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Sample records for abdominal fat

  1. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the skin on ...

  2. Plaster body wrap: effects on abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Moreira, Juliana; Melo, Ana Sofia Carneiro Pinto de; Noites, Andreia; Couto, Miriam Faria; Melo, Cristina Argel de; Adubeiro, Nuno Carvalho Freire de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Abdominal fat is associated with metabolic disorders, leading to cardiovascular risk factors and numerous diseases. This study aimed to analyze the effect of plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise on abdominal fat. Nineteen female volunteers were randomly divided into intervention group (IG; n = 10) performing aerobic exercise with plaster body wrap, and control group (CG; n = 9) performing only exercise. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were measured using ultrasound; subcutaneous fat was also estimated on analysis of skinfolds and abdominal perimeters. At the end of the 10-sessions protocol, the IG demonstrated a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous fat at the left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) level and in iliac crest perimeter measurements. A large intervention effect size strength (0.80) was found in subcutaneous fat below the navel and a moderate effect size strength on the vertical abdominal skinfold (0.62) and the perimeter of the most prominent abdominal point (0.57). Comparing the initial and final data of each group, the IG showed a significant decrease in numerous variables including visceral and subcutaneous fat above and below the navel measured by ultrasound (p ≤ 0.05). Plaster body wrap in combination with aerobic exercise seems to be effective for abdominal fat reduction.

  3. Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-08-30

    Aug 30, 2010 ... There are several reports on the various effects of fat ... body fat accumulation in poultry (Tuncer et al., 1987;. Kirkpinar et al., 1999; .... that fish oil can affect abdominal fat pad deposition, ..... Effect of dietary fat on tissue fat and ...

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  5. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Lima e Souza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures or plastic surgery (liposuction, compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. CASE REPORT: SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45 min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH = 7.21; PCO2 = 51 mmHg; PO2 = 52 mmHg; BE = -8; HCO3 = 18 mEq L-1, and lactate = 6.0 mmol L-1. Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP = 55 mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF = 60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24 h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale = 3. A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72 h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. CONCLUSION: Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction. The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis.

  6. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  7. Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in broiler chickens. ... The high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration in birds fed fish oil diet was higher than other treatments, but the serum low density ... Article Metrics.

  8. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    -based level. Methods. Cross-sectional study of 225 children (128 boys and 97 girls) aged 8-11 years, recruited from a population-based cohort. Total lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass (TBF), and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fat was also calculated...... as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...... values of VO(2PEAK) (0.22-0.36, Pmass (-0.38 - -0.70, P...

  9. Using Abdominal CT Data for Visceral Fat Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Quantitative assessment of body fat is important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to obesity, Computed tomography (CT) becoming the standard procedure for measuring the abdominal fat distribution. Material and method: The retrospective study included 111 inpatients, who underwent routine abdominal CT exams in the Radiology Laboratory of SCJU Tg.Mures (2013). MPR MDCT (SOMATOM AS 64) data was processed using a custom written MATLAB R2009b software, ImageJ being u...

  10. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F.; Andersen, Gregers S.; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology. A total of 5275 individuals (3083 Inuit......, 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist...

  11. Abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training: fat burning or hydrocarbon source redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chia-Hua; Harris, M Brennan

    2016-07-01

    Fat burning, defined by fatty acid oxidation into carbon dioxide, is the most described hypothesis to explain the actual abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise training. This hypothesis is strengthened by evidence of increased whole-body lipolysis during exercise. As a result, aerobic training is widely recommended for obesity management. This intuition raises several paradoxes: first, both aerobic and resistance exercise training do not actually elevate 24 h fat oxidation, according to data from chamber-based indirect calorimetry. Second, anaerobic high-intensity intermittent training produces greater abdominal fat reduction than continuous aerobic training at similar amounts of energy expenditure. Third, significant body fat reduction in athletes occurs when oxygen supply decreases to inhibit fat burning during altitude-induced hypoxia exposure at the same training volume. Lack of oxygen increases post-meal blood distribution to human skeletal muscle, suggesting that shifting the postprandial hydrocarbons towards skeletal muscle away from adipose tissue might be more important than fat burning in decreasing abdominal fat. Creating a negative energy balance in fat cells due to competition of skeletal muscle for circulating hydrocarbon sources may be a better model to explain the abdominal fat reducing outcome of exercise than the fat-burning model.

  12. Using Abdominal CT Data for Visceral Fat Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantitative assessment of body fat is important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to obesity, Computed tomography (CT becoming the standard procedure for measuring the abdominal fat distribution. Material and method: The retrospective study included 111 inpatients, who underwent routine abdominal CT exams in the Radiology Laboratory of SCJU Tg.Mures (2013. MPR MDCT (SOMATOM AS 64 data was processed using a custom written MATLAB R2009b software, ImageJ being used for tracing of the visceral fat area (VFA. Patient data (including blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed using MO Excel and GraphPad Inprism5. Results: Visceral Fat percentage varied in population from 14.59-68.69 (SD = 11.83 with significant difference between sexes (male vs. female, 46.98 vs. 31.62, p 220 mg% and triglycerides >150 mg% are significantly associated with the VF percent (p <0.05. Overall there is a weak correlation between the lab variables and the measured fat, the strongest one being between triglycerides and the VFA (r = +0.23 and between age and VFA percentage (certain samples. Conclusions: The technique used should decreases the human error in marking of the fat areas providing a better estimation of the VF/VF percentage. CT measured VF relates with certain lab tests. Further analysis, is required for a better use of CT in obesity related pathology diagnosis and treatment

  13. Correlation of fatty liver and abdominal fat distribution using a simple fat computed tomography protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seonah Jang; Chang Hee Lee; Kyung Mook Choi; Jongmee Lee; Jae Woong Choi; Kyeong Ah Kim; Cheol Min Park

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between hepatic fat infiltration and abdominal fat volume by using computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Three hundred and six patients who visited our obesity clinic between November 2007 and April 2008 underwent fat protocol CT scans. The age range of the patients was 19 to 79 years and the mean age was 49 years. The male to female ratio was 116:190. Liver and spleen attenuation measurements were taken with three regions of interests (ROIs) from the liver and two ROIs from the spleen. Hepatic attenuation indices (HAIs) were measured as follows: (1) hepatic parenchymal attenuation (CTLP); (2) liver to spleen attenuation ratio (LS ratio); and (3) difference between hepatic and splenic attenuation (LSdif). Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan starting at the level of the umbilicus and was automatically calculated by a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified into total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used a bivariate correlation method to assess the relationship between the three HAIs and TF, VF, and SF. RESULTS: There were significant negative correlations between CTLP, LS ratio, and LSdif with TF, VF, and SF, respectively. The CTLP showed a strong negative correlation with TF and VF (r = -0.415 and -0.434, respectively, P < 0.001). The correlation between CTLP and SF was less significant (r = -0.313, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Fatty infiltration of the liver was correlated with amount of abdominal fat and VF was more strongly associated with fatty liver than SF.

  14. Selection against abdominal fat percentage may increase intramuscular fat content in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, L; Zhang, H; Dong, J Q; Wang, Z P; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Li, H

    2016-10-01

    Excessive abdominal fat content (AFC) has negative impacts on feed efficiency and carcass quality. Unlike AFC, intramuscular fat content (IMFC) could be a favourable trait, which has a positive impact on meat quality. To meet consumers' needs, a long-term goal of broiler breeders is to decrease AFC and improve the IMFC simultaneously. The current study was designed to investigate the relationship between AFC and IMFC and to compare IMFC, including the pectoral major muscle fat content (PIMFC) and intramuscular fat content of leg muscle (LIMFC), between two broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat percentage over 17 generations. The results showed that there was a significant difference in PIMFC and LIMFC between the two lines in all five generation populations used. The birds in the lean line had significantly lower AFC but higher PIMFC and LIMFC than the birds in the fat line. We also detected differences in the liver fat content (LFC) between the two lines and the results showed that birds in the fat line had significant higher LFC than birds in the lean line. Our results indicated that a desirable broiler line with higher IMFC but lower AFC could be obtained by genetic selection.

  15. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part...... of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N=1536). Visceral- and subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT, SAT) was assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal substitution...

  16. Can EGCG reduce abdominal fat in obese subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Alison M; Coates, Alison M; Buckley, Jonathan D; Ross, Robert; Thielecke, Frank; Howe, Peter R C

    2007-08-01

    To evaluate metabolic effects of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) supplementation when combined with a program of regular aerobic exercise in overweight/obese post-menopausal women. Thirty-eight overweight or obese postmenopausal women exercised at moderate intensity, viz. walking three times per week for 45 min at 75% of age-predicted maximum heart rate (HR), and took a 150 mg capsule of EGCG (Teavigo) or placebo (lactose) twice daily for 12 weeks. Blood parameters (lipids, glucose and insulin), blood pressure, heart rate, arterial function and anthropometry were assessed at 0, 6 and 12 wk. At wk 0 and 12, body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal fat was assessed by DXA and computed tomography (CT). Waist circumference (p fat (p fat (by DXA) (p EGCG can improve the health status of overweight individuals undergoing regular exercise by reducing HR and plasma glucose concentrations. Loss of body fat, however, may require a higher intake of EGCG, other catechins or addition of metabolic stimulants.

  17. Knee Joint Loading in Knee Osteoarthritis: Influence of Abdominal and Thigh Fat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MESSIER, STEPHEN P; BEAVERS, DANIEL P; LOESER, RICHARD F; CARR, J JEFFERY; KHAJANCHI, SHUBHAM; LEGAULT, CLAUDINE; NICKLAS, BARBARA J; HUNTER, DAVID J; DEVITA, PAUL

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSEUsing three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee joint...

  18. Abdominal Fat Accumulation with Hyperuricemia and Hypercholesterolemia Quail Model Induced by High Fat Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-jian Lin; Bing Zhang; Xiao-qing Liu; Hong-lian Yang

    2009-01-01

    Objective To establish abdominal fat accumulation with hyperuricemia and hypercholesterolemia quail model fed with high fat diet.And then to investigate the pathological characteristics of this quail model.Methods Thirty Longcheng quails were randomly divided into two groups:control group and model group(n=15).The control group quails were fed with normal diet and model group quails were fed with high fat diet for 14 days.After a 12-hour overnight fast,liver and abdominal fat at euthanasia as well as serum were collected.The levels of serum uric acid,total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C),low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),triglyceride,free fatty acid(FFA),and blood glucose were assayed.The activity changes of adenosine deaminase(ADA),xanthine oxidase(XOD),lipoprotein lipase(LPL),hepatic lipase(HL),and fatty acid synthetase(FAS)were analyzed.Results Comparcd with control group,the abdominal fat content(0.74±0.63 vs.1.36±0.65 g,P<0.05)and abdominal fat index(0.44% ±0.30% vs.0.85% ±0.30% ,P<0.01)as well as live lipid index (3.61% ±0.65% vs.11.33% ±2.14% ,P<0.01)in model group significantly increased;the levels of serum uric acid(210.61±94.76 vs.304.25±141.94 μmol/L,P<0.05),total cholesterol(4.20±0.51 vs.20.10±11.25 mmol/L,P<0.01),LDL-C(1.16±0.29 vs.10.78±6.48 mmol/L,P<0.01),and FFA(0.39±0.14 vs.0.55±0.15 mmol/L,P<0.01)in model group significantly increased;HDL-C(5.85±0.95 vs.4.14±2.03mmol/L,P<0.05)significantly decreased;the levels of triglyceride and blood glucose had no significant changes(P>0.05);the activities of ADA(9.71±3.05 vs.17.19±5.10 U/ml,P<0.01)and XOD(10.58±6.88vs.19.22±9.44 U/L,P<0.01)in model group significantly increased;and FAS,LPL,HL had no significant changes(P>0.05).Conclusions High fat diet can induce abdominal fat accumulation with hyperuricemia and hypercholesterolemia quail model.The changes of uric acid and lipid metabolic enzyme activities may be the pathological

  19. Dietary value of honey and it effects on abdominal fat deposit, blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary value of honey and it effects on abdominal fat deposit, blood and serum ... broiler chicks' diets on feed intake, growth rate, abdominal fat deposit, blood and ... contents result of honey revealed that macro-elements were high in order of ...

  20. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  1. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  2. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas.

  3. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chou, Yii-Her; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. • Unenhanced CT is now widely used to assess ureteric calculi. • The same CT protocol can provide measurements of abdominal fat distribution. • Ureteric calculi are usually treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). • Greater intra-abdominal fat stores are generally associated with poorer SWL results.

  4. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  5. Reproducibility of ultrasonography for assessing abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, A; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2013-01-01

    Background:Visceral fat plays an important role in the development of metabolic disease independently of the effect of overall abdominal fat. Ultrasonography is an accessible method of accurately assessing abdominal fat distribution in epidemiological studies, but few details about...... the reproducibility of this method have been published.Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of ultrasonography in the assessment of abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods:Ultrasonography was used to estimate visceral...... and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Intra- and interobserver variation, short-term variation and variation between estimates in the fasting and non-fasting state were examined in three samples of 30, 33 and 23 participants from the ADDITION-PRO study. A variance components model was used to calculate intra...

  6. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group. Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001 that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375. Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001, but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004. Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001, although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139. Conclusion: Topical

  7. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  8. Validation of the Measurement of Intra-abdominal Fat Between Ultrasound and CT Scan in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Groen, Henk; Pel, Heleen; Bolster, Johanna H. T.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Land, Jolande A.; Hoek, Annemieke; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the means and changes over time of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) measured by abdominal ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). Design and Methods: Prospective cohort study of 53 women with obesity and infertility undergoing a lifestyle

  9. Validation of the Measurement of Intra-abdominal Fat Between Ultrasound and CT Scan in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Groen, Henk; Pel, Heleen; Bolster, Johanna H. T.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Land, Jolande A.; Hoek, Annemieke; Corpeleijn, Eva

    Objective: To compare the means and changes over time of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) measured by abdominal ultrasound (US) and computerized tomography (CT). Design and Methods: Prospective cohort study of 53 women with obesity and infertility undergoing a lifestyle

  10. Effects of abdominal fat distribution parameters on severity of acute pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Increased visceral fat has been shown to exacerbate the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of acute pancreatitis and abdominal fat distribution parameters measured on computed tomography (CT) scan.

  11. Effects of balanced selection for intramuscular fat and abdominal fat percentage and estimates of genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M; Fan, W L; Xing, S Y; Wang, J; Li, P; Liu, R R; Li, Q H; Zheng, M Q; Cui, H X; Wen, J; Zhao, G P

    2017-02-01

    Intramuscular fat (IMF) content contributes to meat flavor and improves meat quality. Excessive abdominal fat, however, leads to a waste of feed resources. Here, an independent up-selection for IMF was used as a control (Line C), and a balanced selection program, with up-selection for IMF and down-selection AFP (Line B), was studied in JingXing yellow chickens. The mean of IMF and AFP within a family was the phenotypic value upon which selection was based. The selective pressures of IMF in line B and line C were the same in each generation. At G5, the IMF was significantly higher (P  0.05). IMF increased by 11.4% and AFP decreased by 1.5% in Line B compared with the G0 generation. In contrast, the IMF increased by 17.6%, but was accompanied by an 18.7% increase in AFP, in control Line C. Of 10 other traits measured, body weight at 56 d age (BW56) and the percentages of eviscerated weight (EWP) showed a significant difference between the 2 lines (P IMF and AFP, estimated by the DMU package, were 0.16 and 0.32, respectively. A moderate positive correlation existed between IMF and AFP (0.35). A balanced selection program for increasing IMF while controlling AFP (Line B) is shown here to be effective in practical chicken breeding. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Nutritional factors affecting abdominal fat deposition in poultry: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fouad, A M; El-Senousey, H K

    2014-01-01

    ... exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains...

  13. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  14. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  15. Metabolic effects of intra-abdominal fat in GHRKO mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masternak, Michal M.; Bartke, Andrzej; Wang, Feiya; Spong, Adam; Gesing, Adam; Fang, Yimin; Salmon, Adam B.; Hughes, Larry F.; Liberati, Teresa; Boparai, Ravneet; Kopchick, John J.; Westbrook, Reyhan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Mice with targeted deletion of the growth hormone receptor (GHRKO mice) are GH resistant, small, obese, hypoinsulinemic, highly insulin sensitive and remarkably long-lived. To elucidate the unexpected coexistence of adiposity with improved insulin sensitivity and extended longevity, we examined effects of surgical removal of visceral (epididymal and perinephric) fat on metabolic traits related to insulin signaling and longevity. Comparison of results obtained in GHRKO mice and in normal animals from the same strain revealed disparate effects of visceral fat removal (VFR) on insulin and glucose tolerance, adiponectin levels, accumulation of ectopic fat, phosphorylation of insulin signaling intermediates, body temperature and respiratory quotient (RQ). Overall, VFR produced the expected improvements in insulin sensitivity and reduced body temperature and RQ in normal mice and had opposite effects in GHRKO mice. Some of the examined parameters were altered by VFR in opposite directions in GHRKO and normal mice, others were affected in only one genotype or exhibited significant genotype × treatment interactions. Functional differences between visceral fat of GHRKO and normal mice were confirmed by measurements of adipokine secretion, lipolysis and expression of genes related to fat metabolism. We conclude that in the absence of GH signaling the secretory activity of visceral fat is profoundly altered and unexpectedly promotes enhanced insulin sensitivity. The apparent beneficial effects of visceral fat in GHRKO mice may also explain why reducing adiposity by calorie restriction fails to improve insulin signaling or further extend longevity in these animals. PMID:22040032

  16. Clinical Studies of Sweet Bee Venom to The Effect of Abdominal Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Chung-San

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom to the abdominal fat accumulation clinically. Methods The 20 healthy women volunteers who showed the notice of this study by the home page of Sangji University were treated with Sweet Bee Venom(SBV during twenty times. To investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom of the abdominal fat accumulation, abdominal CT, LFT, Thermography, BMI, Inbody 3.0 etc. were performed during clinical trials. And statistical analysis was carried out the data of 10 volunteers who performed all the schedule of this study. Results Following results were obtained from the clinical studies Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the body weight, thickness of abdominal skin and fat layer, BMI, and increased abdominal heat, but they are not showed statistical significant. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment Sweet Bee Venom on the abdomen was effective to decrease fat tissue but for the treatment of obesity was performed with right diet program and exercise.

  17. Relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, abdominal fat and immunometabolic markers in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, T A; Fortaleza, A C S; Buonani, C; Rossi, F E; Neves, L M; Lira, F S; Freitas-Junior, I F

    2015-11-01

    To assess the burden of levels of physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and abdominal fat on the immunometabolic profile of postmenopausal women. Forty-nine postmenopausal women [mean age 59.43 (standard deviation 5.61) years] who did not undertake regular physical exercise participated in this study. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of NEFA, tumour necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, insulin and triacylglycerol were assessed using fasting blood samples. The level of physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer (Actigraph GTX3x), and reported as counts/min, time spent undertaking sedentary activities and time spent undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The following conditions were considered to be risk factors: (i) sedentary lifestyle (active women, sedentary women had higher levels of body fat (%) (p=0.041) and NEFA (p=0.064). Women with higher levels of abdominal fat had impaired insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.016) and spent more time undertaking sedentary activities (p=0.043). Moreover, the women with two risk factors or more had high levels of NEFA and HOMA-IR (pphysical activity, abdominal fat, tumour necrosis factor-α and adiponectin (p>0.05). Postmenopausal women with a combination of hypertriacylglycerolaemia, a high level of abdominal fat and a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to have metabolic disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Jejunal perforation after abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado-Malagón, Martin; Tauffer-Carrion, Luis Tomas

    2012-01-01

    A 54-year-old woman presented to the emergency department 24 h after undergoing abdominal liposuction, bilateral breast augmentation and facial fat grafting at a private plastic surgery clinic. She presented with the classic evolution of a bowel perforation secondary to abdominal liposuction. A computed tomography (CT) scan found free air in her abdominal cavity. Based on the CT scan and the persistent pain experienced by the patient, an abdominal laparatomy was urgently performed. A jejunum perforation was found and was treated with a resection of the affected segment followed by intestinal anastomosis. The patient had a successful recovery and was discharged seven days later. The present article also reviews the classical presentation of a bowel perforation following abdominal liposuction.

  19. Feasibility of using single-slice MDCT to evaluate visceral abdominal fat in an urban pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitman, Netta M; Baron, Lindsay Stanton; Berkenblit, Robert G; Schoenfeld, Alan H; Markowitz, Morri; Freeman, Katherine

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is a growing clinical problem, especially among children of low socioeconomic status. Increased visceral abdominal fat is implicated in the metabolic syndrome and its health consequences. The purpose of this study is to validate measurement of a single MDCT slice as a predictor of total visceral abdominal fat and to correlate over a wide range of body mass indexes (BMIs). A two-phase retrospective analysis was performed. For validation, MDCTs of 21 consecutive healthy children (8-14 years old) were reviewed. In these cases, visceral abdominal fat and subcutaneous abdominal fat area were calculated using a body fat analysis function from single 0.625-mm MDCT slices at the umbilicus and were compared with total visceral abdominal fat area as measured from T11 to the coccyx. Subsequently, visceral abdominal fat area was obtained from single slices at the umbilicus from abdominal MDCT scans of 146 consecutive healthy children (age range, 6-14 years; 80 boys and 66 girls; 77 Hispanic, 41 African American, 15 white, and 13 multiracial or other race) for whom BMI was available. Associations between visceral abdominal fat area and sex, race, and BMI were determined. Effective radiation dose for a 1.25-mm axial MDCT slice was calculated using a mathematic model that uses derived scaling factors for pediatric patients. Visceral abdominal fat area obtained from a 0.625-mm slice at the umbilicus was highly correlated with total visceral abdominal fat area (r = 0.96; p abdominal fat area from single slices at the umbilicus was significantly correlated with BMI (r = 0.72; p abdominal fat area was significantly lower in African American children compared with others (median, 14 vs 22 cm(2); p = 0.02) and was not associated with sex. In our population, the effective radiation dose from the smallest obtainable slice was 0.015-0.019 mSv/37-54 kg of patient weight. Visceral abdominal fat area calculated from a single abdominal MDCT slice obtained in children is highly

  20. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  1. Abdominal fat indicators: anthropometry vs dual energy x-ray absortometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive abdominal fat contributes to the development of chronic nontransmissible diseases. Dual emission X Ray absorptiometry (DXA is a simple to administer technique that allows abdominal fat percentage (%abdominalFDXA to be determined. Anthropometric measurements, which have been validated and are of low cost, such as the abdominal circumferences 2.5cm above the umbilical scar (ABC2,5 and level with the umbilical scar (ABCum, are used as indicators of abdominal fat. Skin folds (SF are little used for this purpose. The objective of this study was to verify which of these anthropometric indicators best correlates with and best explains abdominalFDXA. The sample was made up of 22 women (43.9±11.6 years; 34.7±8.3 %G totalDXA and 18 men (31.9±11.6 years; 19.0±8.0 %G totalDXA who were measured for ABC2.5, ABCum, suprailiac SF (SI, midaxillary SF (AM and abdominal SF (AB, while abdominalF (L1-L4 was measured by DXA. Pearson’s correlation and multivariate linear regression (“enter” method were employed to verify the anthropometric measurements’ correlations and percentage of explanation with relation to abdominalFDXA. Strong correlations and significant levels of explanation (pResumoO excesso de gordura abdominal contribui no desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis. A absortometria de raio-X de dupla energia (AXDE é uma técnica de simples aplicação, que permite a mensuração do percentual de gordura abdominal (%G abdominalAXDE. As medidas antropométricas, validadas e de baixo custo, como os perímetros abdominal 2,5cm acima da cicatriz umbilical (PAB2,5 e ao nível da cicatriz umbilical (PABum, são empregadas como indicadores de gordura abdominal. As dobras cutâneas (DC são pouco estudadas nesse sentido. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi verificar quais destes indicadores antropométricos mais se correlacionam e explicam o %G abdominalAXDE. A amostra foi composta por 22 mulheres (43,9±11,6 anos; 34,7±8,3 %G

  2. Abdominal fat and risk of coronary heart disease in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Beate G.; Visseren, Frank L. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether the presence of concomitant coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be explained by intra-abdominal fat accumulation and compared different measures of adiposity as predictors of CHD in patients with PAD. Research Methods

  3. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Angquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  4. Abdominal fat mass is associated with adaptive immune activation: the CODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thewissen, M.M.; Damoiseaux, J.G.; Duijvestijn, A.M.; Greevenbroek, M.M.; Kallen, van der C.J.H.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Blaak, E.E.; Schalkwijk, C.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; Cohen Tervaert, J.W.; Ferreira, I.

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal fat-related activation of the innate immune system and insulin resistance (IR) are implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Recent data support an important role of the adaptive immune system as well. In this study, we investigate the association between waist circumferen

  5. Regulative Action of Meridian Dredging Abdominal Manipulation in Obesity Patient's fat Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-jun; WANG Zhi-hong; XIN Zhang; YUE Zhuo; JIANG Wan-ting

    2012-01-01

    Objective:use Meridian dredging abdominal manipulation to treat simple obesity,observes to the changes of fat metabolism.Methods:60 cases were treated by Meridian dredging abdominal manipulation.Through its own comparison before and after treatment to observes the changes of Lipid index and evaluate the effects of massage.Results:The lipid index changes obviously around the massage.Therapeutic effect of the treatment group was significantly better than the control group( P <0.05).The disparation of two groups' lipid、leptin and leptin receptor levels before and after the treatment have statistically significant ( P < 0.05).Conclusions:Meridian dredging abdominal manipulation can significantly reduce the lipid and leptin content,and improve the content of leptin receptors,and can promote the fat metabolism.

  6. Fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall: Incidental finding on abdominal computed tomography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Min Ho; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In a computed tomography (CT) scan, fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall is seen as a linear hypoattenuating band surrounded by soft tissue density. It is uncommon, but is often seen in normal cases. However, there is no report of fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall in Korea. The authors encountered a 62-year-old male patient who showed an incidental hypoattenuating band in the urinary bladder wall on abdominal CT. The patient showed no clinical signs related to fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall. When the patient's previous abdominal CT was retrospectively reviewed, the same CT finding was seen. This linear hypoattenuating band within the urinary bladder wall should be considered as a normal CT finding, although it is uncommon.

  7. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Fat in MRI-Scans, Using Graph-Cuts and Image Derived Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Larsen, Christian Thode; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    For many clinical studies changes in the abdominal distribution of fat is an important measure. However, the segmentation of abdominal fat in MRI scans is both difficult and time consuming using manual methods. We present here an automatic and flexible software package, that performs both bias...... field correction and segmentation of the fat into superficial and deep subcutaneous fat as well as visceral fat with the spinal compartment removed. Assessment when comparing to the gold standard - CT-scans - shows a correlation and bias comparable to manual segmentation. The method is flexible...

  8. Insulin resistance as a predictor of gains in body fat, weight, and abdominal fat in nondiabetic women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A; Tucker, Jared M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose was to determine the relationship between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of gaining body fat percentage (BF%), body weight, and abdominal fat over 18 months. A prospective cohort study was conducted using a sample of 226 women. IR was assessed using fasting blood insulin and glucose levels to calculate homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Participants were divided into High (4th quartile) Moderate (2nd and 3rd quartiles), and Low (1st quartile) HOMA categories. BF% was estimated using plethysmography (Bod Pod), weight was measured in a standard swimsuit, and abdominal fat was indexed using the average of two circumferences taken at the umbilicus. Participants wore accelerometers and completed weighed food logs for 7 consecutive days to control for the effect of physical activity (PA) and energy intake, respectively. On average, women in the High HOMA group decreased in BF% (-0.48 ± 3.60), whereas those in the Moderate (0.40 ± 3.66) and Low HOMA (1.17 ± 3.15) groups gained BF% (F = 5.4, P = 0.0211). Changes in body weight showed a similar dose-response relationship (F = 4.7, P = 0.0317). However, baseline IR was not predictive of changes in abdominal fat (F = 0.8, P = 0.3635). Controlling for several covariates had little effect on gains in BF% and weight, but adjusting for initial BF% and/or initial weight nullified changes in BF% and weight across the IR groups. In conclusion, women with High HOMA tend to gain significantly less BF% and weight than women with low or moderate HOMA. The decreased risk appears unrelated to several covariates, except initial BF% and weight levels, which seem to play key roles in the relationships.

  9. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for abdominal fat in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a growing public health problem that affects most people over the age of 65 years and abdominal obesity is one of the risk factors for the development of these diseases. There are several methods that can be used to measure body fat, but their accuracy needs to be evaluated, especially in specific populations such as the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of anthropometric indicators to estimate the percentage of abdominal fat in subjects aged 80 years or older. A total of 125 subjects ranging in age from 80 to 95 years (83.5 ± 3, including 79 women (82.4 ± 3years and 46 men (83.6 ± 3 years, were studied. The following anthropometric indicators were used: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The percentage of abdominal fat was measured by DEXA. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using an ROC curve. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0. 578, 0. 934 and 0. 756 for BMI, respectively; 0.703, 0.820 and 0.761 for WC; 0.938, 0.213 and 0.575 for WHR, and 0.984, 0.344 and 0.664 for WHtR. BMI and WC were the anthropometric indicators with the largest area under the curve and were therefore more adequate to identify the presence or absence of abdominal obesity.

  10. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereczyński, Andrzej; Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Bernatowicz, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identification of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more difficult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fluid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that reflect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower reflection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fluid collections. The features that facilitate proper identification of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infiltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identification of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always easy. When in doubt, the

  11. Effect of the inclusion time of dietary saturated and unsaturated fats before slaughter on the accumulation and composition of abdominal fat in female broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Flores, A; Carmona, J M

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to assess the effects of four different feeding programs designed to include tallow, a saturated fat at 0, 8, 12, and 28 d prior to slaughter on female broiler performance and the deposition, fatty acid profile, and melting point of abdominal fat. The following treatment groups were established according to dietary inclusion--from 21 to 49 d of age--of: sunflower oil (SUN), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 8 d (SUN + 8TALL), sunflower oil followed by tallow during the last 12 d (SUN + 12TALL), and tallow (TALL). The diets were designed to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Abdominal fat deposition increased linearly with increasing number of days in which birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet. However, linear and quadratic response patterns were found between days before slaughter in which the birds were fed the tallow-enriched diet and abdominal fat melting points. This result suggested an exponential response in which 85% of the maximum level was already attained when the dietary fat type changed from an unsaturated to a saturated condition during the last 8 d of the feeding period. The use of an unsaturated fat source during the first stages of growth, and the substitution of a saturated fat for a few days before slaughter, may offer the advantage of lower abdominal fat deposition and an acceptable fat fluidity compared with the use of a saturated fat source during the whole growing and finishing period.

  12. Dietary patterns associated with anthropometric indicators of abdominal fat in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Amélia Freitas Vilela

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and assess their association with abdominal fat. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Central West Region of Brazil with a probabilistic sample of 208 adults of both sexes. Data on food intake was obtained using a food frequency questionnaire and factor analysis (principal components was conducted to identify dietary patterns. Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were used to assess abdominal fat. The association between dietary patterns and body fat distribution was examined using multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, regional traditional, and prudent. A positive association was found between the Western pattern and WC (p = 0.04 and WHR (p = 0.001 and between the regional traditional pattern and WHR (p = 0.05 among women. A slight association was also found between the latter pattern and WC (p = 0.07 also among women. An association was found between the Western and regional traditional dietary patterns and a larger concentration of abdominal fat among women.

  13. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  14. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  15. PPARy activity in subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue and fat mass gain during short-term overfeeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, A.M.C.P.; Bakker, A.H.F.; Zorenc, A.H.G.; Kersten, A.H.; Schrauwen, P.; Westerterp, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: As the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) plays a central role in fat mass regulation, we investigated whether initial subcutaneous PPAR activity is related to fat mass generation during overfeeding. Subjects: Fourteen healthy female subjects (age 254 years, BMI 22.12.3

  16. Comparison of the relative contributions of intra-abdominal and liver fat to components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotronen, Anna; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Sevastianova, Ksenia

    2011-01-01

    Abdominally obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome often have excess fat deposition both intra-abdominally (IA) and in the liver, but the relative contribution of these two deposits to variation in components of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We determined the mutually independent...... that both fat depots are important predictors of these components of the metabolic syndrome....... quantitative contributions of IA and liver fat to components of the syndrome, fasting serum (fS) insulin, and liver enzymes and measures of hepatic insulin sensitivity in 356 subjects (mean age 42 years, mean BMI 29.7 kg/m²) in whom liver fat and abdominal fat volumes were measured. IA and liver fat contents...

