oblique muscle. A diagnosis of a lateral oblique muscle hematoma was made and the patient was treated conservatively. Conclusion Physicians should consider an oblique muscle hematoma during the initial differential diagnosis of pain in the lateral abdominal wall even in the absence of anticoagulant therapy or trauma.

  3. Using weights in abdominal exercises: electromyography response of the Rectus Abdominis and Rectus Femoris muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A C; Bankoff, A D; Almeida, T L; Simões, E C; Rodrigues, C E; Okano, A H

    2003-12-01

    Among persons who do regular exercises, many include abdominal exercises in their customary routine. For this, there are a growing variety of movements being created for strengthening the abdominal muscles. This work aims to know, through electromyography analysis, the action potencies of the supra and infra umbilical of the Rectus Abdominis and Rectus Femoris muscles during the execution of abdominal exercises with and without the addition of weights. Lying on the backside, seven flexing movements of the trunk--one without weight, three with 2 Kg on the neck, elbow and chest and three with 4 Kg on the same points--were executed. Nine female university students between 18 and 23 years old participated in the study. Surface electrodes were fixed to the supra and infra umbilical areas of the Rectus Abdominis and Rectus Femoris muscles. The results showed that the utilization of weights in the abdominal exercises did not appear to be effective for the Rectus Abdominis muscle since greater action potencies were only verified in the Rectus Femoris muscle. We concluded that the differences observed in the RMS were not relevant to the point of indicating the utilization of weights to improve abdominal exercises because greater action potencies were only observed in the Rectus Femoris muscle.

  4. Synergism between abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women: a systematic review of observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferla,Lia; Darski,Caroline; Paiva,Luciana Laureano; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Vieira, Adriane

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The training of the pelvic floor muscles is widely used for treating pelvic floor dysfunctions, like urinary incontinence. During the training, abdominal contractions are avoided; however several studies support the use of the synergy between these muscle groups. Objective: Carrying out a systematic review of studies that seek to identify the presence of synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor and its functionality in women without pelvic flo...

  5. Muscle development in the abdominal region of larval Hylidae (Amphibia: Anura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano, A S; Perotti, M G

    1999-09-01

    Larval muscle development in the abdominal region of five species of hylid frogs (Scinax nasicum, S. fuscovarium, Hyla andina, Phyllomedusa boliviana, Gastrotheca gracilis) was studied using differential staining techniques. These five species represent three major hylid subfamilies. The development of the main abdominal muscles, the rectus abdominis, the two lateral muscles (obliquus externus and transversus), and the lateral pectoralis abdominalis is described. The number of myotomes of the rectus abdominis varies between five and six, and the abdominal muscles associated with the rectus abdominis (obliquus externus, pectoralis abdominalis, and rectus cervicis) vary interspecifically in time of appearance and configuration. The presence of gaps in the configuration of the rectus abdominis has been related to the lotic habits of the larvae. However, our observations indicate the presence of such gaps in larvae that inhabit lentic environments as well. These results suggest that the presence of these gaps is unrelated to larval habitat. There are relatively small differences in muscle morphology among these closely related species, which apparently cannot be explained by morphological adaptations related to their ecology. In the species studied, the number of elements that form the abdominal musculature in larvae is equal to that observed in adults. Likewise, the general morphology of the muscles is ontogenetically conserved. This suggests that both the axial skeleton and musculature are more ontogenetically conserved in relation to the substantial changes that are observed in the skull and head muscles of developing anurans.

  6. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, SangWoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  7. Muscle patterning in mouse and human abdominal wall development and omphalocele specimens of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichol, Peter F; Corliss, Robert F; Yamada, Shigehito; Shiota, Kohei; Saijoh, Yukio

    2012-12-01

    Human omphalocele is a congenital defect of the abdominal wall in which the secondary abdominal wall structures (muscle and connective tissue) in an area centered around the umbilicus are replaced by a translucent membranous layer of tissue. Histological examination of omphalocele development and moreover the staging of normal human abdominal wall development has never been described. We hypothesized that omphalocele is the result of an arrest in the secondary abdominal wall development and predicted that we would observe delays in myoblast maturation and an arrest in secondary abdominal wall development. To look for evidence in support of our hypothesis, we performed a histological analysis of normal human abdominal wall development and compared this to mouse. We also conducted the first histological analysis of two human specimens with omphalocele. In these two omphalocele specimens, secondary abdominal wall development appears to have undergone an arrest around Carnegie Stage 19. In both specimens disruptions in the unidirectional orientation of myofibers were observed in the external and internal obliques, and rectus abdominis but not in the transversus abdominis. These latter findings support a model of normal abdominal wall development in which positional information instructs the orientation of myoblasts as they organize into individual muscle groups.

  8. Control of abdominal muscles by brain stem respiratory neurons in the cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Ezure, Kazuhisa; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1985-01-01

    The nature of the control of abdominal muscles by the brain stem respiratory neurons was investigated in decerebrate unanesthetized cats. First, it was determined which of the brain stem respiratory neurons project to the lumbar cord (from which the abdominal muscles receive part of their innervation), by stimulating the neurons monopolarly. In a second part of the study, it was determined if lumbar-projecting respiratory neurons make monosynaptic connections with abdominal motoneurons; in these experiments, discriminate spontaneous spikes of antidromically acivated expiratory (E) neurons were used to trigger activity from both L1 and L2 nerves. A large projection was observed from E neurons in the caudal ventral respiratory group to the contralateral upper lumber cord. However, cross-correlation experiments found only two (out of 47 neuron pairs tested) strong monosynaptic connections between brain stem neurons and abdominal motoneurons.

  9. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  10. Kinetics of implant-induced inflammatory angiogenesis in abdominal muscle wall in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Pollyana R; Marques, Suzane M; Campos, Paula P; Cardoso, Cibele C; Sampaio, Fernanda P; Ferreira, Monica A N D; Andrade, Silvia P

    2012-07-01

    Injury of skeletal abdominal muscle wall is a common medical condition and implantation of synthetic or biological material is a procedure to repair musculofascial defects. We proposed to characterize the dynamics of inflammatory cell recruitment, newly formed blood vessels, cytokine production and fibrogenesis in the abdominal skeletal muscle in response to polyether-polyurethane sponge implants in mice. At 2, 4, 7 and 10days after implantation the muscle tissue underneath the sponge matrix was removed for the assessment of the angiogenic response (hemoglobin content, vascular endothelial growth factor and morphometric analysis of the number of vessels) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase and n-acethyl-B-d-glucosaminidase activities, cytokines). In addition, muscle fibrogenesis was determined by the levels of TGF-β1 and collagen deposition. Hemoglobin content, wash out rate of sodium fluorescein (indicative of blood flow) and the number of vessels increased in the abdominal muscle bearing the synthetic matrix in comparison with the intact muscle. Neutrophil recruitment peaked in the muscle at day 2, followed by macrophage accumulation at day 4 post-injury. The levels of the cytokines, VEGF, TNF-α, CCL-2/MCP-1 were higher in the injured muscle compared with the intact muscle and peaked soon after muscle injury (days 2 to 4). Collagen levels were higher in sponge-bearing muscle compared with the non-bearing tissue soon after injury (day 2). The implantation technique together with the inflammatory and vascular parameters used in this study revealed inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrogenic events and mechanisms associated with skeletal muscle responses to synthetic implanted materials.

  11. Reconstruction with latissimus dorsi, external abdominal oblique and cranial sartorius muscle flaps for a large defect of abdominal wall in a dog after surgical removal of infiltrative lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This animal was presented with a large-sized infiltrative lipoma in the abdominal wall that had been noted for 4 years. This lipoma was confirmed by histological examination from a previous biopsy, and the infiltrative features were identified by a computerized tomography scan. The surgical removal created a large-sized abdominal defect that was closed by a combination of latissimus dorsi and external abdominal oblique muscle flaps in a pedicle pattern. A small dehiscence at the most distal e...

  12. Core muscle size assessed by perioperative abdominal CT scan is related to mortality, postoperative complications, and hospitalization after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Rune; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    to systematically review the literature where core muscle size measurements have been used for risk assessment of patients undergoing major abdominal surgery. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for studies that investigated core muscle size measured with abdominal CT scans and outcomes after major...... abdominal surgery. RESULTS: Eight studies were found. Four studies investigated postoperative complications related to core muscle area. Three of these studies found significantly increased risk of complications related to low core muscle area. Three studies investigated length of hospitalization, and two......PURPOSE: Risk stratification of patients prior to surgery is important for reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The frailty concept has been put forward as a good predictor of surgical outcomes. Sarcopenia (depletion of muscle mass) can be used to measure frailty. We aimed...

  13. Abdominal wall muscle elasticity and abdomen local stiffness on healthy volunteers during various physiological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D; Podwojewski, F; Beillas, P; Ottenio, M; Voirin, D; Turquier, F; Mitton, D

    2016-07-01

    The performance of hernia treatment could benefit from more extensive knowledge of the mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall in a healthy state. To supply this knowledge, the antero-lateral abdominal wall was characterized in vivo on 11 healthy volunteers during 4 activities: rest, pullback loading, abdominal breathing and the "Valsalva maneuver". The elasticity of the abdominal muscles (rectus abdominis, obliquus externus, obliquus internus and transversus abdominis) was assessed using ultrasound shear wave elastography. In addition, the abdomen was subjected to a low external load at three locations: on the midline (linea alba), on the rectus abdominis region and on lateral muscles region in order to evaluate the local stiffness of the abdomen, at rest and during "Valsalva maneuver". The results showed that the "Valsalva maneuver" leads to a statistically significant increase of the muscle shear modulus compared to the other activities. This study also showed that the local stiffness of the abdomen was related to the activity. At rest, a significant difference has been observed between the anterior (0.5N/mm) and the lateral abdomen locations (1N/mm). Then, during the Valsalva maneuver, the local stiffness values were similar for all locations (ranging from 1.6 to 2.2N/mm). This work focuses on the in vivo characterization of the mechanical response of the human abdominal wall and abdomen during several activities. In the future, this protocol could be helpful for investigation on herniated patients.

  14. Low-Grade Myxofibrosarcoma of the Rectus Abdominus Muscle Infiltrating into Abdominal Cavity: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tadashi; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Moriwaki, Aya; Kawamoto, Teruya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ishimura, Takeshi; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a relatively rare tumor that is histologically characterized by myxoid stroma and spindle cell proliferation. This tumor most commonly arises as a slow growing, enlarging painless mass in the extremities of elderly patients. Methods: We report a case of a primary, low-grade MFS in the rectus abdominis muscle infiltrating the abdominal cavity of a 75-year-old man. Results: The patient underwent a wide excision of the right abdominal wall mass with a 3-cm surgical margin from the scar due to a biopsy. The tumor infiltrated the urinary bladder, peritoneum, and external iliac vessels. Twenty-six months after the initial operation, he had recurrences in his abdominal wall, urinary bladder, and right iliac vessels. Conclusions: To our knowledge, primary MFS of the muscle in the abdomen has not been documented previously. Although this case was histopathologically classified as a low-grade tumor, it infiltrated the abdominal cavity. The tumor is suspected to have penetrated the abdominal cavity below the linea arcuata, which lacks the posterior sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle; from there, it could easily spread without being blocked by any biological barriers.

  15. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis muscles during dynamic Pilates abdominal exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gabriela Bueno; Morgan, Mirele Minussi; Gomes de Carvalho, Wellington Roberto; Silva, Elisangela; de Freitas, Wagner Zeferino; da Silva, Fabiano Fernandes; de Souza, Renato Aparecido

    2015-10-01

    To assess the electrical behaviour of the upper rectus abdominis (URA) and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) by electromyography (EMG) during the following dynamic Pilates abdominal exercises: roll up, double leg stretch, coordination, crisscross and foot work. The results were compared with EMG findings of traditional abdominal exercises (sit up and crunch). Seventeen female subjects (with no experience of the Pilates method) were recruited. The URA and LRA were evaluated while 12 isotonic contractions were performed using the Pilates principles or traditional abdominal exercises. The data were normalised by a maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Normality was accepted, and ANOVA followed by Tukey test was used to determine data differences (P Pilates exercises double leg stretch, coordination, crisscross and foot work promoted greater muscle activation than traditional exercises, mainly in URA. Thus, these exercises have the potential to be prescribed for muscle strengthening programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing with and without inspiratory and expiratory loads in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita Montes, António; Baptista, João; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Santos, Rita; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2016-10-01

    Central Nervous System modulates the motor activities of all trunk muscles to concurrently regulate the intra-abdominal and intra-thoracic pressures. The study aims to evaluate the effect of inspiratory and expiratory loads on abdominal muscle activity during breathing in healthy subjects. Twenty-three higher education students (21.09±1.56years; 8males) breathed at a same rhythm (inspiration: two seconds; expiration: four seconds) without load and with 10% of the maximal inspiratory or expiratory pressures, in standing. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique muscles, during inspiration and expiration. During inspiration, transversus abdominis/internal oblique activation intensity was significantly lower with inspiratory load when compared to without load (p=0.009) and expiratory load (p=0.002). During expiration, the activation intensity of all abdominal muscles was significantly higher with expiratory load when compared to without load (pmuscle to modulate the intra-abdominal pressure for the breathing mechanics.

  18. Oblique abdominal muscle activity in standing and in sitting on hard and soft seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Snijders (Chris); M.P. Bakker (Martin); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe activity of the oblique abdominal muscles was investigated with the trunk in unconstrained, symmetrical and static postures. Electromyographic recordings in six healthy subjects revealed that in all subjects the activity of both the internal and the external obliques is significantly

  19. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle for abdominal stoma sphincter construction : an anatomical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, J W; Stadelmann, W K; Tobin, G R; Werker, P M; Stremel, R W; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    2000-01-01

    Permanent fecal abdominal stomas significantly decrease quality of life. Previous attempts to create continent stomas by using dynamic myoplasty procedures have resulted in disappointing outcomes, primarily owing to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap that was used in the creation of the sphincte

  20. Abdominal muscles contribute in a minor way to peak spinal compression in lifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Groen, H.; Horemans, H.; Kingma, I.; Dieën, J.H. van

    1999-01-01

    In lifting, the abdominal muscles are thought to be activated to stabilize the spine. As a detrimental effect, they contribute to spinal compression. The existing literature is not conclusive about the biological relevance of this effect. From biological, mechanical and anatomical considerations it

  1. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP.

  2. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle for abdominal stoma sphincter construction : an anatomical feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bardoel, J W; Stadelmann, W K; Tobin, G R; Werker, P M; Stremel, R W; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    2000-01-01

    Permanent fecal abdominal stomas significantly decrease quality of life. Previous attempts to create continent stomas by using dynamic myoplasty procedures have resulted in disappointing outcomes, primarily owing to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap that was used in the creation of the sphincte

  3. The effects of deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises on respiratory function and lumbar stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Lee, Hanyong

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises on respiratory function and lumbar stability. [Subjects] From among 120 male and female students, 22 whose thoraxes opened no more than 5 cm during inspiration and expiration and whose forced expiratory flow rates were around 300 m/L were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group of eleven, who performed deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises, and a control group of eleven, who received no particular intervention. [Methods] The subjects were instructed to perform normal breathing in the hook-lying position. They were then directed to hold their breath for ten seconds at the end of inspiration. Ten repetitions of this breathing comprised a set of respiratory training, and a total of five sets were performed by the subjects. [Results] Deep abdominal muscle training was effective at enhancing respiratory function and lumbar stabilization. [Conclusion] The clinical application of deep abdominal muscle strengthening exercises along with lumbar stabilization exercises should be effective for lower back pain patients in need of lumbar stabilization.

  4. The effect of resistance exercise direction for hip joint stabilization on lateral abdominal muscle thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of resistance direction in hip joint stabilization exercise on change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults. Twenty-six healthy adults were randomly allocated to either a hip stabilization exercise by hip straight resistance group (n=12) or a hip diagonal resistance group (n=14). The outcome measures included contraction thickness ratio in transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and external oblique, and TrA lateral slide were assessed during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver by b-mode ultrasound. The researcher measured the abdominal muscle thickness of each participant before the therapist began the intervention and at the moment intervention was applied. There was a significant difference in lateral abdominal muscle thickness between the straight resistance exercise of hip joint group and the diagonal resistance exercise of hip joint group. Significant differences were found between the two groups in the percentage of change of muscle thickness of the TrA (P=0.018) and in the thickness ratio of the TrA (P=0.018). Stability exercise accompanied by diagonal resistance on the hip joint that was applied in this study can induce automatic contraction of the IO and TrA, which provides stability to the lumbar spine. PMID:27807520

  5. Oblique abdominal muscle activity in standing and in sitting on hard and soft seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Snijders (Chris); M.P. Bakker (Martin); A. Vleeming (Andry); R. Stoeckart (Rob); H.J. Stam (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe activity of the oblique abdominal muscles was investigated with the trunk in unconstrained, symmetrical and static postures. Electromyographic recordings in six healthy subjects revealed that in all subjects the activity of both the internal and the external obliques is significantly

  6. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing in different postures in COPD "Stage 0" and healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita Montes, António; Maia, Joana; Crasto, Carlos; de Melo, Cristina Argel; Carvalho, Paulo; Santos, Rita; Pereira, Susana; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of different postures on the abdominal muscle activity during breathing in subjects "at risk" for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy. Twenty-nine volunteers, divided in "At Risk" for COPD (n=16; 47.38±5.08years) and Healthy (n=13; 47.54±6.65years) groups, breathed at the same rhythm in supine, standing, tripod and 4-point-kneeling positions. Surface electromyography was performed to assess the activation intensity of rectus abdominis, external oblique and transversus abdominis/internal oblique (TrA/IO) muscles, during inspiration and expiration. From supine to standing, an increased activation of all abdominal muscles was observed in "At Risk" for COPD group; however, in Healthy group, TrA/IO muscle showed an increased activation. In both groups, the TrA/IO muscle activation in tripod and 4-point kneeling positions was higher than in supine and lower than in standing. Subjects "at risk" for the development of COPD seemed to have a specific recruitment of the superficial layer of ventrolateral abdominal wall for the synchronization of postural function and mechanics of breathing.

  7. Location and sequence of muscle onset in deep abdominal muscles measured by different modes of ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westad, Christian; Mork, Paul J; Vasseljen, Ottar

    2010-10-01

    Various modes of ultrasound (US) imaging have been introduced as an alternative to electromyography for determining muscle onset. The purpose of this study was to compare the agreement between US motion-mode (US(m-mode)) and US strain rate (US(SR)) derived from tissue velocity imaging in determining latency time, location and sequence of muscle onset in abdominal muscles using the same data set (contractions). Twenty-four subjects performed four rapid arm flexions in response to a light signal while US recordings were made from the abdominal muscles on the contralateral side. The examined muscles were transversus abdominis (TrA), superficial and deep obliquus internus abdominis (OI(deep) and OI(sup)), and obliquus externus abdominis (OE). The results showed that the two methods detected the first muscle onset on average within 0.1 ms (95% CI; +/-1.4 ms) of each other. US(SR) detected the second muscle onset on average 27 ms after US(m-mode). While US(SR) and US(m-mode) can be used interchangeably to detect the first muscle onset, the location of both first onset and subsequent muscle onsets can be reliably detected by US(SR) only. Furthermore, this study indicates that OI may be functionally subdivided into a superficial and deep region, with onset in OI(deep) occurring on average 53 ms before OI(sup). First onset was detected more frequently in OI than in TrA (65% versus 25% of detected onsets, 10% were equal).

  8. A estimulação russa no fortalecimento da musculatura abdominal Russian stimulation in strengthening abdominal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Patrícia Fernandes Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO - A flacidez muscular surge com maior frequência nas mulheres, o que causa fator ruim para a estética corporal. OBJETIVO - Analisar os resultados da corrente russa no fortalecimento da musculatura abdominal. MÉTODOS - Revisão bibliográfica com base nas publicações acessíveis pelas seguintes bases de dados: Medline/Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs com cruzamento dos descritores corrente russa, flacidez, abdômen. O uso da eletroestimulação age tanto sobre as fibras brancas, que respondem pela velocidade, como também sobre as fibras vermelhas dado à sua sustentação, e ainda sobre as fibras intermediárias. CONCLUSÃO - Os dados publicados mostram a satisfação e êxito do tratamento, enfatizando que a corrente russa favorece o aumento da hipertrofia e força muscular.INTRODUCTION - Muscle weakness appears most often in women, the factor that causes bad esthetics. OBJECTIVE - To analyze the results of the Russian current strengthening the abdominal muscles. METHODS - Literature review based on publications available in the following databases: Medline / Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs with crossing headings Russian current, sagging, abdomen. The use of electrical stimulation acts both on the white fibers, which account for the speed, but also on the red fibers given their support, and on intermediate fibers. CONCLUSION - The data published show the satisfaction and success of treatment, emphasizing that the Russian current promotes increase of muscle strength and hypertrophy.

  9. Optical characterization and composition of abdominal wall muscle from rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, M.; Tuchin, Valery

    2009-06-01

    Complete optical characterization of biological tissue is desirable to develop clinical methods using optical technologies. Particularly, to develop optical clearing methods in biological tissues, it is necessary to know the composition of the tissue, the percentage of each constituent and corresponding refractive indexes. To obtain such information for rat muscle, we used a simple method to characterize tissue constituents for both content percentage and refractive index. The study consisted on measuring mass with a precision weighting scale and the refractive index with an Abbe refractometer during tissue dehydration. With the collected data, we used a theoretical model to calculate the refractive index and percentage for both interstitial fluid and solid part of the rat muscle. The results obtained are in good agreement with data published by other authors, and were considered of vital information for the optical clearing studies that we planned to perform.

  10. Treatment of abdominal cellulite and circumference reduction with radiofrequency and dynamic muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Iamphonrat, Thanawan; Thanomkitti, Kanchalit; Lektrakul, Nittaya; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2015-01-01

    Cellulite is a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. A wide variety of treatments are available but most procedures offer suboptimal clinical effect and/or delayed therapeutic outcome. Only few therapeutic options have proven efficacy in the treatment of cellulite. To determine the efficacy and the safety profiles of radiofrequency and dynamic muscle activation technology in treatment of abdominal cellulite and circumference reduction. Twenty-five females with abdominal cellulite received 6 weekly radiofrequency and dynamic muscle activation treatments. Treatment areas included the abdomen and both sides of flanks. Subjects were evaluated using standardized photographs, and measurements of body weight and abdominal circumference at baseline, before every treatment visit, and 1 week and four weeks after the final treatment. Subcutaneous tissue thickness was recorded by ultrasound at baseline and 4 weeks after completion of treatment protocol. Physicians' evaluation and patient's satisfaction of clinical improvement were also measured. All subjects completed the treatment protocol and attended every follow-up visits. There was significant abdominal circumference reduction of 2.96 and 2.52 cm at 1-, and 4-week follow-up visits (p cellulite appearance. The benefit of muscle activation is yet to be determined.

  11. Comparison of changes in the contraction of the lateral abdominal muscles between the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and breathe held at the maximum expiratory level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Hirose, Ryohei; Watanabe, Susumu

    2012-10-01

    The abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) is commonly used as a fundamental component of lumbar stabilization training programs. One potential limitation of lumbar stabilization programs is that it can be difficult and time consuming to train people to perform the ADIM. The transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscles are the most powerful muscles involved in expiration. However, little is known about the differences in the recruitment of the abdominal muscles between the ADIM and breathe held at maximum expiratory level (maximum expiration). The thickness of the TrA and IO muscles was measured by ultrasound imaging, and the activity of the EO muscle was measured by electromyography (EMG) in 33 healthy male performing the ADIM and maximum expiration. Maximum expiration produced a significant increase in the thickness of the TrA and IO muscles compared to the ADIM (p muscle was significantly higher during maximum expiration than during the ADIM (p muscle was approximately 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction during maximum expiration. Thus, maximum expiration may be an effective method for training of co-activation of the lateral abdominal muscles.

  12. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  13. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  14. Mechanically relevant consequences of the composite laminate-like design of the abdominal wall muscles and connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-05-01

    Together, three abdominal wall muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) form a tightly bound muscular sheet that has been likened to a composite-laminate structure. Previous work has demonstrated the ability of force generated by these three muscles to be passed between one another through connective tissue linkages. Muscle fibres in each muscle are obliquely oriented with respect to its neighbouring muscles. It is proposed here is that this unique morphology of the abdominal wall muscles functions, through the application of constraining forces amongst the muscles, to increase force- and stiffness-generating capabilities. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of the stress-strain relationship for a transversely isotropic fibrous composite, and establishes a strengthening and stiffening effect when stress can be transferred between the fibrous layers. Application of empirical mechanical properties to this formulation demonstrates this effect for the abdominal wall muscles and, in greater proportion, for the anterior aponeurosis of the abdominal wall. This has implications for increasing the stiffness and passive load bearing ability of the abdominal wall muscles, and has the potential to modulate the whole muscle force-length and force-velocity relationships during contraction.

  15. Marked effects of Pilates on the abdominal muscles: a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, Jose A L; Lopez-Gordillo, Ana; Alayon, Santiago; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2012-08-01

    The study's purpose was to analyze the effects of Pilates on the volume of the rectus abdominis (RA), obliques, and transversus abdominis, with the last two considered conjointly (OT). The volume of OT and RA were determined using magnetic resonance imaging in nine nonactive healthy women, before and after 36 wk of a standardized Pilates training program (Modern Pilates). The volume of the dominant OT was increased by 8% (P Pilates (P Pilates, the volume of the OT was 8% greater in the nondominant compared with the dominant side (P Pilates training (2%, P = 0.43). No side-to-side asymmetries in RA muscle volumes were observed either before (2%, P = 0.51) or after (1%, P = 0.81) Pilates. The present study reveals the existence of asymmetries in the muscles of the abdominal wall in nonactive healthy women. Pilates practice twice a week for 9 months elicits hypertrophy of the abdominal wall muscles, particularly of the RA, and eliminates preexisting asymmetries of the OT. Modern Pilates can be recommended as an effective method to reinforce the muscles of the abdominal wall and to compensate preexisting asymmetric developments.

  16. Reliability of Abdominal Muscle Stiffness Measured Using Elastography during Trunk Rehabilitation Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, David; Wan, Alan; McPhee, Megan; Tucker, Kylie; Hug, François

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the intra-session and inter-rater reliability of shear modulus measured in abdominal muscles during two commonly used trunk stability exercises. Thirty healthy volunteers performed a series of abdominal hollow and abdominal brace tasks. Supersonic shear imaging was used to measure the shear modulus (considered an index of muscle tension) of the four anterior trunk muscles: obliquus externus abdominis, obliquus internus abdominis, transversus abdominis and rectus abdominis. Because of measurement artifacts, internus abdominis and transversus abdominis data were not analyzed for 36.7% and 26.7% of the participants, respectively. These participants exhibited thicker superficial fat layers than the others. For the remaining participants, fair to excellent intra-session and inter-rater reliability was observed with moderate to high intra-class coefficients (0.45-0.97) and low to moderate standard error of measurement values (0.38-3.53 kPa). Reliability values were consistently greater for superficial than for deeper muscles.

  17. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. K.; Kjær, Michael; Jorgensen, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Methods Ten patients with VIH and ten...... healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self......-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test–retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Results Truncal flexion...

  18. The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of a 6-month-old Crocodylus niloticus (Reptilia: Crocodylia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fechner, R; Schwarz-Wings, D

    2013-06-01

    The muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of crocodilians play an important role in their ventilatory mechanism. Yet the anatomy and homology of these muscles is poorly understood. To gain new insights into the anatomy of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall, we dissected a specimen of Crocodylus niloticus. Origin and insertion of the muscles, as well as their arrangement relative to each other was examined in great detail. The findings were compared with those of other crocodilian taxa to detect potential variability of the muscles of interest. The homology of the muscles was studied by comparing the muscles of the crocodilian infrapubic abdominal wall with those of other diapsids. In Crocodylus niloticus, the infrapubic abdominal wall consists of four muscles: Musculus truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus, and Mm. rectus abdominis externus and internus. The arrangement of the muscles of the infrapubic abdominal wall of Crocodylus niloticus is consistent with that found in most other crocodilian taxa. In some crocodilian taxa, an additional muscle, M. ischiopubis, is found. In the remaining diapsids, only M. rectus abdominis is present. The crocodilian M. truncocaudalis, M. ischiotruncus and, if present, M. ischiopubis appear to be derivates of M. rectus abdominis; the development of those might be related to the evolution of the unique crocodilian ventilatory mechanism.

  19. Short-term effect of crunch exercise frequency on abdominal muscle endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Recio, C; López-Vivancos, A; Moya, M; Sarabia, J M; Vera-Garcia, F J

    2015-04-01

    Despite core exercise programs are broadly used to increase muscle function and to promote low back health, there is a lack of scientific evidence on some of the most important characteristics of trunk exercise programs, as for example training frequency. This study aimed to compare the short-term effect of training frequencies of 1, 2 and 3 days per week (d/wk) on abdominal muscle endurance in untrained adolescents. One hundred and eighteen high-school students (59 men and 59 women) with no previous experience in structured abdominal exercise programs were assigned randomly to groups that trained 1 d/wk (G1; N.=21), 2 d/wk (G2; N.=27), 3 d/wk (G3; N.=23), or to a control group (CG; N.=47) that did not train. The training groups performed crunch and cross-crunch exercises 1, 2 or 3 d/wk during six weeks. Before and after the training period, the bench trunk-curl test (BTC test) was carried out to assess abdominal muscle endurance. Men obtained higher BTC test scores than women before and after training. Training frequencies of 1, 2 and 3 d/wk provided a significant increase in BTC test scores; however, no significant differences between the three groups' scores were found after training. Therefore, a small dose of crunch exercise training (1 d/wk) may be sufficient stimulus to increase abdominal endurance in untrained male and female adolescents, at least during the first weeks of an abdominal exercise program, which seems a very relevant finding in terms of time-cost efficiency.

  20. RARE CASE OF CYSTICERCOSIS OF RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE PRESENTING AS PELVI ABDOMINAL LUMP DURING PUERPERIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangal V

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium. It is a major public health problem indeveloping countries. Infection is acquired through ingestion of raw or undercooked meat containingthe cysticercus. Man is the intermediate host and pig is definitive host. Cases usually present withvague abdominal discomfort, indigestion and diarrhoea. Cysticerci can be found anywhere in the body, but are most commonly detected in brain, eye, skeletal muscle and subcutaneous tissue.Diagnosis is made by the demonstration of eggs or proglottids (Fig. 1 in faeces and definitive diagnosis is by biopsy of the lesion. We report an unusual case, who presented with a pelvi -abdominal lump during puerperium. Diagnosis of cysticercosis of rectus abdominis muscle was confirmed by histopathology. She was treated by surgery and pharmacotherapy.

  1. Tissue Deformation Index as a Reliable Measure of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Activation on M-Mode Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Maciej; Adamczyk, Wacław; Gnat, Rafael; Stranc, Tomasz

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this article is to present a novel method of evaluating the activity of lateral abdominal muscles using M-mode sonography. The method leads to calculation of the tissue deformation index, representing the percent change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness over time. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to establish the mean tissue deformation index values for individual lateral abdominal muscles; and (2) to establish the reliability of the tissue deformation index. In a group of 34 healthy young volunteers (mean age, 24.03 years; body mass, 68.89 kg; body height, 174.25 cm), the reflex response of the lateral abdominal muscles to postural perturbation in the form of rapid arm abduction was recorded in 2 series, with 6 repetitions each, and the tissue deformation index was calculated. The mean tissue deformation index values formed a gradient, increasing from deep to superficial lateral abdominal muscles: 0.06%/ms for transversus abdominis, 0.11%/ms for oblique internal, and 0.16 for oblique external muscles. The tissue deformation index values differed significantly among individual lateral abdominal muscles (all paired comparisons, P  0.8).

  2. Neuromuscular independence of abdominal wall muscles as demonstrated by middle-eastern style dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreside, Janice M; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; McGill, Stuart M

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies analyzing neuromuscular independence of the abdominal wall have involved a participant population with no specific training in separating individual muscle segments. We chose to study nine women trained in the art of middle-eastern dance, anticipating they may have unique skills in motor control. Specifically, we were searching for evidence of separation of upper rectus abdominis (URA) from lower rectus abdominis (LRA), as well as understanding what role the oblique muscles play in abdominal wall synergies. EMG analysis was done on eight trunk muscles bilaterally as the dancers participated in 30 dance, planar, and curl-up activities. The filtered data were then cross-correlated to determine the time lag between pairs of signals. Only three dance movements demonstrated consistent evidence of an ability to separate URA/LRA activation timing. The external and internal oblique muscles tend to align themselves temporally with the LRA. However, these findings were only evident in these three specific "belly-roll" conditions, all with low levels of muscle activation, and no external torque. Evidence of significantly different activation levels (% MVC) between URA/LRA was demonstrated in eight conditions, all of which required various pelvis movements with minimal thorax motion.

  3. Effects of Abdominal Stimulation during Inspiratory Muscle Training on Respiratory Function of Chronic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ju-Hyeon; Shim, Je-Myung; Kwon, Hae-Yeon; Kim, Ha-Roo; Kim, Bo-In

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to verify a new method for improving respiratory functions by applying both abdominal stimulation and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) to train the inspiratory muscle and the expiratory muscle simultaneously, to improve the efficiency of IMT of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects] Eighteen stroke patients were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 9) and a control group (n = 9). [Methods] The experimental group was administered IMT with abdominal stimulation, and the control group was administered only IMT. During the intervention period, the experimental group and control group received training 20 min/day, 3 times/wk, for 4 weeks. To examine the lung functions of the subjects, FVC, FEV1, PEF, and FEF25-75 were measured using an electronic spirometer. The diaphragm thickness ratio was calculated from measurements made with a 7.5-MHz linear probe ultrasonic imaging system. [Result] The experimental group and the control group showed significant increases in diaphragm thickness ratio on the paretic side, but not on the non-paretic side. With regard to lung function, the experimental group showed significant increases in FEV1, PEF, and FEF25-75. The changes between before and after the intervention in the two groups were compared with each other, and the results showed significant differences in FEV1 and PEF. [Conclusion] The present study identified that IMT accompanied by abdominal stimulation improved the pulmonary function of chronic stroke patients.

  4. [Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sergio G; Pessolano, Fernando A; Suárez, Adrián A; De Vito, Eduardo L

    2012-01-01

    The effects of the abdominal weight with the intention of producing training of the diaphragm, have not been sufficiently evaluated. We studied the function of the diaphragm during the abdominal weight training and during associated changes in the respiratory pattern. Six normal volunteers were studied. Flow at the mouth at functional residual capacity (FRC) was obtained as well as gastric pressure (Pga), esophageal pressure (Pes), thoracic and abdominal movements, maximal inspiratory pressure and mean and maximal transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi and Pdi max). Pdi/Pdimax and the diaphragm tension-time index (TTdi) were calculated. Studied steps: normal pattern (NP), abdominal pattern (AP) and weight of 1, 2, 4 and 6 kg with NP and AP as well. We found 1) The AP was facilitated by the abdominal weight, 2) Only with 6 kg (NP and AP) the Pga at FRC increased significantly (p 0.001), 3) the Pdi followed the variations of the Pga and increased with all the AP (p propioception related to the respiratory movements and descent of the diaphragm. The loads on the abdomen produce minor changes in mechanics of the diaphragm (1/3 of the load required to develop fatigue in normal subjects). Al least in normal subjects these changes appear to be insufficient to produce respiratory muscle training.

  5. Reliability of ultrasound imaging for the measurement of abdominal muscle thickness in typically developing children

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    M. Unger

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bdominal muscles are key to both posture andgait in both children with typical development (TD and with disabilities.Ultrasound (US imaging is a potential non-invasive method for investigatingactivity in these muscles. This study therefore aimed to determine the inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of B-mode US for investigating transverseabdominus (TrA , rectus abdominus (RA and external- (EO and internaloblique (IO muscle activity in children with TD. Design: A  prospective cor-relational descriptive study.  Participants:  Eighty six, 6-13year old children from one private and one public mainstream school. Outcome measures: Two sets of B-mode US images where captured per subject during rest and during head-up, resisted head-up and resisted sling activities. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM were used to analyse the data. Results: Good correlation was found for both test - retest condi-tions for all four muscles tested during rest: 0.91(TrA ; 0.90(IO; 0.91(EO; 0.94(RA for intra-tester reliability and0.74(TrA ; 0.88(IO; 0.74(EO; 0.83(RA for inter-tester reliability. Repeatability of thickness measures during activity however showed variation in recruitment patterns. A  significant correlation was found between age and BMI andresting abdominal muscle thickness (p<0.001. Conclusion: The study supports the reliability of US measurement of resting abdominal muscles and of the RA  under active conditions in children aged six to 13. However the stability o measurement of the other muscles under active conditions still needs to be established.

  6. Metastatic breast carcinoma of the abdominal wall muscle: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiya, Akiko; Takahashi, Kaoru; Sato, Mutsumi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kikutani, Mariko; Tadokoro, Yukiko; Tanaka, Kumiko; Uematsu, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Kasami, Masako; Yamasaki, Seiji

    2015-03-01

    Metastasis from breast carcinoma is an uncommon occurrence in skeletal muscle, compared to local invasion into muscle from direct tumor spread. A 49-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with an 8.5-cm mass in the right breast. Core needle biopsy revealed metaplastic carcinoma with squamous metaplasia. The mass was rapidly growing and metaplastic, so mastectomy with dissection of axillary lymph nodes was performed. Pathological examination showed metaplastic carcinoma, histological grade 3, triple negative, and a MIB-1 labeling index of 80%. Six months postoperatively, during adjuvant chemotherapy treatment, she reported numbness and pain in the right lateral thigh and a mass in the right lower abdomen. Computed tomography revealed multiple lined masses in the abdominal wall and iliac muscle. Core needle biopsy showed metastatic breast carcinoma. Radio- and chemotherapy were administered, but the mass in the muscle became enlarged. To control her pain, a combined treatment with morphine, fentanyl, ketamine, antiepilepsy drug, and NSAIDs was administered. Liver metastasis appeared 9 months (15 months postoperatively) after recognition of muscle metastasis, and the patient died 16 months postoperatively. Skeletal muscle metastasis is uncommon, and therapeutic intervention is mainly palliative. The most common symptom of skeletal muscle metastasis is pain; thus, pain control is a pivotal goal of treatment.

