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Sample records for abdominal muscles

  1. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality...... of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. RESULTS: A total of seven...... studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. CONCLUSION: Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients...

  2. Absent abdominal muscles, nephro-urologic abnormalities, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absent abdominal muscles, cryptorchidism, and hydroureteronephrosis are known to occur in the prune belly syndrome (PBS). We present a male with absent abdominal muscles, severe neurologic damage, with global developmental delay, hydroureteronephrosis, and cryptorchidism. The patient also had arthrogryposis ...

  3. Lateral abdominal muscle size at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre in healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Pawel; Saulicz, Edward; Wolny, Tomasz; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Kokosz, Mirosław

    2015-02-01

    Lateral abdominal wall muscles in children and adolescents have not been characterised to date. In the present report, we examined the reliability of the ultrasound measurement and thickness of the oblique external muscle (OE), oblique internal muscle (OI) and transverse abdominal muscle (TrA) at rest and during abdominal drawing-in manoeuvre (ADIM) on both sides of the body in healthy adolescents. We also determined possible differences between boys and girls and defined any factors-such as body mass, height and BMI-that may affect the thickness of the abdominal muscles. B-mode ultrasound was used to assess OE, OI and TrA on both sides of the body in the supine position. Ultrasound measurements at rest and during ADIM were reliable in this age group (ICC3,3 > 0.92). OI was always the thickest and TrA the thinnest muscle on both sides of the body. In this group, an identical pattern of the contribution of the individual muscles to the structure of the lateral abdominal wall (OI > OE > TrA) was observed. At rest and during ADIM, no statistically significant side-to-side differences were demonstrated in either gender. The body mass constitutes between 30% and <50% of the thickness differences in all muscles under examination at rest and during ADIM. The structure of lateral abdominal wall in adolescents is similar to that of adults. During ADIM, the abdominal muscles in adolescents react similarly to those in adults. This study provided extensive information regarding the structure of the lateral abdominal wall in healthy adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Abdominal muscle activity during a standing long jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Yu; Kaneoka, Koji; Shiina, Itsuo; Tatsumura, Masaki; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2013-08-01

    Experimental laboratory study. To measure the activation patterns (onset and magnitude) of the abdominal muscles during a standing long jump using wire and surface electromyography. Activation patterns of the abdominal muscles, especially the deep muscles such as the transversus abdominis (TrA), have yet to be examined during full-body movements such as jumping. Thirteen healthy men participated. Wire electrodes were inserted into the TrA with the guidance of ultrasonography, and surface electrodes were attached to the skin overlying the rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO). Electromyographic signals and video images were recorded while each subject performed a standing long jump. The jump task was divided into 3 phases: preparation, push-off, and float. For each muscle, activation onset relative to the onset of the RA and normalized muscle activation levels (percent maximum voluntary contraction) were analyzed during each phase. Comparisons between muscles and phases were assessed using 2-way analyses of variance. The onset times of the TrA and EO relative to the onset of the RA were -0.13 ? 0.17 seconds and -0.02 ? 0.07 seconds, respectively. Onset of TrA activation was earlier than that of the EO. The activation levels of all 3 muscles were significantly greater during the push-off phase than during the preparation and float phases. Consistent with previously published trunk-perturbation studies in healthy persons, the TrA was activated prior to the RA and EO. Additionally, the highest muscle activation levels were observed during the push-off phase.

  5. PENGARUH ABDOMINAL MUSCLE STRENGTHENING DENGAN METODE PILATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Trisnowiyanto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Seseorang yang memiliki kebiasaan melakukan aktivitas pasif seperti duduk lama saat bekerja dapat meningkatkan resiko terjadinya muscle power imbalance pada otot-otot penyangga tubuh yang pada akhirnya mudah mengalami nyeri pada punggung bagian bawah, sehinga bila melakukan aktifitas atau pekerjaan yang melebihi kapasitas fisik yang dimiliki, akan mudah mengalami kelelahan dan bila dipaksakan dapat terjadi cedera, seperti terjadinya spasme atau kram pada otot perut. Peningkatan kekuatan otot perut, salah satunya dapat dicapai dengan latihan Pilates yang memiliki keunggulan memiliki fokus latihan yang bertujuan menguatkan otot-otot core stability diantaranya adalah otot perut. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui pengaruh latihan Pilates terhadap peningkatan kekuatan otot perut. Subyek Penelitian Sebanyak 34 terdiri dari ibu-ibu rumah tangga dengan rentang usia antara 30–50 tahun. Metode Penelitian: Eksperimen dengan rancangan one group pre-post test with control dengan kriteria inklusi dan ekslusi. Bentuk latihan pilates yang dipilih adalah khusus gerakan yang ditujukan untuk latihan otot-otot perut sebanyak 16 gerakan, program latihan diberikan selama 2 bulan, dengan durasi selama 45 menit/sesi latihan, 2 kali/minggu. Pengukuran kekuatan otot perut menggunakan curl up test. Analisis Statistik: Uji beda pre-post test dengan Wilcoxon Test, didapatkan p=0,000 (p<0.05 dan uji beda pre-pre test dan post-post test dengan Mann-whitney U Test kedua kelompok p=0,849(p<0.05  dan post-post test kedua kelompok p=0,007 (p<0.05. Kesimpulan: Latihan Pilates berpengaruh terhadap peningkatan kekuatan otot perut.

  6. Abdominal muscle function and incisional hernia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2014-08-01

    Although ventral incisional hernia (VIH) repair in patients is often evaluated in terms of hernia recurrence rate and health-related quality of life, there is no clear consensus regarding optimal operative treatment based on these parameters. It was proposed that health-related quality of life depends largely on abdominal muscle function (AMF), and the present review thus evaluates to what extent AMF is influenced by VIH and surgical repair. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles following a systematic strategy for inclusion. A total of seven studies described AMF in relation to VIH. Five studies examined AMF using objective isokinetic dynamometers to determine muscle strength, and two studies examined AMF by clinical examination-based muscle tests. Both equipment-related and functional muscle tests exist for use in patients with VIH, but very few studies have evaluated AMF in VIH. There are no randomized controlled studies to describe the impact of VIH repair on AMF, and no optimal surgical treatment in relation to AMF after VIH repair can be advocated for at this time.

  7. Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lucas; Deerenberg, Eva B; van Dijk, Sven M; Lamme, Bas; Koning, Anton H; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Jeekel, Johannes; Lange, Johan F

    2014-04-01

    Incisional hernia (IH) can be attributed to multiple factors. The presence of a parastomal hernia has shown to be a risk factor for IH after midline laparotomy. Our hypothesis is that this increased risk of IH may be caused by changes in biomechanical forces, such as midline shift to the contralateral side of the colostomy owing to decreased restraining forces at the site of the colostomy, and left abdominal rectus muscle (ARM) atrophy owing to intercostal nerve damage. Patients were selected if they underwent end-colostomy via open operation between 2004 and 2011. Patients were eligible if computed tomography (CT) had been performed postoperatively. If available, preoperative CTs were collected for case-control analyses. Midline shift was measured using V-scope application in the I-space, a CAVE-like virtual reality system. For the ARM atrophy hypothesis, measurements of ARM were performed at the level of colostomy, and 3 and 8 cm cranial and caudal of the colostomy. Postoperative CT were available for 77 patients; of these patients, 30 also had a preoperative CT. Median follow-up was 19 months. A mean shift to the right side was identified after preoperative and postoperative comparison; from -1.3 ± 4.6 to 2.1 ± 9.3 (P = .043). Furthermore, during rectus muscle measurements, a thinner left ARM was observed below the level of colostomy. Creation of a colostomy alters the abdominal wall. Atrophy of the left ARM was seen caudal to the level of the colostomy, and a midline shift to the right side was evident on CT. These changes may explain the increased rate of IH after colostomy creation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitilertpisan, Patraporn; Pirunsan, Ubon; Puangmali, Aatit; Ratanapinunchai, Jonjin; Kiatwattanacharoen, Suchart; Neamin, Hudsaleark; Laskin, James J

    2011-11-01

    To compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls. A case control study design. University laboratory. 16 female Thai national weightlifters and 16 matched controls participated in this study. Ultrasound imaging with a 12-MHz linear array was used to measure the resting thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and total thickness (Total) of lateral abdominal muscle (LAM) on the right side of abdominal wall. The absolute muscle thickness and the relative contribution of each muscle to the total thickness were determined. Weightlifters had significantly thicker absolute TrA and IO muscles than matched controls (p routine Olympic style weight training among female weightlifters appears to result in preferential hypertrophy or adaptation of the IO muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of surface condition on abdominal muscle activity during single-legged hold exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Sung-min; Oh, Jae-seop; Jeon, In-cheol; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-02-01

    To treat low-back pain, various spinal stability exercises are commonly used to improve trunk muscle function and strength. Because human movement for normal daily activity occurs in multi-dimensions, the importance of exercise in multi-dimensions or on unstable surfaces has been emphasized. Recently, a motorized rotating platform (MRP) for facilitating multi-dimensions dynamic movement was introduced for clinical use. However, the abdominal muscle activity with this device has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to compare the abdominal muscle activity (rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique muscles) during an active single-leg-hold (SLH) exercise on a floor (stable surface), foam roll, and motorized rotating platform (MRP). Thirteen healthy male subjects participated in this study. Using electromyography, the abdominal muscle activity was measured while the subjects performed SLH exercises on floor (stable surface), foam roll, and MRP. There were significant differences in the abdominal muscle activities among conditions (P.05) (Fig. 2). After the Bonferroni correction, however, no significant differences among conditions remained, except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor and foam roll conditions (padjexercises on a foam roll and MRP is more effective increased activities of both side of RA and IO, and Rt. EO compared to floor condition. However, there were no significant differences in abdominal muscles activity in the multiple comparison between conditions (mean difference were smaller than the standard deviation in the abdominal muscle activities) (padj>0.017), except for differences in both side IO muscle activity between the floor (stable surface) and foam roll (padj<0.017) (effect size: 0.79/0.62 (non-supporting/supporting leg) for foam-roll versus floor). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Automated segmentation and recognition of abdominal wall muscles in X-ray torso CT images and its application in abdominal CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, X.; Kamiya, N.; Hara, T.; Fujita, H.; Chen, H.; Yokoyama, R.; Hoshi, H.

    2007-01-01

    The information of abdominal wall is very important for the planning of surgical operation and abdominal organ recognition. In research fields of computer assisted radiology and surgery and computer-aided diagnosis, the segmentation and recognition of the abdominal wall muscles in CT images is a necessary pre-processing step. Due to the complexity of the abdominal wall structure and indistinctive in CT images, the automated segmentation of abdominal wall muscles is a difficult issue and has not been solved completely. We propose an approach to segment the abdominal wall muscles and divide it into three categories (front abdominal muscles including rectus abdominis; left and right side abdominal muscles including external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis muscles) automatically. The approach, first, makes an initial classification of bone, fat, and muscles and organs based on the CT number. Then a layer structure is generated to describe the 3-D anatomical structures of human torso by stretching the torso region onto a thin-plate for easy recognition. The abdominal wall muscles are recognized on the layer structures using the spatial relations to the skeletal structure and CT numbers. Finally, the recognized regions are mapped back to the 3-D CT images using an inverse transformation of the stretching process. This method is applied to 20 cases of torso CT images and evaluations are based on visual comparison of the recognition results and the original CT images by an expert in anatomy. The results show that our approach can segment and recognize abdominal wall muscle regions effectively. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility...

  12. The effects of therapeutic hip exercise with abdominal core activation on recruitment of the hip muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mandy Ky; Chow, Ka Wai; Lai, Alfred Ys; Mak, Noble Kc; Sze, Jason Ch; Tsang, Sharon Mh

    2017-07-21

    Core stabilization has been utilized for rehabilitation and prevention of lower limb musculoskeletal injuries. Previous studies showed that activation of the abdominal core muscles enhanced the hip muscle activity in hip extension and abduction exercises. However, the lack of the direct measurement and quantification of the activation level of the abdominal core muscles during the execution of the hip exercises affect the level of evidence to substantiate the proposed application of core exercises to promote training and rehabilitation outcome of the hip region. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of abdominal core activation, which is monitored directly by surface electromyography (EMG), on hip muscle activation while performing different hip exercises, and to explore whether participant characteristics such as gender, physical activity level and contractile properties of muscles, which is assessed by tensiomyography (TMG), have confounding effect to the activation of hip muscles in enhanced core condition. Surface EMG of bilateral internal obliques (IO), upper gluteus maximus (UGMax), lower gluteus maximus (LGMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and biceps femoris (BF) of dominant leg was recorded in 20 young healthy subjects while performing 3 hip exercises: Clam, side-lying hip abduction (HABD), and prone hip extension (PHE) in 2 conditions: natural core activation (NC) and enhanced core activation (CO). EMG signals normalized to percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) were compared between two core conditions with the threshold of the enhanced abdominal core condition defined as >20%MVIC of IO. Enhanced abdominal core activation has significantly promoted the activation level of GMed in all phases of clam exercise (P recruitment in Clam, HABD and PHE exercises, and this enhancement is correlated with higher physical activity and stiffer hip muscle. Our results suggest the potential application of abdominal core activation for

  13. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating abdominal core muscle fatigue: Assessment of the validity and reliability of the prone bridging test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blaiser, C; De Ridder, R; Willems, T; Danneels, L; Vanden Bossche, L; Palmans, T; Roosen, P

    2018-02-01

    The aims of this study were to research the amplitude and median frequency characteristics of selected abdominal, back, and hip muscles of healthy subjects during a prone bridging endurance test, based on surface electromyography (sEMG), (a) to determine if the prone bridging test is a valid field test to measure abdominal muscle fatigue, and (b) to evaluate if the current method of administrating the prone bridging test is reliable. Thirty healthy subjects participated in this experiment. The sEMG activity of seven abdominal, back, and hip muscles was bilaterally measured. Normalized median frequencies were computed from the EMG power spectra. The prone bridging tests were repeated on separate days to evaluate inter and intratester reliability. Significant differences in normalized median frequency slope (NMF slope ) values between several abdominal, back, and hip muscles could be demonstrated. Moderate-to-high correlation coefficients were shown between NMF slope values and endurance time. Multiple backward linear regression revealed that the test endurance time could only be significantly predicted by the NMF slope of the rectus abdominis. Statistical analysis showed excellent reliability (ICC=0.87-0.89). The findings of this study support the validity and reliability of the prone bridging test for evaluating abdominal muscle fatigue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Synergism between abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women: a systematic review of observational studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Ferla

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The training of the pelvic floor muscles is widely used for treating pelvic floor dysfunctions, like urinary incontinence. During the training, abdominal contractions are avoided; however several studies support the use of the synergy between these muscle groups. Objective: Carrying out a systematic review of studies that seek to identify the presence of synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor and its functionality in women without pelvic floor dysfunction. Methodology: To conduct the review, we have followed the recommendations proposed by the Cochrane Collaboration for systematic reviews. The literature search included the databases SCIELO, PEDro, MEDLINE, Cochrane CENTRAL and EMBASE, and manual research, the starting date of the databases until August 2013. We included cross observational studies with healthy women who were assessed to find the presence of synergy between the abdominal muscles and the pelvic floor. Results: We included 10 articles and they all showed the existence of synergy between the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles in healthy women in the supine, sitting and standing positions. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that there is synergy between the muscles of the abdomen and the pelvic floor in healthy women. Better understanding the behavior of these muscles and synergy may favor the development of strategies for the prevention and treatment of disorders of the female pelvic floor muscles.

  16. Mechanical and histological characterization of the abdominal muscle. A previous step to modelling hernia surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, B; Peña, E; Pascual, G; Rodríguez, M; Calvo, B; Doblaré, M; Bellón, J M

    2011-04-01

    The aims of this study are to experimentally characterize the passive elastic behaviour of the rabbit abdominal wall and to develop a mechanical constitutive law which accurately reproduces the obtained experimental results. For this purpose, tissue samples from New Zealand White rabbits 2150±50 (g) were mechanically tested in vitro. Mechanical tests, consisting of uniaxial loading on tissue samples oriented along the craneo-caudal and the perpendicular directions, respectively, revealed the anisotropic non-linear mechanical behaviour of the abdominal tissues. Experiments were performed considering the composite muscle (including external oblique-EO, internal oblique-IO and transverse abdominis-TA muscle layers), as well as separated muscle layers (i.e., external oblique, and the bilayer formed by internal oblique and transverse abdominis). Both the EO muscle layer and the IO-TA bilayer demonstrated a stiffer behaviour along the transversal direction to muscle fibres than along the longitudinal one. The fibre arrangement was measured by means of a histological study which confirmed that collagen fibres are mainly responsible for the passive mechanical strength and stiffness. Furthermore, the degree of anisotropy of the abdominal composite muscle turned out to be less pronounced than those obtained while studying the EO and IO-TA separately. Moreover, a phenomenological constitutive law was used to capture the measured experimental curves. A Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was used to fit the model constants to reproduce the experimental curves. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle on during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Halim; Jung, Sangwoo; Joo, Sunghee; Song, Changho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare changes in the mobility of the pelvic floor muscle during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. [Subjects] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study (15 men and 15 women). [Methods] All participants performed a bridge exercise and abdominal curl-up during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver, maximal expiration, and pelvic floor muscle maximal contraction. Pelvic floor mobility was evaluated as the distance from the bladder base using ultrasound. [Results] According to exercise method, bridge exercise and abdominal curl-ups led to significantly different pelvic floor mobility. The pelvic floor muscle was elevated during the abdominal drawing-in maneuver and descended during maximal expiration. Finally, pelvic floor muscle mobility was greater during abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise. [Conclusion] According to these results, the abdominal drawing-in maneuver induced pelvic floor muscle contraction, and pelvic floor muscle contraction was greater during the abdominal curl-up than during the bridge exercise.

  18. Clinical evaluation of extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L-R; Zhu, Y-M; Xu, Q; Cao, C-X; Zhang, B-Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall is an improved surgical procedure compared with conventional sigmoid colostomy in patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection. Patients with rectal cancer undergoing abdominoperineal resection were selected and randomly divided into two groups: the study group received extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall and the control group received conventional colostomy. Clinical data from both groups were analysed. A total of 128 patients were included: 66 received extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall and 62 received conventional colostomy. Significant differences between the two groups were found in relation to colostomy operating time, defaecation sensation, bowel control and overall stoma-related complications. Duration of postoperative hospital stay was also significantly different between the study groups. Extraperitoneal colostomy without damaging the muscle layer of the abdominal wall was found to be an improved procedure compared with conventional sigmoid colostomy in abdominoperineal resection, and may reduce colostomy-related complications, shorten operating time and postoperative hospital stay, and potentially improve patients' quality of life.

  19. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A estimulação russa no fortalecimento da musculatura abdominal Russian stimulation in strengthening abdominal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Patrícia Fernandes Lima

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO - A flacidez muscular surge com maior frequência nas mulheres, o que causa fator ruim para a estética corporal. OBJETIVO - Analisar os resultados da corrente russa no fortalecimento da musculatura abdominal. MÉTODOS - Revisão bibliográfica com base nas publicações acessíveis pelas seguintes bases de dados: Medline/Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs com cruzamento dos descritores corrente russa, flacidez, abdômen. O uso da eletroestimulação age tanto sobre as fibras brancas, que respondem pela velocidade, como também sobre as fibras vermelhas dado à sua sustentação, e ainda sobre as fibras intermediárias. CONCLUSÃO - Os dados publicados mostram a satisfação e êxito do tratamento, enfatizando que a corrente russa favorece o aumento da hipertrofia e força muscular.INTRODUCTION - Muscle weakness appears most often in women, the factor that causes bad esthetics. OBJECTIVE - To analyze the results of the Russian current strengthening the abdominal muscles. METHODS - Literature review based on publications available in the following databases: Medline / Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs with crossing headings Russian current, sagging, abdomen. The use of electrical stimulation acts both on the white fibers, which account for the speed, but also on the red fibers given their support, and on intermediate fibers. CONCLUSION - The data published show the satisfaction and success of treatment, emphasizing that the Russian current promotes increase of muscle strength and hypertrophy.

  1. Is application of Kinesio tape to treat hyperlordosis more effective on abdominal muscles or hamstrings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Abolahrari Shirazi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperlordosis is defined as an abnormal increase in the lumbar arch of >40°. This study compared two taping techniques include abdominal muscles and hamstrings taping for the treatment of lumbar hyperlordosis. Materials and Methods: The randomized clinical trial was performed in Shiraz, Iran, during June and September 2014. Thirty women aged 20–45 years old with at least 40° lumbar lordosis participated. The women were randomized into two groups (n = 15. Abdominal muscles taping was performed for the first group, whereas the other group underwent hamstrings taping with 30% tension. Lumbar lordosis was measured before, immediately after, and 24 h after taping. The two-way repeated measures analysis of variance was used to compare the two groups for lumbar lordosis angle. Results: No significant differences were detected between the lumbar lordosis angles before and immediately after taping in the two groups (P > 0.05. However, a significant reduction was observed in lordosis angle in the abdominal group and the hamstring group 24 h after taping relative to before intervention (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Taping of the abdominal and hamstring muscles was not effective immediately, whereas it decreased lordosis after 24 h.

  2. Oblique abdominal muscle activity in response to external perturbations when pushing a cart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Ju; Hoozemans, Marco J M; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2010-05-07

    Cyclic activation of the external and internal oblique muscles contributes to twisting moments during normal gait. During pushing while walking, it is not well understood how these muscles respond to presence of predictable (cyclic push-off forces) and unpredictable (external) perturbations that occur in pushing tasks. We hypothesized that the predictable perturbations due to the cyclic push-off forces would be associated with cyclic muscle activity, while external perturbations would be counteracted by cocontraction of the oblique abdominal muscles. Eight healthy male subjects pushed at two target forces and two handle heights in a static condition and while walking without and with external perturbations. For all pushing tasks, the median, the static (10th percentile) and the peak levels (90th percentile) of the electromyographic amplitudes were determined. Linear models with oblique abdominal EMGs and trunk angles as input were fit to the twisting moments, to estimate trunk stiffness. There was no significant difference between the static EMG levels in pushing while walking compared to the peak levels in pushing while standing. When pushing while walking, the additional dynamic activity was associated with the twisting moments, which were actively modulated by the pairs of oblique muscles as in normal gait. The median and static levels of trunk muscle activity and estimated trunk stiffness were significantly higher when perturbations occurred than without perturbations. The increase baseline of muscle activity indicated cocontraction of the antagonistic muscle pairs. Furthermore, this cocontraction resulted in an increased trunk stiffness around the longitudinal axis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of abdominal cellulite and circumference reduction with radiofrequency and dynamic muscle activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanitphakdeedecha, Rungsima; Iamphonrat, Thanawan; Thanomkitti, Kanchalit; Lektrakul, Nittaya; Manuskiatti, Woraphong

    2015-01-01

    Cellulite is a frequent skin condition for which treatment remains a challenge. A wide variety of treatments are available but most procedures offer suboptimal clinical effect and/or delayed therapeutic outcome. Only few therapeutic options have proven efficacy in the treatment of cellulite. To determine the efficacy and the safety profiles of radiofrequency and dynamic muscle activation technology in treatment of abdominal cellulite and circumference reduction. Twenty-five females with abdominal cellulite received 6 weekly radiofrequency and dynamic muscle activation treatments. Treatment areas included the abdomen and both sides of flanks. Subjects were evaluated using standardized photographs, and measurements of body weight and abdominal circumference at baseline, before every treatment visit, and 1 week and four weeks after the final treatment. Subcutaneous tissue thickness was recorded by ultrasound at baseline and 4 weeks after completion of treatment protocol. Physicians' evaluation and patient's satisfaction of clinical improvement were also measured. All subjects completed the treatment protocol and attended every follow-up visits. There was significant abdominal circumference reduction of 2.96 and 2.52 cm at 1-, and 4-week follow-up visits (p last treatment, the average circumferential reduction was sustained. Most of the patients were rated to have 25-49% improvement at 5th treatment, and 1- and 4-week follow-up visits. Ninety-two percent of the patients were satisfied with the treatment outcome. Radiofrequency provided beneficial effects on the reduction of abdomen and cellulite appearance. The benefit of muscle activation is yet to be determined.

  4. Psoas muscle hematoma secondary to a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, M.J.; Hall, A.J.; Burbridge, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    The diagnosis of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) is usually made on the basis of the classic clinical presentation of hypotension, abdominal or back pain, and a pulsating abdominal mass. However, given the large differential diagnosis for abdominal or back pain, the diagnosis can be elusive in a stable patient. The importance of a rapid diagnosis of a RAAA is emphasized by the 32%-70% operative mortality rate and the 77%-94% overall mortality rate. The case reported here demonstrates unusual clinical and radiological findings in a patient with a RAAA. The patient presented with back pain and a progressive radiculopathy in the L4 distribution. The diagnosis of RAAA was delayed 6 weeks because of the investigation of a suspected nerve root entrapment. Consecutive computed tomographic (CT) imaging over a 6-day period showed the evolution of a psoas muscle hematoma secondary to a RAAA. This case emphasizes the importance of considering a RAAA in elderly patients with a prolonged history of back pain. (author)

  5. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianming Zhang

    Full Text Available It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS.Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP. All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment.For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg, lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7 and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9 in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1.Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  6. Abdominal Muscle Activity during Mechanical Ventilation Increases Lung Injury in Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Du, Juan; Chen, Rongchang

    2016-01-01

    It has proved that muscle paralysis was more protective for injured lung in severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), but the precise mechanism is not clear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation increases lung injury in severe ARDS. Eighteen male Beagles were studied under mechanical ventilation with anesthesia. Severe ARDS was induced by repetitive oleic acid infusion. After lung injury, Beagles were randomly assigned into spontaneous breathing group (BIPAPSB) and abdominal muscle paralysis group (BIPAPAP). All groups were ventilated with BIPAP model for 8h, and the high pressure titrated to reached a tidal volume of 6ml/kg, the low pressure was set at 10 cmH2O, with I:E ratio 1:1, and respiratory rate adjusted to a PaCO2 of 35-60 mmHg. Six Beagles without ventilator support comprised the control group. Respiratory variables, end-expiratory volume (EELV) and gas exchange were assessed during mechanical ventilation. The levels of Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 in lung tissue and plasma were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA respectively. Lung injury scores were determined at end of the experiment. For the comparable ventilator setting, as compared with BIPAPSB group, the BIPAPAP group presented higher EELV (427±47 vs. 366±38 ml) and oxygenation index (293±36 vs. 226±31 mmHg), lower levels of IL-6(216.6±48.0 vs. 297.5±71.2 pg/ml) and IL-8(246.8±78.2 vs. 357.5±69.3 pg/ml) in plasma, and lower express levels of IL-6 mRNA (15.0±3.8 vs. 21.2±3.7) and IL-8 mRNA (18.9±6.8 vs. 29.5±7.9) in lung tissues. In addition, less lung histopathology injury were revealed in the BIPAPAP group (22.5±2.0 vs. 25.2±2.1). Abdominal muscle activity during mechanically ventilation is one of the injurious factors in severe ARDS, so abdominal muscle paralysis might be an effective strategy to minimize ventilator-induce lung injury.

  7. Effects of non-paretic arm exercises using a tubing band on abdominal muscle activity in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Ji-Won; Kim, Yang-Gon; Park, Ji-Hyuk; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Abdominal strengthening exercises are important for stroke patients; however, there is a lack of research on therapeutic exercises for increasing abdominal muscle activity in stroke patients. We investigated the effects of non-paretic arm exercises using a tubing band on abdominal muscle activity in stroke patients. In total, 18 hemiplegic subjects (13 males, 5 females) were recruited. All subjects performed non-paretic arm exercises involving three different shoulder movements (extension, flexion, and horizontal abduction) using an elastic tubing band. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded from the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and internal oblique (IO) muscles bilaterally during non-paretic arm exercises. EMG activities of abdominal muscles during non-paretic arm extension and horizontal abduction were increased significantly versus shoulder flexion when subjects performed the arm exercise in a seated position. Muscle activity of the EO was significantly greater in the paretic than the non-paretic side during non-paretic arm extension and horizontal abduction. We suggest that non-paretic arm extension and horizontal abduction exercises using an elastic tubing band may be effective in increasing abdominal muscle activity.

  8. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K. K.; Kjær, Michael; Jorgensen, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Methods Ten patients with VIH and ten...... and extension showed excellent test–retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH...... and IPAQ was found. Conclusions The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH....

  9. Comparison of Abdominal Muscles Thickness Changes Different Postures beween Non-Specific Chronic Low Back Pain Patients and Healthy Males by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Rasouli

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal muscles respond to postural changes and these muscles are automatically targeted by decreasing the seated stability. In non–specific chronic low back pain patients, activity of Transvers Abdominis was decreased and activity of Rectus Abdominis was increased.

  10. The difference between standing and sitting in 3 different seat inclinations on abdominal muscle activity and chest and abdominal expansion in woodwind and brass musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwen Jane Ackermann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind instrumentalists require a sophisticated functioning of their respiratory system to control their air stream, which provides the power for optimal musical performance. The air supply must be delivered into the instrument in a steady and controlled manner and with enough power by the action of the expiratory musculature to produce the desired level of sound at the correct pitch. It is suggested that playing posture may have an impact on the abdominal muscle activity controlling this expired air, but there is no research on musicians to support this theory. This study evaluated chest and abdominal expansion, via respiratory inductive plethysmography, as well as activation patterns of lower and upper abdominal musculature, using surface electromyography, during performance of a range of typical orchestral repertoire by 113 woodwind and brass players. Each of the five orchestral excerpts was played in one of four randomly allocated postures: standing; sitting flat; sitting inclined forwards; and sitting inclined backwards.Musicians showed a clear preference for playing in standing rather than sitting. In standing, the chest expansion range and maximum values were greater (p<0.01, while the abdominal expansion was less than in all sitting postures (p<0.01. Chest expansion patterns did not vary between the three sitting postures, while abdominal expansion was reduced in the forward inclined posture compared to the other sitting postures (p<0.05. There was no significant variation in abdominal muscle activation between the sitting postures, but the level of activation in sitting was only 2/3 of the significantly higher level observed in standing (p<0.01.This study has demonstrated significant differences in respiratory mechanics between sitting and standing postures in wind musicians during playing of typical orchestral repertoire. Further research is needed to clarify the complex respiratory mechanisms supporting musical performance.

  11. The effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise on abdominal muscle thickness and Oswestry disability index in subjects with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong-Doo; Yu, Seong-Hun

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to effects of abdominal draw-in maneuver and core exercise with 4 weeks using the musculoskeletal ultrasonography on muscle thickness and disability in subjects with low back pain. Twenty patients with nonspecific back pain (abdominal draw-in maneuver group: n= 10, core exercise group: n= 10) were recruited in the study. Both group received exercise intervention 3 times a week for 4weeks. The test were based on muscle thickness (transversus abdominis; Tra, internal oblique; IO and external oblique; EO), disability (Oswestry disability index; ODI) measured immediately before and after intervention. The data was measured by SPSS program 12.0 version and analyzed by Paired t-test and Independent t-test. The following results were obtained. The thickness of IO, EO for both group significantly improved except for muscle thickness of Tra. The ODI were significant difference for both groups. As the results of this study, we suggest that it may be effective method to apply to increase for the thickness of Tra, EO using abdominal draw-in maneuver and thickness of IO using core exercise.

  12. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p resistance to lengthening at long muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  13. Electromechanical delay of abdominal muscles is modified by low back pain prevention exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpala, Agnieszka; Rutkowska-Kucharska, Alicja; Drapala, Jaroslaw

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the research was to assess the effect of a 4-week-long training program on selected parameters: electromechanical delay (EMD) and amplitude of electromyographic signal (EMG). Fourteen female students of the University School of Physical Education participated in the study. Torques and surface electromyography were evaluated under static conditions. Surface electrodes were glued to both sides of the rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), and erector spinae (ES) muscles. The 4-week-long program was aimed at strengthening the abdominal muscles and resulted in increased EMD during maximum torque production by flexors of the trunk, increased amplitudes of the signals of the erector spinae ( p = 0.005), and increased EMG amplitude asymmetry of the lower ( p = 0.013) and upper part ( p = 0.006) of the rectus abdominis muscle. In a training program composed of a large number of repetitions of strength exercises, in which the training person uses their own weight as the load (like in exercises such as curl-ups), the process of recruitment of motor units is similar to that found during fatiguing exercises and plyometric training.

  14. Asymmetry of activation of lateral abdominal muscles during the neurodevelopmental traction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Zaborowska, Małgorzata; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the symmetry and pattern of activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique. Measurements of LAM thickness were performed in four experimental conditions: during traction with the force of 5% body weight (5% traction): 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction with the force of 15% body weight (15% traction): 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. Thirty-seven healthy children participated in the study. Not applicable. To evaluate LAM activation level ultrasound technology was employed (two Mindray DP660 devices (Mindray, Shenzhen, China) with 75L38EA linear probes). An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Side-to-side LAM activation asymmetry showed relatively high magnitude, however, significant difference was found only in case of the obliquus externus (OE) during stronger traction (P muscle differences were most pronounced between the OE and TrA (P muscles showing less intense activation. In statistical terms, the only signs of side-to-side asymmetry of LAM activation are visible in case of the OE, however, the magnitude of asymmetry is relatively high. The results allow to identify patterns of activation of LAM in children showing typical development that will serve as a reference in future studies in children with neurological disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isometric abdominal wall muscle strength assessment in individuals with incisional hernia: a prospective reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K K; Kjaer, M; Jorgensen, L N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the reliability of measurements obtained by the Good Strength dynamometer, determining isometric abdominal wall and back muscle strength in patients with ventral incisional hernia (VIH) and healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall. Ten patients with VIH and ten healthy volunteers with an intact abdominal wall were each examined twice with a 1 week interval. Examination included the assessment of truncal flexion and extension as measured with the Good Strength dynamometer, the completion of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the self-assessment of truncal strength on a visual analogue scale (SATS). The test-retest reliability of truncal flexion and extension was assessed by interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman graphs. Finally, correlations between truncal strength, and IPAQ and SATS were examined. Truncal flexion and extension showed excellent test-retest reliability for both patients with VIH (ICC 0.91 and 0.99) and healthy controls (ICC 0.97 and 0.96). Bland and Altman plots showed that no systematic bias was present for neither truncal flexion nor extension when assessing reliability. For patients with VIH, no significant correlations between objective measures of truncal strength and IPAQ or SATS were found. For healthy controls, both truncal flexion (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) and extension (τ 0.58, p = 0.025) correlated significantly with SATS, while no other significant correlation between truncal strength measures and IPAQ was found. The Good Strength dynamometer provided a reliable, low-cost measure of truncal flexion and extension in patients with VIH.

  16. Inhibition of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in septic intra-abdominal abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vary, T.C.; Siegel, J.H.; Tall, B.D.; Morris, J.G.; Smith, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    Chronic sepsis is always associated with profound wasting leading to increased release of amino acids from skeletal muscle. Net protein catabolism may be due to decreased rate of synthesis, increased rate of degradation, or both. To determine whether protein synthesis is altered in chronic sepsis, the rate of protein synthesis in vivo was estimated by measuring the incorporation of [ 3 H]-phenylalanine in skeletal muscle protein in a chronic (5-day) septic rat model induced by creation of a stable intra-abdominal abscess using an E. coli + B. fragilis-infected sterile fecal-agar pellet as foreign body nidus. Septic rats failed to gain weight at rates similar to control animals, therefore control animals were weight matched to the septic animals. The skeletal muscle protein content in septic animals was significantly reduced relative to control animals (0.18 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.21 +/- 0.01 mg protein/gm wet wt; p less than 0.02). The rate of incorporation of [ 3 H]-phenylalanine into skeletal muscle protein from control animals was 39 +/- 4 nmole/gm wet wt/hr or a fractional synthetic rate of 5.2 +/- 0.5%/day. In contrast to control animals, the fractional synthetic rate in septic animals (2.6 +/- 0.2%/day) was reduced by 50% compared to control animals (p less than 0.005). The decreased rate of protein synthesis in sepsis was not due to an energy deficit, as high-energy phosphates and ATP/ADP ratio were not altered. This decrease in protein synthesis occurred even though septic animals consumed as much food as control animals

  17. Normal Weight but Low Muscle Mass and Abdominally Obese: Implications for the Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; van de Bool, Coby; van den Borst, Bram; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that low muscle mass affects physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that combined low muscle mass and abdominal obesity may also adversely influence the cardiometabolic risk profile in COPD, even in those with normal weight. The cardiometabolic risk profile and the responsiveness to 4 months high-intensity exercise training was assessed in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass stratified by abdominal obesity. This is a cross-sectional study including 81 clinically stable patients with COPD (age 62.5 ± 8.2 years; 50.6% males; forced expiratory volume in 1 second 55.1 ± 19.5 percentage predicted) with fat-free mass index risk profile. Triglycerides showed a significant decrease, while the HOMA-IR increased. Abdominal obesity is highly prevalent in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass who showed an increased cardiometabolic risk compared with patients without abdominal obesity. This cardiometabolic risk profile was not altered after 4 months of exercise training. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of the medial medullary reticular formation in relaying vestibular signals to the diaphragm and abdominal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, R. L.; Bergsman, A. E.; Holmes, M. J.; Yates, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in posture can affect the resting length of respiratory muscles, requiring alterations in the activity of these muscles if ventilation is to be unaffected. Recent studies have shown that the vestibular system contributes to altering respiratory muscle activity during movement and changes in posture. Furthermore, anatomical studies have demonstrated that many bulbospinal neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) provide inputs to phrenic and abdominal motoneurons; because this region of the reticular formation receives substantial vestibular and other movement-related input, it seems likely that medial medullary reticulospinal neurons could adjust the activity of respiratory motoneurons during postural alterations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether functional lesions of the MRF affect inspiratory and expiratory muscle responses to activation of the vestibular system. Lidocaine or muscimol injections into the MRF produced a large increase in diaphragm and abdominal muscle responses to vestibular stimulation. These vestibulo-respiratory responses were eliminated following subsequent chemical blockade of descending pathways in the lateral medulla. However, inactivation of pathways coursing through the lateral medulla eliminated excitatory, but not inhibitory, components of vestibulo-respiratory responses. The simplest explanation for these data is that MRF neurons that receive input from the vestibular nuclei make inhibitory connections with diaphragm and abdominal motoneurons, whereas a pathway that courses laterally in the caudal medulla provides excitatory vestibular inputs to these motoneurons.

  19. Effects of hippotherapy on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and activity of daily living in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JiHyun; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hippotherapy exercise on the thickness of deep abdominal muscles and daily activities of children with intellectual disabilities. [Subjects and Methods] Seven children with intellectual disabilities were treated with hippotherapy for 30 minutes twice a week for 6 weeks. The thickness of deep abdominal muscles and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) of the subjects were measured by ultrasonography before and after the experiment. [Results] There was no significant change in the thickness of the External Oblique and Internal Oblique muscles, but there was a statistically significant change in Transverse Adbominis thickness and FIM score after treatment compared to before treatment. [Conclusion] Hippotherapy exercise has a positive effect on the improvement of Transverse Abdominis (TrA) and activity of daily livings of children with intellectual disabilities.

  20. Comparison of deep and superficial abdominal muscle activity between experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors and controls during stabilization exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Hyun; Hong, Sang-Min; Kim, Chang-Won; Shin, Yun-A

    2015-06-01

    Pilates and resistance exercises are used for lumbar stabilization training. However, it is unclear which exercise is more effective for lumbar stabilization. In our study, we aimed to compare surface muscle activity and deep muscle thickness during relaxation and spinal stabilization exercise in experienced Pilates and resistance exercise instructors. This study is a retrospective case control study set in the Exercise Prescription Laboratory and Sports Medicine Center. The participants included Pilates instructors (mean years of experience, 3.20±1.76; n=10), resistance exercise instructors (mean years of experience, 2.53±0.63; n=10), and controls (n=10). The participants performed 4 different stabilization exercises: abdominal drawing-in maneuver, bridging, roll-up, and one-leg raise. During the stabilization exercises, surface muscle activity was measured with electromyography, whereas deep muscle thickness was measured by ultrasound imaging. During the 4 stabilization exercises, the thickness of the transverse abdominis (TrA) was significantly greater in the Pilates-trained group than the other 2 other groups. The internal oblique (IO) thickness was significantly greater in the Pilates- and resistance-trained group than the control group, during the 4 exercises. However, the surface muscle activities were similar between the groups. Both Pilates and resistance exercise instructors had greater activation of deep muscles, such as the TrA and IO, than the control subjects. Pilates and resistance exercise are both effective for increasing abdominal deep muscle thickness.

  1. Assessment of abdominal muscle function in individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkefors, Anna; Squair, Jordan W; Chua, Romeo; Lam, Tania; Chen, Zhen; Carpenter, Mark G

    2015-02-01

    To use transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography to assess the potential for preserved function in the abdominal muscles in individuals classified with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6. Five individuals with spinal cord injury (C5-T3) and 5 able-bodied individuals. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was delivered over the abdominal region of primary motor cortex during resting and sub-maximal (or attempted) contractions. Surface electromyography was used to record motor-evoked potentials as well as maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions in the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation in the abdominal muscles occurred in all spinal cord injury subjects. Latencies of muscle response onsets were similar in both groups; however, peak-to-peak amplitudes were smaller in the spinal cord injury group. During maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions all spinal cord injury subjects were able to elicit electromyography activity above resting levels in more than one abdominal muscle across tasks. Individuals with motor-complete spinal cord injury above T6 were able to activate abdominal muscles in response to transcranial magnetic stimulation and during maximal voluntary (or attempted) contractions. The activation was induced directly through corticospinal pathways, and not indirectly by stretch reflex activations of the diaphragm. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and electromyography measurements provide a useful method to assess motor preservation of abdominal muscles in persons with spinal cord injury.

  2. The relationship between abdominal muscle activity and pain, disability and fear of movement during standing postural tasks in females with chronic nonspecific low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ehsani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It appears that the level of fear of movement changes deep trunk muscle activity in the patients with low back pain (LBP. There is no study to investigate the relationship between deep trunk muscle activity and fear of movement in the patients with LBP. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between abdominal muscle activity and pain, disability and fear of movement during standing postural tasks in females with chronic nonspecific LBP. Materials and Methods: Forty four females participated were asked to maintain their balance during standing on the platform stability levels of Biodex Balance System (BBS. Concurrently, ultrasonography (US data about abdominal muscles thickness measurement were transferred and saved to process offline. The pain intensity, disability and fear of movement were assessed by valid scales and questionnaire. Results: There was not significant correlation between abdominal muscle thickness changes and pain and disability intensity (P>0.05, while significant and inverse correlation between deep abdominal muscle thickness changes and fear of movement was observed in the patients (P<0.05, although this correlation is weak (r= -0.36- -0.32. Conclusion: It seems that increases in fear of movement decrease significantly deep abdominal muscles activity in the patients with LBP. This relationship demonstrates the importance of cognitive behavioral therapy and controlling fear of movement on improvement of deep abdominal muscle activity in the patients with LBP

  3. Activation amplitude and temporal synchrony among back extensor and abdominal muscles during a controlled transfer task: comparison of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Butler, Heather L; Kozey, John W

    2012-08-01

    Muscle synergies are important for spinal stability, but few studies examine temporal responses of spinal muscles to dynamic perturbations. This study examined activation amplitudes and temporal synergies among compartments of the back extensor and among abdominal wall muscles in response to dynamic bidirectional moments of force. We further examined whether responses were different between men and women. 19 women and 18 men performed a controlled transfer task. Surface electromyograms from bilateral sites over 6 back extensor compartments and 6 abdominal wall muscle sites were analyzed using principal component analysis. Key features were extracted from the measured electromyographic waveforms capturing amplitude and temporal variations among muscle sites. Three features explained 97% of the variance. Scores for each feature were computed for each measured waveform and analysis of variance found significant (pWomen had more differences among muscle sites than men for the lateral flexion moment feature. For the abdominal wall muscles the oblique muscles responded with synergies related to fiber orientation, with women having higher amplitudes and more responsiveness to the lateral flexion moment than men. Synergies between the abdominal and back extensor sites as the moment demands change are discussed. These findings illustrate differential activation among erector spinae compartments and abdominal wall muscle sites supporting a highly organized pattern of response to bidirectional external moments with asynchronies more apparent in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of abdominal muscle endurance of individuals who attend gymnastics gym

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ney Marcos da Luz Pedroso

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Localized Muscular endurance (LME of the abdominal region in relation to distinct muscle groups (hip and lumbar spine fl exor of individuals in differing physical conditions. One hundred twenty subjects were selected at random (60 male and 60 female 50% of whom worked out and 50% who didn’t. The AAHPERD Test (1976 and PAULA Test (1990 were used to measure the LME of hip and lumbar spine fl exor, respectively. Results indicated that subjects who worked out differ significantly (p RESUMO Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML da região abdominal em relação a grupos musculares distintos (fl exores do quadril e fl exores da coluna vertebral de indivíduos com condicionamento físico diferentes. Para tal foram selecionados aleatoriamente 120 indivíduos (60 masculinos e 60 femininos sendo 50% destes treinados e os outros 50% destreinados. Utilizou-se o teste da AAHPER e o teste de PAULA para mensurar a RML dos fl exores de quadril e fl exores da coluna vertebral, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que indivíduos treinados e destreinados diferem signifi cativamente (p<0,01 quanto a RML dos fl exores da coluna vertebral em ambos os sexos, e também nos fl exores do quadril no sexo feminino (p<0,05; fi cando somente os fl exores do quadril do sexo masculino sem diferenças estatisticamente signifi cativas. Existiram correlações de baixas a moderadas entre flexores do quadril e fl exores da coluna vertebral para treinadas (r=0,45 e destreinadas (r=0,44 do sexo feminino, sendo moderada em treinados do sexo masculino (r=057 e baixa para destreinados (r=0,36. Apesar destes valores de correlação terem sido signifi cativos estatisticamente (p<0,05 em mulheres treinadas e destreinadas e homens treinados, os valores de r2 demonstraram um baixo grau de variação conjunta entre os grupos musculares (variando entre 13,32% a 33,52%. Pode-se concluir que nenhum

  5. P-18: Comparison of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness in Young Male Soccer Players With and Without Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Tavana

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare the lateral abdominal muscle thickness and other possible functional risk factors in young soccer players with and without low back pain (LBP.METHOD: In total, 30 young soccer players between 16 and 20 years old, with and without LBP, from the premier league participated in this study. The thicknesses of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis on both sides were measured via ultrasound imaging. In addition, hamstring flexibility, active lumbar forward flexion, and isometric muscle endurance of trunk extensors were measured and were compared regarding the history of LBP.RESULTS: Mean ± SD age of the subjects was 17.4 ± 1.1 years. There was no statistically significant difference regarding age, BMI, weekly training hours and age of starting to compete between groups. Subjects with sports-life, last year and last month history ofLBP had a statistically significant lower external oblique muscle thickness in both right and left side, and both dominant and non-dominant feet (p<0.05. Subjects with sportslife history of LBP had lower internal oblique muscle thickness in both side and both feet (p<0.05. Moreover, those with a sports-life history of LBP had a significantly higher degree of hamstring muscle tightness than non-LBP group on the dominant foot (p <0.05.CONCLUSION: In this sample group of young soccer players, abdominal muscles seem to have an important role in the stability of the spine and prevention of LBP. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the role of these muscles as a risk factor for soccer players.