  17. Abdominal fat volume estimation by stereology on CT: a comparison with manual planimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manios, G.E.; Mazonakis, M.; Damilakis, J. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Voulgaris, C.; Karantanas, A. [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    To deploy and evaluate a stereological point-counting technique on abdominal CT for the estimation of visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) volumes. Stereological volume estimations based on point counting and systematic sampling were performed on images from 14 consecutive patients who had undergone abdominal CT. For the optimization of the method, five sampling intensities in combination with 100 and 200 points were tested. The optimum stereological measurements were compared with VAF and SAF volumes derived by the standard technique of manual planimetry on the same scans. Optimization analysis showed that the selection of 200 points along with the sampling intensity 1/8 provided efficient volume estimations in less than 4 min for VAF and SAF together. The optimized stereology showed strong correlation with planimetry (VAF: r = 0.98; SAF: r = 0.98). No statistical differences were found between the two methods (VAF: P = 0.81; SAF: P = 0.83). The 95 % limits of agreement were also acceptable (VAF: -16.5 %, 16.1 %; SAF: -10.8 %, 10.7 %) and the repeatability of stereology was good (VAF: CV = 4.5 %, SAF: CV = 3.2 %). Stereology may be successfully applied to CT images for the efficient estimation of abdominal fat volume and may constitute a good alternative to the conventional planimetric technique. (orig.)

  18. Relationships Among Factors Relevant to Abdominal Fat and Age-Related Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young; Park, Mina

    2017-05-11

    Metabolic syndrome is related with abdominal fat and with age-related hearing loss (ARHL). In this study, we evaluated the association between a variety of factors relevant to abdominal fat (FRAs) and hearing thresholds. We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of 2,602 subjects aged over 40 years with symmetrical sensorineural hearing loss who underwent abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) scans. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were used to demonstrate the association between each FRA and hearing thresholds at low and high frequencies. Four of 5 FRAs were associated with hearing thresholds at high frequencies in males. All FRAs examined showed a relationship with hearing thresholds at low frequencies in females. Diabetes mellitus (DM) among clinical factors and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) among the 5 FRAs were the most reflective of hearing thresholds in both males and females. We found that FRAs were associated with hearing loss with frequency specific characteristics according to sex and reinforced that DM and VAT is particularly an important role for hearing.

  19. Genome-wide association studies suggest sex-specific loci associated with abdominal and visceral fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yun Ju; Pérusse, Louis; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Fornage, Myriam; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rice, Treva; Terry, Gregg; Jacobs, David R.; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Curran, Joanne E; Carr, John Jeffrey; Blangero, John; Ghosh, Sujoy; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D.C.; Bouchard, Claude

    2015-01-01

    Background To identify loci associated with abdominal fat and replicate prior findings, we performed genome-wide association (GWA) studies of abdominal fat traits: subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total adipose tissue (TAT) and visceral to subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VSR). Subjects and Methods Sex-combined and sex-stratified analyses were performed on each trait with (TRAIT-BMI) or without (TRAIT) adjustment for BMI, and cohort-specific results were combined via a fixed effects meta-analysis. A total of 2,513 subjects of European descent were available for the discovery phase. For replication, 2,171 European Americans and 772 African Americans were available. Results A total of 52 SNPs encompassing 7 loci showed suggestive evidence of association (p < 1.0 × 10−6) with abdominal fat in the sex-combined analyses. The strongest evidence was found on chromosome 7p14.3 between a SNP near BBS9 gene and VAT (rs12374818; p= 1.10 × 10−7), an association that was replicated (p = 0.02). For the BMI-adjusted trait, the strongest evidence of association was found between a SNP near CYCSP30 and VAT-BMI (rs10506943; p= 2.42 × 10−7). Our sex-specific analyses identified one genome-wide significant (p < 5.0 × 10−8) locus for SAT in women with 11 SNPs encompassing the MLLT10, DNAJC1 and EBLN1 genes on chromosome 10p12.31 (p = 3.97 × 10−8 to 1.13 × 10−8). The THNSL2 gene previously associated with VAT in women was also replicated (p= 0.006). The six gene/loci showing the strongest evidence of association with VAT or VAT-BMI were interrogated for their functional links with obesity and inflammation using the Biograph knowledge-mining software. Genes showing the closest functional links with obesity and inflammation were ADCY8 and KCNK9, respectively. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for new loci influencing abdominal visceral (BBS9, ADCY8, KCNK9) and subcutaneous (MLLT10/DNAJC1/EBLN1) fat, and confirmed a locus (THNSL2

  20. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...... (MR) imaging, and liver fat by (1)H MR spectroscopy.Results:Compared with the control fat, TFA intake decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol by 10%, increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol by 18% and resulted in an increased LDL/HDL-cholesterol ratio (baseline adjusted...

  1. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    ). Body fat was also calculated as a percentage of body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution (AFM/TBF) was calculated. Echocardiography was performed with two-dimensional guided M-mode. LA diameter was measured and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...... pressure were measured and maturity assessed according to Tanner. There were significant (P

  2. Genome-wide association analyses for fatty acid composition in porcine muscle and abdominal fat tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is an important phenotypic trait in pigs as it affects nutritional, technical and sensory quality of pork. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study (GWAS for fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle and abdominal fat tissues of 591 White Duroc×Erhualian F2 animals and in muscle samples of 282 Chinese Sutai pigs. A total of 46 loci surpassing the suggestive significance level were identified on 15 pig chromosomes (SSC for 12 fatty acids, revealing the complex genetic architecture of fatty acid composition in pigs. Of the 46 loci, 15 on SSC5, 7, 14 and 16 reached the genome-wide significance level. The two most significant SNPs were ss131535508 (P = 2.48×10(-25 at 41.39 Mb on SSC16 for C20∶0 in abdominal fat and ss478935891 (P = 3.29×10(-13 at 121.31 Mb on SSC14 for muscle C18∶0. A meta-analysis of GWAS identified 4 novel loci and enhanced the association strength at 6 loci compared to those evidenced in a single population, suggesting the presence of common underlying variants. The longissimus muscle and abdominal fat showed consistent association profiles at most of the identified loci and distinct association signals at several loci. All loci have specific effects on fatty acid composition, except for two loci on SSC4 and SSC7 affecting multiple fatness traits. Several promising candidate genes were found in the neighboring regions of the lead SNPs at the genome-wide significant loci, such as SCD for C18∶0 and C16∶1 on SSC14 and ELOVL7 for C20∶0 on SSC16. The findings provide insights into the molecular basis of fatty acid composition in pigs, and would benefit the final identification of the underlying mutations.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  4. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  5. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and su

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and its utility in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gameren, Ingrid I; Hazenberg, BPC; Bijzet, J; van Rijswijk, MH

    2006-01-01

    Objective. Aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat is a simple and fast method for detecting systemic amyloidosis; however, the sensitivity of this approach remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and the uti

  7. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  8. Correlation of Abdominal Fat Distribution with Different Types of Diabetes in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA and visceral adipose (VA tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P0.86. In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P0.86 for all. In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P0.86 for all. Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  9. Correlation of abdominal fat distribution with different types of diabetes in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anhui; Cui, Bin; Dang, Haodan; Yao, Dan; Yu, Haitao; Jia, Hongmin; Hu, Zhijun; Zhang, Xiaojin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA) and visceral adipose (VA) tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA) tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P 0.86). In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P 0.86 for all). In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P 0.86 for all). Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  10. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates. PMID:27656630

  11. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  12. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Gopalan, Venkatesh; Lee, Swee Shean; Velan, S Sendhil

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT) in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort). Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE) and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (pfat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression) sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables including cradle disturbance, animal positioning, and MR sequence on the fat quantification. There were no large variations between FSE and Dixon-based estimation of SAT and VAT.

  13. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  14. The relationship of abdominal fat mass assessed by helical or conventional computed tomography to serum leptin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Junji; Sasaki, Takeyoshi; Watanabe, Mitsuyo

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we focused on the relationship of intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) or subcutaneous fat (SF) mass to serum leptin levels, and also on the relationship of leptin to serum lipid and lipoprotein concentration. Subjects with obesity (26 men, 26 women) were recruited for this study. We obtained helical CT scans with a tube current of 150 mA, voltage of 120 kV and 2:1 pitch (table speed in relation to slice thickness), starting at the upper edge of the liver and continuing to the pelvis. The intra-abdominal visceral fat (VF) volume was measured by drawing a line within the muscle wall surrounding the abdominal cavity. The abdominal SF volume was calculated by subtracting the VF volume from the total abdominal fat volume. By comparison, the abdominal VF and SF areas were determined at the umbilical level by the established slice-by-slice CT scanning technique. We found: 1) abdominal SF mass, either as volume or area, was a more important determinant of serum leptin than was VF mass; 2) among TC, TG, HDL-C and LDL-C, only TG had a positive correlation to serum leptin levels in men, whereas in women no lipid parameters had any relationship with leptin; and 3) VF mass had a positive correlation to serum TC and TG in men, whereas SF did not. The present study provides considerable evidence on the relationship between abdominal fat mass and serum leptin, and shows that the relationships between serum leptin and serum lipids and lipoproteins are not straightforward. We also suggest that fat area measured by conventional CT is a better indicator than its corresponding volume assessed by helical CT, based on the present results showing its closer association to serum lipids.

  15. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men: the Ohtori study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Sato, Kyoko Kogawa; Harita, Nobuko; Maeda, Isseki; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Endo, Ginji; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J; Hikita, Yonezo

    2011-05-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men.

  16. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Prakash Kn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort. Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. RESULTS: Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01 were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, -17.33±3.07%, -15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, -3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables

  17. Association between abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokines and metabolic alterations in obese low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, C; Klünder Klünder, M; Huang, F; Flores Armas, E M; Velázquez-López, L; Medina-Bravo, P

    2016-08-01

    In addition to obesity, low birth weight (LBW) has been proposed as another independent risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of birth weight on abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokine levels and associated metabolic alterations in obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 children. Children were divided into three groups according to their body mass index and birth weight. Glucose and insulin (0 and 120 min), lipid profile and adipocytokines were measured. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obese LBW children had higher fasting glucose (P = 0.054) and insulin (P < 0.001), and 120 min glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin levels (P < 0.001), such as increased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index) (P < 0.001). Obesity and LBW were associated with lower concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (-2.38 [IC 95% -4.27; -0.42, P = 0.018]) and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (28.05 [IC 95% 0.40; 55.7, P = 0.047]) compared with NBW obese children, independent of age or sex. LBW in obese children is associated with lower HMW adiponectin, increased insulin resistance and greater SAT. © 2015 World Obesity.

  18. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption is associated with abdominal fat partitioning in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Sloan, Matthew; Fox, Caroline S; Hoffmann, Udo; Smith, Caren E; Saltzman, Edward; Rogers, Gail T; Jacques, Paul F; McKeown, Nicola M

    2014-08-01

    Abdominal adiposity, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is independently linked to the pathogenesis of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Emerging evidence suggests that greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) may be associated with abnormal fat accumulation in VAT. We examined whether habitual SSB consumption and diet soda intakes are differentially associated with deposition of body fat. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using previously collected data in 2596 middle-aged adults (1306 men and 1290 women) from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation cohorts. VAT and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured using multidetector computed tomography. Habitual intake of SSBs and diet soda was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire. We observed that SSB consumption was positively associated with VAT after adjustment for SAT and other potential confounders (P-trend consumption and SAT (P-trend = 0.04) that persisted after additional adjustment for VAT (P-trend consumption was positively associated with the VAT-to-SAT ratio (P-trend soda consumption and either VAT or the VAT-to-SAT ratio, but diet soda was positively associated with SAT (P-trend consumption of diet soda was not associated with either volume or distribution of VAT.

  19. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehr, I J; Kerr, B J; Persia, M E

    2015-07-01

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, which have a greater potential for peroxidation. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of peroxidized corn oil on broiler performance, dietary AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight. The same refined corn oil sample was divided into 3 subsamples, 2 of which were exposed to different peroxidative processes. The 3 diets contained the unperoxidized corn oil (UO), a slowly peroxidized corn oil (SO; heated for 72 h at 95°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min), or a rapidly peroxidized corn oil (RO; heated for 12 h at 185°C with compressed air flow rate of 12 L/min). Diets were fed from 0 to 14 d of age with each lipid fed at a 5% inclusion rate, continuing on from 15 to 27 d of age with each lipid fed at a 10% inclusion rate. There were 6 Ross 708 broiler chicks per cage with 10 replicates for each of the 3 dietary treatments. Abdominal fat pad and excreta collection was performed on d 27. Body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency were measured for the 0 to 14 and 0 to 27 d periods. The increased level of peroxidation reduced AMEn in broiler diets (UO = 3,490 kcal/kg; SO = 3,402 kcal/kg; RO = 3,344 kcal/kg on an as-is basis; SEM = 12.9, P ≤ 0.01). No significant treatment differences were observed among oil supplemented birds for BW gain, feed intake, feed efficiency, or abdominal fat pad weight. In conclusion, corn oil peroxidation status resulted in a decrease in dietary AMEn, but had minimal effects on broiler performance or fat pad weights.

  20. Performance, abdominal fat deposition and bone characteristics of broilers fed diets containing different lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Potença

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance, abdominal fat yield, and bone parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing different lipid feedstuffs as energy source. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 1, a completely randomized design with four treatments with eight replicates of 49 birds each one was applied. Broilers were fed starter diets formulated with different lipid sources: soybean oil (SO, cottonseed oil (CO, poultry offal oil (PO, and beef tallow (BT. During the finisher phase (21 to 42 days of Experiment 1, each initial treatment was divided in two experimental groups: one fed the same fat ingredient as the previous period, and the other fed SO as energy source. Thus, during this period, a completely randomized design with seven treatments, four replicates, and 43 broilers per experimental unit was tested. During the starter phase (1 to 21 days of Experiment 2, all broilers were fed with the same soybean oil-supplemented diet. The experimental groups were divided during the finisher phase (21 to 42 d in a completely randomized design with five treatments groups with six replicates of 30 birds each. During this period, treatments consisted of diets formulated with SO, rapeseed oil (RO, sunflower oils (SFO, PO, or BT as lipid sources. No effects (P>0.05 of the treatments on any of the studied parameters were observed in either experiment. Results suggest that there is no influence of animal or vegetable dietary lipid sources on performance, abdominal fat deposition, or tibia density and strength in broilers.

  1. Unsaturated Oral Fat Load Test Improves Glycemia, Insulinemia and Oxidative Stress Status in Nondiabetic Subjects with Abdominal Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Navarro, Inmaculada; Real, Jose T.; Artero, Ana; Peiro, Marta; Gonzalez-Navarro, Herminia; Carmena, Rafael; Ascaso, Juan F.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and oxidative stress markers during an oral fat load test in nondiabetic subjects with abdominal obesity and to analyze the association between postprandial oxidative stress markers and postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Methods We included 20 subjects with abdominal obesity (waist circumference > 102 cm for men and > 88 cm for women) and 20 healthy lean controls (waist circumference < 102 cm for men and < 88 cm for women). After 12 hours of fasting we performed a standardized fat load test (0–8 hours) with supracal® (50 g/m2). We determined metabolic parameters, oxidized and reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Results In both groups, insulin, HOMA, oxidized/reduced glutathione ratio, and malondialdehyde significantly decreased in the postprandial state after the OFLT. All these parameters were significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group at baseline and during all the postprandial points, but the reduction from the baseline levels was significantly higher in the abdominal obesity group. Conclusion Unsaturated fat improves insulin resistance and oxidative stress status. It is possible that a consumption of unsaturated fat could be beneficial even in subjects with abdominal obesity in postprandial state. PMID:27537847

  2. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  3. A home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Fornieles González

    Full Text Available Introduction: The current study was designed to determine the effect of home-based treadmill training on epicardial and abdominal adipose tissue in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS. A secondary objective was to identify significant correlations between imaging and conventional anthropometric parameters. Material and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women with MS volunteered for the current trial. Thirty were randomly assigned to perform a supervised home-based 16-week treadmill training program, 3 sessions/week, consisting of a warm-up, 30-40 min treadmill exercise (increasing 5-minutes each 4-weeks at a work intensity of 60-75% of peak heart rate (increasing 5% each 4-weeks and cooling-down. Epicardial fat thickness (EFT was assessed by echocardiography. Abdominal fat mass in the lumbar regions L1-L4 and L4-L5 was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: Epicardial fat thickness and abdominal fat percentages were significantly improved after the completion of the training program. Another striking feature of the current study was the moderate correlation that was found between EFT and waist circumference (WC. Conclusion: Home-based treadmill training reduced epicardial and abdominal fat in postmenopausal women with MS. A secondary finding was that a moderate correlation was found between EFT and WC. While current investigations are promising, future studies are still required to consolidate this approach in clinical application.

  4. Association of ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac and coronary artery calcification in african ancestry men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Zmuda, Joseph M; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Nair, Sangeeta; Cvejkus, Ryan; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wassel, Christina L; Miljkovic, Iva

    2017-08-01

    There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men. Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort. Adiposity was assessed via clinical examination, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography (CT). Ectopic fat depots included: abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver attenuation, and calf intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Vascular calcification was assessed by CT and quantified as present versus absent. Associations were tested using multiple logistic regression adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Models of ectopic fat were additionally adjusted for total body fat and standing height. All adiposity measures, except VAT, were associated with AAC. Lower liver attenuation or greater calf IMAT was associated with 1.2-1.3-fold increased odds of AAC (p ectopic fat measure was associated with CAC. Greater adiposity in the skeletal muscle and liver, but not in the visceral compartment, was associated with increased odds of AAC in African ancestry men. These results highlight the potential importance of both quantity and location of adiposity accumulation throughout the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    . The associations of VAT and SATwith blood pressure and lipids were examined by linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex,smoking, alcohol, physical activity, glucose tolerance status (GTS), medication use, and body massindex. Effect modification by GTS and sex was examined, and stratified analyses performed......Context: Regional fat distribution rather than overall obesity has been recognized as important tounderstanding the link between obesity and cardiovascular disease. Objective:We examined the associations of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and abdominalsubcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound...

  6. Blood lipids and fatty acid composition of abdominal fat in castrated and intact male common pheasant (Colchicus colchicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Džaja

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the effects of castration on plasma lipids and on the fatty acid profile of abdominal fat in male pheasants. Thirty pheasants reared in a commercial pheasantry were included in the experiment. Half the pheasants were castrated at 8 weeks of age and the other half underwent sham surgery at the same age. Plasma levels of triglycerides and high density lipoproteins (HDL were significantly higher in the castrated pheasants. Values for cholesterol tended to be higher in castrated pheasants although without statistical significance. The fatty acid content of the abdominal fat from castrated and intact pheasants were primarily composed of oleic acid (42.58%-40.33%, followed by palmitic acid (25.25%-27.33%, linoleic (14.05%-12.65% and stearic acid (8.95%-9.40%. Castration also significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of abdominal fat. Compared to the intact pheasants, the fatty acid content of abdominal fat from castrated pheasants contained higher values for saturated fatty acids (SFA and lower values for unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (UFA/SFA and polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio (PUFA/SFA.

  7. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  8. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study amo

  9. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation measured by computed tomography associated with an increased risk of gallstone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Katsunori; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imbe, Koh; Mikami, Shintaro; Nozaki, Yuichi; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Kojima, Yasushi; Kobayakawa, Masao; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Uemura, Naomi

    2015-08-01

    Visceral adiposity is a strong determinant of insulin resistance, which decreases cholecystokinin response sensitivity, and increases cholesterol saturation in the gallbladder bile; thus, it potentially relates to gallstone disease development. We aimed to investigate whether visceral fat measured by computed tomography (CT) is a risk factor for gallstone disease. A cohort of 717 participants undergoing CT and ultrasonography was analyzed. The associations between body mass index (BMI), visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area, and gallstone disease were analyzed adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. In multivariate analysis, gallstone disease was significantly associated with VAT and SAT areas for both categorical data and trend (P for trend gallstone disease remained significantly associated with VAT area (P for trend 0.021) and SAT area (P for trend 0.005). Interactions between the obesity indices and being elderly on the risk of gallstone disease were found; specifically BMI (P = 0.005), SAT (P gallstone disease was seen in patients aged gallstone disease. This finding applies to younger people or even those with normal body weight, suggesting the importance of abdominal visceral fat accumulation in the development of gallstone disease. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2016-12-02

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet.

  11. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumprla, Jiri; Howorka, Kinga; Kolackova, Zuzana; Sovova, Eliska

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF), non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/ patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol) were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined before, after the 1 (st) and 4 (th) treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4 (th) session (p0.59, pfat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  12. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

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    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  13. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

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    Halloush Ruba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR. A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%, suspicious in 1/39 (3%, negative in 28/39 (72%, and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13% of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  14. Correlation study of intra-abdominal fat accumulation and ambulatory blood pressure

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    Li ZHANG

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the influence of intra-abdominal fat (IAF accumulation on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP. Methods  Four hundred and forty-eight hospitalized patients with cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, including 235 males and 213 females, aged 20-85 (55±12 years old, were enrolled in this study. The abdominal fatty thickness was measured with B-mode ultrasound. Simultaneously the patient received 24hABP monitoring. The patients were divided into excessive IAF group, normal group, and quintile subgroups according to the cut-off points (male 38.5mm, female 34.7mm for observing the difference in indexes of ambulatory blood pressure between different groups/subgroups. Results  The 24h mean systolic BP (24hMSBP, 24h mean BP (24hMBP, 24h mean diastolic BP (24hMDBP, daytime MSBP (dMSBP, daytime MBP (dMBP, daytime MDBP (dMDBP, nighttime MSBP (nMSBP, nighttime MBP (nMBP, night MDBP (nMDBP were significantly higher in the excessive IAF group than in the normal group (P < 0.05. However, the elevation of ABP was not a simple gradual linear elevation corresponding to a gradual increase in IAF thickness, but manifested an approximately U-shaped trend. Pearson correlation analysis showed IAF thickness was positively correlated with all the indexes of 24hABP, while partial correlation analysis after adjustment for age and sex showed IAF thickness was positively correlated with 24hSBP, 24hMBP, dMBP and nMBP. Conclusion  The relationship between IAF thickness and ABP presents a U-shaped curve, which may provide an enlightenment in controlling blood pressure by weight loss in clinical work.

  15. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P insulin (-2.8 μIU/mL; P insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P fat (-1.2 cm(2); P fat arm, women lost lean mass (-0.6 kg; P effects on body composition, fat distribution, and glucose metabolism. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00726908 and NCT01028989. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Interactions among the glucocorticoid receptor, lipoprotein lipase and adrenergic receptor genes and abdominal fat in the Québec Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Després, J P; Bouchard, C

    2001-09-01

    To investigate whether interactions between glucocorticoid receptor (GRL), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and adrenergic receptor (ADR) gene markers contribute to individual differences in indicators of adiposity and abdominal obesity, including visceral fat level. Cross-sectional study; 742 individuals from the phase 2 of the Québec Family Study cohort. Total body fat assessed by hydrodensitometry and the sum of six skinfolds. Abdominal fat areas measured by computed tomography and adjusted for age, sex and total fat mass in all analyses. GRL Bcl I, alpha 2A-ADR Dra I and beta 2-ADR Ban I markers were typed by Southern blot, and other markers by polymerase chain reaction technique. It is confirmed that the 4.5 kb allele of the GRL BclI polymorphism is associated with a higher amount of abdominal visceral fat (AVF) depot (P for trend<0.001) independent of the level of total body fat. Furthermore, the alpha 2-ADR Dra I variant is associated with lower cross-sectional areas of abdominal total (P=0.003) and subcutaneous (P=0.012) adipose tissue. Gene-gene interactions between GRL and alpha 2-ADR genes affecting overall adiposity (P=0.016) as well as between GRL and beta 2-ADR genes (P=0.049) having influence on total abdominal fat levels were observed. When the three genes were considered together in the same analysis, significant interactions having influence on overall adiposity (P=0.017), abdominal total (P=0.032) and visceral fat (P=0.002) were observed. About 1-2% of the total variation in total fatness and abdominal fat was explained by these gene-gene interactions. There is an association between the GRL BclI polymorphism and increased AVF levels independent of the level of total body fat. The alpha 2-ADR DraI variant is associated with a lower cross-sectional area of abdominal total fat. Numerous interactions between GRL and ADR markers on overall adiposity and total abdominal fat as well as between GRL, LPL and ADR genes on overall adiposity, abdominal total and

  17. Body composition analysis and adipocytokine concentrations in haemodialysis patients: abdominal fat gain as an additional cardiovascular risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Elena; Díez, Juan J; Pérez Torres, Almudena; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Del Peso, Gloria; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Grande, Cristina; Rodríguez, Olaia; Coronado, Mónica; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael

    Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective one-year study was performed in 18 patients on haemodialysis (HD). In each patient, body composition by BIA and DXA was estimated at baseline and after one year. Several adipocytokine and biochemical parameters were determined. A significant increase in phase angle [4.8° (4.1-5.6) vs. 5.2° (4.4-5.8), P<.05], BIA intracellular water [48.3% (43.1-52.3) vs. 50.3% (45.7-53.4), P<.05] and the ratio between the percentage of android/gynecoid (A/G) distribution of fat measured by DXA [1.00 (0.80-1.26) vs. 1.02 (0.91-1.30), P<.05] was observed. A statistically significant relationship between leptin and adiponectin concentrations and the percentage of fat mass measured by BIA, as well as the abdominal fat percentage estimated by DXA, was found (P<.01). HD patients exhibit a gain in fat mass over time, especially in the abdomen, evidenced by an increased A/G ratio. These findings might explain the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  19. Abdominal fat depots associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome risk factors in black African young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Ong, Ken K; Sleigh, Alison; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A

    2015-10-05

    Individuals of black African ethnicity tend to have less visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but more subcutaneous-abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) than white Caucasians. However, it is unclear whether such distribution of abdominal fat is beneficial for metabolic disease risk in black individuals. Here we compared the associations between these specific abdominal fat depots, insulin sensitivity and metabolic syndrome risk. A cross-sectional analysis of 76 black South African young adults (36 men; 40 women) aged 18-19 years participating in the Birth to Twenty Cohort Study had VAT and SCAT measured by MRI. The metabolic syndrome traits (blood pressure, lipid profile, fasting glucose and insulin) were measured and the values were combined into a metabolic syndrome risk score. Fasting glucose and insulin were used to derive the HOMA-index of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Compared to men, women had greater VAT (mean: 16.6 vs. 12.5 cm(2)) and SCAT (median 164.0 vs. 59.9 cm(2)). In men, SCAT (r = 0.50) was more strongly correlated to the metabolic syndrome score (MetS) than was VAT (r = 0.23), and was associated with both MetS (P = 0.001) and HOMA-IR (P = 0.001) after adjustment for VAT and total fat mass. In women, both abdominal fat compartments showed comparable positive correlations with MetS (r = 0.26 to 0.31), although these trends were weaker than in men. In young black South African adults, SCAT appears to be more relevant than VAT to metabolic syndrome traits.

  20. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Serum concentrations of phthalate metabolites are related to abdominal fat distribution two years later in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind P Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalates, commonly used to soften plastic goods, are known PPAR-agonists affecting lipid metabolism and adipocytes in the experimental setting. We evaluated if circulating concentrations of phthalates were related to different indices of obesity using data from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS study. Data from both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used. Methods 1,016 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the PIVUS study. Four phthalate metabolites were detected in the serum of almost all subjects (> 96% by an API 4000 liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometer. Abdominal MRI was performed in a representative subsample of 287 subjects (28%, and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan was obtained in 890 (88% of the subjects two year following the phthalate measurements. Results In women, circulating concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP were positively related to waist circumference, total fat mass and trunk fat mass by DXA, as well as to subcutaneous adipose tissue by MRI following adjustment for serum cholesterol and triglycerides, education, smoking and exercise habits (all p Conclusions The present evaluation shows that especially the phthalate metabolite MiBP was related to increased fat amount in the subcutaneous abdominal region in women measured by DXA and MRI two years later.

  2. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Faure

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. METHODS: Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. RESULTS: After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points. At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139 and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139 blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139 while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. CONCLUSION: This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.

  3. In subfertile couple, abdominal fat loss in men is associated with improvement of sperm quality and pregnancy: a case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor.

  4. In Subfertile Couple, Abdominal Fat Loss in Men Is Associated with Improvement of Sperm Quality and Pregnancy: A Case-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Céline; Dupont, Charlotte; Baraibar, Martin A.; Ladouce, Romain; Cedrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Wolf, Jean Philippe; Lévy, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of overweight among men of reproductive-age may affect fertility. Abdominal fat, more than body mass index, is an indicator of higher metabolic risk, which seems to be involved in decreasing sperm quality. This study aims to assess the relationship between abdominal fat and sperm DNA fragmentation and the effect of abdominal fat loss, among 6 men in subfertile couples. Methods Sperm DNA fragmentation, abdominal fat and metabolic and hormonal profiles were measured in the 6 men before and after dietary advices. Seminal oxidative stress and antioxidant markers were determined. Results After several months of a lifestyle program, all 6 men lost abdominal fat (patient 1: loss of 3 points of abdominal fat, patient 2: loss of 3 points, patient 3: loss of 2 points, patient 4: loss of 1 point, patient 5: loss of 4 points and patient 6: loss of 13 points). At the same time, their rate of sperm DNA fragmentation decreased: 9.5% vs 31%, 24% vs 43%, 18% vs 47%, 26.3% vs 66%, 25.4% vs 35% and 1.7% vs 25%. Also, an improvement in both metabolic (significant decrease in triglycerides and total cholesterol; p = 0.0139) and hormonal (significant increase in testosterone/oestradiol ratio; p = 0.0139) blood profiles was observed after following the lifestyle program. In seminal plasma, the amount of SOD2 has significantly increased (p = 0.0139) while in parallel carbonylated proteins have decreased. Furthermore, all spouses got pregnant. All pregnancies were brought to term. Conclusion This study shows specifically that sperm DNA fragmentation among men in subfertile couples could be affected by abdominal fat, but improvement of lifestyle factor may correct this alteration. The effect of specific abdominal fat loss on sperm quality needs further investigation. The reduction of oxidative stress may be a contributing factor. PMID:24520319

  5. Chicken lines divergent for low or high abdominal fat deposition: a relevant model to study the regulation of energy metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baéza, E; Le Bihan-Duval, E

    2013-06-01

    Divergent selection of chickens for low or high abdominal fat (AF) but similar BW at 63 days of age was undertaken in 1977. The selection programme was conducted over seven successive generations. The difference between lines was then maintained constant at about twice the AF in the fat line as in the lean line. The aims of the first studies on these divergent chicken lines were to describe the growth, body composition and reproductive performance in young and adult birds. The lines were then used to improve the understanding of the relationship between fatness and energy and protein metabolism in the liver, muscle and adipose tissues, as well as the regulation of such metabolism at hormonal, gene and hypothalamic levels. The effects on muscle energy metabolism in relation to meat quality parameters were also described. This paper reviews the main results obtained with these lines.

  6. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  7. Effect of body mass index and intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography on the risk of bowel symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT and bowel symptoms.A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05 different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01, low VAT area (p = 0.01, and low SAT area (p<0.01. Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01 and low SAT area (p<0.01. The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672.Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months.

  8. The association of PNPLA3 variants with liver enzymes in childhood obesity is driven by the interaction with abdominal fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Miraglia del Giudice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A polymorphism in adiponutrin/patatin-like phospholipase-3 gene (PNPLA3, rs738409 C->G, encoding for the I148M variant, is the strongest genetic determinant of liver fat and ALT levels in adulthood and childhood obesity. Aims of this study were i to analyse in a large group of obese children the role of the interaction of not-genetic factors such as BMI, waist circumference (W/Hr and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in exposing the association between the I148M polymorphism and ALT levels and ii to stratify the individual risk of these children to have liver injury on the basis of this gene-environment interaction. METHODS: 1048 Italian obese children were investigated. Anthropometric, clinical and metabolic data were collected and the PNPLA3 I148M variant genotyped. RESULTS: Children carrying the 148M allele showed higher ALT and AST levels (p = 0.000006 and p = 0.0002, respectively. Relationships between BMI-SDS, HOMA-IR and W/Hr with ALT were analysed in function of the different PNPLA3 genotypes. Children 148M homozygous showed a stronger correlation between ALT and W/Hr than those carrying the other genotypes (p: 0.0045 and, therefore, 148M homozygotes with high extent of abdominal fat (W/Hr above 0.62 had the highest OR (4.9, 95% C. I. 3.2-7.8, p = 0.00001 to develop pathologic ALT. CONCLUSIONS: We have i showed for the first time that the magnitude of the association of PNPLA3 with liver enzymes is driven by the size of abdominal fat and ii stratified the individual risk to develop liver damage on the basis of the interaction between the PNPLA3 genotype and abdominal fat.