  7. Postural- and respiratory-related activities of abdominal muscles during post-exercise hyperventilation.

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    David, Pascal; Terrien, Jérémy; Petitjean, Michel

    2015-05-01

    The present study focuses on the role of superficial abdominal muscles revealed by electromyographic recordings during the maintenance of a bipedal stance perturbed by post-exercise hyperventilation. Twelve healthy subjects performed six 30-s postural tests: one pre-exercise test while breathing quietly, then one test every minute for the 5 min immediately following a maximum-intensity, incremental cycling exercise test. Displacement of the centre of pressure in the sagittal plane was monitored over time. Myoelectric activities of the obliquus externus (OE), obliquus internus (OI) and rectus abdominis (RA) muscles were recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). Metabolic parameters were measured with a portable telemetric device. The change in ventilatory drive induced by exercise was accompanied by a significant increase in both postural sway parameters and EMG activities. For OE and OI, the increased EMG activities were prominent during expiration, whereas OI was silent during inspiration. OE and RA were activated during both expiration and inspiration. It is concluded that the compensation of respiratory disturbances of the erect posture appears to be less effective when minute ventilation increases. The patterns of muscle activity suggest that abdominal muscles are controlled differentially and that their functional coordination is dependent on the respiratory demand.

  8. The development of adult abdominal muscles in Drosophila: myoblasts express twist and are associated with nerves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, D A; Bate, M

    1991-09-01

    During metamorphosis, the adult muscles of the Drosophila abdomen develop from pools of myoblasts that are present in the larva. The adult myoblasts express twist in the third larval instar and the early pupa and are closely associated with nerves. Growing adult nerves and the twist-expressing cells migrate out across the developing abdominal epidermis, and as twist expression declines, the myoblasts begin to synthesize beta 3 tubulin. There follows a process involving cell fusion and segregation into cell groups to form multinucleate muscle precursors. These bipolar precursors migrate at both ends to find their correct attachment points. beta 3 tubulin expression continues at least until 51 h APF by which time the adult muscle pattern has been established.

  9. Genome-wide association analyses for fatty acid composition in porcine muscle and abdominal fat tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is an important phenotypic trait in pigs as it affects nutritional, technical and sensory quality of pork. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study (GWAS for fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle and abdominal fat tissues of 591 White Duroc×Erhualian F2 animals and in muscle samples of 282 Chinese Sutai pigs. A total of 46 loci surpassing the suggestive significance level were identified on 15 pig chromosomes (SSC for 12 fatty acids, revealing the complex genetic architecture of fatty acid composition in pigs. Of the 46 loci, 15 on SSC5, 7, 14 and 16 reached the genome-wide significance level. The two most significant SNPs were ss131535508 (P = 2.48×10(-25 at 41.39 Mb on SSC16 for C20∶0 in abdominal fat and ss478935891 (P = 3.29×10(-13 at 121.31 Mb on SSC14 for muscle C18∶0. A meta-analysis of GWAS identified 4 novel loci and enhanced the association strength at 6 loci compared to those evidenced in a single population, suggesting the presence of common underlying variants. The longissimus muscle and abdominal fat showed consistent association profiles at most of the identified loci and distinct association signals at several loci. All loci have specific effects on fatty acid composition, except for two loci on SSC4 and SSC7 affecting multiple fatness traits. Several promising candidate genes were found in the neighboring regions of the lead SNPs at the genome-wide significant loci, such as SCD for C18∶0 and C16∶1 on SSC14 and ELOVL7 for C20∶0 on SSC16. The findings provide insights into the molecular basis of fatty acid composition in pigs, and would benefit the final identification of the underlying mutations.

  10. Increased apoptosis and decreased density of medial smooth muscle cells in human abdominal aortic aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian张健; Jan Schmidt; Eduard Ryschich; Hardy Schumacher; Jens R Allenberg

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the increase of apoptosis and the decrease of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) density in human abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Methods In situ terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) was employed to detect apoptosis of SMCs in patients with AAA (n=25) and normal abdominal aortae (n=10). Positive cells were identified by specific cell marker in combination with immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile SMC counting was performed by anti-α-actin immunohistostaining to compare the SMC density. Results TUNEL staining revealed that there was significantly increased apoptosis in AAAs (average 8.6%) compared with normal abdominal aortae (average 0.95%, P<0.01). Double staining showed that most of these cells were SMCs. Counting of α-actin positive SMCs revealed that medial SMC density of AAAs (37.5±7.6 SMCs /HPF) was reduced by 79.1% in comparison with that of normal abdominal aortae (179.2±16.1 SMCs /HPF, P<0.01). Conclusions Significantly increased SMCs of AAA bear apoptotic markers initiating cell death. Elevated apoptosis may result in a decreased density of SMCs in AAA, which may profoundly influence the development of AAA.

  11. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

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    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  12. Association between changes in electromyographic signal amplitude and abdominal muscle thickness in individuals with and without lumbopelvic pain.

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    Whittaker, Jackie L; McLean, Linda; Hodder, Joanne; Warner, Martin B; Stokes, Maria J

    2013-01-01

    Validation study. To investigate the association between changes in electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude and sonographic measures of muscle thickness of 4 abdominal muscles, during 2 clinical tests, in adults with and without lumbopelvic pain. There is a trend in rehabilitation to use ultrasound imaging (USI) to determine the extent of abdominal muscle contraction. However, the literature investigating the relationship between abdominal muscle thickness change and level of activation is inconclusive and has not included clinically relevant tasks. Simultaneous recording from fine-wire EMG and USI was performed for 4 abdominal muscles, in 7 adults with lumbopelvic pain (mean ± SD age, 29.7 ± 12.0 years) and 7 adults without lumbopelvic pain (32.0 ± 10.6 years), during an active straight leg raise (ASLR) test and an abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM). Cross-correlation functions and linear regression analyses were used to describe the relationship between the 2 measures. Analyses of variance were used to compare individuals with and without lumbopelvic pain, with an alpha set at .05. Across all muscles, peak cross-correlation values were low (ASLR, r = 0.28 ± 0.09; ADIM, r = 0.35 ± 0.11), and there was large variability in associated time lags (ASLR, τ = 0.69 ± 2.56 seconds; ADIM, τ = 0.53 ± 3.75 seconds). Regression analyses did not detect a systematic pattern of association between EMG signal amplitude and USI measurements, and analyses of variance revealed no differences between cohorts. These results suggest a weak relationship between EMG amplitude and abdominal muscle thickness change measured with USI during the ADIM and ASLR, and raise questions about thickness change derived from USI as a measure of muscular activity for the abdominal musculature.

  13. Recruitment and plasticity in diaphragm, intercostal, and abdominal muscles in unanesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Opazo, A.

    2014-01-01

    Although rats are a frequent model for studies of plasticity in respiratory motor control, the relative capacity of rat accessory respiratory muscles to express plasticity is not well known, particularly in unanesthetized animals. Here, we characterized external intercostal (T2, T4, T5, T6, T7, T8, T9 EIC) and abdominal muscle (external oblique and rectus abdominis) electromyogram (EMG) activity in unanesthetized rats via radiotelemetry during normoxia (Nx: 21% O2) and following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH: 10 × 5-min, 10.5% O2; 5-min intervals). Diaphragm and T2–T5 EIC EMG activity, and ventilation were also assessed during maximal chemoreceptor stimulation (MCS: 7% CO2, 10.5% O2) and sustained hypoxia (SH: 10.5% O2). In Nx, T2 EIC exhibits prominent inspiratory activity, whereas T4, T5, T6, and T7 EIC inspiratory activity decreases in a caudal direction. T8 and T9 EIC and abdominal muscles show only tonic or sporadic activity, without consistent respiratory activity. MCS increases diaphragm and T2 EIC EMG amplitude and tidal volume more than SH (0.94 ± 0.10 vs. 0.68 ± 0.05 ml/100 g; P < 0.001). Following AIH, T2 EIC EMG amplitude remained above baseline for more than 60 min post-AIH (i.e., EIC long-term facilitation, LTF), and was greater than diaphragm LTF (41.5 ± 1.3% vs. 19.1 ± 2.0% baseline; P < 0.001). We conclude that 1) diaphragm and rostral T2–T5 EIC muscles exhibit inspiratory activity during Nx; 2) MCS elicits greater ventilatory, diaphragm, and rostral T2–T5 EIC muscle activity vs. SH; and 3) AIH induces greater rostral EIC LTF than diaphragm LTF. PMID:24833779

  14. Inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of ultrasound imaging measurements of abdominal muscles in adolescents with and without idiopathic scoliosis: a case-controlled study.

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    Yang, Hoe S; Yoo, Ji W; Lee, Bo A; Choi, Chang K; You, Joshua H

    2014-01-01

    The present study established inter-tester and intra-tester reliabilities of ultrasound imaging and diagnostically differentiated muscle imbalances in lateral abdominal muscle sizes between normal adolescents and adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Fifteen adolescents with AIS were age- and gender-matched with 15 normal adolescents. There was no significant difference between bilateral abdominal muscles in normal adolescents, but there was a significant difference between bilateral abdominal muscles in adolescents with AIS (Pabdominal muscle thickness is: (1) highly reliable between and within the testers; and (2) capable of distinguishing between subjects with and without pathological muscle morphology due to AIS.

  15. Unilateral agenesis of the abdominal wall musculature: An early muscle deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard-Blanluet, Marion; Port-Lis, Marylin; Baumann, Clarisse; Perrin-Sabourin, Laurence; Ebrad, Patrick; Audry, Georges; Delezoide, Anne-Lise; Verloes, Alain

    2010-11-01

    Prune-belly sequence (PBS) usually results from early urethral obstruction. In rare cases, PBS seems to be due to a faulty primary development of the parietal mesenchyme leading to underdevelopment of the abdominal wall musculature, and disorganization of the smooth muscles in the urinary tract. We report on two patients with segmental, unilateral wall musculature deficiency associated with homolateral agenesis of ribs. One patient also had hemivertebrae and the other one ipsilateral diaphragmatic eventration and aplasia cutis. This combination of anomalies may represent a localized deficiency in the development of somitic mesoderm mesenchyme during early embryogenesis.

  16. Syndrome of absent abdominal muscles: two cases with microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar malformations

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    Heffner, Reid R.

    1970-01-01

    Two unique cases of the syndrome of absent abdominal muscles with central nervous system involvement are presented. Microcephaly, polymicrogyria, and cerebellar heterotopiae were present in both. In case 1 there was also absence of the corpus callosum and agenesis of the cerebellar vermis. In case 2 a count of anterior horn cells in the spinal cord showed a reduction of approximately 50% in the lower thoracic region. The pertinent literature is briefly discussed. The findings in the nervous system suggest that the syndrome is the result of defective embryogenesis during the first trimester. Images PMID:4250700

  17. Posterolateral surface electrical stimulation of abdominal expiratory muscles to enhance cough in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Jane E; Lim, Julianne; Gorman, Robert B; Boswell-Ruys, Claire; Saboisky, Julian P; Lee, Bonsan B; Gandevia, Simon C

    2011-02-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) patients have respiratory complications because of abdominal muscle weakness and paralysis, which impair the ability to cough. This study aims to enhance cough in high-level SCI subjects (n = 11, SCI at or above T6) using surface electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles via 2 pairs of posterolaterally placed electrodes. From total lung capacity, subjects performed maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) efforts against a closed airway and voluntary cough efforts. Both efforts were performed with and without superimposed trains of electrical stimulation (50 Hz, 1 second) at a submaximal intensity set to evoke a gastric pressure (P(ga)) of 40 cm H(2)O at functional residual capacity. In the MEP effort, stimulation increased the maximal P(ga) (from 21.4 ± 7.0 to 59.0 ± 5.7 cm H(2)O) and esophageal pressure (P(es); 47.2 ± 11.7 to 65.6 ± 13.6 cm H(2)O). During the cough efforts, stimulation increased P(ga) (19.5 ± 6.0 to 57.9 ± 7.0 cm H(2)O) and P(es) (31.2 ± 8.7 to 56.6 ± 10.5 cm H(2)O). The increased expiratory pressures during cough efforts with stimulation increased peak expiratory flow (PEF, by 36% ± 5%), mean expiratory flow (by 80% ± 8%), and expired lung volume (by 41% ± 16%). In every subject, superimposed electrical stimulation improved peak expiratory flow during cough efforts (by 0.99 ± 0.12 L/s; range, 0.41-1.80 L/s). Wearing an abdominal binder did not improve stimulated cough flows or pressures. The increases in P(ga) and PEF with electrical stimulation using the novel posterolateral electrode placement are 2 to 3 times greater than improvements reported in other studies. This suggests that posterolateral electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles is a simple noninvasive way to enhance cough in individuals with SCI.

  18. The effect of motor control training on abdominal muscle contraction during simulated weight bearing in elite cricketers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Endicott, Timothy; Mendis, M Dilani; Stanton, Warren R

    2016-07-01

    To investigate whether motor control training alters automatic contraction of abdominal muscles in elite cricketers with low back pain (LBP) during performance of a simulated unilateral weight-bearing task. Clinical trial. 26 male elite-cricketers attended a 13-week cricket training camp. Prior to the camp, participants were allocated to a LBP or asymptomatic group. Real-time ultrasound imaging was used to assess automatic abdominal muscle response to axial loading. During the camp, the LBP group performed a staged motor control training program. Following the camp, the automatic response of the abdominal muscles was re-assessed. At pre-camp assessment, when participants were axially loaded with 25% of their own bodyweight, the LBP group showed a 15.5% thicker internal oblique (IO) muscle compared to the asymptomatic group (p = 0.009). The post-camp assessment showed that participants in the LBP group demonstrated less contraction of the IO muscle in response to axial loading compared with the asymptomatic group. A trend was found in the automatic recruitment pattern of the transversus abdominis (p = 0.08). Motor control training normalized excessive contraction of abdominal muscles in response to a low load task. This may be a useful strategy for rehabilitation of cricketers with LBP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of bridge exercises with a sling and vibrations on abdominal muscle thickness in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Won-tae

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the changes in the thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) and internal oblique (Io) muscles using ultrasonography in adults who performed bridge exercises with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and a sling and received micro vibrations. In total, 32 subjects were divided into a therapy (n= 16) and control (n= 16) groups. The therapy group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and received vibrations. The control group completed nine sets, with four repetitions, of bridge exercises with the sling and did not receive vibrations. The thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles were measured in both groups using ultrasonography before and after therapy. According to the pressure applied to the biofeedback unit, both groups showed significant changes in the thicknesses of the TrA and Io muscles after therapy (P 0.05). These findings indicate that approximately 15 minutes of vibrations during bridge exercises on unstable surfaces with a sling facilitates the activation of the deep trunk muscles and further enhances the activation of the TrA.

  20. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards.Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p<0.01, while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p<0.01. Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p<0.05. There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p<0.01.This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance.

  1. A patient with two episodes of epilepsia partialis continua of the abdominal muscles caused by cortical dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezer, F Irsel; Celebi, Ozlem; Ozgen, Burce; Saygi, Serap

    2008-12-01

    Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a rare form of focal motor status epilepticus. There is typically a predilection for facial and distal limb involvement, but rarely trunk or abdomen muscles may be affected. Rarely, EPC may also present in association with cortical dysplasia. In this report, we describe the clinical, neuroimaging and ictal electroencephalographic findings of a young woman presenting with persistent myoclonic twitches of the abdominal muscles that were considered to represent a rare manifestation of EPC due to cortical dysplasia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of malformation of cortical development causing abdominal myoclonus.

  2. Electrical stimulation of abdominal muscles to produce cough in spinal cord injury: effect of stimulus intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Rachel A; Boswell-Ruys, Claire L; Lee, Bonsan B; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2015-05-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the abdominal muscles, with electrodes placed in the posterolateral position, combined with a voluntary cough can assist clearance of airway secretions in individuals with high-level spinal cord injury (SCI). To determine whether an increase in stimulus intensity of the trains of electrical stimuli delivered to the expiratory muscles has an increasing effect on a stimulated voluntary cough and to determine at which stimulus intensity a plateau of cough peak expiratory flow occurs. In 7 healthy individuals with a SCI at and above C7, gastric pressure (P(ga)), esophageal pressure (P(es)), peak expiratory cough flow (PEF(cough)), and expiratory volume were measured as participants coughed voluntarily with simultaneous trains of electrical stimuli delivered over the abdominal muscles (50 Hz, 1-s duration). The intensity of the stimulation was increased incrementally. A plateau in PEF(cough) occurred in all 7 individuals at a mean of 211 ± 29 mA (range 120-360 mA). Peak values reached for P(ga), P(es), and PEF(cough) were 83.0 ± 8.0 cm H2O, 66.1 ± 5.6 cm H2O, and 4.0 ± 0.4 l/s respectively. The plateau in expiratory cough flow that was associated with increasing expiratory pressures is indicative of dynamic airway compression. This suggests that the evoked cough will be effective in creating more turbulent airflow to further assist in dislodging mucus and secretions. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Fine structural study of the innervation of muscle spindles in the internal oblique muscle of the abdominal wall in the adult mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desaki, Junzo; Ezaki, Taichi; Nishida, Naoya

    2010-01-01

    We examined by electron microscopy the innervation of muscle spindles in the internal oblique muscle of the mouse abdominal wall. In the equatorial region, in addition to the sensory innervation on individual intrafusal muscle fibers, sensory cross terminals were often observed between nuclear chain fibers. In the area from the juxtaequatorial region to the polar region, nuclear bag fibers were supplied by trail and plate-type motor endings, while nuclear chain fibers were innervated by sensory endings, being probably secondary sensory endings. From these findings, it is clear that the innervation patterns differ between two types of intrafusal muscle fibers.

  4. Comparison of EMG activity on abdominal muscles during plank exercise with unilateral and bilateral additional isometric hip adduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Yong; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Eui-Ryong; Jung, In-Gui; Seo, Eun-Young; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of additional isometric hip adduction during the plank exercise on the abdominal muscles. Twenty healthy young men participated in this study. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to monitor the activity of the bilateral rectus abdominis (RA), the internal oblique (IO), and the external oblique (EO) muscles. The participants performed three types of plank exercise; the standard plank exercise, the plank exercise with bilateral isometric hip adduction, and the plank exercise with unilateral isometric hip adduction. All abdominal muscle activity was significantly increased during the plank exercise combined with the bilateral and unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the standard plank exercise (pmuscle activity was significantly increased during the unilateral isometric hip adduction compared with the bilateral isometric hip adduction (pabdominal muscle activity. In particular, the unilateral isometric hip adduction is a more beneficial exercise than the bilateral isometric hip adduction.

  5. Electromechanical delay of abdominal muscles is modified by low back pain prevention exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapala, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the effect of a 4-week-long training program on selected parameters: electromechanical delay (EMD) and amplitude of electromyographic signal (EMG). Fourteen female students of the University School of Physical Education participated in the study. Torques and surface electromyography were evaluated under static conditions. Surface electrodes were glued to both sides of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles. The 4-week-long program was aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and resulted in increased EMD during maximum torque production by flexors of the trunk, increased amplitudes of the signals of the erector spinae ( p = 0.005), and increased EMG amplitude asymmetry of the lower ( p = 0.013) and upper part ( p = 0.006) of the rectus abdominis muscle. In a training program composed of a large number of repetitions of strength exercises, in which the training person uses their own weight as the load (like in exercises such as curl-ups), the process of recruitment of motor units is similar to that found during fatiguing exercises and plyometric training.

  6. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness.

  7. The Effects of Abdominal Hollowing in Lower-limb PNF Pattern Training on the Activation of Contralateral Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byungho; Park, Hankyu; Heo, Kwangjin; Lee, Joongsook; Lee, Jaeseok; Oh, Taeyoung; Han, Dongwook

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of abdominal hollowing during lower-limb proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on the activation of contralateral muscles. [Subjects] Twenty male college students without symptoms or signs of muscular or nervous disease participated in this experiment after signing a consent form. [Methods] All the subjects were measured with electromyography (EMG) in a muscle activation test before and after abdominal hollowing. In the PNF program, the lower-limb pattern of PNF training, was maintained for 5 seconds, followed by a 2-minute break. This was repeated three times. The resting time between sets was 30 minutes. Surface EMG (Keypoint, Medtronic Inc., USA) was used for the measurements, and the highest value of three measurements was used in the analysis. [Result] The results revealed a significant change in the muscular activation of the opposite-side lower limbs. The muscular activations of the vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were increased significantly after the abdominal hollowing. [Conclusion] The findings suggest that abdominal hollowing in PNF pattern training can be effective at promoting muscular activation of the contralateral muscles. To promote muscular activation of the opposite side in lower-limb PNF pattern training, abdominal hollowing should be considered to improve the effect of PNF pattern training.

  8. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Ten patients with VIH and ten healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test-retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Truncal flexion and extension showed excellent test-retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH, no significant correlations between objective measures of truncal strength and IPAQ or SATS were found. For healthy controls, both truncal flexion (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) and extension (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) correlated significantly with SATS, while no other significant correlation between truncal strength measures and IPAQ was found. The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH.

  9. Respiratory responses to stimulation of abdominal and upper-thorax intercostal muscles using multiple Permaloc electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, James S; Thomas, Donald; Sayers, Scott; Perez-Tamayo, R Anthony; Crish, Timothy; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of abdominal and upper-thoracic muscles was studied with the long-term goal of improved respiratory care for spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. A 12-channel stimulator and multiple surface and implanted Permaloc electrodes were evaluated in five anesthetized canines. Abdominal stimulation with 100 mA using four bilateral sets of surface electrodes placed on the midaxillary line at the 7th through 13th intercostal spaces and with a closed airway at a large lung volume produced an expiratory tracheal pressure of 109 +/- 29 cm H2O (n = 2, mean +/- standard error of the mean). Similar high pressures were induced with implanted electrodes at the same locations. Upper-thoracic stimulation with 40 mA and four sets of implanted electrodes ventral to the axilla induced inspiratory pressures of -12 +/- 2 cm H2O (n = 5). Combined extradiaphragmatic pacing with an open airway produced a tidal volume of 440 +/- 45 mL (n = 4). The robust respiratory volumes and pressures suggest applications in SCI respiratory care.

  10. Catalase overexpression in aortic smooth muscle prevents pathological mechanical changes underlying abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiellaro-Rafferty, Kathryn; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Wan, William; Gleason, Rudolph L; Taylor, W Robert

    2011-08-01

    The causality of the associations between cellular and mechanical mechanisms of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation has not been completely defined. Because reactive oxygen species are established mediators of AAA growth and remodeling, our objective was to investigate oxidative stress-induced alterations in aortic biomechanics and microstructure during subclinical AAA development. We investigated the mechanisms of AAA in an angiotensin II (ANG II) infusion model of AAA in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) mice that overexpress catalase in vascular smooth muscle cells (apoE(-/-)xTg(SMC-Cat)). At baseline, aortas from apoE(-/-)xTg(SMC-Cat) exhibited increased stiffness and the microstructure was characterized by 50% more collagen content and less elastin fragmentation. ANG II treatment for 7 days in apoE(-/-) mice altered the transmural distribution of suprarenal aortic circumferential strain (quantified by opening angle, which increased from 130 ± 1° at baseline to 198 ± 8° after 7 days of ANG II treatment) without obvious changes in the aortic microstructure. No differences in aortic mechanical behavior or suprarenal opening angle were observed in apoE(-/-)xTg(SMC-Cat) after 7 days of ANG II treatment. These data suggest that at the earliest stages of AAA development H(2)O(2) is functionally important and is involved in the control of local variations in remodeling across the vessel wall. They further suggest that reduced elastin integrity at baseline may predispose the abdominal aorta to aneurysmal mechanical remodeling.

  11. Role of the medial medullary reticular formation in relaying vestibular signals to the diaphragm and abdominal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R. L.; Bergsman, A. E.; Holmes, M. J.; Yates, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in posture can affect the resting length of respiratory muscles, requiring alterations in the activity of these muscles if ventilation is to be unaffected. Recent studies have shown that the vestibular system contributes to altering respiratory muscle activity during movement and changes in posture. Furthermore, anatomical studies have demonstrated that many bulbospinal neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) provide inputs to phrenic and abdominal motoneurons; because this region of the reticular formation receives substantial vestibular and other movement-related input, it seems likely that medial medullary reticulospinal neurons could adjust the activity of respiratory motoneurons during postural alterations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether functional lesions of the MRF affect inspiratory and expiratory muscle responses to activation of the vestibular system. Lidocaine or muscimol injections into the MRF produced a large increase in diaphragm and abdominal muscle responses to vestibular stimulation. These vestibulo-respiratory responses were eliminated following subsequent chemical blockade of descending pathways in the lateral medulla. However, inactivation of pathways coursing through the lateral medulla eliminated excitatory, but not inhibitory, components of vestibulo-respiratory responses. The simplest explanation for these data is that MRF neurons that receive input from the vestibular nuclei make inhibitory connections with diaphragm and abdominal motoneurons, whereas a pathway that courses laterally in the caudal medulla provides excitatory vestibular inputs to these motoneurons.

  12. Comparison of Muscle Activities Using a Pressure Biofeedback Unit during Abdominal Muscle Training Performed by Normal Adults in the Standing and Supine Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da-Eun; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Su-Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of draw-in exercise on abdominal muscle activity in the standing and supine positions. [Methods] Twenty healthy women participated in this study. The subjects were required to complete two draw-in exercises (standing and supine positions) using a biofeedback pressure unit. The root mean square (RMS) values of the EMG data were expressed as a percentage of the resting contraction. The data were analyzed using the independent t-test. [Results] According to the changes in the activities of the abdominal muscles, the draw-in exercise in the standing position produced the most significant increase in the activities of the rectus abdominis, the transverse abdominis, the internal oblique, and the external oblique muscles. [Conclusion] The activities of the trunk stability muscles (rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique) increased more in the standing than in the supine position, enabling the subjects to overcome gravity. Therefore, to strengthen the activation of the abdominal muscles, a standing position seems to be more effective than a supine position for draw-in exercises.

  13. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  14. Exercise, Abdominal Obesity, Skeletal Muscle, and Metabolic Risk: Evidence for a Dose Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slentz, Cris A.; Houmard, Joseph A.; Kraus, William E.

    2013-01-01

    The obese are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. However, some who are obese have no metabolic abnormalities. So, it is not adipose tissue per se, but perhaps where it is located that is important for determining metabolic consequences. Regular exercise is known to reduce risk for metabolic disease through numerous mechanisms. The purpose of this report is to highlight some of the efficacy-based data on the effects of exercise (and also a sedentary lifestyle) on abdominal obesity, visceral fat, and metabolic risk. We also discuss how impaired fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in skeletal muscle may be related to both insulin resistance and a contributor to weight gain. In summary, it is evident that exercise in sufficient amounts can lead to substantial decreases in body weight, total body fat, and visceral fat. Additionally, evidence now supports the conclusion that there is a dose–response relationship between exercise amount and these changes, i.e., more exercise leads to additional benefits. Additionally, there are a number of important cardiometabolic risk factors that were most favorably effected by moderate-intensity compared to vigorous-intensity exercise. Unfortunately, it is also apparent that in sedentary middle-aged men and women, short periods of physical inactivity lead to significant weight gain, substantial increases in visceral fat, and further metabolic deterioration. Finally, favorable modulation of mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle by exercise training may reduce a block for complete oxidation of fatty acids in muscle and thereby relieve a block to effective insulin signaling. PMID:19927142

  15. Assessment of abdominal muscle function in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Squair, Jordan W; Chua, Romeo; Lam, Tania; Chen, Zhen; Carpenter, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    To use transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography to assess the potential for preserved function in the abdominal muscles in individuals classified with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6. Five individuals with spinal cord injury (C5-T3) and 5 able-bodied individuals. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the abdominal region of primary motor cortex during resting and sub-maximal (or attempted) contractions. Surface electromyography was used to record motor-evoked potentials as well as maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions in the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in the abdominal muscles occurred in all spinal cord injury subjects. Latencies of muscle response onsets were similar in both groups; however, peak-to-peak amplitudes were smaller in the spinal cord injury group. During maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions all spinal cord injury subjects were able to elicit electromyography activity above resting levels in more than one abdominal muscle across tasks. Individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 were able to activate abdominal muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and during maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions. The activation was induced directly through corticospinal pathways, and not indirectly by stretch reflex activations of the diaphragm. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography measurements provide a useful method to assess motor preservation of abdominal muscles in persons with spinal cord injury.

  16. The effects of horse riding simulation training on stroke patients' balance ability and abdominal muscle thickness changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Il-Hun; Kim, Byeong Jo

    2014-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of horse riding simulation training on changes in balance ability and abdominal muscle thicknesses of stroke patients. [Subjects] Thirty stroke patients with hemiplegia were recruited, and they were randomly assigned to a control or experimental group. [Methods] The experimental group performed horse riding simulation training, whereas the control group performed trunk exercises for 8 weeks. Balance ability was measured using a BioRescue system. The thicknesses of subjects' external oblique, internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured by ultrasonic imaging. [Results] In the experimental group, balance ability was significantly improved after training. Similarly, the thickness of the abdominal muscles on the affected side changed after training in the experimental group, whereas the control group showed no statistically significant changes. [Conclusion] We suggest that horse riding simulation training is more effective than trunk exercises at reducing the center of pressure path length and travel speed and improving the asymmetry of the abdominal muscles of stroke patients.

  17. Effects of Abdominal Hollowing During Stair Climbing on the Activations of Local Trunk Stabilizing Muscles: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Eun Hyuk; Cho, Yun Woo; Kwon, Sun Oh; Son, Su Min

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine using surface electromyography whether stair climbing with abdominal hollowing (AH) is better at facilitating local trunk muscle activity than stair climbing without AH. Methods Twenty healthy men with no history of low back pain participated in the study. Surface electrodes were attached to the multifidus (MF), lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, transverse abdominus - internal oblique abdominals (TrA-IO), external oblique abdominals (EO), and the rectus abdominis. Amplitudes of electromyographic signals were measured during stair climbing. Study participants performed maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) for each muscle in various positions to normalize the surface electromyography data. Results AH during stair climbing resulted in significant increases in normalized MVCs in both MFs and TrA-IOs (pstair climbing with AH as compared with stair climbing without AH. Especially, right TrA-IO/EO and left TrA-IO/EO were significantly increased (pStair climbing with AH activates local trunk stabilizing muscles better than stair climbing without AH. The findings suggest that AH during stair climbing contributes to trunk muscle activation and trunk stabilization. PMID:24466515

  18. Endothelial and smooth muscle cells from abdominal aortic aneurysm have increased oxidative stress and telomere attrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cafueri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a complex multi-factorial disease with life-threatening complications. AAA is typically asymptomatic and its rupture is associated with high mortality rate. Both environmental and genetic risk factors are involved in AAA pathogenesis. Aim of this study was to investigate telomere length (TL and oxidative DNA damage in paired blood lymphocytes, aortic endothelial cells (EC, vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC, and epidermal cells from patients with AAA in comparison with matched controls. METHODS: TL was assessed using a modification of quantitative (Q-FISH in combination with immunofluorescence for CD31 or α-smooth muscle actin to detect EC and VSMC, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage was investigated by immunofluorescence staining for 7, 8-dihydro-8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Telomeres were found to be significantly shortened in EC, VSMC, keratinocytes and blood lymphocytes from AAA patients compared to matched controls. 8-oxo-dG immunoreactivity, indicative of oxidative DNA damage, was detected at higher levels in all of the above cell types from AAA patients compared to matched controls. Increased DNA double strand breaks were detected in AAA patients vs controls by nuclear staining for γ-H2AX histone. There was statistically significant inverse correlation between TL and accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in blood lymphocytes from AAA patients. This study shows for the first time that EC and VSMC from AAA have shortened telomeres and oxidative DNA damage. Similar findings were obtained with circulating lymphocytes and keratinocytes, indicating the systemic nature of the disease. Potential translational implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Induction of Timp1 in smooth muscle cells during development of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumdelger, Batmunkh; Kokubo, Hiroki; Kamata, Ryo; Fujii, Masayuki; Ishida, Mari; Ishida, Takafumi; Yoshizumi, Masao

    2013-09-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is known to develop mainly by the increased diameter of aorta through metalloproteinases (MMPs). Although activities of MMPs are tightly regulated by the presence of tissue inhibitor of MMPs (TIMPs) and imbalances between MMPs and TIMPs may serve to fragility of arterial wall, little is known about TIMPs behavior in aneurysmal formation. Here, we utilized a murine experimental AAA model, and found that by immunohistochemical analysis, Timp1 as and Timp1 mRNA levels was also revealed in aortic tissue in AAA by RT-PCR. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-alpha significantly activated both Mmp9 and Timp1 expression, and they were blocked by Jun kinase inhibitor (SP600125) in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, a proteasome inhibitor (MG132), which is known as an agent for inhibition of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), significantly inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced expression of Timp1, whereas MG132, which also works as an activator of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway, strongly increased Mmp9. Taken together, inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-alpha, may simultaneously induce MMPs and TIMPs for the remodeling of the medial layer, leading to the increased diameter of the aorta, the aneurysm.

  20. Abdominal muscle activation changes if the purpose is to control pelvis motion or thorax motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; Moreside, Janice M; McGill, Stuart M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare trunk muscular recruitment and lumbar spine kinematics when motion was constrained to either the thorax or the pelvis. Nine healthy women performed four upright standing planar movements (rotations, anterior-posterior translations, medial-lateral translations, and horizontal circles) while constraining pelvis motion and moving the thorax or moving the pelvis while minimizing thorax motion, and four isometric trunk exercises (conventional curl-up, reverse curl-up, cross curl-up, and reverse cross curl-up). Surface EMG (upper and lower rectus abdominis, lateral and medial aspects of external oblique, internal oblique, and latissimus dorsi) and 3D lumbar displacements were recorded. Pelvis movements produced higher EMG amplitudes of the oblique abdominals than thorax motions in most trials, and larger lumbar displacements in the medial-lateral translations and horizontal circles. Conversely, thorax movements produced larger rotational lumbar displacement than pelvis motions during rotations and higher EMG amplitudes for latissimus dorsi during rotations and anterior-posterior translations and for lower rectus abdominis during the crossed curl-ups. Thus, different neuromuscular compartments appear when the objective changes from pelvis to thorax motion. This would suggest that both movement patterns should be considered when planning spine stabilization programs, to optimize exercises for the movement and muscle activations desired. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term overactivity in the abdominal oblique muscles after 8 weeks bed-rest- possible implications for musculosketletal health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavy, D. L.; Richardson, C. A.; Wilson, S.; Darnell, R.; Hides, J.; Toppenberg, R.; Elmann-Larsen, B.; Rittweger, J.; Felsenberg, D.

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the human lumbo-pelvic (LP) muscles with unloading has received little attention in microgravity research, even though this body region has evolved with the development of upright posture in 1-g. This study used a specific movement task to examine the function of four LP muscles during 8-weeks of bed-rest and one-year follow-up. The main finding was the development of overactivity in the abdominal internal oblique muscle in the follow-up period. This finding implies that the L-P muscle changes occurring during bedrest do not recover on return to the 1-g environment. These results may have implications for musculo-skeletal health for those in sedentary lifestyles on Earth.

  2. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0, 5, 10, and 15°. [Result] The changes in the knee joint angle and the hip abduction angle exhibited statistically significant effects on the cervical erector spinae, adductor magnus, and gluteus medius muscles. The abduction angles did not result in statistically significant effects on the upper trapezium, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. However, in relation to the knee joint angles, during the bridging exercise, statistically significant results were exhibited. [Conclusion] When patients with both cervical and back pain do a bridging exercise, widening the knee joint angle would reduce cervical and shoulder muscle activity through minimal levels of abduction, permitting trunk muscle strengthening with reduced cervical muscle activity. This method would be helpful for strengthening trunk muscles in a selective manner.

  3. Electromyographic activity of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during the vesical filling and evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shafik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The role of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles (AAWMs during the vesical filling and evacuation has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. We have investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs exhibit the increased electromyographic (EMG activity on the vesical distension and contraction which presumably assists vesical evacuation.

    METHODS: The effects of the vesical balloon distension on the vesical pressure (VP, vesical neck (VNP pressures and the AAWMs' EMG activity were studied in 28 healthy volunteers aged 40.7 ± 9.7 years (18 men, 10 women. These effects were tested after the individual anesthetization of the bladder and AAWMs and after saline infiltration.

    RESULTS: The VP and the VNP showed a gradual increase upon the incremental vesical balloon distension which started at a distending volume of 120–140 ml. At a mean volume of 364.6 ± 23.8 ml, the VP increased to a mean of 36.6 ± 3.2 cmH2O, the VNP decreased to 18.4 ± 2.4 cmH2O, and the AAWMs EMG registered a significant increase. This effect disappeared in the individual bladder and in the AAWMs' anesthetization. However, it did not disappear in the saline administration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AAWMs appear to contract simultaneously with vesical contraction. This action presumably increases the IAP and it

  4. A comparison of abdominal muscle thickness changes after a lifting task in subjects with and without chronic low-back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Hoseinpoor, Tahere; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram; Naji, Mohsen

    2015-03-01

    Using ultrasound imaging, the abdominal muscles' response to the back extensor muscle fatigue was assessed in subjects with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Lumbar muscle fatigue is a common occurrence among workers. Alteration in motor coordination is one consequence of muscular fatigue. According to previous studies, CLBP subjects use their back and abdominal muscles in different ways, but questions remain about abdominal muscle responses to back muscle fatigue in CLBP patients. Thirteen CLBP patients and 15 healthy subjects participated in this study. The thickness of abdominal muscles-including transverse abdominis (TrA), internal oblique abdominis (IO), and external oblique abdominis (EO) muscles-was measured in standing position with and without axial loads before and after a lifting fatigue task. The results reveal a significant difference for the main effects of group on percentage of change in TrA thickness (F = 8.9, p = .004). Percentage of change in thickness of TrA was 10% greater in the CLBP group. Although IO thickness displayed greater percentage of change in the CLBP group, the difference between groups was not significant. Abdominal muscle behavior changes with back-muscle fatigue in both healthy and CLBP subjects, but responses were more exaggerated in CLBP patients. Ultrasound imaging technique can provide critical information about the effect of fatigue on spinal muscle activation and consequently about the stability of the spine. As a more applicable and easy technique, ergonomists can use ultrasound imaging in musculoskeletal system assessment in worker populations in future studies. © 2014, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Postoperative outcomes following preoperative inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing open cardiothoracic or upper abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mans Christina M; Reeve Julie C; Gasparini Catherine A; Elkins Mark R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In patients undergoing open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery, postoperative pulmonary complications remain an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality, impacting upon hospital length of stay and health care resources. Adequate preoperative respiratory muscle strength may help protect against the development of postoperative pulmonary complications and therefore preoperative inspiratory muscle training has been suggested to be of potential value in...