  6. Electromyographic activity of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles during the vesical filling and evacuation

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    Ahmed Shafik

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    BACKGROUND: The role of the anterolateral abdominal wall muscles (AAWMs during the vesical filling and evacuation has not been sufficiently addressed in the literature. We have investigated the hypothesis that the AAWMs exhibit the increased electromyographic (EMG activity on the vesical distension and contraction which presumably assists vesical evacuation.

    METHODS: The effects of the vesical balloon distension on the vesical pressure (VP, vesical neck (VNP pressures and the AAWMs' EMG activity were studied in 28 healthy volunteers aged 40.7 ± 9.7 years (18 men, 10 women. These effects were tested after the individual anesthetization of the bladder and AAWMs and after saline infiltration.

    RESULTS: The VP and the VNP showed a gradual increase upon the incremental vesical balloon distension which started at a distending volume of 120–140 ml. At a mean volume of 364.6 ± 23.8 ml, the VP increased to a mean of 36.6 ± 3.2 cmH2O, the VNP decreased to 18.4 ± 2.4 cmH2O, and the AAWMs EMG registered a significant increase. This effect disappeared in the individual bladder and in the AAWMs' anesthetization. However, it did not disappear in the saline administration.

    CONCLUSIONS: The AAWMs appear to contract simultaneously with vesical contraction. This action presumably increases the IAP and it

  7. Overexpression of Catalase in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Prevents the Formation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parastatidis, Ioannis; Weiss, Daiana; Joseph, Giji; Taylor, W Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of oxidative stress have been reported in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), but which reactive oxygen species (ROS) promotes the development of AAA remains unclear. Here we investigate the effect of the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) degrading enzyme catalase on the formation of AAA. Approach and Results AAA were induced with the application of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on mouse infrarenal aortas. The administration of PEG-catalase, but not saline, attenuated the loss of tunica media and protected against AAA formation (0.91±0.1 mm vs. 0.76±0.09 mm). Similarly, in a transgenic mouse model, catalase over-expression in the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) preserved the thickness of tunica media and inhibited aortic dilatation by 50% (0.85±0.14 mm vs. 0.57±0.08 mm). Further studies showed that injury with CaCl2 decreased catalase expression and activity in the aortic wall. Pharmacologic administration or genetic over-expression of catalase restored catalase activity and subsequently decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity. In addition, a profound reduction in inflammatory markers and VSMC apoptosis was evident in aortas of catalase over-expressing mice. Interestingly, as opposed to infusion of PEG-catalase, chronic over-expression of catalase in VSMC did not alter the total aortic H2O2 levels. Conclusions The data suggest that a reduction in aortic wall catalase activity can predispose to AAA formation. Restoration of catalase activity in the vascular wall enhances aortic VSMC survival and prevents AAA formation primarily through modulation of matrix metalloproteinase activity. PMID:23950141

  8. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Vânia F; Amorim, Juleimar S C; Pereira, Aline M; Ferreira, Paulo H; Pereira, Leani S M

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and urinary incontinence (UI) are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal (IO), and external oblique (EO) muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 72±5.2 years) who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value recruitment. These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly.

  9. Associations between low back pain, urinary incontinence, and abdominal muscle recruitment as assessed via ultrasonography in the elderly

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    Vânia F. Figueiredo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain (LBP and urinary incontinence (UI are highly prevalent among elderly individuals. In young adults, changes in trunk muscle recruitment, as assessed via ultrasound imaging, may be associated with lumbar spine stability. Objective: To assess the associations between LBP, UI, and the pattern of transversus abdominis (TrA, internal (IO, and external oblique (EO muscle recruitment in the elderly as evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Method: Fifty-four elderly individuals (mean age: 72±5.2 years who complained of LBP and/or UI as assessed by the McGill Pain Questionnaire, Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form, and ultrasound imaging were included in the study. The statistical analysis comprised a multiple linear regression model, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The regression models for the TrA, IO, and EO muscle thickness levels explained 2.0% (R2=0.02; F=0.47; p=0.628, 10.6% (R2=0.106; F=3.03; p=0.057, and 10.1% (R2=0.101; F=2.70; p=0.077 of the variability, respectively. None of the regression models developed for the abdominal muscles exhibited statistical significance. A significant and negative association (p=0.018; β=-0.0343 was observed only between UI and IO recruitment. Conclusion: These results suggest that age-related factors may have interfered with the findings of the study, thus emphasizing the need to perform ultrasound imaging-based studies to measure abdominal muscle recruitment in the elderly.

  10. The impact of the neurodevelopmental traction technique on activation of lateral abdominal muscles in children aged 11-13 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogola, Anna; Gnat, Rafał; Dziub, Dorota; Gwóźdź, Michalina; Zaborowska, Małgorzata

    2016-06-27

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of lateral abdominal muscles (LAM) in response to neurodevelopmental traction technique as assessed by ultrasounds as well as to compare the effects of different traction forces. An experiment with repeated measurements of the dependent variables was conducted. Thirty-seven children (22 girls) participated. Measurements of LAM thickness (indicating LAM activation) were performed bilaterally during traction of 5% body weight: 1) in neutral position, 2) in 20° posterior trunk inclination; during traction of 15% body weight: 3) in neutral position, 4) in 20° posterior trunk inclination. The ultrasound technology was employed. When applying the lighter traction the superficial LAM (external and internal oblique muscles) showed significant changes. The mean thickness of both muscles during traction increased (both p  0.05). Stronger traction elicited smaller changes. External and internal oblique muscles showed significant increases (p stronger traction (p Stronger traction induces smaller LAM thickness changes than lighter traction.

  11. Activity of Lower Limb Muscles During Squat With and Without Abdominal Drawing-in and Pilates Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Alexandre C; Martins, Fábio M; Silva, Angélica F; Coelho, Ana C; Intelangelo, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-11-01

    Barbosa, AC, Martins, FM, Silva, AF, Coelho, AC, Intelangelo, L, and Vieira, ER. Activity of lower limb muscles during squat with and without abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3018-3023, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing on the activity of lower limb muscles during squats. Adults (n = 13, 22 ± 3 years old) with some Pilates experience performed three 60° squats under each of the following conditions in a random order: (I) normal breathing, (II) drawing-in maneuver with normal breathing, and (III) drawing-in maneuver with Pilates breathing. Peak-normalized surface electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior during the knee flexion and extension phases of squat exercises was analyzed. There were significant differences among the conditions during the knee flexion phase for the rectus femoris (p = 0.001), biceps femoris (p = 0.038), and tibialis anterior (p = 0.001), with increasing activation from conditions I to III. For the gastrocnemius medialis, there were significant differences among the conditions during the knee extension phase (p = 0.023), with increased activity under condition I. The rectus and biceps femoris activity was higher during the extension vs. flexion phase under conditions I and II. The tibialis anterior activity was higher during the flexion compared with the extension phase under all conditions, and the medial gastrocnemius activity was higher during the extension phase under condition I. Doing squats with abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing resulted in increased rectus, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior activity during the flexion phase, increasing movement stability during squat exercises.

  12. An electromyographic study of abdominal muscle activity in children with spastic cerebral palsy

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    Saviour Adjenti

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The findings from this study suggest that the RA could be targeted during rehabilitation regimens; however, the force generated by this muscle may not be sufficient for the maintenance of trunk stability without optimal support from the EO and IO muscles.

  13. Training through gametherapy promotes coactivation of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in young women, nulliparous and continents

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    Valeria Regina Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objectives: Several studies have been investigated co-activation can enhance the effectveness of PFM training protocols allowing preventive and therapeutic goals in pelvic floor dysfunctions. The objective of the present study was to investigate if an abdominal-pelvic protocol of training (APT using gametherapy would allow co-activation of PFM and transversus abdominis/oblique internal (TrA/OI muscles. Patients and methods: Twenty-five nulliparous, continent, young females, with median age 24.76 (±3.76 years were evaluated using digital palpation (DP of PFM and surface electromyography of PFM and TrA/OI simultaneously, during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, alternating PFM and TrA/OI contraction requests. All women participated on a supervised program of APT using gametherapy, that included exercises of pelvic mobilization associated to contraction of TrA/OI muscles oriented by virtual games, for 30 minutes, three times a week, in a total of 10 sessions. Electromyographic data were processed and analyzed by ANOVA - analysis of variance. Results: When MVC of TrA/OI was solicited, it was observed simultaneous increase of electromyographic activity of PFM (p=0.001 following ATP. However, EMG activity did not change significantly during MVC of PFM. Conclusion: Training using gametherapy allowed better co-activation of pelvic floor muscles in response to contraction of TrA, in young nulliparous and continent women.

  14. Reliability and validity of lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests in office workers with nonspecific subacute low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Mocholi, Miguel H; del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Parraca, Jose A; Adsuar, Jose C; Gusi, Narcis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of trunk endurance tests, the reliability and validity of these tests in office workers with subacute nonspecific low back pain are unknown. This cross-sectional study involved 190 subjects: 30 men and 42 women without low back pain and 47 men and 71 women with low back pain. All subjects underwent timed prone and supine isometric lumbar and abdominal trunk endurance tests that were performed until subjective fatigue occurred. All subjects also completed the Roland Morris and Oswestry self-reported disability questionnaires. A test-retest study (7 days) was conducted with 31 participants with low back pain from the study. For the abdominal trunk endurance test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 62.06 (36.87) and 46.06 (29.28) seconds, respectively, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. For the lumbar test, males and females with low back pain had mean (SD) values of 79.57 (30.66) and 75.49 (28.97) seconds, respectively, again, both significantly lower than the asymptomatic workers. The intraclass correlation coefficients of both tests exceeded 0.90 and the Kappa indices were excellent for both men and women. Receiver-operating curve analyses revealed areas under the curve very close to or exceeding 0.70 for both men and women for both tests. The lumbar and abdominal trunk muscle endurance tests appeared to be reliable and valid measures in office workers with subacute low back pain.

  15. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

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    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  16. A comparative analysis of the electrical activity of the abdominal muscles during traditional and Pilates-based exercises under two conditions

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    Mariana Felipe Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of Pilates-based exercises for trunk strengthening has been reported in the literature. The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the electrical activity of the rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles during a traditional abdominal exercise program and an exercise program based on the Pilates method using a ball and an elastic band. The sample was composed of 10 healthy women, non-practitioners of Pilates, who performed the traditional abdominal exercise and roll-up with the ball and elastic band. The sign was normalized by the electromyographic peak of the dynamics activity and was adjusted for 2000 samples/s; the filter was set in a frequency band from 20 to 450 Hz. In the comparison between exercises, the external oblique muscle in the concentric phase had a higher recruitment in the roll-up with the ball (P =0.042. In the comparison between muscles in each exercise, the rectus abdominis showed a higher activation in the concentric phase (P = 0.009 and in the eccentric phase (P = 0.05 of the traditional abdominal exercise. Activation percentages ranged from 15% to 22%. The traditional abdominal exercise had the largest activation percentage.

  17. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

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    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  18. An investigation of the reproducibility of ultrasound measures of abdominal muscle activation in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Chris G.; Latimer, Jane; Hodges, Paul W.; Shirley, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) measures are used by clinicians and researchers to evaluate improvements in activity of the abdominal muscles in patients with low back pain. Studies evaluating the reproducibility of these US measures provide some information; however, little is known about the reproducibility of these US measures over time in patients with low back pain. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reproducibility of ultrasound measurements of automatic activation of the lateral abdominal wall muscles using a leg force task in patients with chronic low back pain. Thirty-five participants from an existing randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial participated in the study. A reproducibility analysis was undertaken from all patients using data collected at baseline and after treatment. The reproducibility of measurements of thickness, muscle activation (thickness changes) and muscle improvement/deterioration after intervention (differences in thickness changes from single images made before and after treatment) was analysed. The reproducibility of static images (thickness) was excellent (ICC2,1 = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96–0.97, standard error of the measurement (SEM) = 0.04 cm, smallest detectable change (SDC) = 0.11 cm), the reproducibility of thickness changes was moderate (ICC2,1 = 0.72, 95% CI 0.65–0.76, SEM = 15%, SDC 41%), while the reproducibility of differences in thickness changes from single images with statistical adjustment for duplicate measures was poor (ICC2,1 = 0.44, 95% CI 0.33–0.58, SEM = 21%, SDC = 66.5%). Improvements in the testing protocol must be performed in order to enhance reproducibility of US as an outcome measure for abdominal muscle activation. PMID:19415347

  19. Comparison of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Cross Sectional Area of Multifidus in Adolescent Soccer Players with and without Low Back Pain: A Case Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Linek, Paweł; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Hassannejad, Alireza; Younesian, Ali; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint amongst adolescent athletes. While different studies have shown association between LBP and trunk muscle thickness in the general population, few articles have studied it in adolescent athletes. The aim of this study is to compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness and function, and cross sectional area (CSA) of lumbar multifidus (LM) in adolescent soccer players with and without LBP. In total, 28 adolescent soccer players with and without LBP, from the premier league participated in this study. The thickness of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis and the CSA of the LM muscles at L4 level on both sides were measured at rest and contraction via ultrasound imaging (USI). In addition, leg length discrepancy, hamstring flexibility, active lumbar forward flexion, and isometric muscle endurance of trunk extensors were measured in both groups. (study design/setting: case control study). The mean (SD) age in LBP group and non-LBP group were 14.0 (1.1) and 14.1 (0.9) years, respectively. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics of participants between groups. Findings showed no significant difference between LBP and non-LBP groups comparing all measured variables. The data obtained support that there is not a correlation between abdominal muscle thickness and CSA of the lumbar multifidi and LBP in adolescent soccer players. These findings suggest that other factors rather than the thickness of deep trunk muscles may play a more significant role in the etiology of LBP in adolescent soccer players.

  20. Core muscle size assessed by perioperative abdominal CT scan is related to mortality, postoperative complications, and hospitalization after major abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselager, Rune; Gögenur, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Risk stratification of patients prior to surgery is important for reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The frailty concept has been put forward as a good predictor of surgical outcomes. Sarcopenia (depletion of muscle mass) can be used to measure frailty. We aimed to syste......PURPOSE: Risk stratification of patients prior to surgery is important for reduction of postoperative morbidity and mortality. The frailty concept has been put forward as a good predictor of surgical outcomes. Sarcopenia (depletion of muscle mass) can be used to measure frailty. We aimed...

  1. The Efficacy of Functional Electrical Stimulation of the Abdominal Muscles in the Treatment of Chronic Constipation in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Pilot Study

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    Christine Singleton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic constipation in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS is common and the current methods of treatment are ineffective in some patients. Anecdotal observations suggest that functional electrical stimulation (FES of the abdominal muscles may be effective in the management of constipation in these patients. Patients and Methods. In this exploratory investigation we studied the effects of FES on the whole gut transit time (WGTT and the colonic transit time (CTT. In addition, we evaluated the treatment effect on the patients’ constipation-related quality of life and on the use of laxatives and the use of manual bowel evacuation. FES was given for 30 minutes twice a day for a period of six weeks. Four female patients were studied. Results. The WGTT and CTT and constipation-related quality of life improved in all patients. The patients’ use of laxatives was reduced. No adverse effects of FES treatment were reported. Conclusion. The findings of this pilot study suggest that FES applied to the abdominal muscles may be an effective treatment modality for severe chronic constipation in patients with MS.

  2. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  3. Tissue-engineering with muscle fiber fragments improves the strength of a weak abdominal wall in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP and then e...... showed a significantly higher strength than the group with MPEG-PLGA alone (p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Tissue-engineering with MFFs seeded on a scaffold of biodegradable MPEG-PLGA might be an interesting adjunct to future POP repair.......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP...

  4. Effect of the Abdominal Hollowing and Bracing Maneuvers on Activity Pattern of the Lumbopelvic Muscles During Prone Hip Extension in Subjects With or Without Chronic Low Back Pain: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaee, Amir H; Ghamkhar, Leila; Arab, Amir M

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of abdominal hollowing (AH) and abdominal bracing (AB) maneuvers on the activity pattern of lumbopelvic muscles during prone hip extension (PHE) in participants with or without nonspecific chronic low back pain (CLBP). Twenty women with or without CLBP participated in this cross-sectional observational study. The electromyographic activity (amplitude and onset time) of the contralateral erector spinae (CES), ipsilateral erector spinae (IES), gluteus maximus, and biceps femoris muscles was measured during PHE with and without abdominal maneuvers. A 3-way mixed model analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used for statistical analysis. Between-group comparisons showed that the CES onset delay during PHE alone was greater (P = .03) and the activity level of IES, CES, and biceps femoris in all maneuvers (P .05). Performance of the AH maneuver decreased the erector spinae muscle AMP in both groups, and neither maneuver altered the onset delay of any of the muscles in either group. The low back pain group showed higher levels of activity in all muscles (not statistically significant in gluteus maximus during all maneuvers). The groups were similar according to the onset delay of any of the muscles during either maneuver. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  6. [Electrocoagulation on a fragment of anterior abdominal rectal muscle for the control of presacral bleeding during rectal resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal Núñez, José Enrique; Martínez, María Teresa García; Poblador, Alejandro Ruano

    2012-03-01

    Presacral venous haemorrhage during rectal movement is low, but is often massive, and even fatal. Our objective is the "in vitro" determination of the results of electrocoagulation applied to a fragment of muscle on the sacral bone surface during rectal resection due to a malignant neoplasm of the rectum. Single-pole coagulation was applied "in vitro" with the selector at maximum power on a 2×2 cms muscle fragment, applied to the anterior side of the IV sacral vertebra until reaching boiling point. The method was used on 6 patients with bleeding of the presacral venous plexus. In the "in vitro" study, boiling point was reached in 90 seconds from applying the single-pole current on the muscle fragment. Electrocoagulation was applied to a 2×2 cm rectal muscle fragment in 6 patients with presacral venous haemorrhage, using pressure on the surface of the presacral bone, with the stopping of the bleeding being achieved in all cases. The use of indirect electrocoagulation on a fragment of the rectus abdominis muscle is a straightforward and highly effective technique for controlling presacral venous haemorrhage. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Associations of maximal voluntary isometric hip extension torque with muscle size of hamstring and gluteus maximus and intra-abdominal pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayashiki, Kota; Hirata, Kosuke; Ishida, Kiraku; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Miyamoto, Naokazu

    2017-06-01

    Muscle size of the hamstring and gluteus maximus (GM) as well as intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) are considered as factors affecting the torque development during hip extension. This study examined the associations of torque development during maximal voluntary isometric hip extension with IAP and muscle size of the hamstring and GM. Anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) of the hamstring and thickness of GM were determined in 20 healthy young males using an ultrasonography apparatus (Experiment 1). Torque and IAP were simultaneously measured while subjects performed maximal voluntary isometric hip extension. The IAP was measured using a pressure transducer placed in the rectum and determined at the time at which the developed torque reached to the maximal. In Experiment 2, torque and IAP were measured during maximal voluntary isometric hip flexion in 18 healthy young males. The maximal hip extension torque was significantly correlated with the IAP (r = 0.504, P = 0.024), not with the ACSA of the hamstring (r = 0.307, P = 0.188) or the thickness of GM (r = 0.405, P = 0.076). The relationship was still significant even when the ACSA of the hamstring and the thickness of GM were adjusted statistically (r = 0.486, P = 0.041). The maximal hip flexion torque was not significantly correlated with the IAP (r = -0.118, P = 0.642). The current results suggest that IAP can contribute independently of the muscle size of the agonists to maximal voluntary hip extension torque.

  8. Loss of MURC/Cavin-4 induces JNK and MMP-9 activity enhancement in vascular smooth muscle cells and exacerbates abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Kotaro; Ogata, Takehiro; Ueyama, Tomomi; Kasahara, Takeru; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Naito, Daisuke; Taniguchi, Takuya; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Nishi, Masahiro; Kimura, Taizo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Hiroki; Matoba, Satoaki

    2017-06-03

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is relatively common in elderly patients with atherosclerosis. MURC (muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein)/Cavin-4 modulating the caveolae function of muscle cells is expressed in cardiomyocytes, skeletal muscle cells and smooth muscle cells. Here, we show a novel functional role of MURC/Cavin-4 in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and AAA development. Both wild-type (WT) and MURC/Cavin-4 knockout (MURC -/- ) mice subjected to periaortic application of CaCl 2 developed AAAs. Six weeks after CaCl 2 treatment, internal and external aortic diameters were significantly increased in MURC -/- AAAs compared with WT AAAs, which were accompanied by advanced fibrosis in the tunica media of MURC -/- AAAs. The activity of JNK and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -2 and -9 were increased in MURC -/- AAAs compared with WT AAAs at 5 days after CaCl 2 treatment. At 6 weeks after CaCl 2 treatment, MURC -/- AAAs exhibited attenuated JNK activity compared with WT AAAs. There was no difference in the activity of MMP-2 or -9 between saline and CaCl 2 treatments. In MURC/Cavin-4-knockdown VSMCs, TNFα-induced activity of JNK and MMP-9 was enhanced compared with control VSMCs. Furthermore, WT, MURC -/- , apolipoprotein E -/- (ApoE -/- ), and MURC/Cavin-4 and ApoE double-knockout (MURC -/- ApoE -/- ) mice were subjected to angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion. In both ApoE -/- and MURC -/- ApoE -/- mice infused for 4 weeks with Ang II, AAAs were promoted. The internal aortic diameter was significantly increased in Ang II-infused MURC -/- ApoE -/- mice compared with Ang II-infused ApoE -/- mice. In MURC/Cavin-4-knockdown VSMCs, Ang II-induced activity of JNK and MMP-9 was enhanced compared with control VSMCs. Our results suggest that MURC/Cavin-4 in VSMCs modulates AAA progression at the early stage via the activation of JNK and MMP-9. MURC/Cavin-4 is a potential therapeutic target against AAA progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AAAs don’t cause symptoms unless they leak, tear, or rupture. If this happens, you may experience: sudden pain in your abdomen, groin, back, legs, or buttocks nausea and vomiting abnormal stiffness in your abdominal muscles problems with urination or bowel movements clammy, sweaty ...

  11. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation-based abdominal muscle strengthening training on pulmonary function, pain, and functional disability index in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Ryong; Lee, Hye-Jin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of abdominal muscle strengthening training (AMST) using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) on pulmonary function, pain, and functional disability index in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. Thirty CLBP patients were randomly assigned to the traditional physical therapy (control) group (n=15) and PNF-AMST group (n=15). Forced expiratory volume at 1 second (FEV 1 ) was measured to measure changes in pulmonary function. To measure the degree of pain, a visual analog scale (VAS) was used. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was used to assess the disability level due to low back pain. A paired t -test was performed to compare differences within the groups before and after intervention. An independent t -test was performed to compare differences between the test and control groups. The level of significance was set at α=0.05. Within-group changes in FEV 1 were significantly different in the experimental group ( P disability index inpatients with CLBP. We expect it to be useful as one of the programs for CLBP patients in the future.

  12. CT of abdominal abscesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobkin, M.T.

    1987-01-01

    The imaging search for a suspected abdominal abscess is common in hospitalized patients, especially after recent abdominal surgery. This paper examines the role of CT in the detection, localization, and treatment of abdominal abscess. The accuracy, limitations, and technical aspects of CT in this clinical setting are discussed. The diagnosis of an abscess is based on the demonstration of a circumscribed abnormal fluid collection. Although percutaneous aspiration with gram stain and culture is usually indicated to differentiate abscess from other fluid collections, the CT-based detection of extraluminal gas bubbles makes the diagnosis of an abscess highly likely. CT is compared with conventional radiographic studies, US, and radio-nuclide imaging. Specific CT and clinical features of abscesses in the following sites are emphasized: subphrenic space, liver, pancreas, kidneys, psoas muscle, appendix, and colonic diverticula. Most abdominal abscesses can be successfully treated with percutaneous drainage techniques. The techniques, results, and limitations of percutaneous abscess drainage are reviewed

  13. SMYD2 promoter DNA methylation is associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and SMYD2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghill, Bradley J; Saratzis, Athanasios; Freeman, Peter J; Sylvius, Nicolas; Bown, Matthew J

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a deadly cardiovascular disease characterised by the gradual, irreversible dilation of the abdominal aorta. AAA is a complex genetic disease but little is known about the role of epigenetics. Our objective was to determine if global DNA methylation and CpG-specific methylation at known AAA risk loci is associated with AAA, and the functional effects of methylation changes. We assessed global methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 92 individuals with AAA and 93 controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, identifying hyper-methylation in those with large AAA and a positive linear association with AAA diameter ( P  AAA risk loci identified in genome-wide association studies, using bisulphite next-generation sequencing (NGS) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) taken from aortic tissues of 44 individuals (24 AAAs and 20 controls). In IL6R , 2 CpGs were hyper-methylated ( P  = 0.0145); in ERG , 13 CpGs were hyper-methylated ( P  = 0.0005); in SERPINB9 , 6 CpGs were hypo-methylated ( P  = 0.0037) and 1 CpG was hyper-methylated ( P  = 0.0098); and in SMYD2 , 4 CpGs were hypo-methylated ( P  = 0.0012).RT-qPCR was performed for each differentially methylated gene on mRNA from the same VSMCs and compared with methylation. This analysis revealed downregulation of SMYD2 and SERPINB9 in AAA, and a direct linear relationship between SMYD2 promoter methylation and SMYD2 expression ( P  = 0.038). Furthermore, downregulation of SMYD2 at the site of aneurysm in the aortic wall was further corroborated in 6 of the same samples used for methylation and gene expression analysis with immunohistochemistry. This study is the first to assess DNA methylation in VSMCs from individuals with AAA using NGS, and provides further evidence there is an epigenetic basis to AAA. Our study shows that methylation status of the SMYD2 promoter may be linked with decreased SMYD2 expression in disease pathobiology. In

  14. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  15. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information and related topics? Functional Abdominal Pain (English, French or Spanish)—from The North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (NASPGHAN). Gastro Kids , a ...

  16. Abdominal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, N.; Razzaq, A.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal epilepsy (AE) is a rather uncommon clinical entity in children that might create diagnostic confusion especially when it lacks the typical manifestations of an epileptic seizure. We report the case of a young boy having apparently unexplained episodes of paroxysmal abdominal symptoms with no other suggestion of an underlying epileptic disorder. The case also explains how the clinical presentation can be misleading unless a high index of suspicion is maintained to reach the ultimate diagnosis. (author)

  17. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  18. Abdominal body composition measured by quantitative computed tomography and risk of non-spine fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheu, Y; Marshall, L M; Holton, K F

    2013-01-01

    The effect of abdominal adiposity and muscle on fracture is unclear in older men; therefore, we examined the association among 749 men aged 65+. Among various adipose tissues and muscle groups, lower psoas muscle volume and higher fatty infiltration of abdominal muscle contribute to higher fractu...

  19. Función del diafragma durante la colocación de cargas sobre el abdomen en sujetos normales Study of diaphragmatic muscle function during abdominal weight in normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio G. Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    increase this rate more than did the AP alone. Our findings suggest abdominal weight increases propioception related to the respiratory movements and descent of the diaphragm. The loads on the abdomen produce minor changes in mechanics of the diaphragm (1/3 of the load required to develop fatigue in normal subjects. Al least in normal subjects these changes appear to be insufficient to produce respiratory muscle training.

  20. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  1. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  2. The ultrasound-guided nerve blocks of abdominal wall contributed to anesthetic management of cholecystectomy in a patient with Becker muscular dystrophy without using muscle relaxants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masato; Kuzumoto, Naoya; Akasaki, Yuka; Morioka, Masayo; Nakayama, Kana; Matsuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Kimoto, Katsuhiro; Shimomura, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The sensitivity to non-depolarizing muscle relaxant in a patient with muscle dystrophy is reportedly higher than that in normal individuals, and the duration of the effect is known to be prolonged. In this report, we present the case of a 58-year-old man with BMD who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis under total intravenous anesthesia without the use of muscle-relaxant drugs and supplemented with regional anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol, remifentanil, and fentanyl; ultrasound-guided bilateral rectus sheath block (RSB) and right-sided subcostal transversus abdominis plane block (TAP) were performed. The procedure required conversion to open surgery because of hard conglutination; intraoperative and postoperative periods were uneventful. Adequate analgesia was maintained after extubation because of the effect of RSB and TAP.

  3. Abdominal angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, G.J.; Stewart, J.; Holden, R.W.; Yune, H.Y.; Mail, J.T.; Klatte, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Abdominal angina due to occlusive disease of the mesenteric arteries has been the to become clinically manifest only in the presence of severe disease in at least two of the following vessels: celiac, SMA, and IMA. Still, many patients who gradually develop significant two-vessel disease have few or no associated symptoms. Differences in collateral circulation and in cardiac index account for some of the clinical variation. The usual clinical manifestations include severe post-prandial pain, sitophobia (fear of eating because of the anticipated symptoms), and profound weight loss. Uncommonly, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting may be encountered. Smoking is a common historical feature. Most series document a female predilection. Aside from occasional abdominal bruits and (more commonly) findings of peripheral vascular occlusive disease, the physical exam discloses only cachexia. But the differential diagnosis of profound weight loss is extensive. Therefore, abdominal angina has always created a diagnostic challenge. Multiple imaging modalities are often employed, and a seemingly negative evaluation often culminates in biplane aortography. The latter typically reveals stenoses and/or occlusions in at least two of the three mesenteric arteries. The authors discuss how a variety of surgical treatments, including thromboendarterectomy and bypass grafting, have evolved. Recently reported results have been excellent

  4. Don't Forget the Abdominal Wall: Imaging Spectrum of Abdominal Wall Injuries after Nonpenetrating Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalon, Shanna A; Askari, Reza; Gates, Jonathan D; Patel, Ketan; Sodickson, Aaron D; Khurana, Bharti

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal wall injuries occur in nearly one of 10 patients coming to the emergency department after nonpenetrating trauma. Injuries range from minor, such as abdominal wall contusion, to severe, such as abdominal wall rupture with evisceration of abdominal contents. Examples of specific injuries that can be detected at cross-sectional imaging include abdominal muscle strain, tear, or hematoma, including rectus sheath hematoma (RSH); traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH); and Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) (closed degloving injury). These injuries are often overlooked clinically because of (a) a lack of findings at physical examination or (b) distraction by more-severe associated injuries. However, these injuries are important to detect because they are highly associated with potentially grave visceral and vascular injuries, such as aortic injury, and because their detection can lead to the diagnosis of these more clinically important grave traumatic injuries. Failure to make a timely diagnosis can result in delayed complications, such as bowel hernia with potential for obstruction or strangulation, or misdiagnosis of an abdominal wall neoplasm. Groin injuries, such as athletic pubalgia, and inferior costochondral injuries should also be considered in patients with abdominal pain after nonpenetrating trauma, because these conditions may manifest with referred abdominal pain and are often included within the field of view at cross-sectional abdominal imaging. Radiologists must recognize and report acute abdominal wall injuries and their associated intra-abdominal pathologic conditions to allow appropriate and timely treatment. © RSNA, 2017.

  5. Ultrasound Evaluation of the Abdominal Wall and Lumbar Multifidus Muscles in Participants Who Practice Pilates: A 1-year Follow-up Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gala-Alarcón, Paula; Calvo-Lobo, César; Serrano-Imedio, Ana; Garrido-Marín, Alejandro; Martín-Casas, Patricia; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo

    2018-04-18

    The purpose of this study was to describe ultrasound (US) changes in muscle thickness produced during automatic activation of the transversus abdominis (TrAb), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA), as well as the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar multifidus (LM), after 1 year of Pilates practice. A 1-year follow-up case series study with a convenience sample of 17 participants was performed. Indeed, TrAb, IO, EO, and RA thickness, as well as LM CSA changes during automatic tests were measured by US scanning before and after 1 year of Pilates practice twice per week. Furthermore, quality of life changes using the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey and US measurement comparisons of participants who practiced exercises other than Pilates were described. Statistically significant changes were observed for the RA muscle thickness reduction during the active straight leg raise test (P = .007). Participants who practiced other exercises presented a larger LM CSA and IO thickness, which was statistically significant (P .05). A direct moderate correlation was observed (r = 0.562, P = .019) between the TrAb thickness before and after a 1-year follow-up. Long-term Pilates practice may reduce the RA thickness automatic activation during active straight leg raise. Furthermore, LM CSA and IO thickness increases were observed in participants who practice other exercise types in conjunction with Pilates. Despite a moderate positive correlation observed for TrAb thickness, the quality of life did not seem to be modified after long-term Pilates practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Abdominal wall closure in bladder exstrophy complex repair by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objectives: The Exstrophy Complex (EC) is a serious malformation of midline abdominal wall. Wide pubis prevents approximating the lateralized rectus muscle and leads to dehiscence and fi stula formation. Our aim was to recommend an easier method for abdominal wall closure in the Bladder Exstrophy ...

  7. Cold Abscess of the Anterior Abdominal Wall: An Unusual Primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dhar AM, Bhargava S, Bankata S. Isolated abdominal parietal cold abscess diagnosed on ultrasound. Indian J Radiol Imaging. 1999;9:157-8. 8. Dixit R, Dixit K, Shah H, Shah K. Tuberculous abscess of rectus abdominis muscle. Indian J Tuberc 2004;51:231-3. 9. Sharma N, Sharma S. Tuberculosis abscess of the abdominal ...

  8. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  9. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jung Wook

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis or plaque buildup causes the ... weak and bulge outward like a balloon. An AAA develops slowly over time and has few noticeable ...

  11. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein ...... protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting.......In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  12. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  13. Relation between body mass index percentile and muscle strength and endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Abdel Kader Abdel Kader Hasan

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: The study shows that the BMI of children had a positive correlation with the muscle strength of quadriceps, triceps, and abdominal muscles while a negative correlation with the endurance time of these muscles.

  14. Child with Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Rajalakshmi; Nallasamy, Karthi

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the common symptoms reported by children in urgent care clinics. While most children tend to have self-limiting conditions, the treating pediatrician should watch out for underlying serious causes like intestinal obstruction and perforation peritonitis, which require immediate referral to an emergency department (ED). Abdominal pain may be secondary to surgical or non-surgical causes, and will differ as per the age of the child. The common etiologies for abdominal pain presenting to an urgent care clinic are acute gastro-enteritis, constipation and functional abdominal pain; however, a variety of extra-abdominal conditions may also present as abdominal pain. Meticulous history taking and physical examination are the best tools for diagnosis, while investigations have a limited role in treating benign etiologies.

  15. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  16. Physicians' Abdominal Auscultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Gade; Peter, Kruse; Andersen, Ole Trier

    1998-01-01

    Background: Abdominal auscultation has an important position in the physical examination of the abdomen. Little is known about rater agreement. The aim of this study was to describe rater agreement and thus, indirectly, the value of the examination. Methods: In a semi-virtual setup 12 recordings...... subjects and in patients with intestinal obstruction was acceptable for a clinical examination. Abdominal auscultation is a helpful clinical examination in patients with acute abdominal pain....

  17. Intra-abdominal gout mimicking pelvic abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Pan, Huay-Ban; Yang, Chien-Fang

    2005-01-01

    Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. (orig.)

  18. Intra-abdominal gout mimicking pelvic abscess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (Taiwan); Yeh, Lee-Ren; Pan, Huay-Ban; Yang, Chien-Fang [Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    2005-04-01

    Gout is the most common crystal-induced arthritis. Gouty tophi typically deposit in the extremities, especially toes and fingers. We present an unusual case of intrapelvic tophaceous gout in a patient suffering from chronic gouty arthritis. CT and MRI of the abdomen and pelvic cavity disclosed calcified gouty tophi around both hips, and a cystic lesion with peripheral enhancement in the pelvic cavity along the course of the iliopsoas muscle. The intra-abdominal tophus mimicked pelvic abscess. (orig.)

  19. Anterior abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo in a fertile women: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Je Young; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Han Myun; Shin, Mi Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo is very rare, hence the reported imaging findings of this disease are also rare. We reported the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal wall mass without antecedent gynecological surgeries. The initial abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed thickening of the left rectus abdominis and the loss of intervening fat between the rectus abdominis and the lateral abdominal muscles. After 8 months, the follow-up contrast-enhanced CT and ultrasonography (US) showed a lentiform-shaped mass with isodensity to the adjacent muscles. The US-guided biopsy was consistent with leiomyoma

  20. Anterior abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo in a fertile women: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Je Young; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Han Myun; Shin, Mi Kyung [Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo is very rare, hence the reported imaging findings of this disease are also rare. We reported the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal wall mass without antecedent gynecological surgeries. The initial abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed thickening of the left rectus abdominis and the loss of intervening fat between the rectus abdominis and the lateral abdominal muscles. After 8 months, the follow-up contrast-enhanced CT and ultrasonography (US) showed a lentiform-shaped mass with isodensity to the adjacent muscles. The US-guided biopsy was consistent with leiomyoma.

  1. Chronic Abdominal Wall Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Herbert; Koprdova, Simona; Schürmann, Christine

    2016-01-29

    Chronic abdominal wall pain is a poorly recognized clinical problem despite being an important element in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain. This review is based on pertinent articles that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and EMBASE employing the terms "abdominal wall pain" and "cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome," as well as on the authors' clinical experience. In 2% to 3% of patients with chronic abdominal pain, the pain arises from the abdominal wall; in patients with previously diagnosed chronic abdominal pain who have no demonstrable pathological abnormality, this likelihood can rise as high as 30% . There have only been a small number of clinical trials of treatment for this condition. The diagnosis is made on clinical grounds, with the aid of Carnett's test. The characteristic clinical feature is strictly localized pain in the anterior abdominal wall, which is often mischaracterized as a "functional" complaint. In one study, injection of local anesthesia combined with steroids into the painful area was found to relieve pain for 4 weeks in 95% of patients. The injection of lidocaine alone brought about improvement in 83-91% of patients. Long-term pain relief ensued after a single lidocaine injection in 20-30% of patients, after repeated injections in 40-50% , and after combined lidocaine and steroid injections in up to 80% . Pain that persists despite these treatments can be treated with surgery (neurectomy). Chronic abdominal wall pain is easily diagnosed on physical examination and can often be rapidly treated. Any physician treating patients with abdominal pain should be aware of this condition. Further comparative treatment trials will be needed before a validated treatment algorithm can be established.

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic ... and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intravenous contrast indicate mothers should not breastfeed their babies for 24-48 hours after contrast medium is ... preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For ...

  5. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... microphone. top of page How does the procedure work? In many ways CT scanning works very much ... CT scan, an experienced radiologist can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with ...

  6. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  7. Abdominal cocoon: sonographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, S Boopathy; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy; Sendhilkumar, Karuppusamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan

    2003-07-01

    An abdominal cocoon is a rare condition in which the small bowel is encased in a membrane. The diagnosis is usually established at surgery. Here we describe the sonographic features of this condition.

  8. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  9. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X- ... use high frequency sound waves to produce an image and do not expose the individual to radiation. ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ... Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page How should I prepare? You ... of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including ...

  12. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries ...

  14. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  15. Abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathi, Ramon; Sage, Michael; Slavotinek, John; Hanieh, Ahmad

    2004-01-01

    A case of an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt is reported to illustrate this known but rare complication. In the setting of a VP shunt, the frequency of abdominal CSF pseudocyst formation is approximately 3.2%, often being precipitated by a recent inflammatory or infective process or recent surgery. Larger pseudocysts tend to be sterile, whereas smaller pseudocysts are more often infected. Ultrasound and CTeach have characteristic findings Copyright (2004) Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd

  16. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Tatiana; Garcia, Vanessa; Tamara, Estrada; Acosta, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  17. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensby, J.D.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Fox, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  18. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  19. Rectus abdominis muscle endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is characterized by an abnormal existence of functional endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity, typically occuring within the pelvis of women in reproductive age. We report two cases with endometriosis of the abdominal wall; the first one in the rectus abdominis muscle and the second one in the surgical scar of previous caesarean incision along with the rectus abdominis muscle. Pre-operative evaluation included magnetic resonance imaging. The masses were dissected free from the surrounding tissue and excised with clear margins. Diagnosis of the excised lesions were verified by histopathology. (author)

  20. Increased auditory startle reflex in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Mirte J; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A; Koelman, Johannes H T M; Tijssen, Marina A J

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders (13 irritable bowel syndrome [IBS], 7 functional abdominal pain syndrome; mean age, 12.4 years; 15 girls) and 23 control subjects (14 girls; mean age, 12.3 years) using a case-control design. The activity of 6 left-sided muscles and the sympathetic skin response were obtained by an electromyogram. We presented sudden loud noises to the subjects through headphones. Both the combined response of 6 muscles and the blink response proved to be significantly increased in patients with abdominal pain compared with control subjects. A significant increase of the sympathetic skin response was not found. Comorbid anxiety disorders (8 patients with abdominal pain) or Rome III subclassification did not significantly affect these results. This study demonstrates an objective hyperresponsivity to nongastrointestinal stimuli. Children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders may have a generalized hypersensitivity of the central nervous system. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal pregnancy - Case presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohiltea, R; Radoi, V; Tufan, C; Horhoianu, I A; Bohiltea, C

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pregnancy, a rare diagnosis, belongs to the ectopic pregnancy group, the leading cause of pregnancy related exitus. The positive diagnosis is very difficult to establish most often in an acute setting, leading to a staggering percent of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality. We present the case of 26-weeks-old abdominal pregnancy with partial feto-placental detachment in a patient, after hysteroscopy and in vitro fertilization, which until the acute symptoms that led to emergency laparotomy went unrecognized. The patient recovered completely and satisfactorily after surgery and, due to the high risk of uterine rupture with regard to a second pregnancy, opted for a surrogate mother. Abdominal pregnancy can be regarded as a difficult to establish diagnosis, with a greater chance in case of increased awareness. It is compulsory to be well informed in order not to be surprised by the diagnosis and to apply the correct treatment immediately as the morbidity and mortality rate is elevated.