  9. Serum concentrations of phthalate metabolites are related to abdominal fat distribution two years later in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P Monica; Roos, Vendela; Rönn, Monika; Johansson, Lars; Ahlström, Håkan; Kullberg, Joel; Lind, Lars

    2012-04-02

    Phthalates, commonly used to soften plastic goods, are known PPAR-agonists affecting lipid metabolism and adipocytes in the experimental setting. We evaluated if circulating concentrations of phthalates were related to different indices of obesity using data from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Data from both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used. 1,016 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the PIVUS study. Four phthalate metabolites were detected in the serum of almost all subjects (> 96%) by an API 4000 liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometer. Abdominal MRI was performed in a representative subsample of 287 subjects (28%), and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-scan was obtained in 890 (88%) of the subjects two year following the phthalate measurements. In women, circulating concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP) were positively related to waist circumference, total fat mass and trunk fat mass by DXA, as well as to subcutaneous adipose tissue by MRI following adjustment for serum cholesterol and triglycerides, education, smoking and exercise habits (all p < 0.008). Mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) concentrations were related to trunk fat mass and the trunk/leg-ratio by DXA, but less powerful than MiBP. However, no such statistically significant relationships were seen in men. The present evaluation shows that especially the phthalate metabolite MiBP was related to increased fat amount in the subcutaneous abdominal region in women measured by DXA and MRI two years later.

  10. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  11. Android Fat Depot Is More Closely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome than Abdominal Visceral Fat in Elderly People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seon Mee; Yoon, Ji Won; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Hayley; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2011-01-01

    Background Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring regional fat deposition in association with metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been well described particularly in an elderly population. Methods and Findings As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects (287 male, 75.9±8.6 years and 278 female, 76.0±8.8 years) with regional body composition data using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for android/gynoid area, computed tomography for visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT), and cardiometabolic markers including adiponectin and high-sensitivity CRP were enrolled. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Mean VAT and SAT area was 131.4±65.5 cm2 and 126.9±55.2 cm2 in men (P = 0.045) and 120.0±46.7 cm2 and 211.8±65.9 cm2 in women (Pandroid and gynoid fat amount was 1.8±0.8 kg and 2.5±0.8 kg in men and 2.0±0.6 kg and 3.3±0.8 kg in women, respectively (both Pandroid fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS. Measurement of android fat may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variations in fat distribution. PMID:22096613

  12. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat increase, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in testicular cancer patients treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemse, Peter-Paul M; van der Meer, Rutger W; Burggraaf, Jacobus; van Elderen, Saskia G C; de Kam, Marieke L; de Roos, Albert; Lamb, Hildo J; Osanto, Susanne

    2014-03-01

    Testicular cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy are at increased risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We explored acute effects of chemotherapy by assessing metabolic factors, abdominal fat volume, hepatic triglyceride content (HTC) and aortic wall stiffness. We studied 19 testicular cancer patients (age 20-54 years) before, at three and nine months after the start of chemotherapy. Blood serum was analyzed for lipids, glucose and insulin. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat volume and aortic pulse wave velocity were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques; HTC was measured by proton MR spectroscopy. Three months after start of chemotherapy visceral abdominal fat volume had significantly increased from 202 ± 141 to 237 ± 153 ml (p = 0.009) whereas body mass index and subcutaneous fat volume significantly increased nine months after treatment from 24.4 ± 4.0 to 26.4 ± 4.1 kg/m(2) (p = 0.01) and from 556 ± 394 to 668 ± 460 ml (p = 0.002) respectively. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin also significantly increased three months after start of treatment from 4.88 ± 1.1 to 5.61 ± 1.50 mmol/l (p = 0.002), 3.31 ± 1.16 to 3.73 ± 1.41 mmol/l (p = 0.02) and 5.7 ± 4.4 to 9.6 ± 6.3 mU/ml (p = 0.03), respectively. Nine months after start of chemotherapy serum lipid and insulin concentrations had returned to baseline. HTC increased in seven of the 19 patients (36.8%) during follow-up. Aortic pulse wave velocity remained unchanged at the three time points measured. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy was associated with acute insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and an immediate increase in abdominal visceral adipose tissue and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in testicular cancer patients. A large prospective cohort study with long follow-up is warranted to characterize the time course and relationship between acutely induced obesity and hypercholesterolemia and the development

  13. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  14. Worsening central sarcopenia and increasing intra-abdominal fat correlate with decreased survival in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbra S; Ignatoski, Kathleen M; Daignault, Stephanie; Lindland, Ceit; Doherty, Megan; Gauger, Paul G; Hammer, Gary D; Wang, Stewart C; Doherty, Gerard M

    2012-07-01

    Accurate prediction of survival from adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is difficult and current staging models are unreliable. Central sarcopenia as part of the cachexia syndrome is a marker of frailty and predicts mortality. This study seeks to confirm that psoas muscle density (PMD), lean psoas muscle area (LPMA), lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI), and intra-abdominal (IA) or subcutaneous fat (SC) can be used in combination to more accurately predict survival in ACC patients. PMD, LPMA, IA, and SC fat were measured on serial CT scans of patients with ACC. Clinical outcome was correlated with quantitative data from patients with ACC and analyzed. A linear regression model was used to describe the relationship between PMD, LPMA, LSMI, IA, and SC fat, time to recurrence, and length of survival according to tumor stage. One hundred twenty-five ACC patients (94 females) were treated from 2005 to 2011. Significant morphometric predictors of survival include PMD, LPMA, and IA fat (p ≤ 0.0001, ≤ 0.0024, increase in LPMA confers an 8 % lower hazard of death. LSMI does not change significantly between stages (p = 0.3196). Decreased PMD, LPMA, and increased IA fat suggest decreased survival in ACC patients and correlate with traditional staging systems. A more precise prediction of survival may be achieved when staging systems and morphometric measures are used in combination. Serial measurements of morphometric data are possible. The rate of change of these variables over time may be more important than the absolute value.

  15. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... = 378), and Maasai (n = 348) was conducted. All participants had a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Venous blood samples were collected at 0, 30, and 120 min. Serum insulin was analysed at 0 and 30 min. From the OGTT, we assessed the homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance...... by computer model, early phase insulin secretion, and disposition index (DI) dividing insulin secretion by insulin resistance. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) thickness were carried out by ultrasonography. Linear regression analyses were done to assess ethnic...

  16. Energy Sufficiency of Feed Containing Fermented Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) Determined by measurement of Glucose, Abdominal Fat and Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Has, Hamdan; V. D.Yunianto; Sukamto, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using rumen liquid fermented mulberry leaves in boiler???s diet on feed consumption, blood glucose, and abdominal fat. This research used 100 of day old CP 707 broiler chicks, as well as concentrate, fermented mulberry leaves and other feed stuffs. The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, i.e. T0 (control), T1 (10% mulberry leaf), T2 (10% fermented mulberry leaf), T3 (20% mulberry...

  17. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim Abdulkarimi; Alimirza Aghazadeh; Mohsen Daneshyar

    2011-01-01

    A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein (LDL-c) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT), 0.2 (LT), 0.4 (MT) or 0.6% (HT) thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the b...

  18. A genome-wide scan of selective sweeps in two broiler chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Da, Yang; Wang, Ning; Hu, Xiao-Xiang; Zhang, Yuan-Dan; Wang, Yu-Xiang; Leng, Li; Tang, Zhi-Quan; Li, Hui

    2012-12-15

    Genomic regions controlling abdominal fatness (AF) were studied in the Northeast Agricultural University broiler line divergently selected for AF. In this study, the chicken 60KSNP chip and extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH) test were used to detect genome-wide signatures of AF. A total of 5357 and 5593 core regions were detected in the lean and fat lines, and 51 and 57 reached a significant level (Pchickens. We provide a genome-wide map of selection signatures in the chicken genome, and make a contribution to the better understanding the mechanisms of selection for AF content in chickens. The selection for low AF in commercial breeding using this information will accelerate the breeding progress.

  19. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...

  20. Consumo de bebida alcoólica e adiposidade abdominal em doadores de sangue Consumo de bebida alcohólica y adiposidad abdominal en donadores de sangre Alcohol consumption and abdominal fat in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    ón lineal múltiple, con los modelos ajustados para la edad, actividad física, tabaquismo y adiposidad total. RESULTADOS: Posterior al ajuste, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/cuadril se mantuvieron asociados positivamente al consumo de cerveza (p=0,02 y al total de alcohol consumido (p=0,01 y 0,03, respectivamente. El consumo de aguardiente mostró asociación solamente con la circunferencia de la cintura (p=0,04. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de alcohol, particularmente de cerveza, se asoció con la localización abdominal de gordura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of male blood donors (n=1,235, aged 20-59 years, in the city of Cuiabá, Central-West Brazil, between August 1999 and January 2000. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were indicators of abdominal fat, adjusted for total adiposity. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Alcohol consumption was evaluated using a questionnaire collecting information on type, frequency, and amount of consumption. The association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat was assessed through multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, physical activity, smoking, and percent of body fat. RESULTS: After adjustment, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were positively associated with beer (p = 0.02 and total alcohol consumption (p=0.01; p=0.03, respectively. Waist circumference was positively associated with spirit consumption (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake, particularly beer, was positively associated to abdominal fat.

  1. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  2. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Medical Image Processing Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States); Torigian, Drew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  3. Abdominal fat index — a non-invasive marker of hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Yu. Zavhorodnia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Elevation of visceral fat (VF thickness is considered as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in children. Non-invasive methods for evaluating the type of fat distribution allow to obtain useful markers for stratifying the risk of liver steatosis in children, dynamic monitoring and evaluation of therapy effectiveness. Aim of our study was to investigate anthropometric and sonographic parameters of the adipose tissue distribution and to determine the possibility of their usage as diagnostic markers of hepatic steatosis in children; to explore their relationship with carbohydrate metabolism. Materials and methods. The study involved 56 patients aged 5 to 17 years. Diagnostics of hepatic steatosis was conducted using FibroScan® 502 Touch with determination of controlled attenuation parameter. The distribution of adipose tissue was evaluated on the basis of measuring the thickness of subcutaneous (SF, preperitoneal fat (PPF and calculating abdominal fat index (AFI: AFI = SFmax/PPFhmin. Also, we measured the thickness of visceral fat (the distance between linea alba and the front wall of the aorta. The insulin level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay that followed by calculation of the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA. According to the presence of steatosis and body mass index, patients were divided into 3 groups: group 1 — 33 children with liver steatosis and overweight or obesity, group 2 — 18 persons with overweight or obesity without liver steatosis, group 3 (control — 5 patients with normal weight without liver steatosis. Results. Obesity was diagnosed in 87.9 % of children in group 1 and 65 % — in group 2. We found that formation of steatosis was accompanied by an increase in preperitoneal fat thickness, in group 1 it was 1.4 times higher than in group 2 and 2 times — in group 3. The thickness of subcutaneous fat in children in group 1 was 1.18 times higher than in group 2 and

  4. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS.

  5. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fox

    Full Text Available Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09, previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08. Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08, but not men (p = 0.75. Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006 but not men (p = 0.24 for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]. Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a

  6. Effects of exchanging carbohydrate or monounsaturated fat with saturated fat on inflammatory and thrombogenic responses in subjects with abdominal obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kim-Tiu; Chang, Lin Faun; Vethakkan, Shireene Ratna; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi; Sanders, Tom A B

    2017-10-01

    Modification of the amount and type of dietary fat has diverse effects on cardiovascular risk. We recruited 54 abdominally obese subjects to participate in a prospective cross-over design, single-blind trial comparing isocaloric 2000 kcal MUFA or carbohydrate-enriched diet with SFA-enriched diet (control). The control diet consisted of 15E% protein, 53E% carbohydrate and 32E% fat (12E% SFA, 13E% MUFA). A total of ∼7E% of MUFA or refined carbohydrate was exchanged with SFA in the MUFA-rich and carbohydrate-rich diets respectively for 6-weeks. Blood samples were collected at fasting upon trial commencement and at week-5 and 6 of each dietary-intervention phase to measure levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β), C-reactive protein (CRP), thrombogenic markers (E-selectin, PAI-1, D-dimer) and lipid subfractions. Radial pulse wave analysis and a 6-h postprandial mixed meal challenge were carried out at week-6 of each dietary intervention. Blood samples were collected at fasting, 15 and 30 min and hourly intervals thereafter till 6 h after a mixed meal challenge (muffin and milkshake) with SFA or MUFA (872.5 kcal, 50 g fat, 88 g carbohydrates) or CARB (881.3 kcal, 20 g fat, 158 g carbohydrates)- enrichment corresponding to the background diets. No significant differences in fasting inflammatory and thrombogenic factors were noted between diets (P > 0.05). CARB meal was found to increase plasma IL-6 whereas MUFA meal elevated plasma D-dimer postprandially compared with SAFA meal (P < 0.05). Comparing the 3 meals, there were similar postprandial elevations in IL-6 and D-dimer and postprandial reductions in PAI-1, augmentation index and pressure (time effect: P < 0.05). CARB diet was found to reduce HDL3 by 7.8% and increase small dense HDL (sdHDL) by 8.6% compared with SFA diet (P < 0.05). SFA diet increased large HDL subfractions compared with both CARB and MUFA diets by 4.9% and 6.6% (P < 0.05), respectively. Overall, the evidence presented in this study

  7. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  8. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haifeng; Tong, Tom K.; Qiu, Weifeng; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Shi

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session) high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n = 15), MICT (n = 15), or no training (CON, n = 13) for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA) and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2), ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2), and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p > 0.05) were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%), total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg), and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg), gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg), and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p > 0.05) regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency. PMID:28116314

  9. Serotonin Transporter Deficiency Increases Abdominal Fat in Female, but Not Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone seroto

  10. Serotonin transporter deficiency increases abdominal fat in female, but not male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Homberg; S.E. la Fleur; E. Cuppen

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone seroto

  11. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not....... DESIGN: Cross sectional study of gallstone pathogenetic factors, body composition, fat distribution, glucose and lipid metabolism. SUBJECTS: 57 healthy overweight subjects (aged 26-64y, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2). MEASUREMENTS: Total and intra-abdominal fat masses were measured by dual X......-ray absorptiometry and abdominal CT scanning, respectively. The lithogenic index was measured in aspirated bile. The gallbladder volume was determined by ultrasound and the gallbladder ejection fraction% by dynamic cholescintigraphy. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) concentrations during a meal were measured...

  12. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. Methods This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student’s t test and Mann-Whitney’s test was applied. Pearson’s chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s correlation were used. Results In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). Conclusions 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR. PMID:28129354

  13. Preventive effect of a melon extract rich in superoxide scavenging activity on abdominal and liver fat and adipokine imbalance in high-fat-fed hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décordé, Kelly; Agne, Anta; Lacan, Dominique; Ramos, Jeanne; Fouret, Gilles; Ventura, Emilie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max

    2009-07-22

    Studies showed that dietary antioxidants could be a therapy against obesity that is associated with a state of oxidative stress. Thus, this paper investigates whether a dietary ingredient, a melon juice extract rich in superoxide dismutase, would prevent the development of such obesity in hamsters. Five groups received a standard diet or a high-fat diet (HF) plus a daily gavage with water (control) or extract at 0.7, 2.8, or 5.6 mg/day. After 84 days, the higher dose lowered triglyceridemia (68%), production of liver superoxide anion (12%), mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity (40%), lipid and protein oxidation products (35 and 35%, respectively), and leptinemia (99%) and increased adiponectinemia (29%), leading to a concomitant reduction in insulinemia (39%), insulin resistance (41%), and abdominal lipids (25%). The extract triggered a remarkable decrease of liver lipids (73%) and fully prevented the steatohepatitis induced by the HF diet. Chronic consumption of this melon extract may represent a new alternative to reduce obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

  14. Obesity and Abdominal Fat Markers in Patients with a History of Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Yaroslav; Pieper, Lars; Klotsche, Jens; Riedel, Oliver; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal obesity is a well-recognized cardiovascular risk factor. Conflicting data concerning its significance with respect to stroke have been discussed in recent years. The objective of this study was to analyze the association between anthropometric parameters and the risk of stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) in German primary care. Patient recruitment in this large-scale epidemiological study was performed in 3188 representative primary care offices in Germany. Among 6980 study participants, 1745 patients with a history of stroke or TIA were identified and matched for age and gender with 5235 regional controls. Associations between standard anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, and cerebrovascular risk were investigated using logistic regression analysis with adjustment for age, gender, and vascular risk factors. BMI showed no significant associations with the risk of stroke or TIA in any of the applied mathematical models. Markers of abdominal obesity were associated with an increased risk of stroke or TIA in the unadjusted model (waist circumference: odds ratio [OR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-1.32; waist-to-hip ratio: OR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.38; waist-to-height ratio: OR 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09-1.44, comparisons between top and bottom tertiles). After adjustment for vascular risk factors, all associations were insignificant. Abdominal obesity is a stronger predictor of risk of stroke or TIA than BMI. However, the association between abdominal obesity and the risk of stroke or TIA is not independent of other vascular risk factors. Stroke-related weight changes should be considered in longitudinal studies examining the role of obesity in cerebrovascular disease. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  16. Meningitis due to Enterobacter aerogenes subsequent to resection of an acoustic neuroma and abdominal fat graft to the mastoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida A. Khan

    Full Text Available Meningitis is an uncommon complication of neurosurgical procedures, with an incidence of 1.1% to 2.5%. Although unusual, the frequency of nosocomial Gram-negative meningitis appears to be increasing. Gram-negative meningitis has been documented following disruption of the dura-arachnoid barrier secondary to trauma or surgery. The association of Gram-negative bacillary meningitis with neurosurgical procedures was first reported in the 1940's. Wolff et al. described the association between Enterobacter species and post-neurosurgical infection. More recently, risk factors for nosocomial Enterobacter meningitis have been characterized by Parodi et al. Adipose graft, as an independent risk factor has not yet been reported. A patient with acoustic neuroma resection, who developed bacterial meningitis from an abdominal fat pad graft to a mastoidectomy bed is described. A brief overview was made of post-neurosurgical Gram-negative meningitis.

  17. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  18. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  19. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  20. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung [Center for Occupational Health Research, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  1. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral......, glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose...

  2. Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy : long-term follow-up of abdominal fat tissue aspirate in patients with and without liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, Elizabeth B.; Van Gameren, Ingrid I.; Bijzet, Johan; Posthumus, Marcel D.; Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.

    2007-01-01

    To estimate the evolution of amyloid in tissue, we studied abdominal fat aspirates of cases with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP) longitudinally at regular intervals between 1994 and 2006. In 22 cases (13 carriers and nine patients) not yet transplanted median follow-up was 3.3 years (range

  3. T2-based temperature monitoring in abdominal fat during HIFU treatment of patients with uterine fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kohi, Maureen; Ghanouni, Pejman; Rieke, Viola

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have implemented T2-based monitoring of near-field heating in patients undergoing HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids using Insightec ExAblate system. In certain areas, near-field heating can reach 18°C and the tissue may experience sustained heating of more than 10°C for the period of 2 hours or more. This indicates a cumulative thermal dose that may cause necrosis. Our results show the feasibility and importance of measuring near-field heating in subcutaneous fat.

  4. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine H.; Færch, Kristine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both sexes, and SAT was additionallyassociated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels in women andwith higher blood pressure in participants with diabetes. Conclusion: Both abdominal VAT and SAT are independent of overall obesity......) with cardiovascular risk factors in a Caucasian population ofmenand women with normal glucose tolerance, prediabetes, or screen-detected diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study was based on cross-sectional analysis of data from 1412adults age 45– 80 years. VAT and SAT were assessed by ultrasound....... Results: Independent of SAT and overall obesity, VAT was associated with higher triglyceride andlower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in both men and women and additionallyassociated with higher total cholesterol in men. SAT was independently associated with highertotal cholesterol...

  5. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  6. [Systolic pressure, abdominal obesity and body fat, metabolic syndrome predictors in Spanish preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez Hervás, Ana Isabel; Rizo Baeza, María Mercedes; Martínez Amorós, Natalia; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-05-01

    Se plantea como objetivo determinar la presencia de predictores de síndrome metabólico en niños de 2 a 7 años en relación a su estado nutricional. Método: Estudio descriptivo con análisis cuantitativo en 260 niños de 2-7 años (135 niñas y 125 niños), 66% del total censados. Se midieron parámetros antropométricos y tensión arterial y se calcularon IMC, grasa corporal según Hoffman e índice cintura-talla (ICT). Se realizaron subgrupos con Z-Score del IMC según edad y sexo (bajo peso, normopeso, sobrepeso y obesidad), según grasa corporal (normal y con exceso), ICT (normal y obesidad abdominal) y tensión sistólica (normotensos e hipertensos según edad y sexo). Se utilizó como variable principal la clasificación según Z-Score del IMC. Resultados: La prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad fue del 27%, sin diferencias por sexo. El estado nutricional relacionó significativamente con tensión arterial, grasa corporal e índice cintura-talla. Mayor porcentaje de obesos con tensión arterial sistólica alta que de normonutridos (OR=4.1; IC95% 1.7-9.8; p.

  7. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  8. Daily intake of rosehip extract decreases abdominal visceral fat in preobese subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagatomo A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Akifumi Nagatomo,1 Norihisa Nishida,1 Ikuo Fukuhara,2 Akira Noro,3 Yoshimichi Kozai,3 Hisao Sato,3 Yoichi Matsuura1 1Research and Development Division, Morishita Jintan Co, Ltd, Osaka, Japan; 2Fukuhara Clinic, Hokkaido, Japan; 3New Drug Research Center, Inc., Hokkaido, Japan Background: Obesity has become a great problem all over the world. We repeatedly screened to find an effective food to treat obesity and discovered that rosehip extract shows potent antiobesity effects. Investigations in mice have demonstrated that rosehip extract inhibits body weight gain and decreases visceral fat. Thus, the present study examined the effect of rosehip extract on human body fat in preobese subjects. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 32 subjects who had a body mass index of ≥25 but <30. The subjects were assigned to two random groups, and they received one tablet of placebo or rosehip that contained 100 mg of rosehip extract once each day for 12 weeks with no dietary intervention. Abdominal fat area and body fat percent were measured as primary outcomes. The other outcomes were body weight and body mass index. Results: Abdominal total fat area, abdominal visceral fat area, body weight, and body mass index decreased significantly in the rosehip group at week 12 compared with their baseline levels (P<0.01 after receiving the rosehip tablet intake, and the decreases in these parameters were significantly higher when compared with those in the placebo group. Additionally, body fat percent tended to decrease compared with the placebo group and their baseline level. Moreover, the abdominal subcutaneous fat area was significantly lower in the rosehip group than in the placebo group at week 12 after the initiation of intake (P<0.05. In addition, there were no abnormalities, subjective symptoms, and findings that may indicate clinical problems during the study period. Conclusion: These results

  9. The Influence of Different Vegetable Oils on Some ω-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Thigh and Abdominal Fat of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Sorin Fota

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy sources, especialy vegetable oils, added to the combined fodder can segnificantly modefy the fatty acids profile of the chicken feed, thus through its control the fatty acids profile of the carcases can be modefied, through enrichment in some fatty acids. In this respect an experiment was coduced on broilers, made up of three experimental groups, fed with a combined base fodder (corn and soybean meal in which 2% of different energy sources were added (sunflower oil, soybean oil, linseed oil. At the end of the 42 days growing period, using gaz cromatography, the fatty acids profile, % of fatty acids in 100 g product (EPA,DPA, DHA, Σ SFA, Σ MUFA, Σ PUFA from the studied cut pieces, were determined. The results obtained after statistc processing and interpretation of the data, showed the fact that regarding the fatty acids profile in chicken thigh and abdominal fat we can observe variations, what denotes that the fatty acids profile can be influenced by dietary factors, the quantity being yet determined by the participation % of the energy sources (vegetable oils, but also by the fatty acids content of the participating raw materials.

  10. Impact of intra-abdominal fat on surgical outcome and overall survival of patients with gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Chin, H M; Hwang, S S; Jun, K H

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of obesity on surgical outcome and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. A total of 304 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma between January 2005 and March 2008were enrolled. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated before the operation and visceral fat area (VFA) was measured by abdominal computed tomography (CT). The patients were divided according to BMI class and VFA quartile. The influence of BMI and VFA on surgical outcome and survival was evaluated. The median BMI was 23.3 kg/m(2) and the median VFA was 103 cm(2). There was a significant positive correlation between BMI and VFA. According to BMI class and VFA quartile, there were no significant differences in patients' characteristics or surgical outcome, with the exception of a significantly longer operation time and fewer retrieved lymph nodes in patients with a high BMI and VFA. The unadjusted overall and disease free survival were not significantly different between BMI classes or VFA quartiles. Obesity, as represented by BMI and VFA, may not be a poor prognostic factor in patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  12. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  13. Mediastino-abdominal lipomatosis: deep accumulation of fat mimicking a respiratory disease and ascites. Clinical aspects and metabolic studies in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, G; Digito, M; Marin, R; Carraro, R; Baritussio, A; Manzato, E

    1984-01-01

    We report on clinical and metabolic studies of a newly delineated lipomatosis, characterised by an abnormal mediastinal and abdominal accumulation of fat, without obesity. The clinical features, which occurred in all the patients studied, are: Exertional dyspnoea due to a space-occupying mediastinal accumulation of fat, without evidence of cardiac or pulmonary disease. A pseudo-ascitic abdominal enlargement, due to intra- and retroperitoneal accumulation of fatty tissue. Insulin-independent diabetes mellitus. Type IV hyperlipidaemia and elevated levels of plasma uric acid were observed in four patients. Intra-abdominal lipomatous tissue, obtained during laparoscopy from four patients, demonstrated a reduced lipolytic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. Thus, fat deposition in the abdominal and mediastinal areas could be causally related to defective lipid mobilization in lipomatocytes. Lipoprotein lipase activity in abdominal adipose tissue were normal in two patients (10.0 and 10.6 nmol/g/min) and markedly elevated in another two patients (37.3 and 49.9 nmol/g/min), as compared with controls (12.7 +/- 2.1 nmol/g/min). When expressed on per cell basis, LPL activity in lipomatous tissue was significantly higher than in control tissue (3.21 +/- 1.1 nmol/10(5) cell/min vs 0.92 +/- 0.16 nmol/10(5) cell/min). Lipoprotein fractionation did not demonstrate consistent modification of the serum lipoprotein pattern. HDL and HDL2 cholesterol values were reduced, even in patients with elevated LPL activity in adipose tissue.

  14. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  15. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade ultrassonográfica como método para medida da gordura abdominal e visceral Reproducibility of ultrasonography as a method to measure abdominal and visceral fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a variabilidade interobservador do método ultrassonográfico para medida da gordura subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal por meio de técnica padronizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes entre novembro de 2006 e janeiro de 2007. A medida da espessura subcutânea foi realizada com transdutor linear de 7,5 MHz posicionado transversalmente a 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical. Para a gordura visceral foi utilizado transdutor de 3,5 MHz posicionado 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical, considerando-se a medida entre a face interna do músculo reto abdominal e a parede posterior da aorta na linha média do abdome. A gordura perirrenal foi medida no terço médio do rim direito, com transdutor posicionado na linha axilar média. RESULTADOS: A reprodutibilidade interobservador foi analisada por meio do teste t de Student, com significância de 95%. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias das medidas das gorduras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal, com p = 0,7141, 0,7286 e 0,6368, respectivamente. As médias encontradas, com seus respectivos desvios-padrão, foram: 2,64 ± 1,37 para a espessura subcutânea, 6,84 ± 2,38 para a espessura visceral e 4,89 ± 2,6 para a espessura perirrenal. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia apresentou boa reprodutibilidade interobservador para avaliação da gordura abdominal por meio das medidas das espessuras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interobserver variability of ultrasound in the measurement of subcutaneous, visceral and perirenal fat through standard technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2006 to January 2007, 50 patients were evaluated. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. For the visceral fat, a 3.5 MHz transducer was also positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar, considering the

  16. Clinical characteristics of obese boys and girls in a high school: focused on abdominal fat indices, fatty liver and carotid intima-media thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Oh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our study aimed to evaluated sex differences in clinical features of obese high school students, Methods: One hundred three obese high school students (body mass index [BMI]?#248;5th percentile and 51 control students (BMI&lt; 85th percentile were enrolled in this study. Anthropometric measurements were performed. Fasting serum glucose, insulin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and high-sensitive C-reactive protein were measured. Abdominal fat thickness, degree of fatty liver, and carotid intima-media thickness were measured by ultrasound. Results: In control and obese groups, waist circumference was significantly longer in boys but body fat mass was significantly higher in girls. In the control group, total cholesterol and LDL-C were higher in girls. In the obese group, however, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and triglyceride were higher and HDL-C was lower in boys. Preperitoneal fat thickness was significantly higher in obese girls. In obese group, the degree of fatty liver was significantly higher in boys. Carotid intima-media thickness was not significantly different between boys and girls. Conclusion: Obese adolescents had distinguishable sex differences in body measurements, metabolic abnormalities, abdominal fat thickness and fatty liver. We can infer that these characteristics may extend into adult obesity.

  17. Effects of bed-time insulin versus pioglitazone on abdominal fat accumulation, inflammation and gene expression in adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartemann-Heurtier, Agnès; Halbron, Marine; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Jacqueminet, Sophie; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Rouault, Christine; Ayed, Amine; Pieroni, Laurence; Clément, Karine; Grimaldi, André

    2009-10-01

    Intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and inflammatory markers are correlated with cardio-vascular risk. We compared the impact of bed-time insulin versus pioglitazone treatment on these parameters in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. Twenty-eight T2D patients poorly controlled with metformin and sulfonylurea were randomized to receive add-on therapy with pioglitazone or bed-time NPH insulin. IAF and subcutaneous fat (SCF) content, systemic low-grade inflammation level and expression of inflammation related genes in SCF, were measured before and after 24 weeks of treatment. Insulin and pioglitazone resulted in a significant decrease in HbA1c (-1.6% and -1.2%, respectively) and a significant increase in total body fat mass (1+/-2.3 and 3.3+/-2.7 kg, respectively). There was no change in IAF content after both treatments whereas significant increase in SCF content was only seen after pioglitazone treatment (pinsulin). hsCRP level decreased after pioglitazone and ferritin level decreased after insulin treatment. No change in mRNA expression of inflammation related genes was found after either treatment. This suggests that a 24-week treatment with pioglitazone or bed-time insulin has a similar impact on intra-abdominal fat mass and systemic low-grade inflammation.

  18. Effects of endogenous androgens and abdominal fat distribution on the interrelationship between insulin and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Uche; Pall, Marita; Mathur, Ruchi; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel; Chen, Ida Y; Dumesic, Daniel A; Azziz, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Glucose disposal occurs via noninsulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU) and insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). It is unknown whether in PCOS NIMGU increases to compensate for declining IMGU and whether androgens and fat distribution influence this relationship. The objective of the study was to compare in women with PCOS and controls the interrelationship between NIMGU [ie, glucose effectiveness (Sg)] and IMGU [ie, the insulin sensitivity index (Si)] and the role of androgens and fat distribution. Twenty-eight PCOS (by National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria) and 28 control (age, race, and body mass index matched) women were prospectively studied. A subset of 16 PCOS subjects and 16 matched controls also underwent abdominal computed tomography. Glucose disposal (by a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test), circulating androgens, and abdominal fat distribution [by waist to hip ratio and visceral (VAT) and sc (SAT) adipose tissue content] were measured. PCOS women had lower mean Si and similar Sg and abdominal fat distribution compared with controls. PCOS women with Si below the PCOS median (more insulin resistant) had a lower mean Sg than controls with Si above the control median (more insulin sensitive). In PCOS only, body mass index, free T, modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, and waist to hip ratio independently predicted Sg, whereas Si did not. In PCOS, VAT and SAT independently and negatively predicted Si and Sg, respectively. The decreased IMGU in PCOS is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in NIMGU or associated with excessive VAT accumulation. Increased general obesity, SAT, and hyperandrogenism are primary predictors of the deterioration of NIMGU in PCOS.

  19. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, ploss of VAT that was not located around any organ (-16.1%±8.9%) was significantly greater than the loss of VAT 5cm around liver, left and right kidney, spleen, and pancreas (ploss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. PPARβ expression in rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glucolipid metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yan Zhang; Jing Tan; Yi-Peng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorβ(PPARβ) expression in rectus abdominis as well as abdominal subcutaneous fat of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and glucolipid metabolism.Methods:The pregnant women who received routine antenatal care and planned to receive selective caesarean section in Obstetrics Department of our hospital between May 2012 and March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and 74 healthy pregnant women and 58 pregnant women with GDM were screened and included in the control group and gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group) respectively. Rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat were collected during Cesarean section to determine the expression of PPARβ was measured; peripheral blood was collected at middle-late pregnancy to determine the content of blood glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism indexes as well as adipocytokines.Results:PARβ mRNA expression and protein expression in rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat of GDM group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); homeostasis model assessment insulin secretion index (HOMA-β), homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and OGTT glucose curve (AUCG) levels as well as serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (TC), Leptin, Resistin and Chemerin content of GDM group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05) while early insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) and insulin sensitive index composite (ISIcomp) levels as well as serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), Omentin-1 and Omentin-1 and adiponectin (ADPN) content were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05); PARβ mRNA expression and protein expression were negatively correlated with HOMA-β, HOMA IR, area under the AUCG, LDL-C, TG, TC, Leptin, Resistin and Chemerin, and positively correlated withΔI30/ΔG30, ISIcomp, HDL

  1. The effect of aqueous extract of gross and commercial yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) on intra-abdominal and epididymal fat and glucose levels in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Raquel D'Agostini; Bueno, Audrin Loss Scopel; Gallon, Carin Weirich; Gomes, Luana Ferreira; Kaiser, Samuel; Pavei, Cabral; Ortega, George González; Kucharski, Luiz Carlos; Jahn, Matheus Parmegiani

    2011-09-01

    This study analyzed the plasma lipid profile, glucose levels and fat deposits in male rats treated with aqueous extract of gross yerba mate, commercial yerba mate or water. Yerba mate treatment did not change body weight gain and lipid profile. The consumption of gross yerba mate significantly increased blood glucose (6.6 mmol/L) as compared to the water (4.8 mmol/L) and commercial group (5.2 mmol/L) and decreased epididymal and intra-abdominal deposits (10.1mg/g and 23.7 mg/g of weight) as compared to the water (15.4 mg/g and 36.9 mg/g of weight) and commercial group (12.5mg/g and 28 mg/g of weight). The results suggest that gross yerba mate reduces fat more efficiently but produces a greater increase in blood glucose when compared to commercial yerba mate and water groups.