  6. Lumbar and abdominal muscle activity during walking in subjects with chronic low back pain: Support of the “guarding” hypothesis?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, van der M.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.; Rietman, J.S.; Hermens, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that changes in trunk muscle activity in chronic low back pain (CLBP) reflect an underlying “guarding” mechanism, which will manifest itself as increased superficial abdominal – and lumbar muscle activity. During a functional task like walking, it may be further provoked at

  7. Molecular cloning and localization of a calpain-like protease from the abdominal muscle of Norway lobster Nephrops norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornik, S G; Westrop, G D; Coombs, G H; Neil, D M

    2010-04-01

    Calpains are ubiquitous cysteine-proteases found in many, if not all, living organisms and their roles within these organisms are diverse, ranging from the mediation of cytoskeletal remodeling to the regulation of gene expression. In crustaceans calpains have so far been shown to be important mainly during moulting and growth. In the present study we report the expression of a calpain in the abdominal muscle of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) using degenerate primer, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-3'-RACE), reverse transcriptase-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization approaches. The full-length mRNA sequence (2,774 bp) was found to include an open reading frame (bp 225-1,940) encoding a 572 amino acid polypeptide with a predicted mass of 65.9 kDa and a predicted pI of 5.17. The calpain was found to be an arthropod M-class calpain homologue to Homarus americanus Calpain M (Ha-CalpM) and has thus been termed Nephrops norvegicus calpain M (Nn-CalpM). When its expression pattern in abdominal muscle of adult intermoult Nephrops norvegicus was investigated an exclusive expression in a thin layer of connective tissue cells surrounding muscle fibres was found. This localization suggests a role in tenderizing connective tissue networks during growth and moulting.

  8. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Vânia F.; Amorim, Juleimar S. C.; Pereira, Aline M.; Ferreira, Paulo H.; Pereira, Leani S. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) and urinary incontinence (UI) are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. Objective: To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Method: Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 72±5.2 years) who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression models for the TrA, IO, and EO muscle thickness levels explained 2.0% (R2=0.02; F=0.47; p=0.628), 10.6% (R2=0.106; F=3.03; p=0.057), and 10.1% (R2=0.101; F=2.70; p=0.077) of the variability, respectively. None of the regression models developed for the abdominal muscles exhibited statistical significance. A significant and negative association (p=0.018; β=-0.0343) was observed only between UI and IO recruitment. Conclusion: These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly. PMID:25714438

  9. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia F. Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP and urinary incontinence (UI are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. Objective: To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA, internal (IO, and external oblique (EO muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Method: Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 72±5.2 years who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression models for the TrA, IO, and EO muscle thickness levels explained 2.0% (R2=0.02; F=0.47; p=0.628, 10.6% (R2=0.106; F=3.03; p=0.057, and 10.1% (R2=0.101; F=2.70; p=0.077 of the variability, respectively. None of the regression models developed for the abdominal muscles exhibited statistical significance. A significant and negative association (p=0.018; β=-0.0343 was observed only between UI and IO recruitment. Conclusion: These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly.

  10. Activation amplitude and temporal synchrony among back extensor and abdominal muscles during a controlled transfer task: comparison of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Butler, Heather L; Kozey, John W

    2012-08-01

    Muscle synergies are important for spinal stability, but few studies examine temporal responses of spinal muscles to dynamic perturbations. This study examined activation amplitudes and temporal synergies among compartments of the back extensor and among abdominal wall muscles in response to dynamic bidirectional moments of force. We further examined whether responses were different between men and women. 19 women and 18 men performed a controlled transfer task. Surface electromyograms from bilateral sites over 6 back extensor compartments and 6 abdominal wall muscle sites were analyzed using principal component analysis. Key features were extracted from the measured electromyographic waveforms capturing amplitude and temporal variations among muscle sites. Three features explained 97% of the variance. Scores for each feature were computed for each measured waveform and analysis of variance found significant (pmuscle main effects and a sex by muscle interaction. For the back extensors, post hoc analysis revealed that upper and more medial sites were recruited to higher amplitudes, medial sites responded to flexion moments, and the more lateral sites responded to lateral flexion moments. Women had more differences among muscle sites than men for the lateral flexion moment feature. For the abdominal wall muscles the oblique muscles responded with synergies related to fiber orientation, with women having higher amplitudes and more responsiveness to the lateral flexion moment than men. Synergies between the abdominal and back extensor sites as the moment demands change are discussed. These findings illustrate differential activation among erector spinae compartments and abdominal wall muscle sites supporting a highly organized pattern of response to bidirectional external moments with asynchronies more apparent in women.

  11. Respiratory responses to stimulation of abdominal and upper-thorax intercostal muscles using multiple Permaloc electrodes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter, James S; Thomas, Donald; Sayers, Scott; Perez-Tamayo, R Anthony; Crish, Timothy; Singh, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    .... Abdominal stimulation with 100 mA using four bilateral sets of surface electrodes placed on the midaxillary line at the 7th through 13th intercostal spaces and with a closed airway at a large lung...

  12. The Effects of Knee Joint and Hip Abduction Angles on the Activation of Cervical and Abdominal Muscles during Bridging Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Su-Kyoung; Park, Du-Jin

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the flexion angle of the knee joint and the abduction angle of the hip joint on the activation of the cervical region and abdominal muscles. [Subjects] A total of 42 subjects were enrolled 9 males and 33 females. [Methods] The bridging exercise in this study was one form of exercise with a knee joint flexion angle of 90°. Based on this, a bridging exercise was conducted at the postures of abduction of the lower extremities at 0...

  13. Effect of Traditional vs. Modified Bent-Knee Sit-Up on Abdominal and Hip Flexor Muscle Electromyographic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, William; Gardin, Fredrick A; Bellon, Christopher R; Leigh, Steven

    2015-12-01

    The traditional sit-up may be a poor choice for core strength training due to its focus on hip flexion. The purpose of this study was to determine differences in abdominal and hip flexor muscle activation and trunk and hip kinematics between the traditional U.S. Army sit-up and a modified sit-up focusing on trunk flexion. Eighteen trained males performed 30 seconds of repetitions of each sit-up style, while muscle activation of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and rectus femoris (RF) was recorded using electromyography (EMG). Trunk and hip kinematics were measured using 2-D videography. Maximum and mean muscle activation, integrated EMG (iEMG), and trunk and hip flexion were compared using a repeated-measures design. Maximum EMG of the RF and EO and mean EMG and iEMG of the RF were greater during the traditional sit-up. In contrast, mean EMG and iEMG of the RA and EO were greater during the modified sit-up. Peak trunk flexion was greater during the modified sit-up, and peak hip flexion was greater during the traditional sit-up. The greater RF EMG activity and peak hip flexion during the traditional sit-up suggest a greater emphasis on hip flexion during this sit-up style, which may result in lumbar hyperextension. The greater RA and EO activity and peak trunk flexion during the modified sit-up suggest a greater emphasis on trunk flexion during this exercise, which may decrease the lumbar spine load. Therefore, the modified sit-up may be a better exercise selection to train the abdominal muscles.

  14. Influence of lumbar spine rhythms and intra-abdominal pressure on spinal loads and trunk muscle forces during upper body inclination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Rizwan; Zander, Thomas; Dreischarf, Marcel; Schmidt, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    Improved knowledge on spinal loads and trunk muscle forces may clarify the mechanical causes of various spinal diseases and has the potential to improve the current treatment options. Using an inverse dynamic musculoskeletal model, this sensitivity analysis was aimed to investigate the influence of lumbar spine rhythms and intra-abdominal pressure on the compressive and shear forces in L4-L5 disc and the trunk muscle forces during upper body inclination. Based on in vivo data, three different spine rhythms (SRs) were used along with alternative settings (with/without) of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP). Compressive and shear forces in L4-L5 disc as well as trunk muscle forces were predicted by inverse static simulations from standing upright to 55° of intermediate trunk inclination. Alternate model settings of intra-abdominal pressure and different spine rhythms resulted in significant variation of compression (763 N) and shear forces (195 N) in the L4-L5 disc and in global (454 N) and local (156 N) trunk muscle forces at maximum flexed position. During upper body inclination, the compression forces at L4-L5 disc were mostly released by IAP and increased for larger intervertebral rotation in a lumbar spine rhythm. This study demonstrated that with various possible assumptions of lumbar spine rhythm and intra-abdominal pressure, variation in predicted loads and muscles forces increase with larger flexion. It is therefore, essential to adapt these model parameters for accurate prediction of spinal loads and trunk muscle forces.

  15. Expression patterns of ubiquitin, heat shock protein 70, alpha-actin and beta-actin over the molt cycle in the abdominal muscle of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Jose Renato O; Yang, Jinzeng

    2007-05-01

    Crustacean muscle growth is discontinuous due to molt cycle. To characterize molt-related gene expression patterns, we studied the mRNA levels of molecular chaperone-ubiquitin and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp 70) in comparison with muscle protein alpha-actin and beta-actin in marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Total RNA from abdominal muscle was isolated from 3-month-old animals in six different molt stages. The mRNA levels of target genes were detected by reverse-transcriptase-multiplex PCR and expressed as the ratio to elongation factor-1alpha. Ubiquitin mRNA levels were relatively steady over all stages of the molt cycle. Hsp70 levels were not detectable in early postmolt and late premolt stages, but showed a progressive increase from late postmolt to intermolt stages. Expression levels of alpha-actin gene were lower during postmolt, reached a plateau in intermolt and remained relatively high in premolt stage. Levels of beta-actin increased progressively from postmolt to intermolt, reaching a maximum value in premolt. Therefore, the mRNAs encoding for ubiquitin and Hsp 70 in abdominal muscle did not increase significantly in premolt stages, which is typically associated with claw muscle degradation. Muscle structural alpha-actin and cytoskeletal beta-actin were increased during intermolt and premolt stages, suggesting high muscle growth during these stages in the abdominal muscle of the L. vannamei.

  16. In a dynamic lifting task, the relationship between cross-sectional abdominal muscle thickness and the corresponding muscle activity is affected by the combined use of a weightlifting belt and the Valsalva maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Trevor W; Smith, Camille; Grenier, Sylvain G

    2016-06-01

    It has been shown that under isometric conditions, as the activity of the abdominal muscles increases, the thicknesses of the muscles also increase. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether change in muscle thickness could be used as a measure of muscle activity during a deadlift as well as determining the effect of a weightlifting belt and/or the Valsalva maneuver on the muscle thicknesses. The Transversus Abdominis (TrA) and Internal Obliques (IO) muscles were analyzed at rest and during a deadlift. Muscle thickness was measured using ultrasound imaging and muscle activity was simultaneously recorded using electromyography. Each subject performed deadlift under normal conditions, while performing the Valsalva maneuver, while wearing a weightlifting belt and while both utilizing the belt and the Valsalva maneuver. There was no relationship between change in muscle thickness and muscle activity for both the TrA and IO (R(2)abdominal muscle thickness whereas the belt limited muscle expansion; each with an increase in activity. These results indicate that ultrasound cannot be used to measure muscle activity for a deadlift and that the belt affects how the IO and TrA function together.

  17. Near-infrared monitoring of perfusion and oxygen availability in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle during hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarek, Jean-Michel I.; Vari, Sandor G.; Marcu, Laura; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Pergadia, Vani R.; Snyder, Wendy J.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-05-01

    Near-IR spectroscopy was used to quantify blood content and oxygenation dynamics in abdominal organs and skeletal muscle of 18 anesthetized rabbits during hypoxic hypoxia. Liver, kidney, and hindlimb muscle were exposed surgically. Laser diode pulses transmitted across the tissues were detected by means of a photomultiplier. The amount and redox level of tissue hemoglobin were estimated from the near-IR signals and monitored during 5- min-long hypoxic challenges and subsequent recovery periods. In the kidney, exposure to 10% FiO2 resulted in rapid and symmetrical changes in oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin with 50% of the variations occurring within 1 min and a plateau after 3 min. Total hemoglobin did not change and hemoglobin oxygenation returned to baseline within 1 min of hypoxia cessation. Exposure to 6% FiO2 doubled the decrease in oxygenated hemoglobin and induced a sustained vasoconstriction which decreased total hemoglobin content 2 min after initiation of hypoxia. Comparable patterns were observed in the liver and skeletal muscle with the following exceptions: local vasoconstriction was generally not observed at 6% FiO2, return to baseline oxygen availability was much slower in skeletal muscle than in the other organs.

  18. Loss of abdominal muscle in Pitx2 mutants associated with altered axial specification of lateral plate mesoderm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Eng

    Full Text Available Sequence specific transcription factors (SSTFs combinatorially define cell types during development by forming recursively linked network kernels. Pitx2 expression begins during gastrulation, together with Hox genes, and becomes localized to the abdominal lateral plate mesoderm (LPM before the onset of myogenesis in somites. The somatopleure of Pitx2 null embryos begins to grow abnormally outward before muscle regulatory factors (MRFs or Pitx2 begin expression in the dermomyotome/myotome. Abdominal somites become deformed and stunted as they elongate into the mutant body wall, but maintain normal MRF expression domains. Subsequent loss of abdominal muscles is therefore not due to defects in specification, determination, or commitment of the myogenic lineage. Microarray analysis was used to identify SSTF families whose expression levels change in E10.5 interlimb body wall biopsies. All Hox9-11 paralogs had lower RNA levels in mutants, whereas genes expressed selectively in the hypaxial dermomyotome/myotome and sclerotome had higher RNA levels in mutants. In situ hybridization analyses indicate that Hox gene expression was reduced in parts of the LPM and intermediate mesoderm of mutants. Chromatin occupancy studies conducted on E10.5 interlimb body wall biopsies showed that Pitx2 protein occupied chromatin sites containing conserved bicoid core motifs in the vicinity of Hox 9-11 and MRF genes. Taken together, the data indicate that Pitx2 protein in LPM cells acts, presumably in combination with other SSTFs, to repress gene expression, that are normally expressed in physically adjoining cell types. Pitx2 thereby prevents cells in the interlimb LPM from adopting the stable network kernels that define sclerotomal, dermomyotomal, or myotomal mesenchymal cell types. This mechanism may be viewed either as lineage restriction or specification.

  19. In vitro contractility of normal and aneurysmal abdominal aorta muscle coat sections in human and animal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnus, Jan; Czerski, Albert; Zawadzki, Wojciech; Witkiewicz, Wojciech; Hauzer, Willy; Rusiecka, Agnieszka; Ferenc, Stanisław

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to demonstrate spontaneous contractile activity of the smooth muscle coat of the aorta in human and animal material. Spontaneous contractility of smooth muscle tissue, or tonus, is essential for the proper function of many internal organs as observed in the many types of muscle cells which make up the internal structures. The spontaneous contractile activity of the muscle tissue in blood vessels is particularly marked in resistance vessels, regulating circulation within organs or tissues. It can also be observed in large blood vessels such as arteries and veins. The contractile activity of muscular tissue isolated from arteries is the result of a number of factors, including endogenous paracrine substances, neurotransmitters released at postganglionic endings (mostly within the sympathetic system), cells capable of spontaneously generation of functional potentials (pacemaking cells) and the vascular endothelium. Pacemaking cells present in the aortic wall are an important factor in the development of the spontaneous contractility of the muscular coat of the aorta. They are capable of generating functional potentials, resulting in the constant tonus of the smooth muscular coat (comprising the aortic wall) due to tonic contraction. In vitro studies were carried out on abdominal aortic sections collected from 30 New Zealand rabbits with a body mass of 3-4 kilograms each and also on aneurysmal abdominal aortic sections collected during elective aneurysm repair procedures in humans (10 abdominal aortic sections). The 1.5 cm-long sections were mounted in chambers of an automated water bath. The sections were oriented in a transverse and longitudal fashion in order to compare contractility. The incubation medium consisted of Krebs-Henseleit buffer. Spontaneous contractile activity was observed during the study, characterized by rhythmic contractions of the muscular layer of the aorta. The contractile tension within the sections was 0.15 m

  20. Potential role of vascular smooth muscle cell-like progenitor cell therapy in the suppression of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyung Sub; Choi, Geum Hee; Hahn, Soli; Yoo, Young Sun; Lee, Ji Youl; Lee, Taeseung

    2013-02-08

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are a growing problem worldwide, yet there is no known medical therapy. The pathogenesis involves degradation of the elastic lamina by two combined mechanisms: increased degradation of elastin by matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and decreased formation of elastin due to apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In this study, we set out to examine the potential role of stem cells in the attenuation of AAA formation by inhibition of these pathogenetic mechanisms. Muscle-derived stem cells from murine skeletal muscles were isolated and stimulated with PDGF-BB in vitro for differentiation to VSMC-like progenitor cells (VSMC-PC). These cells were implanted in to elastase-induced AAAs in rats. The cell therapy group had decreased rate of aneurysm formation compared to control, and MMP expression at the genetic, protein and enzymatic level were also significantly decreased. Furthermore, direct implantation of VSMC-PCs in the intima of harvested aortas was visualized under immunofluorescent staining, suggesting that these cells were responsible for the inhibition of MMPs and consequent attenuation of AAA formation. These results show a promising role of stem cell therapy for the treatment of AAAs, and with further studies, may be able to reach clinical significance.

  1. Postoperative outcomes following preoperative inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing open cardiothoracic or upper abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mans Christina M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients undergoing open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery, postoperative pulmonary complications remain an important cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality, impacting upon hospital length of stay and health care resources. Adequate preoperative respiratory muscle strength may help protect against the development of postoperative pulmonary complications and therefore preoperative inspiratory muscle training has been suggested to be of potential value in improving postoperative outcomes. Methods/Design A systematic search of electronic databases will be undertaken to identify randomized trials of preoperative inspiratory muscle training in patients undergoing elective open cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery. From these trials, we will extract available data for a list of predefined outcomes, including postoperative pulmonary complications, hospital length of stay and respiratory muscle strength. We will meta-analyze comparable results where possible, and report a summary of the available pool of evidence. Discussion This review will provide the most comprehensive answer available to the question of whether preoperative inspiratory muscle training is clinically useful in improving postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing cardiothoracic and upper abdominal surgery. It will help inform clinicians working in the surgical arena of the likely effectiveness of instituting preoperative inspiratory muscle training programs to improve postoperative outcomes.

  2. Reliability and validity of lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests in office workers with nonspecific subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Mocholi, Miguel H; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Parraca, Jose A; Adsuar, Jose C; Gusi, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of trunk endurance tests, the reliability and validity of these tests in office workers with subacute nonspecific low back pain are unknown. This cross-sectional study involved 190 subjects: 30 men and 42 women without low back pain and 47 men and 71 women with low back pain. All subjects underwent timed prone and supine isometric lumbar and abdominal trunk endurance tests that were performed until subjective fatigue occurred. All subjects also completed the Roland Morris and Oswestry self-reported disability questionnaires. A test-retest study (7 days) was conducted with 31 participants with low back pain from the study. For the abdominal trunk endurance test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 62.06 (36.87) and 46.06 (29.28) seconds, respectively, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. For the lumbar test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 79.57 (30.66) and 75.49 (28.97) seconds, respectively, again, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. The intraclass correlation coefficients of both tests exceeded 0.90 and the Kappa indices were excellent for both men and women. Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed areas under the curve very close to or exceeding 0.70 for both men and women for both tests. The lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests appeared to be reliable and valid measures in office workers with subacute low back pain.

  3. Effects of diaphragm stretching on posterior chain muscle kinematics and rib cage and abdominal excursion: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. González-Álvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Few studies have explored the effects of stretching techniques on diaphragm and spine kinematics. Objective To determine whether the application of diaphragm stretching resulted in changes in posterior chain muscle kinematics and ribcage and abdominal excursion in healthy subjects. Method Eighty healthy adults were included in this randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, which received a diaphragmatic stretching technique, or the placebo group, which received a sham-ultrasound procedure. The duration of the technique, the position of participants, and the therapist who applied the technique were the same for both treatments. Participant assessment (cervical range of movement, lumbar flexibility, flexibility of the posterior chain, and rib cage and abdominal excursion was performed at baseline and immediately after the intervention by a blinded assessor. Results The mean between-group difference [95% CI] for the ribcage excursion after technique at xiphoid level was 2.48 [0.97 to 3.99], which shows significant differences in this outcome. The remaining between-group analysis showed significant differences in cervical extension, right and left flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level (p<0.05 in favor of the experimental group. Conclusion Diaphragm stretching generates a significant improvement in cervical extension, right and left cervical flexion, flexibility of the posterior chain, and ribcage excursion at xiphoid level compared to a placebo technique in healthy adults.

  4. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  5. Activation timing patterns of the abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Heon; Choi, Jong-Duk; Lee, Nam-Gi

    2015-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the activation timing patterns of abdominal and leg muscles during the sit-to-stand movement in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke. [Subjects] Twenty adults with chronic hemiparetic stroke participated in this study. [Methods] Subjects performed five sit-to-stand movements at a self-selected velocity without using their hands. Surface electromyography was used to measure the reaction time of the bilateral transverse abdominis/internal oblique, rectus femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles during the sit-to-stand movement. [Results] There were significant differences in the reaction time between the affected and unaffected sides of the abdominal and leg muscles. Muscles on the unaffected side had faster reaction time than those on the affected side. Activation of the transverse abdominis/internal oblique muscles was delayed relative to activation of the tibialis anterior muscle during the sit-to-stand movement. [Conclusion] Our findings provide information that may aid clinicians in the examination and management of paretic muscles for transfers in individuals with chronic hemiparetic stroke.

  6. A comparative analysis of the electrical activity of the abdominal muscles during traditional and Pilates-based exercises under two conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Felipe Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of Pilates-based exercises for trunk strengthening has been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the electrical activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles during a traditional abdominal exercise program and an exercise program based on the Pilates method using a ball and an elastic band. The sample was composed of 10 healthy women, non-practitioners of Pilates, who performed the traditional abdominal exercise and roll-up with the ball and elastic band. The sign was normalized by the electromyographic peak of the dynamics activity and was adjusted for 2000 samples/s; the filter was set in a frequency band from 20 to 450 Hz. In the comparison between exercises, the external oblique muscle in the concentric phase had a higher recruitment in the roll-up with the ball (P =0.042. In the comparison between muscles in each exercise, the rectus abdominis showed a higher activation in the concentric phase (P = 0.009 and in the eccentric phase (P = 0.05 of the traditional abdominal exercise. Activation percentages ranged from 15% to 22%. The traditional abdominal exercise had the largest activation percentage.

  7. Alterations of thoraco-abdominal volumes and asynchronies in patients with spinal muscle atrophy type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Romei, Marianna; Priori, Rita; Laviola, Marianna; D'Angelo, Maria Grazia; Aliverti, Andrea

    2014-06-15

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by degeneration of motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness. For the mild type III form, a sub-classification into type IIIA and IIIB, based on age of motor impairment, was recently proposed. To investigate if SMA IIIA (more severe) and IIIB differ also in terms of respiratory function, thoracoabdominal kinematics was measured during quiet breathing, inspiration preceding cough and inspiratory capacity on 5 type IIIA and 9 type IIIB patients. Four patients with SMA II (more severe than types III) and 19 healthy controls were also studied. Rib cage motion was similar in SMA IIIB and controls. Conversely, in SMA IIIA and SMA II it was significantly reduced and sometime paradoxical during quiet breathing in supine position. Our results suggest that in SMA IIIA intercostal muscles are weakened and the diaphragm is preserved similarly to SMA II, while in SMA IIIB the action of all inspiratory muscles is maintained. Sub-classification of type III seems feasible also for respiratory function.

  8. A prospective study comparing the functional impact of SIEA, DIEP, and muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps on the abdominal wall: Part II. Bilateral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Jesse C; Fosnot, Joshua; Nelson, Jonas; Goldstein, Jesse; Bergey, Meredith; Sonnad, Seema; Serletti, Joseph M

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the impact of bilateral free flap breast reconstruction on the abdominal wall. This is the second installation of a two-part series. Presented here are bilateral combinations of three techniques: the muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap, deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap, and superficial inferior epigastric artery (SIEA) flap. A blinded prospective cohort study was performed involving 234 patients. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and for 1 year postoperatively. At each encounter, patients underwent objective abdominal strength testing using the Manual Muscle Function Test and Functional Independence Measure and psychometric testing using the Short Form 36 questionnaire. At postoperative visits, patients also completed a questionnaire specific to breast reconstruction. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. A total of 234 patients were enrolled. Of these, 157 underwent reconstruction, 82 of which were bilateral. There was a significant decline in upper (p=0.02) and lower (p=0.05) abdominal strength from bilateral free TRAM flaps compared with bilateral DIEP flaps. Likewise, there was a significant decline in upper (p=0.055) and lower (p=0.04) abdominal strength from bilateral free TRAM flaps compared with bilateral SIEA flaps. For combinations, the most muscle impairment to least was as follows: free TRAM/free TRAM, free TRAM/DIEP, DIEP/DIEP, DIEP/SIEA, and SIEA/SIEA. The free TRAM/SIEA data were not significant. Although psychometric testing showed trends, there was no significant difference among treatment groups. Abdominal wall strength following various combinations of bilateral free flap breast reconstruction techniques closely adheres to theoretical predictions based on the degree of surgical muscle sacrifice.

  9. The functional coupling of the deep abdominal and paraspinal muscles: the effects of simulated paraspinal muscle contraction on force transfer to the middle and posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2014-10-01

    The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) consists of aponeurotic and fascial layers that interweave the paraspinal and abdominal muscles into a complex matrix stabilizing the lumbosacral spine. To better understand low back pain, it is essential to appreciate how these muscles cooperate to influence lumbopelvic stability. This study tested the following hypotheses: (i) pressure within the TLF's paraspinal muscular compartment (PMC) alters load transfer between the TLF's posterior and middle layers (PLF and MLF); and (ii) with increased tension of the common tendon of the transversus abdominis (CTrA) and internal oblique muscles and incremental PMC pressure, fascial tension is primarily transferred to the PLF. In cadaveric axial sections, paraspinal muscles were replaced with inflatable tubes to simulate paraspinal muscle contraction. At each inflation increment, tension was created in the CTrA to simulate contraction of the deep abdominal muscles. Fluoroscopic images and load cells captured changes in the size, shape and tension of the PMC due to inflation, with and without tension to the CTrA. In the absence of PMC pressure, increasing tension on the CTrA resulted in anterior and lateral movement of the PMC. PMC inflation in the absence of tension to the CTrA resulted in a small increase in the PMC perimeter and a larger posterior displacement. Combining PMC inflation and tension to the CTrA resulted in an incremental increase in PLF tension without significantly altering tension in the MLF. Paraspinal muscle contraction leads to posterior displacement of the PLF. When expansion is combined with abdominal muscle contraction, the CTrA and internal oblique transfers tension almost exclusively to the PLF, thereby girdling the paraspinal muscles. The lateral border of the PMC is restrained from displacement to maintain integrity. Posterior movement of the PMC represents an increase of the PLF extension moment arm. Dysfunctional paraspinal muscles would reduce the posterior

  10. The functional coupling of the deep abdominal and paraspinal muscles: the effects of simulated paraspinal muscle contraction on force transfer to the middle and posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vleeming, A; Schuenke, M D; Danneels, L; Willard, F H

    2014-01-01

    The thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) consists of aponeurotic and fascial layers that interweave the paraspinal and abdominal muscles into a complex matrix stabilizing the lumbosacral spine. To better understand low back pain, it is essential to appreciate how these muscles cooperate to influence lumbopelvic stability. This study tested the following hypotheses: (i) pressure within the TLF's paraspinal muscular compartment (PMC) alters load transfer between the TLF's posterior and middle layers (PLF and MLF); and (ii) with increased tension of the common tendon of the transversus abdominis (CTrA) and internal oblique muscles and incremental PMC pressure, fascial tension is primarily transferred to the PLF. In cadaveric axial sections, paraspinal muscles were replaced with inflatable tubes to simulate paraspinal muscle contraction. At each inflation increment, tension was created in the CTrA to simulate contraction of the deep abdominal muscles. Fluoroscopic images and load cells captured changes in the size, shape and tension of the PMC due to inflation, with and without tension to the CTrA. In the absence of PMC pressure, increasing tension on the CTrA resulted in anterior and lateral movement of the PMC. PMC inflation in the absence of tension to the CTrA resulted in a small increase in the PMC perimeter and a larger posterior displacement. Combining PMC inflation and tension to the CTrA resulted in an incremental increase in PLF tension without significantly altering tension in the MLF. Paraspinal muscle contraction leads to posterior displacement of the PLF. When expansion is combined with abdominal muscle contraction, the CTrA and internal oblique transfers tension almost exclusively to the PLF, thereby girdling the paraspinal muscles. The lateral border of the PMC is restrained from displacement to maintain integrity. Posterior movement of the PMC represents an increase of the PLF extension moment arm. Dysfunctional paraspinal muscles would reduce the posterior

  11. A prospective study comparing the functional impact of SIEA, DIEP, and muscle-sparing free TRAM flaps on the abdominal wall: part I. unilateral reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Jesse C; Nelson, Jonas; Fosnot, Joshua; Goldstein, Jesse; Bergey, Meredith; Sonnad, Seema S; Serletti, Joseph M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this two-part study was to demonstrate the impact of free flap breast reconstruction on the abdominal wall. In Part I, the authors present the results for unilateral techniques. A blinded, prospective, cohort study was performed involving 234 free flap breast reconstruction patients. Patients were evaluated preoperatively, and followed for 1 year. At each encounter, patients underwent abdominal strength testing using the Upper and Lower Rectus Abdominis Manual Muscle Function Test, the Functional Independence Measure, and psychometric testing using the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey. Patients also completed a satisfaction questionnaire specific to breast reconstruction. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, Friedman, and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Two-hundred thirty-four patients were enrolled. Of these, 157 underwent reconstruction (75 of which were unilateral), completed follow-up, and were included in the analysis. There was a significantly greater decline in upper abdominal strength in patients undergoing muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap surgery compared with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap surgery at early (p = 0.01) and late follow-up (p = 0.02). Unilateral superficial inferior epigastric artery flap procedures (n = 3) were too few for a meaningful conclusion to be reached. Lower abdominal and Functional Independence Measure scores showed no significant differences. Psychometric testing showed that there was a significant decline in physical health within the free TRAM flap group. No significant difference among groups was appreciable. In unilateral cases, the impact of the muscle-sparing free TRAM flap versus the DIEP flap follows theoretical predictions based on the degree of muscle sacrifice: the muscle-sparing free TRAM flap demonstrated a greater decline than the DIEP flap in certain measurable parameters.

  12. Effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid and abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Moon, Dong-Chul; Hong, Ki-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck flexion restriction on sternocleidomastoid (SCM), rectus abdominis (RA), and external oblique (EO) muscle activity during a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up with neck flexion restriction. [Subjects] In total, 13 healthy male subjects volunteered for this study. [Methods] All subjects performed a traditional curl-up exercise and a curl-up exercise in which neck flexion was restricted by the subject's hand. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the SCM, RA, and EO during the curl-up. [Results] There was significantly lower EMG activity of the SCM during the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction compared to the traditional curl-up exercise. Conversely, the activity of the RA and EO muscles was significantly higher in the curl-up exercise with neck flexion restriction than in the traditional curl-up exercise. [Conclusion] Neck flexion restriction is recommended to prevent excessive activation of superficial cervical flexors during the curl-up exercise.

  13. Effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles and lumbar stabilization exercise on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-seok; Kim, Tae-ho; Kim, Da-yeon; Shim, Jae-ho; Lim, Jin-yong

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of selective exercise for the deep abdominal muscles (SEDA) and lumbar stabilization exercise (LSE) on the thickness of the transversus abdominis and postural maintenance on an unstable base of support. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 male and 10 female adults in their 20s without lumbar pain. They were equally and randomly assigned to a SEDA group and a LSE group. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured using ultrasound imaging during rest and drawing-in. The thickness of the transversus abdominis was measured when subjects raised their right and left legs while lying on a Swiss ball. [Results] Initially, there were no differences between the two groups. After the intervention, significant differences were observed in all parameters. A significant interaction between group and period was not found for any parameters. [Conclusion] In conclusion, both SEDA and LSE thickened the transversus abdominis, which is a deep abdominal muscle, thereby adjusting posture, and stabilizing the trunk. These exercises increased the thickness of the deep abdominal muscles. They are important exercises for improving the stability of athletes or patients who need postural adjustment. PMID:25729169

  14. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  15. Capsiate administration results in an uncoupling protein-3 downregulation, an enhanced muscle oxidative capacity and a decreased abdominal fat content in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, B; Giannesini, B; Matarazzo, V; Le Fur, Y; Rougon, G; Cozzone, P J; Bendahan, D

    2009-12-01

    The involvement of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in the control of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and at the whole-body level is still a matter of debate. We previously reported that UCP3 downregulation is linked to an enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism in rat skeletal muscle as a result of acute capsiate treatment. Here, we aimed at investigating noninvasively the effects of chronic capsiate ingestion on metabolic changes occurring in exercising gastrocnemius muscle and at the whole-body level. We used an original experimental setup allowing a complete noninvasive investigation of gastrocnemius muscle function in situ using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Whole-body fat composition was determined using magnetic resonance imaging and UCP3 gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. We found that a 14-day daily administration of capsiate (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) reduced UCP3 gene expression and increased phosphocreatine level at baseline and during the stimulation period in gastrocnemius muscle. During muscle stimulation, pH(i) showed a larger alkalosis in the capsiate group suggesting a lower glycolysis and a compensatory higher aerobic contribution to ATP production. Although the capsiate-treated rats were hyperphagic as compared to control animals, they showed a lower weight gain coupled to a decreased abdominal fat content. Overall, our data indicated that capsiate administration contributes to the enhancement of aerobic ATP production and the reduction of body fat content coupled to a UCP3 gene downregulation.

  16. The Influence of Dual Pressure Biofeedback Units on Pelvic Rotation and Abdominal Muscle Activity during the Active Straight Leg Raise in Women with Chronic Lower Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Kyung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Gyoung-Mo; Ha, Sung-Min; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2014-05-01

    [Purpose] This study was performed to assess the influence of applying dual pressure biofeedback units (DPBUs) on the angle of pelvic rotation and abdominal muscle activity during the active straight leg raise (ASLR). [Subjects] Seventeen patients with low-back pain (LBP) participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects were asked to perform an active straight leg raise (ASLR) without a PBU, with a single PBU, and with DPBUs. The angles of pelvic rotation were measured using a three-dimensional motion-analysis system, and the muscle activity of the bilateral internal oblique abdominis (IO), external oblique abdominis (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG). One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine the rotation angles and muscle activity under the three conditions. [Results] The EMG activity of the ipsilateral IO, contralateral EO, and bilateral RA was greater and pelvic rotation was lower with the DPBUs than with no PBU or a single PBU. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that applying DPBUs during ASLR is effective in decreasing unwanted pelvic rotation and increasing abdominal muscle activity in women with chronic low back pain.

  17. The effect of core stability and general exercise on abdominal muscle thickness in non-specific chronic low back pain using ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsi, MohammadBagher; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Jamshidi, Aliashraf; Zarabi, Vida; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-05-01

    There is a controversy regarding whether core stability exercise (CSE) is more effective than general exercise (GE) for chronic LBP. To compare different exercises regarding their effect on improving back strength and stability, performance of abdominal muscles is a useful index. Ultrasound imaging for measuring muscle thickness could be used to assess muscle performance. The aim of this study was to compare CSE and GE in chronic LBP using ultrasound imaging for measurement of thickness of the deep stabilizing and main global trunk muscles in non-specific chronic LBP. Each program included 16 training sessions three times a week. Using ultrasound imaging, four transabdominal muscle thickness were measured before and after the intervention. Disability and pain were measured as secondary outcomes. After the intervention on participants (n = 43), a significant increase in muscle thickness (hypertrophy) was seen only in right and left rectus abdominis in the GE group, but significant difference to the CSE group was only on the right side. Disability and pain reduced within the groups without a significant difference in the change between them. The present results provided evidence that only GE increased right and left rectus muscle thickness. The only significant difference between CSE and GE groups was the right rectus thickness. As rectus is a global muscle, the effect of GE on strength improvement (one side stronger than the other) may have a negative effect on motor control of lumbopelvic muscles and possibly increase the risk of back pain occurring or becoming worse, though this was not observed in the present study.

  18. Responsiveness of the double limb lowering test and lower abdominal muscle progression to core stabilization exercise programs in healthy adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haladay, Douglas E; Miller, Sayers J; Challis, John H; Denegar, Craig R

    2014-07-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent and expensive health care problems in the United States. Studies suggest that stabilization exercise may be effective in the management of people with LBP. To accurately assess the effect of stabilization programs on muscle performance, clinicians need an objective measure that is both valid and reliable. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the double limb lowering test (DLLT) and lower abdominal muscle progression (LAMP) can detect a change in abdominal muscle performance after stabilization exercises. Eleven healthy participants (4 men and 7 women) were randomly assigned to either a specific stabilization exercise (SSE) or general stabilization exercise (GSE) group and were evaluated by the DLLT and LAMP before, during, and at the end of 8 weeks of training. Subjects attended exercise sessions twice per week over 8 weeks. No significant difference in pretest performance existed between the 2 groups. No significant difference was detected with the DLLT for either the SSE or GSE over time or when groups were combined. The LAMP detected a significant difference for the combined groups and GSE but not SSE over time. These data indicate that the LAMP is sensitive to change after a spinal stabilization program, whereas the DLLT does not detect a change after these programs. Furthermore, the GSE was more effective in producing these changes. Additional testing of these assessments is necessary to further validate these tests and to identify specific populations for which these tests may be most appropriate.

  19. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2-induced heterotopic ossification of the retroperitoneum, psoas muscle, pelvis and abdominal wall following lumbar spinal fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Raj K. [The George Washington University School of Medicine, Washington, DC (United States); Moncayo, Valeria M.; Pierre-Jerome, Claude; Terk, Michael R. [Emory University School of Medicine, Radiology Department, Musculoskeletal Division, Atlanta, GA (United States); Smitson, Robert D. [Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2010-05-15

    A 45-year-old man presented with vertebral collapse at L5 as an initial manifestation of multiple myeloma and underwent spinal fusion surgery using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). Subsequent computed tomography (CT) scans and X-rays revealed heterotopic ossification of the left psoas muscle, pelvis, and anterior abdominal wall. While the occurrence of heterotopic ossification has previously been reported when rhBMP-2 has been used for spinal fusion surgery, this case demonstrates that it can occur to a much greater degree than previously seen. (orig.)

  20. Inhibition of development of experimental abdominal aortic aneurysm by c-jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor combined with lysyl oxidase gene modified smooth muscle progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Zhang, ZhenDong; Zhu, XianHua

    2015-11-05

    Chronic inflammation, imbalance between the extracellular matrix synthesis and degradation, and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) contribute to the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the therapy with periaortic incubation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase inhibitor SP600125 infused from an osmotic pump and subadventitial injection of lysyl oxidase (LOX) gene modified autologous smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs) on treatment of AAA in a rabbit model. Obvious dilation of the abdominal aorta in the control group was caused by periaortic incubation of calcium chloride and elastase. But the progression of aortic dilation was significantly decreased after the treatment with SP600125 and LOX gene modified SPCs compared to the treatment with phosphate-buffered saline. This therapy could inhibit matrix metalloproteinases expression, enhance elastin synthesis, improve preservation of elastic laminar integrity, benefit SPCs survival and restore SMCs population. It seemed that this method might provide a novel therapeutic strategy to treat AAA.