  3. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  4. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  5. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  6. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra; Dlugy, Elena; Freud, Enrique; Kessler, Ada; Horev, Gadi

    2002-01-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two. Conclusions: US

  7. Efficacy of hypopressive abdominal gymnastics in rehabilitating the pelvic floor of women: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Viñaspre Hernández, R

    2017-12-13

    Hypopressive abdominal gymnastics has been proposed as a new paradigm in rehabilitating the pelvic floor. Its claims contraindicate the recommendation for pelvic floor muscle training during the postpartum period. To determine whether hypopressive abdominal gymnastics is more effective than pelvic floor muscle training or other alternative conservative treatments for rehabilitating the pelvic floor. We consulted the databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), PubMed, Scopus, Trip Database and Web of Science. We selected systematic reviews, clinical trials and analytical studies that assessed the efficacy of hypopressive abdominal gymnastics in women. The measured outcomes were the strengthening of the pelvic floor muscles, the incidence of urine incontinence or prolapse and symptom remission. We included 4 clinical trials, whose quality was measured with the PEDro scale. Hypopressive gymnastics is less effective than pelvic floor muscle training for activating pelvic floor muscles, achieving closure of the levator hiatus of the anus and increasing pelvic floor muscle thickness, strength and resistance. The evidence reviewed does not support the recommendation for hypopressive abdominal gymnastics for strengthening the pelvic floor either during the postpartum period or outside that period. Pelvic floor muscle training remains the first-line treatment for pelvic floor dysfunction. There is a lack of quality clinical trials that have evaluated the efficacy of hypopressive abdominal gymnastics. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  9. Abdominal Tuberculosis Mimicking Intra-abdominal Malignancy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    BACKGROUND. Abdominal TB usually presents with nonspecific findings and may thus m.,mw a multitude of gastrointestinal disorders. Abdominal tuberculosis may therefore present as large and palpable intra-abdominal masses usually arising from lymphadenopathy which may mimic lymphomas and other malignancies.

  10. Abdominal tuberculosis mimicking intra-abdominal malignancy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abdominal TB usually presents with nonspecific findings and may thus mimic a multitude of gastrointestinal disorders. Abdominal tuberculosis may therefore present as large and palpable intra-abdominal masses usually arising from lymphadenopathy which may mimic lymphomas and other malignancies.

  11. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  12. Functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Madhusudan; Drossman, Douglas A

    2010-10-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a relatively less common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder defined by the presence of constant or frequently recurring abdominal pain that is not associated with eating, change in bowel habits, or menstrual periods (Drossman Gastroenterology 130:1377-1390, 2006), which points to a more centrally targeted (spinal and supraspinal) basis for the symptoms. However, FAPS is frequently confused with irritable bowel syndrome and other functional GI disorders in which abdominal pain is associated with eating and bowel movements. FAPS also differs from chronic abdominal pain associated with entities such as chronic pancreatitis or chronic inflammatory bowel disease, in which the pain is associated with peripherally acting factors (eg, gut inflammation or injury). Given the central contribution to the pain experience, concomitant psychosocial disturbances are common and strongly influence the clinical expression of FAPS, which also by definition is associated with loss of daily functioning. These factors make it critical to use a biopsychosocial construct to understand and manage FAPS, because gut-directed treatments are usually not successful in managing this condition.

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and ... abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ... Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  14. Abdominal wall surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as liposuction , which is another way to remove fat. But, abdominal wall surgery is sometimes combined with liposuction. ... from the middle and lower sections of your abdomen to make it firmer ... removes excess fat and skin (love handles) from the sides of ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an experienced radiologist can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, ... Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes ... Ultrasound - Abdomen X-ray (Radiography) - Lower GI Tract X-ray ( ...

  16. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  17. Giant abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, V.; Florencio, I.; Boluda, F.

    1996-01-01

    We present a case of giant abdominal cystic lymphangioma in a 10-year-old boy. Despite numerous consultations with physicians to identify the underlying problem, it had originally been attributed to ascites of unknown cause. We review the characteristics of this lesion and the diagnostic features that aid in differentiating it from ascites

  18. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Carriquiry, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  20. Ocena aktywności mięśnia poprzecznego brzucha z wykorzystaniem urządzenia Pressure Bio-feedback Stabilizer u osób z dolegliwościami bólowymi kręgosłupa w odcinku lędźwiowo-krzyżowym = Assessment of transverse abdominal muscle activity with the use of Pressure Bio-Feedback Stabilizer among people with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Kochański

    2016-07-01

    ęśnia poprzecznego brzucha z wykorzystaniem urządzenia Pressure Bio-Feedback Stabilizer jest dobry.     Abstract Introduction: Transverse abdominal muscle plays important role in spine stabilization, researches show a correlation between this muscle activity and physical pain and health ailments of low back. The aim of this thesis: 1.Assessment and comparison of Transverse abdominal muscle  activity with the use of Pressure Bio-Feedback Stabilizer among people suffering from physical pain and health ailments of low back and among people who do not suffer from these ailments. 2. Description of level of consensus of two therapists’ assessment of Transverse abdominal muscle activity examination with the use of Pressure Bio-Feedback Stabilizer Materials and methods: The research was conducted among a group of 50 people age between 28,36, 28 women and 22 men. The examined were divided into two groups: group 1- 25 people (12 women and 13 men and control group- 25 people (16 women and 9 men. Group 1 consist of people suffering from physical pain and health ailments of lower part of the spine who currently suffer for at least 3 months. Group 2 (control group consist of people who do not suffer from physical paints and health ailments in the lower part of the spine for at least 6 months. Results: Incorrect transverse abdominal muscle activation was observed among people with physical pain and health ailments in the lower part of the spine. Statistical analysis showed significant differences between two examined groups in transverse abdominal muscle activity- p<0,05. Index of consistency ICC for two therapists examining transverse abdominal muscle activity with the use of Pressure Bio-Feedback Stabilizer equals 0.82. Conclusions: 1. Incorrect transverse abdominal muscle activity was observed among people with physical pain in the lumbar part of the spine. 2. Index of consistency of assessment for two therapist examining transverse abdominal muscle activity with the use of Pressure Bio

  1. penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gender, mechanism of injury, injury severity scores (ISS), penetrating ... ileus, reduced pulmonary function and loss of muscle mass and function, all of .... pathophysiology and rehabilitation. ... quality of life after surgery for colorectal cancer.

  2. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection) Costochondritis (inflammation of the rib cartilages) Injury (blunt trauma, muscle pulls) Nerve irritation (neuropathy) Hernias (protrusions ... of the intestine just beyond the stomach). Special tools can be passed through the tube to remove ...

  3. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  4. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA- CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanaja Ratnakumari Billa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the recent times there has been increased incidence of abdominal trauma cases due to several causes. Quick and prompt intervention is needed to decrease the mortality of the patients. So we conducted a study to assess the cause and the management of abdominal trauma cases in our institution. The aim of this study was to know the incidence of blunt and penetrating injuries and their causes, age and sex incidence, importance of various investigations, mode of treatment offered and post-operative complications. To study the cause of death and evolve better management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprises of patients admitted to and operated in various surgical units in the Department of Surgery at Government General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College Guntur, from August 2014 to October 2016. RESULTS Increase incidence seen in age group 20-29 years (30%. Male predominance 77.5%. Mechanism of injury–road traffic accidents 65%. Isolated organ injury–colon and rectum 40%. Other associated injuries–chest injuries with rib fractures 7.5%. Complications–wound infection 17.5%. Duration of hospital stay 8–14 days. Bowel injury management–closure of perforation 84.6%. Resection anastomosis 15.38%. CONCLUSION Thorough clinical examination, diagnostic paracentesis, plain X-ray erect abdomen and ultrasound proved to be very helpful in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries. Spleen is the commonest organ involved in blunt trauma and colon is the commonly injured organ in penetrating abdominal trauma, many patients have associated extremity and axial skeleton injuries. With advances in diagnosis and intensive care technologies, most patients of solid visceral injuries with hemodynamic stability can be managed conservatively. Surgical site infection is the most common complication following surgery. The mortality is high; reason might be patient reaching the hospital late, high incidence of postoperative septic

  5. CT of abdominal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoshi; Yamada, Kenji; Ito, Masatoshi; Ito, Hisao; Yamaura, Harutsugu

    1981-01-01

    CT findings in 33 patients who had an abdominal tumor were evaluated. CT revealed a tumor in 31 cases. The organ from which the tumor originated was correctly diagnosed in 18 patients. Whether the tumor was solid or cystic was correctly predicted in 28 patients. The diagnosis malignant or benign nature of tumor was correct, incorrect and impossible, in 23, 3, and five patiens, respectively. (Kondo, M.)

  6. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Detoxification in Abdominal Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Potapov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To comparatively analyze the efficiency of methods for extracorporeal detoxification (ED of the body in abdominal sepsis (AS and to choose the optimum detoxifying methods in relation to the level of endotoxicosis.Material and methods. 56 patients (41 males and 15 females; mean age 39.4±12.2 years with surgical abdominal infection of various genesis, complicated by the development of sepsis whose treatment included ED methods, were examined. The level of intoxication and the efficiency of detoxification were evaluated by general clinical and biochemical blood parameters, the leukocytic intoxication index, the levels of low and medium molecular-weight substances in the body’s media. Hemosorption, plasmapheresis, hemodialysis, hemodiafiltration, and hemofiltration were used for detoxification.Results. Surgical abdominal infection is accompanied by endotoxemia that has no clear nosological specificity, but it depends on the pattern of a clinical course of the disease and is most pronounced in the septic syndrome. In AS, 80.4% of the patients are observed to have an irreversible decompensation phase and a terminal degree of endotoxicosis, which require detoxification. The use of different ED methods according to the level of intoxication may reduce the level of endotoxicosis and yield a persistent beneficial effect in 85.2% of cases of its application. Conclusion. Filtration and dialysis techniques (hemodialysis, hemofiltration, and hemodiafiltration are the methods of choice in AS. Hemosorption and plasmapheresis may be recommended for use at the early stages of endotoxicosis development and in preserved renal excretory function.

  8. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  9. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass. Derya Erdog˘ an a. , Yasemin Ta ¸scı Yıldız b. , Esin Cengiz Bodurog˘lu c and Naciye Go¨nu¨l Tanır d. Abdominal tuberculosis is rare in childhood. It may be difficult to diagnose as it mimics various disorders. We present a 12-year-old child with an unusual ...

  10. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  11. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Talk to your provider about the risks and benefits of medicines. How can I prevent muscle cramps? To prevent muscle cramps, you can Stretch your muscles, especially before exercising. If you often get leg cramps at night, ...

  12. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  13. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  14. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    related complications; and post-discharge gastrointestinal surgery. RESULTS: GDM was placed in 34 (gastroschisis=27, omphalocele=7) patients during the study period. Complete closure of the fascia was obtained in one patient with omphalocele and in 22 patients with gastroschisis. Mesh related surgical...... complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure...

  15. Abdominal imaging: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, M.P.; Feinberg, S.B.

    1986-01-01

    This nine-chapter book gives an overview of the integrated approach to abdominal imaging. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the physics used in medical imaging; chapter 2 is on the selection of imaging modalities. These are followed by four chapters that deal, respectively, with plain radiography, computed tomographic scanning, sonography, and nuclear imaging, as applied to the abdomen. Two chapters then cover contrast material-enhanced studies of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: one focusing on technical considerations; the other, on radiologic study of disease processes. The final chapter is a brief account of different interventional procedures

  16. Abdominal Aortic Emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Christie; Swaminathan, Anand

    2017-11-01

    This article discusses abdominal aortic emergencies. There is a common thread of risk factors and causes of these diseases, including age, male gender, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and connective tissue disorders. The most common presenting symptom of these disorders is pain, usually in the chest, flank, abdomen, or back. Computed tomography scan is the gold standard for diagnosis of pathologic conditions of the aorta in the hemodynamically stable patient. Treatment consists of a combination of blood pressure and heart rate control and, in many cases, emergent surgical intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic abdominal wall pain misdiagnosed as functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Assen, Tijmen; de Jager-Kievit, Jenneke W A J; Scheltinga, Marc R; Roumen, Rudi M H

    2013-01-01

    The abdominal wall is often neglected as a cause of chronic abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to identify chronic abdominal wall pain syndromes, such as anterior cutaneous nerve entrapment syndrome (ACNES), in a patient population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain, including irritable bowel syndrome, using a validated 18-item questionnaire as an identification tool. In this cross-sectional analysis, 4 Dutch primary care practices employing physicians who were unaware of the existence of ACNES were selected. A total of 535 patients ≥18 years old who were registered with a functional abdominal pain diagnosis were approached when they were symptomatic to complete the questionnaire (maximum 18 points). Responders who scored at least the 10-point cutoff value (sensitivity, 0.94; specificity, 0.92) underwent a diagnostic evaluation to establish their final diagnosis. The main outcome was the presence and prevalence of ACNES in a group of symptomatic patients diagnosed with functional abdominal pain. Of 535 patients, 304 (57%) responded; 167 subjects (31%) recently reporting symptoms completed the questionnaire. Of 23 patients who scored above the 10-point cutoff value, 18 were available for a diagnostic evaluation. In half of these subjects (n = 9) functional abdominal pain (including IBS) was confirmed. However, the other 9 patients were suffering from abdominal wall pain syndrome, 6 of whom were diagnosed with ACNES (3.6% prevalence rate of symptomatic subjects; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-7.6), whereas the remaining 3 harbored a painful lipoma, an abdominal herniation, and a painful scar. A clinically relevant portion of patients previously diagnosed with functional abdominal pain syndrome in a primary care environment suffers from an abdominal wall pain syndrome such as ACNES.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  19. Laparoscopic management of abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makam Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available "Peritonitis fibrosa incapsulata", first described in 1907, is a condition characterized by encasement of the bowel with a thick fibrous membrane. This condition was renamed as "abdominal cocoon" in 1978. It presents as small bowel obstruction clinically. 35 cases of abdominal cocoon have been reported in the literature over the last three decades. Abdominal cocoon is more common in adolescent girls from tropical countries. Various etiologies have been described, including tubercular. It is treated surgically by releasing the entrapped bowel. We report a laparoscopic experience of tubercular abdominal cocoon and review the literature.

  20. Chronic inflammation, immune response, and infection in abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Shi, G-P

    2006-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are associated with atherosclerosis, transmural degenerative processes, neovascularization, decrease in content of vascular smooth muscle cells, and a chronic infiltration, mainly located in the outer aortic wall. The chronic infiltration consists mainly of macrop......Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) are associated with atherosclerosis, transmural degenerative processes, neovascularization, decrease in content of vascular smooth muscle cells, and a chronic infiltration, mainly located in the outer aortic wall. The chronic infiltration consists mainly...... matrix metalloproteases and cysteine proteases for aortic matrix remodeling. The lymphocyte activation may be mediated by microorganisms as well as autoantigens generated from vascular structural proteins, perhaps through molecular mimicry. As in autoimmune diseases, the risk of AAA is increased...

  1. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  2. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marincek, B.

    2002-01-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  3. Cold abscess of the anterior abdominal wall: An unusual primary presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohinder Kumar Malhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is considered as ubiquitous disease as it involves any organ, but primary involvement of abdominal muscles is very rare. In most cases, the muscle involvement is secondary and is caused by either hematogenous route or direct inoculation from a tuberculous abdominal lymph node or extension from underlying tubercular synovitis and osteomyelitis. Autopsy studies have shown abdominal wall involvement in less than 1% of patients who died of tuberculosis. Antitubercular therapy is main form of management. Surgical intervention is always secondary in the form of either sonography or computerized tomography-guided aspiration or open drainage which is usually reserved for patients in whom medical treatment has failed. A case is hereby reported about primary tubercular anterior abdominal wall abscess without any evidence of pulmonary, skeletal or gastrointestinal tuberculosis in an apparently healthy individual with any past history of contact or previous antituberculosis therapy.

  4. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements.

  5. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective...... surgery of symptomfree AAA. In order to fulfil all WHO, European, and Danish criteria for screening, a randomised hospitalbased screening trial of 12,639 65-73 year old men in Viborg County (Denmark) was initiated in 1994. It seemed that US screening is a valid, suitable and acceptable method of screening...... patients without previous hospital discharge diagnoses due to cardiovascular disease than among similar men without AAA. The absolute risk difference after 5 years was 16%. So, they will benefit from general cardiovascular preventive action as smoking cessation, statins and low-dose aspirin, which could...

  7. Abdominal Burkitt lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Romina J.; Villavicencio, Roberto L.; Oxilia, Hector G.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: As scarce information is available, in this research we have tried to describe the imaging findings of the Burkitt's lymphoma. Retrospective analysis of the clinical and imaging presentation of a 4 years old boy, is given. Biopsy confirmed the BL. Different imaging techniques were combined. The X-rays were negative. The US revealed a moderate hepatomegaly with multiple hypoechoic nodules and free fluid in the abdominal cavity. The CT showed the hepatomegaly as well as solid nodules in great number and different sizes(due to the densitometric behaviour and to post contrast enhancement), a scarce amount of ascites and a density increase of the mesentery fat. The MRI characterized and revealed in detail the US and the CT findings. The Burkitt's lymphoma is a rare entity; several methods are needed to approach the diagnosis. It represents a great clinical and imaging challenge. (author)

  8. Functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouse, Ray E; Mayer, Emeran A; Aziz, Qasim; Drossman, Douglas A; Dumitrascu, Dan L; Mönnikes, Hubert; Naliboff, Bruce D

    2006-04-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) differs from the other functional bowel disorders; it is less common, symptoms largely are unrelated to food intake and defecation, and it has higher comorbidity with psychiatric disorders. The etiology and pathophysiology are incompletely understood. Because FAPS likely represents a heterogeneous group of disorders, peripheral neuropathic pain mechanisms, alterations in endogenous pain modulation systems, or both may be involved in any one patient. The diagnosis of FAPS is made on the basis of positive symptom criteria and a longstanding history of symptoms; in the absence of alarm symptoms, an extensive diagnostic evaluation is not required. Management is based on a therapeutic physician-patient relationship and empirical treatment algorithms using various classes of centrally acting drugs, including antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The choice, dose, and combination of drugs are influenced by psychiatric comorbidities. Psychological treatment options include psychotherapy, relaxation techniques, and hypnosis. Refractory FAPS patients may benefit from a multidisciplinary pain clinic approach.

  9. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553...... patients, 51 (9%) of whom died within the first 48 hours. Of the 502 patients who survived for more than 48 hours, 109 required ICU therapy for more than 48 hours, whereas 393 patients were in the ICU for less than 48 hours. The incidence of preoperative risk factors was similar for the two groups...... combined failed to permit identification of patients in whom the perioperative survival rate was 0%. Even 20% of patients with multiorgan failure survived for 6 months. Of those patients who needed ICU therapy for more than 48 hours, 41 (38%) were alive at the end of 1988. In response to a questionnaire...

  10. Abdominal epilepsy in a Nigerian child S

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal epilepsy is an exceptionally rare cause of abdominal pain that is more likely to ... We report on a child with episodic paroxysmal abdominal pain, accompanied by ... causes for the presenting complaints, work-up should proceed.

  11. Mast Cells in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Guo-Ping; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2013-01-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are proinflammatory cells that play important roles in allergic responses, tumor growth, obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Although the presence and function of MCs in atherosclerotic lesions have been thoroughly studied in human specimens......, in primary cultured vascular cells, and in atherosclerosis in animals, their role in AAA was recognized only recently. Via multiple activation pathways, MCs release a spectrum of mediators � including histamine, inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, proteoglycans, and proteases � to activate...... neighboring cells, degrade extracellular matrix proteins, process latent bioactive molecules, promote angiogenesis, recruit additional inflammatory cells, and stimulate vascular cell apoptosis. These activities associate closely with medial elastica breakdown, medial smooth-muscle cell loss and thinning...

  12. Radiographic and ultrasonographic characteristics of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mohammed S; Hassan, Elham A; Torad, Faisal A

    2018-02-20

    Five female egg-laying pigeons presented with painless, reducible, ventral abdominal swellings located between the keel and the pubis, or close to the cloaca. Based on clinical, radiographic, and ultrasonographic examination, these pigeons were diagnosed with ventral abdominal hernia requiring surgical interference. Reduction was successfully performed under general anesthesia. Radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial for confirming the diagnosis and visualizing the hernial content for surgical planning. Lateral radiographs were more helpful than ventrodorsal radiographs for identification of the hernial content and its continuation with the abdominal muscles. Ultrasonographic examination offered a non-invasive diagnostic tool that allowed for the differentiation of hernia from other abdominal swellings. In addition, it played a beneficial role in identification of the hernial content and follow up after surgical interference. In conclusion, radiographic and ultrasonographic examinations were beneficial in the diagnosis, surgical planning, and follow up after surgical interference of ventral abdominal hernia in pigeons.

  13. VACUUM THERAPY VERSUS ABDOMINAL EXERCISES ON ABDOMINAL OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevein Mohammed Mohammed Gharib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a medical condition that may adversely affect wellbeing and leading to increased incidence of many health problems. Abdominal obesity tends to be associated with weight gain and obesity and it is significantly connected with different disorders like coronary heart disease and type II diabetes mellitus.This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of vacuum therapy as compared to abdominal exercises on abdominal obesity in overweight and obese women. Methods: Thirtyoverweight and obese women participated in this study with body mass index > 25 kg/m2andwaist circumference ≥ 85 cm. Their ages ranged from 28 - 40 years old.The subjects were excluded if they have diabetes, abdominal infection diseases or any physical limitation restricting exercise ability. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups; group I and group II. Group I received vacuum therapy sessions (by the use of LPG device in addition to aerobic exercise training. Group II received abdominal exercises in addition to the same aerobic exercisesgiven to group I. This study was extended for successive 8 weeks (3 sessions/ week. All subjects were assessed for thickness ofnthe abdominal skin fold, waist circumference and body mass index. Results: The results of this study showeda significant difference between group I and group II post-interventionas regarding to the mean values of waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aerobic exercises combined with vacuum therapy (for three sessions/week for successive 8 weeks have a positive effect on women with abdominal obesity in terms of reducing waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness.

  14. Abdominal-Pelvic Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Pusiol

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal-pelvic actinomycosis is often mistaken for other conditions, presenting a preoperative diagnostic challenge. In a 46-year-old female, computed tomography showed an abdominal-pelvic retroperitoneal mass extending from the lower pole of the right kidney to the lower pelvis. The patient had a 3-year history of intrauterine device. The mass appeared to involve the ascending colon, cecum, distal ileum, right Fallopian tube and ovary, and ureter anteriorly and the psoas muscle posteriorly. The resection of retroperitoneal mass, distal ileum appendicectomy, right hemicolectomy, and right salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. Penicillin therapy was given for six months without any complication. The retroperitoneal mass measured 4.5 × 3.5 × 3 cm, surrounded adjacent organs and histologically showed inflammatory granulomatous tissue, agglomeration of filaments, and sulfur granules of Actinomyces, with positive reaction with periodic acid Schiff. Right tubo-ovarian abscess was present. Abdominalpelvic actinomycosis should always be considered in patients with a pelvic mass especially in ones using intrauterine device.

  15. Cough induced rib fracture, rupture of the diaphragm and abdominal herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurl Peter

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cough can be associated with many complications. In this article, we present a 59 year old male patient with a very rare combination of a cough related stress fracture of the ninth rib, a traumatic rupture of the diaphragm, and an abdominal wall herniation. The hernia was repaired through surgical treatment without bowel resection, the diaphragm and the internal and oblique abdominal muscle were adapted, and the abdomen was reinforced with a prolene net. Although each individual injury is well documented in the literature, the combination of rib fracture, abdominal herniation and diaphragm rupture has not been reported.

  16. Abdominal elephantiasis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Dominique; Cloutier, Richard; Lapointe, Roch; Desgagné, Antoine

    2004-01-01

    Elephantiasis is a well-known condition in dermatology usually affecting the legs and external genitalia. It is characterized by chronic inflammation and obstruction of the lymphatic channels and by hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. The etiology is either idiopathic or caused by a variety of conditions such as chronic filarial disease, leprosy, leishmaniasis, and chronic recurrent cellulites. Elephantiasis of the abdominal wall is very rare. A complete review of the English and French literature showed only two cases reported in 1966 and 1973, respectively. We report a third case of abdominal elephantiasis and we briefly review this entity. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who had progressively developed an enormous pediculated abdominal mass hanging down her knees. The skin was thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured. She had a history of multiple abdominal cellulites. She underwent an abdominal lipectomy. Histopathology of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of abdominal elephantiasis. Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare disease that represents end-stage failure of lymph drainage. Lipectomy should be considered in the management of this condition.

  17. Penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, P L

    1989-08-01

    The management of patients with penetrating abdominal trauma is outlined in Figure 1. Patients with hemodynamic instability, evisceration, significant gastrointestinal bleeding, peritoneal signs, gunshot wounds with peritoneal violation, and type 2 and 3 shotgun wounds should undergo emergency laparotomy. The initial ED management of these patients includes airway management, monitoring of cardiac rhythm and vital signs, history, physical examination, and placement of intravenous lines. Blood should be obtained for initial hematocrit, type and cross-matching, electrolytes, and an alcohol level or drug screen as needed. Initial resuscitation should utilize crystalloid fluid replacement. If more than 2 liters of crystalloid are needed to stabilize an adult (less in a child), blood should be given. Group O Rh-negative packed red blood cells should be immediately available for a patient in impending arrest or massive hemorrhage. Type-specific blood should be available within 15 minutes. A patient with penetrating thoracic and high abdominal trauma should receive a portable chest x-ray, and a hemo- or pneumothorax should be treated with tube thoracostomy. An unstable patient with clinical signs consistent with a pneumothorax, however, should receive a tube thoracostomy prior to obtaining roentgenographic confirmation. If time permits, a nasogastric tube and Foley catheter should be placed, and the urine evaluated for blood (these procedures can be performed in the operating room). If kidney involvement is suspected because of hematuria or penetrating trauma in the area of a kidney or ureter in a patient requiring surgery, a single-shot IVP should be performed either in the ED or the operating room. An ECG is important in patients with possible cardiac involvement and in patients over the age of 40 going to the operating room. Tetanus status should be updated, and appropriate antibiotics covering bowel flora should be given. Operative management should rarely be delayed

  18. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Newborn With Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Riham; Drake, Meredith; Gurria Juarez, Juan; Emery, Kathleen H; Shaaban, Aimen F; Szabo, Sara; Sobolewski, Brad

    2017-11-01

    A previously healthy 3-week-old boy presented with 5 hours of marked fussiness, abdominal distention, and poor feeding. He was afebrile and well perfused. His examination was remarkable for localized abdominal tenderness and distention. He was referred to the emergency department in which an abdominal radiograph revealed gaseous distention of the bowel with a paucity of gas in the pelvis. Complete blood cell count and urinalysis were unremarkable. His ongoing fussiness and abnormal physical examination prompted consultation with surgery and radiology. Our combined efforts ultimately established an unexpected diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of examination. ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) ... uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. Except for traumatic injury, ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine ... places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arteries and veins in the abdomen, arms, legs, neck and/or brain (in infants and children) or ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: ... be necessary. Your doctor will explain the exact reason why another exam is requested. Sometimes a follow- ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ...

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine causes of ... are used to extract sample cells from an abnormal area for laboratory testing. Ultrasound may also be ...

  11. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging produces pictures of the internal organs and blood vessels located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ...

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  13. Intra-abdominal tuberculous peritonitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.; Ahlhelm, F.; Altmeyer, K.; Kramann, B.; Hennes, P.; Pueschel, W.; Karadiakos, N.

    2001-01-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old boy suffering from progressive dyspnea on exertion and painful abdominal protrusion. Final diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculosis (TB), including lymphadenopathy and abdominal abscess formation, was made following elective laparotomy. This type of disease is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and laparoscopic images are presented. Differential diagnosis of abdominal abscess formation and other fungal or bacteriological infections, as well as the imaging findings of this type of lesion, are discussed. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestation of TB may remain unrecognized; thus, awareness of this kind of manifestation of tuberculosis may prevent patients from being subjected to inappropriate therapies. (orig.)

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not use ionizing radiation, has no known harmful effects, and is particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic ... of the reflected sound waves (called the Doppler effect). A computer collects and processes the sounds and ...

  15. Linking Abdominal Obesity and Dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique Miguel Soca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering as a start point the discussion of an article published by this same journal (Finlay in its previous issue, this letter deals with some alterations associating abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia.

  16. Intra-abdominal tuberculous peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Ahlhelm, F.; Altmeyer, K.; Kramann, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Hennes, P. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Pueschel, W. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Karadiakos, N. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old boy suffering from progressive dyspnea on exertion and painful abdominal protrusion. Final diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculosis (TB), including lymphadenopathy and abdominal abscess formation, was made following elective laparotomy. This type of disease is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and laparoscopic images are presented. Differential diagnosis of abdominal abscess formation and other fungal or bacteriological infections, as well as the imaging findings of this type of lesion, are discussed. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestation of TB may remain unrecognized; thus, awareness of this kind of manifestation of tuberculosis may prevent patients from being subjected to inappropriate therapies. (orig.)

  17. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... various body organs such as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses ... appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can ...

  18. Recovery after abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim

    2017-01-01

    Incisional hernia is a common long-term complication to abdominal surgery, occurring in more than 20% of all patients. Some of these hernias become giant and affect patients in several ways. This patient group often experiences pain, decreased perceived body image, and loss of physical function......, which results in a need for surgical repair of the giant hernia, known as abdominal wall reconstruction. In the current thesis, patients with a giant hernia were examined to achieve a better understanding of their physical and psychological function before and after abdominal wall reconstruction. Study...... was lacking. Study II was a case-control study of the effects of an enhanced recovery after surgery pathway for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction for a giant hernia. Sixteen consecutive patients were included prospectively after the implementation of a new enhanced recovery after surgery...

  19. Muscular sarcoidosis involving the chest and abdominal walls: case report with MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, In Sook; Song, You Seon [Pusan National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Radiology, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Pusan National University School of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Mok, Jeongha [Pusan National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyung-Un [Pusan National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute, Department of Pathology, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-03-15

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in tissues, involving many organs and tissues. Extra-pulmonary, especially muscular sarcoidosis is a rare condition. The most common location of the muscular sarcoidosis is known to be the proximal muscles of the extremities; however, there have been no cases of diffuse involvement of the chest and abdominal wall muscles. Here, we report a rare muscular sarcoidosis with infiltrative pattern in the chest and abdominal wall muscles and describe the MR imaging findings that were mistaken as lymphoma at initial diagnosis. Although our case did not show characteristic MR findings of muscular sarcoidosis, clinicians or radiologists who are aware of these imaging features can perform early systemic survey for sarcoidosis. Also muscle biopsy is very important to confirm the sarcoidosis and distinguish it from other tumors. (orig.)

  20. Muscular sarcoidosis involving the chest and abdominal walls: case report with MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, In Sook; Song, You Seon; Mok, Jeongha; Choi, Kyung-Un

    2018-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder that is characterized by the presence of noncaseating granulomas in tissues, involving many organs and tissues. Extra-pulmonary, especially muscular sarcoidosis is a rare condition. The most common location of the muscular sarcoidosis is known to be the proximal muscles of the extremities; however, there have been no cases of diffuse involvement of the chest and abdominal wall muscles. Here, we report a rare muscular sarcoidosis with infiltrative pattern in the chest and abdominal wall muscles and describe the MR imaging findings that were mistaken as lymphoma at initial diagnosis. Although our case did not show characteristic MR findings of muscular sarcoidosis, clinicians or radiologists who are aware of these imaging features can perform early systemic survey for sarcoidosis. Also muscle biopsy is very important to confirm the sarcoidosis and distinguish it from other tumors. (orig.)

  1. Ectopic intra-abdominal fascioliasis

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNGÖREN, Ali Ulvi

    2009-01-01

    Human fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is emerging as an important chronic zoonotic disease in many areas of the world, including Turkey. It primarily involves the liver and may also cause severe damage in the tissue. Herein we report on a patient with ectopic intra-abdominal fascioliasis that presented to our clinic with abdominal pain and distention. Physical and radiological examination as well as an exploratory laparotomy revealed a 10 × 10-cm mass in the splenic flexura of the ...

  2. Abdominal ultrasonography, 2nd Ed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, B.B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume is a new and updated edition of an extensively illustrated text and reference on the capabilities and imaging of gray scale ultrasonography for each major abdominal organ. Each major organ system is treated separately, including liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, pancreas, kidney, retroperitoneum, abdominal vasculature, and more. There are over 500 illustrations and ten pages of full color plates for cross sectional anatomy

  3. CT findings in abdominal actinomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Lee, Moon Gyu; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Auh, Yong Ho

    1999-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a chronic, progressive, suppurative disease with a favorable response to intravenous treatment with penicillin. In many instances, however, its clinical and radiological findings may overlap with those of other inflammatory and neoplastic conditions, and the familiarity with the various radiological features can thus avoid diagnostic delays. The purpose of this paper is to describe and discuss the CT findings of abdominal actinomycosis

  4. Blunt abdominal trauma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonfeld, Deborah; Lee, Lois K

    2012-06-01

    This review will examine the current evidence regarding pediatric blunt abdominal trauma and the physical exam findings, laboratory values, and radiographic imaging associated with the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries (IAI), as well as review the current literature on pediatric hollow viscus injuries and emergency department disposition after diagnosis. The importance of the seat belt sign on physical examination and screening laboratory data remains controversial, although screening hepatic enzymes are recommended in the evaluation of nonaccidental trauma to identify occult abdominal organ injuries. Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) has modest sensitivity for hemoperitoneum and IAI in the pediatric trauma patient. Patients with concern for undiagnosed IAI, including bowel injury, may be considered for hospital admission and serial abdominal exams without an increased risk of complications, if an exploratory laparotomy is not performed emergently. Although the FAST exam is not recommended as the sole screening tool to rule out IAI in hemodynamically stable trauma patients, it may be used in conjunction with the physical exam and laboratory findings to identify children at risk for IAI. Children with a normal physical exam and normal abdominal CT may not require routine hospitalization after blunt abdominal trauma.

  5. Abdominal wall hernias: computed tomography findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, Giuseppe; Rosas, George de Queiroz; Mota, Marcos Alexandre; Akisue, Sandra R. Tsukada; Galvao Filho, Mario de Melo.

    2005-01-01

    Abdominal hernias are a common clinical problem Clinical diagnosis of abdominal hernias can sometimes be challenging, particularly in obese patients or patients with previous abdominal surgery. CT scan of the abdomen allows visualization of hernias and their contents and the differentiation from other masses of the abdominal wall such as tumors, hematomas and abscesses. Moreover, CT may identify complications such as incarceration, bowel obstruction, volvulus and strangulation. This study illustrates the CT scan findings observed in different types of abdominal wall hernias. (author)

  6. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  7. Absent abdominal muscles, nephro-urologic abnormalities, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamal F. Akl

    2014-12-23

    Dec 23, 2014 ... multiplex congenital, low set ears, short neck, micrognathia, bilateral total ptosis, and bilateral ... Imaging; voiding cystourethrogram revealed bilateral grade .... 9q22.3 microduplication spanning short stature syndrome with.

  8. Abdominal imaging in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Dawei; Wang Wei; Yuan Chunwang; Jia Cuiyu; Zhao Xuan; Zhang Tong; Ma Daqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate abdominal imaging in AIDS. Methods: The imaging examinations (including US, CT and MR) of 6 patients with AIDS associated abdominal foci were analysed retrospectively. All the cases were performed US, and CT scan, of which 4 performed enhanced CT scan and 1 with MR. Results: Abdominal tuberculosis were found in 4 patients, including abdominal lymph nodes tuberculosis (3 cases) and pancreatic tuberculosis (1 case). The imaging of lymph nodes tuberculosis typically showed enlarged peripheral tim enhancement with central low-attenuation on contrast-enhanced CT. Pancreatic tuberculosis demonstrated low-attenuation area in pancreatic head and slightly peripheral enhancement. Disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 1 case: CT and MRI scan demonstrated tumour infiltrated along hepatic portal vein and bronchovascular bundles. Pelvic tumor was observed in 1 case: CT scan showed large mass with thick and irregular wall and central low attenuation liquefacient necrotic area in the pelvic cavity. Conclusion: The imaging findings of AIDS with abdominal foci is extraordinarily helpful to the diagnosis of such disease. Tissue biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis. (authors)

  9. Botulinum Toxin A as an Adjunct to Abdominal Wall Reconstruction for Incisional Hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltanizadeh, Sinor; Helgstrand, Frederik; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Repair of large incisional hernias remains a surgical and costly challenge. Temporary paralysis of the lateral abdominal wall muscles with topical administration of botulinum toxin A (BTA) is a new therapeutic concept, which may obviate the need for component separation technique (CST...

  10. Decreased Respiratory Muscle Function Is Associated with Impaired Trunk Balance among Chronic Stroke Patients: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeongbong; Cho, Ji-Eun; Hwang, Dal-Yeon; Lee, WanHee

    2018-06-01

    The abdominal muscles play a role in trunk balance. Abdominal muscle thickness is asymmetrical in stroke survivors, who also have decreased respiratory muscle function. We compared the thickness of the abdominal muscles between the affected and less affected sides in stroke survivors. In addition, the relationship between respiratory muscle function and trunk balance was evaluated. Chronic stroke patients (18 men, 15 women; mean age, 58.94 ± 12.30 years; Mini-Mental Status Examination score ≥ 24) who could sit without assist were enrolled. Abdominal muscle thickness during rest and contraction was measured with ultrasonography, and the thickening ratio was calculated. Respiratory muscle function assessment included maximum respiratory pressure, peak flow, and air volume. Trunk function was evaluated using the Trunk Impairment Scale, and trunk balance was estimated based on the center of pressure velocity and path length within the limit of stability in sitting posture. Abdominal muscles were significantly thinner on the affected side, and the thickening ratio was lower in the affected side (P respiratory muscle function was significantly correlated with higher level of trunk function and balance in stroke patients (P respiratory muscle function has positive correlation with trunk function and balance. We propose that respiratory muscle training should be included as part of trunk balance training in chronic stroke patients.

  11. CT evaluation of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ruiting

    2004-01-01

    Objective: An evaluation of CT diagnosis of abdominal trauma. Methods: CT appearance of abdominal trauma was analyzed retrospectively in 95 cases. thirty-three patients were cured by operation, and the other 59 patients received conservative treatment. Fifty-one patients out of 59 were seen healed or improved by a follow up CT scan after the conservative treatment. Results: The study included: 31 cases of splenic contusion, accompanying with hemoperitoneum in 25 cases; 3 cases of hepatic laceration; 33 cases of liver and spleen compound trauma accompanying with hemoperitoneum; 18 cases of renal contusion, with subcapsular hemorrhage in 12 cases; 4 cases of midriff colic; 3 cases of mesentery breach; 3 cases of digestive tract perforation. Conclusion: CT is sensitive and precise in evaluating abdominal trauma, providing important information for treatment. (author)

  12. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa

  13. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  14. Subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Ottesen, Bent; Alling Møller, Lars Mikael

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare long-term results of subtotal vs total abdominal hysterectomy for benign uterine diseases 14 years after hysterectomy, with urinary incontinence as the primary outcome measure. STUDY DESIGN: This was a long-term follow-up of a multicenter......, randomized clinical trial without blinding. Eleven gynecological departments in Denmark contributed participants to the trial. Women referred for benign uterine diseases who did not have contraindications to subtotal abdominal hysterectomy were randomized to subtotal (n = 161) vs total (n = 158) abdominal...... from discharge summaries from all public hospitals in Denmark. The results were analyzed as intention to treat and per protocol. Possible bias caused by missing data was handled by multiple imputation. The primary outcome was urinary incontinence; the secondary outcomes were pelvic organ prolapse...

  15. Contemporary imaging in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivit, Carlos J.

    2008-01-01

    Imaging is often a fundamental part in the evaluation of an injured or ill child. A variety of imaging modalities (radiography, angiography/fluoroscopy, sonography, CT, magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphy) are among the options. CT is worth focused attention because of its usefulness in a variety of emergency department settings, its increasing use, and its potential radiation risks. CT plays an important role in the evaluation of traumatic and nontraumatic abdominal emergencies in children. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to review current imaging approaches and controversies in the evaluation of common acute abdominal emergencies. Through discussion of various modalities, especially CT in evaluation of abdominal pain and trauma, the relative advantages and disadvantages including radiation risk will be reviewed. (orig.)

  16. Is abdominal wall contraction important for normal voiding in the female rat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boone Timothy B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Normal voiding behavior in urethane-anesthetized rats includes contraction of the abdominal wall striated muscle, similar to the visceromotor response (VMR to noxious bladder distension. Normal rat voiding requires pulsatile release of urine from a pressurized bladder. The abdominal wall contraction accompanying urine flow may provide a necessary pressure increment for normal efficient pulsatile voiding. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and necessity of the voiding-associated abdominal wall activity in urethane-anesthetized female rats Methods A free-voiding model was designed to allow assessment of abdominal wall activity during voiding resulting from physiologic bladder filling, in the absence of bladder or urethral instrumentation. Physiologic diuresis was promoted by rapid intravascular hydration. Intercontraction interval (ICI, voided volumes and EMG activity of the rectus abdominis were quantified. The contribution of abdominal wall contraction to voiding was eliminated in a second group of rats by injecting botulinum-A (BTX, 5 U into each rectus abdominis to induce local paralysis. Uroflow parameters were compared between intact free-voiding and BTX-prepared animals. Results Abdominal wall response is present in free voiding. BTX preparation eliminated the voiding-associated EMG activity. Average per-void volume decreased from 1.8 ml to 1.1 ml (p Conclusion The voiding-associated abdominal wall response is a necessary component of normal voiding in urethane anesthetized female rats. As the proximal urethra may be the origin of the afferent signaling which results in the abdominal wall response, the importance of the bladder pressure increment due to this response may be in maintaining a normal duration intermittent pulsatile high frequency oscillatory (IPHFO/flow phase and thus efficient voiding. We propose the term Voiding-associated Abdominal Response (VAR for the physiologic voiding-associated EMG/abdominal

  17. Radiological evaluation of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K. S.; Cho, Y. H.; Kim, O.

    1982-01-01

    Simple abdomen film has played an important role in decision of emergency operations in patients with the abdominal trauma. Nowadays, it still acts as a primary and inevitable processes in emergency condition. At the Department of Radiology, Hanil Hospital, 70 patients, who were laparotomied due to penetrating or nonpernetraing abdominal trauma, were observed and analyzed with simple abdomen film after comparison with the operative findings. The results are as follows: 1. Most frequent age distribution was 10 to 39 years and marked 70%. Male was in 90% incidence. 2. Penetrating injury largely involved the small bowel and abdominal wall. Non-penetrating injury usually involved the spleen, small bowel, liver, kidney, pancreas, duodenum. 3. Single organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the small bowel and abdominal wall. Multiple organ injury occurred in higher incidence at the spleen, liver, kidney and pancreas. 4. Organ distribution was 26% in spleen, 22% in small bowel, 14% in liver, 11% in abdominal wall. 7% in pancreas, 7% in kidney. 5% in duodenum, 4% in GB and CBD, 2% in diaphragm, 2% in colon, and 1% in stomach. 5. The specific roentgen findings and their frequency which useful in differential diagnosis at abdominal trauma, were as follows: a) flank fluid; Detectable possibility was 71% in liver laceration, 69% in spleen laceration and 57% in pancreas laceration. b) ipsilateral psoas shadow obliteration; Detectable possibility was 57% in liver laceration, 57% in kidney laceration and 46% in spleen laceration. c) free air; Detactable possibility was 60% in duodenal perforation, and 36% in peroration of upper part of small bowel. d) Reflex ileus; Detectable possibility was 64% in small bowel, 50% in liver laceration and 35% in spleen laceration. e) rib fracture; Detactable possibility was 36% in liver laceration and 23% in spleen laceration. f) pleural effusion; Detectable possibility was 29% in liver laceration and 27% in spleen laceration

  18. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad U; Zacharias, Nikolaos; Velmahos, George C

    2009-01-01

    Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries. PMID:19374761

  19. Penetrating abdominal injuries: management controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velmahos George C

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrating abdominal injuries have been traditionally managed by routine laparotomy. New understanding of trajectories, potential for organ injury, and correlation with advanced radiographic imaging has allowed a shift towards non-operative management of appropriate cases. Although a selective approach has been established for stab wounds, the management of abdominal gunshot wounds remains a matter of controversy. In this chapter we describe the rationale and methodology of selecting patients for non-operative management. We also discuss additional controversial issues, as related to antibiotic prophylaxis, management of asymptomatic thoracoabdominal injuries, and the use of colostomy vs. primary repair for colon injuries.