  2. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...... stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined....

  3. Visceral, subcutaneous abdominal adiposity and liver fat content distribution in normal glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, A L; Nazare, J A; Smith, J; Aschner, P; Barter, P; Van Gaal, L; Eng Tan, C; Wittchen, H U; Matsuzawa, Y; Kadowaki, T; Ross, R; Brulle-Wohlhueter, C; Alméras, N; Haffner, S M; Balkau, B; Després, J P

    2015-03-01

    To examine the specific distribution of liver fat content, visceral and subcutaneous adiposity in normal glucose tolerance (NGT/NGT), isolated impaired fasting glucose (iIFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (iIGT) and combined conditions (IFG+IGT), as well as with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (nT2D). Multicenter, international observational study: cross-sectional analysis. Two thousand five hundred and fifteen patients (50.0% women, 54.5% non-Caucasian) without previously known diabetes were recruited from 29 countries. Abdominal fat distribution was measured by computed tomography (CT). Liver fat was estimated using the CT-liver mean attenuation. Compared with NGT/NGT patients, increased visceral adiposity was found in iIFG, iIGT, IFG+IGT and nT2D; estimated liver fat progressively increased across these conditions. A one-s.d. increase in visceral adiposity was associated with an increased risk of having iIFG (men: odds ratio (OR) 1.41 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.74), women: OR 1.62 (1.29-2.04)), iIGT (men: OR 1.59 (1.15-2.01), women: OR 1.30 (0.96-1.76)), IFG+IGT (men: OR 1.64 (1.27-2.13), women: OR 1.83 (1.36-2.48)) and nT2D (men: OR 1.80 (1.35-2.42), women: OR 1.73 (1.25-2.41)). A one-s.d. increase in estimated liver fat was associated with iIGT (men: OR 1.46 (1.12-1.90), women: OR 1.81 (1.41-2.35)), IFG+IGT (men: OR 1.42 (1.14-1.77), women: OR 1.74 (1.35-2.26)) and nT2D (men: OR 1.77 (1.40-2.27), women: OR 2.38 (1.81-3.18)). Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue showed an inverse relationship with nT2D in women (OR 0.63 (0.45-0.88)). Liver fat was associated with iIGT but not with iIFG, whereas visceral adiposity was associated with both. Liver fat and visceral adiposity were associated with nT2D, whereas subcutaneous adiposity showed an inverse relationship with nT2D in women.

  4. Comparison of intragastric balloon therapy and intensive lifestyle modification therapy with respect to weight reduction and abdominal fat distribution in super-obese Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takihata, Masahiro; Nakamura, Akinobu; Aoki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Mari; Sekino, Yusuke; Inamori, Masahiko; Maeda, Shin; Gotoh, Eiji; Nakajima, Atsushi; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2014-01-01

    This study compared the impacts of intragastric balloon (IGB) therapy and intensive lifestyle modification therapy on abdominal fat distribution. Sixteen extremely obese Japanese patients were assigned to an intensive lifestyle modification therapy group with educational hospitalisation (8 patients) or an IGB therapy group (8 patients) and were followed up for 6 months. The main outcome measures were the differences at 6 months, relative to the baseline values, in the visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and liver volume as measured using computed tomography. At 0 month, the body weights (BWs) were 121.3±19.0 kg and 127.1±24.4 kg and the VFAs were 299±55 cm2 and 257±56 cm2 in the intensive lifestyle modification therapy group and the IGB therapy group, respectively. No statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics were observed between these two groups. At 6 months, no difference in the changes in BW from the baseline value (-11.5 [-16.4, -6.6] kg vs. -11.2 [-18.9, -3.4] kg) was seen between the two groups. However, a statistically significant difference in the change in the VFA (-66 [-87, -44] cm2 vs. -22 [-70, 26]cm(2) [P=0.027]) was observed; no significant changes in the SFA or liver volume were seen. In conclusion, IGB therapy was as effective as intensive lifestyle modification therapy for weight reduction but was less effective with respect to the improvement in abdominal visceral fat accumulation and liver steatosis in super-obese Japanese patients.

  5. Dose-ranging pilot randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for reducing abdominal fat in overweight adults

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    Sasai H

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Sasai,1–3,* Keisuke Ueda,4,5,* Takehiko Tsujimoto,6,7 Hiroyuki Kobayashi,1 Chiaki Sanbongi,4 Shuji Ikegami,4 Yoshio Nakata1 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 3Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo, 4Food Science Research Laboratories, Meiji Co., Ltd., Odawara, Kanagawa, 5Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 7Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effective dose of an amino acid mixture comprising arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine combined with physical activity promotion in reducing abdominal fat among overweight adults.Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, pilot trial was conducted in Mito, Japan, from January through April 2016, and the data were analyzed from May through November 2016. The study participants were 35 overweight adults, aged 20–64 years, with no regular exercise habit. Participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (3,000 mg/d, n=9, medium-dose (1,500 mg/d, n=9, low-dose (750 mg/d, n=8, or placebo (0 mg/d, n=9 groups, and the test beverage containing the amino acid mixture or placebo was administered for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle during the study period through monthly physical activity promotion sessions and smartphone-based self-monitoring with wearable trackers. Primary outcomes were changes in abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, assessed by computed tomography.Results: Of the 35 enrolled participants, 32 completed the 12-week follow-up visit. The intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the changes in abdominal total fat

  6. Abdominal adiposity, insulin and bone quality in young male rats fed a high-fat diet containing soybean or canola oil

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    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is associated with healthy bone properties. However, fatty diets can induce obesity. Our objective was to evaluate intra-abdominal adiposity, insulin, and bone growth in rats fed a high-fat diet containing low ratios of omega-6/omega-3 provided in canola oil. METHODS: After weaning, rats were grouped and fed either a control diet (7S, a high-fat diet containing soybean oil (19S or a high-fat diet of canola oil (19C until they were 60 days old. Differences were considered to be significant if p<0.05. RESULTS: After 60 days, the 19S and 19C groups showed more energy intake, body density growth and intraabdominal fat mass. However, the 19S group had a higher area (200% and a lower number (44% of adipocytes, while the 7S and 19C groups did not differ. The serum concentrations of glucose and insulin and the insulin resistance index were significantly increased in the 19C group (15%, 56%, and 78%, respectively compared to the 7S group. Bone measurements of the 19S and 19C groups showed a higher femur mass (25% and a higher lumbar vertebrae mass (11% and length (5%. Computed tomography analysis revealed more radiodensity in the proximal femoral epiphysis and lumbar vertebrae of 19C group compared to the 7S and 19S groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the amount and source of fat used in the diet after weaning increase body growth and fat depots and affect insulin resistance and, consequently, bone health.

  7. The use of dilute Calogen as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, D W; Markham, D H; Morgan, B; Rodgers, P M; Liddicoat, A J

    2001-08-01

    Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion of arachis oil Calogen, a fat density food supplement) for assessment of the upper abdomen. Seventy-one patients referred for upper abdominal CT were randomized to receive either 500 ml water, 2% sodium diatrizoate or a dilute suspension of Calogen. The CT images were scored independently by three radiologists. Distension and anatomical identification was assessed for the stomach, duodenum and jejunum; with anatomical identification recorded for the pancreas, retroperitoneum, liver, gallbladder and spleen. Dilute Calogen produced a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in distension and anatomical visualization of the stomach and proximal duodenum. Only minimal differences were demonstrated between the three contrast media for visualization of more distal small bowel or identification of the other upper abdominal viscera. Significantly more artifacts were caused by positive contrast media than with the Calogen mixture. A dilute suspension of Calogen as an oral contrast medium is recommended when disease is suspected within the stomach or proximal duodenum.

  8. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  9. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  10. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  11. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  12. Capsiate administration results in an uncoupling protein-3 downregulation, an enhanced muscle oxidative capacity and a decreased abdominal fat content in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, B; Giannesini, B; Matarazzo, V; Le Fur, Y; Rougon, G; Cozzone, P J; Bendahan, D

    2009-12-01

    The involvement of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) in the control of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and at the whole-body level is still a matter of debate. We previously reported that UCP3 downregulation is linked to an enhanced mitochondrial energy metabolism in rat skeletal muscle as a result of acute capsiate treatment. Here, we aimed at investigating noninvasively the effects of chronic capsiate ingestion on metabolic changes occurring in exercising gastrocnemius muscle and at the whole-body level. We used an original experimental setup allowing a complete noninvasive investigation of gastrocnemius muscle function in situ using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Whole-body fat composition was determined using magnetic resonance imaging and UCP3 gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis. We found that a 14-day daily administration of capsiate (100 mg kg(-1) body weight) reduced UCP3 gene expression and increased phosphocreatine level at baseline and during the stimulation period in gastrocnemius muscle. During muscle stimulation, pH(i) showed a larger alkalosis in the capsiate group suggesting a lower glycolysis and a compensatory higher aerobic contribution to ATP production. Although the capsiate-treated rats were hyperphagic as compared to control animals, they showed a lower weight gain coupled to a decreased abdominal fat content. Overall, our data indicated that capsiate administration contributes to the enhancement of aerobic ATP production and the reduction of body fat content coupled to a UCP3 gene downregulation.

  13. Children with moderate-high infection with Entamoeba coli have higher percentage of body and abdominal fat than non-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G A; García, O P; Campos-Ponce, M; Ronquillo, D; Caamaño, M C; Doak, C M; Rosado, J L

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal parasites, virus and bacterial infections are positively associated with obesity and adiposity in vitro and in animal models, but conclusive evidence of this relationship in humans is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine differences in adiposity between infected and non-infected children, with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and obesity. A total of 296 school-aged children (8.0 ± 1.5 years) from a rural area in Querétaro, Mexico, participated in this study. Anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference) and body fat (DXA) were measured in all children. A fresh stool sample was collected from each child and analysed for parasites. Questionnaires related to socioeconomic status and clinical history were completed by caretakers. Approximately 11% of the children were obese, and 19% were overweight. The overall prevalence of infection was 61%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil transmitted helminth (16%) followed by hookworm. Entamoeba coli was the predominant protozoa (20%) followed by Endolimax nana, Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Giardia lamblia. Children with moderate-heavy infection of E. coli had significantly higher waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, body and abdominal fat than children not infected or with light-intensity infection (p < 0.05). These findings raise the possibility that a moderate or heavy infection with E. coli may contribute to fat deposition and thereby have long-term consequences on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand if E. coli contributes directly to fat deposition and possible mechanisms. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  14. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio...

  15. Dietary long-chain inulin reduces abdominal fat but has no effect on bone density in growing female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Ryz, Natasha R; Taylor, Carla G; Weiler, Hope A

    2008-08-01

    New strategies to improve Ca absorption and bone health are needed to address the current state of osteoporosis prevention and management. Inulin-type fructans have shown great promise as a dietary intervention strategy, but have not yet been tested in a young female model. Our objective was to investigate the effect of long chain (LC) inulin on bone mineralization and density in growing, female rats, as well as the quality of growth. Weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to inulin or cellulose treatments for either 4 or 8 weeks. Growth was measured weekly and quality of growth assessed using fat pad weights and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Whole body (WB) and selected regions were analysed for bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition by DXA. Serum markers of bone turnover were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Ca and P concentrations were determined in excised femurs by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Feeding inulin resulted in 4 % higher femoral weight (adjusted for body weight) and 6 % less feed intake. Inulin did not affect WB or regional BMD, but was associated with a 28 % lower parametrial fat pad mass, 21 % less WB fat mass and 5 % less WB mass. In summary, LC-inulin lowered body fat mass, without consequence to bone density in growing female rats.

  16. Study on the Prevention and treatment of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision%腹部切口脂肪液化的防治体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田青山; 王皓; 郭亚民; 吴新民

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fat liquefaction of abdominal incision is the more common complications after abdominal surgery, and the main surgery task is to prevent the occurrence of fat liquefaction. METHODS We washed the incision with large amounts of physiological saline before closure of subcutaneous fat. The treatment principle of fat liquefaction was not to expose all of the incision when less exudates; Open local Incision with an additional 10% hypertonic saline drainage can achieve good results; Incision open, unobstructed drainage and use of antibiotics are necessary when more exudates or exudative a wider range; The whole incision drainage used hypertonic saline or gentamicin gauze. Two stage suture was implemented when the fresh granulation tissue was formed. RESULTS The fat liquefaction rate of the experimental group did not show significant difference compared with the control group when Subcutaneous fat thickness was less than 2cm (P > 0.05); The fat liquefaction rate of the control group (Subcutaneous fat thickness was less than or equal to 2cm) was significantly different compared with the control group (less than or equal to 4cm) (P < 0.01); The fat liquefaction rate of the experimental group was significant difference compared with the control group (Subcutaneous fat thickness was more than or equal to 4cm) (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION Effective measures should be taken to prevent the fat liquefied, including preoperative to correct anemia and hypoproteinemia, controlling blood glucose below than 10 mmol/L, proper use of electrotome, low-current cutting subcutaneous tissue, accurately and quickly cutting the fat tissue, so as to avoid repeated cutting and prolonged exposure of fat tissue, washing incision with large amounts of physiological saline before closure of subcutaneous fat.%目的 切口脂肪液化是腹部手术后较为常见的并发症,预防其发生就成了外科临床工作的首要任务.方法 在缝合皮下脂肪层前用大量生理盐水冲切

  17. Utility of chemical-shift MR imaging in detecting small amounts of fat in extrahepatic abdominal tumors; Utilidad de la tecnica de desplazamiento quimico den RM para la deteccion de pequenas cantidades de grasa en tumores abdominales extrahepaticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.; Falco, J.; Puig, J.; Donoso, L. [Unidad de Diagnostico por Imagen de Alta Tecnologia (UDIAT). Sabadell (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    To determine the utility of the chemical shift technique in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to confirm small amounts of fat in extrahepatic intraabdominal tumours. 7 extrahepatic abdominal tumours that are suspected to have fat as seen in the axial computed tomography (TC) are analysed retrospectively. In order to confirm the fat content, the chemical displacement technique with gradient echo sequences (GE) in phase (P) and in opposite phase (OP) was used with MRI 1 T equipment. The tumours corresponded to renal angiomyolipoma (AML) (n=4), intraperitoneal liposarcoma (n=1), retroperitoneal liposarcoma (n=1) and intraabdominal extramedular hematopoiesis (n=1). To confirm the existence of fat in the tumours, we used a quantitative percentage variation parameter of the intensity of the signals (VIS) between the images in P and OP, according to the formula: IS{sub (}p)-IS({sub o}p)x100/IS{sub (}op), where IS is the intensity of the signal. The chemical shift technique showed fat in the seven tumours. Upon visual inspection, all the tumoral areas that were suspected to have fat showed a notable difference in the signal intensity, being hypointense in OP and hyperintense in P. In these areas the average VIS percentage was 170% while in the rest of the tumour the average VIS percentage was 3%. The chemical shift technique with RG sequences can be easily used in MRI equipment and allows us to confirm if a specific abdominal tumour has fat, even if there is only a small quantity. (Author) 13 refs.

  18. Prevalence of amyloid deposition in long standing rheumatoid arthritis in Iranian patients by abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsy and assessment of clinical and laboratory characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setarehshenas Roya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study was aimed at determining the prevalence of secondary amyloidosis in a group of Iranian patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA, and the assessment of its correlation with the clinical and laboratory findings and data. Method A total number of 220 patients (167 female and 53 male with a minimum five-year history of RA were selected. Congo red staining method was used for staining the specimens obtained by abdominal subcutaneous fat biopsy (ASFB method. All of the specimens were examined for apple-green birefringence under polarized light microscope. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients were assessed. Chi-square test and unpaired student's t-test were run for intergroup comparisons. Results Amyloid deposition test yielded positive results in 15 out of the 220 cases (6.8% examined by the ASFB technique. Thirteen patients were found to have minimal amyloid deposits. Of all the clinically significant cases, 8 (53% presented with proteinuria, and 7 cases (46.6% had severe constipation. Conclusion The prevalence of fat amyloid deposits in Iranian patients with RA is low. In up to half of the study group the deposits were subclinical. Follow up studies are required to determine whether this subclinical amyloidosis can develop into full-blown clinically significant amyloidosis.

  19. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  20. Confined housing system increased abdominal and subcutaneous fat deposition and gene expressions of carbohydrate response element-binding protein and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q; Zhao, X L; Gilbert, E R; Liu, Y P; Wang, Y; Qiu, M H; Zhu, Q

    2015-02-06

    Free-range production system is increasingly being used in poultry breeding and feed production in many countries. The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effects of different raising systems on fat-related traits and mRNA levels of liver lipogenesis genes in Erlang Mountainous chicken. Each of 10 birds (91 day old) from caged, indoor-floor housed, and free-range housing systems was slaughtered, and fat-related traits, live body weight (BW), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), abdominal fat weight (AFW), abdominal fat percentage (AFP), and intramuscular fat content were determined. The mRNA levels of liver X receptor α, carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP1), and fatty acid synthase were detected. The caged chicken exhibited significantly higher BW, SFT, and AFW than those of free-ranged chicken (P caged chicken, while the lowest level was found in free-ranged chicken. Association analysis indicated that there were significant (P caged chicken was probably induced by increased gene expression of ChREBP and SREBP1 in the liver.

  1. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  2. Accuracy of sagittal abdominal diameter as predictor of abdominal fat among Brazilian adults: a comparation with waist circumference Precisión de diámetro abdominal sagital como predictor de la grasa abdominal en brasileños adultos: una comparación con la circunferencia de la cintura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Duarte Pimentel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aim was to compare the sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD with waist circumference (WC as a predictor of central obesity among adults and to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut-off point for SAD. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 266 Brazilians adults (euthrophic and overweight, aged 31-84 years old, of which 89 men and 177 women, was carried out. Anthropometric measurements such as SAD, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, waist and hip ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage were performed. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curve was used to identify the sensitivity and specificity of the best cut off point for SAD as a predictor of central obesity. Statistical analysis were considered significant with a value of p Objetivo: Nuestro objetivo es comparar el diámetro abdominal sagital (DAS con la circunferencia de la cintura (CC como predictor de la obesidad central entre los adultos y para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad de la mejor punto de corte para el DAS. Métodos: Estudio transversal de 266 adultos brasileños (eutróficos y con sobrepeso, de entre 31-84 años de edad, de los cuales 89 hombres y 177 mujeres, se llevó a cabo. Las medidas antropométricas como la DAS, peso, talla, circunferencia de la cintura y cadera, relación cintura-cadera, índice de masa corporal, porcentaje de grasa corporal se llevaron a cabo. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC curva se utilizó para determinar la sensibilidad y la especificidad del mejor punto de corte para el DAS como predictor de la obesidad central. El análisis estadístico se consideró significativo un valor de p < 0,05. Resultados: La medición del DAS se correlacionó positivamente con CC para ambos sexos, aunque más fuerte entre las mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad (r = 0,71, p < 0,001, r = 0,79, p < 0,001, respectivamente que los hombres. De curvas ROC identificado las mejores puntos de corte para el DAS de 23.1 cm y 20

  3. Asociación entre tejido graso abdominal y riesgo de morbilidad: efectos positivos del ejercicio físico en la reducción de esta tendencia Positive effects of physical exercise on reducing the relationship between subcutaneous abdominal fat and morbility risk

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    G. González Calvo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Justificación: Las consecuencias derivadas de la acumulación de grasa abdominal por encima de niveles saludables infligen un considerable daño a nivel orgánico. Entre las consecuencias fisiológicas destacan las enfermedades cardiovasculares, hipertensión, diabetes tipo 2, obesidad y síndrome metabólico, que reducen drásticamente la calidad y esperanza de vida. Hay evidencias de que la mejora de la salud es proporcional al incremento de actividad física. No obstante, el ejercicio físico puede ocasionar daño oxidativo en órganos y tejidos musculares más acusado en personas con un elevado porcentaje graso abdominal. En este trabajo se determinan cuáles son las variables fundamentales del programa de ejercicio para optimizar sus beneficios y minimizar el estrés oxidativo. Objetivo principal: Conocer las variables determinantes de una acumulación de masa grasa abdominal por encima de los niveles saludables y el papel que juega el ejercicio en su prevención y mejora. Objetivos específicos: 1 Identificar las variables fundamentales de un programa de ejercicio enfocado a reducir la grasa abdominal; 2 Comprender la relación entre grasa abdominal, salud y ejercicio; 3 Revisar las últimas investigaciones en relación a la práctica de ejercicio físico y su efecto sobre el tejido adiposo abdominal. Metodología: Se llevará a cabo una búsqueda e identificación en artículos originales y de revisión publicados en revistas de impacto indexadas en las principales bases de datos. Discusión: El ejercicio físico habitual, fundamentalmente el de carácter aeróbico, produce una disminución en los depósitos de tejido adiposo corporal y abdominal en las personas obesas y con sobrepeso.Introduction: The consequences related to the accumulation of abdominal fat above healthy levels create a considerable organic damage. Among the physiological consequences we can highlight heart diseases, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, obesity and metabolic

  4. Methods in Analyzing Abdominal Fat of Obese Children and Adolescents%肥胖儿童青少年腹部脂肪不同评价方法比较

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    郑小斐; 汤庆娅; 陶晔璇

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess the clinical value of ultrasonography (US) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in analyzing abdominal fat contents of obese children and adolescents through comparison with MRI. A correlation with other obese related metabolic parameters was conducted. Methods Ninety 7-17-y-old obese children and adolescents (60 boys and 30 girls with mean age of 9.6 ± 2.9 y and mean BMI of 24.5 ± 4.5 kg/m2) were recruited. Metabolic parameters were measured, and insulin resistance was estimated according to homeostasis model assess-ment (HOMA-IR). On the same day abdomen subcutaneous fat thickness (SFTUS) was measured by US. Body fat mass (FMBIA) and abdominal visceral fat area (VFABIA) were analyzed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). After obtaining informed consent, abdominal MRI was performed in 20 subjects. Each section of umbilicus level was analyzed by image threshold value segmentation using SigmaScan Pro 5 and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (SFAMRI) and visceral fat area (VFAMRI) were calculated. Results (1) A strong positive association was found between SFTUS and SFAMRI (P< 0.05), VFABIA and VFAMRI (P < 0.01) respectively. (2) FMBIA and SFAMRI, VFAMRI, SFTUS also showed significant correlations (P < 0.05). (3) VFAMRI showed extremely significant positive correlations with TG, Insulin,C-peptide and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01 ) ; SFAMRI was also correlated positively with them (P < 0.05). (4) SFTUS was correlated positively with UA (uric acid), Insulin, 2HIns (insulin measured at 2 hours after meal), C-peptide,2HC-peptide (C-peptide measured at 2 hours after meal) and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01). (5) VFABIA was correlated significant positively with UA, insulin, TG, 2HIns and HOMA-IR. FMBIA showed positive correlation with UA, Insulin,2HIns, C-peptide, 2HC-peptide and HOMA-IR. Conclusions abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat of obese children and adolescents evaluated by US and BIA are correlated well with those assessed by MRI, and also correlated

  5. Excesso de peso e gordura abdominal para a síndrome metabólica em nipo-brasileiros Weight excess and abdominal fat in the metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Brazilians

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    Daniel D G Lerario

    2002-02-01

    doenças interligadas pela resistência à insulina, inclusive em população de origem oriental. A alta prevalência de síndrome metabólica nos migrantes japoneses pode ser decorrente da deposição visceral de gordura, implicada na gênese da resistência à insulina.OBJECTIVE: Obesity, especially abdominal, has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM. The importance of these risk factors among Japanese-Brazilians was previously shown, although obesity is not a typical characteristic of Japanese migrants. In this study the prevalence of weight excess and central adiposity (CA among Japanese-Brazilians and their association with metabolic disorders was evaluated. METHODS: A sample of 530 1st and 2nd generation Japanese-Brazilians (aged 40--79 years went through anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance tests. The prevalence rate (point and confidence interval of overweight was calculated using a cut-off value of >26.4 kg/m². CA diagnosis was based on waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR: > or = 0.85 and 0.95 in women and men, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of weight excess was 22.4% (CI 95% 20.6--28.1, and CA was 67.0% (95% CI 63.1--70.9. In addition to higher prevalence of DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia, stratifying by BMI and WHR, people with weight excess and CA revealed a poorer metabolic profile: blood pressure levels were significantly higher among those with weight excess with or without CA; CA individuals had higher glucose, triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol, and lower HDL than those without weight excess or CA; fasting insulinemia was significantly higher among subjects with weight excess (with or without CA than among those without weight excess or CA. CONCLUSION: Comparing subgroups with and without CA supports the hypothesis that abdominal fat accumulation represents a risk factor for insulin resistance-related diseases

  6. Associação de variáveis sócio-demográficas e comportamentais com a gordura abdominal em adultos: estudo de base populacional no Sul do Brasil Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults: a population-based survey in Southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Castanheira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a distribuição antropométrica da gordura abdominal em uma população adulta e o efeito de variáveis sócio-demográficas, reprodutivas e comportamentais sobre essa distribuição. O desfecho estudado foi definido como o maior perímetro da região abdominal, sendo entrevistados e medidos 3.464 adultos, de 20 a 69 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As diferenças entre as médias de perímetro foram testadas empregando-se ANOVA e regressão múltipla, visando o controle de confundimento. Homens mais velhos, de cor branca, vivendo com companheira e com alta renda familiar (p This article describes the anthropometric distribution of abdominal fat in the urban adult population in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the influence of independent variables on this distribution. In a cross-sectional population-based study, 3,464 adults from 20 to 69 years of age were selected in a multistage systematic sampling. They were interviewed and had their largest abdominal circumference measured. Means were compared using one-way ANOVA, while multiple linear regression models were employed to adjust for confounding. According to the study, older white married men with higher family incomes were more likely to have the highest mean abdominal circumferences (p < 0.001. Women at greatest risk for abdominal fat were older married mothers with a history of 4 or more pregnancies and less schooling (p < 0.001. Former smokers had the highest mean abdominal circumferences in both males and females, while other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and physical activity showed no association with the outcome after adjusting for confounding.

  7. The Ratio Between Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat Assessed by Computed Tomography Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Cardiac Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Bettencourt, Nuno; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Ferreira, Nuno; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Gama, Vasco

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events. Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients consisted of those without known heart disease referred to cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We included all patients with available information on VAT and SAT areas and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We assessed the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure at least 1 month after cardiac CT. The final population consisted of 713 participants (61% male; mean age, 57.7±10.2 years) followed up for a median of 1.3 years. The combined endpoint occurred in 66 patients; these patients showed a higher VAT/SAT ratio (1.06±0.74 vs 0.80±0.52, P=.0001). The VAT/SAT ratio was an independent predictor of death and cardiac events (HR = 1.43; 95%CI, 1.03-1.99), irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. The ratio between abdominal VAT/SAT was an independent predictor of death and coronary events, irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. This ratio is a CT-derived metric that may help to better identify patients with increased risk of death or cardiac events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. MRI sagittal abdominal diameter is a stronger predictor of metabolic syndrome than visceral fat area or waist circumference in a high-risk vascular cohort

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    Michel R Hoenig

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Michel R HoenigUniversity of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaObjective: To determine whether sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD is associated with the metabolic syndrome independently of visceral fat area (VFA and waist circumference (WC.Methods: Forty-three high-risk vascular patients were evaluated for metabolic syndrome criteria and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to quantify SAD and VFA at the L4–L5 disc.Comparisons: 1. Baseline differences in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome 2. Forward binary logistic regression analysis of predictors of the metabolic syndrome with SAD, VFA and WC as independents 3. Correlates of SAD.Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome had greater SAD, VFA and WC than patients without the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.01. Of SAD, VFA and WC, only SAD was associated with metabolic syndrome on forward binary logistic regression; beta 0.68, Wald’s statistic 10.8 (P = 0.001 and c-statistic 0.89 (P < 0.001. A > 22.7 cm SAD threshold identified metabolic syndrome with a 91% sensitivity and 80% specificity. SAD correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.918, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = –0.363, triglyceride (r = 0.401, fasting glucose (r = 0.428 and the QUICK index of insulin sensitivity (r = –0.667 (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: MRI-measured SAD is associated with the metabolic syndrome and renders the current gold standard of VFA redundant. This measure of obesity-related cardiovascular risk requires validation and evaluation in a prospective cohort.Keywords: obesity, insulin resistance

  9. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, T.; M. T. Gaztelu; Calvo, A.; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  10. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

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    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  11. Prevention and treatment of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision after caesarean section%剖宫产术后腹部切口脂肪液化的防治分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause and preventive measures of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision after caesarean section. Methods Sixty-two cases of abdominal incision after caesarean section fat liquefaction between January 2008 and December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Results Obesity in 48 cases, 32 cases of gestational edema, prolonged labor in 24 cases, 8 cases of diabetes, anemia in 8 cases and 6 cases of cough. Conclusions The cesarean section incision fat liquefaction is related to obesity, pregnancy, edema, prolonged labor, diabetes, anemia, cough, and the length of incision time.%目的 探讨剖宫产术后腹部切口脂肪液化的原因及预防措施.方法 对我科2008年1月至2010年12月62例剖宫产术后发生腹部切口脂肪液化患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 62例患者中肥胖48例,妊娠水肿32例,滞产24例,糖尿病8例,贫血8例,咳嗽6例.结论 剖宫产术后切口脂肪液化与肥胖、妊娠水肿、滞产、糖尿病、贫血、咳嗽以及切口暴露时间长短有关.