  1. The effects of upper extremity task training with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction on trunk stability and balance in chronic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je-Hyeok; Choi, Jong-Duk

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of upper extremity task training employing the bracing method on the trunk control and balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 46 stroke patients whose strokes had occurred six months or more prior to the study. The subjects were divided into two groups. One group underwent upper extremity task training with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction (bracing) applied. The other group simply underwent upper extremity task training, without bracing. [Results] The experimental group's Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS) significantly increased after the intervention, whereas the control group did not see any significant difference. There was significant improvement in balance after the intervention in both the experimental group and the control group. According to the between-group comparisons, the improvements in the experimental group were significantly greater in the control group, except in the Postural Assessment Scale (PASS). [Conclusion] Based on the results of this study, upper extremity task exercises with symmetric abdominal muscle contraction, conducted as part of adult hemiplegic patients' trunk stabilization exercises, can be applied to a diverse range of hemiplegic patients and implemented as an exercise program after discharge from hospital.

  2. The Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Abdominal Muscles in the Treatment of Chronic Constipation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Singleton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS is common and the current methods of treatment are ineffective in some patients. Anecdotal observations suggest that functional electrical stimulation (FES of the abdominal muscles may be effective in the management of constipation in these patients. Patients and Methods. In this exploratory investigation we studied the effects of FES on the whole gut transit time (WGTT and the colonic transit time (CTT. In addition, we evaluated the treatment effect on the patients’ constipation-related quality of life and on the use of laxatives and the use of manual bowel evacuation. FES was given for 30 minutes twice a day for a period of six weeks. Four female patients were studied. Results. The WGTT and CTT and constipation-related quality of life improved in all patients. The patients’ use of laxatives was reduced. No adverse effects of FES treatment were reported. Conclusion. The findings of this pilot study suggest that FES applied to the abdominal muscles may be an effective treatment modality for severe chronic constipation in patients with MS.

  3. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  4. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, T.; M. T. Gaztelu; Calvo, A.; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  5. Effects of the combination of respiratory muscle training and abdominal drawing-in maneuver on respiratory muscle activity in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Hyeong-Dong; Kim, In-Seob

    2015-08-01

    No study has examined the effects of the combination of respiratory muscle training (RMT) and abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) on respiratory muscle activity and function in stroke patients during early pulmonary rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RMT combined with ADIM on decreased respiratory muscle activity and function in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia. Thirty-seven subjects with post-stroke hemiplegia were randomly allocated to three groups; integrated training group (ITG), respiratory muscle training group (RMTG), and control group (CG). All of the subjects received routine therapy for stroke rehabilitation for 1 hour, five times a week for 6 weeks. Especially, the ITG received RMT using an incentive respiratory spirometer and ADIM using a Stabilizer, and the RMTG only received RMT using incentive respiratory spirometer for 15  minutes a day, five times a week for 6 weeks. Pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry for measuring the forced vital capacity (FVC) and force expiratory volume in 1  second (FEV1). Additional surface electromyography (sEMG) analysis was included by measuring the respiratory muscle activity. Our results showed that changes between the pre- and post-test values of FVC (F = 12.50, P = 0.02) and FEV1 (F = 12.81, P = 0.01) (P hemiplegia.

  6. Ultrastructural evidence for direct excitatory retroambiguus projections to cutaneous trunci and abdominal external oblique muscle motoneurons in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, J; Kirkwood, PA; de Weerd, H; Holstege, G

    2006-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a group of neurons, located laterally in the caudal medulla oblongata. The NRA is thought to modulate abdominal pressure in the framework of respiration, vomiting, vocalization, probably parturition, and, in all likelihood mating behavior. The NRA exerts this contr

  7. Tissue-engineering with muscle fiber fragments improves the strength of a weak abdominal wall in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP...

  8. Ultrastructural evidence for direct excitatory retroambiguus projections to cutaneous trunci and abdominal external oblique muscle motoneurons in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, J; Kirkwood, PA; de Weerd, H; Holstege, G

    2006-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a group of neurons, located laterally in the caudal medulla oblongata. The NRA is thought to modulate abdominal pressure in the framework of respiration, vomiting, vocalization, probably parturition, and, in all likelihood mating behavior. The NRA exerts this

  9. Measuring Abdominal Circumference and Skeletal Muscle From a Single Cross-Sectional Computed Tomography Image: A Step-by-Step Guide for Clinicians Using National Institutes of Health ImageJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Haus, Jacob M; Sheean, Patricia; Patel, Bimal; Mar, Winnie; Chaudhry, Vivek; McKeever, Liam; Braunschweig, Carol

    2016-03-01

    Diagnostic computed tomography (CT) scans provide numerous opportunities for body composition analysis, including quantification of abdominal circumference, abdominal adipose tissues (subcutaneous, visceral, and intermuscular), and skeletal muscle (SM). CT scans are commonly performed for diagnostic purposes in clinical settings, and methods for estimating abdominal circumference and whole-body SM mass from them have been reported. A supine abdominal circumference is a valid measure of waist circumference (WC). The valid correlation between a single cross-sectional CT image (slice) at third lumbar (L3) for abdominal SM and whole-body SM is also well established. Sarcopenia refers to the age-associated decreased in muscle mass and function. A single dimensional definition of sarcopenia using CT images that includes only assessment of low whole-body SM has been validated in clinical populations and significantly associated with negative outcomes. However, despite the availability and precision of SM data from CT scans and the relationship between these measurements and clinical outcomes, they have not become a routine component of clinical nutrition assessment. Lack of time, training, and expense are potential barriers that prevent clinicians from fully embracing this technique. This tutorial presents a systematic, step-by-step guide to quickly quantify abdominal circumference as a proxy for WC and SM using a cross-sectional CT image from a regional diagnostic CT scan for clinical identification of sarcopenia. Multiple software options are available, but this tutorial uses ImageJ, a free public-domain software developed by the National Institutes of Health.

  10. Appropriately placed surface EMG electrodes reflect deep muscle activity (psoas, quadratus lumborum, abdominal wall) in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, S; Juker, D; Kropf, P

    1996-11-01

    This study tested the possibility of obtaining the activity of deeper muscles in the torso-specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique and transverse abdominis, using surface myoelectric electrodes. It was hypothesized that: (1) surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles (specifically psoas, quadratus lumborum, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis); (2) a single surface electrode location would best represent the activation profiles of each deep muscle over a broad variety of tasks. We assumed that prediction of activation within 10% of maximum voluntary contraction (RMS difference between the surface and intramuscular channels), over the time history of the signal, was reasonable and acceptable to assist clinical interpretation of muscle activation amplitude, and ultimately for modeled estimates of muscle force. Surface electrodes were applied and intramuscular electrodes were inserted on the left side of the body in five men and three women who then performed a wide variety of flexor tasks (bent knee and straight leg situps and leg raises, curl ups), extensor tasks (including lifting barbells up to 70 kg), lateral bending tasks (standing lateral bend and horizontal lying side support), twisting tasks (standing and sitting), and internal/external hip rotation. Using the criteria of RMS difference and the coefficient of determination (R2) to compare surface with intramuscular myoelectric signals, the results indicated that selected surface electrodes adequately represent the amplitude of deep muscles-always within 15% RMS difference, or less with the exception of psoas where differences up to 20% were observed but only in certain maximum voluntary contraction efforts. It appears reasonable for spine modelers, and particularly clinicians, to assume well selected surface electrode locations provide a representation of these deeper muscles-as long as they recognize the magnitude of error for

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Intensity on Abdominal and Thigh Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Attenuation in Overweight Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Jung

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe investigated the effects of exercise intensity on abdominal and mid-thigh adipose tissue, attenuation of skeletal muscle, and insulin sensitivity in overweight women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.MethodsTwenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to control (CG, n=12, moderate intensity exercise (MEG, n=8, or vigorous intensity exercise (VEG, n=8 group. Subjects in both exercise groups completed a 12-week exercise program (MEG, 3.6 to 5.2 METs; VEG, ≥5.2 METs that was monitored by accelerometers. We assessed body mass index (BMI, total fat area (TFA, visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, mid-thigh intramuscular adipose tissue (TIMAT, total skeletal muscle (TTM, low density skeletal muscle (TLDM, and normal density skeletal muscle (TNDM using computed tomography, and measured insulin sensitivity with an insulin tolerance test (KITT, before and after the intervention.ResultsAt baseline, the mean age was 53.8±7.9 years, duration of diabetes was 3.8±2.3 years, and BMI was 26.6±2.6 kg/m2. After 12 weeks, the percent change (%C in BMI, TIMAT, and TLDM were not different among three groups. However, %C in TFA and VFA were significantly reduced in MEG compared to CG (P=0.026 and P=0.008, respectively. %C SFA was significantly reduced in VEG compared to CG (P=0.038 and %C TTM, TNDM, and KITT were significantly increased in VEG compared to the CG (P=0.044, P=0.007, and P=0.016, respectively.ConclusionAlthough there was no difference in the change in BMI among groups, TFA and VFA were more reduced in MEG, and only VEG increased TTM, TNDM, and insulin sensitivity compared to CG.

  12. Abdominal muscle electrical activity during labor expulsive stage: a cross-sectional study Atividade elétrica muscular abdominal durante os esforços expulsivos do parto: um estudo transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belisa D. R. Oliveira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During the second stage of labor, the progression of the fetal expulsion depends on many factors related to maternal and fetal parameters, including the voluntary abdominal pushing. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to correlate the maternal and fetal parameters that may influence the voluntary maternal pushes during the second stage of labor by using surface electromyography. METHODS: The electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles were measured during the second stage of labor in 24 Brazilian pregnant women. The diastasis of the rectus abdominis, the body mass index and the uterine fundal height were analyzed as maternal parameters and the fetal weight, cephalic circumference, APGAR scores and arterial pH and CO2 were analyzed as fetal parameters. The oxytocin usage and the expulsive phase duration were considered. RESULTS: A negative correlation between the rectus abdominis diastasis and the rectus abdomini muscle electromyographic parameters was found (r=-0.407 p=0.04. No statistically significant correlations were found among the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles electromyography and the other maternal or fetal parameters, as well as among expulsive phase duration and the oxytocin usage. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the rectus abdominis diastasis may be an influential parameter in generating voluntary pushes during the second stage of labor, however it cannot be considered the only necessary parameter for a successful labor.CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Durante o segundo estágio do parto, a progressão da expulsão fetal depende de vários fatores ligados a parâmetros maternos e fetais, dentre eles, o esforço abdominal voluntário. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar os parâmetros maternos e fetais que podem influenciar os esforços voluntários durante a fase do segundo estágio do parto por meio da eletromiografia de superfície. MÉTODOS: As atividades eletromiográficas dos m

  13. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...

  14. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  15. Effectiveness of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition in limiting abdominal aortic aneurysm progression in mice correlates with a differentiated smooth muscle cell phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Kamalika; Gitlin, Jonathan M; Loftin, Charles D

    2012-12-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are a chronic condition that often progress over years to produce a weakened aorta with increased susceptibility for rupture, and currently, there are no pharmacological treatments available to slow disease progression. AAA development has been characterized by increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inactivation of COX-2 before disease initiation reduces AAA incidence in a mouse model of the disease. The current study determined the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibition on AAA progression when treatment was begun after initiation of the disease. COX-2 inhibitor treatment with celecoxib was initiated after angiotensin II-induced AAA formation in a strain of nonhyperlipidemic mice that we have previously identified as highly susceptible to AAA development. When analyzed at different time points during progression of the disease, celecoxib treatment significantly reduced the incidence and severity of AAAs. The celecoxib treatment also protected the mice from aortic rupture and death. The aneurysmal lesion displayed an altered smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype, whereas celecoxib treatment was associated with increased expression of differentiated SMC markers and reduced dedifferentiation marker expression during AAA progression. Maintenance of a differentiated SMC phenotype is associated with the effectiveness of COX-2 inhibition for limiting AAA progression in nonhyperlipidemic mice.

  16. Modified sliding myofascial flap of the rectus abdominus muscles for the closure of huge planned abdominal hernia%改良双侧腹直肌推徙术治疗巨大计划性腹疝

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙士锦; 张连阳

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal increment is applied to patients with abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) after severe trauma,while for some patients,intra-abdominal volume increment could not close the fascia within the primary stage.For theses patients,abdominal wound skin grafting was conducted,and the planned hernia was formed.Planned abdominal hernia developed over time,and finally huge incisional hernia was formed.This article described a modified sliding myofascial flap of the rectus abdominus muscles for definitive abdominal wall reconstruction for a patient with huge planned abdominal hernia,and a good curative effect was obtained.%严重创伤后腹腔间隙综合征患者,需行腹腔扩容术.腹腔扩容术后部分患者不能行一期确定性关闭腹壁筋膜层,只能施行腹壁创面植皮术,从而形成计划性腹疝.随着时问延长,计划性腹疝的疝环进行性扩大,成为巨大腹壁切口疝.第三军医大学大坪医院野战外科研究所对1例巨大计划性腹疝患者施行改良双侧腹直肌推徙术,成功进行了确定性腹壁重建.实践证明该术式是一种安全、可靠的方法.

  17. Clinical Observation on Abdominal Muscle Injury from Lower Uterine Seg-ment Cesarean Section with Abdominal Transverse Incision%腹壁横切口子宫下段剖宫产术对腹部肌群损伤的临床探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林凤英

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨腹壁横切口子宫下段剖宫产术对于腹部肌群的损伤情况. 方法 收集2012年1月-2014年1月,该院产科住院行子宫下段剖宫产术产妇600例,根据手术切口部位分组,380例经腹壁横切口术者为观察组,220例经腹壁纵切口术者为对照组,比较两组产后腹部肌群损伤情况. 结果 产后1周,观察组的腹部疼痛及皮下硬结率分别为80.0%、31.8%,显著高于对照组的5.0%、0.0%(P<0.05);产后6周,观察组的腹部疼痛率为15.0%,仍显著高于对照组(P<0.05);产后6周两组皮下硬结均消失;产后1 周,观察组的腹壁肌肉损伤率及损伤程度显著高于对照组(P<0.05),且产后6周,观察组仍有44.2%残存损伤. 结论 腹壁横切口子宫下段剖宫产术对于产妇腹部肌群损伤率较高且损伤较为严重, 具有一定的应用缺陷.%Objective To investigate the situation of abdominal muscle injury caused by lower uterine segment cesarean section through abdominal transverse incision. Methods 600 patients undergoing lower uterine segment cesarean section in the Depart-ment of Gynecology and Obstetrics in this hospital between January 2012 and 2014 January were collected and all were divided into two groups according to their surgical incision site, observation group (n=380, through abdominal transverse incision) and con-trol group (n=220, through abdominal longitudinal incision). The postnatal abdominal muscle injury situation of the two groups was compared. Results One week after postpartum, the abdominal pain rate and subcutaneous induration rate of observation group was 80.0%and 31.8%, which were obviously higher than the 5.0%and 0.0%of control group (P<0.05);6 weeks after postpartum, the observation group's abdominal pain rate was 15.0%, but still obvious higher than the control group(P<0.05), the two groups' sub-cutaneous induration disappeared at 6 weeks postpartum ; one week after postpartum, the observation group 's abdominal muscle injury

  18. Nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expression in human abdominal aortic aneurysms and cultured aneurismal smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Ming-fang; JING Zai-ping; BAO Jun-min; ZHAO Zhi-qing; MEI Zhi-jun; LU Qing-sheng; CUI Jia-sen; QU Le-feng; ZHANG Su-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the production of nitric oxide(NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and their possible role in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods: A total of 28 patients with AAA, 10 healthy controls, and 8 patients with arterial occlusive disease were enrolled into this study. Standard colorimetric assay was used to examine NO concentration in plasma from patients with AAA and normal controls, and in cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Expression of iNOS in aortas and cultured SMCs were detected by immunochemistry. The correlation of iNOS expression with age of the patient, size of aneurysm, and degree of inflammation was also investigated by CochranMantel-Haenszel x2 test and Kendall correlation. Results: Expression of iNOS increased significantly in the wall of aneurism in the patients with AAA compared to the healthy controls (P<0.05) and the patients with occlusive arteries (P<0. 05). iNOS protein and media NOx (nitrite+nitrate) also increased in cultured SMCs from human AAA (n=4, P<0.05), while plasma NOx decreased in patients with AAA (n=25) compared to the healthy controls (n= 20). There was a positive correlation between iNOS protein and the degree of inflammation in aneurismal wall (Kendall coefficient = 0. 5032, P = 0. 0029). Conclusion:SMCs and inflammatory cells are main cellular sources of increased iNOS in AAA, and NO may play a part in pathogenesis in AAA through inflammation, SMCs and oxidative stress.

  19. The nitric oxide donor DETA-NONOate decreases matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and activity in rat aortic smooth muscle and abdominal aortic explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Indranil; Hannawa, Kevin K; Ailawadi, Gorav; Woodrum, Derek T; Ford, John W; Henke, Peter K; Stanley, James C; Eagleton, Matthew J; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2006-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the role of an exogenous nitric oxide (NO) donor, DETA-NONOate (DETA), on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-2, and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 expression and activity in interleukin (IL)-1beta-induced rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RA-SMCs) and rat aortic explants (RAEs). RA-SMCs were incubated with IL-1beta (2 ng/ml), an inflammatory cytokine known to induce MMP-9 expression, and increasing concentrations of DETA (0, 1.0, 10, 100 microM; n = 3/group) for 48 hr. RAEs were incubated with IL-1beta (2 ng/mL) and increasing concentrations of DETA (0, 5.0, 50, 100, and 500 microM; n = 3/group) for 48 hr. Media were collected and assayed for NO(x) by the Griess reaction and MMP-9 activity by zymography. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was extracted from cells and analyzed for MMP-9, MMP-2, and TIMP-1 expression levels by quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. All statistical analyses were performed by analysis of variance. In RA-SMCs and RAEs, DETA administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in media NOx concentration (RA-SCM p < 0.01, RAE p < 0.01) and a concurrent decrease in both MMP-9 expression (RASMC p = 0.01, RAE p = 0.01) and activity (RASMC p = 0.04, RAE p = 0.006). There were no significant differences seen in MMP-2 and TIMP-1 expression or activity in response to DETA exposure. DETA decreased IL-1beta-induced MMP-9 expression and activity in both RA-SMCs and RAEs in a dose-dependent fashion. In addition, DETA administration had no effect on MMP-2 or TIMP-1 expression or activity in vitro. These data suggest that NO donors may be beneficial in decreasing MMP-9 levels and might serve to inhibit MMP-9-dependent vessel wall remodeling seen during abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

  20. Abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  1. Abdominal actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Mohren, B; Naber, K G; Männl, H F K

    2003-08-01

    Intra-abdominal and extraperitoneal actinomycosis are rare infections, caused by different Actinomyces species. However, they have been diagnosed more frequently in the last ten years. We report three cases of abdominal actinomycosis and a literature review of the last eight years. All three patients were diagnosed by means of histopathologic examination only. In one case, an intrauterine device (IUD) was associated with the infection. Therapy consisted of surgical resection of the inflammatory, infected tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy. All patients are free of recurrence. Abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal pathology of insidious onset, especially when an IUD is in place. Even when infection had spread extensively, combined operative and antibiotic therapy cured most of the cases.

  2. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  3. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... an abdominal aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  4. Abdominal body composition measured by quantitative computed tomography and risk of non-spine fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheu, Y; Marshall, L M; Holton, K F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of abdominal adiposity and muscle on fracture is unclear in older men; therefore, we examined the association among 749 men aged 65+. Among various adipose tissues and muscle groups, lower psoas muscle volume and higher fatty infiltration of abdominal muscle contribute to higher fractu...

  5. 不同类型和水平VE在肉鸡肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中的沉积%Accumulation of different types and levels of vitamin E in muscle, skin and abdominal fat of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红艳; 温超; 周岩民

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the accumulation of different types and levels of vitamin E (VE) in muscle, skin and abdominal fat of broilers. The results showed that: (1) The addition of higher level of dietary VE could increase the amounts of total VE deposited in muscle, skin and fat (F<0. 05);(2) For natural a-tocopherol group,total VE deposition in muscle and skin were higher than that of synthetic a-tocopherol group and natural mixed VE group at the same level (P<0. 05) ; (3) Lower a-tocopherol percentages and higher γ-tocopherol percentages were observed in muscle, skin and abdominal fat in natural mixed VE group than in the other two groups at the same level; (4) Higher level of natural mixed VE or natural a-tocopherol increased a-tocopherol percentage in skin; (5) The a-tocopherol percentage was higher than y-tocopherol percentage in muscle.%研究不同类型和水平VE在肉鸡肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中沉积的差异.结果表明:(1)同类型VE组相比,高水平组肉鸡的肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中的VE总量均显著高于低水平组(P<0.05);(2)天然α-生育酚组肌肉和皮肤中的VE总量显著高于同水平的合成α-生育酚组和天然混合 VE 组(P<0.05);(3)天然混合 VE 组肉鸡肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中的α-生育酚的沉积率低于同水平的合成α-生育酚组和天然α-生育酚组,而γ-生育酚的沉积率均高于同水平的其他两组;(4)天然混合 VE 或天然α-生育酚水平的提高会增加α-生育酚在皮肤中的沉积率;(5)肌肉中α-生育酚的沉积率高于γ-生育酚.

  6. Función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen en sujetos normales Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    increase this rate more than did the AP alone. Our findings suggest abdominal weight increases propioception related to the respiratory movements and descent of the diaphragm. The loads on the abdomen produce minor changes in mechanics of the diaphragm (1/3 of the load required to develop fatigue in normal subjects. Al least in normal subjects these changes appear to be insufficient to produce respiratory muscle training.

  7. Evaluating Abdominal and Lower-Back Muscle Activity While Performing Core Exercises on a Stability Ball and a Dynamic Office Chair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W R; De Carvalho, Diana E; Karakolis, Thomas; Callaghan, Jack P

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a dynamic office chair to activate the core muscles while participants performed exercises sitting on the chair compared to a stability ball. Prolonged sitting has become an accepted part of the modern office. However, epidemiological evidence suggests that sedentary postures are linked to many adverse effects on health. The concept of dynamic or active sitting is intended to promote movement while sitting to reduce the time spent in prolonged, static postures. Sixteen participants performed four pelvic rotation exercises (front-back, side-side, circular, and leg lift) on both a dynamic office chair and a stability ball. Muscle activity from 12 torso muscles were evaluated with surface electromyography. For all exercises, trunk muscle activity on the chair was comparable to that on a stability ball. The right external oblique was the only muscle to produce greater peak activity (p = .019) when using the ball compared to the chair (21.4 ± 14.0 percent maximal voluntary excitations (%MVE) and 14.7 ± 10.8 %MVE for the ball and chair, respectively). The left thoracic erector spinae produced greater average activity (p = .044) on the chair than on the ball. These findings suggest that this dynamic sitting approach could be an effective tool for core muscle activation while promoting movement and exercise while sitting at work. Muscle activations on the dynamic chair are comparable to those on a stability ball, and dynamic office chairs can promote movement and exercise while sitting at work. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  8. Homeotic gene function in the muscles of Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Joan E.

    1986-01-01

    The segmental musculature of Drosophila melanogaster larvae consists of 24-30 muscles per segment. Unique patterns of muscles are found in the three thoracic segments and the first and last abdominal segments; the remaining abdominal segments share the same pattern. Mutations in Ultrabithorax (Ubx) cause partial transformation of the muscle pattern of larval abdominal segments towards metathorax. The muscles of the thorax are not affected. In the first two abdominal segments the changes inclu...

  9. The effect of lumbar posture on abdominal muscle thickness during an isometric leg task in people with and without non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafael Zambelli; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique; Franco, Marcia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Mariana Calais; Ferreira, Manuela Loureiro; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Maher, Christopher

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of lumbar posture on function of transversus abdominis (TrA) and obliquus internus (OI) in people with and without non-specific low back pain (LBP) during a lower limb task. Rehabilitative ultrasound was used to measure thickness change of TrA and OI during a lower limb task that challenged the stability of the spine. Measures were taken in supine in neutral and flexed lumbar postures in 30 patients and 30 healthy subjects. Data were analysed using a two-way (groups, postures) ANOVA. Our results showed that lumbar posture influenced percent thickness change of the TRA muscle but not for OI. An interaction between group and posture was found for TrA thickness change (F(1,56) = 6.818, p = 0.012). For this muscle, only healthy participants showed greater thickness change with neutral posture compared to flexed (mean difference = 6.2%; 95% CI: 3.1-9.3%; p posture can facilitate an increase in thickness of the TrA muscle while performing a leg task, however this effect was not observed for this muscle in patients with LBP. No significant difference in TrA and OI thickness change between people with and without non-specific LBP was found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Avaliação da força muscular respiratória e amplitudes torácicas e abdominais após a RFR em indivíduos obesos Evaluación de la fuerza muscular respiratorio y amplitud toracica y abdominal espués de la RFR en individuos obsesos Evaluation of respiratory muscle strength and thoracic and abdominal amplitudes after a functional reeducation of breathing program for obese individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirceu Costa

    2003-03-01

    mechanics in obese individuals with respect to respiratory muscle strength determined by maximum respiratory pressure (PImax and PEmax and the amplitude of thoracoabdominal movements at the levels: axillary (AAX, xiphoid (AXf and abdominal (AAb.Twenty nine patients (43 ± 13 years were divided in two groups: Experimental group (E and Control group (C. All patients were submitted to an initial evaluation and determination of PImax, PEmax, AAx, AXiph and AAb. The E group was submitted to 18 sessions of a Functional Reeducation of Breathing Program that consisted of respiratory orientation, respiratory coordination exercise associated to trunk and limb movements and muscle relaxation two times a week during 9 weeks. Student t-test showed a significant increase in PImax, Axif and Aabd in the experimental group, but when authors compared the two groups, they did not find any statistical difference. The results showed that the Program increased the respiratory muscle strength and the amplitude of abdominal movements in obese patients.

  11. 青少年特发性脊柱侧凸腰腹部肌群表面肌电信号特征研究%Lumbo-abdominal muscle activity while standing in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜青; 周璇; 励建安; 赵黎; 杨晓颜; 陈楠; 张树新; 梁菊萍; 吴超

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究青少年特发性脊柱侧凸(AIS)患者不同站立位腰腹部肌群表面肌电信号特征.方法 选取33例AIS患者作为AIS组,15例健康青少年作为健康对照组,采用FlexComp Infiniti十通道表面肌电分析系统测试腰腹部肌群的表面肌电信号.所有研究对象分别站立在稳定平面和软垫上、去除和不去除视觉听觉干扰时进行测试.比较2组研究对象腰腹部肌群激活率.结果 站立在稳定平面和软垫上、去除和不去除视觉听觉干扰时,AIS组凹侧顶椎水平椎旁肌激活率分别为4.91% MVIC、5.22% MVIC、5.51%MVIC、6.01% MVIC,AIS组凸侧顶椎水平椎旁肌激活分别为6.45% MVIC、7.69% MVIC、8.31% MVIC、8.77% MVIC,AIS组凹侧顶椎水平椎旁肌激活均小于凸侧(P<0.01).AIS组凸侧顶椎水平椎旁肌在稳定静止站立位的激活率小于去除视觉和听觉干扰、不稳定的站立位(P<0.05).结论 AIS患者双侧顶椎水平椎旁肌激活率不对称;在去除视觉和听觉干扰的不稳定站立位下,AIS患者凸侧顶椎水平椎旁肌更易激活.%Objective To characterize the lumbo-abdominal muscles activities of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients in different standing postures by using surface electromyography (sEMG).Methods A total of 33 AIS patients and 15 healthy subjects were recruited.The sEMG signals from the lumbo-abdominal muscles of the healthy subjects and AIS patients were measured with the FlexComp Infiniti apparatus.The sEMG signals were recorded in different standing postures with and without visual and auditory input.The activation of the lumbo-abdominal muscles was compared between healthy subjects and AIS patients.Results In different standing posture with and without visual and auditory information input,the activation rate of the concave side of the apex level paraspinal muscle was 4.91% MVIC,5.22% MVIC,5.51% MVIC,6.01% MVIC,and the activation rate of the convex side of

  12. Electromyographic analysis of four popular abdominal exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piering, A W; Janowski, A P; Wehrenberg, W B; Moore, M T; Snyder, A C

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of four specific sit-up exercises on muscular activity of the rectus abdominis. Pairs of surface electrodes were placed unilaterally on four quadrants of the rectus abdominis, delimited by tendinous inscriptions, in four male subjects. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings were taken while the subjects performed four different abdominal exercises. Each abdominal exercise was hypothesized to have a specific effect on one of the four quadrants of the rectus abdominis. The four exercises analyzed were: 1) long lying crunch, 2) bent knee crunch, 3) leg raise, and 4) vertical leg crunch. Analysis of the standardized EMG recordings demonstrated no significant differences in the mean muscle activity between the four different quadrants, in the mean muscle activity between the four different exercises, and in interactions between the exercises and the quadrants of the rectus abdominis. We conclude that none of the four abdominal exercises studied are specific for strengthening individual muscle quadrants of the rectus abdominis.

  13. Clinical Study on Extraperitoneal Colostomy without Injuring Abdominal Muscles%无损伤腹壁肌层腹膜外乙状结肠造口的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐其; 董来荣; 曹晨曦; 朱益民; 张斌忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the technique and application value of extraperitoneal colostomy without injuring abdominal muscles. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight patients with rectal cancer undergoing abdominoperineal resection were selected and divided into two groups. Sixty-six patients received extraperitoneal colostomy without injuring abdominal muscles in the study group. Sixty-two patients received traditional colostomy in control group. Results Significant differences were found in the length of colostomy study group (21.3± 3.6)min vs control group(30.2±4.2)min, p<0.01, the duration of postoperative hospital stay study group(l6.7± 1.8) d vs control group(17.9 ± 3.8) d, P < 0.01, the defecation response (study group 77.3% vs control group 16.1%, p<0.01), the ability to control bowels(study group30.3%vs control group 0%, p<0.01) and the stoma related complications(study group 8.1% vs control group 41.7%, p<0.01). Conclusion Extraperitoneal colostomy without injuring abdominal muscles is a better procedure in abdominoperineal resection (APR),which can reduce the related complications of colostomy, shorten rhe length of operation and postoperative hospital stay, and improve patients' quality of life.%目的:探讨无损伤腹壁肌层腹膜外乙状结肠造口术的方法及其应用价值.方法:将行腹会阴切除术的直肠癌患者128例分成两组,66例行无损伤腹壁肌层腹膜外乙状结肠造口术为研究组,62例行传统乙状结肠造口术为对照组,观察造口手术时间、术后平均住院日、排便感觉、控便能力及造口相关并发症.结果:研究组造口手术时间([ 21.3±3.6)min]短于对照组([ 30.2±4.2)min]( P < 0.01),术后平均住院日(16.7±1.8)d也短于对照组( 17.9±3.8) d (P < 0.05);患者获排便感觉,研究组77.3%比对照组16.1%高(P< 0.01);控便能力研究组30.3%,比对照组高(P< 0.01);造口相关并发症发生率研究组8.1%低于对照组41.7%(P< 0.01).结论:腹会阴

  14. [Pain originating from the abdominal wall: a forgotten diagnostic option].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero Fernández, Miguel; Moreira Vicente, Víctor; Riesco López, José María; Rodríguez Gandía, Miguel Angel; Garrido Gómez, Elena; Milicua Salamero, José María

    2007-04-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common clinical problem in primary care, and is usually referred to gastroenterologists or general surgeons. Although up to 20% of cases of idiopathic abdominal pain arise in structures of the abdominal wall, this is frequently overlooked as a possible cause. It includes pain arising from structures of the abdominal wall including skin, parietal peritoneum, cellular subcutaneous tissue, aponeuroses, abdominal muscles and somatosensorial innervation from lower dorsal roots. The diagnosis is based on anamnesis and physical examination. Carnett's sign is a simple maneuver that discriminates between parietal and visceral pain. Management with topical anesthesia is effective in a majority of patients and can help to confirm the diagnosis.

  15. 松解腹肌对缓解痉挛性脑瘫患儿下肢肌肉痉挛的治疗体会%Treatment experience of loosening abdominal muscles to relieve lower limb muscles spasticity of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季少君

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of loosening abdominal muscles on relieving lower limb muscles spasticity of children with spastic cerebral palsy and to provide new treatment thoughts and references. Methods 60 children who were in in accordance with the inclusion criteria were randomly allocated to the treatment group and the control group, with 30 in each. At the basis of rehabilitation training, the treatment group was received loosening abdominal muscles method while the control group was received routine massage. The treatment was 6 times a week and four weeks was one course, lasting for 3 courses. Degrees of lower limb muscles spasticity before and after treatment of children were evaluated. Results In treatment group, there were 8 cases with marked effect and 21 cases with effectiveness. The total effective rate was 96.7%. In the control group, there were 2 cases with marked effect and 25 cases with effectiveness. The total effective rate was 90.0%. Differences in curative effects of two groups had statistical significance by examination of x2, which showed that curative effect of the treatment group was significantly better than that of the control group. Conclusion Loosening abdominal muscles to relieve lower limb muscles spasticity of children with spastic cerebral palsy has more significant strength and accurate curative effect, worthy of further clinical promotion and application.%目的:观察腹肌松解法对缓解痉挛性脑瘫患儿下肢肌肉痉挛的临床疗效,为临床治疗脑瘫提出新的治疗思路和参考。方法将符合纳入标准的60例患儿,随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例。两组在康复训练的基础上,治疗组采用腹肌松解法;对照组采用常规推拿法。每周治疗6次,4周为1个疗程,治疗3个疗程。对两组患儿治疗前后的下肢肌肉痉挛程度进行评定。结果治疗组30例,显效8例,有效21例,总有效率为96.7%;对照组30

  16. The impact of using a Swiss ball to exercise the lumbo-abdominal muscles%不同运动方式对腰腹部肌群表面肌电信号的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕霞; 王雪强; 刘志浩; 宋磊; 孙丹; 张金明

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨腰腹部肌肉在稳定平面与不稳定平面运动时表面肌电信号的变化.方法 采用FlexComp Infiniti十通道表面肌电分析系统测试33例健康青年人腰腹部肌肉的肌电信号.所有受试者分别在稳定平面和不稳定平面下各完成端坐、双桥运动、屈膝双桥运动、反桥运动、俯卧撑等5个动作.结果 ①双桥运动,竖脊肌在不稳定平面上运动时的激活率显著大于稳定平面(P<0.05);②屈膝双桥运动,竖脊肌、腹外斜肌、腹内斜肌/腹横肌在不稳定平面的激活率显著大于稳定平面(P<0.05);③反桥运动,竖脊肌、腹直肌在不稳定平面的激活率显著大于稳定平面(P<0.05);④俯卧撑,腹直肌、腹外斜肌、腹内斜肌/腹横肌在不稳定平面的激活率显著大于稳定平面(P<0.05).结论 腰腹部肌群在不稳定平面比在稳定平面下更容易激活.%Objective To explore any changes in surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals from the lumboabdominal muscles during exercise on stable and unstable surfaces. Methods sEMG signals from the lumbo-abdominal muscles of 33 healthy young persons [18 male and 12 female; average age (26.5 ± 4.3 ) years] were measured with the FlexComp Infiniti apparatus.Each subject performed 5 exercises on and off a Swiss ball:sit,bridge,bridge with both knees flexed,reverse bridge as well as press-up. Results ①In bridging there was a significant increase in the activation of the erector spinae during exercise on the ball compared with on the stable surface.②Bridging with both knees flexed gave a significant increase in activations of the erector spinae,the external obliques and the transverses abdominus/internal obliques during exercise on the unstable surface compared with the stable surface.③During reverse bridging there was a significant increase in activation of the erector spinae and rectus abdominus during exercise on the unstable surface compared with the stable surface

  17. Effect of Xuebijing injection on cardiac muscle in the rats undergoing abdominal aorta clamping with sepsis%血必净对腹主动脉阻断合并脓毒症大鼠心肌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏文芳; 周青山; 徐洁

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is to observe the protecting effect of Xuebijing injection (XBJ) on cardiac muscle in the rats un-dergoing abdominal aorta clamping complicating with sepsis .Methods 32 Wistar rats were randomly divided into control group (S group), abdominal aorta clamping complicating with sepsis group (I/R+LPS group), Xuebijing injection group (XBJ group ) .The rats in XBJ group were pretreated with XBJ 30 min before abdominal aorta separated , 8 mL/kg by caudal vein in-jection, in 2 h after abdominal aorta ischemia reperfusion injury , they were given LPS20 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection . All the animals were killed in 8 h after abdominal aorta blocking , and their cardiac tissue was gotten to do HE staining to ob-serve pathological damage , the expression of TNF -αandβ2 adrenoreceptor ( AR) in the tissue was detected by immunohisto-chemistry technique .Results①Cardiac tissue pathology results showed that: no obvious pathological change was found in S group;In I/R+LPS group myocardial cells were swelling with wider intermuscular space , little blood vessel was obviously hy-peremia with agglutination of many red blood cells which were also leaked much in the space , myocardial fibers were degenera-tion and necrosis , many inflammatory cells gathered in the space , even the structure was indistinct in cardiac tissue;In XBJ group , myocardial tissue was disorder in which the cells were slight swelling , and less leak of red blood cells and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the space was found .②Immunohistochemistry detection results showed that the expression of TNF -ɑin cardiac cells:S groupXBJ group>I/R+LPS group, the difference between S group and I/R+LPS group was significant but not in XBJ group compared with the other two groups .Conclusion XBJ pretreatment has some protecting effect on early myocardial injury in the rats undergoing abdominal aorta clamping complicating with sepsis , it can decrease the expression of TNF-αwith no obvious effect

  18. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  19. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  3. Post trauma abdominal cocoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  4. Influence of abdominal space using muscle relaxant drug in neonates and younger infants undergoing laparoscopy.%肌松药对新生儿及婴儿腹腔镜手术操作空间的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡博; 戴春娟; 叶祖萍; 牛军; 刘金; 李戈

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察新生儿及3个月以内婴儿腹腔镜手术中,使用肌松药对手术操作空间的影响.方法 将40例腹腔镜手术患儿,随机分为对照组(Ⅰ组)和肌松组(Ⅱ组),每组各20例,分别予 5 mmHg和10 mmHg气腹压力建立人工CO2气腹,并记录气腹前、5 mmHg及10 mmHg气腹压力下两组患儿腹围的变化.结果 气腹前Ⅰ组腹围(31.90±2.15)cm,Ⅱ组腹围(32.25±2.37)cm,t=0 489,P=0.628,两组腹围比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);气腹压力5 mmHg时,Ⅰ组腹围(33 98±2.27)cm,Ⅱ组腹围(35.61±2.52)cm,t=2.150,P=0.038,Ⅱ组腹围值高于Ⅰ组(P 0. 05. Conclusion Abdominal cavity volume would be increased by using muscle relaxant drug in identical pneumoperitoneum pressure, so that lower co2 pneumoperitoneum pressure would be used and less circulatory function would be influenced.