  20. Abdominal surgery in neonatal foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, James E; Gaughan, Earl M

    2005-08-01

    Abdominal surgery in foals under 30 days old has become more common with improved neonatal care. Early recognition of a foal at risk and better nursing care have increased the survival rates of foals that require neonatal care. The success of improved neonatal care also has increased the need for accurate diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal, umbilical, and bladder disorders in these foals. This chapter focuses on the early and accurate diagnosis of specific disorders that require abdominal exploratory surgery and the specific treatment considerations and prognosis for these disorders.

  1. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  2. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.-K.; Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C.; Cazzato, R.L.; Duddalwar, V.A.; Chang, S.D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  3. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  4. Torsion of abdominal appendages presenting with acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jaberi, Tareq M.; Gharabeih, Kamal I.; Yaghan, Rami J.

    2000-01-01

    Diseases of abnormal appendages are rare causes of abdominal pain in all age groups. Nine patients with torsion and infraction of abdominal appendages were retrospectively reviewed. Four patients had torsion and infarction of the appendices epiploicae, four patients had torsion and infarction of the falciform ligament. The patient with falciform ligament disease represents the first reported case of primary torsion and infarction of the falciform ligament, and the patient with the transverse colon epiplocia represents the first reported case of vibration-induced appendix epiplocia torsion and infarction. The patient with the falciform ligament disease presented with a tender upper abdominal mass and the remaining patients were operated upon with the preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The presence of normal appendix with free serosanguinous fluid in the peritoneal cavity should raise the possibility of a disease and calls for further evaluation of the intra-abdominal organs. If the diagnosis is suspected preoperatively, CT scan and ultrasound may lead to a correct diagnosis and possibly conservative management. Laparoscopy is playing an increasing diagnostic and therapeutic role in such situations. (author)

  5. Diagnosis in acute abdominal pain and ongoing abdominal sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, J.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common reason for presentation at the emergency department. To establish a timely and adequate diagnosis, doctors use the pattern of complaints and physical examination as the basis for the evaluation of a patient. In this thesis we conducted a study that showed that

  6. Management of postirradiation recurrent enterocutaneous fistula by muscle flaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lui, R.C.; Friedman, R.; Fleischer, A.

    1989-07-01

    Occasionally surgeons have to operate on patients who have had previous abdominal or pelvic operations and irradiations for malignancies. Bowel resection with primary anastomosis under these circumstances is fraught with major complications such as anastomotic breakdown with intra-abdominal sepsis or recurrent enterocutaneous fistula, which are refractory to conventional management. New techniques for using vascularized muscle flaps from a distant nonirradiated field to achieve safe repair of the bowel defects in three such instances are presented.

  7. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  8. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  9. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to evaluate the: appendix stomach/ pylorus liver gallbladder spleen pancreas intestines kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency ...

  10. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will my child experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do we get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of Abdominal ...

  11. Dehydration related abdominal pain (drap)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.I.; Aurangzeb; Khan, I.; Bhatti, A.M.; Khan, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of dehydration as a medical cause of acute abdomen. Subjects and Methods: All the patients reporting with abdominal pain to the surgical outpatient department or the emergency department were reviewed in the study. The clinical findings in all these cases were studied along with the mode of their management and outcome. Results: Of all the patients presenting with abdominal pain, 3.3% (n=68) were suffering from dehydration related abdominal pain. They were predominantly males in a ratio of 8.7: 1, mostly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of their lives. All these cases were suffering from acute or chronic dehydration were provisionally diagnosed by general practitioners as 'acute abdomen' and referred for surgical consultation. Associated symptoms included vomiting in 42.6%, backache in 91.2%, headache in 95.6%, and pain in lower limbs in 97.1 % of the cases. 83.8% required indoor management with intravenous fluids. All the patients became asymptomatic with rehydration therapy. Conclusion: Dehydration is a possible cause of severe abdominal pain. There is a need to educate the general public about the benefits of adequate fluid intake. (author)

  12. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in young children. It is also valuable for evaluating the brain, spinal cord and hip joints in newborns and infants. Risks For standard diagnostic ultrasound , there are no known harmful effects on ...

  13. Chest complication after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, B. H.; Choi, J. Y.; Hahm, C. K.; Kang, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    In spite of many advances in medicine, anesthetic technique and surgical managements, pulmonary problems are the most frequent postoperative complications, particularly after abdominal surgery. As postoperative pulmonary complications, atelectasis, pleural effusion, pneumonia, chronic bronchitis and lung abscess can be occurred. This study include evaluation of chest films of 2006 patients (927 male, 1079 female), who had been operated abdominal surgery from Jan. 1979 to June, 1980 in the Hanyang university hospital. The results were as follows: 1. 70 cases out of total 2006 cases (3.5%) developed postoperative chest complications, 51 cases (5.5%) in male, 19 cases (1.8%) in female. 2. The complication rate was increased according to the increase of age. The incidence of the postoperative complications over 40 years of age was higher than the overall average complications rate. 3. The most common postoperative pulmonary complication was pleural effusion, next pneumonia, atelectasis and pulmonary edema respectively. 4. The complication rate of the group of upper abdominal surgery is much higher than the group of lower abdominal surgery. 5. Complication rate was increased according to increase of the duration of operation. 6. There were significant correlations between the operation site and side of the complicated hemithorax

  14. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What are some common uses of the procedure? How should we prepare for an ultrasound exam? What does the ultrasound equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will my ...

  15. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Surgical Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome, affect ... timely surgical intervention is crucial. Key words: .... On the second postoperative day, he was noted to be restless ... Although surgery is very effective in managing ACS.

  16. Original Research Abdominal myomectomy: A retrospective review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal myomectomy and outcome in Ilorin, Nigeria 37. Malawi Medical Journal 29 (1): ... rate of 3.34% has been reported for Maiduguri, northeastern. Nigeria.4 Abdominal ... of Nigeria.6. Infertility secondary to uterine fibroid is one of the.

  17. Internal Mammary Vessels’ Impact on Abdominal Skin Perfusion in Free Abdominal Flap Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Nergård, MD

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions:. Using the IMV in free abdominal flap breast reconstruction had a significant effect on abdominal skin perfusion and may contribute to abdominal wound healing problems. The reperfusion of the abdominal skin was a dynamic process showing an increase in perfusion in the affected areas during the postoperative days.

  18. Abdominal compartment syndrome with acute reperfusion syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maleeva, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome was recognized clinically in the 19th century when Marey and Burt observed its association with declines in respiratory function. Abdominal compartment syndrome is first used as a medical terminology from Fietsman in a case of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. A condition caused by abnormally increased pressure within the abdomen. Causes of abdominal compartment syndrome include trauma, surgery, or infection. Common symptoms: abdominal distension, fast heart rate, insufficient urine production, or low blood pressure Medical procedure: nasogastric intubation Surgery: laparotomy Specialists: radiologist, primary care provider (PCP), surgeon, and emergency medicine doctor [6, 10]. Keywords: Stomach. Gastroparesis . Diabetes Mellitus [bg

  19. A user's guide to intra-abdominal pressure measurement.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sugrue, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement is a key to diagnosing and managing critically ill medical and surgical patients. There are an increasing number of techniques that allow us to measure the IAP at the bedside. This paper reviews these techniques. IAP should be measured at end-expiration, with the patient in the supine position and ensuring that there is no abdominal muscle activity. The intravesicular IAP measurement is convenient and considered the gold standard. The level where the mid-axillary line crosses the iliac crest is the recommended zero reference for the transvesicular IAP measurement; moreover, marking this level on the patient increases reproducibility. Protocols for IAP measurement should be developed for each ICU based on the locally available tools and equipment. IAP measurement techniques are safe, reproducible and accurate and do not increase the risk of urinary tract infection. Continuous IAP measurement may offer benefits in specific situations in the future. In conclusion, the IAP measurement is a reliable and essential adjunct to the management of patients at risk of intra-abdominal hypertension.

  20. Lower abdominal wall reconstructions with pedicled rectus femoris flaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arashiro, Ken; Nishizeki, Osamu; Ishida, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    During the past 10 years, seven pedicled rectus femoris muscle or musculocutaneous flaps were used to repair lower abdominal defects; three recalcitrant incisional hernias with previous radiotherapy, two long-standing wound infections after synthetic mesh reconstruction, one posttraumatic wall defect and one metastatic tumor. There were two flap complications, one skin paddle necrosis and one wound infection. There was no significant disability of the donor limb encountered. During the two-year and seven month average follow-up, there was no recurrence of the problems except for one minor fascial dehiscence in the patient with metastatic abdominal wall tumor. Easy approach, rapid harvest, relatively large and reliable overlying fascia lata, a single dominant neurovascular pedicle, easy primary closure of the donor site, and minimal donor site morbidity all make the rectus femoris flap a good alternative flap for lower abdominal wall reconstruction. It is especially useful in a condition where synthetic mesh would be unsuitable for defects with infection or recurrent incisional hernia after radiotherapy. (author)

  1. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIf a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.MethodsFrom 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.ResultsUpon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.ConclusionsUsing a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  2. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  3. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who cannot actively move one or more joints can do exercises using braces or splints . When ... A.M. Editorial team. Muscle Disorders Read more Neuromuscular Disorders Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more ...

  4. Acupuncture Treatment of Abdominal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Li, a university student aged 23 years, paid his first visit on July 16, 2001, with the chief complaint of abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated that one day before when it happened to be the weekend, he got abdominal pain after supper, which went worse gradually and caused him to roll all over in bed. The pain was slightly alleviated half an hour later after he had taken some pain killers. Upon inquiry, the patient said that because of their newly graduation from the university, he and his classmates were so excited that they went to have a sumptuous lunch with alcoholic drinks. And in the evening he ate again a delicious supper cooked for him by his mother, after which he continued to have some fruit and dessert.

  5. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.

    1985-09-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which faciltated the differential diagnosis to tumor recurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so obvious after gastrointestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolus injection. (orig.).

  6. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.; Hamburg Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which fascilated the differentialdiagnosis to tumorrecurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so abvious after gastro-intestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolusinjection. (orig.) [de

  7. Defectos de la pared abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adis L. Peña Cedeño

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de los fetos con malformaciones congénitas, dadas por defecto de la pared abdominal (DPA, nacidos en el Hospital Universitario Ginecoobstétrico de Guanabacoa durante los años 1984 al 2000, para determinar la frecuencia de los distintos tipos de defectos de la pared abdominal y las malformaciones asociadas a éstas. Se revisaron los protocolos de necropsias e historias clínicas en este período y se obtuvieron 25 casos con DPA. La malformación más frecuente fue el onfalocele con 14 casos, seguido de la gastrosquisis con 6 casos. Se hallaron malformaciones asociadas en el 68 % de los casos, y se comprobó la efectividad del Programa Nacional de Malformaciones Congénitas, pues en el 80 % de las pacientes se interrumpió precozmente el embarazo.A study of the fetuses with congenital malformations due to defect of the abdominal wall (AWD that were born at the Gynecoobstetric Teaching Hospital of Guanabacoa from 1984 to 2000 was conducted aimed at determining the frequency of the different types of defects of the abdominal wall and the malformations associated with them. The protocosl of necropsies and medical histories corresponding to this period were reviewed and 25 cases with AWD were detected. The most common malformation was omphalocele with 14 cases, followed by gastrosquisis with 6 cases. Associated malformations were found in 68 % of the cases and it was proved the effectiveness of the National Program of Congenital Malformations, since pregnancy was interrupted early in 80 % of the patients.

  8. Hernia Following Blunt Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Aghaie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic abdominal wall hernia is a rare type of hernia, which follows blunt trauma to the abdomen, where disruption of the musculature and fascia occurs with the overlying skin remaining intact. Diagnosis of this problem is very difficult and delayed. Traumatic hernia is often diagnosed during laparatomy or laparascopy, but CT scan also has a role in distinguishing this pathology. Delay in diagnosis is very dangerous and can result in gangrene and necrosis of the organs in the hernia. The case report of a 35 years old man with liftruck blunt trauma is reported. His vital signs were stable. On physical examination, tenderness of RUQ was seen. He underwent Dpl for suspected hemoprotein. Dpl was followed up by laparatomy. Laparatomy revealed that the transverse and ascending colon partially herniated in the abdominal wall defect. The colon was reduced in the abdomen and repair of abdominal hernia was done. The patient was discharged after 5 day. The etiology, pathogenesis and management are discussed.

  9. Mesh erosion after abdominal sacrocolpopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, N; Walsh, P M; Roat, T W; Karram, M M

    1998-12-01

    To report our experience with erosion of permanent suture or mesh material after abdominal sacrocolpopexy. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify patients who underwent sacrocolpopexy by the same surgeon over 8 years. Demographic data, operative notes, hospital records, and office charts were reviewed after sacrocolpopexy. Patients with erosion of either suture or mesh were treated initially with conservative therapy followed by surgical intervention as required. Fifty-seven patients underwent sacrocolpopexy using synthetic mesh during the study period. The mean (range) postoperative follow-up was 19.9 (1.3-50) months. Seven patients (12%) had erosions after abdominal sacrocolpopexy with two suture erosions and five mesh erosions. Patients with suture erosion were asymptomatic compared with patients with mesh erosion, who presented with vaginal bleeding or discharge. The mean (+/-standard deviation) time to erosion was 14.0+/-7.7 (range 4-24) months. Both patients with suture erosion were treated conservatively with estrogen cream. All five patients with mesh erosion required transvaginal removal of the mesh. Mesh erosion can follow abdominal sacrocolpopexy over a long time, and usually presents as vaginal bleeding or discharge. Although patients with suture erosion can be managed successfully with conservative treatment, patients with mesh erosion require surgical intervention. Transvaginal removal of the mesh with vaginal advancement appears to be an effective treatment in patients failing conservative management.

  10. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Staged abdominal closure with intramuscular tissue expanders and modified components separation technique of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Tatekawa

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In patients with omphalocele, several different techniques are performed for repair of the abdominal wall defect. We present the case of a staged abdominal closure of a giant incisional hernia after repair of a ruptured omphalocele. At birth, skin flap coverage associated with silo formation occurred, but the abdominal wall defect remained, resulting in a giant abdominal hernia. To expand the layers of the abdominal wall, tissue expanders were placed between the bilateral internal oblique and transverses abdominis muscles. Postoperatively, a modified components separation technique was performed. The abdominal wall was closed in the midline. Upon closure of the skin in the midline, bilateral relaxing incisions were performed, covering the remaining defect with artificial dermis. At the age of one year and 7 months, the patient had no recurrent incisional hernia nor any wound complications.

  12. MR Fingerprinting for Rapid Quantitative Abdominal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Jiang, Yun; Pahwa, Shivani; Ma, Dan; Lu, Lan; Twieg, Michael D; Wright, Katherine L; Seiberlich, Nicole; Griswold, Mark A; Gulani, Vikas

    2016-04-01

    To develop a magnetic resonance (MR) "fingerprinting" technique for quantitative abdominal imaging. This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. To achieve accurate quantification in the presence of marked B0 and B1 field inhomogeneities, the MR fingerprinting framework was extended by using a two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state free precession, or FISP, acquisition and a Bloch-Siegert B1 mapping method. The accuracy of the proposed technique was validated by using agarose phantoms. Quantitative measurements were performed in eight asymptomatic subjects and in six patients with 20 focal liver lesions. A two-tailed Student t test was used to compare the T1 and T2 results in metastatic adenocarcinoma with those in surrounding liver parenchyma and healthy subjects. Phantom experiments showed good agreement with standard methods in T1 and T2 after B1 correction. In vivo studies demonstrated that quantitative T1, T2, and B1 maps can be acquired within a breath hold of approximately 19 seconds. T1 and T2 measurements were compatible with those in the literature. Representative values included the following: liver, 745 msec ± 65 (standard deviation) and 31 msec ± 6; renal medulla, 1702 msec ± 205 and 60 msec ± 21; renal cortex, 1314 msec ± 77 and 47 msec ± 10; spleen, 1232 msec ± 92 and 60 msec ± 19; skeletal muscle, 1100 msec ± 59 and 44 msec ± 9; and fat, 253 msec ± 42 and 77 msec ± 16, respectively. T1 and T2 in metastatic adenocarcinoma were 1673 msec ± 331 and 43 msec ± 13, respectively, significantly different from surrounding liver parenchyma relaxation times of 840 msec ± 113 and 28 msec ± 3 (P < .0001 and P < .01) and those in hepatic parenchyma in healthy volunteers (745 msec ± 65 and 31 msec ± 6, P < .0001 and P = .021, respectively). A rapid technique for quantitative abdominal imaging was developed that allows simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue

  13. Increased pressure within the abdominal compartment: intra-abdominal hypertension and the abdominal compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Derek J; Ball, Chad G; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews recent developments related to intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH)/abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) and clinical practice guidelines published in 2013. IAH/ACS often develops because of the acute intestinal distress syndrome. Although the incidence of postinjury ACS is decreasing, IAH remains common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill/injured patients. Many risk factors for IAH include those findings suggested to be indications for use of damage control surgery in trauma patients. Medical management strategies for IAH/ACS include sedation/analgesia, neuromuscular blocking and prokinetic agents, enteral decompression tubes, interventions that decrease fluid balance, and percutaneous catheter drainage. IAH/ACS may be prevented in patients undergoing laparotomy by leaving the abdomen open where appropriate. If ACS cannot be prevented with medical or surgical management strategies or treated with percutaneous catheter drainage, guidelines recommend urgent decompressive laparotomy. Use of negative pressure peritoneal therapy for temporary closure of the open abdomen may improve the systemic inflammatory response and patient-important outcomes. In the last 15 years, investigators have better clarified the pathogenesis, epidemiology, diagnosis, and appropriate prevention of IAH/ACS. Subsequent study should be aimed at understanding which treatments effectively lower intra-abdominal pressure and whether these treatments ultimately affect patient-important outcomes.

  14. Altered trunk muscle recruitment patterns during lifting in individuals in remission from recurrent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suehiro, Tadanobu; Ishida, Hiroshi; Kobara, Kenichi; Osaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Susumu

    2018-04-01

    Changes in the recruitment pattern of trunk muscles may contribute to the development of recurrent or chronic symptoms in people with low back pain (LBP). However, the recruitment pattern of trunk muscles during lifting tasks associated with a high risk of LBP has not been clearly determined in recurrent LBP. The present study aimed to investigate potential differences in trunk muscles recruitment patterns between individuals with recurrent LBP and asymptomatic individuals during lifting. The subjects were 25 individuals with recurrent LBP and 20 asymptomatic individuals. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure onset time, EMG amplitude, overall activity of abdominal muscles, and overall activity of back muscles during a lifting task. The onsets of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique and multifidus were delayed in the recurrent LBP group despite remission from symptoms. Additionally, the EMG amplitudes of the erector spinae, as well as the overall activity of abdominal muscles or back muscles, were greater in the recurrent LBP group. No differences in EMG amplitude of the external oblique, transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus were found between the groups. Our findings indicate the presence of an altered trunk muscle recruitment pattern in individuals with recurrent LBP during lifting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Absence of muscle regeneration after implantation of a collagen matrix seeded with myoblasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wachem, PB; Brouwer, LA; van Luyn, MJA

    Collagens are widely used as biomaterials for e.g. soft tissue reconstruction. The present study was aimed at reconstruction of abdominal wall muscle using processed dermal sheep collagen (DSC) and myoblast seeding. Myoblasts were harvested from foetal quadriceps muscle of an inbred rat strain,

  16. Risk Assessment of Abdominal Wall Thickness Measured on Pre-Operative Computerized Tomography for Incisional Surgical Site Infection after Abdominal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongyoo, Assanee; Chatthamrak, Putipan; Sriussadaporn, Ekkapak; Limpavitayaporn, Palin; Mingmalairak, Chatchai

    2015-07-01

    The surgical site infection (SSI) is a common complication of abdominal operation. It relates to increased hospital stay, increased healthcare cost, and decreased patient's quality of life. Obesity, usually defined by BMI, is known as one of the risks of SSI. However, the thickness of subcutaneous layers of abdominal wall might be an important local factor affecting the rate of SSI after the abdominal operations. The objective of this study is to assess the importance of the abdominal wall thickness on incisional SSI rate. The subjects of the present study were patients who had undergone major abdominal operations at Thammasat University Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014, and had been investigated with CT scans before their operations. The demographic data and clinical information of these patients were recorded. The thickness ofsubcutaneous fatty tissue from skin down to the most superficial layer of abdominal wall muscle at the surgical site was measured on CT images. The wound infectious complication was reviewed and categorized as superficial and deep incisional SSIfollowing the definition from Centersfor Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. The significance ofeach potentialfactors on SSI rates was determined separately with student t-test for quantitative data and χ2-test for categorical data. Then all factors, which had p operative CTscans. Post-operative SSI was 25.2% (35/139), superficial and deep types in 27 and 8 patients, respectively. The comparison of abdominal wall thickness between patients with and without infection was significantly different (20.0 ± 8.4 mm and 16.0 ± 7.2 mm, respectively). When the thickness at 20 mm was used as the cut-off value, 43 of 139 patients had abdominal wall thickness ≥ 20 mm. The incidence of SSI of the thickness ±20 mm group was 37.2% (16/43) and of the less thickness group was 19.8% (19/96), with p operation. However, only abdominal wall thickness and wound classification were still significant

  17. Evaluation of the levels of metalloproteinsase-2 in patients with abdominal aneurysm and abdominal hernias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewska, Magdalena

    2013-05-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms and abdominal hernias become an important health problems of our times. Abdominal aortic aneurysm and its rupture is one of the most dangerous fact in vascular surgery. There are some theories pointing to a multifactoral genesis of these kinds of diseases, all of them assume the attenuation of abdominal fascia and abdominal aortic wall. The density and continuity of these structures depend on collagen and elastic fibers structure. Reducing the strength of the fibers may be due to changes in the extracellular matrix (ECM) by the proteolytic enzymes-matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade extracellular matrix proteins. These enzymes play an important role in the development of many disease: malignant tumors (colon, breast, lung, pancreas), cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion injury), connective tissue diseases (Ehler-Danlos Syndrome, Marfan's Syndrome), complications of diabetes (retinopathy, nephropathy). One of the most important is matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2). The aim of the study was an estimation of the MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia, and in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. The study involved 88 patients aged 42 to 89 years, including 75 men and 13 women. Patients were divided into two groups: patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia (45 persons, representing 51.1% of all group) and patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm (43 persons, representing 48,9% of all group). It was a statistically significant increase in MMP-2 blood levels in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia compared to patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm. It was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of POCHP in patients with only abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and primary abdominal hernia. Statistically significant

  18. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  19. Abdominal manifestations of autoimmune disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triantopoulou, C.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Immunoglobulin G4-related disease was recognized as a systemic disease since various extrapancreatic lesions were observed in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). The real etiology and pathogenesis of IgG4-RD is still not clearly understood. Moreover the exact role of IgG4 or IgG4-positive plasma cells in this disease has not yet been elucidated. only some inconsistent biological features such as hypergammaglobulinemia or hypocomplementemia support the autoimmune nature of the disease process. various names have been ascribed to this clinicopathological entity including IgG4-related sclerosing disease, IgG4-related systemic sclerosing disease, IgG4-related disease, IgG4-related autoimmune disease, hyper-IgG4 disease and IgG4-related systemic disease. The extrapancreatic lesions of IgG4-RD also exhibit the same characteristic histologic features including dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, massive storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis as seen in IgG4-related pancreatitis. Abdominal manifestations include the following organs/systems: Bile ducts: Sclerosing cholangitis; Gallbladder and liver: Acalculous sclerosis cholecytitis with diffuse wall thickening; hepatic inflammatory pseudotumorts; Kidneys: round or wedge-shaped renal cortical nodules, peripheral cortical; lesions, mass like lesions or renal pelvic involvement; Prostate, urethra, seminal vesicle, vas deferens, uterine cervix; Autoimmune prostatitis; Retroperitoneum: Retroperitoneal fibrosis. thin or mildly thick homogeneous soft tissue lesion surrounding the abdominal aorta and its branches but also bulky masses causing hydronephroureterosis; Mesentery: Sclerosing mesenteritis usually involving the root of the mesentery; Bowel: Inflammatory bowel diseases mimicking Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis. various types of sclerosing nodular lesions of the bowel wall; Stomach: Gastritis, gastric ulcers and focal masses mimicking submucosal tumor; omentum: Infiltration mimicking

  20. Muscle Functions and Functional Performance among Older Persons with and without Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare muscle functions and functional performances between older persons with and without low back pain (LBP and to determine the association between muscle functions and functional performances. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 95 older persons (age = 70.27±7.26 years. Anthropometric characteristics, muscle functions, and functional performances were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression. The functional performances showed no significant differences (females LBP versus non-LBP, males LBP versus non-LBP (p<0.05. For muscle functions, significant differences were found (females LBP versus non-LBP for abdominal muscle strength (p=0.006 and back muscle strength (p=0.07. In the LBP group, significant correlations were found between back and abdominal muscle strength and hand grip strength (r=0.377 and r=0.396, resp., multifidus control and lower limb function (r=0.363 in females, and back muscle strength and lower limb function (r=0.393 in males (all p<0.05. Regression analysis showed that abdominal and back muscle strengths were significant predictors of hand grip strength (p=0.041 and p=0.049, resp., and multifidus control was a significant predictor of lower limb function in females (p=0.047. This study demonstrates that older women with LBP exhibit poorer muscle functions compared to older women without LBP.

  1. Laparoscopic-assisted surgical reconstruction of a rare congenital abdominal wall defect in two children misdiagnosed with prune-belly syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Andrew I; Franco, Israel

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal wall laxity is typically associated with prune-belly syndrome (PBS). Incomplete forms of PBS have been rarely reported with only the abdominal wall laxity. Herein, we describe a rare congenital abdominal wall defect that has been confused with PBS and illustrate the laparoscopic-assisted surgical technique used for reconstruction. Two boys with symmetrical, bilateral absence or hypoplasia of the internal and external oblique muscles and no genitourinary abnormalities underwent a laparoscopic-assisted abdominal wall reconstruction utilizing the technique previously described by Firlit. Each patient had a Ct scan which confirmed the absence of the oblique muscles. In one patient EMG data confirmed no electrical activity of the obliques. Radiologic evaluation of the urinary tracts revealed no abnormalities. The abdominal wall was plicated utilizing bilateral subcostal incisions. Both patients had excellent cosmetic and functional results with no weakness or bulging of the lateral abdominal wall and improvement of associated symptoms. We believe these two cases and their congenital abdominal wall defects are a rare and often misdiagnosed muscular deficiency separate from PBS. The novel laparoscopic-assisted surgical technique illustrated is feasible and highly successful for these and possible other patients with similar rare congenital abdominal wall defects. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Mechanisms and management of functional abdominal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome is characterised by frequent or continuous abdominal pain associated with a degree of loss of daily activity. It has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 1.7%, with a female preponderance. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is incompletely understood although it has been postulated that peripheral sensitisation of visceral afferents, central sensitisation of the spinal dorsal horn and aberrancies within descending modulatory sys...

  3. Anterior Abdominal Wall Leiomyoma Arising De Novo in a Perimenopausal Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed A. Al-Wadaani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine or extraintestinal leiomyomas are extremely uncommon especially in the pre-peritoneal area or within the anterior abdominal wall muscles. These tumors have been ascribed to intraoperative seeding during resection of a fibroid or a leiomyoma of gut, to exogenous hormone replacement therapy or a major derangement of glucose and/or lipid metabolism. So far, there is no published report of de novo origin of anterior abdominal wall pure leiomyoma in the literature. The author herein reports a case of perimenopausal multiparous woman without any listing of previous gynecological surgery or hormone therapy who presented with a large pre-peritoneal intramuscular leiomyoma of the anterior abdominal wall. The patient underwent complete primary resection with amelioration of her symptoms.

  4. [Diagnostic imaging and acute abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljekvist, Mads Svane; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Burcharth, Jakob; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2015-01-19

    Acute abdominal pain is a common clinical condition. Clinical signs and symptoms can be difficult to interpret, and diagnostic imaging may help to identify intra-abdominal disease. Conventional X-ray, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen vary in usability between common surgical causes of acute abdominal pain. Overall, conventional X-ray cannot confidently diagnose or rule out disease. US and CT are equally trustworthy for most diseases. US with subsequent CT may enhance diagnostic precision. Magnetic resonance seems promising for future use in acute abdominal imaging.

  5. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil......In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed...... by penicillin treatment gave a good result....

  6. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicchitano B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome", and "functional gastrointestinal disorder". In the early literature, abdominal migraine is included in the "childhood periodic syndrome", first described by Wyllie and Schlesinger in 1933. Abdominal migraine has emerged over the last century as a diagnostic entity in its own right thanks to the development of well defined diagnostic criteria and its recent inclusion in the International Headache Society's Classification of Headache disorders. Despite this progress, little is known about the pathophysiology of the condition, and the treatment options are poorly defined. Here we summarize the recent literature, with particular focus on establishing the diagnosis of abdominal migraine and its pathophysiology, and suggest an approach to management. Keywords: abdominal migraine, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal epilepsy, cyclical vomiting

  7. Involvement of cyclic nucleotides in locust flight muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worm, R.A.A.

    1980-01-01

    1. Flight had no significant effect on the levels of c-AMP of c-GMP in the flight muscles of Locusta migratoria. 2. Injections of 0.01 or 0.1 corpus cardiacum equivalents into the abdominal cavity did not elicit any effect on cyclic nucleotide levels either. 3. Injection of A23187 resulted in

  8. Psoas muscle abscess simulating acute appendicits: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio L.C. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The psoas muscle abscess is uncommon and poorly characterized in its etiology, clinical associations, and its therapeutic approach. On the other hand, acute appendicitis is the most common abdominal emergency, with a 7% death rate, and surgery is its main treatment.

  9. Unexplained lower abdominal pain associated with sacroiliac joint dysfunction: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Daijiro; Isu, Toyohiko; Kim, Kyongsong; Matsumoto, Ryoji; Isobe, Masanori

    2011-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman and a 31-year-old man presented with chronic lower back pain and unexplained lower abdominal pain. Both patients had groin tenderness at the medial border of the anterior superior iliac spine. The results of radiographical and physical examinations suggested sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Sacroiliac joint injection relieved their symptoms, including groin tenderness. In our experience, groin tenderness is highly specific for sacroiliac joint dysfunction. We speculate that spasm of the iliac muscle can cause groin pain and tenderness. Groin pain and a history of unexplained abdominal pain, with lower back pain, are symptoms that suggest sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Additionally, compression of the iliac muscle is a simple and useful maneuver; therefore, it can be used as a screening test for sacroiliac joint dysfunction, alongside other provocation tests.

  10. Mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, E; Godet, T; Millot, A; Constantin, J-M; Jaber, S

    2014-01-01

    One of the key challenges in perioperative care is to reduce postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patients who develop postoperative morbidity but survive to leave hospital have often reduced functional independence and long-term survival. Mechanical ventilation provides a specific example that may help us to shift thinking from treatment to prevention of postoperative complications. Mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing surgery has long been considered only as a modality to ensure gas exchange while allowing maintenance of anesthesia with delivery of inhaled anesthetics. Evidence is accumulating, however, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary function and clinical outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Non-protective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (VT) (>10-12mL/kg) and the use of very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) (PEEPventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung protective mechanical ventilation. In this review, we aimed at providing the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Abdominal ultrasound in AIDS patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escribano, J.; Gonzalez, J.; Alvarez, M.; Rivero, S.; Raya, J.L.; Ruza, M.

    1998-01-01

    To analyze the ultrasonography findings in abdomen in the AIDS patients in our hospital, as well as the indications for this exploration, assessing the role of abdominal ultrasound (AU). The ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 527 patients who underwent a total of 715 explorations between 1992 and 1996 were studied. Hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, usually homogeneous, were observed in nearly half of the studies (45%); one third of the patients with marked splenomegaly presented visceral leishmaniasis. Focal lesions in liver and/or spleen, corresponding to angiomas, abscesses, lymphomatous lesions and metastasis, were detected in 5.7% of the explorations. Thirty-five percent of the AU revealed the presence of lymphadenopathy; nodes measuring over 2.5 cm were usually related to potential treatable infection or neoplasm. Thickening of the gallbladder wall did not usually indicate the presence of acute cholecystitis unless Murphy''s sign was also detected. Bile duct dilation and wall thickening was related to opportunistic cholangitis, and the increase in the echogenicity of the renal parenchyma was linked to AIDS-related nephropathy. Despite the fact that many of findings with AU are nonspecific, we consider that this approach should be the principal diagnostic technique in AIDS patients with suspected abdominal pathology or fever of unknown origin. (Author) 43 refs,

  12. Expiratory muscle control during vomiting - Role of brain stem expiratory neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, A. D.; Tan, L. K.

    1987-01-01

    The neural mechanisms controlling the muscles involved during vomiting were examined using decerebrated cats. In one experiment, the activity of the ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons was recorded during induced 'fictive vomiting' (i.e., a series of bursts of coactivation of abdominal and phrenic nerves that would be expected to produce expulsion in unparalyzed animals) and vomiting. In a second, abdominal muscle electromyographic and nerve activity were compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons as they cross the midline between C1 and the obex (the procedure that is known to abolish expiratory modulation of internal intercostal muscle activity). The results of the study indicate that the abdominal muscles are controlled differently during respiration and vomiting.

  13. Appearance of abdominal wall endometriosis on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busard, Milou P.H.; Kuijk, Cees van; Waesberghe, Jan Hein T.M. van; Mijatovic, Velja; Hompes, Peter G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is defined as endometrial tissue that is superficial to the peritoneum. AWE is often difficult to diagnose, mimicking a broad spectrum of diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the appearance of AWE on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present ten patients with AWE (12 lesions) in which MR imaging was used for diagnosis. MR imaging included T2-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging with fat suppression. To assess the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in endometriosis, four patients underwent additional DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated using b values of 50, 400, 800 and 1,200 s/mm 2 . In most cases, the lesion was located ventral or dorsal to the aponeurosis of the rectus oblique muscle (n=6) or in the rectus abdominis (n = 5). MR of AWE lesions showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T2-weighted images and showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T1-weighted images with foci of high signal intensity, indicative of haemorrhage. The mean ADC value of AWE was 0.93 x 10 -3 /mm 2 /s. MR imaging seems to be useful in determining the location and depth of infiltration in surrounding tissue preoperatively. (orig.)

  14. Appearance of abdominal wall endometriosis on MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busard, Milou P.H.; Kuijk, Cees van; Waesberghe, Jan Hein T.M. van [VU Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Endometriosis Center VUMC, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mijatovic, Velja; Hompes, Peter G.A. [VU Medical Center, Department of Gynecology, Endometriosis Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-15

    Abdominal wall endometriosis (AWE) is defined as endometrial tissue that is superficial to the peritoneum. AWE is often difficult to diagnose, mimicking a broad spectrum of diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the appearance of AWE on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present ten patients with AWE (12 lesions) in which MR imaging was used for diagnosis. MR imaging included T2-weighted imaging and T1-weighted imaging with fat suppression. To assess the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in endometriosis, four patients underwent additional DWI. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was calculated using b values of 50, 400, 800 and 1,200 s/mm{sup 2}. In most cases, the lesion was located ventral or dorsal to the aponeurosis of the rectus oblique muscle (n=6) or in the rectus abdominis (n = 5). MR of AWE lesions showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T2-weighted images and showed isointense or slightly hyperintense signal compared with muscle on T1-weighted images with foci of high signal intensity, indicative of haemorrhage. The mean ADC value of AWE was 0.93 x 10{sup -3}/mm{sup 2}/s. MR imaging seems to be useful in determining the location and depth of infiltration in surrounding tissue preoperatively. (orig.)

  15. Successful Management of Perforated Duodenal Diverticulitis With Intra-abdominal Drainage and Feeding Jejunostomy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Fan Chen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the clinical experience of one patient with perforated duodenal diverticulitis who was successfully treated by intra-abdominal drainage and feeding jejunostomy. A 53-year-old male patient visited our hospital due to acute onset of abdominal pain and distension. Physical examination revealed tenderness over the epigastric area and right-lower quadrant of the abdomen without obvious rebound tenderness or muscle guarding. Duodenal diverticulitis with a retroperitoneal abscess was identified by abdominal computed tomography scan. Surgical intervention was performed after the failure of conservative treatment. The operative findings were compatible with perforated duodenal diverticulitis, and intra-abdominal drainage of retroperitoneal abscess with simultaneous feeding jejunostomy was undertaken. The patient was doing well at the 4-month postoperative follow-up visit. We suggest the use of a conservative operative method, as opposed to conventional diverticulectomy and duodenorrhaphy, as an alternative approach for the management of this disorder, especially when conservative treatment has failed.

  16. Absence of synergy for monosynaptic Group I inputs between abdominal and internal intercostal motoneurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ford, T W; Meehan, Claire Francesca; Kirkwood, P A

    2014-01-01

    Internal intercostal and abdominal motoneurons are strongly coactivated during expiration. We investigated whether that synergy was paralleled by synergistic Group I reflex excitation. Intracellular recordings were made from motoneurons of the internal intercostal nerve of T8 in anesthetized cats...... that are synergistically activated in expiration leads us to conclude that such connections from muscle spindle afferents of the thoracic nerves have little role in controlling expiratory movements but, where present, support other motor acts....

  17. Uso da peritoneostomia na sepse abdominal Laparostomy in abdominal sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvenal da Rocha Torres Neto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as modalidades terapêuticas da sepse abdominal, a peritoneostomia tem papel decisivo permitindo explorações e lavagens da cavidade de forma facilitada. Observamos pacientes com diagnóstico clínico de sepse abdominal internados no Serviço de Coloproctologia do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Sergipe, e que foram submetidos a peritoneostomia de janeiro de 2004 a janeiro de 2006. Foram avaliados quanto ao diagnóstico primário e secundário, tipo de peritonite secundária, antibioticoterapia, esquema de lavagens, tempo de peritoneostomia, complicações e desfecho. Estudamos 12 pacientes, com idade de 15 a 57, média de 39,3 anos. Diagnóstico primário: abdome agudo inflamatório em 6(50%, abdome agudo obstrutivo em 2(16,7%, abdome agudo perfurativo em 2(16,7%, fístula enterocutânea em 1(8,3% e abscesso intra-cavitário em 1(8,3%. Diagnóstico secundário: perfuração de cólon em 4(33,3%, abscessos intra-cavitários em 3(25%, deiscências de anastomoses em 3(25%, 1(8,3% com tumor perfurado de sigmóide e 1(8,3% com necrose de cólon abaixado. Peritonite fecal em 10(83,3% e purulenta em 2(16,7%. A antibioticoterapia teve duração média de 19 dias. Lavagens de demanda em 6(50%, programadas em 4(33,3% e regime misto em 2(16,7%. O tempo médio de peritoneostomia foi de 10,9 dias (1-36. Como complicações: evisceração em 2(16,7% e fistulização em 1(8,3%. Quatro pacientes evoluíram com óbito.Among the therapeutics approach form of abdominal sepsis, the laparostomy has a decisive role allowing cavity explorations and lavages in an easier way. We study patients with abdominal sepsis diagnoses admitted to our surgical service of Coloproctology form Sergipe´s Federal University Hospital who underwent a Bogotá Bag laparostomy associated or not with polypropylene mesh from January 2004 to January 2006. These patients were assessed as: first and second diagnosis; secondary peritonitis type; antibiotic

  18. Post caesarean section anterior abdominal wall endometriosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal wall endometriosis is a likely sequelae of caesarean section as viable endometrial tissue are deposited in the peritoneal cavity or anterior abdominal wall. One such case to sensitize clinicians of this rare presentation of the disease is presented. The patient was a 48 year old woman who presented with a lesion ...

  19. Synovial sarcoma of the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Matushita, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    A case report of synovial sarcoma arising in the abdominal wall is presented. A brief review of the clinical and radiological features of synovial sarcoma is made. Pre-operative diagnosis of an abdominal wall synovial sarcoma is virtually impossible, but should be considered when a soft tissue swelling is found to show amorphous stippled calcification X-ray. (author) [pt

  20. Actinomycosis mimicking abdominal neoplasm. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Dziegiel, M

    1988-01-01

    In a patient with a 6-month history of nonspecific abdominal complaints, preoperative examination indicated malignant disease involving the right ovary, rectum and sigmoid, but laparotomy revealed abdominal actinomycosis. Removal of the ovary and low anterior colonic resection followed by penicil...

  1. Asymptomatic Incisional Endometrioma Presenting as Abdominal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptomatic incisional endometrioma of the anterior abdominal wall is rare. Clinical diagnosis may be difficult. We present a 26 year old woman with incisional abdominal wall endometrioma discovered 5 years after caeserian section. It was painless and there was no change in size with menstruation. The patient's body ...

  2. Abdominal imaging findings in gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicek, Kristina T; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; De Petris, Giovanni D; Johnson, C Daniel

    2015-02-01

    To describe the abdominal imaging findings of patients with gastrointestinal Basidiobolus ranarum infection. A literature search was performed to compile the abdominal imaging findings of all reported worldwide cases of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis (GIB). In addition, a retrospective review at our institution was performed to identify GIB cases that had imaging findings. A radiologist aware of the diagnosis reviewed the imaging findings in detail. Additional information was obtained from the medical records. A total of 73 GIB cases have been published in the medical literature. The most common abdominal imaging findings were masses in the colon, the liver, or multiple sites and bowel wall thickening. Initially, many patients were considered to have either a neoplasm or Crohn disease. We identified 7 proven cases of GIB at our institution, of which 4 had imaging studies (4 computed tomography [CT] examinations, 4 abdominal radiographs, and an upper gastrointestinal study). Imaging studies showed abnormalities in all 4 cases. Three-fourths of our study patients had an abdominal mass at CT. Two of 3 masses involved the kidneys and included urinary obstruction. All masses showed an inflammatory component with adjacent soft tissue stranding, with or without abscess formation. Radiologists should consider GIB when a patient from an arid climate presents with abdominal pain, weight loss, and an inflammatory abdominal mass on CT. Abdominal masses of the colon or liver, bowel wall thickening, and abscesses are the most common imaging findings.

  3. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Zeevenhooven, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus; Benninga, Marc A.

    2018-01-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on

  4. PATTERN AND OUTCOME OF ABDOMINAL INJURIES AT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2006-01-01

    Jan 1, 2006 ... a significant cause of abdominal injuries in Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). The rate-of ... of selective management of abdominal injuries in. 1960 by ..... that pays great attention to the condition of the patient. (11). To aid in ...

  5. Retrospective comparison of abdominal ultrasonography and radiography in the investigation of feline abdominal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Wylen Wade; Sharma, Ajay; Wu, Wenbo

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal radiography and ultrasonography are commonly used as part of the initial diagnostic plan for cats with nonspecific signs of abdominal disease. This retrospective study compared the clinical usefulness of abdominal radiography and ultrasonography in 105 feline patients with signs of abdominal disease. The final diagnosis was determined more commonly with ultrasonography (59%) compared to radiography (25.7%). Ultrasonography was also able to provide additional clinically relevant information in 76% of cases, and changed or refined the diagnosis in 47% of cases. Based on these findings, ultrasonography may be sufficient as an initial diagnostic test for the investigation of feline abdominal disease. PMID:26483582

  6. Mechanical behaviour of synthetic surgical meshes: finite element simulation of the herniated abdominal wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Gascón, B; Peña, E; Melero, H; Pascual, G; Doblaré, M; Ginebra, M P; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B

    2011-11-01

    The material properties of meshes used in hernia surgery contribute to the overall mechanical behaviour of the repaired abdominal wall. The mechanical response of a surgical mesh has to be defined since the haphazard orientation of an anisotropic mesh can lead to inconsistent surgical outcomes. This study was designed to characterize the mechanical behaviour of three surgical meshes (Surgipro®, Optilene® and Infinit®) and to describe a mechanical constitutive law that accurately reproduces the experimental results. Finally, through finite element simulation, the behaviour of the abdominal wall was modelled before and after surgical mesh implant. Uniaxial loading of mesh samples in two perpendicular directions revealed the isotropic response of Surgipro® and the anisotropic behaviour of Optilene® and Infinit®. A phenomenological constitutive law was used to reproduce the measured experimental curves. To analyze the mechanical effect of the meshes once implanted in the abdomen, finite element simulation of the healthy and partially herniated repaired rabbit abdominal wall served to reproduce wall behaviour before and after mesh implant. In all cases, maximal displacements were lower and maximal principal stresses higher in the implanted abdomen than the intact wall model. Despite the fact that no mesh showed a behaviour that perfectly matched that of abdominal muscle, the Infinit® mesh was able to best comply with the biomechanics of the abdominal wall. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Abdominal crunch exercise analysis performed with maximum and submaximum loads: An electromyographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Moura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis during abdominal crunch exercise performed with maximum and submaximum loads. Thirteen male and female university students participated in this investigation (18-23 years old. The subjects completed abdominal crunch exercise until exhaustion with 20, 40, 60 and 80% of the maximum load. The root-mean-square (RMS from electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis and obliquus externus muscles from the first and last three repetitions from each workload performed was analyzed. RMS for the last repetitions increased in relation to the first repetitions for the 20% workload, first two repetitions on 40% workload and first repetition on the 80% workload. There was no difference for the 60% workload. Results showed that external load on abdominal crunch exercise might be an alternative to increase intensity while performing abdominal crunch exercise, which on its turn can be a practical tool for subjects that aim to increase abdominal strength level.