  12. Inflammatory characteristics of distinct abdominal adipose tissue depots relate differently to metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease Distinct fat depots and vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariette E. G.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Stupkova, Tereza; de Jager, Wilco; Vink, Aryan; Moll, Frans L.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, specific contributions of distinct adipose tissue (AT) depots to metabolic complications of obesity are still unclear. In this study, the inflammatory profile of four distinct abdominal AT-depots and

  13. The use of dilute calogen[reg] as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsay, Duncan W.; Markham, Derrian H.; Morgan, Bruno; Rodgers, Peter M.; Liddicoat, Amanda J

    2001-08-01

    AIM: Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion of arachis oil (Calogen[reg], a fat density food supplement) for assessment of the upper abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients referred for upper abdominal CT were randomized to receive either 500 ml water, 2% sodium diatrizoate or a dilute suspension of Calogen[reg]. The CT images were scored independently by three radiologists. Distension and anatomical identification was assessed for the stomach, duodenum and jejunum; with anatomical identification recorded for the pancreas, retroperitoneum, liver, gallbladder and spleen. RESULTS: Dilute Calogen[reg] produced a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in distension and anatomical visualization of the stomach and proximal duodenum. Only minimal differences were demonstrated between the three contrast media for visualization of more distal small bowel or identification of the other upper abdominal viscera. Significantly more artifacts were caused by positive contrast media than with the Calogen[reg] mixture. CONCLUSION: A dilute suspension of Calogen[reg] as an oral contrast medium is recommended when disease is suspected within the stomach or proximal duodenum. Ramsay, D.W. et al. (2001)

  14. Association between intra-abdominal fat volume and waist circumference measured at the umbilicus level%经脐水平测定腹围与腹内脂肪体积关系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林寰东; 颜红梅; 饶圣祥; 姚秀忠; 高鑫

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较临床常用的3种腹围测量方法与CT测定的腹内脂肪体积的关系,探讨最能反映腹内脂肪堆积程度的腹围测量方法和临床应用价值.方法 对147例18岁以上经年龄和性别匹配的成年人进行身高、体重和臀围测量,分别采用髂嵴上缘水平(WC1)、肋骨下缘和髂嵴上缘连线中点水平(WC2)和脐水平( WC3)测量腹围,与CT测量的腹内脂肪体积进行比较.结果 男性腹内脂肪体积高于女性[(1 236.0±608.4对931.0±665.0)cm3,P<0.01].相关性分析显示WC1 (r=0.634),WC2(r =0.677)和WC3(r=0.712)均与腹内脂肪体积呈正相关(均P<0.01),经性别、体重或体重指数校正后,WC3(r分别为0.488和0.432)与腹内脂肪体积的相关性优于WC1(r分别为0.347和0.293)和WC2(r分别为0.424和0.365).多元逐步线性回归分析显示WC2和WC3均与腹内脂肪体积独立相关,其中以WC3相关性最强(β=0.270,R2C=0.504,P<0.01).结论 经髂嵴上缘水平、肋骨下缘与髂嵴上缘连线中点水平以及经脐水平腹围均能反映腹内脂肪含量,其中经脐水平测量腹围是简便易行、更好地反映腹内脂肪体积的方法.%Objective To explore the best measurement of waist circumference related with intra-abdominal fat volume evaluated by CT scan.Methods Height,weight,and hip circumference were measured among 147 subjects aged over 18 years old.Waist circumference was measured at 3 different levels:the upper brim of the iliac crest ( WC1 ),the midpoint between costal brim and iliac crest ( WC2 ),and the umbilicus ( WC3 ).The intra-abdominal fat volume was evaluated by CT scan.Results Intra-abdominal fat volume was significantly higher in men than in women [ ( 1 236.0±608.4 vs 931.0±665.0)cm3,P<0.01 ].Correlation analysis showed that WC1 ( r =0.634),WC2( r=0.677),and WC3 (r =0.712)were positively correlated with intra-abdominal fat volume ( all P<0.01 ).Partial correlation analysis adjusted by gender,weight,or body mass index

  15. The use of body circumferences for the prediction of intra-abdominal fat in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome El uso de circunferencias corporales para la predicción de la grasa intra-abdominal en mujeres obesas con el síndrome del ovario poliquístico

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    F. Rodrigues de Oliveira Penaforte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Computerizd tomography (CT is the gold standard for the evaluation of intra- (IAF and total (TAF abdominal fat; however, the high cost of the procedure and exposure to radiation limit its routine use. Objective: To develop equations that utilize anthropometric measures for the estimate of IAF and TAF in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS. Methods: The weight, height, BMI, and abdominal (AC, waist (WC, chest (CC, and neck (NC circumferences of thirty obese women with PCOS were measured, and their IAF and TAF were analyzed by CT. Results: The anthropometric variables AC, CC, and NC were chosen for the TAF linear regression model because they were better correlated with the fat deposited in this region. The model proposed for TAF (predicted was: 4.63725 + 0.01483 x AC - 0.00117 x NC - 0.00177 x CC (R² = 0.78; and the model proposed for IAF was: IAF (predicted = 1.88541 + 0.01878 x WC + 0.05687 x NC -0.01529 x CC (R²=0.51. AC was the only independent predictor of TAF (p Introducción: La tomografia computarizada (TC es el estándar de oro para la evaluación de la grasa intra-abdominal (GIA y abdominal total (GAT, pero los altos costos y la exposición a la radiación limitan su uso rutinario. Objetivo: Desarrollar ecuaciones para la estimación de la GIA y la GAT en mujeres obesas con el sindrome del ovario poliquistico, utilizando medidas antropométricas. Métodos: Se evaluó el peso, la altura, el IMC y las circunferencias abdominal (CA, cintura (CC, pecho (CP y cuello (Ccu de 30 mujeres obesas con SOP. La GIA y GAT fueron analizados por la TC. Resultados: El modelo propuesto fue: GAT = 4,63725 + 0,01483 x CA - 0.00117 x CCu - 0,00177 x CP (R² = 0,78; y para la GIA fue: GIA = 1, 88541 + 0, 01878 x CC + 0,05687 x CCu - 0,01529 x CP (R² = 0,51. La CA fue La única variable predictora independiente de la GAT (p < 0,01. Conclusión: Las equaciones propuestas correlacionaronse bien con el valor real, medido a trav

  16. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  17. Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Aiyun; Li, Lijun; Kitlinska, Joanna B; Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance associated with a 5-fold up-regulation of NPY mRNA and a 6-fold up-regulation of Y2R mRNA specifically in VAT, in addition to elevated platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) NPY, compared to control females fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Conversely, PLS male offspring showed lower NPY in PRP, a 10-fold decrease of Y2R mRNA in VAT, lower adiposity, and improved glucose tolerance compared to control males. Interestingly, prenatal LPD offspring cross-fostered to control lactating mothers had completely inverse metabolic and NPY phenotypes. Taken together, these findings suggested that maternal LPD activates the VAT NPY-Y2R system and increases abdominal adiposity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific fashion, suggesting that the peripheral NPY system is a potential mediator of programming for the offspring's vulnerability to obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  18. Belly Fat in Men: Why Weight Loss Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as fish and low-fat dairy products. Limit saturated fat, found in meat and high-fat dairy products, ... 61:262. Carlsson AC, et al. Prediction of cardiovascular disease by abdominal obesity measures is dependent on ...

  19. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices...... standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt...... with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p≤0.0004) and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose (p≤0.001). CONCLUSION: Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessed by ultrasonography are significantly associated...

  20. 不同类型和水平VE在肉鸡肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中的沉积%Accumulation of different types and levels of vitamin E in muscle, skin and abdominal fat of broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘红艳; 温超; 周岩民

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the accumulation of different types and levels of vitamin E (VE) in muscle, skin and abdominal fat of broilers. The results showed that: (1) The addition of higher level of dietary VE could increase the amounts of total VE deposited in muscle, skin and fat (F<0. 05);(2) For natural a-tocopherol group,total VE deposition in muscle and skin were higher than that of synthetic a-tocopherol group and natural mixed VE group at the same level (P<0. 05) ; (3) Lower a-tocopherol percentages and higher γ-tocopherol percentages were observed in muscle, skin and abdominal fat in natural mixed VE group than in the other two groups at the same level; (4) Higher level of natural mixed VE or natural a-tocopherol increased a-tocopherol percentage in skin; (5) The a-tocopherol percentage was higher than y-tocopherol percentage in muscle.%研究不同类型和水平VE在肉鸡肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中沉积的差异.结果表明:(1)同类型VE组相比,高水平组肉鸡的肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中的VE总量均显著高于低水平组(P<0.05);(2)天然α-生育酚组肌肉和皮肤中的VE总量显著高于同水平的合成α-生育酚组和天然混合 VE 组(P<0.05);(3)天然混合 VE 组肉鸡肌肉、皮肤和腹脂中的α-生育酚的沉积率低于同水平的合成α-生育酚组和天然α-生育酚组,而γ-生育酚的沉积率均高于同水平的其他两组;(4)天然混合 VE 或天然α-生育酚水平的提高会增加α-生育酚在皮肤中的沉积率;(5)肌肉中α-生育酚的沉积率高于γ-生育酚.

  1. 超重肥胖小学生BMI、腰围与体脂百分比及腹部脂肪率的关系%The association between body mass index, waist circumference with body fat percent, and abdominal fat rate in overweight and obese pupils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶晶; 王海俊; 刘佳帅; 马军

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the association between body mass index (BMI),waist circumference (WC) with body fat percent,and abdominal fat rate in overweight and obese pupils.Methods Using convenience sampling,two primary schools of Dongcheng district in Beijing were selected in May 2010.A total of 162 overweight and obese pupils graded from 2 to 5 who met the criteria of overweight and obese were recruited based on the physical exam record of the school medical department in April.Their physical measurements were taken to measure body fat percent (PBF),abdominal fat rate and visceral fat level and BMI was calculated.Independent-sample t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were applied to analyze the gender differences.Correlation analysis was used to explore the association between the indexes of fat distribution (PBF,abdominal fat rate and visceral fat level) and BMI and WC.Univariate regression analysis was conducted to determine the variance of three indexes of fat distribution explained by the independent variables.Results The PBF of overweight and obese pupils was (43.62 ± 2.98) %,the abdominal fat rate of them was (28.06 ± 6.02) %,the visceral fat level of them was 7.51 ± 3.43,BMI was (23.41 ±2.83) kg/m2.WC,PBF and abdominal fat rate were (78.57 ± 7.76) cm,(42.36 ± 2.56) % and (26.47 ±5.39) % in boys and (73.34 ± 7.22) cm,(45.88 ± 2.26) %,(30.92 ± 6.07) % in girls.The difference in gender was significant (t values were-4.218,8.751,4.811,respectively,all P values < 0.01).The visceral fat level of boys and girls were 8.86 ± 3.42 and 5.09 ± 1.70,with significant difference (Z =-7.08,P <0.01).The correlation between PBF and BMI and the variance of PBF explained by BMI (r =0.563,R2 =31.7%) were stronger than them with WC (r =0.402,R2 =16.1%) (P < 0.01).The correlation between visceral fat levels and WC and the variance of visceral fat level explained by WC (r =0.723,R2 =57.3%) were higher than them with BMI (r =0.621,R2 =41.7%) (P < 0

  2. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M.; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P.; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ong, Ken K.

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and

  3. Análise da relação entre a estatura e o perímetro abdominal em indivíduos portadores de percentuais normais de gordura Relationship between the stature and abdominal circumference in individuals with normal fat percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Celso de Lima

    2010-03-01

    da razão cintura-estatura entre indivíduos do sexo masculino de faixa etária entre 18 e 25 anos portadores de percentual normal de gordura de 43% do valor de sua estatura.BACKGROUND: Obese people have evident morphologic changes characterizing the syndrome. Different parameters and index are used to analyze their anthropometric measurements related to metabolic diseases. Many of these are applied widely to the population in general. AIM: To verify the existence of the waist-height common in male individuals from 18 to 25 years of age, with normal percentages of fat, to provide a method for measuring the circumference (perimeter abdominal. METHODS: It was selected a non-probabilistic intentional 380 male subjects group, aged between 18 and 45 years (2004 to 2008 with160 to 169 cm, 170 to 179 cm and 180 to 189 cm of height, taken from the database Outpatient Clinic School Company IBRATE - Brazilian Institute of Therapy and Education, based in Curitiba, PR, Brasil. From this population were screened 174 individuals, aged between 18 and 25 years, owners of percentage of fat within the normal range between 4% and 16%. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r was used between fat percentage and waist circumference, determined by mean and standard deviation of all variables, with confidence interval of 95% for average waist circumference and population reasons waist-height. RESULTS: The analysis showed 174 men with age 21,2 + 2,1 y; height 174,3 + 6,2 cm; fat percentage of 10,8 %; abdominal circumference of 75,5 + 5,7 cm and waist-height reason of 0,43 + 0,033. CONCLUSION: There is a correlation in the waist-height among men from 18 and 25 years old with normal fat percentage of 43% of the stature.

  4. Associations between ultrasound measures of abdominal fat distribution and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the ADDITION-PRO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelotte Philipsen

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed.Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p≤0.0004 and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr

  5. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Tyler A; Burruss, T Pepper; Weir, Nate L; Fielding, Kurt A; Engel, Bryan E; Weston, Todd D; Dengel, Donald R

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine visceral fat mass as well as other measures abdominal body composition in National Football League (NFL) players before the start of the season. Three hundred and seventy NFL football players were measured before the start of the season using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Regional fat and lean mass was measured for each player. Players were categorized into 3 groups based on positions that mirror each other: linemen; linebackers/tight ends/running backs and wide receivers/defensive backs. Significant differences were observed between the position groups for both lean and fat regional measurements. However, the magnitude of difference was much greater for fat measures than lean measures. Additionally, a threshold was observed (∼114 kg) at which there is a greater increase in fat accumulation than lean mass accumulation. The increase in fat accumulation is distributed to the abdominal region where thresholds were observed for subcutaneous abdominal fat accumulation (12.1% body fat) and visceral abdominal fat accumulation (20.1% body fat), which likely explains the regional fat differences between groups. The results of this study suggest that as players get larger, there is more total fat than total lean mass accumulation and more fat is distributed to the abdominal region. This is of importance as increased fat mass may be detrimental to performance at certain positions. The thresholds observed for increased abdominal fat accumulation should be monitored closely given recent research observed that abdominal obesity predicts lower extremity injury risk and visceral adipose tissue's established association with cardiometabolic risk.

  6. Abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach pain; Pain - abdomen; Belly ache; Abdominal cramps; Bellyache; Stomachache ... Almost everyone has pain in the abdomen at some point. Most of the time, it is not serious. How bad your pain is does not always reflect the seriousness ...

  7. Abdominal actinomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Mohren, B; Naber, K G; Männl, H F K

    2003-08-01

    Intra-abdominal and extraperitoneal actinomycosis are rare infections, caused by different Actinomyces species. However, they have been diagnosed more frequently in the last ten years. We report three cases of abdominal actinomycosis and a literature review of the last eight years. All three patients were diagnosed by means of histopathologic examination only. In one case, an intrauterine device (IUD) was associated with the infection. Therapy consisted of surgical resection of the inflammatory, infected tissue, and long-term antibiotic therapy. All patients are free of recurrence. Abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal pathology of insidious onset, especially when an IUD is in place. Even when infection had spread extensively, combined operative and antibiotic therapy cured most of the cases.

  8. Recombinant human growth hormone and rosiglitazone for abdominal fat accumulation in HIV-infected patients with insulin resistance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall J Glesby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT volume. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA. Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02; by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03 differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004, increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5% or control arms (-1.9%. SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. TRIAL REGISTRATION

  9. 男性腹型肥胖患者腹部脂肪面积与胰岛素抵抗的相关性分析%The correlation of intra-abdominal fat area with insulin resistance in male with abdominal obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德丰; 陆强; 丁伟利; 马宁; 刘兰祥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between intra-abdominal fat area(IAFA)in male with abdominal obesity and glycometabolism related indicators. Methods Ninety-four obesity males,aged from 21 to 62 years old,were selected as our subjects. They were divided into abdominal obesity group(n = 70)and non-abdominal obesity group( n = 24). The general information of all subjects was recorded. The indexes of height,weight,waist circumference,hip circumference,body mass index(BMI)were measured. The fasting oral glucose tolerance test was performed. The levels of blood glucose(0,1,2 h)and insulin(0,1,2 h)were measured,and insulin resistance index was calculated. MRI measurement was applied to calculate the IAFA. Compared the difference between the two groups in term of the level of blood glucose,insulin and insulin resistance index,and analyzed the correlation between glycometabolism related indicators and IAFA. Results BMI,waist circumference,hip circumference,insulin resistance index and IAFA in abdominal obesity group were (28. 67 ± 4. 20)kg/ m2 ,(99. 75 ± 4. 07)cm,(104. 42 ± 7. 62)cm,2. 60 ± 1. 80,(153. 06 ± 53. 23)cm2 respectively,higher than those in non-abdominal obesity group((21. 80 ± 1. 97)kg/ m2 ,(79. 50 ± 10. 05)cm, (91. 86 ± 4. 49)cm,1. 52 ± 0. 73,(71. 78 ± 25. 48)cm2 ),and the differences were statistically significant(t= - 7. 704,- 9. 583,- 7. 618,- 2. 877,- 7. 184,P < 0. 05). The level of blood glucose at 0,1,2 h of patient in abdominal obesity group were(5. 89 ± 1. 36)mmol/ L,(10. 55 ± 3. 07)mmol/ L,and(8. 41 ± 3. 63) mmol/ L,higher than that in non-abdominal obesity group((5. 29 ± 0. 53)mmol/ L,(8. 76 ± 1. 96)mmol/ L, (6. 54 ± 1. 50)mmol/ L). Meanwhile,The insulin at 0,1,2 h of man in abdominal obesity group were(9. 71 ± 5. 05)mU/ L,(83. 29 ± 64. 51)mU/ L,(63. 56 ± 21. 09)mU/ L),significantly higher than those in non-abdominal obesity group((6. 42 ± 2. 96)mU/ L,(33. 00 ± 19. 82)mU/ L,(63. 56 ± 21. 09)mU/ L),and the differences

  10. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already i...

  11. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther;

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  12. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  13. Higher lipid accumulation in broilers fed on saturated fats than in those fed on unsaturated fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, M; Flores, A; De Ayala, P P; Lopez-Bote, C J

    1999-03-01

    1. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of fat sources differing in degree of saturation on the performance of and fat deposition in broiler chickens fed on isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets. 2. There were no differences in initial body weight between sexes but female broilers had lower daily gains (Psaturation. Broilers fed on diets containing an animal fat blend or tallow had higher abdominal fat pad weight (Psaturation affects fat accumulation in broiler chickens.

  14. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) occurs when atherosclerosis ... an abdominal aortic aneurysm treated? What is an abdominal aortic aneurysm? The aorta, the largest artery in the body, ...

  15. MR imaging of abdominal mass in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Tsutomu [Yamanashi Medical Univ., Tamaho (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    In order to evaluate the usefulness of MR imaging in the diagnosis of abdominal mass in children, we compared MR imaging with CT in 33 children who had undergone both examinations. Although MR imaging was less specific to calcification, gas and fat, it was more specific to hematoma and clarified the extension of tumors more precisely than CT. MRI seems to be a promising diagnostic modality for pediatric abdominal masses. (author).

  16. 北京鸭腹部脂肪组织的转录组特征分析%Transcriptome analysis of abdominal fats from Peking ducks by RNA-seq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈黎; 李国勤; 田勇; 沈军达; 陶争荣; 徐坚; 曾涛; 卢立志

    2016-01-01

    Although the duck genome sequence has been released , its genomic structure , especially its transcriptome characterization needs to be further studied .This study characterized the transcriptome of abdominal fat in ducks by using RNA-seq.In total, 203 200 984 clean reads were obtained , and 18 464 genes were identified to be expressed in abdominal fat , among which 96.9% genes'RPKM values were lower than 1 000 .15 070 genes had alternative splicing ( AS) , and the splicing times were 35 913 .Intron retention was found to be the rarest AS type , while alter-native first exons , alternative last exons and skipped exon were the three major types , with the proportions of 45.92%, 43.67%and 6.23%, respectively.Using these transcriptome data, 229 276 SNPs were called, among which transitions were the main type , accounting for 73.28%of all the SNPs .Gene ontology ( GO) annotation analy-sis revealed that genes including these SNPs took part in numerous functions belonging to the three categories of cel -lular component , molecular function , and biological process , and further kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that most of these genes were related to cancer , immune system, and endocrine system, suggesting that the adipose tissue was an important immune and endocrine tissue , as well as an energy store tissue.These data could enlarge the genetic information of ducks .The numerous SNPs identified in this study would contribute to the molecular breeding and help in mapping the genes associated with important economic traits .The SNPs related with cancers and immune systems would serve as useful markers in related studies .%鸭的基因组序列虽已释放,但其基因组信息,尤其是转录组信息仍需进一步开发。文章利用转录组测序分析了鸭的腹部脂肪组织转录组特征。共获得203200984个高质量测序数据,鉴定出18464个基因表达( RPKM≥1),其中96.9%的基因RPKM值小于1000

  17. Dairy foods in a moderate energy restricted diet do not enhance central fat, weight & intra-abdominal adipose tissue loss or reduce adipocyte size & inflammatory markers in overweight & obese adults; Controlled feeding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Research on the role of dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective: A 15 week controlled feeding study to answer the question: do dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a mode...

  18. Body Fat Patterning, Hepatic Fat and Pancreatic Volume of Non-Obese Asian Indians with Type 2 Diabetes in North India: A Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Misra

    Full Text Available To evaluate body fat patterning and phenotype including hepatic fat and pancreatic volume of non-obese (BMI: < 25 kg/m2 Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes residing in North India.Non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 93 and non-obese, normo-glycemic subjects (n = 40 were recruited. BMI, waist & hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at 8 sites, body fat, lean mass and detailed abdominal fat evaluation [total abdominal fat, total subcutaneous fat (superficial, deep, anterior, and posterior, total intra-abdominal fat (intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal], liver span, grades of fatty liver and pancreatic volume were compared.Waist circumference, subscapular skinfolds and total truncal fat (on DEXA were higher whereas calf, total peripheral skinfolds and total leg fat (on DEXA lower in patients. Specifically, the following volumes were higher in cases as compared to controls; total abdominal fat (19.4%, total intra-abdominal fat (49.7%, intra-peritoneal fat (47.7%, retroperitoneal fat (70.7%, pancreatic volume (26.6%, pancreatic volume index (21.3% and liver span (10.8%. In cases, significant positive correlations were observed for pancreatic volume with BMI, waist and hip circumferences, W-HR, subscapular, abdominal and total truncal skinfolds, truncal, total subcutaneous, total intra-abdominal, intra-peritoneal, retroperitoneal fat depots, liver span and fatty liver.In non-obese Asian Indians with type 2 diabetes, subcutaneous and intra-abdominal obesity, including fatty liver, and pancreatic volume were higher and peripheral subcutaneous adiposity was lower than BMI matched non-diabetic subjects. Importantly, increased pancreatic volume in patients was highly correlated with multiple measures of abdominal obesity and liver fat.

  19. Ultrasound measurements of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal thickness to predict abdominal adiposity among older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfe, Ema De Lucia; Sleigh, Alison; Finucane, Francis M.; Brage, Soren; Stolk, Ronald P.; Cooper, Cyrus; Sharp, Stephen J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Ong, Ken K.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate measures of visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat are essential for investigating the pathophysiology of obesity. Classical anthropometric measures such as waist and hip circumference cannot distinguish between these two fat depots. Direct imaging methods such as computed tomography and m

  20. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  1. Effects of dietary fat and saturated fat content on liver fat and markers of oxidative stress in overweight/obese men and women under weight-stable conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marina, Anna; von Frankenberg, Anize Delfino; Suvag, Seda; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Richards, Todd L; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-10-28

    Dietary fat and oxidative stress are hypothesized to contribute to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and progression to steatohepatitis. To determine the effects of dietary fat content on hepatic triglyceride, body fat distribution and markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, overweight/obese subjects with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (CONT: 35% fat/12% saturated fat/47% carbohydrate) for ten days, followed by four weeks on a low fat (LFD (n = 10): 20% fat/8% saturated fat/62% carbohydrate) or high fat diet (HFD (n = 10): 55% fat/25% saturated fat/27% carbohydrate). Hepatic triglyceride content was quantified by MRS and abdominal fat distribution by MRI. Fasting biomarkers of inflammation (plasma hsCRP, IL-6, IL-12, TNFα, IFN-γ) and oxidative stress (urinary F2-α isoprostanes) were measured. Body weight remained stable. Compared to the CONT, hepatic triglyceride decreased on the LFD (mean (95% CI): change -2.13% (-3.74%, -0.52%)), but did not change on the HFD and there was no significant difference between the LFD and HFD. Intra-abdominal fat did not change significantly on either diet, but subcutaneous abdominal fat increased on the HFD. There were no significant changes in fasting metabolic markers, inflammatory markers and urinary F2-α isoprostanes. We conclude that in otherwise healthy overweight/obese adults under weight-neutral conditions, a diet low in fat and saturated fat has modest effects to decrease liver fat and may be beneficial. On the other hand, a diet very high in fat and saturated fat had no effect on hepatic triglyceride or markers of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress.

  2. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    .002) after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, and birth length. Total (p = 0.012) and abdominal (p = 0.039) fat masses correlated with 2-h plasma glucose levels after adjusting for gestational weight gain, maternal age, education......, smoking, pre-pregnancy degree of obesity, parity, gestational age, and newborn sex. There was no association between total (p = 0.88) and abdominal (p = 0.61) fat-free masses and 2-h plasma glucose. CONCLUSION: At 27-30 weeks of gestation, 2-h plasma glucose levels are related to total and abdominal......INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat...

  3. Diagnostic performance of transthyretin measurement in fat tissue of patients with ATTR amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Van Schijndel, B.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P.C.; Bos, R.; Haagsma, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic performance was studied of a transthyretin (TTR) ELISA for detection and characterisation of transthyretin-derived (ATTR) amyloid in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue. Methods: Fat tissue specimens were analysed of 38 consecutive patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis,

  4. Coconut fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasiri, W A L D; Dissanayake, A S

    2006-06-01

    In many areas of Sri Lanka the coconut tree and its products have for centuries been an integral part of life, and it has come to be called the "Tree of life". However, in the last few decades, the relationship between coconut fats and health has been the subject of much debate and misinformation. Coconut fats account for 80% of the fat intake among Sri Lankans. Around 92% of these fats are saturated fats. This has lead to the belief that coconut fats are 'bad for health', particularly in relation to ischaemic heart disease. Yet most of the saturated fats in coconut are medium chain fatty acids whose properties and metabolism are different to those of animal origin. Medium chain fatty acids do not undergo degradation and re-esterification processes and are directly used in the body to produce energy. They are not as 'bad for health' as saturated fats. There is the need to clarify issues relating to intake of coconut fats and health, more particularly for populations that still depend on coconut fats for much of their fat intake. This paper describes the metabolism of coconut fats and its potential benefits, and attempts to highlight its benefits to remove certain misconceptions regarding its use.

  5. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation - abdomen - discharge; Cancer - abdominal radiation; Lymphoma - abdominal radiation ... When you have radiation treatment for cancer, your body goes through changes. About 2 weeks after radiation treatment starts, you might notice changes ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000162.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood to the abdomen, pelvis, and legs. An abdominal aortic aneurysm occurs when an area of the aorta becomes ...

  9. Facial lipohypertrophy in HIV-infected subjects who underwent autologous fat tissue transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guaraldi, Giovanni; De Fazio, Domenico; Orlando, Gabriella; Murri, Rita; Wu, Albert; Guaraldi, Pietro; Esposito, Roberto

    2005-01-15

    Of 41 HIV-infected patients with facial lipoatrophy who underwent autologous fat transplantation, disfiguring facial lipohypertrophy at the graft site occurred at the same time as recurrent fat accumulation at the tissue harvest site in 4 patients who had had fat transferred from the dorsocervical fat pad or from subcutaneous abdominal tissue.

  10. Post trauma abdominal cocoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  11. 大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的临床研究%Clinical study of the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of fat liquefaction of abdominal incision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯宇; 周静; 潘立茹

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of rhubarb and sodium sulfate in combination with infrared rays in the treatment of the fat liquefaction of abdominal incision. Methods 101 patients with the fat liquefaction of abdominal operative inci-sion who underwent abdominal operation in our hospital from January 2009 to October 2010 were randomly divided into two groups. SO patients in the treatment group were treated by rhubarb and sodium sulfate for external application in combination with infrared rays once daily ;51 patients in the control group were treated by changing dry dressing once daily and squeezing. Results There was statistic difference on healing time, frequency of dressing replacement, the use of butterfly sterile adhesive tape, and the rate of second debridement between the treatment group and the control group (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Rhubarb and sodi-um sulfate in combination with infrared rays can promote the absorption of inflammatory exudates and accelerate the concrescence of the wounds.%目的 观察大黄、芒硝联合红外线治疗腹部手术切口脂肪液化的治疗效果.方法 将我院2009年1月-2010年10月期间术后腹部手术切口发生脂肪液化的101例患者随机分为两组.试验组(n =50例)脂肪液化之切口,用大黄、芒硝混匀后外敷,并给予红外线治疗,每日1次.对照组(n=51例)应用普通换药及挤压方法,每日换药1次.结果 试验组的切口愈合时间、更换敷料及应用无菌蝶形胶布固定切口次数、二次清创缝合术的几率,与对照组比较均有统计学差异(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 中药外敷加红外线治疗能促进脂肪液化伤口炎症渗出物的吸收,加快切口愈合.

  12. Maternal low-protein diet up-regulates the neuropeptide Y system in visceral fat and leads to abdominal obesity and glucose intolerance in a sex- and time-specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Ruijun; Li, Aiyun; Lijun LI; Kitlinska, Joanna B.; Zukowska, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) mediates stress-induced obesity in adult male mice by activating its Y2 receptor (Y2R) in visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Here, we studied whether the NPY-Y2R system is also activated by maternal low-protein diet (LPD) and linked to obesity in offspring. Prenatal LPD offspring had lower birth weights compared to normal-protein diet (NPD) offspring. Female prenatal and lactation stress (PLS) offspring from mothers fed an LPD developed abdominal adiposity and glucose intoler...

  13. A case of lipoma of parietal peritoneum causing abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Chang Seok; Kim, Yeon Soo; Baik, Gwang Ho; Han, Sang Hak

    2014-06-01

    Lipomas are common benign tumors of mature adipose tissue, enclosed by thin fibrous capsules. They can occur on any part of the body; however, peritoneal lipoma is extremely rare. We encountered a case of a 75-year-old man presenting with intermittent abdominal pain, who had undergone right hemicolectomy due to colon cancer. Abdominal computerized tomography showed a well-defined heterogenous fatty mass measuring 4.5 × 3.5 cm in size, suggesting fat necrosis located in the abdominal wall. Laparotomy showed a very large soft mass of peritoneum. Pathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as lipoma containing fat necrosis located in parietal peritoneum not fixed to any organs, but with small bowel adhesion. Due to its rare etiologic origin and obscure cause of development, we report on a case of lipoma of parietal peritoneum causing abdominal pain.

  14. What Are Solid Fats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fatty acids. Most solid fats are high in saturated fats and/or trans fats and have less monounsaturated ... Animal products containing solid fats also contain cholesterol. Saturated fats and trans fats tend to raise "bad" (LDL) ...

  15. Facts about polyunsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit your health. Polyunsaturated fat is different than saturated fat and trans fat. These unhealthy fats can increase ... of those fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. Limit saturated fat (found in red meat, butter, cheese, and whole- ...

  16. The use of subcutaneous fat tissue for amyloid typing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1999-01-01

    for typing the most common systemic amyloidoses of AL, AA, and transthyretin types by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), using abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy specimens. The method was tested on 21 abdominal fat biopsy specimens that were sent to the laboratory. Of these, 15 contained amyloid...

  17. Abdominal epilepsy in chronic recurrent abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Y Kshirsagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abdominal epilepsy (AE is an uncommon cause for chronic recurrent abdominal pain in children and adults. It is characterized by paroxysmal episode of abdominal pain, diverse abdominal complaints, definite electroencephalogram (EEG abnormalities and favorable response to the introduction of anti-epileptic drugs (AED. We studied 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and after exclusion of more common etiologies for the presenting complaints; workup proceeded with an EEG. We found 111 (74% children with an abnormal EEG and 39 (26% children with normal EEG. All children were subjected to AED (Oxcarbazepine and 139 (92% children responded to AED out of which 111 (74% children had an abnormal EEG and 27 (18% had a normal EEG. On further follow-up the patients were symptom free, which helped us to confirm the clinical diagnosis. Context: Recurrent chronic abdominal pain is a common problem encountered by pediatricians. Variety of investigations are done to come to a diagnosis but a cause is rarely found. In such children diagnosis of AE should be considered and an EEG will confirm the diagnosis and treated with AED. Aims: To find the incidence of AE in children presenting with chronic recurrent abdominal pain and to correlate EEG findings and their clinical response to empirical AEDs in both cases and control. Settings and Design: Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences University, Karad, Maharashtra, India. Prospective analytical study. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 children with chronic recurrent abdominal pain were studied by investigations to rule out common causes of abdominal pain and an EEG. All children were then started with AED oxycarbamezepine and their response to the treatment was noted. Results: 111 (74% of the total 150 children showed a positive EEG change suggestive of epileptogenic activity and of which 75 (67.56% were females and 36 (32.43% were male, majority of children were in the age of group of 9

  18. Intra-abdominal Adiposity In Preterm Infants: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the total body fat mass and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue between preterm infants assessed at term corrected age and full-term newborns. Methods: An observational explorative study was conducted. 25 preterm and 10 full term infants were evaluated at 0-1 month of corrected and postnatal age, respectively. The total body fat mass was assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system (Pea Pod COSMED, USA and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue by means of magnetic resonance imaging (software program SliceOMatic, Version 4.3,Tomovision, Canada. Results: Total body fat mass (g of preterm and term infants was 633 (±183 and 538 (±203 respectively while intra-abdominal fat mass (g was 14.2 (±4.9 and 19.9 (±11.4. Conclusions: Preterm infants, although exhibiting a total body fat mass higher than full term infants, do not show an increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue.

  19. Effects of Cryolipolysis on Abdominal Adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Froes Meyer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryolipolysis is a noninvasive technique of localized fat reduction. Controlled cold exposure is performed in the selective destruction of fat cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cryolipolysis on adipocytes elimination through histological and sonographic analyses. This study reports the case of a 46-year-old female patient, with complaint of localized abdominal fat and in the preoperative period of abdominoplasty. The patient was submitted to a single 60-minute application of cryolipolysis, temperature of −5°C, on the hypogastrium area, 5 cm below the umbilicus. To study the effects of this treatment, ultrasound images taken before the session and 7, 15, 30, and 45 days after the therapy were analysed. After the abdominoplasty, parts of the treated and the untreated withdrawn abdominal tissues were evaluated macro- and microscopically. In ultrasound images, as well as in macroscopic and histological analyses, significant adipocytes destruction was detected, with consequent fat layer reduction and integrity of areas that were adjacent to the treated tissue. The presence of fibrosis observed during therapy and acknowledged through performed analyses encourages further studies to clarify such finding.