  5. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  6. Expressions of associated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells and infiltration of macrophages in elderly abdominal aortic aneurysms%老年人腹主动脉瘤血管平滑肌细胞相关蛋白表达及巨噬细胞浸润的病理学特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄世虹; 周洪莲; 黄敏; 聂斌

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathological characteristics of the expressions of associated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells and infiltration of macrophages in elderly abdominal aortic aneurysms. Methods HE stained slices, Van Gieson' s stained slices and immunohistochemical staining were applied to detect protein expression in the tissue sections of 15 cases of elderly abdominal aortic aneurysms and 6 cases of normal abdominal aorta. The protein expressions of α-smooth muscle actin, cathepsin B and CD68 were detected by immunohistochemical staining. Results Compared with normal abdominal aorta, the collagen content was higher in elderly abdominal aortic aneurysms [(9.3 ± 1.9) % vs. (5.3±1.8) %, P < 0.05]. The levels ofexpression of cathepsin B and CD68 were higher in elderly abdominal aortic aneurysms than those in normal abdominal aorta , but the level of expression of α-SMA was lower in elderly abdominal aorticaneurysms than that in normal abdominal aorta[(0.38±0.07) vs. (0.135=0.06), (0.51±0.12) vs.(0.01±0.01), (0.23±0.05) vs. (0.335±0.05) ,respectively, all P<0.05]. Conclusions Changes in the expression of associated proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells and infiltration of macrophages may participate in the vascular walls destruction in elderly abdominal aortic aneurysms.%目的 观察血管平滑肌细胞(VSMC)表达变化及巨噬细胞浸润在老年人腹主动脉瘤中的病理学特点. 方法 对15例老年人腹主动脉瘤与6例正常腹主动脉组织行HE染色、VanGieson法染色和免疫组织化学染色.用免疫组织化学染色检测α-平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-SMA)、组织蛋白酶B及CD68蛋白表达. 结果 老年人腹主动脉瘤病变处胶原容积百分比(9.3±1.9)%,较正常主动脉的(5.3±1.8)%增高(P<0.05).老年人腹主动脉瘤中组织蛋白酶B和CD68的表达增强分别为0.38+0.07和0.51±0.12,α-SMA表达减弱为0.23±0.05,与正常腹主动脉(分别为0.13±0.06和0.01±0.01,0.33±0.05)

  7. Sports Hernia: Misdiagnosed Muscle Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... next step in treatment. During surgery, the lower abdominal muscles and connective tissues are released and reattached. Some ... a Training Program Postdoctoral Training OPTI Clearinghouse OGME Development Physician Profiles Order Physician Credentialing Reports Professional Development ...

  8. Abdominal epilepsy in chronic recurrent abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Y Kshirsagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominal pain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominal pain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED. We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74% children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26% children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine and 139 (92% children responded to AED out of which 111 (74% children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18% had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominal pain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominal pain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74% of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56% were females and 36 (32.43% were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9

  9. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting....... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  10. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiaka Ejike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.

  11. Influence of overall nursing intervention and lumbar and abdominal mus-cle strength training on lumbar vertebral function of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion%整体护理干预腰腹肌肌力训练对腰椎间盘突出症患者腰椎功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛培彦; 张灵芝; 于丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the influence of overall nursing intervention and lumbar and abdominal muscle strength training on the lumbar vertebral function of patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion. Methods Seventy-six patients with lumbar intervertebral disc protrusion treated in our hospital from May 2013 to December 2014 were ran-domly divided into the control group and the observation group. The control group was given simple lumbar and ab-dominal muscle strength training, and the observation group was given additional overall nursing intervention on the ba-sis of lumbar and abdominal muscle strength training. The changes of lumbar vertebral function scores and the patient satisfaction rates of the two groups were compared. Results Before nursing training, the two groups were not signifi-cantly different in the lumbar vertebral function score (P>0.05); after nursing training, the observation group was sig-nificantly higher than the control group in the lumbar vertebral function score, with statistically significant difference(P0.05);护理训练后观察组腰椎功能评分明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(孕<0.05)。观察组患者的满意度明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(孕<0.05)。结论整体护理干预腰腹肌肌力训练能有效提高患者对疾病的认知程度,使患者积极配合治疗,效果显著,患者满意度高,值得临床推广应用。

  12. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov V.А.; Sokolov V.А.

    2013-01-01

    We considered one of the most complicated problems of surgery and intensive care — abdominal compartment syndrome. It is a severe, and in some cases lethal complication developing in major injuries and pathology of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, as well as in extra-abdominal pathology. In addition, compartment syndrome can be the complication of a number of surgical procedures accompanied primarily by laparotomy wound closure with tissue tension. We demonstrated the classificatio...

  13. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  14. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  15. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  16. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  17. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  18. Effects of "Kanli Granule" on Skeletal Muscle Apoptosis in Rats with Chronic Heart Failure Induced by Constriction of Abdominal Aorta%坎离颗粒对腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠骨骼肌细胞凋亡的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚成增; 蒋梅先; 阮小芬; 腾名子

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察中药坎离颗粒对腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠骨骼肌细胞凋亡的影响.方法:以腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠为研究对象,对其细胞凋亡基因Bax、Bcl-2的蛋白表达进行观察,采用TUNEL检测凋亡细胞;并分别以中药坎离颗粒生药高(13.5 g/kg、)、中(6.75g/kg)、低(3.375g/kg)剂量及培哚普利(0.36 mg/kg)每日1次灌胃,3周1疗程,每疗程后停药1周,共干预8个疗程.结果:慢性心衰大鼠存在骨骼肌细胞凋亡增多的现象;培哚普利、坎离颗粒预防给药能改善上述病理变化,并观察到坎离颗粒改善心衰时骨骼肌细胞凋亡呈现明显的剂量依赖关系.结论:坎离颗粒在改善腹主动脉缩窄致慢性心衰大鼠心功能的同时还能改善其细胞凋亡,对骨骼肌功能的改善可能起有益作用.%To investigate the effects of "Kanli Granule" on the skeletal muscle apoptosis in rats with chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by constriction of abdominal aorta. Methods; The CHF rat model was established by ligating the abdominal aorta. The CHF rats were fed intragastrically with "Kanli Granule" (13. 5,6. 75, 3. 375 g/kg) and perindopril once a day for 32 weeks. The protein expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 genes were observed, and the apoptosis was detected by TUNEL. Results; The skeletal muscle apoptosis of the CHF rats was increased. Preventive therapy with "Kanli Granule" or perindopril could improve the skeletal muscle apoptosis of the CHF rats, and " Kanli Granule" had a clear dose-dependent relationship in improving the skeletal muscle apoptosis of CHF rats. Conclusion: "Kanli Granule" can improve the skeletal muscle apoptosis in rats with CHF induced by constriction of abdominal aorta.

  19. Effective observation on treating female stress urinary incontinence by abdominal acupuncture plus pelvic lfoor muscle training%腹针配合盆底肌训练治疗女性压力性尿失禁的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兆新; 薛宁; 张秀丽; 朱栋华

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe clinical efficacy of abdominal acupuncture plus pelvic floor muscle training on female stress urinary incontinence. Methods: 62 female patients were randomly divided into the control group and the treatment group, 31 cases in each group. The control group was treated by pelvic lfoor muscle training; and the treatment group was treated by abdominal acupuncture plus low frequency electric stimulation and pelvic lfoor muscle training for 30 days. Results: The total effciency in the treatment group was 83.87%, and 64.52% in the control group; the difference between two groups was signiifcantly different (P<0.05); the effciency in the treatment group was higher. Conclusion: Abdominal acupuncture plus pelvic lfoor muscle training on female stress urinary incontinence is better than the simple pelvic lfoor muscle training.%目的:观察腹针配合盆底肌训练治疗女性压力性尿失禁的疗效。方法:将62例女性患者随机分成对照组31例和治疗组31例。对照组单纯采用盆底肌训练治疗,治疗组采用腹针结合低频电刺激配合盆底肌训练治疗,治疗30d后进行疗效评定。结果:治疗组总有效率为83.87%,对照组总有效率为64.52%,两组比较有显著性差异,P<0.05,治疗组疗效优于对照组。结论:腹针配合盆底肌训练治疗女性压力性尿失禁的疗效优于单纯盆底肌训练。

  20. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  1. Intra-abdominal gout mimicking pelvic abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan); Yeh, Lee-Ren; Pan, Huay-Ban; Yang, Chien-Fang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2005-04-01

    Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. (orig.)

  2. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  3. Previous Multiple Abdominal Surgeries: A Valid Contraindication to Abdominal Free Flap Breast Reconstruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Candia, Michele; Asfoor, Ahmed Al; Jessop, Zita M.; Kumiponjera, Devor; Hsieh, Frank; Malata, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Presented in part at the following Academic Meetings: 57th Meeting of the Italian Society of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, September 24-27, 2008, Naples, Italy.45th Congress of the European Society for Surgical Research (ESSR), June 9-12, 2010, Geneva, Switzerland.British Association of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons Summer Scientific Meeting, June 30-July 2, 2010, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Background: Patients with previous multiple abdominal surgeries are often denied abdominal free flap breast reconstruction because of concerns about flap viability and abdominal wall integrity. We therefore studied their flap and donor site outcomes and compared them to patients with no previous abdominal surgery to find out whether this is a valid contraindication to the use of abdominal tissue. Patients and Methods: Twenty patients with multiple previous abdominal operations who underwent abdominal free flap breast reconstruction by a single surgeon (C.M.M., 2000-2009) were identified and retrospectively compared with a cohort of similar patients without previous abdominal surgery (sequential allocation control group, n = 20). Results: The index and control groups were comparable in age, body mass index, comorbidities, previous chemotherapy, and RT exposure. The index patients had a mean age of 54 years (r, 42-63) and an average body mass index of 27.5 kg/m2 (r, 22-38). The main previous surgeries were Caesarean sections (19), hysterectomies (8), and cholecystectomies (6). They underwent immediate (n = 9) or delayed (n = 11) reconstructions either unilaterally (n = 18) or bilaterally (n = 2) and comprising 9 muscle-sparing free transverse rectus abdominis muscle and 13 deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps. All flaps were successful, and there were no significant differences in flap and donor site outcomes between the 2 groups after an average follow up of 26 months (r, 10-36). Conclusion: Multiple previous abdominal

  4. Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elizabeth; Vuong, Giao Michael; Prather, Charlene M

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain are numerous. These causes are reviewed in brief here, divided into 2 categories: acute abdominal pain and chronic abdominal pain. They are further subcategorized by location of pain as it pertains to the abdomen.

  5. Reorganized trunk muscle activity during multidirectional floor perturbations after experimental low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    each perturbation was extracted and averaged across perturbations. The difference (ΔRMS-EMG) and absolute difference (absolute ΔRMS-EMG) RMS from baseline conditions were extracted for each muscle during pain conditions and averaged bilaterally for back and abdominal muscle groups. Bilateral compared...... with unilateral pain induced higher VAS scores (P muscle activity during unilateral (P abdominal...... (P muscles during bilateral and decreased in the back (P abdominal (P muscles during unilateral pain. Bilateral pain caused greater absolute ΔRMS-EMG changes in the back (P abdominal (P muscle groups than unilateral pain. PERSPECTIVE: This study provided...

  6. Abdominal aorta transplantation after programmed cryopreservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Gu; Chang-Jian Liu; Tong Qiao; Xue-Mei Sun; Jun-Hao Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the morphologic and cellular immunologic changes after homologous transplantation of the abdominal aorta in rats after programmed cryopreservation (-196°C).METHODS: Abdominal aorta was harvested from anesthetized Spraque Dawley (SD) rats for cryopreservation (group B) or immediate implantation (group A). The survival rates and apoptotic rates of aortic endothelial cells (ECs)were examined. The patency rates, histology and cellular immunologic changes of the abdominal aorta were examined on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60 after transplantation respectively.RESULTS: The survival rate of ECs after programmed cryopreservation was 90.1±1.79%, about 3.4% lower than that of uncryopreservation (93.5±1.96%). The apoptotic rates of ECs was increased after cryopreservation (7.15%vs 4.86%, P<0.05). The patency rate of group B was significantly higher than that of group A (91.6±12.9% vs 62.5±26.2%, P<0.01). CD4/CD8 ratio, TCR αβ and CD11b/CD18 ratio of group B were significantly lower than those of group A (P<0.05). Revivification of the cryopreserved abdominal aorta showed normal adventitia and intact smooth muscle cells.CONCLUSION: Cryopreservation can reduce homologous abdominal aortic antigenecity. Even if without administration of immunosuppressive agents, it is still feasible to implement homologous artery grafting in rats.

  7. Anterior abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo in a fertile women: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Je Young; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Han Myun; Shin, Mi Kyung [Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo is very rare, hence the reported imaging findings of this disease are also rare. We reported the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal wall mass without antecedent gynecological surgeries. The initial abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed thickening of the left rectus abdominis and the loss of intervening fat between the rectus abdominis and the lateral abdominal muscles. After 8 months, the follow-up contrast-enhanced CT and ultrasonography (US) showed a lentiform-shaped mass with isodensity to the adjacent muscles. The US-guided biopsy was consistent with leiomyoma.

  8. Torsion of a parasitic myoma that developed after abdominal myomectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, In Ae; Baek, Jong Chul; Park, Ji Kwon; Song, Dae Hyun; Kim, Wan Ju; Lee, Yoon Kyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Soon Ae; Lee, Jong Hak; Paik, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic parasitic myomas are rare. The condition is defined by the presence of multiple smooth-muscle tumorous nodules in the peritoneal cavity. This may be attributable to seeding of myoma particles during uterine surgery. The clinical course is usually indolent. The disease is often asymptomatic and is usually discovered only incidentally. A 38-year-old woman who had undergone abdominal myomectomy 7 months prior presented with acute abdominal pain and a huge pelvic mass. We performed exp...

  9. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle strength of quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles while a negative correlation with the endurance time of these muscles.

  10. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  11. Electromyographic investigation of abdominal exercises and the effects of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Lees, Adrian; Barton, Gabor

    Abdominal exercises are widely used to develop the anterior muscles of the trunk. These exercises can be undertaken without the aid of equipment, but increasingly manufacturers are developing equipment which purportedly enhances the training effect for abdominal muscles. As there are many different products and exercises used for abdominal muscle development, it is likely that some are more effective than others. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of five commonly performed abdominal exercises. A second aim was to investigate the effects of fatigue on these exercises. Five different types of abdominal exercise [standard crunch (sit-up) with bent knees, gym ball crunch, crunch with 5 kg weight held behind the head, legs raised crunch and a commercially manufactured roller crunch] were examined using integrated surface electromyography (IEMG). The lower rectus abdominis (LRA), upper rectus abdominis (URA) and obliquus externus abdominis (EO) of 15 healthy male participants [age (mean +/- SD) 22.2 +/- 6.8 years; height 1.77 +/- 0.06 m; mass 79.3 +/- 10.7 kg] were monitored using a four-channel special purpose EMG data logger. Three trials of each exercise were performed in random order and normalized to enable comparisons between muscles and exercises. At a later date, ten participants were then re-tested when fresh and after a 30 min whole-body fatigue protocol that specifically targeted the abdominal muscles. Two exercises were evaluated, the abdominal roller crunch and legs raised crunch, which were judged to be the least and most effective, respectively, of the five exercises previously used. The normalized IEMG showed significant (p crunch = 86.0 +/- 7.5%; legs raised crunch = 79.9 +/- 5.1%; 5 kg weight crunch = 65.1 +/- 13.4%; standard crunch = 56.2 +/- 3.2%; and roller crunch = 45.0 +/- 11.4%). Post-fatigue, the normalized mean IEMG for both exercises increased significantly (p 0.05). It was concluded that exercises can be constructed to provide

  12. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  13. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies.

  14. Bullhorn hernia: A rare traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimaljot Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH is rare despite the high prevalence of blunt abdominal trauma. Bullhorn hernia occurs as a result of a direct blow to the abdominal wall by the horn of a bull, which disrupts the muscles and fascia and leads to hernia formation. We report a rare case of bullhorn TAWH in a 70-year-old patient who presented with swelling at the left lumbar region. The patient was managed by immediate surgical intervention. A surgeon must have high index of suspicion for the diagnosis of this condition as missed hernias in this setting pose a high risk of strangulation and gangrene.

  15. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  16. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ... can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster ...

  18. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  1. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  2. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... Overview The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  4. Linear abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, L A; Wolfman, E F

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury.

  5. Ventral Abdominal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with redness of the both foot and lower legs, as well as edema of the left lower leg, accompanied by subjective complaints of burning. Fever was not reported. Well-circumscribed oval shaped tumor formation was revealed also on the abdominal wall, with hyperpigmented and depigmented areas on its ulcerated surface, measuring approximately 10/10cm in diameter, with soft-elastic texture on palpation.  The lesion occurred in 2011, according to the patient’s history. No subjective complaints were reported in association. The performed ultrasonography revealed intestinal loops in the hernial sac, without incarceration. The diagnosis of ventral abdominal hernia without mechanical ileus was made. The patient was referred for planned surgical procedure, because of her refusal on this stage.The clinical manifestation of the tumor formation on the abdominal wall, required wide spectrum of differential diagnosis, including aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, abdominal tumor, subcutaneous tumor or metastasis or hernia. In the presented cases, the abdominal wall mass was a sporadic clinical finding in the framework of the total-body skin examination in patient with erysipelas. The lack of subjective symptoms, as well as the reported history for hysterectomy and previously abscessus were not enough indicative symptoms for the correct diagnosis. The diagnosis of non-complicated hernia was made via ultrasonography, while the clinical differentiation between hernia and other life-threatening conditions as aneurysms or tumor was not possible.

  6. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensby, J Derek; Baker, Jonathan C; Fox, Michael G

    2016-02-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries.

  7. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  8. 腹针、盆底肌训练联合治疗压力性尿失禁的疗效观察%Clinical observation on abdominal acupuncture combined with pelvic floor muscle training in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张龙泳; 鸦杏鹏; 薛宁

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨腹针、盆底肌训联合治疗压力性尿失禁的临床疗效.方法 将本院收治的60例压力性尿失禁患者随机分为对照组30例和观察组30例,对照组在常规治疗基础上运用盆底肌训练治疗,观察组在对照组治疗基础上联合运用腹针治疗,比较两组患者的临床疗效.结果 治疗结束后,观察组患者临床总有效率86.7%,高于对照组的63.3%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 腹针、盆底肌训练联合治疗压力性尿失禁疗效显著,值得在临床上推广.%Objective To explore the clinical efficacy of abdominal acupuncture combined with pelvic floor muscle training in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI).Methods 60 cases of SUI treated in our hospital were randomly divided into control group (30 cases) and observation group (30 cases).Control group received pelvic floor muscle training on the basis of conventional treatment,and observation group received abdominal acupuncture on the basis of control group therapy.Compared the clinical curative effect of two groups.Result After treatment,the clinical total effective rate of observation group was 86.7%,higher than 63.3% of control group (P<0.05).Conclusion Abdominal acupuncture combined with pelvic floor muscle training has significant effect in the treatment of SUI,worth popularizing in clinic.

  9. Muscle strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  10. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  11. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  12. 探讨逆腹式呼吸法结合常规盆底肌肉训练方法在子宫全切患者家庭训练中的作用%Effect Exploration of Abdominal Breathing Combined with Routine Pelvic Floor Muscle Training in the Family Training of Patients with Total Hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋妮娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨逆腹式呼吸法结合常规盆底肌肉训练方法在子宫全切患者家庭训练中的作用。方法:选取笔者所在科室2014年1月-2015年10月收治的60例35~60岁子宫全切术后患者,随机分为试验组(n=30)和对照组(n=30)。试验组用逆腹式呼吸配合Kegel运动+阴道哑铃进行盆底肌肉训练,对照组用Kegel运动+阴道哑铃进行盆底肌肉训练,比较两组治疗后的盆底功能康复效果。结果:两组患者经治疗后情况均有所好转,试验组的ICI-Q-SF评分为(11.84±3.14)分,明显要高于对照组的(9.97±2.61)分,且尿失禁与性生活质量均良好,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:采用逆腹式呼吸结合Kegel运动+阴道哑铃训练法进行家庭式盆底肌肉训练对提高盆底肌肉训练具有一定的作用,较单纯地行Kegel运动+阴道哑铃进行盆底肌肉训练效果更好,能够帮助患者更好更快地恢复健康,值得推广应用。%Objective:To explore the effect of abdominal breathing combined with routine pelvic floor muscle training in the family training of patients with total hysterectomy.Method:60 cases of 35-60 gears old uterine total resection postoperative in our hospital from January 2014 to October 2015 were randomly divided into experimental group(n=30) and control group(n=30).The experimental group used inverse abdominal breathing with Kegel exercise + vaginal dumbbell of pelvic floor muscle training,the control group with Kegel exercise + vaginal dumbbell pelvic floor muscle training,after treatment,the effect of pelvic floor rehabilitation of two groups were compared.Result:Two groups of patients after treatment were improved,the ICI-Q-SF scores of the experimental group was (11.84±3.14),which was significantly higher than (9.97±2.61) of the control group,and urinary incontinence and sexual life quality were good,the differences were statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The inverse

  13. Clinical Reasoning: A 39-year-old man with abdominal cramps

    OpenAIRE

    Jaiser, Stephan R.; Baker, Mark R; Whittaker, Roger G.; Birchall, Daniel; Chinnery, Patrick F.

    2013-01-01

    A 39-year-old lawyer presented with intermittent spasms and pain in his abdominal muscles, particularly the right upper quadrant. These had occurred since his mid-20s and there had been long asymptomatic periods, including 8 years prior to the most recent 4-month exacerbation. Trivial movement triggered a spasm of the abdominal muscles, leading to severe pain, which made breathing uncomfortable and interfered with sleep. The symptoms subsided spontaneously after 4 to 5 days, leaving him with ...

  14. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  15. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  16. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  17. Torsion of a parasitic myoma that developed after abdominal myomectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In Ae; Baek, Jong Chul; Park, Ji Kwon; Song, Dae Hyun; Kim, Wan Ju; Lee, Yoon Kyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Shin, Jeong Kyu; Choi, Won Jun; Lee, Soon Ae; Lee, Jong Hak; Paik, Won Young

    2016-01-01

    Iatrogenic parasitic myomas are rare. The condition is defined by the presence of multiple smooth-muscle tumorous nodules in the peritoneal cavity. This may be attributable to seeding of myoma particles during uterine surgery. The clinical course is usually indolent. The disease is often asymptomatic and is usually discovered only incidentally. A 38-year-old woman who had undergone abdominal myomectomy 7 months prior presented with acute abdominal pain and a huge pelvic mass. We performed exploratory laparotomy. A parasitic mass 17 cm in diameter with a twisted omental pedicle was identified. En bloc excision of the mass and omentum was performed, followed by total abdominal hysterectomy. Histopathological examination of multiple sections revealed features compatible with an infarcted leiomyoma. Thus, we present a very rare case of an iatrogenic, rapidly growing parasitic myoma complicated by omental torsion (which caused the acute abdominal pain). We also offer a literature review.

  18. Función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen en sujetos normales Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio G. Monteiro; Fernando A. Pessolano; Adrián A. Suárez; Eduardo L. De Vito

    2012-01-01

    Los efectos de las cargas en el abdomen con el objeto de producir entrenamiento del diafragma, no han sido suficientemente evaluados. Estudiamos la función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen y con cambios en el patrón respiratorio. Se estudiaron 6 voluntarios normales. Se obtuvo flujo en la boca, presión gástrica (Pga), presión esofágica (Pes), movimiento torácico (TX) y abdominal (AB), presión inspiratoria máxima (PImax) y presión transdiafragmática media (Pdi) y ...

  19. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's ...

  2. Penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    inal trauma (PAT) in our area, and to try to identify a pattern of organ-specific injury ... laparotomy due to persistent abdominal pain, after a period of observation of about .... in the ini- tial assessment who turned out to be free of visceral injuries.

  3. An unusual abdominal wall mass in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Amalia Maria do Espirito Santo; Barbuto, Tomas Marzagão; Freitas, Flávia Alessandra; Vianna, Nathalia Fernandes; Zanchetta, Carla Maria Costa; Forsait, Silvana; Borba, Claudio; Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini de; Cristofani, Lilian Maria; Odone, Vicente

    2017-04-13

    Abdominal tumors are one of the most common types of pediatric cancer. Therefore, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. Here, we present the case of a child whose initial hypothesis of diagnosis contemplated this possibility. Later, it was demonstrated that the abdominal mass found was secondary to a common parasitosis. A 2-year old, moderately malnourished and pale white boy was referred with a history of a rapidly growing, well-limited, middle abdominal mass. The mass was 10 by 3 cm, hard and poorly movable, apparently involving both abdominal rectus muscles. A complete resection was performed, revealing an abdominal wall abscess, with intense eosinophilic proliferation, secondary to a local and intense reaction to innumerous Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Extra luminal infestations with Ascaris, that usually form peritoneal granulomas have been previously described. However, neither external trauma nor fistula, that could explain the superficial presence of the eggs, was found. This description reinforces the relevance of infectious diseases within the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses, particularly in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infestations.

  4. An unusual abdominal wall mass in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Maria do Espirito Santo Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Abdominal tumors are one of the most common types of pediatric cancer. Therefore, they should always be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses. Here, we present the case of a child whose initial hypothesis of diagnosis contemplated this possibility. Later, it was demonstrated that the abdominal mass found was secondary to a common parasitosis. A 2-year old, moderately malnourished and pale white boy was referred with a history of a rapidly growing, well-limited, middle abdominal mass. The mass was 10 by 3 cm, hard and poorly movable, apparently involving both abdominal rectus muscles. A complete resection was performed, revealing an abdominal wall abscess, with intense eosinophilic proliferation, secondary to a local and intense reaction to innumerous Ascaris lumbricoides eggs. Extra luminal infestations with Ascaris, that usually form peritoneal granulomas have been previously described. However, neither external trauma nor fistula, that could explain the superficial presence of the eggs, was found. This description reinforces the relevance of infectious diseases within the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses, particularly in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infestations.

  5. [What do general, abdominal and vascular surgeons need to know on plastic surgery - aspects of plastic surgery in the field of general, abdominal and vascular surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damert, H G; Altmann, S; Stübs, P; Infanger, M; Meyer, F

    2015-02-01

    There is overlap between general, abdominal and vascular surgery on one hand and plastic surgery on the other hand, e.g., in hernia surgery, in particular, recurrent hernia, reconstruction of the abdominal wall or defect closure after abdominal or vascular surgery. Bariatric operations involve both special fields too. Plastic surgeons sometimes use skin and muscle compartments of the abdominal wall for reconstruction at other regions of the body. This article aims to i) give an overview about functional, anatomic and clinical aspects as well as the potential of surgical interventions in plastic surgery. General/abdominal/vascular surgeons can benefit from this in their surgical planning and competent execution of their own surgical interventions with limited morbidity/lethality and an optimal, in particular, functional as well as aesthetic outcome, ii) support the interdisciplinary work of general/abdominal/vascular and plastic surgery, and iii) provide a better understanding of plastic surgery and its profile of surgical interventions and options.

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... through the blood vessels. top of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is ... Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can ...

  9. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final ...

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  11. Restoration of abdominal wall integrity as a salvage procedure in difficult recurrent abdominal wall hernias using a method of wide myofascial release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J P; Karp, N S

    2001-03-01

    The management of primary and recurrent giant incisional hernias remains a complex and frustrating challenge even with multiple alloplastic and autogenous closure options. The purpose of this study was to develop a reconstructive technique of restoring abdominal wall integrity to a subcategory of patients, who have failed initial hernia therapy, by performing superior and lateral myofascial release. Over a 1.5-year period, 10 patients with previously unsuccessful treatment of abdominal wall hernias, using either primary repair or placement of synthetic material, were studied. The patients had either recurrence of the hernia or complications such as infections requiring removal of synthetic material. The hernias were not able to be treated with standard primary closure techniques or synthetic material. The average defect size was 19 x 9 cm. Each patient underwent wide lysis of bowel adhesions releasing the posterior abdominal wall fascia to the posterior axillary line, subcutaneous release of the anterior abdominal wall fascia to a similar level, and complete removal of any synthetic material (if present). The abdominal domain was reestablished by releasing the laterally retracted abdominal wall. The amount of available abdominal wall tissue was increased by wide release of the cephalic abdominal wall fascia overlying the costal margin and the external oblique fascia and muscle laterally. If needed, partial thickness of the internal oblique muscle and its anterior fascia were also released laterally to perform a tension-free primary closure of the defect. All repairs were closed with satisfactory functional and aesthetic results. All alloplastic material was removed. Fascial release was limited so as to close only the hernia defect without tension. No significant release of the rectus sheath and muscle was needed. Good, dynamic muscle function was noted postoperatively. All repairs have remained intact, and no further abdominal wall hernias have been noted on follow-up.

  12. Pain-evoked trunk muscle activity changes during fatigue and DOMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    abdominal and back muscles. RESULTS: In DOMS, peak VAS scores were higher during bilateral control and bilateral saline-induced pain than fatigue (p ...-perturbation Delta-RMS-EMG in back muscles was higher during bilateral pain and lower during unilateral pain (p abdominal Delta-RMS-EMG was not significantly affected. CONCLUSION: Facilitated and attenuated back muscle responses to surface perturbations in bilateral and unilateral LBP, respectively......BACKGROUND: Muscle pain may reorganize trunk muscle activity but interactions with exercise-related muscle fatigue and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is to be clarified. METHODS: In 19 healthy participants, the trunk muscle activity during 20 multi-directional unpredictable surface...

  13. Abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurones are strong synergists for expiration but are not synergists for Group I monosynaptic afferent inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, Tim W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, Peter

    2014-01-01

    internal intercostal muscle. Those with Lat EPSPs (Group B) were assumed to innervate abdominal muscle (transversus abdominis or rectus abdominis). Inspiratory Dist motoneurones (assumed to innervate interchondral muscle) showed EPSPs from Dist. Stimulation of dorsal ramus nerves gave EPSPs in 11 instances...

  14. Physicians' Abdominal Auscultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Gade; Peter, Kruse; Andersen, Ole Trier

    1998-01-01

    Background: Abdominal auscultation has an important position in the physical examination of the abdomen. Little is known about rater agreement. The aim of this study was to describe rater agreement and thus, indirectly, the value of the examination. Methods: In a semi-virtual setup 12 recordings...... of the intestinal sounds from 8 patients with acute abdominal pain and 4 healthy volunteers were presented to 100 physicians. The physicians were asked to characterize the intestinal sounds as normal or pathologic. Fisher's exact test was used for comparison between groups of physicians. Results: Overall, 72......% of the answers with regard to healthy volunteers concluded that the sounds were normal (equalling agreement), whereas 64% of answers with regard to intestinal obstruction concluded that the sounds were pathologic (but agreement was higher due to agreement on wrong diagnosis in one case). Bowel sounds from...

  15. Endometrioma de parede abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Accetta

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência dos autores com as manifestações clínicas e o tratamento cirúrgico em pacientes com endometrioma de parede abdominal. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva das pacientes operadas por endometrioma de parede abdominal, dando ênfase aos dados relativos à idade, sintomas, cesariana prévia, relação dos sintomas com o ciclo menstrual, exames físicos e complementares, tratamento cirúrgico, evolução pós-operatória e resultado histopatológico dos espécimes. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 14 pacientes no período estudado, com idade entre 28 e 40 anos. A presença de massa e dor local que piorava durante a menstruação foram as queixas principais. Ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada foram exames importantes em localizar precisamente a doença. O tratamento cirúrgico foi exérese ampla da tumoração e dos tecidos comprometidos. As pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente e o histopatológico confirmou a suspeita de endometrioma de parede abdominal em todos os casos. CONCLUSÃO: Foi nítida a relação entre cesariana prévia e endometrioma de parede abdominal e estudos ultrassonográficos e tomográficos auxiliaram a planejar a abordagem cirúrgica permitindo a exérese da tumoração e de todos os tecidos adjacentes comprometidos.

  16. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  17. Abdominal wall surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy. Skin and muscle cannot regain its normal tone. This can be a problem for very overweight people who lost a lot of weight. Tummy tuck is major surgery. It is important to read about the procedure before having it. ...

  18. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  19. Influence of different control strategies on muscle activation patterns in trunk muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Laura; Anders, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Adequate training of the trunk muscles is essential to prevent low back pain. Although sit-ups are simple to perform, the perceived high effort is the reason why training the abdominal muscles is seldom continued over a longer period of time. It is well known that the abdominal muscles are inferior to the back muscles in terms of force, but this cannot explain the extreme difference in perceived effort between trunk flexion and extension tasks. Therefore, this study was aimed at the identification of control strategy influences on the muscular stress level. Thirty-nine subjects were investigated. The performed tasks were restricted to the sagittal plane and were implemented with simulated and realized tilt angles. Subjects were investigated in an upright position with their lower bodies fixed and their upper bodies free. Posture-controlled tasks involved graded forward and backward tilting, while force-controlled tasks involved the application of force based on a virtual tilt angle. The Surface EMG (SEMG) was taken from five trunk muscles on both sides. Control strategies seemed to have no systematic influence on the SEMG amplitudes of the back muscles. In contrast, the abdominal muscles exhibited significantly higher stress levels under posture-controlled conditions without relevantly increasing antagonistic co-activation of back muscles. The abdominal muscles' relative differences ranged from an average of 20% for the external oblique abdominal muscle to approximately 40% for the rectus abdominal muscle. The perceived high effort expended during sit-ups can now be explained by the posture-controlled contractions that are required.

  20. Effects of Various Types of Situps on Integrated MAP's of the Abdominal Musculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Larry

    The electrical activity of the abdominal muscles was tested during situps to determine the effect upon integrated muscle action potential (MAP). The following types of situps were used in testing 18 college males: (1) trunk curls; (2) AAHPER situp; (3) YMCA situp; (4) modified AAHPER situp; and (5) modified YMCA situp. All situps were performed…

  1. Comparison of lumbar and abdominal muscle activation during two types of golf swing: An EMG analysis. (Comparación de la activación muscular abdominal y lumbar en la realización de dos tipos de swing en Golf: Un análisis electromiográfico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhu Jaspal Singh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGolf is a popular sport and golf swing is a complex movement which requires a coordinated sequence of muscle activity. Two types of golf swing exists i.e. “Classical” and “Modern”. Classical swing differs from modern swing in several respects, which are important when considering their effects on the lower back. The present study compared muscle activation amplitudes in the trunk region of golfers during two different types of golf swing. 22 golfers (21.5 years ±3.4 were instructed to perform modern and classical golf swing and surface EMG activity was recorded from external oblique (E.O., internal oblique (I.O., and erector spinae (E.S. muscles of both sides. Results showed muscle activity of right and left side of E.O. and I.O. to be lower in modern swing than classical swing (significant difference p menor que 0.05 in downswing and impact phase, whereas it is higher for both sides E.S. in modern swing. The E.S. muscle activity during follow-through phase was significantly higher (p menor que 0.05 in modern swing compared to classical swing. Significant differences in E.S. and other muscles activity suggest inappropriate recruitment of these muscles in golfers during the modern swing. EMG evidence proposes that the modern golf swing produces more extension forces in the lower back compared with the forces of classical swing.Resumen El Golf es un deporte popular y el swing en golf es un movimiento complejo que reclama una secuencia coordinada de movimientos. Existen dos tipos de swing: el clásico y el moderno. El Clásico se diferencia del Moderno en varios aspectos que son importantes cuando se consideran sus efectos en la parte inferior de la espalda. Este estudio comparó la amplitud de la activación muscular en el tronco de los golfistas al realizar los dos tipos de swing. Veintidos jugadores de golf (21.5 años ±3.4 fueron instruidos para realizar el swing moderno y clásico, tomándose la actividad muscular (actividad

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems....

  3. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  4. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation.

  5. Dolor abdominal recurrente .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo De Vivero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El dolor abdominal recurrente (DAR es un problema frecuente en la consulta médica y en la subespecialidad médica y quirúrgica. El DAR es frecuentemente funcional, es decir, sin una causa orgánica aparente. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir pérdida de peso, sangrado gastrointestinal, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica y vómito importante. En este artículo se revisa el diagnóstico y tratamiento, pruebas diagnósticas y manejo farmacológico y ambiental.

  6. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  7. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  8. Abdominal cystic lymphangioma mimicking appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

    2013-06-01

    A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.

  9. Abdominal Cystic Lymphangioma Mimicking Appendicitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

    2013-01-01

    A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investi...

  10. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  12. Effects of preoperative respiratory muscle exercise on the prevention of postoperative pulmonary ;complications in patients with abdominal operation:a Meta-analysis%术前呼吸肌锻炼对腹部手术患者术后肺部并发症影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓娟; 张晶晶; 孙笑笑; 陈祖涛

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of preoperative respiratory muscle exercise on the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in patients with abdominal operation. Methods The published randomized control trails ( RCT ) on preoperative respiratory muscle exercise for the prevention of pulmonary complications after abdominal operation were collected in the databases of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database ( CBM) by computer from January 1, 1975 to March 1, 2016. Two researchers extracted the data and assessed the quality of studies according to the revised edition of Jadad scale independently. Then meta-analyses were performed on included studies. Results A total of 6 RCTs involving 385 patients were included. The results of meta-analyses showed that the preoperative respiratory muscle exercise could effectively decrease the incidence of pulmonary infection [ OR=0. 38, 95%CI ( 0. 16, 0. 91), P=0.03], pulmonary atelectasis [OR=0.17, 95%CI (0.05, 0.56), P=0.004].Conclusions The preoperative respiratory muscle exercise can effectively decrease the incidence of pulmonary infection and pulmonary atelectasis.%目的:评价术前呼吸肌锻炼对预防腹部手术患者术后肺部并发症的效果。方法计算机检索PubMed数据库、Cochrane Library 以及中国生物医学文献服务系统( CBM)1975年1月1日—2016年3月1日公开发表的关于术前呼吸肌锻炼预防腹部手术后肺部并发症的随机对照试验( RCT),由2名评价员独立提取并根据改良Jadad评分量表进行文献质量评价,对符合质量标准的研究进行Meta分析。结果共纳入6项RCT,385例患者。 Meta分析结果显示,术前呼吸肌锻炼能够有效减少肺部感染的发生率[OR=0.38,95%CI(0.16,0.91),P=0.03];减少肺不张的发生率[OR=0.17,95%CI(0.05,0.56), P=0.004]。结论术前呼吸肌锻炼能够有效降低腹部手术患者术后肺部感染及肺不张的发生率。

  13. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  14. Abdominal syndromes and functional ability in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kay, L; Avlund, K

    1994-01-01

    Data concerning a random cohort of 1,119 70-year-old subjects were analyzed to evaluate the association between Upper Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome and functional ability. Seven hundred and thirty-four subjects were interviewed about abdominal symptoms and were visited at home by an occu...... that abdominal syndromes are associated to functional ability, suggesting that there is a diffuse disorder affecting both smooth and striated muscles.......Data concerning a random cohort of 1,119 70-year-old subjects were analyzed to evaluate the association between Upper Dyspepsia and Irritable Bowel Syndrome and functional ability. Seven hundred and thirty-four subjects were interviewed about abdominal symptoms and were visited at home...