  8. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger, Peter C.; Prayer, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages

  9. Fetal abdominal magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, 1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: peter.brugger@meduniwien.ac.at; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringerguertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2006-02-15

    This review deals with the in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance of the human fetal abdomen. Imaging findings are correlated with current knowledge of human fetal anatomy and physiology, which are crucial to understand and interpret fetal abdominal MRI scans. As fetal MRI covers a period of more than 20 weeks, which is characterized not only by organ growth, but also by changes and maturation of organ function, a different MR appearance of the fetal abdomen results. This not only applies to the fetal intestines, but also to the fetal liver, spleen, and adrenal glands. Choosing the appropriate sequences, various aspects of age-related and organ-specific function can be visualized with fetal MRI, as these are mirrored by changes in signal intensities. Knowledge of normal development is essential to delineate normal from pathological findings in the respective developmental stages.

  10. Acute appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Joudi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Appendecitis is one of the most frequent surgeries. Inflammation of appendix may be due to variable causes such as fecalit, hypertrophy of Peyer’s plaques, seeds of fruits and parasites. In this study we presented an uncommon type of appendicitis which occurred after abdominal blunt trauma. In this article three children present who involved acute appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma. These patients were 2 boys (5 and 6-year-old and one girl (8-year-old who after blunt abdominal trauma admitted to the hospital with abdominal pain and symptoms of acute abdomen and appendectomy had been done for them.Trauma can induce intramural hematoma at appendix process and may cause appendicitis. Therefore, physicians should be aware of appendicitis after blunt abdominal trauma

  11. Mechanical characterization of porcine abdominal organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsutaka; Omori, Kiyoshi; Miki, Kazuo; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I

    2002-11-01

    Typical automotive related abdominal injuries occur due to contact with the rim of the steering wheel, seatbelt and armrest, however, the rate is less than in other body regions. When solid abdominal organs, such as the liver, kidneys and spleen are involved, the injury severity tends to be higher. Although sled and pendulum impact tests have been conducted using cadavers and animals, the mechanical properties and the tissue level injury tolerance of abdominal solid organs are not well characterized. These data are needed in the development of computer models, the improvement of current anthropometric test devices and the enhancement of our understanding of abdominal injury mechanisms. In this study, a series of experimental tests on solid abdominal organs was conducted using porcine liver, kidney and spleen specimens. Additionally, the injury tolerance of the solid organs was deduced from the experimental data.

  12. Da Vinci-assisted abdominal cerclage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmat, Larry; Glaser, Gretchen; Davis, George; Craparo, Frank

    2007-11-01

    To report the first placement of an abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Case report. Tertiary-care hospital. A 39-year-old female with a history of cervical insufficiency who required a cerclage and was not a candidate for transvaginal cerclage placement. Abdominal cervicoisthmic cerclage placement using the da Vinci robot. Ability to safely and successfully place an abdominal cerclage using the da Vinci robot. Abdominal cerclage was successfully placed using the da Vinci robot. The patient had minimal blood loss and was discharged to home on the same day as surgery. Da Vinci robot-assisted abdominal cerclage placement is an innovative application of robotic surgery and may alter the standard of care for women who require this surgery.

  13. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI, relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3 is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. "BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x = P1 × x 2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056, P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164, P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412, R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  14. The value of intra-abdominal pressure monitoring through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypertension after abdominal closure (8%) and only one of ... Ann Pediatr. Surg 13:69–73 c 2017 Annals of Pediatric Surgery. Annals of ... intra-abdominal hypertension ..... measurements as a guide in the closure of abdominal wall defects.

  15. Abdominal ultrasonography in the diagnostic work-up in children with recurrent abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Strandberg, C; Pærregaard, Anders

    1997-01-01

    We report on our experience with routine abdominal ultrasonography in 120 children (aged 3-15 years) with recurrent abdominal pain, in order to determine the diagnostic value of this investigation. Eight children (7%) revealed sonographic abnormalities: gallbladder stone (n = 2), splenomegaly (n...... = 1) and urogenital abnormalities (n = 5). The recurrent abdominal pain could be explained by these findings in only two (may be three) cases. CONCLUSION: The diagnostic value of abdominal ultrasonography in unselected children with recurrent abdominal pain is low. However, the direct visualization...... of the abdominal structures as being normal may be helpful to the parents and the child in their understanding and acceptance of the benign nature of recurrent abdominal pain....

  16. The ‘abdominal circulatory pump’: an auxiliary heart during exercise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eUva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from its role as a flow generator for ventilation the diaphragm has a circulatory role. The cyclical abdominal pressure variations from its contractions cause swings in venous return from the splanchnic venous circulation. During exercise the action of the abdominal muscles may enhance this circulatory function of the diaphragm. Eleven healthy subjects (25±7yr, 70±11kg, 1.78±0.1m, 3F performed plantar flexion exercise at ∼4 METs. Changes in body volume (ΔVb and trunk volume (ΔVtr were measured simultaneously by double body plethysmography. Volume of blood shifts between trunk and extremities (Vbs was determined non-invasively as ΔVtr-ΔVb. Three types of breathing were studied: spontaneous (SE, rib cage (RCE, voluntary emphasized inspiratory rib cage breathing and abdominal (ABE, voluntary active abdominal expiration breathing.. During SE and RCE blood was displaced from the extremities into the trunk (on average 0.16± 0.33L and 0.48±0.55L, p<0.05 SE vs RCE, while during ABE it was displaced from the trunk to the extremities (0.22±0.20L p<0.001, p<0.05 RCE and SE vs ABE respectively. At baseline, Vbs swings (maximum to minimum amplitude were bimodal and averaged 0.13±0.08L. During exercise, Vbs swings consistently increased (0.42±0.34L, 0.40±0.26L, 0.46±0.21L, for SE, RCE and ABE respectively, all p<0.01 vs. baseline. It follows that during leg exercise significant bi-directional blood shifting occurs between the trunk and the extremities. The dynamics and partitioning of these blood shifts strongly depend on the relative predominance of the action of the diaphragm, the rib cage and the abdominal muscles. Depending on the partitioning between respiratory muscles for the act of breathing, the distribution of blood between trunk and extremities can vary by up to 1 L. We conclude that during exercise the abdominal muscles and the diaphragm might play a role of an ‘auxiliary heart’.

  17. Keratinocyte Growth Factor Combined with a Sodium Hyaluronate Gel Inhibits Postoperative Intra-Abdominal Adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangbing Wei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion is a very common complication after abdominal surgery. One clinical problem that remains to be solved is to identify an ideal strategy to prevent abdominal adhesions. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF has been proven to improve the proliferation of mesothelial cells, which may enhance fibrinolytic activity to suppress postoperative adhesions. This study investigated whether the combined administration of KGF and a sodium hyaluronate (HA gel can prevent intra-abdominal adhesions by improving the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells. The possible prevention mechanism was also explored. The cecum wall and its opposite parietal peritoneum were abraded after laparotomy to induce intra-abdominal adhesion formation. Animals were randomly allocated to receive topical application of HA, KGF, KGF + HA, or normal saline (Control. On postoperative day 7, the adhesion score was assessed with a visual scoring system. Masson’s trichrome staining, picrosirius red staining and hydroxyproline assays were used to assess the magnitude of adhesion and tissue fibrosis. Cytokeratin, a marker of the mesothelial cells, was detected by immunohistochemistry. The levels of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs. Western blotting was performed to examine the expression of the TGF-β1, fibrinogen and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA proteins in the rat peritoneal adhesion tissue. The combined administration of KGF and HA significantly reduced intra-abdominal adhesion formation and fibrin deposition and improved the orderly repair of the peritoneal mesothelial cells in the rat model. Furthermore, the combined administration of KGF and HA significantly increased the tPA levels but reduced the levels of IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and TGF-β1 in the abdominal fluid. The

  18. Concurrent validity of the pressure biofeedback unit and surface electromyography in measuring transversus abdominis muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain Validade concorrente da unidade de biofeedback pressórico e eletromiografia de superfície na mensuração da atividade muscular do transverso abdominal em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro O. P. Lima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Pressure biofeedback unit (PBU is an assessment tool used in clinical practice and research aimed to indirectly analyze the transversus abdominis (TrA muscle activity. The concurrent validity of the PBU in a clinically relevant sample is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concurrent validity and diagnostic accuracy of the PBU in measuring TrA muscle activity in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. METHOD: This study was performed using a validation, cross-sectional design. Fifty patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were recruited for this study. To test the concurrent validity both PBU measures (index test and superficial electromyographic measures (reference-standard test were compared and collected by a physical therapist in a series of voluntary contraction maneuvers of TrA muscle. RESULTS: Participants were on average 22 years old, weighed 63.7 kilos, 1.70 meters height and mean low back pain duration was 1.9 years. It was observed a weak and non-significant Phi coefficient (r=0.2, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A Unidade de Biofeedback Pressórico (UBP é uma ferramenta de avaliação usada na prática clínica e pesquisa científica para analisar indiretamente a atividade muscular do transverso abdominal (TrA. A validade concorrente da UBP em uma amostra clinicamente relevante ainda não está esclarecida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a validade concorrente e acurácia diagnóstica da UBP em mensurar a atividade muscular do TrA em pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica. MÉTODO: Este estudo foi realizado usando um delineamento de validação. Cinquenta pacientes com dor lombar crônica inespecífica foram recrutados. Para testar a validade concorrente, ambas as medidas pressóricas (teste índice e eletromiográficas superficiais (teste padrão de referência foram comparadas e coletadas por um fisioterapeuta a partir de uma manobra de contração voluntária do músculo Tr

  19. Dynamic CT in the abdominal organ, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kunihiko

    1980-01-01

    By utilizing a 4.5-second CT (computed tomography) scanner which allows sequential scans the changes of the iodine concentration in abdominal organs can be observed as dynamics reflected in CT number. The abdominal dynamic CT was performed as following method. After performing the preliminary scan 50ml of 60% meglumine iothalamate was rapidly injected intravenously by hands. The sequential scanning was initiated when a half dose of contrast medium was injected. In completion of the 4 sequential scans under arrested respiration the conventional post contrast scanning was performed. The analysis of 112 cases dynamically studied by CT came to the following conclusion. CT number of the abdominal aorta was greatest on the 1st or 2nd scan of the sequential scans (7.5 - 20.5 seconds after initiation of injection). Following this peak formation, CT number of the abdominal aorta declined rapidly due to both prompt diffusion of contrast medium into the extravascular space and dilution by the intravascular fluid. Iodine concentration of the abdominal aorta during the peak period was calculated as 11.3 mg/ml by the present method, being theoretically sufficient for delineation of the vessels smaller than medium size. In the patients with impaired renal function, several characteristic patterns were noted on the dynamics of contrast medium within the abdominal organs. The abdominal dynamic CT was felt to be promissing for evaluation of the renal function. (author)

  20. Review article: the functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, A D; Drossman, D A

    2011-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a debilitating disorder with constant or nearly constant abdominal pain, present for at least 6 months and loss of daily functioning. To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of FAPS. A literature review using the keywords: functional abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional gastrointestinal disorders. No epidemiological studies have focused specifically on FAPS. Estimates of prevalence range from 0.5% to 1.7% and tend to show a female predominance. FAPS pathophysiology appears unique in that the pain is caused primarily by amplified central perception of normal visceral input, rather than by enhanced peripheral stimulation from abdominal viscera. The diagnosis of FAPS is symptom-based in accordance with the Rome III diagnostic criteria. These criteria are geared to identify patients with severe symptoms as they require constant or nearly constant abdominal pain with loss of daily function and are differentiated from IBS based on their non-association with changes in bowel habit, eating or other gut-related events. As cure is not feasible, the aims of treatment are reduced suffering and improved quality of life. Treatment is based on a biopsychosocial approach with a therapeutic patient-physician partnership at its base. Therapeutic options include central nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities and peripheral modalities. These can be combined to produce an augmentation effect. Although few studies have assessed functional abdominal pain syndrome or its treatment specifically, the treatment strategies outlined in this paper appear to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Treatment strategy for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovic, L

    2014-07-01

    Rupture is the most serious and lethal complication of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. Despite all improvements during the past 50 years, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are still associated with very high mortality. Namely, including patients who die before reaching the hospital, the mortality rate due to abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture is 90%. On the other hand, during the last twenty years, the number of abdominal aortic aneurysms significantly increased. One of the reasons is the fact that in majority of countries the general population is older nowadays. Due to this, the number of degenerative AAA is increasing. This is also the case for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. Age must not be the reason of a treatment refusal. Optimal therapeutic option ought to be found. The following article is based on literature analysis including current guidelines but also on my Clinics significant experience. Furthermore, this article show cases options for vascular medicine in undeveloped countries that can not apply endovascular procedures at a sufficient level and to a sufficient extent. At this moment the following is evident. Thirty-day-mortality after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms is significantly lower in high-volume hospitals. Due to different reasons all ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms are not suitable for EVAR. Open repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm should be performed by experienced open vascular surgeons. This could also be said for the treatment of endovascular complications that require open surgical conversion. There is no ideal procedure for the treatment of AAA. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, its own limits and complications, as well as indications and contraindications. Future reductions in mortality of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms will depend on implementation of population-based screening; on strategies to prevent postoperative organ injury and also on new medical technology

  2. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kyu Bae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such asperitonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient’s hospitalstay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason,a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominismuscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect.Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture,cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week afteroperation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds didnot resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation woundand dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue fromthe attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa’s fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath andmuscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially sothat the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction.Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation,no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in termsof function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery.Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic andfunctional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, itenabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle.

  3. Diagnosis of calcification on abdominal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Kleine, L.J.; McMillan, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    A wide variety of normal and pathologic factors may induce intraabdominal calcification. In general, the most reliable indication of the cause of a calcification is its location; therefore, if the affected organ can be identified the radiographic diagnosis is often straightforward or, at least, limited to relatively few possibilities. With this principle in mind, a series of patients with abdominal calcification are described for the purpose of illustrating the appearance of calcification of various abdominal organs. In addition, etiology for the calcification in each patient is discussed. Certain extraabdominal calcifications which may be seen on abdominal radiographs are also mentioned

  4. Computerized abdominal tomography in Wilson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchikura, Keiko; Ogawa, Teruyuki; Nakajima, Akihisa; Ono, Yasuhiko

    1986-05-01

    Cranial and abdominal computerized tomography (CT) was performed in a 10-year-old boy with Wilson's disease complicated by liver cirrhosis. Abdominal CT showed diffuse high density areas over the whole part of the liver propably due to copper sediments, although there was no abnormal cranial CT findings. Decreased high density area of the liver was seen 60 days after the administration of D-penicillamine, suggesting the excretion of copper from the liver. Abdominal CT, as well as cranial CT, may be of help to diagnose Wilson's disease and evaluate therapeutic effects. (Namekawa, K.).

  5. Roentgenologic evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Zoon; Ra, Woo Youn; Woo, Won Hyung [Hankang Sacred heart Hospital, Chung Ang University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-10-15

    This study comprises 25 cases of blunt abdominal trauma proved by surgery. It is concluded that visceral damage by blunt abdominal trauma may be suspected, but can not be satisfactorily diagnosed upon a single plane abdominal roentgenologic examination with clinical support. Contrary to some reports in the literature, rupture of the hallow, viscus is more susceptible than solid organ and ileum is more than jejunum. It is a useful roentgenologic sign denoting distension and small cresent air shadow in the duodenal sweep of the damaged pancreas.

  6. Errors in abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, S.; Marting, I.; Dixon, A.K.

    1989-01-01

    Sixty-nine patients are presented in whom a substantial error was made on the initial abdominal computed tomography report. Certain features of these errors have been analysed. In 30 (43.5%) a lesion was simply not recognised (error of observation); in 39 (56.5%) the wrong conclusions were drawn about the nature of normal or abnormal structures (error of interpretation). The 39 errors of interpretation were more complex; in 7 patients an abnormal structure was noted but interpreted as normal, whereas in four a normal structure was thought to represent a lesion. Other interpretive errors included those where the wrong cause for a lesion had been ascribed (24 patients), and those where the abnormality was substantially under-reported (4 patients). Various features of these errors are presented and discussed. Errors were made just as often in relation to small and large lesions. Consultants made as many errors as senior registrar radiologists. It is like that dual reporting is the best method of avoiding such errors and, indeed, this is widely practised in our unit. (Author). 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  7. A Rare Cause of Postprandial Abdominal Pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes abdominal symptoms. Median ... compression of the coeliac artery by the median arcuate ligament. ... existing symptoms might cause frustration to patient and relatives. ... disease, chest pathology, etc., were excluded from the study.

  8. Predictors of abdominal injuries in blunt trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrath, Samiris; Parreira, José Gustavo; Perlingeiro, Jacqueline A G; Solda, Silvia C; Assef, José Cesar

    2012-01-01

    To identify predictors of abdominal injuries in victims of blunt trauma. retrospective analysis of trauma protocols (collected prospectively) of adult victims of blunt trauma in a period of 15 months. Variables were compared between patients with abdominal injuries (AIS>0) detected by computed tomography or/and laparotomy (group I) and others (AIS=0, group II). Student's t, Fisher and qui-square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p3) in head (18.5% vs. 7.9%), thorax (29.2% vs. 2.4%) and extremities (40.0% vs. 13.7%). The highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of abdominal injuries were associated flail chest (21.8) and pelvic fractures (21.0). Abdominal injuries were more frequently observed in patients with hemodynamic instability, changes in Glasgow coma scale and severe lesions to the head, chest and extremities.

  9. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author)

  10. Pancreatic insufficiency secondary to abdominal radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dookeran, K.A.; Thompson, M.M.; Allum, W.H. (Leicester Royal Infirmary (United Kingdom). Dept. of Surgery)

    1993-02-01

    Delayed post-irradiation steatorrhoea secondary to acute pancreatic insufficiency is rare. The authors describe a case occurring in a patient 23 years following radical abdominal radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. (Author).

  11. Genetics Home Reference: abdominal wall defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are two main types of abdominal wall defects: omphalocele and gastroschisis . Omphalocele is an opening in the center of the ... covering the exposed organs in gastroschisis. Fetuses with omphalocele may grow slowly before birth (intrauterine growth retardation) ...

  12. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Cleva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior.METHODS:We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique.RESULTS:The mean age of the patients was 56±13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3% had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior. The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6±0.6 L and FVC (2.0±0.7 L with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8±0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p= 0.59 for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed.CONCLUSIONS:Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  13. Correlation between intra-abdominal pressure and pulmonary volumes after superior and inferior abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleva, Roberto de; Assumpção, Marianna Siqueira de; Sasaya, Flavia; Chaves, Natalia Zuniaga; Santo, Marco Aurelio; Fló, Claudia; Lunardi, Adriana C; Jacob Filho, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    Patients undergoing abdominal surgery are at risk for pulmonary complications. The principal cause of postoperative pulmonary complications is a significant reduction in pulmonary volumes (FEV1 and FVC) to approximately 65-70% of the predicted value. Another frequent occurrence after abdominal surgery is increased intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study was to correlate changes in pulmonary volumes with the values of intra-abdominal pressure after abdominal surgery, according to the surgical incision in the abdomen (superior or inferior). We prospectively evaluated 60 patients who underwent elective open abdominal surgery with a surgical time greater than 240 minutes. Patients were evaluated before surgery and on the 3rd postoperative day. Spirometry was assessed by maximal respiratory maneuvers and flow-volume curves. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured in the postoperative period using the bladder technique. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 13 years, and 41.6% 25 were female; 50 patients (83.3%) had malignant disease. The patients were divided into two groups according to the surgical incision (superior or inferior). The lung volumes in the preoperative period showed no abnormalities. After surgery, there was a significant reduction in both FEV1 (1.6 ± 0.6 L) and FVC (2.0 ± 0.7 L) with maintenance of FEV1/FVC of 0.8 ± 0.2 in both groups. The maximum intra-abdominal pressure values were similar (p=0.59) for the two groups. There was no association between pulmonary volumes and intra-abdominal pressure measured in any of the groups analyzed. Our results show that superior and inferior abdominal surgery determines hypoventilation, unrelated to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Patients at high risk of pulmonary complications should receive respiratory care even if undergoing inferior abdominal surgery.

  14. Adductor muscle pyo-myositis simulating appendicitis: CT and MR imaging findings; Pyomyosite des mulcles adducteurs mimant une appendicite aigue: aspects tomodensitometriques et IRM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coumbaras, M.; Le Hir, P.; Jomaah, N.; Arrive, L.; Tubiana, J.M. [Hopital Saint Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-04-01

    Pyo-myositis is a primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. This infection tends to occur in the large muscles of the lower extremity. Pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh can simulate acute abdominal disease. Early diagnosis improves the outcome. Delayed diagnosis may lead to septicemia and shock. We report the CT and MRI findings in a patient with pyo-myositis of the proximal muscles of the thigh. (authors)

  15. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  16. [Late primary abdominal pregnancy. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farías, Emigdio Torres; Gómez, Luis Guillermo Torres; Allegre, René Márquez; Higareda, Salvador Hernández

    2008-09-01

    Abdominal advanced pregnancy is an obstetric complication that put at risk maternal and fetal life. We report a case of advanced abdominal pregnancy with intact ovaries and fallopian tubes, without ureteroperitoneal fistulae and, late prenatal diagnosis, in a multiparous patient without risk factors, with alive newborn, and whose pregnancy was attended at Unidad Medica de Alta Especialidad, Hospital de Gineco-Obstetricia, Centro Medico Nacional de Occidente del IMSS, Guadalajara, Jalisco, México.

  17. Pediatric Abdominal Pain: An Emergency Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeremiah; Fox, Sean M

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal pain is a common complaint that leads to pediatric patients seeking emergency care. The emergency care provider has the arduous task of determining which child likely has a benign cause and not missing the devastating condition that needs emergent attention. This article reviews common benign causes of abdominal pain as well as some of the cannot-miss emergent causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The value of plain abdominal radiographs in management of abdominal emergencies in Luth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashindoitiang, J A; Atoyebi, A O; Arogundade, R A

    2008-01-01

    The plain abdominal x-ray is still the first imaging modality in diagnosis of acute abdomen. The aim of this study was to find the value of plain abdominal x-ray in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos university teaching hospital. The accurate diagnosis of the cause of acute abdominal pain is one of the most challenging undertakings in emergency medicine. This is due to overlapping of clinical presentation and non-specific findings of physical and even laboratory data of the multifarious causes. Plain abdominal radiography is one investigation that can be obtained readily and within a short period of time to help the physician arrive at a correct diagnosis The relevance of plain abdominal radiography was therefore evaluated in the management of abdominal emergencies seen in Lagos over a 12 month period (April 2002 to March 2003). A prospective study of 100 consecutively presenting patients with acute abdominal conditions treated by the general surgical unit of Lagos University Teaching Hospital was undertaken. All patients had supine and erect abdominal x-ray before any therapeutic intervention was undertaken. The diagnostic features of the plain films were compared with final diagnosis to determine the usefulness of the plain x-ray There were 54 males and 46 females (M:F 1.2:1). Twenty-four percent of the patients had intestinal obstruction, 20% perforated typhoid enteritis; gunshot injuries and generalized peritonitis each occurred in 13%, blunt abdominal trauma in 12%, while 8% and 10% had acute appendicitis and perforated peptic ulcer disease respectively. Of 100 patients studied, 54% had plain abdominal radiographs that showed positive diagnostic features. Plain abdominal radiograph showed high sensitivity in patients with intestinal obstruction 100% and perforated peptic ulcer 90% but was less sensitive in patients with perforated typhoid, acute appendicitis, and blunt abdominal trauma and generalized peritonitis. In conclusion, this study

  19. ABDOMINAL DRAWING IN MANEUVER: EFFECT ON GAIT PARAMETERS AND PAIN REDUCTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramasivan Mani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Back pain is the common musculoskeletal condition with a high prevalence of up to 80% among the general and work force population at some times in their lives.Muscular injury, fatigue, or facet or disc degeneration can compromise the stabilizing effects resulting in shearing forces that cause pain.Abdominal drawing in maneuver is used to facilitate the re-education of neuromuscular control mechanisms provided by local stabilizing muscles. Objective of the study is to measure the gait parameters and pain control before and after abdominal drawing in maneuver in patient with chronic mechanical low back pain. Methods: Total number of 30 consecutive patients and they were divided into two groups by purposive sampling. Group A is subjects with low back pain and Group B is subjects without low back pain. Outcome measures were average step cycle, average step length, coefficient of variation, time on each foot, Ambulation index measured with Biodex gait trainer. Pain is measured with Revised-Oswestry low back pain questionnaire. Results: Significant difference between gait parameters were observed in both low back pain group and the group without low back pain group with abdominal drawing in maneuver and the changes without abdominal drawing in maneuver was minimal. There was no significant difference found between both groups with or without abdominal drawing in maneuver. Conclusion: Gait parameters and Pain control can be improved by training with abdominal drawing in maneuver thereby it reduces pain and improves gait symmetry in subjects with low back pain.

  20. Abdominal epilepsy as an unusual cause ofabdominal pain: A case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Abdominal pain, in etiology sometimes difficult to be defined, is a frequent complaint in childhood. Abdominal epilepsy is a rare cause of abdominal pain. Objectives: In this article, we report on 5 year old girl patient with abdominal epilepsy. Methods: Some investigations (stool investigation, routine blood tests, ...

  1. Abdominal Hollowing Reduces Lateral Trunk Displacement During Single-Leg Squats in Healthy Females But Does Not Affect Peak Hip Abduction Angle or Knee Abductio Angle/Moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Lukas D; Archibald, Jessica; Lampert, Eve C; Srbely, John Z

    2017-07-17

    Females suffer 4-6 times more non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than males due to neuromuscular control deficits of the hip musculature leading to increases in hip adduction angle, knee abduction angle, and knee abduction moment during dynamic tasks such as single-leg squats. Lateral trunk displacement has been further related to ACL injury risk in females, leading to the incorporation of core strength/stability exercises in ACL preventative training programs. However, the direct mechanism relating lateral trunk displacement and lower limb ACL risk factors is not well established. To assess the relationship between lateral trunk displacement and lower limb measures of ACL injury risk by altering trunk control through abdominal activation techniques during single-leg squats in healthy females. Interventional Study Setting: Movement and Posture Laboratory Participants: 13 healthy females (21.3±0.88y, 1.68±0.07m, 58.27±5.46kg) Intervention: Trunk position and lower limb kinematics were recorded using an optoelectric motion capture system during single-leg squats under differing conditions of abdominal muscle activation (abdominal hollowing, abdominal bracing, control), confirmed via surface electromyography. Lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle, peak knee abduction angle/moment, and average muscle activity from bilateral internal oblique, external oblique, and erector spinae muscles. No differences were observed for peak lateral trunk displacement, peak hip adduction angle or peak knee abduction angle/moment. Abdominal hollowing and bracing elicited greater muscle activation than the control condition, and bracing was greater than hollowing in four of six muscles recorded. The lack of reduction in trunk, hip, and knee measures of ACL injury risk during abdominal hollowing and bracing suggests that these techniques alone may provide minimal benefit in ACL injury prevention training.

  2. Mechanisms and management of functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Aziz, Qasim

    2014-09-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome is characterised by frequent or continuous abdominal pain associated with a degree of loss of daily activity. It has a reported population prevalence of between 0.5% and 1.7%, with a female preponderance. The pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is incompletely understood although it has been postulated that peripheral sensitisation of visceral afferents, central sensitisation of the spinal dorsal horn and aberrancies within descending modulatory systems may have an important role. The management of patients with functional abdominal pain requires a tailored multidisciplinary approach in a supportive and empathetic environment in order to develop an effective therapeutic relationship. Patient education directed towards an explanation of the pathophysiology of functional abdominal pain is in our opinion a prerequisite step and provides the rationale for the introduction of interventions. Interventions can usefully be categorised into general measures, pharmacotherapy, psychological interventions and 'step-up' treatments. Pharmacotherapeutic/step-up options include tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors and the gabapentinoids. Psychological treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy and hypnotherapy. However, the objective evidence base for these interventions is largely derived from other chronic pain syndrome, and further research is warranted in adult patients with functional abdominal pain. © The Royal Society of Medicine.

  3. Abdominal tuberculosis: clinical presentation and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Saddique, M.; Iqbal, P.

    2007-01-01

    To study the clinical presentation and outcome of cases of Abdominal Tuberculosis. Fifty four patients of Abdominal Tuberculosis were seen during the study period. Four patients were lost to follow-up, which were excluded. Detailed information of all the patients including age, sex, symptoms, signs, investigations and management was recorded, analyzed and compared with local and international data. Out of the 50 patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis, 31 were females and 19 males. Their ages ranged from 17 to 63 years, with a mean age of 25.1 years. Thirty five cases were admitted through Emergency and 15 through Outpatients departments. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom found in 44 (88%) patients followed by vomiting in 33 (66%). Abdominal tenderness was seen in 22 (44%) patients, while 16 (32%) patients had rigidity and other features of peritonitis. Surgery was performed in all these patients, limited right hemicolectomy in 17 (34%), segmental resection and anastomosis in 12 (24%), ileostomy and strictureplasty in six (12%) each, repair of perforation in five (10%) and adhesiolysis in four (8%) patients. Overall mortality was 8% due to septicaemia and multiorgan failure. Abdominal Tuberculosis is a significant clinical entity with lethal complications in neglected cases. It affects a younger age group and is more common in females. Clinical features are rather non-specific but vague ill health, low grade fever, weight loss and anorexia may help to diagnose the case. (author)

  4. Abdominal MR: liver and pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolozzi, C.; Lencioni, R.; Donati, F.; Cioni, D.

    1999-01-01

    Following the introduction of rapid, high-quality scan techniques and the development of new, tissue-specific contrast agents, the applications of MRI for abdominal imaging are experiencing unprecedented growth. This article examines the current status of liver and pancreatic MRI, highlighting technical and methodological approach, use of contrast agents, and main clinical applications. The MRI technique appears to be the ideal diagnostic tool for detection and characterization of benign and malignant liver neoplasms, and for evaluating tumor response after nonsurgical treatments. Dynamic imaging after bolus injection of a gadolinium chelate is currently a fundamental component of an MRI examination of the liver in many instances. Optimal dynamic scanning depends on the use of a multisection spoiled gradient-echo technique that allows one to image the entire region of interest during a single suspended respiration. Images are obtained during four phases relative to the injection of the contrast agent: precontrast, arterial (pre-sinusoidal), portal (sinusoidal), and delayed (extracellular) phase. Liver-specific contrast agents, including hepatobiliary agents and reticuloendothelial system-targeted iron oxide particles, however, may offer advantages over gadolinium chelates in some clinical settings. Computed tomography is still preferred to MRI for imaging the pancreas. However, state-of-the-art MRI may currently be at least as accurate as spiral CT for depiction of inflammatory and neoplastic pancreatic diseases. Moreover, MRI has the advantage of allowing simultaneous investigation of the biliary tree, owing to cholangiopancreatography techniques. Hence, a comprehensive assessment of most pancreatic diseases can be achieved with a single examination. (orig.)

  5. Image mottle in abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ende, J F; Huda, W; Ros, P R; Litwiller, A L

    1999-04-01

    To investigate image mottle in conventional CT images of the abdomen as a function of radiographic technique factors and patient size. Water-filled phantoms simulating the abdomens of adult (32 cm in diameter) and pediatric (16 cm in diameter) patients were used to investigate image mottle in CT as a function of x-ray tube potential and mAs. CT images from 39 consecutive patients with noncontrast liver scans and 49 patients with iodine contrast scans were analyzed retrospectively. Measurements were made of the mean liver parenchyma Hounsfield unit value and the corresponding image mottle. For a given water phantom and x-ray tube potential, image mottle was proportional to the mAs-0.5. Increasing the phantom diameter from 16 cm (pediatric) to 32 cm increased the mottle by a factor of 2.4, and increasing the x-ray tube potential from 80 kVp to 140 kVp reduced the mottle by a factor of 2.5. All patients were scanned at 120 kVp, with no correlation between patient size and the x-ray tube mAs. The mean mottle level was 7.8 +/- 2.2 and 10.0 +/- 2.5 for the noncontrast and contrast studies, respectively. An increase in patient diameter of 3 cm would require approximately 65% more mAs to maintain the same level of image mottle. The mottle in abdominal CT images may be controlled by adjusting radiographic technique factors, which should be adjusted to take into account the size of the patient undergoing the examination.

  6. Estimating Co-Contraction Activation of Trunk Muscles Using a Novel Musculoskeletal Model for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Morino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and stretched abdominal muscles from an enlarged gravid uterus are remarkable features during pregnancy. These changes elicit postural instability and place strain on body segments, contributing to lower back pain. In general, the agonist and antagonist muscles act simultaneously to increase joint stabilization; however, this can cause additional muscle stress during movement. Furthermore, this activation can be observed in pregnant women because of their unstable body joints. Hence, physical modalities based on assessments of muscle activation are useful for managing low back pain during pregnancy. Musculoskeletal models are common when investigating muscle load. However, it is difficult to apply such models to pregnant women and estimate the co-contraction of muscles using musculoskeletal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a musculoskeletal model for pregnant women that estimates the co-contraction of trunk muscles. First, motion analysis was conducted on a pregnant woman and the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis and erector spinae were measured. Then, the musculoskeletal model was specifically modified for pregnant women. Finally, the co-contraction was estimated from the results of the musculoskeletal model and electromyography data using a genetic algorithm. With the proposed methods, weakened abdominal muscle torque and the co-contraction activation of trunk muscles were estimated successfully.

  7. Tuberculosis versus lymphoma in the abdominal lymph nodes: A comparative study using contrast-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Heng; Yang, Zhi-gang; Deng, Wen; Chen, Jing; Tang, Si-shi; Wen, Ling-yi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the differential characteristics on MRI between tuberculosis and lymphoma in abdominal lymph nodes. Materials and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis for the counter, size, signal intensity, enhancement patterns, and anatomic distribution of lymph nodes in 57 consecutive patients with documented tuberculosis (28 patients; 49.1%) and newly diagnosed, untreated lymphoma (29 patients; 50.9%). Results: Twenty-four cases (85.7%) in the tuberculosis group were hyperintense on T2-weighted images and either hypointense or isointense on T1-weighted images with respect to the abdominal wall muscle. All cases in the lymphoma group were hyperintense on T2-weighted images and isointense on T1-weighted images with respect to the abdominal wall muscle. Concerning the main anatomic distribution of lymph nodes, the lymph nodes in the lower paraaortic region were more frequently involved in the lymphoma group (48.3%) than in tuberculosis (17.9%, p < 0.05). Moreover, mesenteric lymph nodes were more often involved in tuberculosis (32.1%) than in lymphoma (6.9%, p < 0.05). Tuberculous lymphadenopathy showed predominantly peripheral enhancement, frequently with a multilocular appearance; whereas lymphomatous adenopathy often demonstrated uniform homogeneous enhancement (all p < 0.001). Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MRI can be useful in differentiation between these two entities

  8. Accuracy of the abdominal examination for identifying children with blunt intra-abdominal injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelgais, Kathleen M; Kuppermann, Nathan; Kooistra, Joshua; Garcia, Madelyn; Monroe, David J; Mahajan, Prashant; Menaker, Jay; Ehrlich, Peter; Atabaki, Shireen; Page, Kent; Kwok, Maria; Holmes, James F

    2014-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of complaints of abdominal pain and findings of abdominal tenderness for identifying children with intra-abdominal injury (IAI) stratified by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. This was a prospective, multicenter observational study of children with blunt torso trauma and a GCS score ≥13. We calculated the sensitivity of abdominal findings for IAI with 95% CI stratified by GCS score. We examined the association of isolated abdominal pain or tenderness with IAI and that undergoing acute intervention (therapeutic laparotomy, angiographic embolization, blood transfusion, or ≥2 nights of intravenous fluid therapy). Among the 12 044 patients evaluated, 11 277 (94%) had a GCS score of ≥13 and were included in this analysis. Sensitivity of abdominal pain for IAI was 79% (95% CI, 76%-83%) for patients with a GCS score of 15, 51% (95% CI, 37%-65%) for patients with a GCS score of 14, and 32% (95% CI, 14%-55%) for patients with a GCS score of 13. Sensitivity of abdominal tenderness for IAI also decreased with decreasing GCS score: 79% (95% CI, 75%-82%) for a GCS score of 15, 57% (95% CI, 42%-70%) for a GCS score of 14, and 37% (95% CI, 19%-58%) for a GCS score of 13. Among patients with isolated abdominal pain and/or tenderness, the rate of IAI was 8% (95% CI, 6%-9%) and the rate of IAI undergoing acute intervention was 1% (95% CI, 1%-2%). The sensitivity of abdominal findings for IAI decreases as GCS score decreases. Although abdominal computed tomography is not mandatory, the risk of IAI is sufficiently high that diagnostic evaluation is warranted in children with isolated abdominal pain or tenderness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Mohammed; Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Methods: Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the ter...

  10. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilizatio...

  11. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  12. [Implementationof a low FODMAP dietforfunctional abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranguán Castro, María Luisa; Ros Arnal, Ignacio; García Romero, Ruth; Rodríguez Martínez, Gerardo; Ubalde Sainz, Eduardo

    2018-04-20

    The low FODMAP diet (fermentable oligosaccharides, monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polyols) has shown to be effective in adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome, but there are few studies on paediatric patients. The aim of this study is to assess the implementation and the outcomes of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children from a Mediterranean area. A table was designed in which foods were classified according to their FODMAP content, as well as a 'Symptoms and Stools Diary'. A prospective study was conducted on children with functional abdominal pain in our Paediatric Gastroenterology Unit. A total of 22 patients were enrolled in the trial, and 20 completed it. Data were collected of the abdominal pain features over a period of 3 days, and then patients followed a two-week low FODMAP diet. Afterwards, information about abdominal pain features was collected again. After the diet, they showed fewer daily abdominal pain episodes compared to baseline (1.16 [IQR: 0.41-3.33] versus 2 [IQR: 1.33-6.33] daily episodes, P=.024), less pain severity compared to baseline (1.41cm [IQR: 0.32-5.23] versus 4.63cm [IQR: 2.51-6.39] measured by 10-cm Visual Analogue Scale, P=.035), less interference with daily activities, and less gastrointestinal symptoms. Only 15% of patients found it difficult to follow the diet. The implementation of a low FODMAP diet for 2 weeks in a Mediterranean paediatric population diagnosed with functional abdominal pain is possible with adapted diets. It was highly valued by patients, and they showed an improvement in abdominal pain symptoms assessed by objective methods. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  13. Vitamins and abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hisato; Umemoto, Takuya

    2017-02-01

    To summarize the association of vitamins (B6, B12, C, D, and E) and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we reviewed clinical studies with a comprehensive literature research and meta-analytic estimates. To identify all clinical studies evaluating the association of vitamins B6/B12/C/D/E and AAA, databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2015, using Web-based search engines (PubMed and OVID). For each case-control study, data regarding vitamin levels in both the AAA and control groups were used to generate standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Pooled analyses of the 4 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin B6 levels (SMD, -0.33; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.11; P=0.003) but non-significantly lower vitamin B12 levels (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -1.09 to 0.25; P=0.22) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Pooled analyses of the 2 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower levels of circulating vitamins C (SMD, -0.71; 95% CI, -1.23 to -0.19; P=0.007) and E (SMD, -1.76; 95% CI, -2.93 to 0.60; P=0.003) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. Another pooled analysis of the 3 case-control studies demonstrated significantly lower circulating vitamin D (25-hydroxyvitamin D) levels (SMD, -0.25; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.01; P=0.04) in patients with AAA than subjects without AAA. In a double-blind controlled trial, 4.0-year treatment with a high-dose folic acid and vitamin B6/B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a rate of AAA repair despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. In another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 5.8-year supplementation with α-tocopherol (vitamin E) had no preventive effect on large AAA among male smokers. In clinical setting, although low circulating vitamins B6/C/D/E (not B12) levels are associated with AAA presence, vitamins B6/B12/E

  14. Hematoquecia letal por angiostrongilosis abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerzain Rodríguez

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Una niña indigena de 4 años de edad, procedente de Carurú, Vaupés, un municipio semiselvático de 2.000 habitantes, presentó hematoquecia repetida con sincope y muerte 4 días después, a pesar de recibir transfusiones sanguíneas. El estudio postmortem descubrió dos masas de 3-4 cm de diámetro en el ileon distal que, al microscopio, correspondieron a inflamación severa de toda la pared intestinal, rica en eosinofilos y en granulomas con células gigantes que circunscribian y fagocitaban huevos y larvas de Angiostrongylus costaricensis, helminto situado también dentro de las arterias de la submucosa, vasos que presentaban engrosamiento de la intima y focos con inflamación granulomatosa con eosinófilos. La niña no presentó leucocitosis ni eosinofilia. Este es el segundo caso de angiostrongilosis de esta región. El primero fue el de una mujer indigena de 34 años también con hematoquecia anemizante. La angiostrongilosis abdominal se diagnosticó por primera vez en Colombia en 1979, en un niño de 5 años, de Dagua, Valle. La niña aquí presentada es el sexto paciente con esta entidad en Colombia. La hematoquecia como manifestación predominante de la angiostrongilosis es extraordinaria para una enfermedad parasitaria; se ha registrado solamente en tres ocasiones anteriores. La abundancia de cristales de Charcot-Leyden, que se tiñen muy bien con la coloración de Ziehl-Neelsen o de Fite-Faraco, en los infiltrados de la pared intestinal. sugiere que su búsqueda en las heces puede ser una ayuda en el diagnóstico de casos sospechosos. pues, los huevos y las larvas no se eliminan en las heces y el diagnóstico definitivo de la angiostrongilosis es histopatológico. Revisamos las caracteristicas clinicas, parasitológicas e histopatológicas de esta parasitosis que será más prevalente en Colombia a medida que los médicos. especialmente los patólogos, la conozcan mejor.

  15. The therapeutic impact of abdominal ultrasound in patients with acute abdominal symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhillon, S.; Halligan, S.; Goh, V.; Matravers, P.; Chambers, A.; Remedios, D.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The technical performance of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain has been thoroughly investigated but its therapeutic effects are less well understood. We aimed to determine the therapeutic effect of abdominal ultrasound in the investigation of acute abdominal pain. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A pre- and post-intervention observational study design was used to determine the diagnostic and therapeutic effects of abdominal ultrasound for acute abdominal pain. Referring clinicians completed a pre-ultrasound questionnaire that detailed their leading diagnosis, confidence in this and intended management in 100 consecutive adult patients. Following ultrasound a second questionnaire was completed. This again detailed the leading diagnosis, confidence in this and their intended management. Clinicians quantified the management contribution of ultrasound both for the individual case in question and in their clinical experience generally. RESULTS: The leading diagnosis was either confirmed or rejected in 72 patients and a new diagnosis provided where no prior differential diagnosis existed in 10. Diagnostic confidence increased significantly following ultrasound (mean score 6·5 pre-ultrasound vs 7·6 post-ultrasound, P < 0·001). Intended management changed following ultrasound in 22 patients; 15 intended laparotomies were halted and a further seven patients underwent surgery where this was not originally intended. Ultrasound was rated either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful in 87% of patients, with 99% of clinicians finding it either 'very' or 'moderately' helpful generally. CONCLUSION: Abdominal ultrasound has considerable diagnostic and therapeutic effect in the setting of acute abdominal pain. Dhillon, S. et al. (2002)

  16. Abdominal binders may reduce pain and improve physical function after major abdominal surgery - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothman, Josephine Philip; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Bisgaard, Thue

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Evidence for the effect of post-operative abdominal binders on post-operative pain, seroma formation, physical function, pulmonary function and increased intra-abdominal pressure among patients after surgery remains largely un-investigated. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted...... formation and physical function. RESULTS: A total of 50 publications were identified; 42 publications were excluded leaving eight publications counting a total of 578 patients for analysis. Generally, the scientific quality of the studies was poor. Use of abdominal binder revealed a non-significant tendency...... to reduce seroma formation after laparoscopic ventral herniotomy and a non-significant reduction in pain. Physical function was improved, whereas evidence supports a beneficial effect on psychological distress after open abdominal surgery. Evidence also supports that intra-abdominal pressure increases...