  20. Abdominal Decompression in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Chiaka Ejike

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children.

  1. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Ovchinnikov V.А.; Sokolov V.А.

    2013-01-01

    We considered one of the most complicated problems of surgery and intensive care — abdominal compartment syndrome. It is a severe, and in some cases lethal complication developing in major injuries and pathology of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space, as well as in extra-abdominal pathology. In addition, compartment syndrome can be the complication of a number of surgical procedures accompanied primarily by laparotomy wound closure with tissue tension. We demonstrated the classificatio...

  2. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  3. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  4. Intra-Abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome after Abdominal Wall Reconstruction: Quaternary Syndromes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, A W; Nickerson, D; Roberts, D J; Rosen, M J; McBeth, P B; Petro, C C; Berrevoet, Frederik; Sugrue, M; Xiao, Jimmy; Ball, C G

    2017-06-01

    Reconstruction with reconstitution of the container function of the abdominal compartment is increasingly being performed in patients with massive ventral hernia previously deemed inoperable. This situation places patients at great risk of severe intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome if organ failure ensues. Intra-abdominal hypertension and especially abdominal compartment syndrome may be devastating systemic complications with systematic and progressive organ failure and death. We thus reviewed the pathophysiology and reported clinical experiences with abnormalities of intra-abdominal pressure in the context of abdominal wall reconstruction. Bibliographic databases (1950-2015), websites, textbooks, and the bibliographies of previously recovered articles for reports or data relating to intra-abdominal pressure, intra-abdominal hypertension, and the abdominal compartment syndrome in relation to ventral, incisional, or abdominal hernia repair or abdominal wall reconstruction. Surgeons should thus consider and carefully measure intra-abdominal pressure and its resultant effects on respiratory parameters and function during abdominal wall reconstruction. The intra-abdominal pressure post-operatively will be a result of the new intra-peritoneal volume and the abdominal wall compliance. Strategies surgeons may utilize to ameliorate intra-abdominal pressure rise after abdominal wall reconstruction including temporizing paralysis of the musculature either temporarily or semi-permanently, pre-operative progressive pneumoperitoneum, permanently removing visceral contents, or surgically releasing the musculature to increase the abdominal container volume. In patients without complicating shock and inflammation, and in whom the abdominal wall anatomy has been so functionally adapted to maximize compliance, intra-abdominal hypertension may be transient and tolerable. Intra-abdominal hypertension/abdominal compartment syndrome in the specific setting of

  5. Predicting Total, Abdominal, Visceral and Hepatic Adiposity with Circulating Biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Unhee Lim; Turner, Stephen D; Franke, Adrian A; Cooney, Robert V.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Thomas Ernst; Albright, Cheryl L.; Rachel Novotny; Linda Chang; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Murphy, Suzanne P.; Loïc Le Marchand

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR]) in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptide...

  6. Recurrent Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banez, Gerard A.; Gallagher, Heather M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically informed but clinically oriented overview of behavioral treatment of recurrent abdominal pain. The epidemiology and scope of recurrent abdominal pain are presented. Referral process and procedures are discussed, and standardized approaches to assessment are summarized. Treatment protocols…

  7. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  8. Abdominal visceral adiposity influences CD4+ T cell cytokine production in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozias, Marlies K; Li, Shengqi; Hull, Holly R; Brooks, William M; Petroff, Margaret G; Carlson, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    Women with pre-gravid obesity are at risk for pregnancy complications. While the macrophage response of obese pregnant women categorized by body mass index (BMI) has been documented, the relationship between the peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profile and body fat compartments during pregnancy is unknown. In this study, third trimester peripheral CD4(+) T cell cytokine profiles were measured in healthy pregnant women [n=35; pre-pregnancy BMI: 18.5-40]. CD4(+) T cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and stimulated to examine their capacity to generate cytokines. Between 1 and 3weeks postpartum, total body fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat masses were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Pearson's correlation was performed to assess relationships between cytokines and fat mass. Results showed that greater abdominal visceral fat mass was associated with a decrease in stimulated CD4(+) T cell cytokine expression. IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, IL-12p70, IL-10 and IL-17A were inversely related to visceral fat mass. Chemokines CCL3 and IL-8 and growth factors G-CSF and FLT-3L were also inversely correlated. Additionally, total body fat mass was inversely correlated with FGF-2 while abdominal subcutaneous fat mass and BMI were unrelated to any CD4(+) T cell cytokine. In conclusion, lower responsiveness of CD4(+) T cell cytokines associated with abdominal visceral fat mass is a novel finding late in gestation.

  9. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  10. Abdominal hernias: Radiological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Iasiello, Francesca; Pizza, Nunzia Luisa; Valente, Tullio; Stefano, Maria Luisa Mangoni di Santo; Grassi, Roberto; Muto, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal wall hernias are common diseases of the abdomen with a global incidence approximately 4%-5%. They are distinguished in external, diaphragmatic and internal hernias on the basis of their localisation. Groin hernias are the most common with a prevalence of 75%, followed by femoral (15%) and umbilical (8%). There is a higher prevalence in males (M:F, 8:1). Diagnosis is usually made on physical examination. However, clinical diagnosis may be difficult, especially in patients with obesity, pain or abdominal wall scarring. In these cases, abdominal imaging may be the first clue to the correct diagnosis and to confirm suspected complications. Different imaging modalities are used: conventional radiographs or barium studies, ultrasonography and Computed Tomography. Imaging modalities can aid in the differential diagnosis of palpable abdominal wall masses and can help to define hernial contents such as fatty tissue, bowel, other organs or fluid. This work focuses on the main radiological findings of abdominal herniations. PMID:21860678

  11. Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity and rising BMI is a feature of life in the Western ... for the metabolic syndrome2 or insulin resistance, and hence ... Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of ...

  12. Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsicano, Elizabeth; Vuong, Giao Michael; Prather, Charlene M

    2014-09-01

    Gastrointestinal causes of abdominal pain are numerous. These causes are reviewed in brief here, divided into 2 categories: acute abdominal pain and chronic abdominal pain. They are further subcategorized by location of pain as it pertains to the abdomen.

  13. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  14. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E; Jensen, Michael D

    2012-08-01

    Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers.

  15. Effects of weight gain and weight loss on regional fat distribution1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Prachi; Somers, Virend K; Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Davison, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Normal-weight adults gain lower-body fat via adipocyte hyperplasia and upper-body subcutaneous (UBSQ) fat via adipocyte hypertrophy. Objectives: We investigated whether regional fat loss mirrors fat gain and whether the loss of lower-body fat is attributed to decreased adipocyte number or size. Design: We assessed UBSQ, lower-body, and visceral fat gains and losses in response to overfeeding and underfeeding in 23 normal-weight adults (15 men) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and abdominal computed tomography scans. Participants gained ∼5% of weight in 8 wk and lost ∼80% of gained fat in 8 wk. We measured abdominal subcutaneous and femoral adipocyte sizes and numbers after weight gain and loss. Results: Volunteers gained 3.1 ± 2.1 (mean ± SD) kg body fat with overfeeding and lost 2.4 ± 1.7 kg body fat with underfeeding. Although UBSQ and visceral fat gains were completely reversed after 8 wk of underfeeding, lower-body fat had not yet returned to baseline values. Abdominal and femoral adipocyte sizes, but not numbers, decreased with weight loss. Decreases in abdominal adipocyte size and UBSQ fat mass were correlated (ρ = 0.76, P = 0.001), as were decreases in femoral adipocyte size and lower-body fat (ρ = 0.49, P = 0.05). Conclusions: UBSQ and visceral fat increase and decrease proportionately with a short-term weight gain and loss, whereas a gain of lower-body fat does not relate to the loss of lower-body fat. The loss of lower-body fat is attributed to a reduced fat cell size, but not number, which may result in long-term increases in fat cell numbers. PMID:22760561

  16. Visceral fat mass determination in rodent: validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric techniques in fat and lean rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because abdominal obesity is predisposed to various metabolic disorders, it is of major importance to assess and track the changes with time of this specific fat mass. The main issue for clinicians or researchers is to use techniques for assessing abdominal fat deposition and its accumulation or changes over time, without sacrificing of experimental subjects. In the rat, techniques to investigate in-vivo visceral fat mass are lacking. The purpose of the study was to validate indirect Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry technique and abdominal circumference measurement as tools to predict visceral adipose tissue in rats. Forty-three Wistar male rats from different body weight, fat mass and ages were included in the study. Visceral fat mass was assessed by weighing the total perirenal and peri-epididymal adipose tissues after dissection. Statistical methods were used to discriminate the best region of interest allowing the in-vivo measure of Central Fat Mass by DXA. Abdominal circumference was measured at the same time as the DXA scan. Results A region of interest including Central Fat Mass from the whole body DXA scan (extending from L2 to L5 vertebrae, correlated strongly with ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.94, p ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.82, p ex-vivo Fat Mass but disappeared for the lean group between abdominal circumference and ex-vivo Fat Mass. Conclusions This study validates the Central Fat Mass determined by DXA as a non-sacrificial technique to assess visceral fat for in-vivo investigations in rats. The abdominal circumference measure appears useful in studying overweight or obese rats. These two techniques could be convenient tools in follow-up and longitudinal studies.

  17. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition in r...... residency. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found. The Maasai had the highest overall fat accumulation.......Background: Obesity is increasing rapidly in Africa, and may not be associated with the same changes in body composition among different ethnic groups in Africa. Objective: To assess abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, prevalence of obesity, and differences in body composition...... in rural and urban Kenya. Subjects and methods: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...

  18. [Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaja, K; Sedlak, L; Urbanek, T; Kostyra, J; Ludyga, T

    2000-01-01

    The reported incidence of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA) is from 2% to 14% of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm and the etiology of this disease is still discussed--according to the literature several pathogenic theories have been proposed. From 1992 to 1997 32 patients with IAAA were operated on. The patients were mostly symptomatic--abdominal pain was present in 68.75% cases, back pain in 31.25%, fever in 12.5% and weight loss in 6.25% of the operated patients. In all the patients ultrasound examination was performed, in 4 patients CT and in 3 cases urography. All the patients were operated on and characteristic signs of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm like: thickened aortic wall, perianeurysmal infiltration or retroperitoneal fibrosis with involvement of retroperitoneal structures were found. In all cases surgery was performed using transperitoneal approach; in three cases intraoperatively contiguous abdominal organs were injured, which was connected with their involvement into periaortic inflammation. In 4 cases clamping of the aorta was done at the level of the diaphragmatic hiatus. 3 patients (9.37%) died (one patient with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm). Authors present diagnostic procedures and the differences in the surgical tactic, emphasizing the necessity of the surgical therapy in patients with inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm.

  19. Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Fat Deposition and Carcass Traits in Broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zerehdaran, S.; Vereijken, A.L.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Waaij, van der E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Abdominal and subcutaneous fat are regarded as the main sources of waste in the slaughterhouse. Fat stored intramuscularly is regarded a favorite trait related to meat quality. The objective of current study was to estimate genetic parameters for fat deposition in the 3 different parts of body and

  20. Congenital Abdominal Wall Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risby, Kirsten; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte; Qvist, Niels

    2016-01-01

    complications were seen in five (15%) children: four had detachment of the mesh and one patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Mesh related clinical infection was observed in five children. In hospital mortality occurred in four cases (2 gastroschisis and 2 omphalocele) and was not procedure......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical utility of GORE® DUALMESH (GDM) in the staged closure of large congenital abdominal wall defects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with congenital abdominal wall defects managed with GDM was analyzed for outcome regarding complete fascial closure; mesh...

  1. Abdominal wall endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, P; Karak, A K; Sinha, A K; Kumar, B; Karki, S; Agarwal, C S

    2010-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall scar following operation on uterus and tubes is extremely rare. The late onset of symptoms after surgery is the usual cause of misdiagnosis. Scar endometriosis is a rare disease which is difficult to diagnose and should always be considered as a differential diagnosis of painful abdominal masses in women. The diagnosis is made only after excision and histopathology of the lesion. Preoperative differentials include hernia, lipoma, suture granuloma or abscess. Hence an awareness of the entity avoids delay in diagnosis, helps clinicians to a more tailored treatment and also avoids unnecessary referrals. We report a case of abdominal endometriosis. The definitive diagnosis of which was established by histopathological studies.

  2. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  3. [The abdominal catastrophe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Christian A

    2011-08-01

    Patients with an abdominal catastrophe are in urgent need of early, interdisciplinary medical help. The treatment plan should be based on medical priorities and clear leadership. First priority should be given to achieve optimal oxygenation of blood and stabilization of circulation during all treatment-phases. The sicker the patient, the less invasive the (surgical) treatment should to be, which means "damage control only". This short article describes 7 important, pragmatic rules that will help to increase the survival of a patient with an abdominal catastrophe. Preexisting morbidity and risk factors must be included in the overall risk-evaluation for every therapeutic intervention. The challenge in patients with an abdominal catastrophe is to carefully balance the therapeutic stress and the existing resistance of the individual patient. The best way to avoid abdominal disaster, however, is its prevention.

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... contrast materials and a metallic taste in your mouth that lasts for at most a minute or ... can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster ...

  5. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are, or may be, pregnant. Alternative Names Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... Assistant Studies, Department of Family Medicine, UW Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA. Also ...

  6. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  7. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  8. Abdominal ultrasound (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal ultrasound is a scanning technique used to image the interior of the abdomen. Like the X-ray, MRI, ... it has its place as a diagnostic tool. Ultrasound scans use high frequency sound waves to produce ...

  9. Abdominal exploration - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/presentations/100049.htm Abdominal exploration - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... Overview The abdomen contains many vital organs: the stomach, the small intestine (jejunum and ileum), the large ...

  10. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  11. Linear abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, L A; Wolfman, E F

    1976-03-01

    Three cases of blunt abdominal trauma are presented to exemplify the mechanism of trauma and the problems of diagnosis associated with any linear blow to the abdomen. The mechanisms of visceral injury are reviewed, and special attention is directed to the abdominal wall injury that can be present in these patients. This injury has special implications in directing the operative approach and repair. An unusual aortic occlusion is described which is peculiar to this type of injury.

  12. Abdominal obesity status among Arora preschool children (2-5 years of Amritsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kaur

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Abdominal obesity is a state of excessive accumulation of central subcutaneous and visceral fat, has emerged as an important predictor for cardiovascular and metabolic risks in children and adolescents. Waist circumference is a highly sensitive and specific measure of abdominal obesity. Very few studies are available to the prevalence of abdominal obesity. Therefore in the present study an attempt has been made to report the prevalence of abdominal obesity among preschool children of Amritsar (Punjab. This study was undertaken among 1879 (949 boys and 930 girls Arora preschool children aged 2-5 years of Amritsar. Waist circumference was taken on each subjects using standard technique. Abdominal obesity was assessed by using waist circumference criterion of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Present study revealed that abdominal obese were10.4% and 6.3% among boys and girls, respectively. The percentage prevalence of abdominal obesity was lower in the Amritsar children than other populations.

  13. The association between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal adiposity in postmenopausal, physically inactive South Asian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Lesser

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In South Asians, a unique obesity phenotype of high abdominal fat is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is associated with abdominal fat and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether CRF as assessed by VO2 peak, in post-menopausal South Asian women, was associated with body fat distribution and abdominal fat. Physically inactive post-menopausal South Asian women (n = 55 from the Greater Vancouver area were recruited and assessed from January to August 2014. At baseline, VO2 peak was measured with the Bruce Protocol, abdominal fat with CT imaging, and body composition with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. ANOVA was used to assess differences in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT between tertiles of CRF. Bivariate correlation and multiple linear regression analyses explored the association between VO2 peak with SAAT, VAT, TAAT and body composition. Models were further adjusted for body fat and body mass index (BMI. Compared to women in the lowest tertile of VO2 peak (13.8–21.8 mL/kg/min, women in the highest tertile (25.0–27.7 mL/kg/min had significantly lower waist circumference, BMI, total body fat, body fat percentage, lean mass, SAAT, VAT and TAAT (p < 0.05. We found VO2 peak to be negatively associated with SAAT, VAT and TAAT, independent of age and body fatness but not independent of BMI. Further research is necessary to assess whether exercise and therefore improvements in CRF would alter SAAT, VAT and TAAT in post-menopausal South Asian women.

  14. Ventral Abdominal Hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi Tchernev

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A 63-year-old Caucasian female patient presented with redness of the both foot and lower legs, as well as edema of the left lower leg, accompanied by subjective complaints of burning. Fever was not reported. Well-circumscribed oval shaped tumor formation was revealed also on the abdominal wall, with hyperpigmented and depigmented areas on its ulcerated surface, measuring approximately 10/10cm in diameter, with soft-elastic texture on palpation.  The lesion occurred in 2011, according to the patient’s history. No subjective complaints were reported in association. The performed ultrasonography revealed intestinal loops in the hernial sac, without incarceration. The diagnosis of ventral abdominal hernia without mechanical ileus was made. The patient was referred for planned surgical procedure, because of her refusal on this stage.The clinical manifestation of the tumor formation on the abdominal wall, required wide spectrum of differential diagnosis, including aneurysm of the abdominal aorta, abdominal tumor, subcutaneous tumor or metastasis or hernia. In the presented cases, the abdominal wall mass was a sporadic clinical finding in the framework of the total-body skin examination in patient with erysipelas. The lack of subjective symptoms, as well as the reported history for hysterectomy and previously abscessus were not enough indicative symptoms for the correct diagnosis. The diagnosis of non-complicated hernia was made via ultrasonography, while the clinical differentiation between hernia and other life-threatening conditions as aneurysms or tumor was not possible.

  15. Abdominal actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device: CT features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, T; de Grandi, P; Schnyder, P

    1996-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a severe and progressive peritoneal infection, due to an anerobic gram-positive bacterium, Actinomyces israelii. The presence of a long-standing intrauterine device (IUD) is a well-known risk factor in young women. We report two cases of pelviperitoneal actinomycosis appearing in two young women with acute low abdominal pain. Abdominal CT demonstrated multiple solid or encapsulated peritoneal masses with marked contrast enhancement and infiltration of the adjacent mesenteric fat. Laparoscopy confirmed the presence of intraperitoneal abscesses which contained Actinomyces israelii. High doses of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentine) were given and following CT scan after 2 and 6 weeks showed a slow, but complete, resolution of the lesions. Although the radiologic presentation of actinomycosis is nonspecific, the diagnosis should be raised in the presence of pseudotumoral mesenteric infiltration, particularly in young women with an IUD. Abdominal CT is a useful method for diagnosis and for follow-up.

  16. Effect of body fat distribution on the transcription response to dietary fat interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radonjic, M.; Erk, M.J. van; Pasman, W.J.; Wortelboer, H.M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Ommen, B. van

    2009-01-01

    Combination of decreased energy expenditure and increased food intake results in fat accumulation either in the abdominal site (upper body obesity, UBO) or on the hips (lower body obesity, LBO). In this study, we used microarray gene expression profiling of adipose tissue biopsies to investigate the

  17. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  18. Effects of Lipase Enzyme on Hrowth Performance, Apparent Metabolizable Energy of Nutrients, Blood Biochemical Parameters and Abdominal Fat Fate of Broilers%脂肪酶对肉鸡生长性能、表观代谢能、血液生化指标及腹脂率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳林; 石宝明; 单安山; 时本利; 王剑英

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了在玉米一豆粕型日粮中添加脂肪酶对商品肉仔鸡生长性能、表观代谢能、血液生化指标和腹脂率等的影响。试验选用1日龄健康爱维因肉仔鸡240只,随机分为4个处理组,每个处理4个重复,每个重复15只鸡。试验期8用。整个饲养期分为3个阶段,0~3周为生长前期,4-6周为生长中期,7~8周为生长后期。结果表明,日粮中添加脂肪酶可显著提高肉鸡的日增重(P〈0.05),降低料肉比(P〈0.05),提高表观代谢能(P〈0.05),降低血液中甘油三酯、总胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白(P〈0.05),提高高密度脂蛋白含量(P〈0.05),降低腹脂率(P〈0.05).%This article studied the effect of lipase enzyme on growth performance, apparent metabolizable energy of nutrients, blood biochemical parameters amt abdominal fat rate in corn-soybean meal-based diets of broilers. Experiment chose 240 one-day health AA broilers, randomly allocated to 4 groups with 4 replicates per group and 15 broilers per replicate with 8 weeks trial period. The feeding period was divided into three stages: 0-3 week for the early growth stage, 4-6 week for the medium growth stage and 7-8 week for the late growth stage. Experiment showed that lipase enzyme can improve ADG(P〈0.05), reduce F/G(P〈0.05) and improve apparent metabolizable energy(P〈0.05) of nutrients of broilers, when it reduced triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteinand(P〈 0.05) and improved high-density lipoprotein(P〈0.05), it reduced abdominal fat rate of broilers(P〈0.05).

  19. Facts about monounsaturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... room temperature, but start to harden when chilled. Saturated fats and trans fats are solid at room temperature. ... fats are monounsaturated or polyunsaturated. You should limit saturated fat to less than 10% of your daily calories. ...

  20. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of fatty acid they contain. Types of Fat Saturated fats raise your LDL (bad) cholesterol level. High LDL ... avoid or limit foods that are high in saturated fats. Keep saturated fats to less than 6% of ...

  1. Anterior abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo in a fertile women: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Je Young; Woo, Ji Young; Hong, Hye Suk; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Han Myun; Shin, Mi Kyung [Hallym University College of Medicine, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Abdominal wall leiomyoma arising de novo is very rare, hence the reported imaging findings of this disease are also rare. We reported the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with an abdominal wall mass without antecedent gynecological surgeries. The initial abdominal computed tomography (CT) showed thickening of the left rectus abdominis and the loss of intervening fat between the rectus abdominis and the lateral abdominal muscles. After 8 months, the follow-up contrast-enhanced CT and ultrasonography (US) showed a lentiform-shaped mass with isodensity to the adjacent muscles. The US-guided biopsy was consistent with leiomyoma.

  2. Comparative study on different BMI, abdominal fat content and glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride of Urumqi Han population%乌鲁木齐地区汉族人群不同BMI、腹脂含量与血糖、总胆固醇、甘油三酯的比较性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常冰岩; 百山·军斯汗; 宋丽俊; 郭璇; 徐建民; 姜广礼

    2012-01-01

    To compared the Bill, Fal%,Lean% and blood glucose, total cholesterol, lrigKceride phase compariison in llan nalionalily of Urumqi area, master of llan nalionalily in Urumqi area in normal and obese groups Fal% , Lean% and characteristics of distribution and glucose, total cholesterol, IrigKceride between the changes, to make cor-responding intervention strategies and rational drug therapy to improie the bod) in Urumqi llan population health and disease prevention, and proiide clues. Methods Using dual energy X-ray absorpliomelr) ( DilS LFXXOS) bod) component anaKsis software, anaKsis and mulliiariale regression anaKsis in llan nalionalily of Urumqi area Bill as well as measurement index Lean, Fat. Results (1) In the Chinese population of Urumqi women are more likely to cause delated blood lriglyeeride. But the female hypergKcemia is often neglected, it is mainly due to most women just pay attention to his weight is normal: and ignored bidden in normal which causes fat maldistribution caused by lljperlipidemia. ( 2)Eiilher the normal Bill female or obese women, the abdominal fat content (Fat % ) were greater than the male, this is because the female physiological characteristics and hormonal regulation, metabolic characteristics. Form the male hy perlipidemia: overweight, obesily is the most important reason.%目的 通过乌鲁木齐地区汉族人群BMI、Fat%、Lean%与血糖、总胆固醇、甘油三酯相比较,掌握乌鲁木齐地区汉族正常和肥胖人群Fat%、Lean%的分布特点及与血糖、总胆固醇、甘油三酯之间的变化规律,为制定相应干预策略及合理的药物治疗提供依据;为提高乌鲁木齐地区汉族人群的身体健康水平以及防病、治病提供线索.方法 利用双能X线骨密度仪(DMS LEXXOS)全身身体成分分析软件,对乌鲁木齐地区汉族人群的BMI以及测量指数Lean、Fat进行分析和多元回归分析.结果 (1)乌鲁木齐地区汉族人群中女性更易引起甘油三酯升

  3. Fat discrimination: a phenotype with potential implications for studying fat intake behaviors and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lisa C H; Sakimura, Johannah; May, Daniel; Breen, Cameron; Driggin, Elissa; Tepper, Beverly J; Chung, Wendy K; Keller, Kathleen L

    2012-01-18

    Variations in fat preference and intake across humans are poorly understood in part because of difficulties in studying this behavior. The objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure to assess fat discrimination, the ability to accurately perceive differences in the fat content of foods, and assess the associations between this phenotype and fat ingestive behaviors and adiposity. African-American adults (n=317) were tested for fat discrimination using 7 forced choice same/different tests with Italian salad dressings that ranged in fat-by-weight content from 5 to 55%. Performance on this procedure was determined by tallying the number of trials in which a participant correctly identified the pair of samples as "same" or "different" across all test pairs (ranging from 1 to 7). Individuals who received the lowest scores on this task (≤3 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat non-discriminators (n=33) and those who received the highest scores (7 out of 7 correct) were classified as fat discriminators (n=59). These 2 groups were compared for the primary outcome variables: reported food intake, preferences, and adiposity. After adjusting for BMI, sex, age, and dietary restraint and disinhibition, fat non-discriminators reported greater consumption of both added fats and reduced fat foods (pFat non-discriminators also had greater abdominal adiposity compared to fat discriminators (pfat discrimination test (rho=0.53; pfat discrimination may serve as clinical research tool to identify participants who are at risk for obesity and other chronic diseases due to increased fat intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition.

  5. Fats and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with “good” unsaturated fats, limit foods high in saturated fat, and avoid “bad” trans fat. “Good” unsaturated fats — ... have been eliminated from many of these foods. Saturated fats , while not as harmful as trans fats, by ...

  6. Fat products

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandrov, Alexei

    2006-01-01

    The economics literature generally considers products as points in some characteristics space. Starting with Hotelling, this served as a convenient assumption, yet with more products being flexible or self-customizable to some degree it makes sense to think that products have positive measure. I develop a model where ?rms can o¤er interval long 'fat' products in the spatial model of differentiation. Contrary to the standard results pro?ts of the firms can decrease with increased differentiati...

  7. Fat Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, David B.; Ellefson, Wayne C.

    Lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of foods. Lipids are a group of substances that, in general, are soluble in ether, chloroform, or other organic solvents but are sparingly soluble in water. However, there exists no clear scientific definition of a lipid, primarily due to the water solubility of certain molecules that fall within one of the variable categories of food lipids (1). Some lipids, such as triacylglycerols, are very hydrophobic. Other lipids, such as di- and monoacylglycerols, have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties in their molecules and are soluble in relatively polar solvents (2). Short-chain fatty acids such as C1-C4 are completely miscible in water and insoluble in nonpolar solvents (1). The most widely accepted definition is based on solubility as previously stated. While most macromolecules are characterized by common structural features, the designation of "lipid" being defined by solubility characteristics is unique to lipids (2). Lipids comprise a broad group of substances that have some common properties and compositional similarities (3). Triacylglycerols are fats and oils that represent the most prevalent category of the group of compounds known as lipids. The terms lipids, fats, and oils are often used interchangeably. The term "lipid" commonly refers to the broad, total collection of food molecules that meet the definition previously stated. Fats generally refer to those lipids that are solid at room temperature and oils generally refer to those lipids that are liquid at room temperature. While there may not be an exact scientific definition, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has established a regulatory definition for nutrition labeling purposes. The FDA has defined total fat as the sum of fatty acids from C4 to C24, calculated as triglycerides. This definition provides a clear path for resolution of any nutrition labeling disputes.

  8. Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ser Yee; Pormento, James G; Koong, Heng Nung

    2009-04-01

    Abdominal paracentesis and thoracocentesis are common bedside procedures with diagnostic, therapeutic and palliative roles. We describe a useful and familiar a useful and familiar technique with the use of a multiple lumen catheter commonly used for central venous line insertion for drainage of ascites or moderate to large pleural effusions. The use of a multiple lumen catheter allows easier and more rapid aspiration of fluid with a smaller probability of the side holes being blocked as compared to the standard needle or single catheter methods. This is particularly useful in situations where the dedicated commercial kits for thoracocentesis and abdominal paracentesis are not readily available.

  9. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  10. [Abdominal actinomycosis with IUD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamprath, S; Merker, A; Kühne-Heid, R; Schneider, A

    1997-01-01

    We report a case of abdominal actinomycosis in a 54 year old woman using an intrauterine device for a period of 8 years. The most important finding was a tuboovarialabscess at the left pelvic side with involvement of the serosa of the jejunum, ileum, sigma, and omentum majus. Intraoperative exploration showed a solid retroperitoneal infiltration between the pelvic side wall and sigma. Another infiltration was found on the left side of the abdominal wall. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and the patient was treated by a combination of Aminopenicillin and Metronidazol. After a period of three months we observed a complete regression of the clinical and the MRI findings.

  11. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  12. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.

  13. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  15. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's ...

  16. Penetrating abdominal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    inal trauma (PAT) in our area, and to try to identify a pattern of organ-specific injury ... laparotomy due to persistent abdominal pain, after a period of observation of about .... in the ini- tial assessment who turned out to be free of visceral injuries.

  17. Adipocytokines and proinflammatory mediators from abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K-H; Chu, C-S; Lee, K-T; Lin, T-H; Hsieh, C-C; Chiu, C-C; Voon, W-C; Sheu, S-H; Lai, W-T

    2008-02-01

    Epicardial and abdominal adipose tissues have recently been demonstrated to play inflammatory roles in coronary atherosclerosis. We sought to compare tissue adipocytokine levels of these two anatomically distinct adipose stores in patients with and without coronary artery diseases (CAD). Samples of abdominal and epicardial fat tissues were harvested to detect the levels of adipocytokines and proinflammatory mediators. Forty-six patients with CAD who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery and 12 non-CAD control subjects who underwent other types of open-heart surgery. Tissue levels of adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and visfatin) and proinflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, leptin and visfatin were significantly higher in CAD patients relative to control subjects. In addition, significantly higher tissue levels of these four cytokines from abdominal fat depots were found compared to those from epicardial fat in CAD patients. Conversely, in comparison with control subjects, tissue levels of adiponectin were significantly reduced in CAD patients with a significantly lower tissue levels of abdominal than epicardial fat depots demonstrated. Abdominal adiposity may play more significant role than epicardial fat in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis.

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and painless, ... through the blood vessels. top of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is ... Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can ...

  1. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. This final ...

  2. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007392.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair is surgery to fix a widened part ...

  3. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    -dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  4. Abdominal Fat Distribution and the Clustering Risk Factor for Cardiovascular

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海燕

    1995-01-01

    AbdominalFatDistributionandtheClusteringRiskFactorforCardiovascularDiseaseWangHaiyan(王海燕);LinyanLiu;BruceReeder.(Departmentof...

  5. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    same BMI may have different body composition and BMI is particularly influenced by muscle bulk .... adhesive ECG electrodes around the abdomen at the level of the umbilicus. ..... The Sheffield data collection system. Brown B H and Seagar ...

  6. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Bredella, Miriam A

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (-100.1 to -46.7 HU vs -117.6 to -61.8 HU, P fat CSA (2.0-62.8 cm(2) vs 5.5-185.9 cm(2), P fat attenuation (r = -0.34 to -0.61, P = .03 to fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42-0.64, P = .007 to fat composition, with higher fat attenuation than that of control subjects, as well as low fat mass. VAT attenuation but not CSA is inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index, suggesting that fat attenuation may serve as a biomarker of prior and current disease status in AN.

  7. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m(2)) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01530724. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  8. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I I Kring

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of FTO (rs9939609, T/A is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already in adolescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese young Danish men (n = 753, BMI > or = 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected group (n = 879 from the same population were examined in three surveys (mean age 35, 46 and 49 years, respectively. The traits included anthropometrics, body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, blood lipids, blood pressure, fibrinogen and aspartate aminotransferase. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the age-adjusted association between the phenotypes and the odds ratios for the FTO rs9939609 (TT and TA genotype versus the AA genotype, for anthropometrics and body composition estimated per unit z-score. BMI was strongly associated with the AA genotype in all three surveys: OR = 1.17, p = 1.1*10(-6, OR = 1.20, p = 1.7*10(-7, OR = 1.17, p = 3.4*10(-3, respectively. Fat body mass index was also associated with the AA genotype (OR = 1.21, p = 4.6*10(-7 and OR = 1.21, p = 1.0*10(-3. Increased abdominal fatness was associated with the AA genotype when measured as waist circumference (OR = 1.21, p = 2.2*10(-6 and OR = 1.19, p = 5.9*10(-3, sagittal abdominal diameter (OR = 1.17, p = 1.3*10(-4 and OR = 1.18, p = 0.011 and intra-abdominal adipose tissue (OR = 1.21, p = 0.005. Increased peripheral fatness measured as hip circumference (OR = 1.19, p = 1.3*10(-5 and OR = 1.18, p = 0.004 and lower body fat mass (OR = 1.26, p = 0.002 was associated with the AA genotype. The AA genotype was significantly associated with decreased Stumvoll insulin sensitivity index (OR = 0.93, p = 0.02 and with decreased non-fasting plasma HDL-cholesterol (OR = 0.57, p = 0.037, but not with any other of the metabolic traits. However

  9. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  10. Physicians' Abdominal Auscultation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Gade; Peter, Kruse; Andersen, Ole Trier

    1998-01-01

    Background: Abdominal auscultation has an important position in the physical examination of the abdomen. Little is known about rater agreement. The aim of this study was to describe rater agreement and thus, indirectly, the value of the examination. Methods: In a semi-virtual setup 12 recordings...... of the intestinal sounds from 8 patients with acute abdominal pain and 4 healthy volunteers were presented to 100 physicians. The physicians were asked to characterize the intestinal sounds as normal or pathologic. Fisher's exact test was used for comparison between groups of physicians. Results: Overall, 72......% of the answers with regard to healthy volunteers concluded that the sounds were normal (equalling agreement), whereas 64% of answers with regard to intestinal obstruction concluded that the sounds were pathologic (but agreement was higher due to agreement on wrong diagnosis in one case). Bowel sounds from...