  15. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  16. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur ... minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  17. The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury%重复功能性磁刺激联合腹直肌电刺激对颈髓损伤患者肺通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 袁华; 牟翔; 杜起; 毛利; 惠楠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with abdominal muscle electrical stimulation on the pulmonary ventilation of patients with cervical spinal cord injury.Methods Twenty-five patients with cervical spinal cord injury were randomized into an experimental group (n =13) and a control group (n =12).The control group was given comprehensive rehabilitation treatment,including upper limb movements,standing training and training of respiratory function,while the experimental group was given repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and abdominal muscle electrical stimulation in addition to the comprehensive rehabilitation treatment.The patients' maximum lung capacity (VC),forced expiratory volume for 1 second (FEV1),peak expiratory flow rate (PEF) and tidal volume (VT) were measured at the outset and after 3 months of treatment.Results The lung function indexes increased in both groups after treatment,but each index improved significantly more in the experimental group,on average,than in the control group.Conclusion As a supplement to routine respiratory function training,repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with abdominal intermediate frequency electrical stimulation can improve the pulmonary ventilation function of patients with middle and lower cervical spinal cord injury.%目的 观察重复功能性磁刺激(rFMS)联合腹直肌电刺激对中、低位颈髓损伤(CSCI)患者肺通气功能的影响.方法 共选取25例中、低位CSCI患者,采用随机数字表法将其分为治疗组及对照组.对照组给予上肢主动运动、站立训练、呼吸功能训练等综合康复治疗,治疗组在此基础上辅以rFMS及腹直肌中频电刺激.分别于治疗前、治疗3个月后对2组患者肺功能[包括最大肺活量(VC)、1秒钟用力呼气量(FEV1)、呼气峰值流速(PEF)及潮气量(VT)等指标]进行评定.结果 2组患者分别经3个

  18. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...because it was almost uniformly ssociated with serious lethal burns. This was in the period efore effective gastric acid control, explaining the high

  19. Tissue Expander Capsule for Abdominal Wall in Autologous Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Scholze Webster, MD, PhD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Adjuvant treatment planning can change after breast cancer resection and definitive pathological examination. Radiation therapy is often chosen as a supplementary treatment. Rectus abdominis–based muscle flaps are one of the main choices when breast reconstruction plans must be changed from implant-based to autologous methods. We herein report a case in which the patient’s own tissue expander capsule was used to repair an abdominal wall defect after muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction.

  20. Videolaparoscopia no trauma abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila Varela Velho

    Full Text Available A videolaparoscopia (VL vem contribuindo de forma crescente, para diagnóstico e terapêutica de várias afecções cirúrgicas abdominais, introduzindo profundas mudanças na cirurgia contemporânea. Esse avanço incorporou-se também às urgências traumáticas, fazendo parte da avaliação diagnóstica e, às vezes, da terapêutica do trauma abdominal. Os autores apresentam uma revisão concisa da literatura sobre a VL no trauma, atualizando o tema e discutindo os aspectos mais relevantes das indicações, limitações e complicações do método.

  1. Abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective...... inhibit further AAA progression. All 4 existing RCTs point in the same direction, viz. in favour of screening of men aged 65 and above. We found that screening significantly reduced AAA-related mortality by 67% within the first five years (NNT = 352). Restriction of screening to men with previous...... year gained was 157 euro [1,170 DKK] and the cost per QALY at 178 euro [1,326 DKK]. In all, the ethical dilemma of the prophylactic operation, and the limited psychological side effects seem not to outweigh the benefits of screening. Conclusively, we found that offering men aged 65-73 years screening...

  2. Cold abscess of the anterior abdominal wall: An unusual primary presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohinder Kumar Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is considered as ubiquitous disease as it involves any organ, but primary involvement of abdominal muscles is very rare. In most cases, the muscle involvement is secondary and is caused by either hematogenous route or direct inoculation from a tuberculous abdominal lymph node or extension from underlying tubercular synovitis and osteomyelitis. Autopsy studies have shown abdominal wall involvement in less than 1% of patients who died of tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy is main form of management. Surgical intervention is always secondary in the form of either sonography or computerized tomography-guided aspiration or open drainage which is usually reserved for patients in whom medical treatment has failed. A case is hereby reported about primary tubercular anterior abdominal wall abscess without any evidence of pulmonary, skeletal or gastrointestinal tuberculosis in an apparently healthy individual with any past history of contact or previous antituberculosis therapy.

  3. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established.

  4. VACUUM THERAPY VERSUS ABDOMINAL EXERCISES ON ABDOMINAL OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevein Mohammed Mohammed Gharib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a medical condition that may adversely affect wellbeing and leading to increased incidence of many health problems. Abdominal obesity tends to be associated with weight gain and obesity and it is significantly connected with different disorders like coronary heart disease and type II diabetes mellitus.This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of vacuum therapy as compared to abdominal exercises on abdominal obesity in overweight and obese women. Methods: Thirtyoverweight and obese women participated in this study with body mass index > 25 kg/m2andwaist circumference ≥ 85 cm. Their ages ranged from 28 - 40 years old.The subjects were excluded if they have diabetes, abdominal infection diseases or any physical limitation restricting exercise ability. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups; group I and group II. Group I received vacuum therapy sessions (by the use of LPG device in addition to aerobic exercise training. Group II received abdominal exercises in addition to the same aerobic exercisesgiven to group I. This study was extended for successive 8 weeks (3 sessions/ week. All subjects were assessed for thickness ofnthe abdominal skin fold, waist circumference and body mass index. Results: The results of this study showeda significant difference between group I and group II post-interventionas regarding to the mean values of waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aerobic exercises combined with vacuum therapy (for three sessions/week for successive 8 weeks have a positive effect on women with abdominal obesity in terms of reducing waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness.

  5. Solução hipersaturada de sal como conservante de pericárdio canino utilizado na reparação do músculo reto abdominal de ratos Wistar Supersaturated salt solution as a canine pericardium preserver used in reparation of the rat rectus abdominis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Veloso Brun

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de testar a solução hipersaturada de sal (na proporção de 1,5g de sal comercial para 1m de água tridestilada como conservante, foram realizados implantes de pericárdio canino mantido neste meio, no mínimo por 90 dias, em lesões provocadas no músculo reto abdominal de 24 ratos Wistar. Previamente à implantação da membrana, a solução foi avaliada quanto a presença de bactérias e fungos, demonstrando resultados negativos. Durante o procedimento cirúrgico, foi removido um segmento da largura completa do músculo reto abdominal direito, de 1,5cm de comprimento. A lesão produzida foi preenchida com o implante, sendo este suturado às bordas musculares com fio de náilon monofilamentar 6-0 em padrão contínuo simples. Os animais operados foram subdivididos em seis grupos (I, II, III, IV, V, VI de igual número, sendo posteriormente sacrificados aos três, cinco, sete,10, 15 e 30 dias do pós-operatório, afim de se realizar as avaliações macroscópica e histológica da região do implante. Nos exames macroscópico e histológico pôde-se constatar neovascularização no local reparado, que gradualmente foi decrescendo. Ao exame histológico foi observado a substituição gradativa do implante por tecido conjuntivo fibroso, sem a ocorrência de eliminação do implante ou contaminação. Através destes achados é possível afirmar que a solução hipersaturada de sal estudada, é um meio adequado para a conservação de pericárdio canino.This study evaluates the supersaturated salt solution (1,5g of commercial salt for 1m of tridestilled water as a tissue preserver. Canine pericardium stored in this medium was implanted in defects made in the rectus abdominis muscle of 24 Wistar rats. Previously the implantation, analysis of the solution was performed and no bacteria or fungi were found. Surgical procedure: a 1,5cm of the right rectus abdominis muscle length was removed, and the defect was covered with the

  6. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    to induce high level of muscle activation. PURPOSE: To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. METHODS......: 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine...... (seated crunch, Technogym, Cesena, Italy). The order of performance of the exercises was randomized, and EMG amplitude was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) EMG. RESULTS: When comparing between muscles, normalized EMG was highest in the rectus abdominis (P

  7. THE RECTUS ABDOMINIS MUSCLE IN MALES AND FEMALES OF KERALA- A CADAVERIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Vijayamma Kunnath Narayanan; Serin Peter; Anjana Jayakumaran Nair

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The rectus abdominis is a long, flat strap muscle which extends vertically upward along the linea alba from the pubic symphysis below to the costal margin above. It is a flexor of the vertebral column and thereby plays an important role in maintaining the normal body posture. As it is a part of the anterior abdominal wall, the strength of the muscle plays a very important role in maintaining the integrity of the anterior abdominal wall. Weakness of the rectus abdomin...

  8. The Potential Role of Kallistatin in the Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaze Li; Smriti Murali Krishna; Jonathan Golledge

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a vascular condition that causes permanent dilation of the abdominal aorta, which can lead to death due to aortic rupture. The only treatment for AAA is surgical repair, and there is no current drug treatment for AAA. Aortic inflammation, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, angiogenesis, oxidative stress and vascular remodeling are implicated in AAA pathogenesis. Kallistatin is a serine proteinase inhibitor, which has been shown to have a variety of funct...

  9. Retroperitoneal abscess: an extra-abdominal manifestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallia, Alvin James; Ashwood, Neil; Arealis, George; Galanopoulos, Ilias

    2015-01-09

    Retroperitoneal abscesses are unusual occurrences with occult and insidious presentations. There is often a lack of abdominal signs, leading to delays in drainage and high mortality rates. We report a case of thigh emphysema in an 88-year-old patient with diabetes. Prior to admission the patient reported a vague 4-week history of left thigh pain and an inability to fully weight bear. She presented to our emergency department with sepsis and acute kidney impairment. An X-ray of her left femur revealed widespread gas between muscular planes. A retroperitoneal abscess involving the left renal fossa, psoas, iliacus and upper thigh muscles was revealed on an urgent CT scan. The patient was transferred to intensive care unit (ICU) and underwent an emergency drainage. Despite ICU the patient died 2 days after admission.

  10. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  11. Abdominal obesity, cardiometabolic risk and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bittolo Bon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is of central importance in the definition of global cardiometabolic risk. Visceral adipose tissue releases a large number of bioactive mediators, which influence body weight homeostasis, insulin resistance, alterations in lipids, blood pressure, coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, leading to increased risk of cardiovascular events and of type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle modification is the first-line approach to the management of abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome. However for patients at higher risk, who cannot achieve an appreciable reduction in weight and in global cardiometabolic risk with lifestyle modification alone, an adjunctive long term pharmacotherapy should be considered. The endocannabinoid system activity regulates food intake and metabolic factors through cannabinoid-1 (CB1 receptor located in multiple sites, including hypothalamus and limbic forebrain, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, liver and the gastrointestinal tract. Evidence suggests that CB1 receptor blockade offers a novel therapeutic strategy. Data from four phase III trials suggest that rimonabant, the first cannabinoid receptor inhibitor, modulates cardiometabolic risk factors, both through its impact on body weight and metabolic parameters such as HDL-cholesterol, tryglicerides, Hb1Ac, through direct pathways that are not related to weight loss.

  12. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusiol, Teresa; Morichetti, Doriana; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Ricci, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device. PMID:21904441

  13. Absence of synergy for monosynaptic Group I inputs between abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, T W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, P A

    2014-01-01

    , and the specificity of the monosynaptic connections from afferents in each of the two main branches of this nerve was investigated. Motoneurons were shown by antidromic excitation to innervate three muscle groups: external abdominal oblique [EO; innervated by the lateral branch (Lat)], the region of the internal...... motoneurons showed one from Lat. Expiratory Dist motoneurons fell into two groups. Those with Dist EPSPs and none from Lat (group A) were assumed to innervate distal internal intercostal muscle. Those with Lat EPSPs (group B) were assumed to innervate abdominal muscle (transversus abdominis or rectus......Internal intercostal and abdominal motoneurons are strongly coactivated during expiration. We investigated whether that synergy was paralleled by synergistic Group I reflex excitation. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons of the internal intercostal nerve of T8 in anesthetized cats...

  14. Síndrome compartimental abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guzmán Nápoles

    Full Text Available Desde el siglo XIX se conocen los efectos negativos del aumento de la presión intraabdominal, pero no se le prestó la debida atención a este trastorno hasta la última década del pasado siglo y la primera del actual. En este artículo exponemos las definiciones de los términos presión intrabdominal, hipertensión intrabdominal y síndrome compartimental abdominal, que fueron tomadas por consenso y aprobadas por la World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. En nuestro medio, para el diagnóstico de la hipertensión intrabdominal y del síndrome compartimental abdominal se requiere medir la presión intrabdominal, secundariamente la presión de perfusión abdominal y se deben correlacionar estos datos con signos de deterioro clínico en el paciente. Las medidas terapéuticas médicas en relación con el síndrome compartimental abdominal son limitadas; cuando este es sintomático la descompresión abdominal es el tratamiento ya establecido. Enfatizamos en que el diagnóstico temprano de la hipertensión intrabdominal y del síndrome compartimental abdominal contribuyen a disminuir el desarrollo de un síndrome de disfunción múltiple de órganos y por tanto a reducir la mortalidad en estos pacientes. Con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos sobre hipertensión intrabdominal y síndrome compartimental abdominal, su diagnóstico y tratamiento, realizamos una minuciosa revisión actualizada de diversos artículos referentes al síndrome compartimental abdominal, tanto en el ámbito nacional como internacional.

  15. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old child with an unusual clinical presentation ... Keywords: abdominal tuberculosis, child, diagnosis. Departments of .... vomiting, gas distension, diarrhea, or constipation), whereas ... senteric echo in the acute stage with peritoneal involve-.

  16. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  17. Cough induced rib fracture, rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cough can be associated with many complications. In this article, we present a 59 year old male patient with a very rare combination of a cough related stress fracture of the ninth rib, a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and an abdominal wall herniation. The hernia was repaired through surgical treatment without bowel resection, the diaphragm and the internal and oblique abdominal muscle were adapted, and the abdomen was reinforced with a prolene net. Although each individual injury is well documented in the literature, the combination of rib fracture, abdominal herniation and diaphragm rupture has not been reported.

  18. Muscle-derived Decellularised Extracellular Matrix Improves Functional Recovery in a Rat Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Defect Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Piccolo R, et al. Experimental abdominal wall defect repaired with acellular matrix. Pediatr Surg Int 2002;18:327e31. 28. Willett NJ, Li MT, Uhrig BA...matrix (M-ECM). Methods: Ten percent of the mass of the latissimus dorsi (LD) was excised. Three groups were examined: 1) no repair of defect (DEF), 2...to develop therapies for ex- tremity10,11 or abdominal muscle repair.16 For the devel- opment of potential therapies for craniofacial muscle repair

  19. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  20. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Maegdefessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility.

  1. Skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  2. [Monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in urgent abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭbuzhis, E N; Fot, E V; Gaĭdukov, K M; Kirov, M Iu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) during perioperative period in urgent abdominal surgery and to assess the relationship of these parameters with gas exchange and tissue perfusion. Twenty-four patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery were enrolled into a prospective observational study. We recorded IAP APP, mean arterial pressure, arterial and venous blood gases after induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and 6, 12, 48 and 72 h postoperatively. LAP was measured by nasogastric tube using CiMON monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany). In addition, we studied the relationship of IAP and APP with blood gases parameters. We observed perioperative increase of IAP (> 12 mm Hg) in 75% of enrolled patients, tendency to postoperative rise of IAP and transient increase of arterial lactate at 6 h after surgery. APP remained within normal values. We found positive correlation of APP with PaO2/FiO2 and ScvO2 at 72 hours after surgery. Transient perioperative increase of IAP was observed in 75% patients undergoing urgent abdominal surgery; however in parallel with intensive care the abdominal perfusion pressure remained within normal values. Abdominal perfusion is related with arterial oxygenation and central venous saturation.

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  5. Intra-abdominal tuberculous peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Ahlhelm, F.; Altmeyer, K.; Kramann, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Hennes, P. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Pueschel, W. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Karadiakos, N. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old boy suffering from progressive dyspnea on exertion and painful abdominal protrusion. Final diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculosis (TB), including lymphadenopathy and abdominal abscess formation, was made following elective laparotomy. This type of disease is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and laparoscopic images are presented. Differential diagnosis of abdominal abscess formation and other fungal or bacteriological infections, as well as the imaging findings of this type of lesion, are discussed. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestation of TB may remain unrecognized; thus, awareness of this kind of manifestation of tuberculosis may prevent patients from being subjected to inappropriate therapies. (orig.)

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  8. Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293

  9. Abdominal Actinomycetoma With Lymphnode Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisetty Rajetha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic mycetoma of the anterior abdominal wall with inguinal lymphnode involvement, an exceedingly rare entity is described here with mycological histological features. Remarkable therapeutic response was noted with Welsh regimen.

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and drinking prior to the exam. Your child ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of ... examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine ... places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling ...

  13. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ...

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. ...

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ...

  17. Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequentiy after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management.

  18. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  19. Trunk response to sudden forward perturbations - effects of preload and sudden load magnitudes, posture and abdominal antagonistic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahvarpour, Ali; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Mecheri, Hakim; Larivière, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Unexpected loading of the spine is a risk factor for low back pain. The trunk neuromuscular and kinematics responses are likely influenced by the perturbation itself as well as initial trunk conditions. The effect of four parameters (preload, sudden load, initial trunk flexed posture, initial abdominal antagonistic activity) on trunk kinematics and back muscles reflex response were evaluated. Twelve asymptomatic subjects participated in sudden forward perturbation tests under six distinct conditions. Preload did not change the reflexive response of back muscles and the trunk displacement; while peak trunk velocity and acceleration as well as the relative load peak decreased. Sudden load increased reflex response of muscles, trunk kinematics and loading variables. When the trunk was initially flexed, back muscles latency was delayed, trunk velocity and acceleration increased; however, reflex amplitude and relative trunk displacement remained unchanged. Abdominal antagonistic preactivation increased reflexive response of muscles but kinematics variables were not affected. Preload, initial flexed posture and abdominal muscles preactivation increased back muscles preactivity. Both velocity and acceleration peaks of the trunk movement decreased with preload despite greater total load. In contrast, they increased in the initial flexed posture and to some extent when abdominal muscles were preactivated demonstrating the distinct effects of pre-perturbation variables on trunk kinematics and risk of injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  1. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  2. 腹主动脉瘤动脉壁血管平滑肌细胞增殖及凋亡的研究%Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and apoptosis of the aortic wall during the development of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大勇; 车艳; 杨镛; 张强; 吕延伟

    2004-01-01

    目的研究腹主动脉瘤(abdominal aortic aneurysm,AAA)在发病不同时期动脉壁平滑肌细胞(smooth muscle cells,SMC)增殖与凋亡的改变. 方法建立大鼠AAA模型,分别于术后3 d、1、2、3、4周切取腹主动脉,应用原位DNA片段末端标记(TUNEL)和免疫组织化学方法检测腹主动脉壁中SMC凋亡和相关基因bcl-2、bax蛋白以及增殖细胞核抗原(PCNA)、α-血管平滑肌肌动蛋白(α-actin)的表达. 结果 TUNEL及PCNA表达高峰时段分别为术后2~3周和1周;术后3 d至1周凋亡细胞少于PCNA阳性SMC,2~4周多于PCNA阳性SMC且SMC数量明显减少;bcl-2与bax蛋白表达分别于术后1、3周达到峰值(P<0.01). 结论动脉壁SMC增殖和凋亡的失衡与AAA发病密切相关;bcl-2与bax基因参与了对AAA动脉壁中SMC凋亡的调控.

  3. Perioperative growth hormone treatment and functional outcome after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, Peter; Jensen, Martin Bach; Laurberg, Søren

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short- and long-term effects of perioperative human growth hormone (hGH) treatment on physical performance and fatigue in younger patients undergoing a major abdominal operation in a normal postoperative regimen with oral nutrition. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Muscle wasting...... and functional impairment follow major abdominal surgery. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing ileoanal J-pouch surgery were randomized to hGH (12 IU/day) or placebo treatment from 2 days before to 7 days after surgery. Measurements were performed 2 days before and 10, 30, and 90 days...... after surgery. RESULTS: The total muscle strength of four limb muscle groups was reduced by 7.6% in the hGH group and by 17.1% in the placebo group at postoperative day 10 compared with baseline values. There was also a significant difference between treatment groups in total muscle strength at day 30...

  4. Core muscle activation during dynamic upper limb exercises in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnanen, Sami P; Siekkinen, Kirsti M; Häkkinen, Arja H; Mälkiä, Esko A; Kautiainen, Hannu J; Ylinen, Jari J

    2012-12-01

    Although several everyday functions and sporting activities demand controlled use of the abdominal and back muscles while working with the upper limbs, the activity of core muscles during dynamic upper limb exercises in the standing position has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine abdominal and back muscle activity during dynamic upper limb exercises while standing and to evaluate whether dynamic exercises are appropriate for strengthening muscles. The activation of the rectus abdominis, obliquus externus abdominis, longissimus, and multifidus muscles during dynamic bilateral or unilateral shoulder exercises with or without fixation of the pelvis was measured in 20 healthy women using surface electromyography. Trunk muscle activation during isometric maximum contraction was used as a comparative reference. With bilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal adduction, abdominal muscle activity was >60% of activity during reference exercises. With unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and shoulder extension exercises, back muscle activity was >60% of the activity level reference exercise. Muscle activation levels were 35-64% lower during shoulder horizontal adduction and abduction without fixation compared with exercises with fixation. The results indicate that upper limb exercises performed in the standing position are effective for activating core muscles. Bilateral and unilateral shoulder extension and unilateral shoulder horizontal abduction and adduction with the pelvis fixed elicited the greatest activity of the core muscles.

  5. Abdominal neurenteric cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radoje (C)olovi(c); MarJan Micev; Miodrag Jovanovi(c); Slavko Mati(c); Nikica Grubor; Henry Dushan E Atkinson

    2008-01-01

    immunoexpression, and the respiratory epithelium revealed a CK8 and CK18 immunoprofile without CK 10/13 positive elements, though neither CEA or AFP positive cells were found. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an abdominally located neurenteric cyst with no associated spinal anomalies.

  6. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; G(u)l Dabak; Resat Dabak

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and microbiological properties of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to discuss methods needed to get the diagnosis.METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed as abdominal TB between March 1998 and December 2001 at the Gastroenterology Department of Kartal State Hospital,Istanbul, Turkey were evaluated prospectively. Complete physical examination, medical and family history, blood count erythrocyte sedimentation rate, routine biochemical tests,Mantoux skin test, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all cases, whereas microbiological examination of ascites, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema, abdominal tomography, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy or laparotomy were done when needed.RESULTS: The median age of patients (14 females, 17males) was 34.2 years (range 15-65 years). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain and weight loss.Eleven patients had active pulmonary TB. The most common abdominal USG findings were ascites and hepatomegaly. Ascitic fluid analysis performed in 13 patients was found to be exudative and acid resistant bacilli were present in smear and cultured only in one patient with BacTec (3.2 %). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded nonspecific findings in 16 patients. Colonoscopy performed in 20 patients showed ulcers in 9 (45 %), nodules in 2 (10 %)and, stricture, polypoid lesions, granulomatous findings in terminal ileum and rectal fistula each in one patient (5 %).Laparoscopy on 4 patients showed dilated bowel loops,thickening in the mesentery, multiple ulcers and tubercles on the peritoneum. Patients with abdominal TB were divided into three groups according to the type of involvement.Fifteen patients (48 %) had intestinal TB, L1 patients (35.2 %) had tuberculous peritonitis and 5 (16.8 %)tuberculous lymphadenitis. The diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed microbiologically in 5 (16 %) and histopathologically in 19 patients (60.8 %). The

  7. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  8. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  9. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  10. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  11. Blunt abdominal trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifat, Sami F; Gilvydis, Rimas P

    2003-04-01

    Abdominal injuries are rare in sports, but when they do occur it is important that the physician recognize the warning signs of potentially life-threatening injury to the liver, spleen, or hollow abdominal viscera. Though the sports medicine physician may not always provide definitive treatment of many of these conditions, he or she should be familiar with the preferred diagnostic modalities and latest treatment options. This information is not only essential to appropriately participate in treatment decisions, but is also important in order to make return-to-play determinations.

  12. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  13. Diagnosis in acute abdominal pain and ongoing abdominal sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, J.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common reason for presentation at the emergency department. To establish a timely and adequate diagnosis, doctors use the pattern of complaints and physical examination as the basis for the evaluation of a patient. In this thesis we conducted a study that showed that surgeo

  14. Cadaver as an experimental model to study abdominal wall tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahas Fábio Xerfan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cadaver as an experimental model to evaluate tension of the abdominal wall after aponeurotic incisions and muscular undermining is described on this article. The tension required to pull the anterior and the posterior rectus sheaths towards the midline was studied in fresh cadavers at two levels: 3 cm above and 2 cm below the umbilicus. Traction measurement was assessed with a dynamometer attached to suture loops on the anterior and posterior recti sheaths, close to the midline, above and below the umbilicus. The quotient of the force used to mobilize the aponeurotic site to the midline and its resulting displacement was called the traction index. These indices were compared in three situations: 1 prior to any aponeurotic undermining; 2 after the incision of the anterior rectus sheath and the undermining of the rectus muscle from its posterior sheath; and 3 after additionally releasing and undermining of the external oblique muscle. The experimental model described showed to be feasible to demonstrate the effects on tension of the abdominal wall after incisions and undermining of its muscles and aponeurosis.

  15. The adult abdominal neuromuscular junction of Drosophila: a model for synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Sarita; Hall, Rachel E; Demski, Sarah A; Subramanian, Aswati; Fernandes, Joyce J

    2006-09-01

    During its life cycle, Drosophila makes two sets of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), embryonic/larval and adult, which serve distinct stage-specific functions. During metamorphosis, the larval NMJs are restructured to give rise to their adult counterparts, a process that is integrated into the overall remodeling of the nervous system. The NMJs of the prothoracic muscles and the mesothoracic dorsal longitudinal (flight) muscles have been previously described. Given the diversity and complexity of adult muscle groups, we set out to examine the less complex abdominal muscles. The large bouton sizes of these NMJs are particularly advantageous for easy visualization. Specifically, we have characterized morphological attributes of the ventral abdominal NMJ and show that an embryonic motor neuron identity gene, dHb9, is expressed at these adult junctions. We quantified bouton numbers and size and examined the localization of synaptic markers. We have also examined the formation of boutons during metamorphosis and examined the localization of presynaptic markers at these stages. To test the usefulness of the ventral abdominal NMJs as a model system, we characterized the effects of altering electrical activity and the levels of the cell adhesion molecule, FasciclinII (FasII). We show that both manipulations affect NMJ formation and that the effects are specific as they can be rescued genetically. Our results indicate that both activity and FasII affect development at the adult abdominal NMJ in ways that are distinct from their larval and adult thoracic counterparts

  16. Descending colon interposition in a patient presenting with abdominal pain and acute appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiref SD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Interposition of the descending colon between the kidney and the psoas major muscle is a rare hindgut anatomic variant. Presented herein is a case of descending colon interposition in a patient admitted with abdominal pain and acute appendicitis. Internal hernia was ruled out by laparoscopy.

  17. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation.

  18. Abdominal Complications of Typhoid Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Vagholkar; Jimmy Mirani; Urvashi Jain; Madhavan Iyengar; Rahul Kumar Chavan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of typhoid fever poses both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge. Awareness of the clinical features of the primary presentation and of the complications are pivotal to early diagnosis. Typically, aggressive supportive care is all that is needed. However abdominal complications do occur and proper surgical care is required to lower morbidity and mortality.

  19. Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.M. Gijsbers (Carolien)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was first defined in 1958 by Apley as “at least 3 bouts of pain, severe enough to affect activities, over a period of at least 3 months” (1). This was a landmark publication with great impact, showing, that emotional disturbances played a role in many patie

  20. Clinical management of abdominal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Guo-en; LUO Tian-hang; DU Cheng-hui; BI Jian-wei; XUE Xu-chao; WEI Guo; WENG Zhao-zhang; MA Li-ye; HUA Ji-de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To improve the prognosis of patients with abdominal trauma. Methods: Between January 1993 and December 2005, 415 patients were enrolled in this research. The patients consisted of 347 males and 68 females with mean age of 36 years ranging from 3-82 years. All abdominal traumas consisted of closed traumas 360 cases, 86.7% and open traumas 55 cases, 13.3%. Results: Atotal of 407 cases 98.1% were fully recovered from trauma and the other 8 cases 1.9% died of multiple injuries. The mean injury severity score ISS of all patients was 22 while the mean ISS of the patients who died in hospital was 42. Postoperative complications were seen in 9 patients such as infection of incisional wounds 6 cases, pancreatic fistula 2 cases and intestinal fistula 1 case. All these postoperative complications were cured by the conservative treatment. Conclusion: Careful case history inquisition and physical examination are the basic methods to diagnose abdomi- nal trauma. Focused abdominal ultrasonography is always the initial imaging examination because it is non-invasive and can be performed repeatedly with high accuracy. The doctors should consider the severity of local injuries and the general status of patients during the assessment of abdominal trauma. The principle of treatment is to save lives at first, then to cure the injuries. Unnecessary laparotomy should be avoided to reduce additional surgical trauma.

  1. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  2. Emergency abdominal surgery in Zaria, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal surgical emergencies constitute a significant portion of a surgeon's ... causes of abdominal emergencies vary from region to region, and even within the ..... Previous studies from our sub-region have consistently shown strangulated ...

  3. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  4. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000240.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  5. Congenital Anaplastic Rhabdomyosarcoma Presenting As Abdominal Wall Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Krishnendu; Mandal, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma encompasses a group of malignant myogenic neoplasms expressing a multitude of clinical and pathological diversities. It is the commonest soft tissue sarcoma of childhood but neonates are rarely affected. Embryonal subtype is the most frequent. Head-neck and genitourinary tracts are predominant sites, while trunk is considered among the unusual sites of rhabdomyosarcoma. Herein we report a case of anaplastic rhabdomyosarcoma in a newborn girl presenting, at the Pediatric Surgery Outpatient Department of North Bengal Medical College and Hospital, India in 2013 with a large tumor mass in the left flank region, arising from abdominal wall muscles.

  6. An Electrical Muscle Stimulation Suit for Increasing Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    being painful . The arterial blood pressure increases from baseline were reg- istered with noninvasive Portapres® equipment (FMS, Amsterdam, The...thighs and over the gluteal and abdominal muscles to create a positive and negative pole over the muscle areas. For better electrical contact... pain . Each subject was instructed to have the investigator lower the intensity or stop the stimulation if muscle contraction pain was experienced

  7. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheatham Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous ...

  8. Superman play and pediatric blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, J M; Gyuro, J; Losek, J D

    1996-01-01

    Two pediatric patients with life-threatening intra-abdominal injuries associated with Superman play are presented. The cases illustrate the importance of knowing the mechanism of injury in the assessment of children with blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnostic value of liver enzymes and the controversies surrounding the radiographic assessment of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma are presented.

  9. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Scicchitano B; Humphreys G; Mitton SG; Jaiganesh T

    2014-01-01

    Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome&...

  10. Muscle biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis ) Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels ( ... disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash ( dermatomyositis ) Inherited muscle disorder ( Duchenne muscular dystrophy ) Inflammation of ...

  11. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atrophy. Exercises may include ones done in a swimming pool to reduce the muscle workload, and other types ... a physical examination and ask about your medical history and symptoms, including: When did the muscle atrophy ...

  12. A report of three cases and review of the literature on rectal disruption following abdominal seatbelt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kafsi, J; Kraus, R; Guy, R

    2016-02-01

    Seatbelt associated blunt trauma to the rectum is a rare but well recognised injury. The exact mechanism of hollow visceral injury in blunt trauma is unclear. Stress and shear waves generated by abdominal compression may in part account for injury to gas containing structures. A 'seatbelt sign' (linear ecchymosis across the abdomen in the distribution of the lap belt) should raise the suspicion of hollow visceral injuries and can be more severe with disruption of the abdominal wall musculature. Three consecutive cases of rectal injury following blunt abdominal trauma, requiring emergency laparotomy and resection, are described. Lumbar spine injury occurred in one case and in the other two cases, there was injury to the iliac wing of the pelvis; all three cases sustained significant abdominal wall contusion or muscle disruption. Abdominal wall reconstruction and closure posed a particular challenge, requiring a multidisciplinary approach. The literature on this topic is reviewed and potential mechanisms of injury are discussed.

  13. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ridha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003. This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms.

  14. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  15. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develops. There they help to push the baby out of the mother's body when it's time to be born. You'll find smooth muscles at work behind the scenes in your eyes, too. These muscles keep the eyes ... thick muscles of the heart contract to pump blood out and then relax to let blood back in ...

  16. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  17. Osteoprotegerin Prevents Development of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batmunkh Bumdelger

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs, which commonly occur among elderly individuals, are accompanied by a risk of rupture and subsequent high mortality. Establishment of medical therapies for the prevention of AAAs requires further understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this condition. This report details the possible involvement of Osteoprotegerin (OPG in the prevention of AAAs through inhibition of Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL. In CaCl2-induced AAA models, both internal and external diameters were significantly increased with destruction of elastic fibers in the media in Opg knockout (KO mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Moreover, up-regulation of TRAIL expression was observed in the media by immunohistochemical analyses. Using a culture system, both the TRAIL-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in smooth muscle cells (SMCs and the chemoattractive effect of TRAIL on SMCs were inhibited by OPG. These data suggest that Opg may play a preventive role in the development of AAA through its antagonistic effect on Trail.

  18. Gender differences in abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannawa, Kevin K; Eliason, Jonathan L; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2009-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) comprise the tenth leading cause of death in Caucasian males 65 to 74 years of age and accounted for nearly 16,000 deaths overall in 2000. Therefore, understanding the pathophysiology of AAAs is an important undertaking. Clinically, multiple risk factors are associated with the development of AAAs, including increasing age, positive smoking history, and hypertension. Male gender is also a well-established risk factor for the development of an AAA, with a 4:1 male to female ratio. The reason for this gender disparity is unknown. The pathogenesis of AAAs formation is complex and multifactorial. Histologically, AAAs are characterized by early chemokine-driven leukocyte infiltration into the aortic wall. Subsequent destruction of elastin and collagen in the media and adventitia ensues owing to excessive local production of matrix-degrading enzymes and is accompanied by smooth muscle cell loss and thinning of the aortic wall. At present, no medical therapies are available to treat patients with aortic aneurysms, using only the crude measurement of aortic diameter as a threshold for which patients must undergo life-threatening and costly surgery. Defining the early mechanisms underlying gender-related differences in AAA formation is critical as understanding differences in disease patterns based on gender may allow us to develop new translational approaches to the prevention and treatment of patients with aortic aneurysms.

  19. Effects of exercise and Kinesio taping on abdominal recovery in women with cesarean section: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürşen, Ceren; İnanoğlu, Deniz; Kaya, Serap; Akbayrak, Türkan; Baltacı, Gül

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal muscle strength decreases and fat ratio in the waist region increases following cesarean section. Kinesio taping (KT) is an easily applicable method and stimulates muscle activation. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to investigate the effects of KT combined with exercise in women with cesarean section on abdominal recovery compared to the exercise alone. Twenty-four women in between the fourth and sixth postnatal months who had cesarean section were randomly assigned to KT + exercise (n = 12) group or exercise group (n = 12). KT was applied twice a week for 4 weeks on rectus abdominis, oblique abdominal muscles and cesarean incision. All women were instructed to carry out posterior pelvic tilt, core stabilization and abdominal correction exercises. Outcome measures were evaluated with the manual muscle test, sit-up test, abdominal endurance test, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), circumference measurements and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze data. p cesarean section. Further studies with larger sample sizes and long-term follow-up are needed to verify these results.

  20. Absence of synergy for monosynaptic Group I inputs between abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, T W; Meehan, C F; Kirkwood, P A

    2014-09-01

    Internal intercostal and abdominal motoneurons are strongly coactivated during expiration. We investigated whether that synergy was paralleled by synergistic Group I reflex excitation. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons of the internal intercostal nerve of T8 in anesthetized cats, and the specificity of the monosynaptic connections from afferents in each of the two main branches of this nerve was investigated. Motoneurons were shown by antidromic excitation to innervate three muscle groups: external abdominal oblique [EO; innervated by the lateral branch (Lat)], the region of the internal intercostal muscle proximal to the branch point (IIm), and muscles innervated from the distal remainder (Dist). Strong specificity was observed, only 2 of 54 motoneurons showing excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) from both Lat and Dist. No EO motoneurons showed an EPSP from Dist, and no IIm motoneurons showed one from Lat. Expiratory Dist motoneurons fell into two groups. Those with Dist EPSPs and none from Lat (group A) were assumed to innervate distal internal intercostal muscle. Those with Lat EPSPs (group B) were assumed to innervate abdominal muscle (transversus abdominis or rectus abdominis). Inspiratory Dist motoneurons (assumed to innervate interchondral muscle) showed Dist EPSPs. Stimulation of dorsal ramus nerves gave EPSPs in 12 instances, 9 being in group B Dist motoneurons. The complete absence of heteronymous monosynaptic Group I reflex excitation between muscles that are synergistically activated in expiration leads us to conclude that such connections from muscle spindle afferents of the thoracic nerves have little role in controlling expiratory movements but, where present, support other motor acts. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  1. The Diagnostic Value of Intra-abdominal Pressure in Patients with Blunt Acute Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Narci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of intra-abdominal pressure measurement in blunt abdominal trauma patients. Method: A prospective study was performed in 49 patients with blunt trauma in our university hospital for 1 years. Patients were randomly into two groups as intra-abdominal trauma (n=28 and extraabdominal trauma (n=21 groups. Intra-abdominal pressures was measured an classified as normal (10 cm H2O or less, elevated (more than 10 cm H2O determined indirectly. Results: No significant differences were found between abdominal trauma and extra-abdominal trauma groups from the point of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP. One the other hand, in abdominal trauma group; significant differences were observed between operated patients. Intra-abdominal bleeding was found in 10 patients and all of them elevated IAP values (exceeding 16 cm H2O. For determining the intra-abdominal injury, IAP had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity 38% in patients. Conclusion: IAP exceeding 16 cm H2O with blunt abdominal trauma patients abdominal trauma can be detected. It is thought that IAP, indirect monitoring of abdominal trauma patients is a reproducible, scientific guide and simple method.To determine the efficacy of the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in blunt abdominal trauma patients, further studies should be done. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(3.000: 157-161

  2. Acupuncture Treatment of Abdominal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Li, a university student aged 23 years, paid his first visit on July 16, 2001, with the chief complaint of abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated that one day before when it happened to be the weekend, he got abdominal pain after supper, which went worse gradually and caused him to roll all over in bed. The pain was slightly alleviated half an hour later after he had taken some pain killers. Upon inquiry, the patient said that because of their newly graduation from the university, he and his classmates were so excited that they went to have a sumptuous lunch with alcoholic drinks. And in the evening he ate again a delicious supper cooked for him by his mother, after which he continued to have some fruit and dessert.