  17. Experimental study of abdominal CT scanning exposal doses adjusted on the basis of pediatric abdominal perimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Wenzhou; Zhu Gongsheng; Zeng Lingyan; Yin Xianglin; Yang Fuwen; Liu Changsheng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To optimize the abdominal helical CT scanning parameters in pediatric patients and to reduce its radiation hazards. Methods: 60 canines were evenly grouped into 4 groups on the basis of pediatric abdominal perimeter, scanned with 110,150,190 and 240 mAs, and their qualities of canine CT images were analyzed. 120 pediafric patients with clinic suspected abdominal diseases were divided into 4 groups on the basis of abdominal perimeter, scanned by optimal parameters and their image qualities were analyzed. Results: After CT exposure were reduced, the percentages of total A and B were 90.9 % and 92.0 % in experimental canines and in pediatric patients, respectively. Compared with conventional CT scanning, the exposure and single slice CT dose index weighted (CTDIw) were reduced to 45.8%-79.17%. Conclusion: By adjusted the pediatric helical CT parameters basedon the of pediatric abdominal perimeter, exposure of patient to the hazards of radiation is reduced. (authors)

  18. Sonographic Appearance of Abdominal Wall at the Left Flank of Laparotomy Incision Site in Ettawah Grade Does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Ulum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the sonographic appearance of abdominal wall at the left flank of laparotomy incision site in 11 mated Ettawah grade does. Brightness-mode ultrasound examination by using transducer with frequency of 5.0-6.0 MHz was conducted to grouping the does based on their pregnancy statuses. The incision site of the abdominal wall at left flank laparotomy was transcutaneous-scanned as long as 8 cm vertically. The sonographic appearance of the laparotomy wall thickness showed that in all groups of does were similar and not different statistically. The thickness of oblique external and oblique internal abdominal muscles increased in the pregnant does as compared to non-pregnant does (P<0.05.

  19. Intra-abdominal pressure: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanesi, Rafaela; Caregnato, Rita Catalina Aquino

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing request for measuring intra-abdominal pressure in critically ill patients with acute abdominal pain to be clarified. Summarizing the research results on measurement of vesical intra-abdominal pressure and analyzing the level of evidence were the purposes of this integrative literature review, carried out based on the databases LILACS, MEDLINE and PubMed, from 2005 to July 2012. Twenty articles were identified, in that, 12 literature reviews, 4 descriptive and exploratory studies, 2 expert opinions, one prospective cohort study and one was an experience report. The vesical intra-abdominal pressure measurement was considered gold standard. There are variations in the technique however, but some common points were identified: complete supine position, in absence of abdominal contracture, in the end of expiration and expressed in mmHg. Most research results indicate keeping the transducer zeroed at the level of the mid-axillary line at the iliac crest level, and instill 25mL of sterile saline. Strong evidence must be developed. RESUMO Em pacientes críticos com quadros abdominais agudos a esclarecer é crescente a solicitação da aferição da pressão intra-abdominal. Sintetizar resultados de pesquisas sobre a mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal pela via vesical e analisar o nível de evidência foram os objetivos desta revisão integrativa da literatura, realizada nas bases LILACS, MEDLINE e PubMed, no período de 2005 a julho de 2012. Identificaram-se 20 artigos, sendo 12 revisões de literatura, 4 estudos exploratório-descritivos, 2 opiniões de especialistas, 1 estudo de coorte prospectivo e 1 relato de experiência. O método vesical para mensuração da pressão intra-abdominal foi considerado padrão-ouro. Existem variações na técnica, entretanto pontos em comum foram identificados: posição supina completa, na ausência de contratura abdominal, ao final da expiração e expressa em mmHg. A maioria indica posicionar o ponto zero do

  20. OUR EXPERIENCE WITH BLUNT ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

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    Ankareddi Vijaya Lakshmi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Blunt abdominal trauma is an emergency and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to study incidence, demographic profile, epidemiological factors, mechanism of trauma, treatment modalities, associated injuries, postoperative complications and morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 72 patients of blunt abdominal trauma who were admitted in government general hospital between May 2013 to April 2015 in Department of General Surgery, Government General Hospital, Guntur, with in a span of 24 months were studied. Demographic data, mechanism of trauma, management and outcome were studied. RESULTS Most of the patients in our study were in the age group of 21-30 years. Spleen was the commonest organ involved and most common procedure performed was splenectomy. Most common extra-abdominal injury was rib fractures. Wound infection was the commonest complication. CONCLUSION Initial resuscitative measures, thorough clinical examination and correct diagnosis forms the vital part of the management. FAST is more useful in blunt abdominal trauma patients who are unstable. X-ray revealed 100% accuracy in hollow viscous perforation in blunt abdominal trauma patients. CT abdomen is more useful in stable patients. Definitive indication for laparotomy was haemodynamic instability and peritonitis. Associated injuries influenced morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can save many lives.

  1. Imaging the Abdominal Manifestations of Cystic Fibrosis

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    C. D. Gillespie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis (CF is a multisystem disease with a range of abdominal manifestations including those involving the liver, pancreas, and kidneys. Recent advances in management of the respiratory complications of the disease has led to a greater life expectancy in patients with CF. Subsequently, there is increasing focus on the impact of abdominal disease on quality of life and survival. Liver cirrhosis is the most important extrapulmonary cause of death in CF, yet significant challenges remain in the diagnosis of CF related liver disease. The capacity to predict those patients at risk of developing cirrhosis remains a significant challenge. We review representative abdominal imaging findings in patients with CF selected from the records of two academic health centres, with a view to increasing familiarity with the abdominal manifestations of the disease. We review their presentation and expected imaging findings, with a focus on the challenges facing diagnosis of the hepatic manifestations of the disease. An increased familiarity with these abdominal manifestations will facilitate timely diagnosis and management, which is paramount to further improving outcomes for patients with cystic fibrosis.

  2. Intra-abdominal pressure during swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, S; Ogita, F; Huang, Z; Kurobe, K; Nagira, A; Tanaka, T; Takahashi, H; Hirano, Y

    2014-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the intra-abdominal pressure during front crawl swimming at different velocities in competitive swimmers and to clarify the relationships between stroke indices and changes in intra-abdominal pressure. The subjects were 7 highly trained competitive collegiate male swimmers. Intra-abdominal pressure was measured during front crawl swimming at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 m · s(-1) and during the Valsalva maneuver. Intra-abdominal pressure was taken as the difference between minimum and maximum values, and the mean of 6 stable front crawl stroke cycles was used. Stroke rate and stroke length were also measured as stroke indices. There were significant differences in stroke rate among all velocities (P pressure and stroke rate or stroke length (P pressure and stroke indices when controlling for swimming velocity. These findings do not appear to support the effectiveness of trunk training performed by competitive swimmers aimed at increasing intra-abdominal pressure. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Methods of patient warming during abdominal surgery.

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    Li Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. METHODS: Patients (n = 160 scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. RESULTS: When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. DISCUSSION: The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.

  4. Diagnosis of abdominal abscesses with 67gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, E.C.; Mothe, G.A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty six patients were studied with 67 Gallium to detect and localize the site of intra-abdominal and intraperitoneal infection. They were divided in two groups: a) with and b) without physical symptoms that could localize an abcess in the abdominal cavity. All the patients with suppuration had persistent up-take of 67 Ga in one anatomic area of the abdomen, subsequently documented by computarized axial tomography (CAT) in 58% of the cases or by laparotomy in 88% of them. Scintigraphy with 67 Ga in the patients with recent surgery not only detected focal infection in 67% of the cases but excluded subphernic collection. In 78% of patients with prolonged fever, the infection was localized. There was no false positive result. The comparison in 56% of the cases with CAT demonstrated that both techniques are 100% sensitive for the diagnosis of abdominal suppurative processes. Three of the 26 patients, after six weeks of medical treatment, were restudied with 67 Ga and CAT, showing total resolution of their previous abnormalities. It is concluded that 67 Ga scintigraphy performed as the first study in febrile patients independent of the presence or absence of physical symptoms that could localize the abdominal infection, is sensitive for the detection and localization of an abdominal abscess and that a negative result excludes it. (Author) [es

  5. CT diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuping; Zhao Zhiying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of CT in diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. Methods: CT findings of 5 cases surgically and pathologically proved with ectopic pheochromocytoma were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Soft tissue mass with light asymmetry enhancement was found between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena ca-va in one case. 1 case was completely cystic with light enhancement of the cystwall located in front of the left side of the abdominal aorta. 1 case of large solid mass occurred between the renal hilum and the tail of pancreas, with irregular shape, unclear boundary, central necrosis, calcification and obviously enhancement at the solid part. 2 cases showed as oval soft lump with even density, moderate strengthening located before the abdominal aorta. Paroxysmal hypertension occurred in 3 cases and didn't in 2 cases. Hypertension happened in 1 case during the operation because of stimulation. Blood pressure appeared in 1 case during and after operation. Blood and urinary catecholamine increased significantly in 4 cases. Conclusion: Ectopic pheochromocytoma mainly located surround the abdominal aorta with diverse CT performance. It is helpful for diagnosing when finding a lesion locates at the specified sites combined with typical clinical presentation. CT can not only depict small tumor, but also can show the relationship with surrounding structure, and it provides important information for the operation and prognosis. (authors)

  6. Postoperative abdominal complications after cardiopulmonary bypass

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    Dong Guohua

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To summarize the diagnostic and therapeutic experiences on the patients who suffered abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB. Methods A total of 2349 consecutive patients submitted to cardiovascular surgery with CPB in our hospital from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were involved. The clinical data of any abdominal complication, including its incidence, characters, relative risks, diagnostic measures, medical or surgical management and mortality, was retrospectively analyzed. Results Of all the patients, 33(1.4% developed abdominal complications postoperatively, including 11(33.3% cases of paralytic ileus, 9(27.3% of gastrointestinal haemorrhage, 2(6.1% of gastroduodenal ulcer perforation, 2(6.1% of acute calculus cholecystitis, 3(9.1% of acute acalculus cholecystitis, 4(12.1% of hepatic dysfunction and 2(6.1% of ischemia bowel diseases. Of the 33 patients, 26 (78.8% accepted medical treatment and 7 (21.2% underwent subsequent surgical intervention. There were 5(15.2% deaths in this series, which was significantly higher than the overall mortality (2.7%. Positive history of peptic ulcer, advanced ages, bad heart function, preoperative IABP support, prolonged CPB time, low cardiac output and prolonged mechanical ventilation are the risk factors of abdominal complications. Conclusions Abdominal complications after cardiovascular surgery with CPB have a low incidence but a higher mortality. Early detection and prompt appropriate intervention are essential for the outcome of the patients.

  7. ANTISPASMODIC MEDICATION WITH DIRECTIVE EFFECT IN CHILDREN WITH ABDOMINAL PAIN AT THE STAGE OF DIAGNOSTIC SEARCH

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    Yu.A. Kozlova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Additional examination is needed for the purpose of detection of its etiology in some patients with abdominal pain, and it takes several days to prove a diagnosis. In most cases this pain is a result of muscle spasm in gastrointestinal tract. The administration of antispasmodic medication with directive effect, particularly, of hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan, is well-grounded. Hyoscine butylbromide is M-cholinergic antagonist, it does not penetrates blood-brain barrier, does not induce common for cholinergic antagonists vascular reactions and decrease of blood pressure. This drug is used in pediatric practice for a long time, it can be used in patients 6 years old anв older, and it has good safety profile. Key words: abdominal pain, hyoscine butylbromide.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(1:168-170

  8. Skeletal muscle metastases: primary tumours, prevalence, and radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, Alexey; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Behrmann, Curd; Hainz, Michael; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen; Arnold, Dirk; Katzer, Michaela; Schmidt, Joerg

    2010-01-01

    Although skeletal muscles comprise nearly 50% of the total human body mass and are well vascularised, metastases in the musculature are rare. The reported prevalence of skeletal muscle metastases from post-mortem studies of patients with cancer is inconstant and ranges from 0.03 to 17.5%. Of 5,170 patients with metastasised cancer examined and treated at our institution during the period from January 2000 to December 2007, 61 patients with muscle metastases (80 lesions) were identified on computed tomography (CT). Genital tumours (24.6%) were the most frequent malignancies metastasising into the skeletal musculature, followed by gastrointestinal tumours (21.3%), urological tumours (16.4%), and malignant melanoma (13.1%). Other primary malignancies were rarer, including bronchial carcinoma (8.2%), thyroid gland carcinoma (4.9%), and breast carcinoma (3.3%). In 8.2%, carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed. Skeletal muscle metastases (SMM) were located in the iliopsoas muscle (27.5%), paravertebral muscles (25%), gluteal muscles (16.3%), lower extremity muscles (12.5%), abdominal wall muscles (10%), thoracic wall muscles (5%), and upper extremity muscles (3.8%). Most (76.3%) of the 80 SMM were diagnosed incidentally during routine staging CT examinations, while 23.7% were symptomatic. Radiologically, SMM presented with five different types of lesions: focal intramuscular masses (type I, 52.5% of SMM), abscess-like intramuscular lesions (type II, 32.5%), diffuse metastatic muscle infiltration (type III, 8.8%), multifocal intramuscular calcification (type IV, 3.7%) and intramuscular bleeding (type V, 2.5%). (orig.)

  9. Skeletal muscle metastases: primary tumours, prevalence, and radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey; Spielmann, Rolf Peter; Behrmann, Curd [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); Hainz, Michael; Holzhausen, Hans-Juergen [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Pathology, Halle (Germany); Arnold, Dirk [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Haematology/Oncology, Halle (Germany); Katzer, Michaela [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Urology, Halle (Germany); Schmidt, Joerg [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Medical Statistics and Controlling, Halle (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    Although skeletal muscles comprise nearly 50% of the total human body mass and are well vascularised, metastases in the musculature are rare. The reported prevalence of skeletal muscle metastases from post-mortem studies of patients with cancer is inconstant and ranges from 0.03 to 17.5%. Of 5,170 patients with metastasised cancer examined and treated at our institution during the period from January 2000 to December 2007, 61 patients with muscle metastases (80 lesions) were identified on computed tomography (CT). Genital tumours (24.6%) were the most frequent malignancies metastasising into the skeletal musculature, followed by gastrointestinal tumours (21.3%), urological tumours (16.4%), and malignant melanoma (13.1%). Other primary malignancies were rarer, including bronchial carcinoma (8.2%), thyroid gland carcinoma (4.9%), and breast carcinoma (3.3%). In 8.2%, carcinoma of unknown primary was diagnosed. Skeletal muscle metastases (SMM) were located in the iliopsoas muscle (27.5%), paravertebral muscles (25%), gluteal muscles (16.3%), lower extremity muscles (12.5%), abdominal wall muscles (10%), thoracic wall muscles (5%), and upper extremity muscles (3.8%). Most (76.3%) of the 80 SMM were diagnosed incidentally during routine staging CT examinations, while 23.7% were symptomatic. Radiologically, SMM presented with five different types of lesions: focal intramuscular masses (type I, 52.5% of SMM), abscess-like intramuscular lesions (type II, 32.5%), diffuse metastatic muscle infiltration (type III, 8.8%), multifocal intramuscular calcification (type IV, 3.7%) and intramuscular bleeding (type V, 2.5%). (orig.)

  10. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome in Association with Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in the Endovascular Era: Vigilance Remains Critical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Bozeman

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  11. Decreased task duration and unchanged trunk muscle activity in low-back pain patients during stair climbing after back extensor muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a major problem. Spine control and stability mechanisms are important but the knowledge of these parameters in functions is sparse. 7 healthy / 5 recurrent mild-to-moderate LBP patients participated in assessment of abdominal, lumbar and gluteal muscles' surface EMG and video...

  12. Radiological Signs of Intra-abdominal Gossypiboma

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    Ferhat Çengel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gossypiboma is a mass lesion at the site of surgery due to a forgotten surgical sponge. Forgotten foreign bodies are mostly retained in the abdominal cavity but there are some cases in the thorax, cranium, breast, and an extremity. Gossypiboma should be considered, especially by radiologists, in patients with a history of surgery, who present with non-specific symptoms and abdominal mass. In this report, we describe the case of a female patient who presented with non-specific abdominal discomfort and fever about six months after open cholecystectomy. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 47-9

  13. Arma branca retida em aorta abdominal superior

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    Fernando Antonio C. Spencer Netto

    Full Text Available Abdominal aorta wounds carries a high immediate mortality. Few patients reach hospital care alive. There are no reports on Medline (1969-2002 about aortic wounds of foreign body with retention. A case with upper abdominal aortic wound with an inlaid blade is reported. The retained blade fixed the stomach to the surgical field, difficulting the vascular control, leading to an unconventional approach and allowing extensive contamination. The patient developed multiple organ dysfunction and died at fifth postoperative day. Singularities of an inlaid knife in upper abdominal aorta and changes in traditional approach are discussed. The authors assumed that the inlaid knife decreased the bleeding, allowing the patient arrival to the hospital, but worsened the approach to the aorta wound.

  14. Suprarenal Abdominal Aortic Coarctation Diagnosed During Pregnancy

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    Sh Hajsadeghi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Coarctation of the abdominal aorta is an extremely rare vascular defect inwhich congenital or acquired etiologies have been described. This case concernsa 30-year-old pregnant woman with 15-years history of uncontrolled hypertensionand lower limb claudication presented with worsened hypertension during herfirst pregnancy. Magnetic resonance angiography study of aorta revealed astenosis in abdominal aorta about 12mm from the origin of celiac axisaccompanied by left sided aortic arch and right aberrant subclavian artery. Thiscase highlights the importance of a throughout physical examination in patientspresented with hypertension and it emphasizes considering the coarctation of theabdominal aorta during the diagnostic workup of hypertension, especially inyoung patients. In such cases magnetic resonance angiography of the aorta is auseful tool to reach a definitive diagnosis especially in pregnant women.Also to our knowledge, this patient is the first one found to have aortic archmalformation combined with an abdominal coarctation.

  15. Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, R; Hunt, G B; Bellenger, C R; Allan, G S; Martin, P; Canfield, P J; Love, D N

    1999-08-01

    Intra-abdominal cryptococcosis was diagnosed in two young dogs. The first, an entire male border collie, was presented with vomiting. An abdominal mass detected during physical examination proved to be cryptococcal mesenteric lymphadenitis on exploratory laparotomy. The second dog, a female neutered giant schnauzer, was presented with neurological signs suggestive of encephalopathy. Intestinal cryptococcal granulomas were detected in an extensive diagnostic investigation which included abdominal ultrasonography. The gastrointestinal tract was considered the most likely portal of entry for cryptococcal organisms in both cases. Both dogs were treated using surgery and multiagent antifungal chemotherapy. The first case succumbed despite therapy, while the second dog was treated successfully as gauged by return to clinical normality and a substantial decline in the cryptococcal antigen titre which continued to fall after cessation of treatment.

  16. Whole abdominal irradiation in ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romestaing, P.; Gallo, C.; Gerard, J.F.; Ardiet, J.M.; Carrie, C.

    1989-01-01

    The prognosis of ovarian cancers, which are frequently diagnosed at a late stage, can probably be improved by whole abdominal radiotherapy. 45 patients in Lyon and 8 patients in Montelimar (7 stage I or C, 10 stage II and 36 stage III) were treated by whole abdominal radiotherapy, generally after 6 courses of chemotherapy (46 cases). The overall 5-year survival of this group of patients was 48% (Kaplan-Meier method). When the patients treated by complete resection at 1st look surgery (19 cases) are compared with those in whom 1st look surgery was incomplete (34 cases), the actuarial survival was 83% versus 27%. This study demonstrates that whole abdominal radiotherapy is feasible without any serious long-term complications after two operations and 6 courses of chemotherapy. These encouraging results need to be confirmed by randomized prospective studies [fr

  17. Abdominal wall hernias: imaging with spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stabile Ianora, A.A.; Midiri, M.; Vinci, R.; Rotondo, A.; Angelelli, G.

    2000-01-01

    Computed tomography is an accurate method of identifying the various types of abdominal wall hernias, especially if they are clinically occult, and of distinguishing them from other diseases such as hematomas, abscesses and neoplasia. In this study we examined the CT images of 94 patients affected by abdominal wall hernias observed over a period of 6 years. Computed tomography clearly demonstrates the anatomical site of the hernial sac, the content and any occlusive bowel complications due to incarceration or strangulation. Clinical diagnosis of external hernias is particularly difficult in obese patients or in those with laparotic scars. In these cases abdominal imaging is essential for a correct preoperative diagnosis and to determine the most effective treatment. (orig.)

  18. [Factors associated with abdominal obesity in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Matheus Ribeiro Theodósio Fernandes; Magrini, Isabella Mastrangi; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Martins, Paula Andrea

    2015-12-01

    To identify the association of dietary, socioeconomic factors, sedentary behaviors and maternal nutritional status with abdominal obesity in children. A cross-sectional study with household-based survey, in 36 randomly selected census tracts in the city of Santos/SP. 357 families were interviewed and questionnaires and anthropometric measurements were applied in mothers and their 3-0 years-old children. Assessment of abdominal obesity was made by maternal and child's waist circumference measurement; for classification used cut-off points proposed by World Health Organization (1998) and Taylor et al. (2000) were applied. The association between variables was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. 30.5% of children had abdominal obesity. Associations with children's and maternal nutritional status and high socioeconomic status were shown in the univariate analysis. In the regression model, children's body mass index for age (OR=93.7; 95%CI 39.3-223.3), female gender (OR=4.1; 95%CI 1.8-9.3) and maternal abdominal obesity (OR=2.7; 95%CI 1.2-6.0) were significantly associated with children's abdominal obesity, regardless of the socioeconomic status. Abdominal obesity in children seems to be associated with maternal nutritional status, other indicators of their own nutritional status and female gender. Intervention programs for control of childhood obesity and prevention of metabolic syndrome should consider the interaction of the nutritional status of mothers and their children. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Infected abdominal sacrocolpopexies: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, T Fleming; Stanford, Edward J; Varner, E

    2004-01-01

    The abdominal sacrocolpopexy is an excellent procedure to surgically treat vaginal vault prolapse. A synthetic graft is often used to support the vaginal apex, but has the potential to become infected or erode, requiring its removal or revision. The purpose of this paper is to report our experience in the management of patients with infected synthetic grafts after abdominal sacrocolpopexy. A review of the patient databases from three specialty gynecology centers was performed from March 1996 to June 2002. Only patients with an infected graft after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy were included in the study; patients with either suture or graft erosion responding to conservative treatment were excluded. Twenty-two women, ages 37-73 years, developed infection of the synthetic graft after an abdominal sacrocolpopexy (1-60 months after their initial surgery, mean 8.8 months). The infected materials included polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Goretex, n =15) and polypropylene (n=7). Nine of the 15 PTFE meshes and four of the seven polypropylene meshes were placed at the time of a contaminated case (abdominal hysterectomy [n=12], colon resection [n=1]). Eighteen (82%) of the infected grafts involved braided permanent suture to attach the graft to the vaginal wall, monofilament/non-braided permanent suture was used in three patients, and suture type could not be determined in one. All graft removals were attempted vaginally, and this was successful in 16 cases (73%). Two patients experienced significant bleeding: the first patient required an emergency laparotomy and the second patient's bleeding was controlled with packing. A rectovaginal fistula occurred 3 weeks postoperatively in one patient. Synthetic graft infection should be considered as the differential diagnosis in a patient who has undergone an abdominal sacrocolpopexy. Transvaginal removal is preferred, but is fraught with potentially serious complications. The use of braided permanent sutures to affix the graft to the

  20. Recent advances in the management of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, T.B.; Ahmed, I.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome is a systemic syndrome involving derangement in cardiovascular hemodynamics, respiratory and renal function as a result of sustained increase in intra-abdominal pressure. This results in multi-organ failure requiring prompt action and treatment. Presentation can be acute, chronic and acute on chronic. Initial diagnosis is clinical, confirmed by measurement of urinary bladder pressure. Treatment is abdominal decompression by laparostomy and delayed abdominal closure. Awareness among the surgeons has increased because laparoscopy has resulted in determination of intra-abdominal pressure as a readily measurable quantity. They have been able to appreciate the benefit of abdominal decompression by performing repeated planned laparotomies for trauma. (author)

  1. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Thomas, Kristen B.; Harned, Roger K.; Wu, Sarah R.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D.

    2005-01-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Systemic lupus erythematosus : abdominal radiologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jae Cheon; Cho, On Koo; Lee, Yong Joo; Bae, Jae Ik; Kim, Yong Soo; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Ko, Byung Hee [Hanyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus(SLE) is a systemic disease of unknown etiology. Its main pathology is vasculitis and serositis, due to deposition of the immune complex or antibodies. Most findings are nonspecific ; abdominal manifestations include enteritis, hepatomegaly, pancreatic enlargement, serositis, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, nephritis, interstitial cystitis, and thrombophlebitis. We described radiologic findings of various organ involvement of SLE; digestive system, serosa, reticuloendothelial system, urinary system, and venous system. Diagnosis of SLE was done according to the criteria of American Rheumatism Association. Understanding of the variable imaging findings in SLE may be helpful for the early detection of abdominal involvement and complications.

  3. Laparoscopic surgery in children: abdominal wall complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaccaro S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Minimal invasive surgery has become the standard of care for operations involving the thoracic and abdominal cavities for all ages. Laparoscopic complications can occur as well as more invasive surgical procedures and we can classify them into non-specific and specific. Our goal is to analyze the most influential available scientific literature and to expose important and recognized advices in order to reduce these complications. We examined the mechanism, risk factors, treatment and tried to outline how to prevent two major abdominal wall complications related to laparoscopy: bleeding and port site herniation .

  4. [Intraabdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M.; Hilligsø, Jens Georg

    2008-01-01

    Intraabdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are rare conditions with high mortality. IAH is an intraabdominal pressure (IAP) above 12 mmHg and ACS an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction. IAP is measured indirectly via the bladder or stomach. Various...... medical and surgical conditions increase the intraabdominal volume. When the content exceeds the compliance of the abdominal wall, the IAP rises. Increased IAP affects the functioning of the brain, lungs, circulation, kidneys, and bowel. The treatment of ACS is a reduction of IAP Udgivelsesdato: 2008/2/11...

  5. Giant cystic abdominal masses in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L.; Thomas, Kristen B.; Harned, Roger K.; Wu, Sarah R.; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Strain, John D. [University of California, Davis Health Center, Sacramento, CA (United States); Davis Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    In this pictorial essay the common and uncommon causes of large cystic and cyst-like abdominal masses in children are reviewed. We discuss and illustrate the following: mesenchymal hamartoma, choledochal cyst, hydrops of the gallbladder, congenital splenic cyst, pancreatic pseudocyst, pancreatic cystadenoma, hydronephrosis, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, adrenal hemorrhage, mesenteric and omental cysts, gastrointestinal duplication cyst, meconium pseudocyst, ovarian cysts and cystic neoplasms, hematocolpos, urachal cysts, appendiceal abscess, abdominal and sacrococcygeal teratoma, and CSF pseudocyst. We also describe imaging features and clues to the diagnosis. (orig.)

  6. Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Jones, P.H.M.; Pearson, D.; Orrell, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian function was studied in 18 female patients treated for abdominal tumours during childhood. All received abdominal radiotherapy as part of their treatment and were studied between 1 and 26 years after irradiation. The serum gonadotrophins and oestradiol levels were consistent with ovarian failure in each case and there was a disproportionate elevation in serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) when compared to serum luteinizing hormone (LH) in 16. In 2 patients, the radiotherapeutic field extended downwards only as far as the sacral promontory. However, these 2 girls show similar evidence of ovarian failure to that in the other 16. (author)

  7. Damage control resuscitation for abdominal war injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-wei DING

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the concept of comprehensive treatment for military trauma has been comprehensively updated. The application of damage control surgery has significantly improved the clinical outcome of severe abdominal injury. With appropriate surgical intervention, post-trauma fluid resuscitation plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of abdominal injury. The damage control resuscitation strategy addresses the importance of permissive hypotension and haemostatic resuscitation for patients with severe trauma, under the guidance of damage control surgical principle. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.03.02

  8. Indium 111 leucocyte scintigraphy in abdominal sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.A.; McKillop, J.H.; Gray, H.W.; Cuthbert, G.F.; Neilson, W.; Anderson, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied the clinical utility of indium 111 autologous leucocyte scintigraphy retrospectively in 45 patients presenting with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis. The sensitivity was 95% (21/22) and the specificity was 91% (21/23). Some 34 of the studies (17 positive and 17 negative) were considered helpful in furthering patient management (76%) and 8, unhelpful (18%). In 3, the study results were misleading and led to inappropriate treatment. Indium 111 scintigraphy, whether positive or negative, provides information in patients with suspected intra-abdominal sepsis upon which therapeutic decisions can be based. (orig.)

  9. Isolated jejunal perforation following blunt abdominal trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Pergel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated perforation of the jejunum, following blunt abdominaltrauma, is extremely rare. These injuries aredifficult to diagnose because initial clinical signs are frequentlynonspecific and a delay in treatment increasesmortality and morbidity of the patients. Conventional radiogramsare often inadequate for diagnosing this subsetof trauma. For an accurate and timely diagnosis, thepossibility of bowel perforation and the need for repeatedexaminations should be kept in mind. Herein, we presenta 28-year-old man with isolated jejunal perforation followingblunt abdominal trauma.Key words: Blunt abdominal trauma, isolated jejunal perforation,early diagnosis

  10. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair...... defect exceeding 10 cm will be randomised for intravenous administration of either 125 mg methylprednisolone or saline at the induction of anaesthesia. The primary endpoint is pain at rest on the first post-operative day. Patients will be followed until 30 days post-operatively, and secondary outcomes...

  11. Aggressive malignant abdominal mesothelioma: Clinical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hassan, Ahmad M.; Al-Saigh, Abdulrehman A.

    2004-01-01

    A 32-year-old Filipino female, working as an x-ray technician, presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with acute abdominal pain for one day. The pain was mainly on the left side and left hypochondrium. She had recurring abdominal pain before but not significant to worry her. She also complained of abdominal distension, which she noticed one week ago. Abdominal examination revealed fullness in the left hypochondrium with marked tenderness but negative rebound. Abdominal ultrasound (US) showed a huge mass mainly in the left hypochondrium. The origin of the mass cannot be identified by US. A computerized tomography scan showed a mass in the left side of the abdomen crossing the midline with a necrotic centre. The hospital course of the patient runs smoothly, and she was discharged after 7-days and referred to an Oncology Center. Abdominal mesothelioma is a neoplasm arising from the mesothelial surface lining the abdominal cavity. It is less frequent than that of the pleura. It is a rapidly growing and fatal malignancy with a median survival of less than 1-year. The relation between pleural malignant mesothelioma and asbestos is well recognized since it was described in 19602 but implication of asbestos exposure in the etiology of the peritoneal type is less obvious. This patient history is giving no obvious exposure to asbestos but as she is working in the Radiology Department as an x-ray technician she is well exposed to x-ray, but the effect of radioactivity on induction of mesothelioma is still disputed.4 There are several reports linking malignant mesothelioma to radioactivity due to radiation therapy.The fibrous mesothelioma (sarcomatous), as in this case, which is difficult to diagnose microscopically, looks like a fibroma, unless helped by tissue culture. The treatment options of malignant mesothelioma include surgery, intraperitoneal chemotherapy and whole abdominal radiation or multimodality therapy, which were suggested that might prolong the survival in

  12. Embarazo ectópico abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Luz Torres Rojas; Miguel Blanco Paz; Gerardo Celorrio Montiel

    2015-01-01

    La incidencia de embarazo ectópico ha aumentado en los últimos años hasta 1:43 recién nacidos. La variedad abdominal es una de las menos frecuentes, su incidencia es de 1:10mil  nacidos vivos. El 1% de los embarazos ectópicos son abdominales y la implantación en el epiplón es una rara entidad. Pueden clasificarse como primarios o secundarios en función de que se originen o no en la cavidad peritoneal. Se presenta un caso de embarazo abdominal primario, localizado en cara posterior del útero y...

  13. Evaluation of guided imagery as treatment for recurrent abdominal pain in children: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Daniel E

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the paucity of effective evidence-based therapies for children with recurrent abdominal pain, we evaluated the therapeutic effect of guided imagery, a well-studied self-regulation technique. Methods 22 children, aged 5 – 18 years, were randomized to learn either breathing exercises alone or guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation. Both groups had 4-weekly sessions with a therapist. Children reported the numbers of days with pain, the pain intensity, and missed activities due to abdominal pain using a daily pain diary collected at baseline and during the intervention. Monthly phone calls to the children reported the number of days with pain and the number of days of missed activities experienced during the month of and month following the intervention. Children with ≤ 4 days of pain/month and no missed activities due to pain were defined as being healed. Depression, anxiety, and somatization were measured in both children and parents at baseline. Results At baseline the children who received guided imagery had more days of pain during the preceding month (23 vs. 14 days, P = 0.04. There were no differences in the intensity of painful episodes or any baseline psychological factors between the two groups. Children who learned guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation had significantly greater decrease in the number of days with pain than those learning breathing exercises alone after one (67% vs. 21%, P = 0.05, and two (82% vs. 45%, P Conclusion The therapeutic efficacy of guided imagery with progressive muscle relaxation found in this study is consistent with our present understanding of the pathophysiology of recurrent abdominal pain in children. Although unfamiliar to many pediatricians, guided imagery is a simple, noninvasive therapy with potential benefit for treating children with RAP.

  14. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  15. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  16. Low muscle attenuation is a prognostic factor for survival in metastatic breast cancer patients treated with first line palliative chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, Hánah N; Jager, Agnes; Sleijfer, Stefan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Kock, Marc C J M; Levin, Mark-David

    2017-02-01

    Low muscle mass (LMM) and low muscle attenuation (LMA) reflect low muscle quantity and low muscle quality, respectively. Both are associated with a poor outcome in several types of solid malignancies. This study determined the association of skeletal muscle measures with overall survival (OS) and time to next treatment (TNT). A skeletal muscle index (SMI) in cm 2 /m 2 and muscle attenuation (MA) in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured using abdominal CT-images of 166 patients before start of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Low muscle mass (SMI factor for OS and TNT in metastatic breast cancer patients receiving first-line palliative chemotherapy, whereas LMM and sarcopenic obesity are not. Further research is needed to establish what impact LMA should have in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. RADIOGRAPHIC AND ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ABDOMINAL ANATOMY IN CAPTIVE RING-TAILED LEMURS (LEMUR CATTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N

    2016-06-01

    The ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta) is primarily distributed in south and southwestern Madagascar. It is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Various abdominal diseases, such as hepatic lipidosis, intestinal ulcers, cystitis, urinary tract obstruction, and neoplasia (e.g., colonic adenocarcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma), have been reported in this species. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy in captive ring-tailed lemurs to provide guidance for clinical use. Radiography of the abdomen and ultrasonography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and urinary bladder were performed in 13 and 9 healthy captive ring-tailed lemurs, respectively, during their annual health examinations. Normal radiographic and ultrasonographic reference ranges for abdominal organs were established and ratios were calculated. The majority (12/13) of animals had seven lumbar vertebrae. The sacrum had mainly (12/13) three segments. Abdominal serosal detail was excellent in all animals, and hypaxial muscles were conspicuous in the majority (11/13) of animals. The spleen was frequently (12/13) seen on the ventrodorsal (VD) view and rarely (3/13) on the right lateral (RL) view. The liver was less prominent and well contained within the ribcage. The pylorus was mostly (11/13) located to the right of the midline. The right and left kidneys were visible on the RL and VD views, with the right kidney positioned more cranial and dorsal to the left kidney. On ultrasonography, the kidneys appeared ovoid on transverse and longitudinal views. The medulla was hypoechoic to the renal cortex. The renal cortex was frequently (8/9) isoechoic and rarely (1/9) hyperechoic to the splenic parenchyma. The liver parenchyma was hypoechoic (5/5) to the renal cortex. Knowledge of the normal radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of ring-tailed lemurs may be useful in the diagnosis of diseases and in

  18. Acomodación abdominal: Fisiopatología de la Distensión Abdominal

    OpenAIRE

    Villoria Ferrer, Albert

    2011-01-01

    La distensión abdominal es una alteración clínica frecuente en la población general y en especial en los pacientes afectos de trastornos funcionales digestivos donde se manifiesta de una manera más intensa. El volumen de la cavidad abdominal presenta variaciones fisiológicas en respuesta a la ingesta de alimentos, el llenado vesical o la evacuación rectal. Nuestros datos indican que cuando se realiza un incremento del volumen abdominal de forma experimental en sujetos sanos mediante la infusi...

  19. Towards estimation of respiratory muscle effort with respiratory inductance plethysmography signals and complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Chen; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien

    2018-07-01

    Respiratory inductance plethysmography (RIP) sensor is an inexpensive, non-invasive, easy-to-use transducer for collecting respiratory movement data. Studies have reported that the RIP signal's amplitude and frequency can be used to discriminate respiratory diseases. However, with the conventional approach of RIP data analysis, respiratory muscle effort cannot be estimated. In this paper, the estimation of the respiratory muscle effort through RIP signal was proposed. A complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition method was used, to extract hidden signals from the RIP signals based on the frequency bands of the activities of different respiratory muscles. To validate the proposed method, an experiment to collect subjects' RIP signal under thoracic breathing (TB) and abdominal breathing (AB) was conducted. The experimental results for both the TB and AB indicate that the proposed method can be used to loosely estimate the activities of thoracic muscles, abdominal muscles, and diaphragm. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  1. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  2. Postoperative pleural effusion following upper abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P H; Jepsen, S B; Olsen, A D

    1989-01-01

    amylases, sex, smoking habits, or weight. There was no correlation between the localization of the pleural effusions and that of the abdominal incisions. There was a positive correlation between atelectasis and pleural effusion, but no evidence of a causal relationship. Pleural effusions might be related...

  3. Clinical application of PET in abdominal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon

    2002-01-01

    Clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly increasing for the detection and staging of cancer at whole-body studies performed with the glucose analogue tracer 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FG). Although FDG PET cannot match the anatomic resolution of conventional imaging techniques in the liver and the other abdominal organs, it is particularly useful for identification and characterization of the entire body simultaneously. FDG PET can show foci of metastatic disease that may not be apparent at conventional anatomic imaging and can aid in the characterizing of indeterminate soft-tissue masses. Most abdominal cancer requires surgical management. FGD PET can improve the selection of patients for surgical treatment and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with inappropriate surgery. FDG PET is also useful for the early detection of recurrence and the monitoring of therapeutic effect. The abdominal cancers, such as gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and pancreatic cancer, are common malignancies in Korea, and PET is one of the most promising and useful methodologies for the management of abdominal cancers

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome Secondary to Chronic Constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Flageole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS is defined as an elevated intraabdominal pressure with evidence of organ dysfunction. The majority of published reports of ACS are in neonates with abdominal wall defects and in adults following trauma or burns, but it is poorly described in children. We describe the unusual presentation of an 11-year-old boy with a long history of chronic constipation who developed acute ACS requiring resuscitative measures and emergent disimpaction. He presented with a 2-week history of increasing abdominal pain, nausea, diminished appetite and longstanding encopresis. On exam, he was emaciated with a massively distended abdomen with a palpable fecaloma. Abdominal XR confirmed these findings. Within 24 hours of presentation, he became tachycardic and oliguric with orthostatic hypotension. Following two enemas, he acutely deteriorated with severe hypotension, marked tachycardia, acute respiratory distress, and a declining mental status. Endotracheal intubation, fluid boluses, and vasopressors were commenced, followed by emergent surgical fecal disimpaction. This resulted in rapid improvement in vital signs. He has been thoroughly investigated and no other condition apart from functional constipation has been identified. Although ACS secondary to constipation is extremely unusual, this case illustrates the need to actively treat constipation and what can happen if it is not.

  5. Renal Angiomyolipoma Presenting as Acute Abdominal Emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 47-year-old woman presented as an acute abdominal emergency with rapid progression to shock following spontaneous rupture of a left renal angiomyolipoma. The diagnosis was missed clinically and on computerized tomographic scan. At different stages of management based on her pattern of symptoms, signs and ...

  6. Generalized And Abdominal Obesity; The Association With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity is an increasing problem in the developing world, with more than 115 million people suffering from obesity-related problems. Abdominal obesity and increased body mass index are known to be associated with hypertension5, an important public health problem worldwide and the most widely ...

  7. Connective tissue alteration in abdominal wall hernia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, N A; Yadete, D H; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2011-01-01

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of abdominal wall hernia formation is complex. Optimal treatment of hernias depends on a full understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in their formation. The aim of this study was to review the literature on specific collagen alterations in abdom...

  8. Natural history of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perko, M J; Schroeder, T V; Olsen, P S

    1993-01-01

    During a 10-year period in which 735 patients presented with abdominal aortic aneurysms to our clinic, 63 were not offered operative treatment. The primary reason for choosing conservative treatment was concomitant diseases that increased the risk of operation. After 2 years of followup, half...

  9. Elective abdominal hysterectomy: Appraisal of indications and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of hysterectomy did not occur until the 19th century, earlier attempts are known. Some references to hysterectomy date back to 5th century BC, in the time of Hippocrates. In. 1600, Schenck of Grabenberg cataloged 26 cases of vaginal hysterectomy in Europe.[2]. Elective abdominal hysterectomy: Appraisal of indications and.

  10. CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monill, J.; Pernas, J.; Montserrat, E.; Perez, C.; Clavero, J.; Martinez-Noguera, A.; Guerrero, R.; Torrubia, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the CT features of abdominal plasma cell neoplasms. We reviewed CT imaging findings in 11 patients (seven men, four women; mean age 62 years) with plasma cell neoplasms and abdominal involvement. Helical CT of the entire abdomen and pelvis was performed following intravenous administration of contrast material. Images were analyzed in consensus by two radiologists. Diagnoses were made from biopsy, surgery and/or clinical follow-up findings. Multiple myeloma was found in seven patients and extramedullary plasmacytoma in four patients. All patients with multiple myeloma had multifocal disease with involvement of perirenal space (4/7), retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes (3/7), peritoneum (3/7), liver (2/7), subcutaneous tissues (2/7) and kidney (1/7). In three of the four patients with extramedullary plasmacytoma, a single site was involved, namely stomach, vagina and retroperitoneum. In the fourth patient, a double site of abdominal involvement was observed with rectal and jejunal masses. Plasma cell neoplasm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of single or multiple enhancing masses in the abdomen or pelvis. Abdominal plasma cell neoplasms were most frequently seen as well-defined enhancing masses (10/11). (orig.)

  11. ADULT ABDOMINAL WALL HERNIA IN IBADAN.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... method for this surgical procedure.11,12 Laparoscopic mesh repair of ... surgical practice. Groin hernia is the commonest type of abdominal wall hernias. There are several methods of hernia repair but tension-free repair (usually with .... GROIN HERNIA (N=922). Side of hernia. Right. Left. Bilateral. Type of hernia. Direct.

  12. [Albert Einstein and his abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Castro, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    The interesting case of Albert Einstein's abdominal aortic aneurysm is presented. He was operated on at age 69 and, finding that the large aneurysm could not be removed, the surgeon elected to wrap it with cellophane to prevent its growth. However, seven years later the aneurysm ruptured and caused the death of the famous scientist.

  13. Isolated gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal injury

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-26

    May 26, 2015 ... Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Abstract. Isolated traumatic gallbladder rupture subsequent to blunt abdominal injury is rare. Most literatures on the subjects consist of case reports. We reported a rare case of isolated gallbladder rupture and discussed the possible predisposing factors to ...

  14. Clinical abdominal palpation for predicting oligohydramnios in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. In view of the scarcity of ultrasound in low-resource settings, to evaluate abdominal palpation for prediction of oligohydramnios in suspected prolonged pregnancy, using the ultrasound-obtained amniotic fluid index (AFI) as a gold standard, taking into account maternal and fetal factors that may affect amniotic fluid ...

  15. [Approaching a child with chronic abdominal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kollee, L.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed anamnesis and a complete physical examination are essential for establishing the cause of recurrent abdominal pain in a child. Often no medical abnormalities will be found and additional diagnostic procedures may be limited. Most cases are functional in nature or have a psychosomatic

  16. Major Abdominal Surgical Complications : Innovative Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis the focus was on three major complications after abdominal surgery: incisional hernia (IH), prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI), and colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL). The results were summarized in three parts: _Part 1_ focused on prediction and detection of

  17. Increased Auditory Startle Reflex in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal

  18. Increased Auditory Startle Reflex in Children with Functional Abdominal Pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirte J.; Boer, Frits; Benninga, Marc A.; Koelman, Johannes H. T. M.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.