  11. Endometrioma de parede abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Accetta

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência dos autores com as manifestações clínicas e o tratamento cirúrgico em pacientes com endometrioma de parede abdominal. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva das pacientes operadas por endometrioma de parede abdominal, dando ênfase aos dados relativos à idade, sintomas, cesariana prévia, relação dos sintomas com o ciclo menstrual, exames físicos e complementares, tratamento cirúrgico, evolução pós-operatória e resultado histopatológico dos espécimes. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 14 pacientes no período estudado, com idade entre 28 e 40 anos. A presença de massa e dor local que piorava durante a menstruação foram as queixas principais. Ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada foram exames importantes em localizar precisamente a doença. O tratamento cirúrgico foi exérese ampla da tumoração e dos tecidos comprometidos. As pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente e o histopatológico confirmou a suspeita de endometrioma de parede abdominal em todos os casos. CONCLUSÃO: Foi nítida a relação entre cesariana prévia e endometrioma de parede abdominal e estudos ultrassonográficos e tomográficos auxiliaram a planejar a abordagem cirúrgica permitindo a exérese da tumoração e de todos os tecidos adjacentes comprometidos.

  12. Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, T; Schermerhorn, M

    2010-06-01

    Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) continues to be one of the most lethal vascular pathologies we encounter. Its management demands prompt and efficient evaluation and repair. Open repair has traditionally been the mainstay of treatment. However, the introduction of endovascular techniques has altered the treatment algorithm for ruptured AAA in most major medical centers. We present recent literature and techniques for ruptured AAA and its surgical management.

  13. Acquired Abdominal Intercostal Hernia: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Acquired abdominal intercostal hernia (AAIH) is a rare disease phenomenon where intra-abdominal contents reach the intercostal space directly from the peritoneal cavity through an acquired defect in the abdominal wall musculature and fascia. We discuss a case of a 51-year-old obese female who arrived to the emergency room with a painful swelling between her left 10th rib and 11th rib. She gave a history of a stab wound to the area 15 years earlier. A CT scan revealed a fat containing intercostal hernia with no diaphragmatic defect. An open operative approach with a hernia patch was used to repair this hernia. These hernias are difficult to diagnose, so a high clinical suspicion and thorough history and physical exam are important. This review discusses pathogenesis, clinical presentation, complications, and appropriate treatment strategies of AAIH. PMID:25197605

  14. Abdominal actinomycosis associated with intrauterine device: CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, T. [Dept. of Radiology, CHUV-1011, Lausanne (Switzerland); Grandi, P. de [Dept. of Gynecology-Obstetrics, CHUV-1011, Lausame (Switzerland); Schnyder, P. [Dept. of Radiology, CHUV-1011, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1996-10-01

    We report two cases of pelviperitoneal actinomycosis appearing in two young women with acute low abdominal pain. Abdominal CT demonstrated multiple solid or encapsulated peritoneal masses with marked contrast enhancement and infiltration of the adjacent mesenteric fat. Laparoscopy confirmed the presence of intraperitoneal abscesses which contained Actinomyces israelii. High doses of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (Augmentine) were given and following CT scan after 2 and 6 weeks showed a slow, but complete, resolution of the lesions. Although the radiologic presentation of actinomycosis is nonspecific, the diagnosis should be raised in the presence of pseudotumoral mesenteric infiltration, particularly in young women with an IUD. Abdominal CT is a useful method for diagnosis and for follow-up. (orig./MG)

  15. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  16. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  17. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oils like soybean, corn, canola, and olive oil. Saturated fats: These fats are found in meat and other ... as butter, cheese, and all milk except skim. Saturated fats are also in palm and coconut oils, which ...

  18. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  19. Examination of central body fat deposition as a risk factor for loss-of-control eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Laura A; Arigo, Danielle; Mayer, Laurel Es; Sarwer, David B; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-10-01

    Elevated body mass index (BMI), higher waist-to-hip ratio, and body dissatisfaction have been investigated as risk factors for the development of bulimic symptoms. Central fat deposition may be particularly relevant to eating disorders. To our knowledge, the longitudinal relations between fat distribution, body dissatisfaction, and loss-of-control (LOC) eating development and maintenance have not been studied. We examined body fat distribution, independent of BMI and depressive symptoms, as a unique correlate and predictor of body dissatisfaction and LOC eating cross-sectionally and over a 2-y follow-up. Body composition was measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 294 adult women at risk of weight gain at baseline, 6 mo, and 24 mo. We assessed LOC eating, body dissatisfaction, and depressive symptoms at baseline, 6 wk, 6 mo, 12 mo, and 24 mo by using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Interview, the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire-Appearance Scales Body Areas Satisfaction subscale, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, respectively. Independent of BMI, baseline total percentage body fat, percentage trunk fat, and percentage abdominal fat were related to greater body dissatisfaction. Total percentage body fat and trunk fat tended to be associated with greater body dissatisfaction at all subsequent time points. Women with a greater percentage trunk fat, specifically abdominal fat, were at highest risk of developing LOC eating. In the full sample, women with higher baseline percentage trunk and abdominal fat showed increases in LOC eating episode frequency over time, whereas LOC eating frequency remained stable among women with smaller percentages of fat in trunk and abdominal regions. These findings lend further support to the premise that increased central body fat deposition is associated with body image dissatisfaction and suggest that it may represent a risk and maintenance factor for LOC eating. This trial was

  20. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  1. Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsuthavas, S.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi

  2. Dietary fat type, body composition and fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wongsuthavas, S.

    2007-01-01

    An increased intake of PUFA in the form of soybean oil at the expense of SFA in the form of tallow reduced abdominal deposition by broiler chickens in a does-dependent fashion, the relationship being essentially independent of the fat level of the diet. Dietary fats rich in MCT would diminish abdomi

  3. Diagnostic performance of amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue of patients with clinical AA amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, Bouke P. C.; Bijzet, Johannes; Limburg, Pieter C.; Skinner, Martha; Hawkins, Philip N.; Butrimiene, Irena; Livneh, Avi; Lesnyak, Olga; Nasonov, Evgeney L.; Filipowicz-Sosnowska, Anna; Guel, Ahmet; Merlini, Giampaolo; Wiland, Piotr; Oezdogan, Huri; Gorevic, Peter D.; Ben Maiz, Hedi; Benson, Merrill D.; Direskeneli, Haner; Kaarela, Kalevi; Garceau, Denis; Hauck, Wendy; van Rijswijk, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Amyloid A protein quantification in fat tissue is a new immunochemical method for detecting AA amyloidosis, a rare but serious disease. The objective was to assess diagnostic performance in clinical AA amyloidosis. Methods. Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue of patients with AA amyloidosis

  4. Diagnostic performance of measuring free light chains in fat tissue of patients with AL amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijzet, J.; Van Gameren, I.I.; Limburg, P.C.; Bos, R.; Vellenga, E.; Hazenberg, B.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic performance of measuring immunoglobulin free light chains in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was studied for detection and characterisation of AL amyloidosis. Methods: Fat tissue specimens of 107 consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis (23 k and 84 l) and 95 controls (3

  5. Effects of Weight Loss with and without Exercise on Regional Body Fat Distribution in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Monica C; Blumenthal, Jacob B; Addison, Odessa R; Miller, Ann J; Goldberg, Andrew P; Ryan, Alice S

    2017-01-01

    The purpose was to determine whether lifestyle interventions have different effects on regional fat in women with normal glucose tolerance vs. impaired glucose tolerance (NGT vs. IGT). Changes in glucose metabolism (2-h oral glucose-tolerance tests), android to gynoid fat mass ratio (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry [DXA]), visceral to subcutaneous abdominal fat area ratio (CT), and abdominal to gluteal subcutaneous fat cell weight (FCW; adipose tissue biopsies) were determined in 60 overweight postmenopausal women (45-80 years) following 6 months of weight loss alone (WL; n = 28) or with aerobic exercise (AEX + WL; n = 32). The interventions led to ∼8% decrease in weight, but only the AEX + WL group improved fitness (↑11% in VO2max) and reduced the android-to-gynoid fat mass ratio (↓5%; p fat areas and abdominal and gluteal FCWs, which related to improvements in homeostatic model assessment (r = 0.34-0.42) and 2-h glucose (r = 0.34-0.35), respectively (p fat loss should be explored as reductions in abdominal fat area and subcutaneous FCW appear to influence glucose metabolism. This is a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. Foreign copyrights may apply. Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    OpenAIRE

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturate...

  7. Well-differentiated liposarcoma of the retroperitoneum with a fat-fluid level: US, CT, and MR appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi (Japan)

    1998-03-27

    We report a case of retroperitoneal liposarcoma with a fat-fluid level that has not been previously described. A 36-year-old man presented with abdominal distension. Ultrasonography, CT, and MR imaging showed a tumor with a fat-fluid level; nondependent fluid was characteristic of fat. Liposarcoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors exhibiting a fat-fluid level. (orig.) With 1 fig., 11 refs.

  8. Abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gefke, K; Schroeder, T V; Thisted, B

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify patients who need longer care in the ICU (more than 48 hours) following abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) surgery and to evaluate the influence of perioperative complications on short- and long-term survival and quality of life. AAA surgery was performed in 553......, 78% stated that their quality of life had improved or was unchanged after surgery and had resumed working. These data justify a therapeutically aggressive approach, including ICU therapy following AAA surgery, despite failure of one or more organ systems....

  9. Abdominal perfusion computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogul, Hayri; Bayraktutan, Ummugulsum; Kizrak, Yesim; Pirimoglu, Berhan; Yuceler, Zeynep; Sagsoz, M Erdem; Yilmaz, Omer; Aydinli, Bulent; Ozturk, Gurkan; Kantarci, Mecit

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.

  10. Lower Abdominal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, David J; Lee, Stephen D; Dubin, Jeffrey S

    2016-05-01

    Although most frequently presenting with lower abdominal pain, appendicitis, colitis, and diverticulitis can cause pain throughout the abdomen and can cause peritoneal and retroperitoneal symptoms. Evaluation and management of lower intestinal disease requires a nuanced approach by the emergency physician, sometimes requiring computed tomography, ultrasonography, MRI, layered imaging, shared decision making, serial examination, and/or close follow-up. Once a presumed or confirmed diagnosis is made, appropriate treatment is initiated, and may include surgery, antibiotics, and/or steroids. Appendicitis patients should be admitted. Diverticulitis and inflammatory bowel disease can frequently be managed on an outpatient basis, but may require admission and surgical consultation.

  11. Dolor abdominal recurrente .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo De Vivero

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El dolor abdominal recurrente (DAR es un problema frecuente en la consulta médica y en la subespecialidad médica y quirúrgica. El DAR es frecuentemente funcional, es decir, sin una causa orgánica aparente. El diagnóstico diferencial debe incluir pérdida de peso, sangrado gastrointestinal, fiebre persistente, diarrea crónica y vómito importante. En este artículo se revisa el diagnóstico y tratamiento, pruebas diagnósticas y manejo farmacológico y ambiental.

  12. [Differential diagnosis of abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Pascal

    2015-09-02

    Despite the frequency of functional abdominal pain, potentially dangerous causes of abdominal pain need to be excluded. Medical history and clinical examination must focus on red flags and signs for imflammatory or malignant diseases. See the patient twice in the case of severe and acute abdominal pain if lab parameters or radiological examinations are normal. Avoid repeated and useless X-ray exposure whenever possible. In the case of subacute or chronic abdominal pain, lab tests such as fecal calprotectin, helicobacter stool antigen and serological tests for celiac disease are very useful. Elderly patients may show atypical or missing clinical signs. Take care of red herrings and be skeptical whether your initial diagnosis is really correct. Abdominal pain can frequently be an abdominal wall pain.

  13. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...... been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned...

  14. Dietary lipids: less fat or best fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chardigny Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight occurrence is growing around the word. This is often considered as a consequence of high fat diets, and some recommendations encourage ‘‘light’’ diets, including low fat intake. However, most trials with low fat intake do not demonstrate any benefit and could be worse than low carbohydrate diets. The key role of insulin could explain that eating fat do not make body fat. On the other hand, several unbalanced fatty acid intake are reported, i.e. saturated/mononunsaturated fatty acids and w6/w3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thus, fat intake could be improved in this respect. Moreover, the molecular and supramolecular structures of fat in food are new challenges to address in order to ameliorate the recommendations for healthy diets.

  15. Nodular intra-abdominal panniculitis: an accompaniment of colorectal carcinoma and diverticular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin

    1996-01-01

    was undertaken in order to describe the entire spectrum of the disease including primary as well as secondary cases. Eleven patients are reported, nine of which had an associated colorectal disease in direct continuity with areas of intra-abdominal panniculitis. It is concluded that intra-abdominal panniculitis...... should not be regarded as a specific nosological entity but merely a result of injury to the fat cells. Intra-abdominal panniculitis is seen more often as a secondary local phenomenon than as a primary condition, and in both cases it is associated with considerable differential diagnostic problems...

  16. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Eis, Jeanette; Hansen, Andreas Wolff

    2008-01-01

    in rural and urban Kenya. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...

  17. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    in rural and urban Kenya. Subjects and methods: In a cross-sectional study carried out among Luo, Kamba and Maasai in rural and urban Kenya, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thicknesses were measured by ultrasonography. Height and weight, waist, mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps skinfold...

  18. Abdominal cystic lymphangioma mimicking appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

    2013-06-01

    A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investigation of cystic material.

  19. Abdominal Cystic Lymphangioma Mimicking Appendicitis

    OpenAIRE

    Wake, Sarah; Abhyankar, Aruna; Hutton, Kim

    2013-01-01

    A cystic lymphangioma arising within the abdomen is a rare entity in children. It may present with an abdominal mass and symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and anorexia. These nonspecific clinical symptoms are often attributed to more common acute pediatric conditions. In this report, we describe two pediatric cases of intra-abdominal cystic lymphangioma that were initially diagnosed and treated as appendicitis. True diagnosis was only achieved on surgical excision and pathological investi...

  20. Abdominal pregnancy- a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ii; Ude, Ac; Aderibigbe, Aso; Amu, Oc; Udeh, Pe; Obianyo, Nen; Ani, Coc

    2011-01-01

    A case of abdominal pregnancy in a 39 year old female gravida 4, para 0(+3) is presented. Ultrasonography revealed a viable abdominal pregnancy at 15 weeks gestational age. She was initially managed conservatively. Surgical intervention became necessary at 20 weeks gestational age following Ultrasound detection of foetal demise. The maternal outcome was favourable. This case is presented to highlight the dilemma associated with diagnosis and management of abdominal pregnancy with a review of literature.

  1. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... through blood vessels. Ultrasound imaging is a noninvasive medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Children's (pediatric) abdominal ultrasound imaging produces pictures ...

  2. Visceral fat is more important than peripheral fat for endometrial thickness and bone mass in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Christiansen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    as double-layer thickness. Body composition was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, which divides the body into fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass, both for the total body and regional body compartments. An abdominal region was inserted manually. Statistics were Pearson correlations and analysis...

  3. Diagnostic problems in fine needle aspiration cytology of fat necrosis within a subcutaneous lipoma

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Fat necrosis in subcutaneous lipomas is very unusual and has been reported only occasionally. Literature regarding fine needle aspiration cytology of such a lesion is lacking although fat necrosis is well described in the breast. We came across a case of a large subcutaneous lipoma in the anterior abdominal wall with a well encapsulated area of fat necrosis. The aspiration smears showed an unusual picture which was misinterpreted as the fragments of the hydatid cyst wall. They were actually e...

  4. Abdominal manifestations of cystic fibrosis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudry, Gulraiz; Navarro, Oscar M.; Levine, Daniel S.; Oudjhane, Kamaldine [University of Toronto, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-15

    Pulmonary complications remain the main cause of mortality in cystic fibrosis, but the presenting symptoms in children are often related to gastrointestinal or pancreaticobiliary disease. Furthermore, abdominal manifestations are now seen throughout childhood, from infancy to adolescence. The child might present in the neonatal period with meconium ileus or its attendant complications. The older child might present with distal intestinal obstruction syndrome or colonic stricture secondary to high doses of pancreatic enzyme replacement. Less-common gastrointestinal manifestations include intussusception, duodenitis and fecal impaction of the appendix. Most children also show evidence of exocrine pancreatic deficiency. Radiologically, the combination of fat deposition and pancreatic fibrosis leads to varying CT and MR appearances. A higher than normal incidence of pancreatic cysts and calcification is also seen. Decreased transport of water and chloride also increases the viscosity of bile, with subsequent obstruction of the biliary ductules. If extensive, this can progress to obstructive cirrhosis, portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Diffuse fatty infiltration, hypersplenism and gallstones are also commonly seen in these patients. We present a pictorial review of the radiological appearance of these abdominal manifestations. The conditions are dealt with individually, together with typical appearances in various imaging modalities. (orig.)

  5. Nontraumatic abdominal emergencies: acute abdominal pain: diagnostic strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincek, B. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Common causes of acute abdominal pain include appendicitis, cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, urinary colic, perforated peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, diverticulitis, and nonspecific, nonsurgical abdominal pain. The topographic classification of acute abdominal pain (pain in one of the four abdominal quadrants, diffuse abdominal pain, flank or epigastric pain) facilitates the choice of the imaging technique. The initial radiological evaluation often consists of plain abdominal radiography, despite significant diagnostic limitations. The traditional indications for plain films - bowel obstruction, pneumoperitoneum, and the search of ureteral calculi - are questioned by helical computed tomography (CT). Although ultrasonography (US) is in many centers the modality of choice for imaging the gallbladder and the pelvis in children and women of reproductive age, CT is considered to be one of the most valued tools for triaging patients with acute abdominal pain. CT is particularly beneficial in patients with marked obesity, unclear US findings, bowel obstruction, and multiple lesions. The introduction of multidetector row CT (MDCT) has further enhanced the utility of CT in imaging patients with acute abdominal pain. (orig.)

  6. Quantitation and localization of regional body fat distribution--a comparison between magnetic resonance imaging and somatometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R C; Kramsch, D M; Lee, P L; Colletti, P; Jiao, Q

    1996-03-01

    The emerging concept that various fat compartments are metabolically active and play separate and decisive roles in the pathogenesis of coronary atherosclerosis, hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes and stroke, has given obesity research a new direction. Of particular interest is the relative amount of intra-abdominal fat thought to be responsible for the metabolic complications. We studied the precise fat distribution and its correlations with the metabolic parameters in 44 non-human primates (Macaca fascicularis). Intra-abdominal, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat (IAF, SAF, TAF) were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatometry. Quantitative computer analyses of abdominal MRI scans revealed predominant IAF distribution. Box plot analysis of IAF and SAF revealed wide diversity in the amounts of fat, especially in monkeys with body mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m2. Primates with similar BMI in each quartile revealed an extensive heterogeneity in IAF as well as SAF. Numerous significant correlations within site-specific somatometric measurements as well as within the MRI determinants of abdominal fat were seen. However, only body weight correlated with IAF and skinfolds could predict SAF. After adjusting for body weight, partial correlation analysis showed a significant correlation (P < 0.05) between total cholesterol and IAF. MRI revealed considerable heterogeneity of IAF, SAF and TAF in cohort of primates believed to be homogeneous by somatometric definition. Male cynomolgus monkeys appear to be a valuable model for a systematic evaluation of fat. Individuals with identical body weight and height may show a diverse pattern of fat distribution.

  7. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Abdominal Complications after Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    abdominal compartment syndrome, schemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic ulcer disease and astritis requiring laparotomy, small bowel obstruction, rimary fungal...complications in- luded trauma exploratory laparotomy, abdominal com- artment syndrome, ischemic bowel, biliary disease , peptic lcer disease and gastritis, large...because it was almost uniformly ssociated with serious lethal burns. This was in the period efore effective gastric acid control, explaining the high

  9. Videolaparoscopia no trauma abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Átila Varela Velho

    Full Text Available A videolaparoscopia (VL vem contribuindo de forma crescente, para diagnóstico e terapêutica de várias afecções cirúrgicas abdominais, introduzindo profundas mudanças na cirurgia contemporânea. Esse avanço incorporou-se também às urgências traumáticas, fazendo parte da avaliação diagnóstica e, às vezes, da terapêutica do trauma abdominal. Os autores apresentam uma revisão concisa da literatura sobre a VL no trauma, atualizando o tema e discutindo os aspectos mais relevantes das indicações, limitações e complicações do método.

  10. Abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    2010-01-01

    Although the number of elective operations for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is increasing, the sex- and age-standardised mortality rate of AAAs continues to rise, especially among men aged 65 years or more. The lethality of ruptured AAA continues to be 80-95%, compared with 5-7% by elective...... inhibit further AAA progression. All 4 existing RCTs point in the same direction, viz. in favour of screening of men aged 65 and above. We found that screening significantly reduced AAA-related mortality by 67% within the first five years (NNT = 352). Restriction of screening to men with previous...... year gained was 157 euro [1,170 DKK] and the cost per QALY at 178 euro [1,326 DKK]. In all, the ethical dilemma of the prophylactic operation, and the limited psychological side effects seem not to outweigh the benefits of screening. Conclusively, we found that offering men aged 65-73 years screening...

  11. Enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size, but not obesity itself, predicts type II diabetes independent of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, C; Foley, J E; Bogardus, C; Tataranni, P A; Pratley, R E

    2000-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies indicate that enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size is associated with hyperinsulinaemia, insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. To further explore the pathophysiological significance of these associations, we examined prospectively whether enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size predicts Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Body composition (hydrodensitometry), mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size (fat biopsy), insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic clamp) and the acute insulin secretory response (25-g i.v. GTT) were assessed in 280 Pima Indians with either normal (NGT), impaired (IGT) or diabetic glucose tolerance (75-g OGTT). Subjects with NGT were then followed prospectively. After adjusting for age, sex and per cent body fat, mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size was 19% and 11% higher in subjects with diabetes and IGT, compared with those with NGT (p < 0.001). Insulin sensitivity was inversely correlated with mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size (r = -0.53, p < 0.0001), even after adjusting for per cent body fat (r = -0.31, p < 0.001). In 108 NGT subjects followed over 9.3 +/- 4.1 years (33 of whom developed diabetes), enlarged mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size but not high per cent body fat, was an independent predictor of diabetes, in addition to a low insulin sensitivity and acute insulin secretory response [relative hazard 10th vs 90th centile (95% CI): 5.8 (1.7-19.6), p < 0.005]. In 28 NGT subjects with a 9% weight gain over 2.7 +/- 1.3 years, changes in insulin sensitivity were inversely and independently related to changes in mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size and per cent body fat. Although enlarged mean subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size is associated with insulin resistance cross-sectionally, prospectively, both abnormalities are independent and additive predictors of Type II diabetes.

  12. Assessing body condition and energy budget components by scoring abdominal profiles in free-ranging pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madsen, J.; Klaassen, M.R.J.

    2006-01-01

    An abdominal profile index (API) was developed for pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus as a measure of body condition. On basis of carcass analysis of 56 adult geese with known API prior to collection, we found significant linear relationships between API against body mass, abdominal fat and tota

  13. Abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of acute abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    Although traditionally regarded as a specific pediatric disease, abdominal migraine may also be observed in adults. Unfortunately, however, this condition is frequently overlooked in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in the emergency department (ED). A 30-year-old woman presented to our ED complaining of abdominal pain and vomiting, lasting for 12 hours. The pain was periumbilical, continuous, and not associated with fever or diarrhea. The physical examination and the results of conventional blood tests were normal. The patient was treated with intravenous ketoprofen, metoclopramide, and ranitidine, obtaining a prompt relief of symptoms. She had a history of similar episodes in the last 15 years, with several ED visits, blood test examinations, ultrasonography of the abdomen, and upper gastrointestinal endoscopies. Celiac disease, porphyry, sickle cell disease, and inflammatory bowel disease were all excluded. In July 2012, she became pregnant, and she delivered a healthy baby on April 2013. Until November 2014, she has remained asymptomatic. Based on the clinical characteristics of the abdominal pain episodes, the exclusion of any alternative diagnosis, and the relief of symptoms during and after pregnancy, a final diagnosis of abdominal migraine could be established. A skilled emergency physician should always consider abdominal migraine in the differential diagnosis of patients admitted to the ED with abdominal pain, especially when the attacks are recurrent and no alternative diagnosis can be clearly established.

  14. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  15. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  16. VACUUM THERAPY VERSUS ABDOMINAL EXERCISES ON ABDOMINAL OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevein Mohammed Mohammed Gharib

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a medical condition that may adversely affect wellbeing and leading to increased incidence of many health problems. Abdominal obesity tends to be associated with weight gain and obesity and it is significantly connected with different disorders like coronary heart disease and type II diabetes mellitus.This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of vacuum therapy as compared to abdominal exercises on abdominal obesity in overweight and obese women. Methods: Thirtyoverweight and obese women participated in this study with body mass index > 25 kg/m2andwaist circumference ≥ 85 cm. Their ages ranged from 28 - 40 years old.The subjects were excluded if they have diabetes, abdominal infection diseases or any physical limitation restricting exercise ability. They were randomly allocated into two equal groups; group I and group II. Group I received vacuum therapy sessions (by the use of LPG device in addition to aerobic exercise training. Group II received abdominal exercises in addition to the same aerobic exercisesgiven to group I. This study was extended for successive 8 weeks (3 sessions/ week. All subjects were assessed for thickness ofnthe abdominal skin fold, waist circumference and body mass index. Results: The results of this study showeda significant difference between group I and group II post-interventionas regarding to the mean values of waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that aerobic exercises combined with vacuum therapy (for three sessions/week for successive 8 weeks have a positive effect on women with abdominal obesity in terms of reducing waist circumference and abdominal skin fold thickness.

  17. Correlation between complicated diverticulitis and visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Heon; Lee, Hang Lak; Kim, Jin Ok; Tae, Hye Jin; Jung, Suk Hyun; Lee, Kang Nyeong; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Choi, Ho Soon; Hahm, Joon Soo; Song, Soon Young

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of complications related to diverticulitis and visceral obesity. The study was based on a retrospective case note review conducted at the Hanyang University Hospital. Patients were diagnosed with diverticulitis based on clinical symptoms and abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings and divided into two groups: those admitted with complicated diverticulitis and those with a simple diverticulitis episode. We compared the body mass index (BMI) and degree of visceral obesity, measured by abdominal CT. The study included 140 patients, 87 (62.1%) were simple diverticulitis and 53 (37.9%) were complicated diverticulitis. In the complicated diverticulitis group, 9 (6.4%) cases were recurrent, 29 (20.7%) were perforation or abscess patients, and 28 (20%) were patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Of the SIRS patients, 13 were involved in other complication groups. When comparing in the two groups, the complicated diverticulitis group had a significantly higher visceral fat area (128.57 cm(2) vs 102.80 cm(2), P = 0.032) and a higher ratio of visceral fat area/subcutaneous fat area (0.997 vs 0.799, P = 0.014). Visceral obesity is significantly associated with complications of diverticulitis.

  18. Modest Visceral Fat Gain Causes Endothelial Dysfunction In Healthy Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Corral, Abel; Sert-Kuniyoshi, Fatima H.; Sierra-Johnson, Justo; Orban, Marek; Gami, Apoor; Davison, Diane; Singh, Prachi; Pusalavidyasagar, Snigdha; Huyber, Christine; Votruba, Susanne; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco; Jensen, Michael D.; Somers, Virend K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine the impact of fat gain and its distribution on endothelial function in lean healthy humans. Background Endothelial dysfunction has been identified as an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Whether fat gain impairs endothelial function is unknown. Methods A randomized controlled study to assess the effects of fat gain on endothelial function. We recruited 43 normal weight healthy volunteers (mean age 29 years; 18 women). Subjects were assigned to gain weight (approximately 4 kg) (n=35) or to maintain weight (n=8). Endothelial function (brachial artery flow mediated dilation -FMD) was measured at baseline, after fat gain (8 weeks) and after weight loss (16 weeks) for fat-gainers and at baseline and follow-up (8 weeks) for weight-maintainers. Body composition was measured by DXA and abdominal CT scans. Results After an average weight gain of 4.1 kg, fat-gainers significantly increased their total, visceral and subcutaneous fat. Blood pressure and overnight polysomnography did not change after fat gain or loss. FMD remained unchanged in weight-maintainers. FMD decreased in fat-gainers (9.1 ± 3% vs. 7.8 ± 3.2%, p =0.003), but recovered to baseline when subjects shed the gained weight. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in FMD and the increase in visceral fat gain (rho = −0.42, p=0.004), but not with subcutaneous fat gain (rho = −0.22, p=0.15). Conclusions In normal weight healthy young subjects, modest fat gain results in impaired endothelial function, even in the absence of changes in blood pressure. Endothelial function recovers after weight loss. Increased visceral rather than subcutaneous fat predicts endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20705223

  19. Degree of obesity influences the relationship of PAI-1 with body fat distribution and metabolic variables in African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; Nienaber-Rousseau, Cornelie; Kruger, Herculina S

    2016-10-01

    Although the relationship of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) with obesity has been well established, the relationship of PAI-1 with different body fat distribution patterns is less clear particularly in non-white ethnicities. We investigated the cross-sectional association of PAI-1act with body fat % and two different body fat distribution patterns, namely sarcopenic obesity (SO) and visceral (VAT) compared to subcutaneous (SCAT) abdominal obesity, in 246 healthy African women by creating sub-groups according to different body fat distribution patterns. The PAI-1act level of the SO group did not differ significantly from that of the excessive % body fat, non-sarcopenic group (p=0.8). The relationship of PAI-1act, with body fat %, insulin, triglycerides and appendicular skeletal mass (ASM) was influenced by body fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity. PAI-1act was higher (1.65 vs 0.16U/ml; p=0.001) in women with a proportionally higher abdominal VAT compared to higher abdominal SCAT compartment in the total study population, but not in the centrally obese sub-group (1.72 vs 0.83U/ml; p=0.5). Multiple regression models indicated that body fat % per se did not contribute significantly to PAI-1act variance in women with increased fat mass. Fat distribution patterns and degree of obesity influenced the association of PAI-1act with insulin, triglycerides, ASM and body fat % in African women. In centrally obese women, abdominal VAT no longer contributed more to plasma PAI-1act, than abdominal SCAT. Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction contributed more to PAI-1act variance in obese African women than did body fat % per se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistin protein expression in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placenta in pregnant women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the expression of resistin protein in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and placental tissue in pregnant women and the relationship between pregnant physiological insulin resistance (IR) and gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM). Methods: The expression of resistin protein in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of pregnant and nonpregnant women and placental tissue was measured using western blotting method. Fasting serum glucose concentration was measured by glucose oxidase assay.Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Results: Resistin protein expression in placental tissue(67905 ± 8441)(arbitrary OD units)was much higher than that in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue in pregnant women (40718 ± 3818)( P <0.01 ) and nonpregnant women (38288 ± 2084) ( P < 0.01 ) respectively, and there was no significant difference in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Conclusion: Resistin protein expression in placental tissue is much higher than that in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue in pregnant and nonpregnant women. Resistin protein is secreted from human placental tissue.Resistin is one of the factors which lead to pregnant physiological IR and GDM.

  1. Nodular intra-abdominal panniculitis: an accompaniment of colorectal carcinoma and diverticular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin

    1996-01-01

    should not be regarded as a specific nosological entity but merely a result of injury to the fat cells. Intra-abdominal panniculitis is seen more often as a secondary local phenomenon than as a primary condition, and in both cases it is associated with considerable differential diagnostic problems...