  3. Antibiotic prophylaxis for abdominal hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, G; Loizzi, P; Greco, P; Gargano, G; Varcaccio Garofalo, G; Belsanti, A

    1988-01-01

    Three different regimens of antibiotic treatment have been employed in order to evaluate their efficacy as a profilaxis for abdominal hysterectomy. Two short term administrations (Cephtriaxone and Cephamandole plus Tobramycine) and a conventional full dose treatment (Cephazoline) have been compared over a group of homogeneous patients. No significant differences, except a reduction in postoperative time spent in hospital, have been found among the groups. A reduction in urinary tract infection has also been reported with a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.

  4. Abdominal wound closure: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams ZF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary F Williams, William W Hope Department of Surgery, South East Area Health Education Center, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, NC, USA Abstract: This review examines both early and late wound complications following laparotomy closure, with particular emphasis on technical aspects that reduce hernia formation. Abdominal fascial closure is an area of considerable variation within the field of general surgery. The formation of hernias following abdominal wall incisions continues to be a challenging problem. Ventral hernia repairs are among the most common surgeries performed by general surgeons, and despite many technical advances in the field, incisional hernia rates remain high. Much attention and research has been directed to the surgical management of hernias. Less focus has been placed on prevention of hernia formation despite its obvious importance. This review examines the effects of factors such as the type of incision, suture type and size, closure method, patient risk factors, and the use of prophylactic mesh. Keywords: incisional, abdominal, hernia, prevention, wound closure techniques 

  5. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An unusual cause of acute abdominal pain in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Tariq; Latif, Hina; Shabbir, Bilquis

    2014-07-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile viral disease caused by the bite of Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is a major health problem especially in tropical and subtropical areas including South East Asia and Pakistan. In the past few years, dengue fever has been endemic in Northern Punjab. Physicians managing dengue fever come across varied and uncommon complications of dengue fever. We report a case of dengue fever that developed severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain and induration after extreme retching and vomiting for 2 days. A rectus sheath hematoma was confirmed on noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Rectus sheath hematoma as a complication of dengue fever has rarely been reported before and never from this part of the world. Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often clinically misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. It is the result of bleeding into the rectus sheath from damage to the superior or inferior epigastric artery or their branches or from a direct tear of the rectus muscle. It can mimic almost any abdominal condition (See Fig.) (See Table).

  7. Mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis in experimental rodent abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Indranil; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P; Hannawa, Kevin K; Henke, Peter K; Eagleton, Matthew J; Stanley, James C; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2005-10-01

    While extrinsic mechanisms of apoptosis in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are recognized, this project hypothesizes that an intrinsic, mitochondrial-dependent, mechanism of apoptosis also contributes to experimental AAA formation. Rat aortas were perfused with either saline or elastase (N = 5 per group) and harvested 7 days postperfusion. The aortas were placed in gluteraldehyde for subsequent transmission electron microscopy, Bouin's solution for TUNEL, or paraformaldehyde for immunohistochemical staining for caspase-9, caspase-3, and Bid. Abdominal aortic diameters increased 168 +/- 25% (mean +/- SEM) after elastase perfusion. compared with 30 +/- 5% after saline perfusion (P < .001). Apoptosis of aortic smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and neutrophils was evidenced by transmission electron microscopy and TUNEL in the elastase-perfused aneurysmal aortas. Quantitative analysis of the apoptotic cells revealed a significant (P < .01) increase in the number of total apoptotic cells in the elastase-perfused aortas (12 +/- 3 cells per high-power field), compared with that of saline-infused controls (1.3 +/- 0.2). Caspase-9, the key initiator in the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway, stained positively in only elastase-perfused aortas. Bid staining was not detected in either the elastase-perfused aortas or the saline controls. Apoptosis is evident in multiple cell lines in elastase-perfused aneurysmal aortas, but rarely observed in control aortas. Caspase-9, the key initiator of intrinsic apoptosis, was documented only in elastase-perfused aortas. These results suggest that mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.

  8. A user's guide to intra-abdominal pressure measurement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sugrue, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is a key to diagnosing and managing critically ill medical and surgical patients. There are an increasing number of techniques that allow us to measure the IAP at the bedside. This paper reviews these techniques. IAP should be measured at end-expiration, with the patient in the supine position and ensuring that there is no abdominal muscle activity. The intravesicular IAP measurement is convenient and considered the gold standard. The level where the mid-axillary line crosses the iliac crest is the recommended zero reference for the transvesicular IAP measurement; moreover, marking this level on the patient increases reproducibility. Protocols for IAP measurement should be developed for each ICU based on the locally available tools and equipment. IAP measurement techniques are safe, reproducible and accurate and do not increase the risk of urinary tract infection. Continuous IAP measurement may offer benefits in specific situations in the future. In conclusion, the IAP measurement is a reliable and essential adjunct to the management of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension.

  9. Abdominal actinomycosis: barium enema and computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, N; Ishikawa, T; Miyakawa, K; Iinuma, G; Nakajima, H; Ushio, K; Yokota, T; Akasu, T; Shimoda, T

    1997-02-01

    A case of abdominal actinomycosis is described in a woman with recurrent right lower abdominal pain and low-grade fever without history of appendectomy. Past history included the use of an intrauterine device (IUD) until 10 years before manifestation of these symptoms. We followed up the patient, via diagnostic imaging, for 7 months. On initial barium enema, a polypoid lesion was visualized at the bottom of the cecum and there was constriction of the sigmoid colon; the appendix was not seen. Seven months later, poor extension at the cecum, severe constriction in the sigmoid colon, and narrowing of the terminal ileum were also visualized. On computed tomography (CT), the lesion was initially localized only in the ileocecal region adjacent to the sigmoid colon. After 7 months, the lesion had infiltrated adjacent anatomic components and showed direct infiltration of the pelvic space. Differential diagnosis was difficult, as it was not obvious whether this was a pelvic abscess due to inflammation or appendiceal carcinoma. Laparotomy was performed. Macroscopically, the lesion was not limited to the ileocecal region, but involved the right ureter, tubes the Fallopian and ovary, bladder, psoas muscle, and abdominal wall. Pathology findings showed, chronic inflammatory tissue with evidence of actinomycosis. Although previous reports have described a lack of specific findings in this disease. When actinomycosis is suspected, CT is recommended to define its extent.

  10. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  11. Internal and external anatomy of the abdominal disc of Atelopus (Bufonidae larvae

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    Kaplan Moisés

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The abdominal disc of Atelopus tadpole is a complex structure, which includes three welldefined regions with several muscles and ligaments attached to its internal surface. It is hypothesized that the disc has two mechanisms of attachment to the substrate, namely, friction and suction. The size and insertion points of the muscles and ligaments of the disc suggests that the suction mechanism works passively, without the constant action of the muscles.El disco abdominal de Atelopus es una estructura compleja que presenta tres regiones bien definidas así como varios músculos y ligamentos incertados en su superficie interna. Aquí se plantea la hipótesis que el disco abdominal presenta dos mecanismos para fijarse al sustrato: fricción y succión. El tama o y las áreas de inserción de los músculos en el disco abdominal sugieren que el mecanismo de succión es pasivo, o sea, sin la acción constante de los músculos.

  12. Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations

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    Peskersoy Mustafa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs, the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs and factors that affect mortality. Methods Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first surgery received; durations and outcomes of UAR(s performed in patients who received early RLs because of complicated abdominal surgeries in our clinic between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004 were investigated retrospectively. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results Early UAR was performed in 81 out of 4410 cases (1.8%. Average patient age was 50.46 (13–81 years with a male-to-female ratio of 60/21. Fifty one (62.96% patients had infection, 41 (50.61% of them had an accompanying serious disease, 24 (29.62% of them had various tumors and 57 (70.37% patients were operated under emergency conditions during first operation. Causes of urgent abdominal re-explorations were as follows: leakage from intestinal repair site or from anostomosis (n:34; 41.97%; hemorrhage (n:15; 18.51%; intestinal perforation (n:8; 9.87%; intraabdominal infection or abscess (n:8; 9.87%; progressive intestinal necrosis (n:7; 8.64%; stomal complications (n:5; 6.17%; and postoperative ileus (n:4; 4.93%. Two or more UARs were performed in 18 (22.22% cases, and overall mortality was 34.97% (n:30. Interval between the first laparotomy and UAR averaged as 6.95 (1–20 days, and average hospitalization period was 27.1 (3–78 days. Mortality rate was found to be higher among the patients who received multiple UARs. The most common (55.5% cause of mortality was sepsis/multiple organ failure (MOF. The rates for common mortality and sepsis/MOF-dependent mortality that occured following UAR were

  13. Human skeletal muscle releases leptin in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Emil; Grøndahl, Thomas Sahl; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2012-01-01

    and adipose tissue leptin release in vivo. We recruited 16 healthy male human participants. Catheters were inserted into the femoral artery and vein draining skeletal muscle, as well as an epigastric vein draining the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. By combining the veno-arterial differences in plasma......Leptin is considered an adipokine, however, cultured myocytes have also been found to release leptin. Therefore, as proof-of-concept we investigated if human skeletal muscle synthesized leptin by measuring leptin in skeletal muscle biopsies. Following this, we quantified human skeletal muscle...... leptin with measurements of blood flow, leptin release from both tissues was quantified. To induce changes in leptin, the participants were infused with either saline or adrenaline in normo-physiological concentrations. The presence of leptin in skeletal muscle was confirmed by western blotting. Leptin...

  14. Abdominal lift for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-31

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared to pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using the Review Manager (RevMan) software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 130 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in five trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 53) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 52). One trial which included 25 people did not state the number of participants in each group. All five trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the participants in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (two trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per person) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per person); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0

  15. Overexpression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Restenotic Abdominal Aorta of Rabbits

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    尹瑞兴; 杨德寨; 吴海; 黄凯; 巫相宏; 陈宇明

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigatethe expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the wall of normal and restenotic abdominal aorta of rabbits. Methods Restenotic model was developed by balloon-injured abdominal aorta in eight male New Zealand White rabbits fed with a 2.0% cholesterol diet beginning two weeks before operation and continuing four weeks after procedure. At the end of 4 weeks after injury, the animals underwent total body perfusion fixation. Then, the abdominal aorta from iliac artery root to the diaphragm was harvested and post-fixed in 10 % neutral formalin for 16hours. Eight male animals fed with general diet were used for a normal control. The VEGF protein level in normal and restenotic abdominal aorta of rabbits was studied by means of immunohistochemistry. Results VEGF protein was detected in 5 (62.5 % ) of 8normal abdominal aorta, 3 showed faint staining, and the remaining 2 showed moderate VEGF expression.VEGF expression at the protein level was identified in all 8 restenotic specimens, 2 showed faint staining, 4showed moderate staining, and the remaining 2showed strong VEGF expression. In contrast to normal vessels, VEGF in restenotic specimens was distinctly expressed at sites that contained clustered macrophages and proliferating smooth muscle cells as well as endothelial cells. VEGF immunostaining was more extensive in restenotic specimens (2. 00 ± 0.76)than in normal vessels (0.82 ±0. 83, P < 0.01) .Microvessels were found in 7 of the 8 restenotic lesions, but only one lesion showed VEGF staining in endothelial cells of the microvessels. Conclusion VEGF expression is consistently more intense in sections of restenotic abdominal aorta than in those of normal abdominal aorta. The VEGF expressed by the smooth muscle cells and foamy macrophages in the restenotic arteries may act as a local and endogenous regulator of endothelial cell functions, including maintenance and repair of luminal endothelium, and formation of intimal

  16. Treatment of Abdominal Segmental Hernia, Constipation, and Pain Following Herpes Zoster with Paravertebral Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Saeyoung; Jeon, Younghoon

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) most commonly occurs in elderly patients and involves sensory neurons resulting in pain and sensory changes. Clinically significant motor deficits and visceral neuropathies are thought to be relatively rare. A 72-year-old man presented with abdominal segmental hernia, constipation, and pain following HZ in the left T9-10 dermatome. Sixteen days before presentation, he had developed a painful herpetic rash in the left upper abdominal quadrant. Approximately 10 days after the onset of the rash, constipation occurred and was managed with daily oral medication with bisacodyl 5 mg. In addition, 14 days after the onset of HZ, the patient noticed a protrusion of the left upper abdominal wall. Abdominal x-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen, and electrolyte analysis showed no abnormalities. General physical examination revealed a reducible bulge in his left upper quadrant and superficial abdominal reflexes were diminished in the affected region. Electromyographic testing revealed denervational changes limited to the left thoracic paraspinal muscles and supraumbilical muscles, corresponding to the affected dermatomes. He was prescribed with 500 mg of famciclovir 3 times a day for 7 days, and pregabalin 75 mg twice a day and acetaminophen 650 mg 3 times a day for 14 days. However, his pain was rated at an intensity of 5 on the numerical analogue scale from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). A paravertebral block was performed at T9-10 with a mixture of 0.5% lidocaine 3 mL and triamcinolone 40 mg. One day after the procedure, the abdominal pain disappeared. In addition, 5 days after the intervention, the abdominal protrusion and constipation were resolved. He currently remains symptom free at a 6 month follow-up.

  17. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

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    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIf a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.MethodsFrom 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.ResultsUpon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.ConclusionsUsing a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  18. Abdominal compliance, parasternal activation, and chest wall motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cala, S J; Edyvean, J; Engel, L A

    1993-03-01

    We measured abdominal compliance (Cab) and rib cage displacement (delta Vrc) relative to abdominal displacement (delta Vab) during relaxation and tidal breathing in upright (U) and supine (S) postures in five normal subjects. In S, an abdominal binder was used to decrease Cab in two to five increments. We also measured the electrical activity of the parasternal muscle (EMGps) with the use of fine-wire intramuscular electrodes during CO2 rebreathing in U and in supine unbound (SU) and supine bound (SB) postures. During maximum binding (SB2), Cab decreased to 39 +/- 7% of the SU value (P = 0.01), matching Cab in U (P = 0.16). In the SB condition, the ratio of tidal delta Vrc/delta Vab to relaxation delta Vrc/delta Vab increased as Cab decreased, matching the data in U. For the group, this ratio decreased during SU to 47 +/- 10% (P = 0.02) but increased during SB2 to 86 +/- 7% (P = 0.18) of the value in U. During CO2 rebreathing, EMGps increased linearly with tidal volume (r > 0.727, P < 0.01). However, at any given tidal volume, the SU and SB2 EMGps were not significantly different (P = 0.12), and both were less than that in U (P < 0.02). The results suggest that the differences in chest wall motion between U and S may be due to the difference in Cab and not to different patterns of respiratory muscle recruitment. The mechanism may relate to changes in mechanical coupling between the diaphragm and the rib cage.

  19. Staged abdominal closure with intramuscular tissue expanders and modified components separation technique of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele

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    Yukihiro Tatekawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with omphalocele, several different techniques are performed for repair of the abdominal wall defect. We present the case of a staged abdominal closure of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele. At birth, skin flap coverage associated with silo formation occurred, but the abdominal wall defect remained, resulting in a giant abdominal hernia. To expand the layers of the abdominal wall, tissue expanders were placed between the bilateral internal oblique and transverses abdominis muscles. Postoperatively, a modified components separation technique was performed. The abdominal wall was closed in the midline. Upon closure of the skin in the midline, bilateral relaxing incisions were performed, covering the remaining defect with artificial dermis. At the age of one year and 7 months, the patient had no recurrent incisional hernia nor any wound complications.

  20. Increased fatigue resistance of respiratory muscles during exercise after respiratory muscle endurance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verges, Samuel; Lenherr, Oliver; Haner, Andrea C; Schulz, Christian; Spengler, Christina M

    2007-03-01

    Respiratory muscle fatigue develops during exhaustive exercise and can limit exercise performance. Respiratory muscle training, in turn, can increase exercise performance. We investigated whether respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT) reduces exercise-induced inspiratory and expiratory muscle fatigue. Twenty-one healthy, male volunteers performed twenty 30-min sessions of either normocapnic hyperpnoea (n = 13) or sham training (CON, n = 8) over 4-5 wk. Before and after training, subjects performed a constant-load cycling test at 85% maximal power output to exhaustion (PRE(EXH), POST(EXH)). A further posttraining test was stopped at the pretraining duration (POST(ISO)) i.e., isotime. Before and after cycling, transdiaphragmatic pressure was measured during cervical magnetic stimulation to assess diaphragm contractility, and gastric pressure was measured during thoracic magnetic stimulation to assess abdominal muscle contractility. Overall, RMT did not reduce respiratory muscle fatigue. However, in subjects who developed >10% of diaphragm or abdominal muscle fatigue in PRE(EXH), fatigue was significantly reduced after RMT in POST(ISO) (inspiratory: -17 +/- 6% vs. -9 +/- 10%, P = 0.038, n = 9; abdominal: -19 +/- 10% vs. -11 +/- 11%, P = 0.038, n = 9), while sham training had no significant effect. Similarly, cycling endurance in POST(EXH) did not improve after RMT (P = 0.071), while a significant improvement was seen in the subgroup with >10% of diaphragm fatigue after PRE(EXH) (P = 0.017), but not in the sham training group (P = 0.674). However, changes in cycling endurance did not correlate with changes in respiratory muscle fatigue. In conclusion, RMT decreased the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during intensive exercise, but this change did not seem to improve cycling endurance.

  1. Respiratory muscle activity during asphyxic apnoea and opisthotonus in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, P J; Macefield, G; Nail, B S

    1986-09-01

    The behaviour of submandibular, cervical, thoracic and abdominal respiratory muscles was examined in the pentobarbitone-urethane-anaesthetized rabbit during progressive asphyxia induced by rebreathing. During asphyxic hyperpnoea the external intercostal, interchondral and scalene inspiratory activities augmented until succeeded by the apnoeic period, in which all were inhibited with the diaphragm. Likewise, the genioglossus, sternohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles exhibited inspiratory augmentation during asphyxic hyperpnoea until the onset of apnoeic inhibition. However, late in the apnoea these muscles, together with the sternothyroid, sternomastoid and digastric muscles, generated an augmenting tonic discharge associated with an intense abdominal constriction, and with the extension of the limbs characteristic of opisthotonus. This intense tonic activity, which was never expressed by the diaphragm and thoracic inspiratory muscles, was immediately interrupted or terminated by the subsequent inspiratory efforts of gasping respiration, during which the abdominal muscles were inhibited but all the submandibular, cervical and thoracic inspiratory muscles greatly participated. The mylohyoid muscles presented augmenting expiratory activity during asphyxic hyperpnoea which declined during the apnoea. These muscles, however, did not exhibit the intense tonic discharge expressed by the expiratory abdominal and inspiratory submandibular and cervical muscles in late apnoea and were not active in gasping.

  2. Obesidad mórbida: caso excepcional de reconstrucción de pared abdominal Morbid obesity: an exceptional patient. Apronectomy and new abdominal wall reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Gabilondo Zubizarreta

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una nueva técnica para la reconstrucción de la pared abdominal, con material sintético en una paciente que padeciendo un cuadro de obesidad mórbida sin cirugía ni traumatismo previo, sufre una diástasis de músculos rectos de su pared abdominal por la que se produce una evisceración intestinal que al alojarse en el faldón abdominal y añadirse un proceso de acumulación de líquidos en el intersticio semejante al linfedema, supuso como tratamiento una resección superior a los 60 Kg. entre sólidos y líquidos y una estrategia y técnica nuevas de reconstrucción del defecto de la pared abdominal.The aim of this work is to show a new technique for reconstruction of the abdominal wall with synthetic matherial in a patient with morbid obesity. The disease has no relation with antecedents of previous surgery or trauma and is asociated with a dyasthasis of the rectus abdomini muscles which has conditionated a intestinal evisceration.This evisceration is accommodated in the abdominal apron and is associated with a great accumulation of fluid (liquid in the interstitium, which seems a linphedema. Taking account the combination of liquid and soft tissues the resection is larger than 60 Kg. and this has forced us to develop new strategies for the menagement of the patient and techniques for the reconstruction of the abdominal wall defect.

  3. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Interesting aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rubio Silveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of the abdominal compartiment syndrome is still a controversial point nowadays. Its early diagnosis and treatment constitute a challenge for surgeons and physicians at the intensive care unit who have to face these cases . The physiopathologic changes that can occur can lead to the patients death, constituting pulmonary thromboembolism and multiorgan failure the principal causes of death. This paper presents the principal clinical parameters and technical procedures for its diagnosis and treatment with the aim of diminishing its morbi-mortality raits in our hospitals

  4. Peritoneoscopy of the liver after abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi,Kenji

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of intraperitoneal adhesion after abdominal surgery was studied. Peritoneoscopy was performed in 933 patients with liver diseases over the 6 year 5 month period from March 1974 to July 1980. Of the patients, 352 (37.7% had undergone an abdominal operation, and intraperitoneal adhesion was detected in 205 (58.2% of these patients. The liver was not observable in 5 out of 61 patients with adhesions after upper abdominal operations. Whereas, the liver was clearly observable in patients with lower abdominal operations in spite of adhesions. Out of the 581 patients without any abdominal operations, 30 patients (5.2% had adhesions in the abdominal cavity, and 6 of them had extensive adhesions that partially obscured the observation of liver surface. In all patients, peritoneoscopy was performed without complications by avoiding the surgical scar for puncture sites and ensuring a free air lumen before trocar puncture.

  5. Clinical profile of abdominal tuberculosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Shah; Ramya Uppuluri

    2010-01-01

    Aim: A retrospective study was conducted in children, suffering from abdominal TB, attending Pediatric TB clinic from 2007 to 2009. Materials And Methods: Age-wise distribution and type of abdominal TB were analyzed with clinical features. Results : Out of 285 children with TB, 32 (11.2%) had abdominal tuberculosis. Male: Female ratio was 2.1:1. 7 (21.9%) children were 10 years of age. The most comm...

  6. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  7. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome due to OHSS

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    Firoozeh Veisi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome is a dangerous clinical situation, usually following abdominal injuries&operations. It is seldom observed in patients with gynecologic and obstetric problems. Abdominalcompartment syndrome may be consequence ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A 28-year-old womanpresented as a sever ovarian hyperstimulation.The increased IAP indicated that OHSS may beconsidered a compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome needs laparotomy orparacentesis for reduction of pressure.

  8. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Phillip D; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    With an aging population, emergency department clinicians can expect an increase in geriatric patients presenting with abdominal pain. Compared with younger patients, this patient population is less likely to present with classic symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory values of abdominal disease. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with elderly patients presenting with abdominal pathologic conditions are significant. For this reason, the clinician must be familiar with some subtle and not so subtle differences when caring for the geriatric patient with abdominal pain to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  9. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

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    Scicchitano B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome", and "functional gastrointestinal disorder". In the early literature, abdominal migraine is included in the "childhood periodic syndrome", first described by Wyllie and Schlesinger in 1933. Abdominal migraine has emerged over the last century as a diagnostic entity in its own right thanks to the development of well defined diagnostic criteria and its recent inclusion in the International Headache Society's Classification of Headache disorders. Despite this progress, little is known about the pathophysiology of the condition, and the treatment options are poorly defined. Here we summarize the recent literature, with particular focus on establishing the diagnosis of abdominal migraine and its pathophysiology, and suggest an approach to management. Keywords: abdominal migraine, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal epilepsy, cyclical vomiting

  10. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  11. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squillaci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Crecco, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Grandinetti, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Maspes, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Lo Presti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Squillaci, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy)

    1994-10-01

    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  12. Anterior Abdominal Wall Leiomyoma Arising De Novo in a Perimenopausal Woman

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    Hamed A. Al-Wadaani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine or extraintestinal leiomyomas are extremely uncommon especially in the pre-peritoneal area or within the anterior abdominal wall muscles. These tumors have been ascribed to intraoperative seeding during resection of a fibroid or a leiomyoma of gut, to exogenous hormone replacement therapy or a major derangement of glucose and/or lipid metabolism. So far, there is no published report of de novo origin of anterior abdominal wall pure leiomyoma in the literature. The author herein reports a case of perimenopausal multiparous woman without any listing of previous gynecological surgery or hormone therapy who presented with a large pre-peritoneal intramuscular leiomyoma of the anterior abdominal wall. The patient underwent complete primary resection with amelioration of her symptoms.

  13. [Use of nickel-titanium alloys in plasty of the anterior abdominal wall].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronskiĭ, G I; Zotov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The work presents results of the surgical treatment of postoperative hernias of the abdominal wall using explants of titanium nickelide in 48 patients. Data of biopsy of the anterior abdominal wall muscles in these patients are given. The anatomo-morphological and functional incompetence is shown. A method of preparing the patients with giant hernias to operation with the help of dynamic pneumocompression is described. The indications to using the explants in hernioplasty are determined by the methods of somatometry and intraoperative dynamometry. The data of three methods of combined hernioplasty are presented: with the use of a superelastic network from a nickelide-titanium alloy; explant with tractional properties, effect of the "shape memory"; method of extracorporeal extension of the abdominal wall at the postoperative period. The nearest and long-term results followed-up during 3 years are shown.

  14. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

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    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, antibioticoterapia, esquema de lavagens, tempo de peritoneostomia, complicações e desfecho. Estudamos 12 pacientes, com idade de 15 a 57, média de 39,3 anos. Diagnóstico primário: abdome agudo inflamatório em 6(50%, abdome agudo obstrutivo em 2(16,7%, abdome agudo perfurativo em 2(16,7%, fístula enterocutânea em 1(8,3% e abscesso intra-cavitário em 1(8,3%. Diagnóstico secundário: perfuração de cólon em 4(33,3%, abscessos intra-cavitários em 3(25%, deiscências de anastomoses em 3(25%, 1(8,3% com tumor perfurado de sigmóide e 1(8,3% com necrose de cólon abaixado. Peritonite fecal em 10(83,3% e purulenta em 2(16,7%. A antibioticoterapia teve duração média de 19 dias. Lavagens de demanda em 6(50%, programadas em 4(33,3% e regime misto em 2(16,7%. O tempo médio de peritoneostomia foi de 10,9 dias (1-36. Como complicações: evisceração em 2(16,7% e fistulização em 1(8,3%. Quatro pacientes evoluíram com óbito.Among the therapeutics approach form of abdominal sepsis, the laparostomy has a decisive role allowing cavity explorations and lavages in an easier way. We study patients with abdominal sepsis diagnoses admitted to our surgical service of Coloproctology form Sergipe´s Federal University Hospital who underwent a Bogotá Bag laparostomy associated or not with polypropylene mesh from January 2004 to January 2006. These patients were assessed as: first and second diagnosis; secondary peritonitis type; antibiotic

  15. Mesh repair of hernias of the abdominal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. Vrijland (Wietske)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA hernia of the abdominal wall is a permanent or intermittent protrusion of abdominal contents outside the abdominal cavity through a defect in the abdominal wall. Approximately 75% of all hernias occur in the inguinal region. Other types of hernias of the ventral abdominal wall are inci

  16. Mesh repair of hernias of the abdominal wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. Vrijland (Wietske)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA hernia of the abdominal wall is a permanent or intermittent protrusion of abdominal contents outside the abdominal cavity through a defect in the abdominal wall. Approximately 75% of all hernias occur in the inguinal region. Other types of hernias of the ventral abdominal wall are inci

  17. Unexplained lower abdominal pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man presented with chronic lower back pain and unexplained lower abdominal pain. Both patients had groin tenderness at the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine. The results of radiographical and physical examinations suggested sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint injection relieved their symptoms, including groin tenderness. In our experience, groin tenderness is highly specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We speculate that spasm of the iliac muscle can cause groin pain and tenderness. Groin pain and a history of unexplained abdominal pain, with lower back pain, are symptoms that suggest sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Additionally, compression of the iliac muscle is a simple and useful maneuver; therefore, it can be used as a screening test for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, alongside other provocation tests.

  18. Appearance of abdominal wall endometriosis on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busard, Milou P.H.; Kuijk, Cees van; Waesberghe, Jan Hein T.M. van [VU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Endometriosis Center VUMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijatovic, Velja; Hompes, Peter G.A. [VU Medical Center, Department of Gynecology, Endometriosis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is defined as endometrial tissue that is superficial to the peritoneum. AWE is often difficult to diagnose, mimicking a broad spectrum of diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the appearance of AWE on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present ten patients with AWE (12 lesions) in which MR imaging was used for diagnosis. MR imaging included T2-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging with fat suppression. To assess the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in endometriosis, four patients underwent additional DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated using b values of 50, 400, 800 and 1,200 s/mm{sup 2}. In most cases, the lesion was located ventral or dorsal to the aponeurosis of the rectus oblique muscle (n=6) or in the rectus abdominis (n = 5). MR of AWE lesions showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T2-weighted images and showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T1-weighted images with foci of high signal intensity, indicative of haemorrhage. The mean ADC value of AWE was 0.93 x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s. MR imaging seems to be useful in determining the location and depth of infiltration in surrounding tissue preoperatively. (orig.)

  19. Three dimensional musculoskeletal modelling of the abdominal crunch resistance training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Kim; Krüger, Pieter E; Els, P Schalk; Nolte, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefits and limitations of using three dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal modelling (LifeModeler) in assessing the safety and efficacy of exercising on an abdominal crunch resistance training machine. Three anthropometric cases were studied, representing a 5th percentile female, and 50th percentile and 95th percentile male. Results indicated that the LifeModeler default model was capable of solving the forward dynamics simulations without adjustments. The modelling was able to indicate high risk for back injury when performing the abdominal crunch exercise as a result of the unacceptable intervertebral joint loading that occurs during the exercise. Individuals with small anthropometric dimensions such as some females and children cannot be accommodated suitably on the abdominal crunch machine which negatively impacts exercise posture and technique. Hip flexor muscle contribution in the execution of the exercise for the 5th percentile female was substantial thus reducing the efficacy of the exercise in isolating the abdominal muscles.

  20. Vertebral Bone Erosions Due to Aortic Abdominal Aneurysm: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Hossin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nOsteolytic aortic abdominal aneurysm has rarely been reported as the cause of spinal lesions. Patients presenting with pain secondary to an abdominal aortic aneurysm demands prompt attention. Such cases could be encountered in a neurosurgical field such as a lumbar disc disease, spondylosis, or a cauda equina tumor. "nWe represent a 65-year-old male who was referred by a neurosurgeon for lumbosacral MRI due to new onset low back pain since a week ago with extension of the radiculer pain to the left lower extremity. MRI revealed erosions on the left anterior border with sclerotic changes in the body of L4 and the left psoas muscle appeared wider than the right psoas muscle with a non homogeneous signal intensity. Follow-up multi slice CT revealed a 6.5 cm diameter saccular abdominal aortic aneurysm 5.5 cm beneath the origin of the left renal artery and just before the bifurcation of the abdominal aorta with aortic wall calcifications and a large retroperitoneal hematoma.  

  1. Thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm branched repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, E. L. G.; Tielliu, I. F. J.; Ferreira, M.; Zipfel, B.; Adam, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Open thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is a demanding procedure with high impact on the patient and the operating team. Results from expert centres show mortality rates between 3-21%, with extensive morbidity including renal failure and paraplegia. Endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneu

  2. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil...

  3. Well Leg Compartment Syndrome After Abdominal Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Jens Krogh; Hove, Lars Dahlgaard; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Well leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is a complication to abdominal surgery. We aimed to identify risk factors for and outcome of WLCS in Denmark and literature. METHODS: Prospectively collected claims to the Danish Patient Compensation Association (DPCA) concerning WLCS after abdominal...

  4. Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Abdominal Pain (Stomach Pain), Short-termJust about everyone has had a " ... time or another. But sudden severe abdominal pain (stomach pain), also called acute pain, shouldn't be ...

  5. ABDOMINAL WALL DESMOID TUMOUR OVER APPENDICECTOMY SCAR

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaya; Sarbeshwar; Gogoi

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desmoid tumors are slow growing deep fibromatoses with aggressive infiltration of adjacent tissue but without any metastatic potential . (1,2,3) CASE PRESENTATION: We report a female patient with desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall over appendicectomy scar w ho underwent primary resection. Preoperative evaluation incl uded abdominal ultrasound, and computed tomography. The histology of this cases revealed a desmoid tumor. CONCLUSION: ...

  6. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...... pathway at the Digestive Disease Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, and compared to a control group of 16 patients included retrospectively in the period immediately prior to the implementation of the pathway. The enhanced recovery after surgery pathway included preoperative high-dose steroid, daily assessment...... of revised discharge criteria and an aggressive approach to restore bowel function (chewing gum and enema on postoperative day two). Patients who followed the enhanced recovery after surgery pathway reported low scores of pain, nausea and fatigue, and were discharged significantly faster than patients...

  7. Abdominal obesity has the highest impact on metabolic profile in an overweight African population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, L. N.; Witte, D. R.; Mwaniki, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    ), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, arm fat area and arm muscle area) separately as independent variables were carried out. Results: Mean age of study participants was 42.1 years (SD = 9.6) and 26.5% of the participants were men. The median BMI was 28.6 kg/m2 (Q1 = 26.3; Q3 = 31.3). Of the six...

  8. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Pulmonary complications of abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panitch, Howard B

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal wall is an integral component of the chest wall. Defects in the ventral abdominal wall alter respiratory mechanics and can impair diaphragm function. Congenital abdominal wall defects also are associated with abnormalities in lung growth and development that lead to pulmonary hypoplasia, pulmonary hypertension, and alterations in thoracic cage formation. Although infants with ventral abdominal wall defects can experience life-threatening pulmonary complications, older children typically experience a more benign respiratory course. Studies of lung and chest wall function in older children and adolescents with congenital abdominal wall defects are few; such investigations could provide strategies for improved respiratory performance, avoidance of respiratory morbidity, and enhanced exercise ability for these children.

  10. Acute spontaneous isolated dissection of abdominal aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar beigi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    • Aortic dissection occurs when the layers of the aorta separate as a result of extra luminal cavity of blood through an intimal tear. Dissection limited to the abdominal aorta is rare. Unfortunately, the appropriate management of dissecting aneurysm of abdominal aorta is not documented yet. A 43 years old man was admitted to Al-zahra hospital in Isfahan with sudden onset of periumbilical abdominal pain. CT scan confirmed infrarenal dissection of abdominal aorta. Performing laparotomy, aorta was repaired using bifurcate collagen-coated Dacron graft. Surgical intervention with synthetic graft is recommended in patients with dissecting aortic aneurysm of infrarenal segments where the extent of dissection is limited and accessible.
    • Keywords: Aneurysm, Aortic dissection, Aortic aneurysm abdominal surgery.

  11. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...

  12. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Petracci; Claudio Cavani

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growin...

  13. Abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Strandberg, C; Pærregaard, Anders;

    1997-01-01

    We report on our experience with routine abdominal ultrasonography in 120 children (aged 3-15 years) with recurrent abdominal pain, in order to determine the diagnostic value of this investigation. Eight children (7%) revealed sonographic abnormalities: gallbladder stone (n = 2), splenomegaly (n...... = 1) and urogenital abnormalities (n = 5). The recurrent abdominal pain could be explained by these findings in only two (may be three) cases. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of abdominal ultrasonography in unselected children with recurrent abdominal pain is low. However, the direct visualization...... of the abdominal structures as being normal may be helpful to the parents and the child in their understanding and acceptance of the benign nature of recurrent abdominal pain....

  14. Active and passive behaviors of soft tissues: Pelvic floor muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Areias, P.; Pato, M. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new active-contraction visco-elastic numerical model of the pelvic floor (skeletal) muscle is presented. Our model includes all elements that represent the muscle constitutive behavior, contraction and relaxation. In contrast with the previous models, the activation function can be null. The complete equations are shown and exactly linearized. Small verification and validation tests are performed and the pelvis is modeled using the data from the intra-abdominal pressure tests.

  15. Immediate effects of co-contraction training on motor control of the trunk muscles in people with recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leanne; Tsao, Henry; MacDonald, David; Coppieters, Michel; Hodges, Paul W

    2009-10-01

    Although deficits in the activation of abdominal muscles are present in people with low back pain (LBP), this can be modified with motor training. Training of deep abdominal muscles in isolation from the other trunk muscles, as an initial phase of training, has been shown to improve the timing of activation of the trained muscles, and reduce symptoms and recurrence of LBP. The aim of this study was to determine if training of the trunk muscles in a non-isolated manner can restore motor control of these muscles in people with LBP. Ten subjects with non-specific LBP performed a single session of training that involved three tasks: "abdominal curl up", "side bridge" and "birdog". Electromyographic activity (EMG) of trunk and deltoid muscles was recorded with fine-wire and surface electrodes during rapid arm movements and walking, before and immediately following the intervention. Onset of trunk muscle EMG relative to that of the prime mover (deltoid) during arm movements and the mean, standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation of abdominal muscle EMG during walking were calculated. There was no significant change in the times of onset of trunk muscle EMG during arm movements nor was there any change in the variability of EMG of the abdominal muscles during walking. However, the mean amplitude and SD of abdominal EMG was reduced during walking after training. The results of this study suggest that unlike isolated voluntary training, co-contraction training of the trunk muscles does not restore the motor control of the deep abdominal muscles in people with LBP after a single session of training.

  16. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Causes of muscle pain include stress, physical activity, infections, hyper or .... Acupuncture. It is a traditional Chinese-based therapeutic method which ..... and Spinal Mechanisms of Pain and Dry Needling Mediated Analgesia: A Clinical.