    Objective To test the hypothesis that children with abdominal pain-related functional gastrointestinal disorders have a general hypersensitivity for sensory stimuli. Study design Auditory startle reflexes were assessed in 20 children classified according to Rome III classifications of abdominal

  19. Prophylactic antibiotics for penetrating abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Martin; Grieve, Andrew

    2013-11-18

    Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs when the peritoneal cavity is breached. Routine laparotomy for penetrating abdominal injuries began in the 1800s, with antibiotics first being used in World War II to combat septic complications associated with these injuries. This practice was marked with a reduction in sepsis-related mortality and morbidity. Whether prophylactic antibiotics are required in the prevention of infective complications following penetrating abdominal trauma is controversial, however, as no randomised placebo controlled trials have been published to date. There has also been debate about the timing of antibiotic prophylaxis. In 1972 Fullen noted a 7% to 11% post-surgical infection rate with pre-operative antibiotics, a 33% to 57% infection rate with intra-operative antibiotic administration and 30% to 70% infection rate with only post-operative antibiotic administration. Current guidelines state there is sufficient class I evidence to support the use of a single pre-operative broad spectrum antibiotic dose, with aerobic and anaerobic cover, and continuation (up to 24 hours) only in the event of a hollow viscus perforation found at exploratory laparotomy. To assess the benefits and harms of prophylactic antibiotics administered for penetrating abdominal injuries for the reduction of the incidence of septic complications, such as septicaemia, intra-abdominal abscesses and wound infections. Searches were not restricted by date, language or publication status. We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2013, issue 12 of 12), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) and PubMed. Searches were last conducted in January 2013. All randomised controlled trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with penetrating abdominal trauma versus no

  20. Dynamic CT in the abdominal organ, 2. Dynamics in the abdominal malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, K [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1980-03-01

    The potential role of the abdominal dynamic CT in malignant tumors was evaluated. Among total of 112 cases dynamically studied included were, 22 cases of abdominal malignancies, renal cell carcinoma in 7, hepatocellular carcinoma in 7, metastatic liver tumor in 5, renal pelvic carcinoma in 2, and pancreatic cystadenocarcinoma in one. The results led to the following advantages of the abdominal dynamic CT over conventional CT. (1) The tumor thrombus and the lymphnode involvement could be better demonstrated. (2) The tumor vessels and the tumor stain could be depicted. (3) The extent of the tumor in the parenchyma could be better appreciated. The more invasive catheter angiography would likely to be replaced by the abdominal dynamic CT in the selected case.

  1. Evaluation of abdominal CT in the initial treatment of abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shinsuke; Ishii, Takashi; Kuwata, Katsuya; Yoneyama, Chihiro; Kitamura, Kazuya; Sasaki, Yoshifumi; Kamachi, Masahiro; Nishiguchi, Hiroyasu.

    1986-01-01

    During the last four years 102 patients with abdominal trauma were examined by CT for preoperative evaluation in our hospital. In 35 patients (34 %), the CT scans revealed no abnormal findings. They were all managed conservatively except for one case of perforated small bowel. In 67 patients (66 %) CT revealed evidences of substantial abdominal or retroperitoneal trauma. In 30 of them CT findings were confirmed by surgery. Hepatic injury is usually easily recognized by CT. CT is also useful for the detection of renal or splenic injuries. The majority of those parenchymatous organ injuries were successfully managed with conservative therapy, despite apparent traumatic lesions revealed by CT. Repeat CT scans is proved to be very useful to follow the changes of these traumatic lesions. In conclusion, application of abdominal CT is extremely useful for the initial decision making in treatment of patients with abdominal trauma and for the follow-up observation of injured lesions. (author)

  2. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  3. Development of control system in abdominal operating ROV

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Weikang; WANG Guanxue; XU Guohua; LIU Chang; SHEN Xiong

    2017-01-01

    In order to satisfy all the requirements of Unmanned Underwater Vehicle(UUV)recovery tasks, a new type of abdominal operating Remote Operated Vehicle(ROV) was developed. The abdominal operating ROV is different from the general ROV which works by a manipulator, as it completes the docking and recovery tasks of UUVs with its abdominal operating mechanism. In this paper, the system composition and principles of the abdominal operating ROV are presented. We then propose a framework for a control...

  4. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intak...

  5. Diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysm using 67-gallium citrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumoff, R.L.; McCartney, W.; Jaques, P.; Johnson, G. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Mycotic aneurysms of the abdominal aorta are uncommon, but potentially lethal problems. Clinical subtleties may suggest their presence, but in the past, definitive diagnosis has been dependent on surgical exploration or autopsy findings. A case is presented in which 67-gallium citrate abdominal scanning localized the site of sepsis in an abdominal aortic aneurysm and allowed for prompt and successful surgical therapy. This noninvasive technique is recommended as a adjunct in the diagnosis of mycotic abdominal aortic aneurysms

  6. Abdominal fedme og fedmerelaterede sygdomme hos patienter i almen praksis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Ketil; Rost, Dan; Knudsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients.......Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients....

  7. Allergic Lung Inflammation Aggravates Angiotensin II-Induced Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Cong-Lin; Wang, Yi; Liao, Mengyang

    2016-01-01

    sensitization and challenge in mice led to the development of allergic lung inflammation (ALI). Subcutaneous infusion of angiotensin II into mice produced AAA. Simultaneous production of ALI in AAA mice doubled abdominal aortic diameter and increased macrophage and mast cell content, arterial media smooth...... and reduced lesion inflammation, plasma IgE, and bronchioalveolar inflammation. Pre-establishment of ALI also increased AAA lesion size, lesion accumulation of macrophages and mast cells, media smooth muscle cell loss, and plasma IgE, reduced plasma interleukin-5, interleukin-13, and transforming growth...... factor-β, and increased bronchioalveolar inflammation. Consequent production of ALI also doubled lesion size of pre-established AAA and increased lesion mast cell and T-cell accumulation, media smooth muscle cell loss, lesion cell proliferation and apoptosis, plasma IgE, and bronchioalveolar inflammation...

  8. Nodular smooth muscle metaplasia in multiple peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Ha, Sang Yun; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    We report here an unusual presentation of peritoneal endometriosis with smooth muscle metaplasia as multiple protruding masses on the lateral pelvic wall. Smooth muscle metaplasia is a common finding in rectovaginal endometriosis, whereas in peritoneal endometriosis, smooth muscle metaplasia is uncommon and its nodular presentation on the pelvic wall is even rarer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of nodular smooth muscle metaplasia occurring in peritoneal endometriosis. As observed in this case, when performing laparoscopic surgery in order to excise malignant tumors of intra-abdominal or pelvic organs, it can be difficult for surgeons to distinguish the metastatic tumors from benign nodular pelvic wall lesions, including endometriosis, based on the gross findings only. Therefore, an intraoperative frozen section biopsy of the pelvic wall nodules should be performed to evaluate the peritoneal involvement by malignant tumors. Moreover, this report implies that peritoneal endometriosis, as well as rectovaginal endometriosis, can clinically present as nodular lesions if obvious smooth muscle metaplasia is present. The pathological investigation of smooth muscle cells in peritoneal lesions can contribute not only to the precise diagnosis but also to the structure and function of smooth muscle cells and related cells involved in the histogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis.

  9. Dissemination of Walker 256 carcinoma cells to rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, H.; Hayashi, K.; Namba, T.; Grob, D.

    1986-01-01

    After injection of 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells labelled with 125 I-5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine into the tail vein, peak concentration in skeletal muscle was 46 cells/g at 60 minutes, which was lower than 169202, 1665, 555, 198 and 133 cells/g, respectively, at 30 or 60 minutes in lung, liver, spleen, kidney and heart. Because skeletal muscle constitutes 37.4% of body weight, the total number of tumor cells was 2323 cells, which was much greater than in spleen, kidney and heart with 238, 271, and 85 cells, respectively, and only less than in lung and liver, at 222857 and 11700 cells, respectively. The total number in skeletal muscle became greater than in liver at 4 hours and than in lung at 24 hours. Ten minutes after injection of 7.5 x 10 6 Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the abdominal aorta of rats, a mean of 31 colony-forming cells were recovered from the gastrocnemius, while 106 cells were recovered from the lung after injection into the tail vein. These results indicate that a large number of viable tumor cells can be arrested in skeletal muscle through circulation. The rare remote metastasis of malignancies into skeletal muscle despite constantly circulating tumor cells does not appear to be due to poor dissemination of tumor cells into muscle but due to unhospitable environment of skeletal muscle

  10. Decellularized Human Skeletal Muscle as Biologic Scaffold for Reconstructive Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Porzionato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Engineered skeletal muscle tissues have been proposed as potential solutions for volumetric muscle losses, and biologic scaffolds have been obtained by decellularization of animal skeletal muscles. The aim of the present work was to analyse the characteristics of a biologic scaffold obtained by decellularization of human skeletal muscles (also through comparison with rats and rabbits and to evaluate its integration capability in a rabbit model with an abdominal wall defect. Rat, rabbit and human muscle samples were alternatively decellularized with two protocols: n.1, involving sodium deoxycholate and DNase I; n.2, trypsin-EDTA and Triton X-NH4OH. Protocol 2 proved more effective, removing all cellular material and maintaining the three-dimensional networks of collagen and elastic fibers. Ultrastructural analyses with transmission and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the preservation of collagen, elastic fibres, glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans. Implantation of human scaffolds in rabbits gave good results in terms of integration, although recellularization by muscle cells was not completely achieved. In conclusion, human skeletal muscles may be effectively decellularized to obtain scaffolds preserving the architecture of the extracellular matrix and showing mechanical properties suitable for implantation/integration. Further analyses will be necessary to verify the suitability of these scaffolds for in vitro recolonization by autologous cells before in vivo implantation.

  11. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in association with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the endovascular era: vigilance remains critical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Matthew C; Ross, Charles B

    2012-01-01

    Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are common complications of ruptured abdominal aortoiliac aneurysms (rAAAs) and other abdominal vascular catastrophes even in the age of endovascular therapy. Morbidity and mortality due to systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ failure (MOF) are significant. Recognition and management of IAH are key critical care measures which may decrease morbidity and improve survival in these vascular patients. Two strategies have been utilized: expectant management with prompt decompressive laparotomy upon diagnosis of threshold levels of IAH versus prophylactic, delayed abdominal closure based upon clinical parameters at the time of initial repair. Competent management of the abdominal wound with preservation of abdominal domain is also an important component of the care of these patients. In this review, we describe published experience with IAH and ACS complicating abdominal vascular catastrophes, experience with ACS complicating endovascular repair of rAAAs, and techniques for management of the abdominal wound. Vigilance and appropriate management of IAH and ACS remains critically important in decreasing morbidity and optimizing survival following catastrophic intra-abdominal vascular events.

  12. Soft-tissue masses in the abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, U.; Moskovic, E.; Strauss, D.; Hayes, A.; Thway, K.; Pope, R.; Messiou, C.

    2014-01-01

    Masses involving the abdominal wall arise from a large number of aetiologies. This article will describe a diagnostic approach, imaging features of the most common causes of abdominal wall masses, and highly specific characteristics of less common diseases. A diagnostic algorithm for abdominal wall masses combines clinical history and imaging appearances to classify lesions

  13. Traumatic abdominal wall hernia secondary to motorcycle handle bar injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Jamabo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: We recommend a high level of clinical suspicion for traumatic abdominal wall herniation in all patients with traumatic abdominal wall injuries. It is instructive that the area be explored with primary repair of the hernia and other tissue planes of the abdominal wall.

  14. Acute abdominal pain: Advances in diagnosis and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gans, S.L.

    2015-01-01

    The term acute abdominal pain refers to non-traumatic abdominal pain of rapid onset with duration of less than five days. Acute abdominal pain can be divided in urgent and non-urgent conditions. Urgent causes require treatment within 24 hours to prevent serious complications whereas for non-urgent

  15. Recurrent desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall | Toughrai | Pan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Desmoid tumors most often occur in abdominal wall. Their tendency to recur lead to repeated operations which can make the abdominal wall reconstruction difficult. We report a 28-year-old female history. The patient was referred to our hospital for a recurrent desmoid tumor of the abdominal wall. The tumor was totally ...

  16. Reply to: Can we avoid rectus abdominis muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Timmermans (Lucas); E.B. Deerenberg (Eva); S.M. van Dijk (Sven); B. Lamme (Bas); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); J. Jeekel (Johannes); J.F. Lange (Johan)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractWe read with interest the letter to the editor by Stephenson et al regarding our article “Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.” Any attempt to decrease the risk of parastomal herniation should be applauded, because its incidence of greater than

  17. Healthy Muscles Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or lying down, and faster when you’re running or playing sports and your skeletal muscles need more blood to help them do their work. What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles after exercising ...

  18. Oxidative metabolism in muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, M; Binzoni, T; Quaresima, V

    1997-01-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantage...

  19. Unipedal postural stability in nonathletes with core instability after intensive abdominal drawing-in maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam G; You, Joshua Sung H; Kim, Tae H; Choi, Bong S

    2015-02-01

    The exact neuromechanical nature and relative contribution of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) to postural instability warrants further investigation in uninjured and injured populations. To determine the effects of the ADIM on static core and unipedal postural stability in nonathletes with core instability. Controlled laboratory study. University research laboratory. A total of 19 nonathletes (4 women: age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years, height = 164.0 ± 1.7 cm, mass = 56.0 ± 4.6 kg; 15 men: age = 24.6 ± 2.8 years, height = 172.6 ± 4.7 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 7.6 kg) with core instability. Participants received ADIM training with visual feedback 20 minutes each day for 7 days each week over a 2-week period. Core instability was determined using a prone formal test and measured by a pressure biofeedback unit. Unipedal postural stability was determined by measuring the center-of-pressure sway and associated changes in the abdominal muscle-thickness ratios. Electromyographic activity was measured concurrently in the external oblique, erector spinae, gluteus medius, vastus medialis oblique, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. All participants initially were unable to complete the formal test. However, after the 2-week ADIM training period, all participants were able to reduce the pressure biofeedback unit by a range of 4 to 10 mm Hg from an initial 70 mm Hg and maintain it at 60 to 66 mm Hg with minimal activation of the external oblique (t(18) = 3.691, P = .002) and erector spinae (t(18) = 2.823, P = .01) muscles. Monitoring of the pressure biofeedback unit and other muscle activations confirmed that the correct muscle contraction defining the ADIM was accomplished. This core stabilization was well maintained in the unipedal-stance position, as evidenced by a decrease in the center-of-pressure sway measures (t(18) range, 3.953-5.775, P < .001), an increased muscle-thickness ratio for the transverse abdominis (t(18) = -2.327, P = .03), and a reduction in

  20. Intensive Abdominal Drawing-In Maneuver After Unipedal Postural Stability in Nonathletes With Core Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nam G.; You, Joshua (Sung) H.; Kim, Tae H.; Choi, Bong S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The exact neuromechanical nature and relative contribution of the abdominal drawing-in maneuver (ADIM) to postural instability warrants further investigation in uninjured and injured populations. Objective: To determine the effects of the ADIM on static core and unipedal postural stability in nonathletes with core instability. Design: Controlled laboratory study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 19 nonathletes (4 women: age = 22.3 ± 1.3 years, height = 164.0 ± 1.7 cm, mass = 56.0 ± 4.6 kg; 15 men: age = 24.6 ± 2.8 years, height = 172.6 ± 4.7 cm, mass = 66.8 ± 7.6 kg) with core instability. Intervention(s): Participants received ADIM training with visual feedback 20 minutes each day for 7 days each week over a 2-week period. Main Outcome Measures(s): Core instability was determined using a prone formal test and measured by a pressure biofeedback unit. Unipedal postural stability was determined by measuring the center-of-pressure sway and associated changes in the abdominal muscle-thickness ratios. Electromyographic activity was measured concurrently in the external oblique, erector spinae, gluteus medius, vastus medialis oblique, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Results: All participants initially were unable to complete the formal test. However, after the 2-week ADIM training period, all participants were able to reduce the pressure biofeedback unit by a range of 4 to 10 mm Hg from an initial 70 mm Hg and maintain it at 60 to 66 mm Hg with minimal activation of the external oblique (t18 = 3.691, P = .002) and erector spinae (t18 = 2.823, P = .01) muscles. Monitoring of the pressure biofeedback unit and other muscle activations confirmed that the correct muscle contraction defining the ADIM was accomplished. This core stabilization was well maintained in the unipedal-stance position, as evidenced by a decrease in the center-of-pressure sway measures (t18 range, 3.953–5.775, P

  1. Validity of a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device to measure abdominal and visceral fat: comparison with MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Lucy M; Mugridge, Owen; Chatfield, Mark; Dixon, Adrian; Aitken, Sri; Joubert, Ilse; Prentice, Andrew M.; Jebb, Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal fat, and in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is the critical fat depot associated with metabolic aberrations. At present VAT can only be accurately measured by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to compare a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device against total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) and VAT area measurements made from an abdominal MRI scan, and to assess it’s reliability and accuracy.

  2. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruque, A. V.; Qazi, S. H.; Khan, M. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. Methods: The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonography had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Conclusions: Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be

  3. Focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST) in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruque, Ahmad Vaqas; Qazi, Saqib Hamid; Khan, Muhammad Arif Mateen; Akhtar, Wassem; Majeed, Amina

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the role of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in blunt paediatric abdominal trauma patients, and to see if the role of computed tomography scan could be limited to only those cases in which sonography was positive. The retrospective study covered 10 years, from January 1,2000 to December 31,2009, and was conducted at the Department of Radiology and Department of Emergency Medicine, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi. It comprised cases of 174 children from birth to 14 years who had presented with blunt abdominal trauma and had focussed abdominal sonography for trauma done at the hospital. The findings were correlated with computed tomography scan of the abdomen and clinical follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of focussed abdominal sonography for trauma were calculated for blunt abdominal trauma. SPSS 17 was used for statistical analysis. Of the total 174 cases, 31 (17.81%) were later confirmed by abdominal scan. Of these 31 children, sonography had been positive in 29 (93.54%) children. In 21 (67.74%) of the 31 children, sonograpy had been true positive; 8 (25%) (8/31) were false positive; and 2 (6%) (2/31) were false negative. There were 6 (19.3%) children in which sonography was positive and converted to laparotomy. There was no significant difference on account of gender (p>0.356). Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma in the study had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value of 73%, and negative predictive value of 73% with accuracy of 94%. All patients who had negative sonography were discharged later, and had no complication on clinical follow-up. Focussed abdominal sonography for trauma is a fairly reliable mode to assess blunt abdominal trauma in children. It is a useful tool to pick high-grade solid and hollow viscous injury. The results suggest that the role of computed tomography scan can be limited to those cases in which focussed

  4. Experimental models of longitudinal abdominal incisional hernia in rats Modelos experimentais de hérnias incisionais abdominais longitudinais, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo N. S. Paulo

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal incisional hernias in rats has been produced after resection of a segment of abdominal muscle. In a attempt to create a model of incisional hernia in rats, without resection of abdominal muscle, the following surgical procedures were performed: (a Rats anesthetized with ether were submitted to a 4 cm long median incision, supra and infraumbilical, followed by dissection of the subcutaneous tissue 1.5 cm laterally to the median line in each side; after, one incision was performed in the linea alba and peritoneum, with the same extension of the skin incision; the skin incision was sutured. (b Rats were submited to a suprapubic transversal incision and a scissors introduced through this incision and used to dissect the subcutaneous tissue at least 1.5 cm for each side of median line; after, the linea alba and peritoneoum were incised and the transversal skin incision sutured. (c For control, rats were submitted to a resection of a 2.5 x 4 cm of the abdominal muscles, creating a large defect in the abdominal wall. All the animal, submitted to the three different procedures, developed similar well constituted hernias. We concluded that abdominal incisonal hernias are easily induced in rats after an incision of the abdominal wall, without partial resection of abdominal muscle, since the subcutaneous have been dissected at least 1.5 cm laterally to the median line.Hérnias incisionais abdominais no rato têm sido produzidas pela ressecção de fragmento dos músculos de parede abdominal. Na tentativa de criar um modelo de hérnia incisional abdominal no rato, sem ressecção de fragmentos de músculo de parede abdominal, os seguintes procedimentos cirúrgicos foram realizados: (a Ratos anestesiados com vapores de éter foram submetidos à uma incisão longitudinal mediana supra e infra umbilical, de 4 cm de comprimento, seguida do descolamento do tecido celular subcutaneo em uma extensão de 1,5 cm lateralmente à linha mediana; de cada lado

  5. Heterotopic bone formation as a result of abdominal polytrauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, G.; Penev, B.; Kirova, G.; Ruskova, E.; Karagiozov, P.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Heterotopic bone formation within the abdominal cavity is a rare complication of the posttraumatic abdominal surgery. There are only few cases reported in the medical literature and most of them involve the mesentery or the abdominal wall. A case of 49y-old men is presented who developed intraabdominal heterotopic ossifications as a consequence of numeral exploratory laparotomies performed after a blunt abdominal trauma. The condition was detected during the follow-up MDCT 11 months later. The case is of interest because of the rarity of the condition and the diffuse character of the calcifications in the abdominal structures, which could pose some differential diagnostic difficulties

  6. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  7. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan); Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide

    1992-10-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author).

  8. X-rays computed tomographic scans of lower limb and trunk muscles in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikawa, Hirosei; Mano, Yukio; Takayanagi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Keiichi; Nishio, Hisahide.

    1992-01-01

    X-rays computed tomographic (CT) scans of muscles of the lower limbs and the trunk in 14 patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSH) were studied. The CT scans showed that the affected muscles were decreased in density and size. The laterality of muscular involvement was sometimes observed. The muscular lesions in the lower limbs showed proximal distribution. In the thigh, the hamstrings were affected first, the adductor muscles second, and then the muscular involvement progressed to the quadriceps femoris muscle. In the lower leg, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were relatively spared as compared with the tibialis anterior muscle. In the lumbar girdle, the abdominal muscles were involved first, the gluteal muscles second, the back muscles third, and the psoas major muscle were relatively spared. The muscular weakness of this distribution exacerbated lumbar lordosis. The neck muscles were less affected than those of the lumbar girdle. The CT scans in FSH demonstrated the characteristic pattern of muscular involvement, which differed from the inherited muscular diseases such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, and others. (author)

  9. Fournier?s gangrene - delayed pedicle flap based upon the anterior abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Sliwinski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Fournier’s gangrene is a poly-microbial necrotizing fasciitis that involves the perineum and/or external genitalia. Urgent surgical debridement is well recognized as essential acute treatment yet unique challenges arise for plastic surgical reconstruction to obtain a complete functional recovery. This case describes a successful delayed pedicle flap repair based upon the anterior abdominal wall. Case description A 24 year old man was admitted to ICU ten days after elective circumcision with Fournier’s gangrene. He underwent a number of surgical debridements, and was referred for plastic surgical management. He had penile reconstruction using a random pattern abdominal flap, which was performed as a three stage procedure including flap vascular delay technique. Discussion Perineal and penile skin loss can be significant and is difficult to repair. Various techniques have been used to reconstruct lost tissue: skin grafts, transposition of the testes and spermatic cords to the thigh, flaps, and other types of pediculated myocutaneous flaps. Muscle flap reconstruction provides an environment that allows for complete regeneration of the urethral epithelium but is bulky and unsightly. Skin grafts contract and may produce painful and dysfunctional reconstructions. This novel technique produces a functional, and aesthetic reconstruction. Conclusion Penile skin recovery following Fournier’s gangrene recovery is problematic. This case demonstrates the functionality of a delayed flap repair using the anterior abdominal wall.

  10. DYNAMICS OF HOSPITALIZATION OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE SURGICAL PATHOLOGY OF ABDOMINAL AND ABDOMINAL ORGANS IN KUZBASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Иванович Подолужный

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Publications of recent years do not reflect the regional dynamics of hospitalization of patients with acute surgical pathology of the abdominal cavity and anterior abdominal wall. Goal – to determine the volume of hospitalizations and treatment of patients with acute surgical pathology of the abdominal and anterior abdominal wall in the Kuzbass in the dynamics from 1993 to 2016. Materials and methods. A comparative analysis of the volume of treatment of patients with acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, intestinal obstruction, perforated ulcer of the stomach and duodenum and strangulated hernia in surgical departments of Kuzbass from 1993 to 2016 to understand the changes occurring in abdominal surgery. Estimated in the comparative aspect for two decades (1993-2002 and 2007-2016 the average annual number of treated. The estimation of indicators in calculation on 100000 population is executed. The statistical processing was carried out using IBM SPSS Statistica computer version 24 and the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Result. Statistically significantly decreased the number of patients with acute appendicitis and perforated ulcers of the stomach and duodenum. The average annual hospitalization of patients with acute pancreatitis and strangulated abdominal hernias has significantly increased in the last decade. There are no significant differences in the increase in the total number of patients with acute cholecystitis and acute intestinal obstruction. Conclusions: 1. Over the past decade compared with 1993-2002, the incidence of acute appendicitis per 100000 thousand of the population decreased in the region by 39.9 %, the incidence of perforated gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer by 30.2 %. 2. At this time, the number of people treated with 100000 people with acute pancreatitis increased by 94.7 %; with acute cholecystitis by 12.4 %; with an acute intestinal obstruction by 9.8 % and with a strangulated

  11. Acute abdomen in children due to extra-abdominal causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Gardikis, Stefanos; Cassimos, Dimitrios; Kambouri, Katerina; Tsalkidou, Evanthia; Deftereos, Savas; Chatzimichael, Athanasios

    2008-06-01

    Acute abdominal pain in children is a common cause for referral to the emergency room and for subsequent hospitalization to pediatric medical or surgical departments. There are rare occasions when the abdominal pain is derived from extra-abdominal organs or systems. The aim of the present study was to establish the most common extra-abdominal causes of acute abdominal pain. The notes of all children (1 month-14 years of age) examined for acute abdominal pain in the Accident and Emergency (A&E) Department of Alexandroupolis District University Hospital in January 2001-December 2005 were analyzed retrospectively. Demographic data, clinical signs and symptoms, and laboratory findings were recorded, as well as the final diagnosis and outcome. Of a total number of 28 124 children who were brought to the A&E department, in 1731 the main complaint was acute abdominal pain. In 51 children their symptoms had an extra-abdominal cause, the most frequent being pneumonia (n = 15), tonsillitis (n = 10), otitis media (n = 9), and acute leukemia (n = 5). Both abdominal and extra-abdominal causes should be considered by a pediatrician who is confronted with a child with acute abdominal pain.

  12. CT diagnosis of abdominal abscess in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Yang Zhiyong

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate CT in the diagnosis of abdominal abscess in children. Methods: Analysis of CT manifestations in 23 cases proved by operation and needle aspiration. Causes: acute appendicitis 13 cases, ascending colon perforation 1 case, Meckel diverticulitis 2 cases, cause obscured 7 cases. Bolus injection of contrast medium was given in 19 cases. Results: The CT value had no relationship to the course of disease and type of bacteria, amount of abscess had positive relevance relative with course of illness. Air-fluid level or scattered gas bubbles was seen in abscesses in 52%; little calcified plague was present in 22%. All cases presented nonhomogeneous thick wall enhancement after one week of illness. Conclusion: The characteristic CT features of intra-abdominal abscess were the presence of air and little calcified plague shadow; a large air-fluid level was indicative of fistula, while the absence of air in the abscess can not exclude fistula

  13. Plasma osmotic changes during major abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, R A; McLeavey, C A; Arens, J F

    1977-12-01

    Fluid balance across the capillary membrane is maintained normally by a balance of hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures (COP). In 12 patients having major intra-abdominal procedures, the COP was followed during the operative and immediate postoperative periods. The patients' intraoperative fluid management consisted of replacing shed blood with blood and following Shires' concept of crystalloid replacement. Significant decreases in COP to approximately two thirds of the initial value occurred in patients having intra-abdominal procedures versus only a 10 percent decrease in those having peripheral procedures (greater than .001). As a result of this decrease in COP, the balance between hydrostatic and colloid osmotic pressures is lost and risk of pulmonary intersitial edema is increased.

  14. Pitfall of ultrasonographic diagnosis in abdominal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. H.; Yoo, H.S.; Kim, K. W.; Lee, J. T.; Park, C. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal tuberculosis is generally diagnosed using conventional barium studies, however recent diagnostic modalities such as ultrasonography and CT scan are widely applicated in conjunction with conventional studies for the search of lymph node presentation and associated extra-intestinal organs. It is important to differentiate intra-abdominal tuberculosis from metastatic or lymphomatous disease clinically. And it might be especially of worth to find out if there is any differential point between tuberculosis and other lymph nodal disease entities when we meet similar findings on imaging modalities. Authors have tried to evaluate ultrasonographic findings in conjunction with other studies in nine cases of abdominal tuberculosis which showed mainly extra-intestinal and/or lymph nodal involvement

  15. Abdominal musculature abnormalities as a cause of groin pain in athletes. Inguinal hernias and pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D C; Meyers, W C; Moylan, J A; Lohnes, J; Bassett, F H; Garrett, W E

    1991-01-01

    There has been increasing interest within the European sports medicine community regarding the etiology and treatment of groin pain in the athlete. Groin pain is most commonly caused by musculotendinous strains of the adductors and other muscles crossing the hip joint, but may also be related to abdominal wall abnormalities. Cases may be termed "pubalgia" if physical examination does not reveal inguinal hernia and there is an absence of other etiology for groin pain. We present nine cases of patients who underwent herniorrhaphies for groin pain. Two patients had groin pain without evidence of a hernia preoperatively (pubalgia). In the remaining seven patients we determined the presence of a hernia by physical examination. At operation, eight patients were found to have inguinal hernias. One patient had no hernia but had partial avulsion of the internal oblique fibers from their insertion at the public tubercle. The average interval from operation to return to full activity was 11 weeks. All patients returned to full activity within 3 months of surgery. One patient had persistent symptoms of mild incisional tenderness, but otherwise there were no recurrences, complications, or persistence of symptoms. Abnormalities of the abdominal wall, including inguinal hernias and microscopic tears or avulsions of the internal oblique muscle, can be an overlooked source of groin pain in the athlete. Operative treatment of this condition with herniorrhaphy can return the athlete to his sport within 3 months.

  16. Child abdominal tumour in tropical context: Think about schistosomiasis!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Napon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain in a child is not common. This report presents case of child presenting with schistosomiasis presenting as an abdominal mass with chronic pain. Abdominal ultrasonography did not particularly contribute to definitive pre-operative diagnosis. However, pathological examination of surgical specimen confirmed Schistosoma mansoni eggs in the biospy. A decrease in the mass volume was noticed under medical treatment (Biltricide. The aim of this report was to intimate clinicians on possible abdominal schistosomiasis as differential diagnosis of childhood abdominal mass. This is a clarion call for a high index of suspicion of childhood abdominal schistosomiasis in children presenting with abdominal mass in a tropical setting.

  17. Computed tomography of pediatric abdominal masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, Shin Ho; Ko, Eun Joo; Chung, Eun Chul; Suh, Jung Soo; Rhee, Chung Sik [College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-02-15

    Ultrasonography is a very useful diagnostic modality for evaluation of the pediatric abdominal masses, due to faster, cheaper, and no radiation hazard than CT. But CT has more advantages in assessing precise anatomic location, and extent of the pathologic process, and also has particular value in defining the size, relation of the mass to surrounding organs and detection of lymphadenopathy. We analyzed CT features of 35 cases of pathologically proven pediatric abdominal masses for recent 2 years at Ewha Woman's University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1.The most common originating site was kidney (20 cases, 57.1%); followed by gastrointestinal (5 cases, 14.3%), nonrenal retroperitoneal (4 cases, 11.4%), hepatobiliary (3 cases, 8.6%), and genital (3 cases, 8.6%) in order of frequency. 2.The most common mass was hydronephrosis (11 cases, 31.4%), Wilms' tumor (7 cases, 20.0%), neuroblastoma, choledochal cyst, periappendiceal abscess (3 cases, 8.6%, respectively), ovarian cyst (2 cases, 5.7%) were next in order of frequency. 3.Male to female ratio was 4:5 and choledochal cyst and ovarian cyst were found only in females. The most prevalent age group was 1-3 year old (12 cases, 34.3%). 4.With CT, the diagnosis of hydronephrosis was easy in all cases and could evaluate of its severity, renal function and obstruction site with high accuracy. 5.Wilms' tumor and neuroblastoma were relatively well differentiated by their characteristic CT features; such as location, shape, margin, middle cross, calyceal appearance and calcification, etc. 6.Ovarian and mensentric cysts had similar CT appearance. 7.In other pediatric abdominal masses, CT provided excellent information about anatomic detail, precise extent of tumor and differential diagnostic findings. So, CT is useful imaging modality for the demonstration and diagnosis of abdominal mass lesions in pediatric patients.

  18. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, W; Longstreth, G; Drossman, D; Heaton, K; Irvine, E; Muller-Lissner, S

    1999-01-01

    The Rome diagnostic criteria for the functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain are used widely in research and practice. A committee consensus approach, including criticism from multinational expert reviewers, was used to revise the diagnostic criteria and update diagnosis and treatment recommendations, based on research results. The terminology was clarified and the diagnostic criteria and management recommendations were revised. A functional bowel disorder (FBD) is diagnosed ...

  19. Abdominal manifestations of extranodal lymphoma: pictorial essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fajardo, Lais; Cardia, Patricia Prando; Prando, Adilson, E-mail: laisfajardo@gmail.com [Centro Radiologico Campinas/Hospital Vera Cruz, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ramin, Guilherme de Araujo; Penachim, Thiago Jose; Martins, Daniel Lahan [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC- Campinas), SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    In the appropriate clinical setting, certain aspects of extranodal abdominal lymphoma, as revealed by current cross-sectional imaging techniques, should be considered potentially diagnostic and can hasten the diagnosis. In addition, diagnostic imaging in the context of biopsy-proven lymphoma can accurately stage the disease for its appropriate treatment. The purpose of this article was to illustrate the various imaging aspects of extranodal lymphoma in the abdomen. (author)

  20. The effects of Pilates breathing trainings on trunk muscle activation in healthy female subjects: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Tae; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of Pilates breathing on trunk muscle activation. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight healthy female adults were selected for this study. Participants' trunk muscle activations were measured while they performed curl-ups, chest-head lifts, and lifting tasks. Pilates breathing trainings were performed for 60 minutes per each session, 3 times per week for 2 weeks. Post-training muscle activations were measured by the same methods used for the pre-training muscle activations. [Results] All trunk muscles measured in this study had increased activities after Pilates breathing trainings. All activities of the transversus abdominis/internal abdominal oblique, and multifidus significantly increased. [Conclusion] Pilates breathing increased activities of the trunk stabilizer muscles. Activation of the trunk muscle indicates that practicing Pilates breathing while performing lifting tasks will reduce the risk of trunk injuries.

  1. Trunk muscle activity increases with unstable squat movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kenneth; Behm, David G

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of the soleus (SOL), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), abdominal stabilizers (AS), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbo-sacral erector spinae (LSES) muscles while performing squats of varied stability and resistance. Stability was altered by doing the squat movement on a Smith machine, a free squat, and while standing on two balance discs. Fourteen male subjects performed the movements. Activities of the SOL, AS, ULES, and LSES were highest during the unstable squat and lowest with the Smith machine protocol (p squats on unstable surfaces may permit a training adaptation of the trunk muscles responsible for supporting the spinal column (i.e., erector spinae) as well as the muscles most responsible for maintaining posture (i.e., SOL).

  2. CT of hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petridis, A.; Pilavaki, M.; Vafiadis, E.; Palladas, P.; Finitsis, S.; Drevelegas, A.

    1999-01-01

    This article is an appraisal of the use of CT in the management of patients with unstable abdominal trauma. We examined 41 patients with abdominal trauma using noncontrast dynamic CT. In 17 patients a postcontrast dynamic CT was also carried out. On CT, 25 patients had hemoperitoneum. Thirteen patients had splenic, 12 hepatic, 6 pancreatic, 8 bowel and mesenteric, 12 renal and 2 vascular injuries. Seven patients had retroperitoneal and 2 patients adrenal hematomas. All but five lesions (three renal, one pancreatic, and one splenic) were hypodense when CT was performed earlier than 8 h following the injury. Postcontrast studies (n = 17), revealed 4 splenic, 3 hepatic, 1 pancreatic, 3 renal, and 2 bowel and mesenteric injuries beyond what was found on noncontrast CT. Surgical confirmation (n = 21) was obtained in 81.81 % of splenic, 66.66 % of hepatic, 83.33 % of pancreatic, 100 % of renal, 100 % of retroperitoneal, and 85.71 % of bowel and mesenteric injuries. The majority of false diagnoses was obtained with noncontrast studies. Computed tomography is a remarkable method for evaluation and management of patients with hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma, but only if it is revealed in the emergency room. Contrast injection, when it could be done, revealed lesions that were not suspected on initial plain scans. (orig.)

  3. CT of hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petridis, A.; Pilavaki, M.; Vafiadis, E.; Palladas, P.; Finitsis, S.; Drevelegas, A. [Department of Radiology, General Hospital ``G. Papanikolaou,`` Thessaloniki (Greece)

    1999-03-01

    This article is an appraisal of the use of CT in the management of patients with unstable abdominal trauma. We examined 41 patients with abdominal trauma using noncontrast dynamic CT. In 17 patients a postcontrast dynamic CT was also carried out. On CT, 25 patients had hemoperitoneum. Thirteen patients had splenic, 12 hepatic, 6 pancreatic, 8 bowel and mesenteric, 12 renal and 2 vascular injuries. Seven patients had retroperitoneal and 2 patients adrenal hematomas. All but five lesions (three renal, one pancreatic, and one splenic) were hypodense when CT was performed earlier than 8 h following the injury. Postcontrast studies (n = 17), revealed 4 splenic, 3 hepatic, 1 pancreatic, 3 renal, and 2 bowel and mesenteric injuries beyond what was found on noncontrast CT. Surgical confirmation (n = 21) was obtained in 81.81 % of splenic, 66.66 % of hepatic, 83.33 % of pancreatic, 100 % of renal, 100 % of retroperitoneal, and 85.71 % of bowel and mesenteric injuries. The majority of false diagnoses was obtained with noncontrast studies. Computed tomography is a remarkable method for evaluation and management of patients with hemodynamically unstable abdominal trauma, but only if it is revealed in the emergency room. Contrast injection, when it could be done, revealed lesions that were not suspected on initial plain scans. (orig.) With 6 figs., 5 tabs., 20 refs.

  4. Computed tomography in therapy planning: Abdominal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munzenrider, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The radiotherapy community is continuing to appreciate the significant contribution CBT can make to planning abdominal radiotherapy and is also beginning to appreciate the pitfalls and limitations of the technique. Specific attention should continue to focus on patient registration with the scanner and simulator radiographs, patient position during scanning and treatment, and effects of involuntary patient motion, especially breathing, on organ and tumor localization. Effects of patient positional changes and of involuntary motion during treatment on treatment planning and execution should be quantitated, as should effects of inhomogeneities, especially gut air, on abdominal dose distribution. Radiotherapy planned with CBT data can impact significantly on morbidity and mortality associated with abdominal malignancies. Faster scanners (with a scanning time of 9 sec or less) should be employed where possible to obtain maximum diagnostic information. Multiplanar reconstruction and true three-dimensional treatment planning can enhance significantly the value of CBT in treatment planning. Radiotherapists, radiodiagnosticians, radiation physicists, and oncologists must be continue to meet the challenge of realizing the true potential of CBT for the benefit of the cancer patients entrusted to their care

  5. Lung-protective ventilation in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futier, Emmanuel; Jaber, Samir

    2014-08-01

    To provide the most recent and relevant clinical evidence regarding the use of prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation in abdominal surgery. Evidence is accumulating, suggesting an association between intraoperative mechanical ventilation strategy and postoperative pulmonary complications in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Nonprotective ventilator settings, especially high tidal volume (>10-12 ml/kg), very low level of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP, ventilator-associated lung injury in patients with healthy lungs. Stimulated by the previous findings in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome, the use of lower tidal volume ventilation is becoming increasingly more common in the operating room. However, lowering tidal volume, though important, is only part of the overall multifaceted approach of lung-protective mechanical ventilation. Recent data provide compelling evidence that prophylactic lung-protective mechanical ventilation using lower tidal volume (6-8 ml/kg of predicted body weight), moderate PEEP (6-8 cm H2O), and recruitment maneuvers is associated with improved functional or physiological and clinical postoperative outcome in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The use of prophylactic lung-protective ventilation can help in improving the postoperative outcome.

  6. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  7. Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation after EVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Stefanie; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Navab, Nassir

    2009-02-01

    Quantification of abdominal aortic deformation is an important requirement for the evaluation of endovascular stenting procedures and the further refinement of stent graft design. During endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment, the aortic shape is subject to severe deformation that is imposed by medical instruments such as guide wires, catheters, and, the stent graft. This deformation can affect the flow characteristics and morphology of the aorta which have been shown to be elicitors for stent graft failures and be reason for reappearance of aneurysms. We present a method for quantifying the deformation of an aneurysmatic aorta imposed by an inserted stent graft device. The outline of the procedure includes initial rigid alignment of the two abdominal scans, segmentation of abdominal vessel trees, and automatic reduction of their centerline structures to one specified region of interest around the aorta. This is accomplished by preprocessing and remodeling of the pre- and postoperative aortic shapes before performing a non-rigid registration. We further narrow the resulting displacement fields to only include local non-rigid deformation and therefore, eliminate all remaining global rigid transformations. Finally, deformations for specified locations can be calculated from the resulting displacement fields. In order to evaluate our method, experiments for the extraction of aortic deformation fields are conducted on 15 patient datasets from endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) treatment. A visual assessment of the registration results and evaluation of the usage of deformation quantification were performed by two vascular surgeons and one interventional radiologist who are all experts in EVAR procedures.

  8. Nonspecific abdominal pain is a safe diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennel, David John Laurie; Goergen, Nina; Driver, Chris P

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe and if patients with this initial diagnosis are likely to require further investigation or surgical intervention. 3323 patients admitted with NSAP from July 1990 to September 2012 utilizing a prospective database of all surgical admissions were included. Readmission over the period of the study and specifically within 30 days of their initial presentation was identified together with any invasive investigation or surgical intervention. 319 children (9.6%) were subsequently readmitted with abdominal pain at some point during the study period. Of these, 78 (2.3%) were readmitted within 30 days. 118 (3.5%) children subsequently had an operation or invasive investigation some point following their initial admission. Of these 33 (0.6%) had the procedure within 3 months of the initial admission. 13 patients had an appendicectomy within 3 months of the initial presentation. Of these histology confirmed appendicitis in 8 patients. This gives an overall incidence of "missed" appendicitis of 0.2 % (8/3323). This study confirms that a clinical diagnosis of nonspecific abdominal pain (NSAP) is safe in a pediatric population and the risk of "missing" appendicitis is only 0.2%. Patients and/or parents can be confidently reassured that the risk of missing organic pathology is very low. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberger, Stephan; Rosso, Raffaele; Sarti, Manuela; Del Grande, Filippo; Canevascini, Reto; van den Berg, Jos C; Prouse, Giorgio; Giovannacci, Luca

    2017-03-21

    This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptance and costs of an ultrasound scan screening programme for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) in the elderly male population resident in Canton Ticino, Switzerland. The target population were male patients aged 65-80 years who attended the outpatient clinics of the Lugano Regional Hospital in 2013. The patients showing interest were contacted by phone to verify their eligibility and fix the appointment for the ultrasound scan of the abdominal aorta. Patients with recent examinations suitable for AAA detection were excluded. Aneurysm was defined as an abdominal aorta with sagittal and/or axial diameter  30 mm. Patients' characteristics and study results were presented as descriptive statistics. The chi-squared test was used to compare categorical variables with p rate was 68.3%. A previously unknown AAA was diagnosed in 31 patients (4.2%, 95% confidence interval 2.8-5.9%). Age and area of residence had a statistically significant impact on patient's acceptance rate (p <0.05). The mean cost per screened patient was CHF 88. AAA screening of male patients aged 65-80 years is feasible with limited financial and organisational effort. Adherence might be improved by a larger community-based programme and involvement of general practitioners.

  10. Validity of Estimation of Pelvic Floor Muscle Activity from Transperineal Ultrasound Imaging in Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan E Stafford

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between displacement of pelvic floor landmarks observed with transperineal ultrasound imaging and electromyography of the muscles hypothesised to cause the displacements.Three healthy men participated in this study, which included ultrasound imaging of the mid-urethra, urethra-vesical junction, ano-rectal junction and bulb of the penis. Fine-wire electromyography electrodes were inserted into the puborectalis and bulbocavernosus muscles and a transurethral catheter electrode recorded striated urethral sphincter electromyography. A nasogastric sensor recorded intra-abdominal pressure. Tasks included submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions, and Valsalva. The relationship between each of the parameters measured from ultrasound images and electromyography or intra-abdominal pressure amplitudes was described with nonlinear regression.Strong, non-linear relationships were calculated for each predicted landmark/muscle pair for submaximal contractions (R2-0.87-0.95. The relationships between mid-urethral displacement and striated urethral sphincter electromyography, and bulb of the penis displacement and bulbocavernosus electromyography were strong during maximal contractions (R2-0.74-0.88. Increased intra-abdominal pressure prevented shortening of puborectalis, which resulted in weak relationships between electromyography and anorectal and urethravesical junction displacement during all tasks.Displacement of landmarks in transperineal ultrasound imaging provides meaningful measures of activation of individual pelvic floor muscles in men during voluntary contractions. This method may aid assessment of muscle function or feedback for training.