  17. The Effect of Postoperative Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment on Intra-Abdominal Adhesions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chiang Hsu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal adhesions, whether caused by peritoneal trauma, radiation, infection, or a congenital condition, are associated with a wide range of complications. These complications include chronic abdominal or pelvic pain, infertility, and adhesive small bowel obstruction. Such adhesions render re-operation difficult, with attendant risks of inadvertent enterostomy and increased operation time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy in the prevention of abdominal adhesions in an experimental animal study. A laparotomy was performed on Wistar rats to induce the formation of adhesions on the cecum and the intra-abdominal area (1 ´ 2 cm. A superficial layer of the underlying muscle from the right abdominal wall was also shaved and prepared for aseptic surgery. The rats were divided into four groups according to the duration of HBO therapy; five additional groups were designated according to the conditions of HBO therapy. When the rats were evaluated according to adhesion area and grade, a statistically significant difference was observed between the control and HBO treatment groups (p < 0.005. Results from this study suggest that HBO treatment could reduce adhesion formation; and further suggest that HBO therapy may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postoperative peritoneal adhesion.

  18. Mesh repair of hernias of the abdominal wall

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA hernia of the abdominal wall is a permanent or intermittent protrusion of abdominal contents outside the abdominal cavity through a defect in the abdominal wall. Approximately 75% of all hernias occur in the inguinal region. Other types of hernias of the ventral abdominal wall are incisional, umbilical, epigastric and Spigelian hernia. In chapter 1 an overview of hernias of the abdominal wall is described. The incidence, clinical implications and treatment options and their comp...

  19. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Hui Dong; Wen-Yan Liu; Hai-Bo Feng; Yi-Li Fu; Shi Huang; Jun-Xi Xiang; Yi Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI),relying on magnetic force,can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity.Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT) deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI.The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT,and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT,resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI.Methods:For MASI,ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment.We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans.We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT.Results:Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3) is the thickest during chosen points.Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness."BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane,and the expression was as follow:f(x) =P1 × x2 + P2 x x + P3,where P1 =0.03916 (0.01776,0.06056),P2 =1.098 (0.03197,2.164),P3 =-18.52 (-31.64,-5.412),R-square:0.99.Conclusions:Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT.BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT.In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve,we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI,resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  20. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI, relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3 is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. "BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x = P1 × x 2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056, P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164, P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412, R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  1. Transplantation and Perfusion of Microvascular Fragments in a Rodent Model of Volumetric Muscle Loss Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    options are available for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML). An important consideration that needs to be addressed for the development ...fibroblasts that underwent vascular and myogenic development in vitro resulted in substantial tissue perfusion when implanted in an abdominal defect...Greene AS (2000) Development of an implantable muscle stimulator: measurement of stimulated angiogenesis and poststimulus vessel regression

  2. Absence of muscle regeneration after implantation of a collagen matrix seeded with myoblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, PB; Brouwer, LA; van Luyn, MJA

    1999-01-01

    Collagens are widely used as biomaterials for e.g. soft tissue reconstruction. The present study was aimed at reconstruction of abdominal wall muscle using processed dermal sheep collagen (DSC) and myoblast seeding. Myoblasts were harvested from foetal quadriceps muscle of an inbred rat strain, cult

  3. Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

    2013-03-01

    The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility.

  4. Transforming growth factor-β and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yutang; Krishna, Smriti; Walker, Philip J; Norman, Paul; Golledge, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are common problems in aged people which can be associated with severe complications including aortic rupture and death. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) has been implicated as causative in the development of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs). In contrast, current evidence suggests TGFβ inhibits AAA development. Polymorphisms in the TGFβ signaling components are associated with AAA in some human population studies. In experimental animals TGFβ protects against AAA formation, progression and rupture. In animal models of AAA TGFβ decreases aortic inflammatory cell infiltration, extracellular matrix degradation, and vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, all factors implicated in AAA pathogenesis. The TGFβ signaling pathway may provide a therapeutic target for AAA although better clarity is needed regarding the distinct roles of TGFβ in TAA and AAA.

  5. A contained ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting with vertebral erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqi; Li, Lei; Zhang, Dongming; Wang, Xiaomei; Sun, Weidong; Wang, Han

    2017-02-24

    Chronic contained rupture (CCR) of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with vertebral erosion is a rare condition. Although it has been reported previously, it is still liable to be misdiagnosed. We present a case of CCR of AAA with vertebral erosion. A brief analysis of similar cases reported in the last five years is presented. A 71-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of severe prickling pain in his left thigh. Computerized tomography angiography revealed an AAA which had caused erosion of L3 vertebral body and the left psoas muscle. An aortotomy was performed and the excised aortic aneurysm replaced with a Dacron graft. Postoperative CT angiography indicated a normal aortic graft. The patient was discharged 13 days after the surgery.

  6. Adventitial vasa vasorum arteriosclerosis in abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Tanaka

    Full Text Available Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.

  7. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Combined with a Sodium Hyaluronate Gel Inhibits Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbing Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion is a very common complication after abdominal surgery. One clinical problem that remains to be solved is to identify an ideal strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF has been proven to improve the proliferation of mesothelial cells, which may enhance fibrinolytic activity to suppress postoperative adhesions. This study investigated whether the combined administration of KGF and a sodium hyaluronate (HA gel can prevent intra-abdominal adhesions by improving the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. The possible prevention mechanism was also explored. The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded after laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Animals were randomly allocated to receive topical application of HA, KGF, KGF + HA, or normal saline (Control. On postoperative day 7, the adhesion score was assessed with a visual scoring system. Masson’s trichrome staining, picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assays were used to assess the magnitude of adhesion and tissue fibrosis. Cytokeratin, a marker of the mesothelial cells, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of the TGF-β1, fibrinogen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA proteins in the rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. The combined administration of KGF and HA significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition and improved the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells in the rat model. Furthermore, the combined administration of KGF and HA significantly increased the tPA levels but reduced the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid. The

  8. Quantitative evaluation of tissue reconfigurations after the plastic reconstruction of experimental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkov I.I.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The active retrieval of methods for the increase of the efficiency of ventral hernia alloplasty is performed now; however the structural-functional changes of scar and muscle tissues during their reorganization are still little studied. The analysis of relationship of connective tissue with the hemomicrocirculation elements plays the important role for the understanding of the structural-functional condition of the anterior abdominal wall and also concrete mechanisms of reorganization of microvessels taking into account the dynamics of muscle-aponeurotic structures reconfiguration. The purpose of the current study was to determine the dynamics of structural-functional reconfiguration of microcircular and muscle-aponeurotic components, as well as connective tissue in the anterior abdominal wall after alloplasty of experimental ventral defect with the polypropylene monofilament net "Prolene". The quantitative morphological analysis was carried out during 1 year. The analysis of scar tissue formation and muscles reconfiguration in the anterior abdominal wall after plastic reconstruction of experimental defect allowed to reveal that the presence of polypropylene prosthetic device increases the duration of early inflammatory processes in a moderate degree, providing, however, adequate and full structural reconfiguration of scar and muscle tissue in the future, including microcirculation components.

  9. Mechanical tension and spontaneous muscle twitching precede the formation of cross-striated muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitkunat, Manuela; Lindauer, Martina; Bausch, Andreas; Schnorrer, Frank

    2017-02-07

    Muscle forces are produced by repetitive stereotyped acto-myosin units called sarcomeres. Sarcomeres are chained into linear myofibrils spanning the entire muscle fiber. In mammalian body muscles, myofibrils are aligned laterally resulting in their typical cross-striated morphology. Despite this detailed textbook knowledge about the adult muscle structure, it is still unclear how cross-striated myofibrils are built in vivo Here, we investigate the morphogenesis of Drosophila abdominal muscles and establish them as in vivo model for cross-striated muscle development. Using live imaging, we find that long immature myofibrils lacking a periodic acto-myosin pattern are built simultaneously in the entire muscle fiber and then align laterally to mature cross-striated myofibrils. Interestingly, laser micro-lesion experiments demonstrate that mechanical tension precedes the formation of the immature myofibrils. Moreover, these immature myofibrils do generate spontaneous Ca(2+) dependent contractions in vivo, which when chemically blocked result in cross-striation defects. Together, these results suggest a myofibrillogenesis model, in which mechanical tension and spontaneous muscle twitchings synchronise the simultaneous self-organisation of different sarcomeric protein complexes to build highly regular cross-striated myofibrils spanning throughout large muscle fibers.

  10. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  11. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    the basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection...... of ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain......-gauge plethysmography was used to measure the adipose tissue and forearm blood flow, respectively. Ultrasound signal intensity of the first plateau phases was 27 ± dB in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and 18 ± 2 dB (P muscle. The reproducibility of the measurements was good...

  12. The ‘abdominal circulatory pump’: an auxiliary heart during exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eUva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its role as a flow generator for ventilation the diaphragm has a circulatory role. The cyclical abdominal pressure variations from its contractions cause swings in venous return from the splanchnic venous circulation. During exercise the action of the abdominal muscles may enhance this circulatory function of the diaphragm. Eleven healthy subjects (25±7yr, 70±11kg, 1.78±0.1m, 3F performed plantar flexion exercise at ∼4 METs. Changes in body volume (ΔVb and trunk volume (ΔVtr were measured simultaneously by double body plethysmography. Volume of blood shifts between trunk and extremities (Vbs was determined non-invasively as ΔVtr-ΔVb. Three types of breathing were studied: spontaneous (SE, rib cage (RCE, voluntary emphasized inspiratory rib cage breathing and abdominal (ABE, voluntary active abdominal expiration breathing.. During SE and RCE blood was displaced from the extremities into the trunk (on average 0.16± 0.33L and 0.48±0.55L, p<0.05 SE vs RCE, while during ABE it was displaced from the trunk to the extremities (0.22±0.20L p<0.001, p<0.05 RCE and SE vs ABE respectively. At baseline, Vbs swings (maximum to minimum amplitude were bimodal and averaged 0.13±0.08L. During exercise, Vbs swings consistently increased (0.42±0.34L, 0.40±0.26L, 0.46±0.21L, for SE, RCE and ABE respectively, all p<0.01 vs. baseline. It follows that during leg exercise significant bi-directional blood shifting occurs between the trunk and the extremities. The dynamics and partitioning of these blood shifts strongly depend on the relative predominance of the action of the diaphragm, the rib cage and the abdominal muscles. Depending on the partitioning between respiratory muscles for the act of breathing, the distribution of blood between trunk and extremities can vary by up to 1 L. We conclude that during exercise the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm might play a role of an ‘auxiliary heart’.

  13. Management of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of developing of intra abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS). Aim: This review seeks to define IAH and ACS, identify the aetiology and presentation of IAH and ACS, identify IAP measurement techniques, identify current management and discuss the implications of IAH and ACS for nursing practice. A search of the electronic databases was supervised by a health librarian. The electronic data bases Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL); Medline, EMBASE, and the World Wide Web was undertaken from 1996- January 2011 using MeSH and key words which included but not limited to: abdominal compartment syndrome, intra -abdominal hypertension, intra-abdominal pressure in adult populations met the search criteria and were reviewed by three authors using a critical appraisal tool. Data derived from the retrieved material are discussed under the following themes: (1) etiology of intra-abdominal hypertension; (2) strategies for measuring intra-abdominal pressure (3) the manifestation of abdominal compartment syndrome; and (4) the importance of nursing assessment, observation and interventions. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have the potential to alter organ perfusion and compromise organ function. PMID:24499574

  14. [Abdominal tuberculosis in childhood: the clinical manifestations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Medina, J; Almendras, M; Devoto, G; Martinez, E; Gonzales, J; Alarcón, P; Muñoz, S

    1993-01-01

    The authors reviewed the histories of 133 patients with abdominal tuberculosis in Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño (Children's Hospital), Lima, Perú, between 1989 and 1991. We found morbidity higher in scholars (67.4%). Weight lost were present in all cases and malaise in 95.3%, abdominal distension in 83.72% and abdominal pain in 79.06%. Anaemia in 76.06%, ratio albumin/globulin were altered in 74.41% leukocytosis in 67.44%. Evidence of tuberculosis on chest X-ray were detected only in 62.5%.

  15. Psoas muscle abscess simulating acute appendicits: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio L.C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The psoas muscle abscess is uncommon and poorly characterized in its etiology, clinical associations, and its therapeutic approach. On the other hand, acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, with a 7% death rate, and surgery is its main treatment.

  16. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  17. [Churg-Strauss abdominal manifestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Moreno, Roberto; Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Margain-Paredes, Miguel Angel; Garza-de la Llave, Heriberto; Madrazo-Navarro, Mario; Espinosa-Álvarez, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la enfermedad de Churg-Strauss es poco común, idiopática, caracterizada por hipereosinofilia en sangre y tejidos, aunada a vasculitis sistémica en pacientes con antecedentes de asma o rinitis alérgica. Las manifestaciones gastrointestinales del síndrome de Churg Strauss se caracterizan por dolor abdominal, seguido de diarrea y hemorragia en 31-45% de los casos. Caso clínico: paciente masculino con antecedente de asma que acudió a consulta por abdomen agudo con probable apendicitis aguda; durante el protocolo de estudio se diagnosticó síndrome de Churg Strauss, con manifestaciones intestinales. Conclusión: el síndrome de Churg Strauss es una vasculitis poco frecuente que puede manifestarse con síntomas intestinales, como en este caso; es importante tenerlo en mente a la hora de los diagnósticos diferenciales. Existen pocos reportes con este síndrome asociado con abdomen agudo, todos ellos con mal pronóstico.

  18. Effects of a multidisciplinary body weight reduction program on static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMauro, Antonella; Cesareo, Ambra; Agosti, Fiorenza; Tringali, Gabriella; Salvadego, Desy; Grassi, Bruno; Sartorio, Alessandro; Aliverti, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize static and dynamic thoraco-abdominal volumes in obese adolescents and to test the effects of a 3-week multidisciplinary body weight reduction program (MBWRP), entailing an energy-restricted diet, psychological and nutritional counseling, aerobic physical activity, and respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET), on these parameters. Total chest wall (VCW), pulmonary rib cage (VRC,p), abdominal rib cage (VRC,a), and abdominal (VAB) volumes were measured on 11 male adolescents (Tanner stage: 3-5; BMI standard deviation score: >2; age: 15.9 ± 1.3 years; percent body fat: 38.4%) during rest, inspiratory capacity (IC) maneuver, and incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer at baseline and after 3 weeks of MBWRP. At baseline, the progressive increase in tidal volume was achieved by an increase in end-inspiratory VCW (p obese adolescents adopt a thoraco-abdominal operational pattern characterized by abdominal rib cage hyperinflation as a form of lung recruitment during incremental cycle exercise. Additionally, a short period of MBWRP including RMET is associated with improved exercise performance, lung and chest wall volume recruitment, unloading of respiratory muscles, and reduced dyspnea.

  19. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted....... The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma...... to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases...

  20. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Surgery)

    1993-02-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author).

  1. Abdominal pain - children under age 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... belly Has had a recent injury to the abdomen Is having trouble breathing Call your provider if ...

  2. [Inflammatory aneurysms of the abdominal aorta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar Martín, E; Acea Nebril, B

    1993-01-01

    Approximately 10 per cent of abdominal aneurysms have an excessively thick wall that sometimes involve duodenum, cava or colon by an inflammatory process. Between February 1986 and December 1992, 147 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) were treated surgically and in 13 (8.8%) the aneurysms were found to be inflammatory. Their mean age was 67.3 years (70.1 years in non inflammatory group) and all were symptomatics initially (abdominal pain in 53%, rupture in 23%, mass in 15%). The operative mortality for elective resection was 37% in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms (IAAA) decreasing to 9% in the AAA group without inflammatory involvement. We conclude that surgery is indicated in these patients to prevent rupture and to hasten the subsidense of inflammatory process ever with postoperative morbi-mortality increased.

  3. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... partially embedded in the liver substance, cushioned by ... abdominal pains and abrasions on his left hypochondrial region for which he was ... and usually associated with other visceral injuries. Isolated ... teased out Figure 2.

  4. Abdominal separation in an adult male patient with acute abdominal pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We report a male patient with prolonged post-prandial abdominal distension and a sudden onset of epigastric pain initially diagnosed as acute abdomen. The patient had no history of surgery. Physical examination revealed peritonitis and abdominal computed tomography scan showed upper abdominal mesentery intorsion. The patient then underwent surgical intervention. It was found that the descending mesocolon dorsal root was connected to the ascending colon and formed a membrane encapsulating the small intestine...

  5. Abdominal Wall Hernias: Various Imaging Features Correlated with the Anatomy of Abdominal Wall at MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Shin Young; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Sang Won; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Abdominal wall hernias are a common condition. However, they may develop acute complications and require surgical correction in most cases. Hence, the correct radiological examination is requisite for an accurate diagnosis. A multi-detector row CT (MDCT) provides an accurate identification of the anatomy of the abdominal wall, precise hernia type, and helps in the detection of early signs of complication. We report various imaging features of abdominal wall hernias via a MDCT.

  6. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  7. [Intestinal occlusion and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Intestinal occlusion is defined as an independent predictive factor of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) which represents an independent predictor of mortality. Baggot in 1951 classified patients operated with intestinal occlusion as being at risk for IAH ("abdominal blow-out"), recommending them for open abdomen surgery proposed by Ogilvie. Abdominal surgery provokes IAH in 44.7% of cases with mortality which, in emergency, triples with respect to elective surgery (21.9% vs 6.8%). In particular, IAH is present in 61.2% of ileus and bowel distension and is responsible for 52% of mortality (54.8% in cases with intra-abdominal infection). These patients present with an increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) which, over 20-25 mmHg, triggers an Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS) with altered functions in some organs arriving at Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome (MODS). The intestine normally covers 58% of abdominal volume but when there is ileus distension, intestinal pneumatosis develops (third space) which can occupy up to 90% of the entire cavity. At this moment, Gastro Intestinal Failure (GIF) can appear, which is a specific independent risk factor of mortality, motor of "Organ Failure". The pathophysiological evolution has many factors in 45% of cases: intestinal pneumatosis is associated with mucosal and serous edema, capillary leakage with an increase in extra-cellular volume and peritoneal fluid collections (fourth space). The successive loss of the mucous barrier permits a bacterial translocation which includes bacteria, toxins, pro-inflammatory factors and oxygen free radicals facilitating the passage from an intra-abdominal to inter-systemic vicious cyrcle. IAH provokes the raising of the diaphragm, and vascular and visceral compressions which induce hypertension in the various spaces with compartmental characteristics. These trigger hypertension in the renal, hepatic, pelvic, thoracic, cardiac, intracranial, orbital and lower extremity areas, giving

  8. Developing a new methodology to characterize in vivo the passive mechanical behavior of abdominal wall on an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón-Allué, R; Montiel, J M M; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2015-11-01

    The most common surgical repair of abdominal wall hernia goes through implanting a mesh that substitutes the abdominal muscle/fascia while it is healing. To reduce the risk of relapse or possible complications, this mesh needs to mimic the mechanical behavior of the muscle/fascia, which nowadays is not fully determined. The aim of this work is to develop a methodology to characterize in vivo the passive mechanical behavior of the abdominal wall. For that, New Zealand rabbits were subjected to pneumoperitoneum tests, taking the inner pressure from 0 mmHg to 12 mmHg, values similar to those used in human laparoscopies. Animals treated were divided into two groups: healthy and herniated animals with a surgical mesh (polypropylene Surgipro(TM) Covidien) previously implanted. All experiments were recorded by a stereo rig composed of two synchronized cameras. During the postprocessing of the images, several points over the abdominal surface were tracked and their coordinates extracted for different levels of internal pressure. Starting from that, a three dimensional model of the abdominal wall was reconstructed. Pressure-displacement curves, radii of curvature and strain fields were also analysed. During the experiments, animals tissue mostly deformed during the first levels of pressure, showing the noticeable hyperelastic passive behavior of abdominal muscles. Comparison between healthy and herniated specimen displayed a strong stiffening for herniated animals in the zone where the high density mesh was situated. Cameras were able to discern this change, so this method can be used to measure the possible effect of other meshes.

  9. Concurrent validity of the pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain Validade concorrente da unidade de biofeedback pressórico e eletromiografia de superfície na mensuração da atividade muscular do transverso abdominal em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro O. P. Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHOD: This study was performed using a validation, cross-sectional design. Fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were recruited for this study. To test the concurrent validity both PBU measures (index test and superficial electromyographic measures (reference-standard test were compared and collected by a physical therapist in a series of voluntary contraction maneuvers of TrA muscle. RESULTS: Participants were on average 22 years old, weighed 63.7 kilos, 1.70 meters height and mean low back pain duration was 1.9 years. It was observed a weak and non-significant Phi coefficient (r=0.2, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A Unidade de Biofeedback Pressórico (UBP é uma ferramenta de avaliação usada na prática clínica e pesquisa científica para analisar indiretamente a atividade muscular do transverso abdominal (TrA. A validade concorrente da UBP em uma amostra clinicamente relevante ainda não está esclarecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade concorrente e acurácia diagnóstica da UBP em mensurar a atividade muscular do TrA em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica. MÉTODO: Este estudo foi realizado usando um delineamento de validação. Cinquenta pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica foram recrutados. Para testar a validade concorrente, ambas as medidas pressóricas (teste índice e eletromiográficas superficiais (teste padrão de referência foram comparadas e coletadas por um fisioterapeuta a partir de uma manobra de contração voluntária do músculo Tr

  10. MR imaging of abdominal mass in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tsutomu [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging in the diagnosis of abdominal mass in children, we compared MR imaging with CT in 33 children who had undergone both examinations. Although MR imaging was less specific to calcification, gas and fat, it was more specific to hematoma and clarified the extension of tumors more precisely than CT. MRI seems to be a promising diagnostic modality for pediatric abdominal masses. (author).

  11. A focus on intra-abdominal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sartelli Massimo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Complicated intra-abdominal infections are an important cause of morbidity and are frequently associated with poor prognosis, particularly in higher risk patients. Well defined evidence-based recommendations for intra-abdominal infections treatment are partially lacking because of the limited number of randomized-controlled trials. Factors consistently associated with poor outcomes in patients with intra-abdominal infections include increased illness severity, failed source control, inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy and healthcare-acquired infection. Early prognostic evaluation of complicated intra-abdominal infections is important to select high-risk patients for more aggressive therapeutic procedures. The cornerstones in the management of complicated intra-abdominal infections are both source control and antibiotic therapy. The timing and the adequacy of source control are the most important issues in the management of intra-abdominal infections, because inadequate and late control of septic source may have a negative effect on the outcomes. Recent advances in interventional and more aggressive techniques could significantly decrease the morbidity and mortality of physiologically severe complicated intra-abdominal infections, even if these are still being debated and are yet not validated by limited prospective trials. Empiric antimicrobial therapy is nevertheless important in the overall management of intra-abdominal infections. Inappropriate antibiotic therapy may result in poor patient outcomes and in the appearance of bacterial resistance. Antimicrobial management is generally standardised and many regimens, either with monotherapy or combination therapy, have proven their efficacy. Routine coverage especially against Enterococci and candida spp is not always recommended, but can be useful in particular clinical conditions. A de escalation approach may be recommended in patients with specific risk factors for multidrug

  12. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  13. Surveillance intervals for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bown, Matthew J; Sweeting, Michael J; Brown, Louise C

    2013-01-01

    Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture.......Small abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs [3.0 cm-5.4 cm in diameter]) are monitored by ultrasound surveillance. The intervals between surveillance scans should be chosen to detect an expanding aneurysm prior to rupture....

  14. Abdominal epilepsy and foreign body in the abdomen--dilemma in diagnosis of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topno, Noor; Gopasetty, Mahesh S; Kudva, Annappa; B, Lokesh

    2005-12-31

    There are many medical causes of abdominal pain; abdominal epilepsy is one of the rarer causes. It is a form of temporal lobe epilepsy presenting with abdominal aura. Temporal lobe epilepsy is often idiopathic, however it may be associated with mesial temporal lobe sclerosis, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors and other benign tumors, arterio-venous malformations, gliomas, neuronal migration defects or gliotic damage as a result of encephalitis. When associated with anatomical abnormality, abdominal epilepsy is difficult to control with medication alone. In such cases, appropriate neurosurgery can provide a cure or, at least, make this condition easier to treat with medication. Once all known intra-abdominal causes have been ruled out, many cases of abdominal pain are dubbed as functional. If clinicians are not aware of abdominal epilepsy, this diagnosis is easily missed, resulting in inappropriate treatment. We present a case report of a middle aged woman presenting with abdominal pain and episodes of unconsciousness. On evaluation she was found to have an intra-abdominal foreign body (needle). Nevertheless, the presence of this entity was insufficient to explain her episodes of unconsciousness. On detailed analysis of her medical history and after appropriate investigations, she was diagnosed with temporal lobe epilepsy which was treated with appropriate medications, and which resulted in her pain being relieved.

  15. Hérnia traumática da parede abdominal Traumatic abdominal hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cruz Henriques

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of blunt traumatic abdominal hernia is presented in which jejunal loops herniated through the abdominal wall. The patient had a serious motor vehicle accident seven years ago, while wearing the seat belt. He developed a traumatic hernia in the anterior lateral abdominal wall, which was operated, and relapsed after some months. The patient was reoperated and we observed the unattachment of the anterior lateral abdominal musculature from the ilium crest. After the hernial sac treatment, the defect was solved with the use of a polypropylene mesh. The postoperative evolution was good and four months later there were no signs of recurrence. Traumatic abdominal hernia remains a rare clinical entity, despite the increase in blunt abdominal trauma. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia falls into two general categories: small lower quadrant abdominal defects, typically the result of blunt trauma with bicycle handlebars, and larger abdominal wall defects related to motor vehicle accidents. The diagnosis may be often established by the physical examination alone. Conventional radiology and computerized tomography usefulness have been proved. In the vast majority of cases, early repair is recommended. The appropriate treatment is the reduction of the herniated bowel into the abdomen, the debridment of nonviable tissues, and a primary tension free closure of the detect.

  16. Plaster body wrap: effects on abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.

  17. Inhomogeneous response of expiratory muscle activity to cold block of the ventral medullary surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, T; Okabe, S; Hida, W; Izumiyama, T; Kikuchi, Y; Takishima, T

    1991-11-01

    We assessed the effects of cooling the ventral medullary surface (VMS) on the activity of chest wall and abdominal expiratory muscles in eight anesthetized artificially ventilated dogs after vagotomy and denervation of the carotid sinus nerves. Electromyograms (EMGs) of the triangularis sterni, internal intercostal, abdominal external oblique, abdominal internal oblique, and transversus abdominis muscles were measured with EMG of the diaphragm as an index of inspiratory activity. Bilateral localized cooling (2 x 2 mm) in the thermosensitive intermediate part of the VMS produced temperature-dependent reduction in the EMG of diaphragm and abdominal muscles. The rib cage expiratory EMGs were little affected at 25 degrees C; their amplitudes decreased at lower VMS temperatures (less than 20 degrees C) but by significantly fewer degrees than the diaphragmatic and abdominal expiratory EMGs at a constant VMS temperature. With moderate to severe cooling (less than 20 degrees C) diaphragmatic EMG disappeared, but rib cage expiratory EMGs became tonic and resumed a phasic pattern shortly before the recovery of diaphragmatic EMG during rewarming of the VMS. These results indicate that the effects of cooling the VMS differ between the activity of rib cage and abdominal expiratory muscles. This variability may be due to inhomogeneous inputs from the VMS to expiratory motoneurons or to a different responsiveness of various expiratory motoneurons to the same input either from the VMS or the inspiratory neurons.

  18. A model of muscle atrophy based on live microscopy of muscle remodelling in Drosophila metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleesha, Yadav; Puah, Wee Choo; Wasser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Genes controlling muscle size and survival play important roles in muscle wasting diseases. In Drosophila melanogaster metamorphosis, larval abdominal muscles undergo two developmental fates. While a doomed population is eliminated by cell death, another persistent group is remodelled and survives into adulthood. To identify and characterize genes involved in the development of remodelled muscles, we devised a workflow consisting of in vivo imaging, targeted gene perturbation and quantitative image analysis. We show that inhibition of TOR signalling and activation of autophagy promote developmental muscle atrophy in early, while TOR and yorkie activation are required for muscle growth in late pupation. We discovered changes in the localization of myonuclei during remodelling that involve anti-polar migration leading to central clustering followed by polar migration resulting in localization along the midline. We demonstrate that the Cathepsin L orthologue Cp1 is required for myonuclear clustering in mid, while autophagy contributes to central positioning of nuclei in late metamorphosis. In conclusion, studying muscle remodelling in metamorphosis can provide new insights into the cell biology of muscle wasting. PMID:26998322

  19. Finite Element Implementation of a Structurally-Motivated Constitutive Relation for the Human Abdominal Aortic Wall with and without Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Lönn, L

    2011-01-01

    The structural integrity of the abdominal aorta is maintained by elastin, collagen, and vascular smooth muscle cells. Changes with age in the structure can lead to develop-ment of aneurysms. This paper presents initial work to capture these changes in a finite element model (FEM) of a structural......-ly-motivated anisotropic constitutive relation for the “four fiber family” arterial model. First a 2D implementation is used for benchmarking the FEM implementation to fitted biaxial stress-strain data obtained experimentally from four different groups of persons; 19-29 years, 30-60 years, 61-79 years and abdominal aortic...

  20. Muscle strain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  1. Tuberculosis versus lymphoma in the abdominal lymph nodes: A comparative study using contrast-enhanced MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Heng, E-mail: shaoheng617@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Yang, Zhi-gang, E-mail: yangzg6666@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Deng, Wen, E-mail: dengwen0913@163.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: yzqdcj@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tang, Si-shi, E-mail: cecilalucky@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Wen, Ling-yi, E-mail: lizzievane@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 GuoXue Street, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the differential characteristics on MRI between tuberculosis and lymphoma in abdominal lymph nodes. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis for the counter, size, signal intensity, enhancement patterns, and anatomic distribution of lymph nodes in 57 consecutive patients with documented tuberculosis (28 patients; 49.1%) and newly diagnosed, untreated lymphoma (29 patients; 50.9%). Results: Twenty-four cases (85.7%) in the tuberculosis group were hyperintense on T2-weighted images and either hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted images with respect to the abdominal wall muscle. All cases in the lymphoma group were hyperintense on T2-weighted images and isointense on T1-weighted images with respect to the abdominal wall muscle. Concerning the main anatomic distribution of lymph nodes, the lymph nodes in the lower paraaortic region were more frequently involved in the lymphoma group (48.3%) than in tuberculosis (17.9%, p < 0.05). Moreover, mesenteric lymph nodes were more often involved in tuberculosis (32.1%) than in lymphoma (6.9%, p < 0.05). Tuberculous lymphadenopathy showed predominantly peripheral enhancement, frequently with a multilocular appearance; whereas lymphomatous adenopathy often demonstrated uniform homogeneous enhancement (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MRI can be useful in differentiation between these two entities.

  2. Childhood abdominal pain in primary care : design and patient selection of the HONEUR abdominal pain cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Leo A A; van den Hurk, Arjan P J M; van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Benninga, Marc A; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Passchier, Jan; Berger, Marjolein Y

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain in children is a common complaint presented to the GP. However, the prognosis and prognostic factors of childhood abdominal pain are almost exclusively studied in referred children. This cohort study aims at describing prognosis and prognostic factors of childhood abdomina

  3. General Considerations of Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung Won; Bae, Miju; Chung, Sung Woon

    2015-01-01

    Although development of surgical technique and critical care, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm still carries a high mortality. In order to obtain good results, various efforts have been attempted. This paper reviews initial management of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and discuss the key point open surgical repair and endovascular aneurysm repair.

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Hofker, H. S.; Zijlstra, J. G.

    Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS, in

  5. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B; Nieuwenhuijs, V B; Hofker, H.S.; Zijlstra, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS

  6. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome and Intra-abdominal Ischemia in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.; Buddingh, K. T.; Bosma, B.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.; Hofker, H. S.; Zijlstra, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis may be complicated by intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), and intestinal ischemia. The aim of this retrospective study is to describe the incidence, treatment, and outcome of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and ACS, in particula

  7. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    . The PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases were searched for studies on the use of abdominal binders after abdominal surgery or abdominoplasty. All types of clinical studies were included. Two independent assessors evaluated the scientific quality of the studies. The primary outcomes were pain, seroma...

  8. Effects of ovariohysterectomy on intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, L; Rivera del Álamo, M M; Andaluz, A; Monreal, L; Torrente, C; García-Arnas, F; Fresno, L

    2012-12-15

    Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) have shown clinical relevance in monitoring critically ill human beings submitted to abdominal surgery. Only a few studies have been performed in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to assess how pregnancy and abdominal surgery may affect IAP and APP in healthy cats. For this purpose, pregnant (n=10) and non-pregnant (n=11) queens undergoing elective spaying, and tomcats (n=20, used as controls) presented for neutering by scrotal orchidectomy were included in the study. IAP, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), APP, heart rate and rectal temperature (RT) were determined before, immediately after, and four hours after surgery. IAP increased significantly immediately after abdominal surgery in both female groups when compared with baseline (PPregnancy did not seem to affect IAP in this population of cats, possibly due to subjects being in early stages of pregnancy.

  9. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  10. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  11. Methods of patient warming during abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 160 scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. RESULTS: When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. DISCUSSION: The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.

  12. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Gillespie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  13. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Guohua

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB. Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4% developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3% cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3% of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1% of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1% of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1% of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1% of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1% of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8% accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2% underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2% deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%. Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.

  14. Transverse abdominal plane neurostimulation for chronic abdominal pain: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mayank; Goodson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Management of chronic abdominal pain can be challenging. Sometimes patients fail to get adequate response from multiple medications and nerve blocks. We present a patient case report of chronic abdominal pain with a history of multiple surgeries managed successfully by neuromodulation of the transverse abdominis plane (TAP). The TAP block is a procedure in which local anesthetic is injected into the abdominal fascial plane that carries sensory nerves to the abdominal wall in order to block pain sensation. It has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and analgesic dependence after abdominal and gynecological surgeries. A 60-year-old woman presented to us for chronic abdominal pain for which medications provided little relief. She had an extensive history of abdominal surgeries and was also treated for lower back pain with surgery and less invasive procedures in the past. Under our care, she underwent 2 TAP blocks with almost complete resolution of her abdominal pain. Her pain, however, came back within a few of weeks of the procedures. Since our patient found pain relief from the TAP blocks, we proceeded with neurostimulation of the TAP for long-term pain relief. We placed a dorsal column stimulator 16 contact lead for lower back and leg pain and 8 contact leads placed in the TAP under ultrasound guidance. She has had multiple follow-ups since her TAP lead placement procedure with continued and near complete resolution of her abdominal pain. The TAP lead stimulation was helping her abdominal pain and the dorsal column lead stimulation was helping her back and leg pain.

  15. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Bozeman

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  16. Hypermetabolism of skeletal muscles following sexual activity: a normal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Byung Wook; Kim, Sung Hoon; Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2010-09-01

    A 46-year-old man with early gastric cancer at the gastric antrum underwent an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)-computer tomography (CT) scan for staging. No definite abnormal FDG uptake of the stomach was shown. Incidentally, variable FDG uptake at the bilateral serratus muscles, abdominal muscles and muscles of both thighs (Fig. 1) was observed. He had no significant past medical history except recently diagnosed stomach cancer. On personal interview, he described having had sexual activity the night before the F-18 FDG PET/CT scan, although he was aware of needing to avoid physical activity before a PET scan. The F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was done at 2:00 p.m. Therefore, the hypermetabolism of individual skeletal muscles following sexual activity lasted over 12 h. This case illustrates the hypermetabolism of skeletal muscles following sexual activity as a normal variation.

  17. Effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises on pulmonary function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, DongWook; Ha, Misook

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the correlation between pelvic floor muscle strength and pulmonary function. In particular, we examined whether pelvic floor muscle exercises can improve pulmonary function. [Subjects] Thirty female college students aged 19–21 with no history of nervous or musculoskeletal system injury were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. [Methods] For the pulmonary function test, spirometry items included forced vital capacity and maximal voluntary ventilation. Pelvic floor muscle exercises consisted of Kegel exercises performed three times daily for 4 weeks. [Results] Kegel exercises performed in the experimental group significantly improved forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, PER, FEF 25–75%, IC, and maximum voluntary ventilation compared to no improvement in the control group. [Conclusion] Kegel exercises significantly improved pulmonary function. When abdominal pressure increased, pelvic floor muscles performed contraction at the same time. Therefore, we recommend that the use of pelvic floor muscle exercises be considered for improving pulmonary function. PMID:26644681

  18. Increased collagen synthesis rate during wound healing in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobo Zhou

    Full Text Available Wound healing in muscle involves the deposition of collagen, but it is not known whether this is achieved by changes in the synthesis or the degradation of collagen. We have used a reliable flooding dose method to measure collagen synthesis rate in vivo in rat abdominal muscle following a surgical incision. Collagen synthesis rate was increased by 480% and 860% on days 2 and 7 respectively after surgery in the wounded muscle compared with an undamaged area of the same muscle. Collagen content was increased by approximately 100% at both day 2 and day 7. These results demonstrate that collagen deposition during wound healing in muscle is achieved entirely by an increase in the rate of collagen synthesis.

  19. Abdominal Wall Desmoid during Pregnancy: Diagnostic Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Awwad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Desmoids are benign tumors, with local invasive features and no metastatic potential, which have rarely been described to be pregnancy associated. Case. We described the rapid growth of an anterior abdominal wall mass in a 40-year-old pregnant woman. Due to its close proximity to the enlarged uterus, it was misdiagnosed to be a uterine leiomyoma by ultrasound examination. Final tissue diagnosis and radical resection were done at the time of abdominal delivery. Conclusion. Due to the diagnostic limitations of imaging techniques, desmoids should always be considered when the following manifestations are observed in combination: progressive growth of a solitary abdominal wall mass during pregnancy and well-delineated smooth tumor margins demonstrated by imaging techniques. This case emphasizes the importance of entertaining uncommon medical conditions in the differential diagnosis of seemingly common clinical manifestations.

  20. Abdominal wall hernias: imaging with spiral CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Midiri, M.; Vinci, R.; Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G. [Department of Radiology, Bari University Hospital (Italy)

    2000-06-01

    Computed tomography is an accurate method of identifying the various types of abdominal wall hernias, especially if they are clinically occult, and of distinguishing them from other diseases such as hematomas, abscesses and neoplasia. In this study we examined the CT images of 94 patients affected by abdominal wall hernias observed over a period of 6 years. Computed tomography clearly demonstrates the anatomical site of the hernial sac, the content and any occlusive bowel complications due to incarceration or strangulation. Clinical diagnosis of external hernias is particularly difficult in obese patients or in those with laparotic scars. In these cases abdominal imaging is essential for a correct preoperative diagnosis and to determine the most effective treatment. (orig.)