  11. Intricate but tight coupling of spiracular activity and abdominal ventilation during locust discontinuous gas exchange cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talal, Stav; Gefen, Eran; Ayali, Amir

    2018-03-15

    Discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) is the best studied among insect gas exchange patterns. DGE cycles comprise three phases, which are defined by their spiracular state: closed, flutter and open. However, spiracle status has rarely been monitored directly; rather, it is often assumed based on CO 2 emission traces. In this study, we directly recorded electromyogram (EMG) signals from the closer muscle of the second thoracic spiracle and from abdominal ventilation muscles in a fully intact locust during DGE. Muscular activity was monitored simultaneously with CO 2 emission, under normoxia and under various experimental oxic conditions. Our findings indicate that locust DGE does not correspond well with the commonly described three-phase cycle. We describe unique DGE-related ventilation motor patterns, coupled to spiracular activity. During the open phase, when CO 2 emission rate is highest, the thoracic spiracles do not remain open; rather, they open and close rapidly. This fast spiracle activity coincides with in-phase abdominal ventilation, while alternating with the abdominal spiracle and thus facilitating a unidirectional air flow along the main trachea. A change in the frequency of rhythmic ventilation during the open phase suggests modulation by intra-tracheal CO 2 levels. A second, slow ventilatory movement pattern probably serves to facilitate gas diffusion during spiracle closure. Two flutter-like patterns are described in association with the different types of ventilatory activity. We offer a modified mechanistic model for DGE in actively ventilating insects, incorporating ventilatory behavior and changes in spiracle state. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Inter-observer agreement for abdominal CT in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randen, Adrienne van; Lameris, Wytze; Nio, C.Y.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Meier, Mark A.; Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte; Smithuis, Frank; Stoker, Jaap; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Boermeester, Marja A.

    2009-01-01

    The level of inter-observer agreement of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in unselected patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department (ED) was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain were prospectively included. Multi-slice CT was performed in all patients with intravenous contrast medium only. Three radiologists independently read all CT examinations. They recorded specific radiological features and a final diagnosis on a case record form. We calculated the proportion of agreement and kappa values, for overall, urgent and frequently occurring diagnoses. The mean age of the evaluated patients was 46 years (range 19-94), of which 54% were women. Overall agreement on diagnoses was good, with a median kappa of 0.66. Kappa values for specific urgent diagnoses were excellent, with median kappa values of 0.84, 0.90 and 0.81, for appendicitis, diverticulitis and bowel obstruction, respectively. Abdominal CT has good inter-observer agreement in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED, with excellent agreement for specific urgent diagnoses as diverticulitis and appendicitis. (orig.)

  13. Intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal compartment syndrome in acute general surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sugrue, Michael

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) is a harbinger of intra-abdominal mischief, and its measurement is cheap, simple to perform, and reproducible. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), especially grades 3 and 4 (IAP > 18 mmHg), occurs in over a third of patients and is associated with an increase in intra-abdominal sepsis, bleeding, renal failure, and death. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Increased IAP reading may provide an objective bedside stimulus for surgeons to expedite diagnostic and therapeutic work-up of critically ill patients. One of the greatest challenges surgeons and intensivists face worldwide is lack of recognition of the known association between IAH, ACS, and intra-abdominal sepsis. This lack of awareness of IAH and its progression to ACS may delay timely intervention and contribute to excessive patient resuscitation. CONCLUSIONS: All patients entering the intensive care unit (ICU) after emergency general surgery or massive fluid resuscitation should have an IAP measurement performed every 6 h. Each ICU should have guidelines relating to techniques of IAP measurement and an algorithm for management of IAH.

  14. Significance of residual abdominal masses in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmazyn, B.; Horev, G.; Kornreich, L.; Ash, S.; Goshen, Y.; Yaniv, I.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the natural history of children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma who had complete clinical remission and residual abdominal mass after treatment. Material and methods: The charts and imaging findings of all children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma treated and followed at our medical center between 1988 and 1999 were reviewed for the presence, management, clinical course, and prognosis of residual mass. Results: Only children who achieved complete clinical remission were included. The study group consisted of 33 children (20 boys and 13 girls) aged 2.6-17.6 years (mean 7.2 years). Of these, seven (20.6 %) were found to have a residual abdominal mass. Two underwent second-look operation with no evidence of viable tumor on histology. The remaining five were followed by imaging studies for 2.2-9.1 years (mean 6.1 years); none relapsed. Conclusion: Residual mass is not uncommon in children with abdominal Burkitt's lymphoma. The presence of residual mass in a child with complete clinical remission does not alter the long-term prognosis. Therefore, in children with Burkitt's lymphoma and residual mass with no other signs of disease activity, expectant watching may be appropriate. (orig.)

  15. Inter-observer agreement for abdominal CT in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randen, Adrienne van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lameris, Wytze [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nio, C.Y.; Spijkerboer, Anje M.; Meier, Mark A.; Tutein Nolthenius, Charlotte; Smithuis, Frank; Stoker, Jaap [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boermeester, Marja A. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    The level of inter-observer agreement of abdominal computed tomography (CT) in unselected patients presenting with acute abdominal pain at the Emergency Department (ED) was evaluated. Two hundred consecutive patients with acute abdominal pain were prospectively included. Multi-slice CT was performed in all patients with intravenous contrast medium only. Three radiologists independently read all CT examinations. They recorded specific radiological features and a final diagnosis on a case record form. We calculated the proportion of agreement and kappa values, for overall, urgent and frequently occurring diagnoses. The mean age of the evaluated patients was 46 years (range 19-94), of which 54% were women. Overall agreement on diagnoses was good, with a median kappa of 0.66. Kappa values for specific urgent diagnoses were excellent, with median kappa values of 0.84, 0.90 and 0.81, for appendicitis, diverticulitis and bowel obstruction, respectively. Abdominal CT has good inter-observer agreement in unselected patients with acute abdominal pain at the ED, with excellent agreement for specific urgent diagnoses as diverticulitis and appendicitis. (orig.)

  16. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  17. Thoraco-abdominal coordination and performance during uphill running at altitude.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Bernardi

    Full Text Available Running races on mountain trails at moderate-high altitude with large elevation changes throughout has become increasingly popular. During exercise at altitude, ventilatory demands increase due to the combined effects of exercise and hypoxia.To investigate the relationships between thoraco-abdominal coordination, ventilatory pattern, oxygen saturation (SpO2, and endurance performance in runners during high-intensity uphill exercise.Fifteen participants (13 males, mean age 42±9 yrs ran a "Vertical Kilometer," i.e., an uphill run involving a climb of approximately 1000 m with a slope greater than 30%. The athletes were equipped with a portable respiratory inductive plethysmography system, a finger pulse oximeter and a global positioning unit (GPS. The ventilatory pattern (ventilation (VE, tidal volume (VT, respiratory rate (RR, and VE/VT ratio, thoraco-abdominal coordination, which is represented by the phase angle (PhA, and SpO2 were evaluated at rest and during the run. Before and after the run, we assessed respiratory function, respiratory muscle strength and the occurrence of interstitial pulmonary edema by thoracic ultrasound.Two subjects were excluded from the respiratory inductive plethysmography analysis due to motion artifacts. A quadratic relationship between the slope and the PhA was observed (r = 0.995, p = 0.036. When the slope increased above 30%, the PhA increased, indicating a reduction in thoraco-abdominal coordination. The reduced thoraco-abdominal coordination was significantly related to reduced breathing efficiency (i.e., an increased VE/VT ratio; r = 0.961, p = 0.038 and SpO2 (r = -0.697, p<0.001. Lower SpO2 values were associated with lower speeds at 20%≥slope≤40% (r = 0.335, p<0.001 for horizontal and r = 0.36, p<0.001 for vertical. The reduced thoraco-abdominal coordination and consequent reduction in SpO2 were associated with interstitial pulmonary edema.Reductions in thoraco-abdominal coordination are associated

  18. Characterisation of myosin heavy chain gene variants in the fast and slow muscle fibres of gammarid amphipods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, N M; Magnay, J L; McCleary, S J; Nia, S Khazraee; El Haj, A J; Rock, J

    2010-10-01

    Recent molecular work has revealed a large diversity of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene variants in the abdominal musculature of gammarid amphipods. An unusual truncated MyHC transcript from the loop 1 region (Variant A(3)) was consistently observed in multiple species and populations. The current study aimed to determine whether this MyHC variant is specific to a particular muscle fibre type, as a change in net charge to the loop 1 region of Variant A(3) could be functionally significant. The localisation of different fibre types within the abdominal musculature of several gammarid species revealed that the deep flexor and extensor muscles are fast-twitch muscle fibres. The dorsal superficial muscles were identified as slow fibres and the muscles extrinsic to the pleopods were identified as intermediate fibres. Amplification of loop 1 region mRNA from isolated superficial extensor and deep flexor muscles, and subsequent liquid chromatography and sequence analysis revealed that Variant A(3) was the primary MyHC variant in slow muscles, and the conserved A(1) sequence was the primary variant in fast muscles. The specific role of Variant A(3) in the slow muscles remains to be investigated. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of Forty-Nine Patients with Abdominal Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Kilic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Abdominal tuberculosis is an uncommon form of extrapulmonary infection. In this study, we aimed to highlight the nonspecific clinical presentations and diagnostic difficulties of abdominal tuberculosis. Material and Method: Clinical features, diagnostic methods, and the therapeutic outcomes of 49 patients diagnosed as abdominal tuberculosis between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: The patients were classified into four subgroups including peritoneal (28, nodal (14, intestinal (5, and solid organ tuberculosis (2. The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fatique. Ascites appeared to be the most frequent clinical finding. Ascites and enlarged abdominal lymph nodes were the most frequent findings on ultrasonography and tomography. Diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis was mainly depended on histopathology of ascitic fluid and biopsies from peritoneum, abdominal lymph nodes or colonoscopic materials. Forty patients healed with standart 6-month therapy while extended treatment for 9-12 months was needed in 8 whom had discontinued drug therapy and had persistent symptoms and signs. One patient died within the treatment period due to disseminated infection. Discussion: The diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis is often difficult due to diverse clinical presentations. The presence of ascites, personal/familial/contact history of tuberculosis, and coexisting active extraabdominal tuberculosis are the most significant marks in diagnosis. Diagnostic laparoscopy and tissue sampling seem to be the best diagnostic approach for abdominal tuberculosis.

  20. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul

    2016-01-01

    , of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle......Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence...

  1. Muscles, exercise and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines....... The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within...... the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal...

  2. Glucose balance and muscle glycogen during TPN in the early post-operative phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, S; Stjernström, H; Essén-Gustavsson, B

    1985-01-01

    In order to study how muscle glycogen is influenced by different nutritional regimens in the early post-operative period we took muscle biopsies from 20 patients preoperatively and on the fourth post-operative day after abdominal aortic surgery. Ten patients received 93% of non-protein energy......-production) were performed and from these data glucose balance was calculated as the difference between glucose intake and glucose expenditure. Muscle biopsies were analysed for glycogen, adenosine triphosphate, glucose-6-phosphate, lactate and citrate. We found that it was possible to maintain muscle...... glycogen stores at pre-operative levels with a glucose-insulin regimen. With the fat regimen there was a 31% decrease in muscle glycogen and two patients had a negative glucose balance despite the fact that 150 g of glucose were given. Average glucose balance throughout the study correlated positively...

  3. Accessory piriformis muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Develi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Piriformis muscle originates from facies pelvica of sacrum and inserts on the trochanter major. It is one of the lateral rotator muscles of the hip and a landmark point in the gluteal region since n. ischiadicus descends to the thigh by passing close to the muscle. This contiguity may be associated with the irritation of the nerve which is known as piriformis syndrome. A rare anatomic variation of the muscle which observed on 74 years old male cadaver is discussed in this case report. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 182-183

  4. Late renal function following whole abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, C.; Fyles, A.; Wong, S.C.; Cheung, C.M.; Zhu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy who had remained disease-free since completion of treatment participated in a study to assess the late clinical and biochemical effects of bilateral renal irradiation. Minimum follow-up was 5 years with a maximum of 20 years and a median of 9 years. Fifty-two patients in the study group were treated for primary ovarian cancer. Seven had non-Hodgkins lymphoma arising in the gastrointestinal tract and one patient had a carcinoid tumour arising in small bowel. None of the patients received chemotherapy. Abdominal radiation was given using an open beam technique to a mean dose of 22.92 Gy (range 6.68-27.54 Gy) in 1.02 to 1.25 Gy fractions treated once daily. Posterior kidney shields were used in order to limit the renal dose to <20 Gy. Mean radiation dose to both kidneys (retrospectively calculated) was 19.28 Gy (range 6.68-22.99 Gy). Patients ranged in age from 32-81 years with a median of 61 years. No patient had clinical evidence of renal impairment. Nine patients were hypertensive prior to radiotherapy and a further five patients became hypertensive after treatment. Serum creatinine values ranged from 44-123 μmol/l, with a mean of 87 μmol/l. Creatinine clearance ranged from 0.61-2.38 ml/s (mean 1.28 ml/s). Tubular function tests revealed one borderline high 24-h protein excretion and normal 24-h phosphorous and uric acid. Using a multiple linear regression analysis with creatinine clearance as the endpoint, age was the only significant variable (P < 0.00001) and renal dose and interval from treatment were not independently significant. There was no evidence of late renal toxicity more than 5 years after whole abdominal radiotherapy delivered with this technique and dose/fractionation schedule, and using the clinical and biochemical endpoints assessed in this study

  5. Differential Aging Signals in Abdominal CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Nikita V; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Ferrucci, Luigi; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the composition of body tissues are major aging phenotypes, but they have been difficult to study in depth. Here we describe age-related change in abdominal tissues observable in computed tomography (CT) scans. We used pattern recognition and machine learning to detect and quantify these changes in a model-agnostic fashion. CT scans of abdominal L4 sections were obtained from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Age-related change in the constituent tissues were determined by training machine classifiers to differentiate age groups within male and female strata ("Younger" at 50-70 years old vs "Older" at 80-99 years old). The accuracy achieved by the classifiers in differentiating the age cohorts was used as a surrogate measure of the aging signal in the different tissues. The highest accuracy for discriminating age differences was 0.76 and 0.72 for males and females, respectively. The classification accuracy was 0.79 and 0.71 for adipose tissue, 0.70 and 0.68 for soft tissue, and 0.65 and 0.64 for bone. Using image data from a large sample of well-characterized pool of participants dispersed over a wide age range, we explored age-related differences in gross morphology and texture of abdominal tissues. This technology is advantageous for tracking effects of biological aging and predicting adverse outcomes when compared to the traditional use of specific molecular biomarkers. Application of pattern recognition and machine learning as a tool for analyzing medical images may provide much needed insight into tissue changes occurring with aging and, further, connect these changes with their metabolic and functional consequences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. A Rare Cause of Abdominal Pain; Celiac Truncus Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfu Birkan

    2016-01-01

    In this case we presented a patient who were admitted to surgery department with complaints of abdominal pain and nausea. There were no pathological findings on physical examination, direct abdominal x-ray, chest radiograph and biochemical parameters. At proximal of the celiac trunk, it was shown approximately 3x2 cm in size fusiform aneurysmal dilatation on the patient%u2019s abdominal ultrasonography and turbulence, arterial flow on the patient%u2019s abdominal doppler ultrasonography subsequently. In abdominal computed tomography we detected dense calcifications, dilatation and hypodensities that may belong to a thrombus in the lumen superior mesenteric vein (SMV. At the same time, approximately 3.5 cm segment of trunk celiak we observed aneurysm dilatation which reaching 2 cm at the widest point. Celiac trunk aneurysm is a rare cause of abdominal pain and often noticed after the complicated, thus it must always be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Functional Abdominal Pain: "Get" the Function, Loose the Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draeger-Muenke, Reinhild

    2015-07-01

    Functional abdominal pain is a mind-body, psychosocial, and self-reinforcing experience with significant consequences for the sufferer and the surrounding support network. The occurrence of unpredictable symptoms and their severity add an element of dread and feeling out-of-control to daily life and often reduce overall functioning in a downward spiral. Two clinical presentations of functional abdominal pain are offered in this article (composites to protect confidentiality) dealing with abdominal pain syndrome and abdominal migraines. The treatment demonstrates the use of hypnotic principles for self-regulation, exploration, and meaning-making. Hypnosis treatment is conducted in combination with mindfulness-based interventions and Traditional Chinese Medicine's (TCM) teachings regarding abdominal health and illness. The clinical examples illustrate medical findings that suggest children with early life stress and an early onset of gastrointestinal somatization may not simply outgrow their functional abdominal pain but may suffer into adulthood.

  8. Castleman Disease Presenting as an Abdominal Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farnaz; Verter, Elizabeth; Chang, Wendy; Huang, Li; Joshi, Virendra

    2017-01-01

    Unicentric Castleman disease is a rare condition of lymphoid hyperplasia, of which only 15% of cases occur in the abdomen. We report a 66-year-old man who presented with complaints of abdominal pain. Computed tomography scans revealed nephrolithiasis and a homogeneous calcified mass between the pancreas and stomach and several para-pancreatic nodes. Direct visualization during exploratory laparotomy revealed a mass on the lesser curvature of the stomach. Pyloromyotomy and mass resection were performed. Biopsy showed reactive lymphoid hyperplasia consistent with the hyaline vascular variant of Castleman disease.

  9. Contrast media on abdominal computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalpe, I.O.; Oestensen, H.M.

    1984-01-01

    Abdominal computed tomography was performed in 55 patients before and after intravenous injection of 60 ml of a non-ionic (iohexol) or an ionic (metrizoate) contrast medium. The adverse effects were recorded and a series of measurements of attenuation values before and after the contrast medium injection was performed in the aorta and in hepatic and renal parenchyma. Only minor adverse effects were seen with both contrast media, but iohexol was clearly better tolerated than metrizoate. No difference in the enhancement properties was found between the two contrast media. (orig.)

  10. Bacteriological aspects implicated in abdominal surgical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israil, A M; Delcaru, C; Palade, R S; Chifiriuc, C; Iordache, C; Vasile, D; Grigoriu, M; Voiculescu, D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish the microbial etiology of abdominal surgical emergencies as well as the relationship between the bacterial etiology and the virulence factors produced by the respective isolated strains. 110 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 randomized clinical cases, operated during 2009-2010 in the First Surgical Clinic of the University Hospital of Bucharest. The clinical cases (sex ratio 52 M/48F aged between 22-85 years old) were classified into three risk groups, as related to their severity. The isolated strains were characterized by cultural, microscopic and biochemical methods. After identification, the bacterial strains were investigated for their virulence potential (adherence to abiotic surface and production of soluble virulence factors). The specimens were collected from different clinical pathologies: diffuse acute peritonitis, biliary duct infections, severe acute pancreatitis followed by septic processes etc. The 110 bacterial (72 aerobic and 38 anaerobic) strains were isolated only in 70 out of 100 cases. Out of these 70 cases, in 45 already submitted to pre-operatory empiric broad spectrum antibiotic therapy, there were isolated 74 strains, whereas in 25 cases without any treatment, there were isolated 36 strains. The etiology was either mono-specific or multi-specific (aerobic-anaerobic associations, especially in old persons). Out of the 30 negative culture cases, 16 were already submitted to pre-operatory parenteral empiric antibiotic therapy at the moment of specimen collection. The aerobic etiology was dominated by Enterobacteriaceae. The most frequent anaerobic species belonged to Clostridium, Peptococcus and Bacteroides genera. It is to be mentioned that the isolation of Bifidobacterium and Veillonella spp. in 11 (10%) severe cases of the studied abdominal surgical emergencies is pleading for the fact that in certain conditions, bacteria belonging usually to commensal gut flora can turn to pathogenic

  11. CT diagnosis of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacknoff, R.; Novelline, R.A.; Wittenberg, J.; Waltman, A.C.; De Luca, S.A.; Rhea, J.T.; Lawrason, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a life-threatening condition requiring immediate diagnosis and surgery. In a series of 23 consecutive patients scanned by CT for suspected ruptured AAA, CT proved 100% accurate. In seven patients with surgically or pathologically proved ruptured AAA, CT demonstrated a similar distribution of hemorrhage into the perirenal space and to a lesser degree into the anterior and posterior pararenal spaces. The 16 true-negative examinations included ten in patients with unruptured AAA and six in patients with other diseases. The authors conclude that patients in stable condition with suspected ruptured AAA should be examined by CT

  12. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  13. Abdominal vascular syndromes: characteristic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardarelli-Leite, Leandro; Velloni, Fernanda Garozzo; Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Lemos, Marcelo Delboni; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: leandrocleite@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Departmento de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2016-07-15

    Abdominal vascular syndromes are rare diseases. Although such syndromes vary widely in terms of symptoms and etiologies, certain imaging findings are characteristic. Depending on their etiology, they can be categorized as congenital - including blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, and hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome) - compressive - including 'nutcracker' syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome, Cockett syndrome (also known as May-Thurner syndrome), and superior mesenteric artery syndrome. In this article, we aimed to illustrate imaging findings that are characteristic of these syndromes, through studies conducted at our institution, as well as to perform a brief review of the literature on this topic. (author)

  14. The Gross Morphology and Histochemistry of Respiratory Muscles in Bottlenose Dolphins, Tursiops truncatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, Pamela B.; Piscitelli, Marina A.; McLellan, William A.; Rommel, Sentiel A.; Dearolf, Jennifer L.; Pabst, D. Ann

    2011-01-01

    Most mammals possess stamina because their locomotor and respiratory (i.e., ventilatory) systems are mechanically coupled. These systems are decoupled, however, in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) as they swim on a breath-hold. Locomotion and ventilation are coupled only during their brief surfacing event, when they respire explosively (up to 90% of total lung volume in approximately 0.3s) (Ridgway et al., 1969). The predominantly slow-twitch fiber profile of their diaphragm (Dearolf, 2003) suggests that this muscle does not likely power their rapid ventilatory event. Based upon Bramble's (1989) biomechanical model of locomotor-respiratory coupling in galloping mammals, it was hypothesized that locomotor muscles function to power ventilation in bottlenose dolphins. It was further hypothesized that these muscles would be composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers to facilitate the bottlenose dolphin's rapid ventilation. The gross morphology of cranio-cervical (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid), thoracic (intercostals, transverse thoracis), and lumbo-pelvic (hypaxialis, rectus abdominis, abdominal obliques) muscles (n=7) and the fiber-type profiles (n=6) of selected muscles (scalenus, sternocephalicus, sternohyoid, rectus abdominis) of bottlenose dolphins were investigated. Physical manipulations of excised thoracic units were carried out to investigate potential actions of these muscles. Results suggest that the cranio-cervical muscles act to draw the sternum and associated ribs cranio-dorsally, which flares the ribs laterally, and increases the thoracic cavity volume required for inspiration. The lumbo-pelvic muscles act to draw the sternum and caudal ribs caudally, which decreases the volumes of the thoracic and abdominal cavities required for expiration. All muscles investigated were composed predominantly of fast-twitch fibers (range 61-88% by area) and appear histochemically poised for rapid contraction. These combined results suggest that

  15. Abdominal Wall Endometriosis: An Overlooked but Possibly Preventable Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chih Teng

    2008-03-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal wall endometriosis may be caused by iatrogenic inoculation of the endometrium into the surgical wound. It is strongly recommended that, at the conclusion of the surgical procedure, the abdominal wound be cleaned thoroughly, particularly at both corner sites (especially the operator's side. If an abdominal wall endometriosis is encountered after CS but the patient plans to have future pregnancy and the symptoms are mild, excision of the endometrioma may be deferred until the next indicated CS.

  16. Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Cerminara, Caterina; El Malhany, Nadia; Roberto, Denis; Curatolo, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Focal epilepsy with ictal abdominal pain is an unusual partial epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal episodes of abdominal or visceral pain, disturbance of awareness and electroencephalographic abnormalities. We describe a new case of ictal abdominal pain in which gastrointestinal complaints were the only manifestation of seizures and review the previously described pediatric patients. In our patient clinical findings, ictal EEG abnormalities, and a good response to antiepileptic drugs allowed...

  17. Fallopian Tube Herniation through Left Sided Abdominal Drain Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Khalid; Masood, Jovaria

    2016-06-01

    Intra-abdominal drains have been used since long to prevent intra-abdominal collection, and detect any anastomotic leaks. We report a case of left sided fallopian tube herniation from a left lower abdominal drain site in a 27-year female who underwent caesarian section for breach presentation. Several complications related to drain usage has been described but left sided fallopian tube prolapse through drain site has not been reported in literature.

  18. Simultaneous repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm and resection of unexpected, associated abdominal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; D'Urso, Antonio; Lorusso, Riccardo; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Vietri, Francesco

    2004-12-15

    The management of unexpected intra-abdominal malignancy, discovered at laparotomy for elective treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), is controversial. It is still unclear whether both conditions should be treated simultaneously or a staged approach is to be preferred. To contribute in improving treatment guidelines, we retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing laparotomy for elective AAA repair. From January 1994 to March 2003, 253 patients underwent elective, trans-peritoneal repair of an AAA. In four patients (1.6%), an associated, unexpected neoplasm was detected at abdominal exploration, consisting of one renal, one gastric, one ileal carcinoid, and one ascending colon tumor. All of them were treated at the same operation, after aortic repair and careful isolation of the prosthetic graft. The whole series' operative mortality was 3.6%. None of the patients simultaneously treated for AAA and tumor resection died in the postoperative period. No graft-related infections were observed. Simultaneous treatment of AAA and tumor did not prolong significantly the mean length of stay in the hospital, compared to standard treatment of AAA alone. Except for malignancies of organs requiring major surgical resections, simultaneous AAA repair and resection of an associated, unexpected abdominal neoplasm can be safely performed, in most of the patients, sparing the need for a second procedure. Endovascular grafting of the AAA can be a valuable tool in simplifying simultaneous treatment, or in staging the procedures with a very short delay.

  19. Endovascular Exclusion of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Concomitant Abdominal Malignancy: Early Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, You Ri; Chang, Nam Kyu [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hyo Hyun; Oh, Hyun Jun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Chung, Sang Young [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Nam Yeol [Armed Forces Yangju Hospital, Yangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the outcomes of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients undergoing curative surgical treatment for concomitant abdominal malignancy. The study included 12 patients with abdominal neoplasia and an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which was treated by surgery and stent EVAR. The neoplasm consisted of the gastric, colorectal, pancreas, prostate, and gall bladder. The follow up period was 3-21 months (mean 11.8 months). All medical records and imaging analyses were reviewed by CTA and/or color Doppler US, retrospectively. Successful endoluminal repair was accomplished in all twelve patients. The mean interval time between EVAR and surgery was 58.6 days. Small amounts of type 2 endoleaks were detected in two patients (17%). One patient developed adult respiratory distress syndrome after Whipple's operation 20 days after surgery, which led to hopeless discharge. No procedure-related mortality, morbidity, or graft-related infection was noted. Exclusion of AAA in patients with accompanying malignancy show with a relatively low procedure morbidity and mortality. Hence, endoluminal AAA repair in patients with synchronous neoplasia may allow greater flexibility in the management of an offending malignancy

  20. Endovascular Exclusion of an Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm in Patients with Concomitant Abdominal Malignancy: Early Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, You Ri; Chang, Nam Kyu; Shin, Hyo Hyun; Oh, Hyun Jun; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Soo Jin Na; Chung, Sang Young; Yim, Nam Yeol

    2010-01-01

    To assess the outcomes of endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for the treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm in patients undergoing curative surgical treatment for concomitant abdominal malignancy. The study included 12 patients with abdominal neoplasia and an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which was treated by surgery and stent EVAR. The neoplasm consisted of the gastric, colorectal, pancreas, prostate, and gall bladder. The follow up period was 3-21 months (mean 11.8 months). All medical records and imaging analyses were reviewed by CTA and/or color Doppler US, retrospectively. Successful endoluminal repair was accomplished in all twelve patients. The mean interval time between EVAR and surgery was 58.6 days. Small amounts of type 2 endoleaks were detected in two patients (17%). One patient developed adult respiratory distress syndrome after Whipple's operation 20 days after surgery, which led to hopeless discharge. No procedure-related mortality, morbidity, or graft-related infection was noted. Exclusion of AAA in patients with accompanying malignancy show with a relatively low procedure morbidity and mortality. Hence, endoluminal AAA repair in patients with synchronous neoplasia may allow greater flexibility in the management of an offending malignancy

  1. Cost and Reimbursement for Three Fibroid Treatments: Abdominal Hysterectomy, Abdominal Myomectomy, and Uterine Fibroid Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Jay; Bussard, Anne; McNeil, Jean; Diamond, James

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. To compare costs and reimbursements for three different treatments for uterine fibroids. Methods. Costs and reimbursements were collected and analyzed from the Thomas Jefferson University Hospital decision support database from 540 women who underwent abdominal hysterectomy (n 299), abdominal myomectomy (n = 105), or uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 136) for uterine fibroids during 2000-2002. We used the chi-square test and ANOVA, followed by Fisher's Least Significant Difference test, for statistical analysis. Results. The mean total hospital cost (US$) for UFE was $2,707, which was significantly less than for hysterectomy ($5,707) or myomectomy ($5,676) (p < 0.05). The mean hospital net income (hospital net reimbursement minus total hospital cost) for UFE was $57, which was significantly greater than for hysterectomy (-$572) or myomectomy (-$715) (p < 0.05). The mean professional (physician) reimbursements for UFE, hysterectomy, and myomectomy were $1,306, $979, and $1,078, respectively. Conclusion. UFE has lower hospital costs and greater hospital net income than abdominal hysterectomy or abdominal myomectomy for treating uterine fibroids. UFE may be more financially advantageous than hysterectomy or myomectomy for the insurer, hospital, and health care system. Costs and reimbursements may vary amongst different hospitals and regions

  2. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncumb, Joseph W; Miyagi, Kana; Forouhi, Parto; Malata, Charles M

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™) used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  3. Successful Deep Inferior Epigastric Perforator Flap Harvest despite Preoperative Therapeutic Subcutaneous Heparin Administration into the Abdominal Pannus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph W. Duncumb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal free flaps for microsurgical breast reconstruction are most commonly harvested based on the deep inferior epigastric vessels that supply skin and fat via perforators through the rectus muscle and sheath. Intact perforator anatomy and connections are vital for subsequent optimal flap perfusion and avoidance of necrosis, be it partial or total. The intraflap vessels are delicate and easily damaged and it is generally advised that patients should avoid heparin injection into the abdominal pannus preoperatively as this may compromise the vascular perforators through direct needle laceration, pressure from bruising, haematoma formation, or perforator thrombosis secondary to external compression. We report three cases of successful deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP flap harvest despite patients injecting therapeutic doses of low molecular weight heparin into their abdomens for thrombosed central venous lines (portacaths™ used for administering primary chemotherapy in breast cancer.

  4. Intra-abdominal fat area measurement using chest CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Kouji; Ishii, Akira; Saitou, Kumi; Andou, Tomonori; Kitamura, Naoko; Sakuma, Koutarou

    2007-01-01

    Intra-abdominal fat obesity, which is linked with the metabolic syndrome, is usually characterized by measuring intra-abdominal fat area at the umbilical level of abdominal CT scan. In recent year, the chances of chest CT scanning are increased, as lung cancer screening survey or individual medical examination. Thus, we presented a method of measuring the areas of intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat at the lower slice of chest CT scan. Fat areas found with this method were significantly correlated with those obtained at the umbilical level. (author)

  5. Abdominal alterations in disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis: computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermelho, Marli Batista Fernandes; Correia, Ademir Silva; Michailowsky, Tania Cibele de Almeida; Suzart, Elizete Kazumi Kuniyoshi; Ibanes, Aline Santos; Almeida, Lanamar Aparecida; Khoury, Zarifa; Barba, Mario Flores, E-mail: marlivermelho@globo.com [Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas (IIER), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Objective: to evaluate the incidence and spectrum of abdominal computed tomography imaging findings in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. Materials and methods: retrospective analysis of abdominal computed tomography images of 26 patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. Results: abnormal abdominal tomographic findings were observed in 18 patients (69.2%), while no significant finding was observed in the other 8 (30.8%) patients. Conclusion: computed tomography has demonstrated to play a relevant role in the screening and detection of abdominal abnormalities in patients with disseminated paracoccidioidomycosis. (author)

  6. Sarcopenia increases risk of long-term mortality in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Erika L; Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Cooper, Zara; Olufajo, Olubode A; Salim, Ali; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    Frailty is associated with poor surgical outcomes in elderly patients but is difficult to measure in the emergency setting. Sarcopenia, or the loss of lean muscle mass, is a surrogate for frailty and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. We sought to determine the impact of sarcopenia on 1-year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery in elderly patients. Sarcopenia was assessed in patients 70 years or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at a single hospital from 2006 to 2011. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography. Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was mortality at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days. The association of sarcopenia with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and model performance judged using Harrell's C-statistic. Two hundred ninety-seven of 390 emergency abdominal surgery patients had preoperative imaging and height. The median age was 79 years, and 1-year mortality was 32%. Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients were comparable in age, sex, race, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, procedure urgency and type, operative severity, and need for discharge to a nursing facility. Sarcopenic patients had lower body mass index, greater need for intensive care, and longer hospital length of stay (p Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (risk ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7) and mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4), 90 days (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), 180 days (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.4), and 1 year (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of mortality over 1 year in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Sarcopenia defined by TPI is

  7. Value of abdominal CT in the emergency department for patients with abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Max P.; Siewert, Bettina; Bromberg, Rebecca; Raptopoulos, Vassilios; Sands, Daniel Z.; Edlow, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to demonstrate the value of CT in the emergency department (ED) for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. Between August 1998 and April 1999, 536 consecutive patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain were entered into our study. Using a computer order entry system, physicians were asked to identify: (a) their most likely diagnosis; (b) their level of certainty in their diagnosis; (c) if they thought CT would be normal or abnormal; (d) their treatment plan (prior to knowledge of the CT results); and (e) their role in deciding to order CT. This information was correlated with each patient's post-CT diagnosis and subsequent management. Pre- and post-CT diagnoses were concordant in 200 of 536 (37%) patients. The physicians' certainty in the accuracy of their pre-CT diagnosis was less than high in 88% of patients. Prior to CT, the management plan included hospital admission for 402 patients. Following CT, only 312 patients were actually admitted; thus, the net impact of performing CT was to obviate the need for hospital admission in 90 of 536 (17%) of patients with abdominal pain. Prior to CT, 67 of 536 (13%) of all patients would have undergone immediate surgery; however, following CT only 25 (5%) actually required immediate surgery. Among patients with the four most common pre-CT diagnoses (appendicitis, abscess, diverticulitis, and urinary tract stones) CT had the greatest impact on hospital admission and surgical management for patients with suspected appendicitis. For patients with suspected appendicitis, CT reduced the hospital admission rate in 28% (26 of 91) of patients and changed the surgical management in 40% (39 of 91) of patients. Our study demonstrates the advantage of performing abdominal CT in the ED for patients with non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  8. Intra-abdominal hypertension in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J; Leppäniemi, Ari K

    2009-06-01

    The incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is approximately 60-80%. It is usually an early phenomenon, partly related to the effects of the inflammatory process, causing retroperitoneal edema, fluid collections, ascites, and ileus, and partly iatrogenic, resulting from aggressive fluid resuscitation. It also can manifest at a later stage, often associated with local pancreatic complications. IAH is associated with impaired organ dysfunction, especially of the cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal systems. Using current definitions, the incidence of the clinical manifestation, abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS), has been reported as 27% in the largest study so far. Despite several intervention options, the mortality in patients developing ACS remains high: 50-75%. Prevention with judicious use of crystalloids is important, and nonsurgical interventions, such as nasogastric decompression, short-term use of neuromuscular blockers, removal of fluid by extracorporeal techniques, and percutaneous drainage of ascites should be instituted early. The indications for surgical decompression are still not clearly defined, but undoubtedly some patients benefit from it. It can be achieved with full-thickness laparostomy (midline or transverse subcostal) or through a subcutaneous linea alba fasciotomy. Despite the improvement in physiological variables and significant decrease in IAP, the effects of surgical decompression on organ function and outcome are less clear. Because of the significant morbidity associated with surgical decompression and the management of the ensuing open abdomen, more research is needed to define better the appropriate indications and techniques for surgical intervention.

  9. Functional abdominal pain disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajindrajith, Shaman; Zeevenhooven, Judith; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Perera, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus; Benninga, Marc A

    2018-04-01

    Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota. It is possible that the environmental risk factors intricately interact with genes through epigenetic mechanisms to contribute to the pathophysiology. The diagnosis mainly depends on clinical evaluation. Commonly used pharmacological interventions do not play a major role in relieving symptoms. Centrally directed, nonpharmacological interventions such as hypnotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy have shown both short and long term efficacy in relieving pain in children with FAPDs. However, these interventions are time consuming and need specially trained staff and therefore, not currently available at grass root level. Clinicians and researchers should join hands in searching for more pragmatic and effective therapeutic modalities to improve overall care of children with FAPDs.

  10. Laparoscopic and abdominal hysterectomy: a cost comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, J; Magnus, A; Mamers, P M; Lawrence, A S; Lolatgis, N; Healy, D L

    1997-02-17

    To compare the cost of laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy (LAVH) with that of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) under casemix. Retrospective comparison of the costs, operating time and length of hospital stay. The 16 women undergoing consecutive LAVH and 16 age-matched women undergoing TAH between 1 February 1994 and 31 July 1995; all women were public patients undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. Monash Medical Centre, a large tertiary teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia, where casemix is used to determine funding and budget allocation. The difference between the costs of the two procedures was not statistically significant (P = 0.5), despite the cost of laparoscopic hysterectomy including that of disposables. The mean operating time for TAH was 86 minutes (95% CI, 65.5-106.5), compared with 120 minutes (95% CI, 100.8-140.5) for LAVH (P < 0.01). The mean length of stay in the TAH group was 5.75 days, compared with 3.25 days in the LAVH group (P < 0.001). In hysterectomy for benign gynaecological disease, the laparoscopic procedure costs the same as the total abdominal procedure. Audit such as this is important in patient management and in guiding hospitals in funding and bed allocation.

  11. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, Gulraiz; Navarro, Oscar M.; Levine, Daniel S.; Oudjhane, Kamaldine

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  12. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legakis Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. Case presentation A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Conclusion Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  13. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafimidis, Costas; Katsarolis, Ioannis; Vernadakis, Spyros; Rallis, George; Giannopoulos, George; Legakis, Nikolaos; Peros, George

    2006-02-13

    Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (or abdominal cocoon) is a rare cause of small bowel obstruction, especially in adult population. Diagnosis is usually incidental at laparotomy. We discuss one such rare case, outlining the fact that an intra-operative surprise diagnosis could have been facilitated by previous investigations. A 56 year-old man presented in A&E department with small bowel ileus. He had a history of 6 similar episodes of small bowel obstruction in the past 4 years, which resolved with conservative treatment. Pre-operative work-up did not reveal any specific etiology. At laparotomy, a fibrous capsule was revealed, in which small bowel loops were encased, with the presence of interloop adhesions. A diagnosis of abdominal cocoon was established and extensive adhesiolysis was performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery and follow-up. Idiopathic sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis, although rare, may be the cause of a common surgical emergency such as small bowel ileus, especially in cases with attacks of non-strangulating obstruction in the same individual. A high index of clinical suspicion may be generated by the recurrent character of small bowel ileus combined with relevant imaging findings and lack of other plausible etiologies. Clinicians must rigorously pursue a preoperative diagnosis, as it may prevent a "surprise" upon laparotomy and result in proper management.

  14. Imaging modalities of abdominal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reither, M.

    1993-01-01

    Further technological progress in cross-sectional imaging modalities, accumuting experience with increasingly refined hardware and software and accumulating specific contrast media allow new algorithms for the assessment of abdominal tumors in children. However, ultrasound remains the diagnostic method of choice: Conventional roentgenology with or without contrast media is decreasing, but often reveals further differential diagnostic details. MRI is becoming more prominent and is often performed immediately after ultrasound. The inauguration of gradient echo sequences and consequent shorter examination times combined with the elimination of pulsation and motion artefacts extends the diagnostic spectrum of the upper and middle abdomen. The application of oral or rectal contrast agents for imaging of the GI tract ameliorates the differentiation of pathologic processes. Recently volumetric CT/ultrafast CT has been gaining in importance for abdominal examinations in the pediatric age group. CT especially is helpful if there are bony structures in the region being examined. CT, however, involves ionizing radiation and timely administration of oral and intravenous contrast material. Moreover, as pediatric radiologists, we must strongly withstand tendencies to perform CT more often because it is less expensive, rather than avoiding ionizing radiation by using MRI. (orig.) [de

  15. Secondary abdominal appendicular pregnancy: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosso Mićo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The case report describes a 29-year-old nulliparous woman that was admitted at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of the Clinical Hospital Osijek complaining of mild abdominal pain without vaginal discharge. Case Outline. The patient’s menstrual cycle was irregular, from 30-45 days. An ultrasound examination showed suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy with a βHCG level of 1358 IU/L. Due to the presence of liquid in the pouch of Douglas the patient underwent emergency laparoscopy, which showed the presence of tumor mass between the right Fallopian tube and the appendix. These two structures associated with adhesions corresponded to secondary implantation after spontaneous tubal abortion which was confirmed by histopathologic analysis. Conclusion. Laparoscopy has emerged as the “gold standard” in the diagnosis and treatment of ectopic pregnancy, in this case the secondary abdominal pregnancy. From the diagnostic point of view, all women of reproductive age should be considered pregnant until proven otherwise, also keeping in mind that ectopic pregnancies can have different locations and many clinical features.

  16. Constipation Risk in Patients Undergoing Abdominal Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Sevim; Atar, Nurdan Yalcin; Ozturk, Nilgun; Mendes, Guler; Kuytak, Figen; Bakar, Esra; Dalgiran, Duygu; Ergin, Sumeyra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Problems regarding bowel elimination are quite common in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. Objectives: To determine constipation risk before the surgery, bowel elimination during postoperative period, and the factors affecting bowel elimination. Patients and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a general surgery ward of a university hospital in Zonguldak, Turkey between January 2013 and May 2013. A total of 107 patients were included in the study, who were selected by convenience sampling. Constipation Risk Assessment Scale (CRAS), patient information form, medical and nursing records were used in the study. Results: The mean age of the patients was found to be 55.97 ± 15.74 (year). Most of the patients have undergone colon (37.4%) and stomach surgeries (21.5%). Open surgical intervention (83.2%) was performed on almost all patients (96.3%) under general anesthesia. Patients were at moderate risk for constipation with average scores of 11.71 before the surgery. A total of 77 patients (72%) did not have bowel elimination problem during postoperative period. The type of the surgery (P < 0.05), starting time for oral feeding after the surgery (P < 0.05), and mobilization (P < 0.05) were effective on postoperative bowel elimination. Conclusions: There is a risk for constipation after abdominal surgery. Postoperative practices are effective on the risk of constipation. PMID:26380107

  17. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudry, Gulraiz; Navarro, Oscar M.; Levine, Daniel S.; Oudjhane, Kamaldine [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  18. Muscle phosphorylase kinase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, N; Orngreen, M C; Echaniz-Laguna, A

    2012-01-01

    To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD).......To examine metabolism during exercise in 2 patients with muscle phosphorylase kinase (PHK) deficiency and to further define the phenotype of this rare glycogen storage disease (GSD)....

  19. the sternalis muscle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-17

    Aug 17, 2009 ... CASE REPORT. CASE. 72. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2009. CASE R. Introduction ... tion is being given to imaging the medial breast, and the sternalis muscle will be revealed with increasing ... The origin of this muscle is uncertain, with pectoralis major, rectus abdominus and sternomastoid ...

  20. The hamstring muscle complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Made, A. D.; Wieldraaijer, T.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Kleipool, R. P.; Engebretsen, L.; van Dijk, C. N.; Golanó, P.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical appearance of the hamstring muscle complex was studied to provide hypotheses for the hamstring injury pattern and to provide reference values of origin dimensions, muscle length, tendon length, musculotendinous junction (MTJ) length as well as width and length of a tendinous