  2. Síndrome compartimental abdominal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misael Guzmán Nápoles

    Full Text Available Desde el siglo XIX se conocen los efectos negativos del aumento de la presión intraabdominal, pero no se le prestó la debida atención a este trastorno hasta la última década del pasado siglo y la primera del actual. En este artículo exponemos las definiciones de los términos presión intrabdominal, hipertensión intrabdominal y síndrome compartimental abdominal, que fueron tomadas por consenso y aprobadas por la World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. En nuestro medio, para el diagnóstico de la hipertensión intrabdominal y del síndrome compartimental abdominal se requiere medir la presión intrabdominal, secundariamente la presión de perfusión abdominal y se deben correlacionar estos datos con signos de deterioro clínico en el paciente. Las medidas terapéuticas médicas en relación con el síndrome compartimental abdominal son limitadas; cuando este es sintomático la descompresión abdominal es el tratamiento ya establecido. Enfatizamos en que el diagnóstico temprano de la hipertensión intrabdominal y del síndrome compartimental abdominal contribuyen a disminuir el desarrollo de un síndrome de disfunción múltiple de órganos y por tanto a reducir la mortalidad en estos pacientes. Con el objetivo de actualizar los conocimientos sobre hipertensión intrabdominal y síndrome compartimental abdominal, su diagnóstico y tratamiento, realizamos una minuciosa revisión actualizada de diversos artículos referentes al síndrome compartimental abdominal, tanto en el ámbito nacional como internacional.

  3. Resting Energy Expenditure and Its Relationship With Patterns of Obesity and Visceral Fat Area in Chinese Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI-PING JIA; MING YANG; XIN-YU SHAO; YU-QIAN BAO; JUN-XI LU; KUN-SAN XIANG

    2005-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between resting energy expenditure (REE) and patterns of obesity/regional fat parameters in Chinese adults. Methods Body mass index (BMI), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed in 109 Chinese adults (52 men and 57 women), and their abdominal visceral adipose tissue area (VA) and subcutaneous fat area (SA) were measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. REE was measured with indirect calorimetry and compared with normal and obese subjects. Multivariate analysis was used to study the factors related to REE. Results The resting energy expenditure per kilogram of body weight (REE/kg) was closely related with the area of abdominal visceral fat measured with MRI. REE/kg was significantly lower in overweight/obesity subjects than in normal-weighted subjects, and significantly lower in subjects with abdominal obesity (VA≥100 cm2) than in subjects with non-abdominal obesity (VA< 100 cm2, BMI≥25 kg/m2). In the stepwise regression analysis of REE/kg on regional fat parameters, VA in men and women and SA in women were independent factors reversely related to REE/kg. Conclusion REE/kg is associated with the visceral fat area and more prominent in men. REE/kg can be used as an index in the pathophysiology of intra-abdominal obesity.

  4. Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trans Fat Now Listed With Saturated Fat and Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... I Do About Saturated Fat, Trans Fat, and Cholesterol? When comparing foods, look at the Nutrition Facts ...

  5. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year-old child with an unusual clinical presentation ... Keywords: abdominal tuberculosis, child, diagnosis. Departments of .... vomiting, gas distension, diarrhea, or constipation), whereas ... senteric echo in the acute stage with peritoneal involve-.

  6. Fats and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fit Fats and Your Family en español Las grasas y su hijo As with carbohydrates in recent ... and increase the risk of heart disease. 3. Trans fats: Found in margarine (especially the sticks), commercial ...

  7. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Dietary Fat and Cholesterol Posted under Health Guides . Updated 7 March 2017. + ... saturated fat found in red meat. What is cholesterol? Cholesterol is a fatlike substance that’s found in ...

  8. Economics of abdominal wall reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Curtis; Roth, J Scott

    2013-10-01

    The economic aspects of abdominal wall reconstruction are frequently overlooked, although understandings of the financial implications are essential in providing cost-efficient health care. Ventral hernia repairs are frequently performed surgical procedures with significant economic ramifications for employers, insurers, providers, and patients because of the volume of procedures, complication rates, the significant rate of recurrence, and escalating costs. Because biological mesh materials add significant expense to the costs of treating complex abdominal wall hernias, the role of such costly materials needs to be better defined to ensure the most cost-efficient and effective treatments for ventral abdominal wall hernias.

  9. The reverse abdominal reduction and the 'waistcoating' procedure for the correction of the fixated Pfannenstiel incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Douglas H

    2016-05-01

    The principles of a standard abdominal reduction are well understood; this technique has been used for many years. However, a reverse abdominal reduction may be considered in some cases, for example, continued weight loss, and thus skin redundancy on the upper abdomen in patients who have already undergone abdominal reduction and upper abdomen improvement in patients requiring a mastopexy or breast reduction simultaneously. Reverse abdominal reduction is rarely mentioned in the medical literature, but it can prove successful; although the scar across the lower sternum has often been considered to be unsatisfactory, often it does not prove to be so. Thus, this procedure can be proven to be successful in suitable cases. Secondly, the Pfannenstiel incision, if not satisfactorily repaired in the first instance, can become fixated to the abdominal wall; this fixation along with the inevitable migration of skin and fat at its cephalic edge causes a rather displeasing contour defect when wearing tight-fitting swimwear. The principle of the waistcoating procedure is essentially to chamfer the fat cephalically; this procedure is employed for removing the Pfannenstiel scar from the abdominal wall. The principle is simple and effective and can be applied in cases with fixated scars. These two aforementioned principles are not commonly used, but they can prove particularly effective in suitable cases. We illustrate the principles.

  10. Fat embolism syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob George; Reeba George; Dixit, R; Gupta, R C; Gupta, N.

    1997-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome, an important contributor to the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome, has been associated with both traumatic and nontraumatic disorders. Fat embolization after long bone trauma is probably common as a subclinical event. Fat emboli can deform and pass through the lungs, resulting in systemic embolization, most commonly to the brain and kidneys. The diagnosis of fat embolism syndrome is based on the patient’s history, supported by clinical signs of pulmonar...

  11. Abdominal aortic feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Alice Emily

    2014-11-14

    A 79-year-old woman presented to a private medical practice 2 years previously for an elective ultrasound screening scan. This imaging provided the evidence for a diagnosis of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to be made. Despite having a number of recognised risk factors for an AAA, her general practitioner at the time did not follow the guidance set out by the private medical professional, that is, to refer the patient to a vascular specialist to be entered into a surveillance programme and surgically evaluated. The patient became symptomatic with her AAA, was admitted to hospital and found to have a tender, symptomatic, 6 cm leaking AAA. She consented for an emergency open AAA repair within a few hours of being admitted to hospital, despite the 50% perioperative mortality risk. The patient spent 4 days in intensive care where she recovered well. She was discharged after a 12 day hospital stay but unfortunately passed away shortly after her discharge from a previously undiagnosed gastric cancer. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Micromanaging Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Maegdefessel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA disease to human morbidity and mortality has increased in the aging, industrialized world. In response, extraordinary efforts have been launched to determine the molecular and pathophysiological characteristics of the diseased aorta. This work aims to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to limit AAA expansion and, ultimately, rupture. Contributions from multiple research groups have uncovered a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory milieu, which is believed to be essential for maintaining aortic vascular homeostasis. Recently, novel small noncoding RNAs, called microRNAs, have been identified as important transcriptional and post-transcriptional inhibitors of gene expression. MicroRNAs are thought to “fine tune” the translational output of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs by promoting mRNA degradation or inhibiting translation. With the discovery that microRNAs act as powerful regulators in the context of a wide variety of diseases, it is only logical that microRNAs be thoroughly explored as potential therapeutic entities. This current review summarizes interesting findings regarding the intriguing roles and benefits of microRNA expression modulation during AAA initiation and propagation. These studies utilize disease-relevant murine models, as well as human tissue from patients undergoing surgical aortic aneurysm repair. Furthermore, we critically examine future therapeutic strategies with regard to their clinical and translational feasibility.

  13. [Monitoring of intra-abdominal pressure and abdominal perfusion pressure in urgent abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raĭbuzhis, E N; Fot, E V; Gaĭdukov, K M; Kirov, M Iu

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and abdominal perfusion pressure (APP) during perioperative period in urgent abdominal surgery and to assess the relationship of these parameters with gas exchange and tissue perfusion. Twenty-four patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery were enrolled into a prospective observational study. We recorded IAP APP, mean arterial pressure, arterial and venous blood gases after induction of anesthesia, at the end of surgery, and 6, 12, 48 and 72 h postoperatively. LAP was measured by nasogastric tube using CiMON monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany). In addition, we studied the relationship of IAP and APP with blood gases parameters. We observed perioperative increase of IAP (> 12 mm Hg) in 75% of enrolled patients, tendency to postoperative rise of IAP and transient increase of arterial lactate at 6 h after surgery. APP remained within normal values. We found positive correlation of APP with PaO2/FiO2 and ScvO2 at 72 hours after surgery. Transient perioperative increase of IAP was observed in 75% patients undergoing urgent abdominal surgery; however in parallel with intensive care the abdominal perfusion pressure remained within normal values. Abdominal perfusion is related with arterial oxygenation and central venous saturation.

  14. Thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat using coaxial probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein; Nadimi, Esmaeil S

    2016-03-01

    In this Letter, a non-invasive method for thickness estimation of the subcutaneous fat layer of abdominal wall is presented by using a coaxial probe. Fat layer has the highest impact on the averaged attenuation parameter of the abdominal wall due to its high thickness and low permittivity. The abdominal wall is modelled as a multi-layer medium and an analytical model for the probe is derived by calculation of its aperture admittance facing to this multi-layer medium. The performance of this model is then validated by a numerical simulation using finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) analysis. Simulation results show the high impact of the probe dimension and fat layer thickness on the sensitivity of the measured permittivity. The authors further investigate this sensitivity by statistical analysis of the permittivity variations. Finally, measuring in different locations relative to the body surface is presented as a solution to estimate the fat layer thickness in the presence of uncertainty of model parameters.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ... Send us your feedback Did you find the information you were looking for? Yes No Please type ...

  16. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... children. Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging ... of page How is the procedure performed? For most ultrasound exams, you will be positioned lying face- ...

  17. Intra-abdominal tuberculous peritonitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G.; Ahlhelm, F.; Altmeyer, K.; Kramann, B. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Hennes, P. [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Pueschel, W. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany); Karadiakos, N. [Dept. of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital, Homburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    We report the case of a 15-year-old boy suffering from progressive dyspnea on exertion and painful abdominal protrusion. Final diagnosis of intra-abdominal tuberculosis (TB), including lymphadenopathy and abdominal abscess formation, was made following elective laparotomy. This type of disease is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The imaging findings in unenhanced and contrast-enhanced MRI and laparoscopic images are presented. Differential diagnosis of abdominal abscess formation and other fungal or bacteriological infections, as well as the imaging findings of this type of lesion, are discussed. This case demonstrates that atypical manifestation of TB may remain unrecognized; thus, awareness of this kind of manifestation of tuberculosis may prevent patients from being subjected to inappropriate therapies. (orig.)

  18. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ... pain from the procedure. If a Doppler ultrasound study is performed, your child may actually hear pulse- ...

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of a ...

  20. Disseminated Intra-Abdominal Hydatidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Fátima; Maguiña, Ciro; Seas, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 26-year-old male Peruvian patient who presented with disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. The patient was treated with surgical removal of the cysts and prolonged medical treatment with albendazole. PMID:24006293

  1. Abdominal Actinomycetoma With Lymphnode Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisetty Rajetha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic mycetoma of the anterior abdominal wall with inguinal lymphnode involvement, an exceedingly rare entity is described here with mycological histological features. Remarkable therapeutic response was noted with Welsh regimen.

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your doctor if there are specific instructions for eating and drinking prior to the exam. Your child ... for laboratory testing help detect the presence and cause of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the ...

  3. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type of ... examinations do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays ), thus there is no radiation exposure ...

  4. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of an apparent enlarged abdominal organ identify the location of abnormal fluid in the abdomen help determine ... places the transducer on the skin in various locations, sweeping over the area of interest or angling ...

  5. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... collects the sounds that bounce back and a computer then uses those sound waves to create an ... located within a child's abdomen. A Doppler ultrasound study may be part of a child's abdominal ultrasound ...

  6. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's ... kidneys bladder testicles ovaries uterus Abdominal ultrasound images can be used to help diagnose appendicitis in children. ...

  7. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... child's abdominal ultrasound examination. Doppler ultrasound , also called color Doppler ultrasonography, is a special ultrasound technique that ... and processes the sounds and creates graphs or color pictures that represent the flow of blood through ...

  8. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ultrasound imaging is performed to evaluate ... for ultrasound examinations. top of page What does the ultrasound equipment look like? Ultrasound scanners consist of ...

  9. Updates on abdominal desmoid tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Desmoid tumor is a monoclonal, fibroblastic proliferation arising in musculoaponeurotic structures. This connective tissue hyperplasia infiltrates locally, recurs frequentiy after resection but does not metastasize. Abdominal desmoid occurs sporadically, in association with some familial syndromes and often represents a clinical dilemma for surgeons. The enigmatic biology and anatomical location of abdominal desmoids make treatment recommendations difficult. This distinct pathological entity is reviewed with a specific focus on aetiology and management.

  10. A Fat Higgs with a Fat Top

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, A; Delgado, Antonio; Tait, Tim M.P.

    2005-01-01

    A new variant of the supersymmetric Fat Higgs model is presented in which the MSSM Higgses as well as the top quark are composite. The underlying theory is an s-confining SU(3) gauge theory with the MSSM gauge groups realized as gauged sub-groups of the chiral flavor symmetries. This motivates the large Yukawas necessary for the large top mass and SM-like Higgs of mass>>M_Z in a natural way as the residual of the strong dynamics responsible for the composites. This removes fine-tuning associated with these couplings present in the original Fat Higgs and New Fat Higgs models, respectively.

  11. Common abdominal emergencies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, James

    2002-02-01

    Because young children often present to EDs with abdominal complaints, emergency physicians must have a high index of suspicion for the common abdominal emergencies that have serious sequelae. At the same time, they must realize that less serious causes of abdominal symptoms (e.g., constipation or gastroenteritis) are also seen. A gentle yet thorough and complete history and physical examination are the most important diagnostic tools for the emergency physician. Repeated examinations and observation are useful tools. Physicians should listen carefully to parents and their children, respect their concerns, and honor their complaints. Ancillary tests are inconsistent in their value in assessing these complaints. Abdominal radiographs can be normal in children with intussusception and even malrotation and early volvulus. Unlike the classic symptoms seen in adults, young children can display only lethargy or poor feeding in cases of appendicitis or can appear happy and playful between paroxysmal bouts of intussusception. The emergency physician therefore, must maintain a high index of suspicion for serious pathology in pediatric patients with abdominal complaints. Eventually, all significant abdominal emergencies reveal their true nature, and if one can be patient with the child and repeat the examinations when the child is quiet, one will be rewarded with the correct diagnosis.

  12. [Overweight and abdominal obesity in adults in aquilombocommunity in Bahia State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniela Arruda; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2014-02-01

    This study analyzes nutritional status, estimates the prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity, and investigates factors associated with these outcomes in a two-stage random sample of adults (> 20 years) in quilombos (communities that descend from African slaves) in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2011. Among 739 participants, prevalence rates were 31.8% and 10.2% for overweight and obesity, respectively, and 55.7% for increased waist-to-height ratio (> 0.50). Prevalence of overweight was higher among 30-39-year-olds, while abdominal obesity was more frequent among older individuals. Female sex, eating chicken or beef with untrimmed fat, and hypertension were associated with higher odds of overweight and abdominal obesity, while smoking and single marital status were associated with lower odds. The results show high prevalence rates for overweight and abdominal obesity in these very poor and socially isolated communities. Specific preventive and control measures are urgently needed.

  13. Controversies in fat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jaana M; Preissl, Hubert; Fritsche, Andreas; Frank, Sabine

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional fat is one of the most controversial topics in nutritional research, particularly against the background of obesity. Studies investigating fat taste perception have revealed several associations with sensory, genetic, and personal factors (e.g. BMI). However, neuronal activation patterns, which are known to be highly sensitive to different tastes as well as to BMI differences, have not yet been included in the scheme of fat taste perception. We will therefore provide a comprehensive survey of the sensory, genetic, and personal factors associated with fat taste perception and highlight the benefits of applying neuroimaging research. We will also give a critical overview of studies investigating sensory fat perception and the challenges resulting from multifaceted methodological approaches. In conclusion, we will discuss a multifactorial approach to fat perception to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms that cause varying fat sensitivity which could be responsible for overeating. Such knowledge might be beneficial in new treatment strategies for obesity and overweight.

  14. Fat utilization during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

    2001-01-01

    1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than.......05). Muscle glycogen breakdown was significantly lower in the subjects taking the fat-rich diet than those taking the carbohydrate-rich diet (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol (kg dry weight)(-1) min(-1), respectively; P

  15. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    , double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT......), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and thigh subcutaneous fat area (TFA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Adiponectin levels were measured using an in-house immunofluorometric assay. Coefficients (b) represent the placebo-controlled mean effect of intervention. RESULTS: LEFM was decreased (b=–0......OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6...

  16. Effects of bariatric surgery on cardiac ectopic fat: lesser decrease in epicardial fat compared to visceral fat loss and no change in myocardial triglyceride content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaborit, Bénédicte; Jacquier, Alexis; Kober, Frank; Abdesselam, Ines; Cuisset, Thomas; Boullu-Ciocca, Sandrine; Emungania, Olivier; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Clément, Karine; Bernard, Monique; Dutour, Anne

    2012-10-09

    This study investigated the effect of bariatric surgery (BS)-induced weight loss on cardiac ectopic fat using 3T magnetic resonance imaging in morbid obesity. Heart disease is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in obese patients. Deposition of cardiac ectopic fat has been related to increased heart risk. Whether sustained weight loss can modulate epicardial fat or myocardial fat is unknown. Twenty-three morbidly obese patients underwent 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine myocardial triglyceride content (MTGC), magnetic resonance imaging to assess epicardial fat volume (EFV), cardiac function, and computed tomography visceral abdominal fat (VAF) measurements at baseline and 6 months after BS. The BS reduced body mass index significantly, from 43.1±4.5 kg/m2 to 32.3±4.0 kg/m2, subcutaneous fat from 649±162 cm2 to 442±127 cm2, VAF from 190±83 cm2 to 107±44 cm2, and EFV from 137±37 ml to 98±25 ml (all ploss (ploss in EFV was limited (-27±11%) compared to VAF diminution (-40±19%). The EFV variation was not correlated with percentage of body mass index or VAF loss (p=0.007). The ratio of %EFV to %VAF loss decreased with sleep apnea syndrome (1.34±0.3 vs. 0.52±0.08, pfat deposition, with a significant decrease in epicardial fat and no change in myocardial fat. Epicardial fat volume loss was limited in patients with sleep apnea. (Impact of Bariatric Surgery on Epicardial Adipose Tissue and on Myocardial Function; NCT01284816). Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Abdominal neurenteric cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Radoje (C)olovi(c); MarJan Micev; Miodrag Jovanovi(c); Slavko Mati(c); Nikica Grubor; Henry Dushan E Atkinson

    2008-01-01

    immunoexpression, and the respiratory epithelium revealed a CK8 and CK18 immunoprofile without CK 10/13 positive elements, though neither CEA or AFP positive cells were found. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an abdominally located neurenteric cyst with no associated spinal anomalies.

  18. Differential Nongenetic Impact of Birth Weight Versus Third-Trimester Growth Velocity on Glucose Metabolism and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abdominal Obesity in Young Healthy Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Grunnet, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Context: Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, which to some extent may be mediated via abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. Fetal growth velocity is high during the third trimester, constituting a potential critical window for organ programming. Intra-pair differences among......-pair differences in young healthy twins.Methods: Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat...... growth velocity during third trimester was not associated with adult visceral or sc fat accumulation. Interestingly, third-trimester growth was associated with insulin action in a paradoxical inverse manner.Conclusions: Abdominal adiposity including accumulation of both sc and visceral fat may constitute...

  19. Relation between trunk fat volume and reduction of total lung capacity in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R A; Pride, N B; Thomas, E Louise; Ind, P W; Bell, J D

    2012-01-01

    Reduction in total lung capacity (TLC) in obese men is associated with restricted expansion of the thoracic cavity at full inflation. We hypothesized that thoracic expansion was reduced by the load imposed by increased total trunk fat volume or its distribution. Using MRI, we measured internal and subcutaneous trunk fat and total abdominal and thoracic volumes at full inflation in 14 obese men [mean age: 52.4 yr, body mass index (BMI): 38.8 (range: 36-44) kg/m(2)] and 7 control men [mean age: 50.1 yr, BMI: 25.0 (range: 22-27.5) kg/m(2)]. TLC was measured by multibreath helium dilution and was restricted (fat volume was 16.65 (range: 12.6-21.8) liters in obese men and 6.98 (range: 3.0-10.8) liters in control men. Anthropometry and mean total trunk fat volumes were similar in OR men and obese men without restriction (the ON subgroup). Mean total intraabdominal volume was 9.41 liters in OR men and 11.15 liters in ON men. In obese men, reduced thoracic expansion at full inflation and restriction of TLC were not inversely related to a large volume of 1) intra-abdominal or total abdominal fat, 2) subcutaneous fat volume around the thorax, or 3) total trunk fat volume. In addition, trunk fat volumes in obese men were not inversely related to gas volume or estimated intrathoracic volume at supine functional residual capacity. In conclusion, this study failed to support the hypotheses that restriction of TLC or impaired expansion of the thorax at full inflation in middle-aged obese men was simply a consequence of a large abdominal volume or total trunk fat volume or its distribution.

  20. Effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Huang, X; Wu, J L; Zhou, W D; Zheng, H C; Jiang, Y Q

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of alfalfa meal on carcase quality and fat metabolism of Muscovy duck were evaluated. The objective of this research was to establish whether alfalfa meal can reduce fat content and improve carcase quality of Muscovy duck. Animal products with a high fat content present a risk factor for many diseases. Reducing fat content in poultry products is an important goal for the poultry industry. 2. A total of 240 14-d-old white Muscovy ducks were selected and randomly allocated to 1 of 4 dietary treatments containing 0, 3, 6, and 9% of alfalfa meal for 5 weeks. Growth performances were recorded and carcase characteristics and lipid parameters were analysed. 3. Results showed that 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal in diet had no significant effects on growth performance of Muscovy ducks from 14 to 49 d of age. Ducks given 3, 6, and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher dressing percentage and lower abdominal fat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. Ducks given 9% alfalfa meal had higher breast meat percentage compared with those given no alfalfa meal. The concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and free fatty acid in serum of ducks fed on alfalfa meal decreased. Alfalfa meal in the diet decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits of Muscovy duck. 4. The study showed that dietary alfalfa meal decreased abdominal fat percentage and improved carcase traits, without an adverse effect on performance.

  1. Ejaculate parameters in patients with abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2015-01-01

    compared with the third group, moreover the indicated decline was more pronounced in men of the 1st group. The content of SHBG in serum was also significantly lower in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the 3rd group. Comparison of ejaculate indicators revealed significant differences in the 1st and 2nd groups of men, differing in the type of fat distribution, in terms of volume of ejaculate, share of progressively motile sperm and DNA fragmentation level. Differences are identified for some indicators of ejaculate between the 1st and 3rd groups, but the differences between the 2nd and 3rd groups on any indicator are not detected. Conclusion. The revealed differences indicate a negative effect on the ejaculate indicators, particularly of upper type of fat distribution, peculiar to the men of the 1st group. The obtained results justify the assumption that abdominal obesity with upper type fat distribution is an independent risk factor of male fertility reduction. 

  2. Ejaculate parameters in patients with abdominal obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2015-04-01

    compared with the third group, moreover the indicated decline was more pronounced in men of the 1st group. The content of SHBG in serum was also significantly lower in the 1st and 2nd groups in relation to the 3rd group. Comparison of ejaculate indicators revealed significant differences in the 1st and 2nd groups of men, differing in the type of fat distribution, in terms of volume of ejaculate, share of progressively motile sperm and DNA fragmentation level. Differences are identified for some indicators of ejaculate between the 1st and 3rd groups, but the differences between the 2nd and 3rd groups on any indicator are not detected. Conclusion. The revealed differences indicate a negative effect on the ejaculate indicators, particularly of upper type of fat distribution, peculiar to the men of the 1st group. The obtained results justify the assumption that abdominal obesity with upper type fat distribution is an independent risk factor of male fertility reduction. 

  3. A clinical dilemma: abdominal tuberculosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oya Uygur-Bayramicli; G(u)l Dabak; Resat Dabak

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical, radiological and microbiological properties of abdominal tuberculosis (TB) and to discuss methods needed to get the diagnosis.METHODS: Thirty-one patients diagnosed as abdominal TB between March 1998 and December 2001 at the Gastroenterology Department of Kartal State Hospital,Istanbul, Turkey were evaluated prospectively. Complete physical examination, medical and family history, blood count erythrocyte sedimentation rate, routine biochemical tests,Mantoux skin test, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasonography (USG) were performed in all cases, whereas microbiological examination of ascites, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, colonoscopy or barium enema, abdominal tomography, mediastinoscopy, laparoscopy or laparotomy were done when needed.RESULTS: The median age of patients (14 females, 17males) was 34.2 years (range 15-65 years). The most frequent symptoms were abdominal pain and weight loss.Eleven patients had active pulmonary TB. The most common abdominal USG findings were ascites and hepatomegaly. Ascitic fluid analysis performed in 13 patients was found to be exudative and acid resistant bacilli were present in smear and cultured only in one patient with BacTec (3.2 %). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy yielded nonspecific findings in 16 patients. Colonoscopy performed in 20 patients showed ulcers in 9 (45 %), nodules in 2 (10 %)and, stricture, polypoid lesions, granulomatous findings in terminal ileum and rectal fistula each in one patient (5 %).Laparoscopy on 4 patients showed dilated bowel loops,thickening in the mesentery, multiple ulcers and tubercles on the peritoneum. Patients with abdominal TB were divided into three groups according to the type of involvement.Fifteen patients (48 %) had intestinal TB, L1 patients (35.2 %) had tuberculous peritonitis and 5 (16.8 %)tuberculous lymphadenitis. The diagnosis of abdominal TB was confirmed microbiologically in 5 (16 %) and histopathologically in 19 patients (60.8 %). The

  4. Relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness, metabolic control, and fat distribution in type 2 diabetes subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Elisabetta; Negri, Carlo; Tarperi, Cantor; Baraldo, Anna; Faccioli, Niccolò; Milanese, Chiara; Zanolin, Maria Elisabetta; Lanza, Massimo; Cevese, Antonio; Bonora, Enzo; Schena, Federico; Moghetti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Factors contributing to the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness typical of sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes are still largely unknown. In this study, we assessed the relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and abdominal and skeletal muscle fat content in 39 untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, 27 males and 12 females (mean ± SD age 56.5 ± 7.3 year, BMI 29.4 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VO2VT) were assessed by maximal cycle ergometer exercise test, insulin sensitivity by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate visceral, total subcutaneous (SAT), superficial (SSAT) and deep sub-depots of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), as well as femoral quadriceps skeletal muscle fat content. In univariate analysis, both VO2peak and VO2VT were inversely associated with BMI, total fat mass, SAT, SSAT, and sagittal abdominal diameter. VO2peak was also inversely associated with skeletal muscle fat content. A significant direct association was observed between VO2VT and insulin sensitivity. No associations between cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and metabolic profile data were found. In multivariable regression analysis, after adjusting for age and gender, VO2peak was independently predicted by higher HDL cholesterol, and lower SAD and skeletal muscle fat content (R (2) = 0.64, p < 0.001), whereas VO2VT was predicted only by sagittal abdominal diameter (R (2) = 0.48, p = 0.025). In conclusion, in untrained type 2 diabetes subjects, peak oxygen uptake is associated with sagittal abdominal diameter, skeletal muscle fat content, and HDL cholesterol levels. Future research should target these features in prospective intervention studies.

  5. [Hibernoma: brown fat retroperitoneal tumor. Report of a pediatric case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado, Laura; Sierre, Sergio; Bosalec, Andrea; Lipsich, José

    2011-12-01

    Hibernoma is a rare benign tumor of soft tissue, composed of brown fat. This tissue is predominant in hibernating animals and hence its name. Because of its rarity in Pediatrics and difficult diagnosis, we report a 3 month-old patient with a diagnosis consistent with an abdominal tumor. Ultrasound and computed tomography exams showed an infiltrative retroperitoneal tumor, with hypervascular and lipomatous features. After tumor excision, histopathological exam confirmed the diagnosis of hibernoma or brown fat tumor. This presentation describes the characteristics of this type of tumor, rare in children, and reviews the fatty tumors, according to their frequency in pediatric patients.

  6. [Abdominal pregnancy care. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Hernández, Sara; Díaz Velázquez, Mary Flor; Puello Tamara, Edgardo; Morales Hernández, Jorge; Basavilvazo Rodríguez, Maria Antonia; Cruz Cruz, Polita del Rocío; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2008-10-01

    Abdominal pregnancies are the implantation of gestation in some of the abdominal structures. This kind of pregnancies represents sevenfold maternal death risk than tubarian ectopic pregnancies, and 90-fold death risk than normal ones. Previous cases have erroneously reported as abscess in Douglas punch, and frequently result in obitus or postnatal deaths. We report a case of a patient with 27 years old, and diagnosis of 25.2 weeks of pregnancy, prior placenta and anhidramnios, referred due to difficult in uterine contour delimitation, easy palpation of fetal parts, cephalic pole in left hypochondrious and presence of mass in hypogastria, no delimitations, pain with mobilization, no transvaginal bleed and fetal movements. Interruption of pregnancy is decided by virtue of severe oligohidramnios, retardation in fetal intrabdominal growth, and recurrent maternal abdominal pain. Surgical intervention was carried out for resolution of the obstetrical event, in which was found ectopic abdominal pregnancy with bed placental in right uterine horn that corresponded to a pregnancy of 30 weeks of gestation. Abdominal pregnancy is still a challenge for obstetrics due to its diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis is oriented to prevent an intrabdominal hemorrhage that is the main maternal cause of mortality.

  7. An adipose segmentation and quantification scheme for the intra abdominal region on minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engholm, Rasmus; Dubinskiy, Aleksandr; Larsen, Rasmus; Hanson, Lars G.; Christoffersen, Berit Østergaard

    2006-03-01

    This article describes a method for automatic segmentation of the abdomen into three anatomical regions: subcutaneous, retroperitoneal and visceral. For the last two regions the amount of adipose tissue (fat) is quantified. According to recent medical research, the distinction between retroperitoneal and visceral fat is important for studying metabolic syndrome, which is closely related to diabetes. However previous work has neglected to address this point, treating the two types of fat together. We use T1-weighted three-dimensional magnetic resonance data of the abdomen of obese minipigs. The pigs were manually dissected right after the scan, to produce the "ground truth" segmentation. We perform automatic segmentation on a representative slice, which on humans has been shown to correlate with the amount of adipose tissue in the abdomen. The process of automatic fat estimation consists of three steps. First, the subcutaneous fat is removed with a modified active contour approach. The energy formulation of the active contour exploits the homogeneous nature of the subcutaneous fat and the smoothness of the boundary. Subsequently the retroperitoneal fat located around the abdominal cavity is separated from the visceral fat. For this, we formulate a cost function on a contour, based on intensities, edges, distance to center and smoothness, so as to exploit the properties of the retroperitoneal fat. We then globally optimize this function using dynamic programming. Finally, the fat content of the retroperitoneal and visceral regions is quantified based on a fuzzy c-means clustering of the intensities within the segmented regions. The segmentation proved satisfactory by visual inspection, and closely correlated with the manual dissection data. The correlation was 0.89 for the retroperitoneal fat, and 0.74 for the visceral fat.

  8. Abdominal wall hernia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K K; Henriksen, N A; Jorgensen, L N

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is no consensus as to the treatment strategy for abdominal wall hernias in fertile women. This study was undertaken to review the current literature on treatment of abdominal wall hernias in fertile women before or during pregnancy. METHODS: A literature search was undertaken in Pub......Med and Embase in combination with a cross-reference search of eligible papers. RESULTS: We included 31 papers of which 23 were case reports. In fertile women undergoing sutured or mesh repair, pain was described in a few patients during the last trimester of a subsequent pregnancy. Emergency surgery...... of incarcerated hernias in pregnant women, as well as combined hernia repair and cesarean section appears as safe procedures. No major complications were reported following hernia repair before or during pregnancy. The combined procedure of elective cesarean section and abdominal wall hernia repair was reported...

  9. Abdominal actinomycosis mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Robert Joseph; Riela, Steven; Patel, Ravi; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old Hispanic woman presented to the emergency department, reporting worsening sharp lower right quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed evidence of inflammation in the peritoneal soft tissues adjacent to an enlarged and thick-walled appendix, an appendicolith, no abscess formation and a slightly thickened caecum consistent with acute appendicitis. During laparoscopic appendectomy, the caecum was noted to be firm, raising suspicion of malignancy. Surgical oncology team was consulted and open laparotomy with right hemicolectomy was performed. Pathology reported that the ileocaecal mass was not a malignancy but was, rather, actinomycosis. The patient was discharged after 10 days of intravenous antibiotics in the hospital, with the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. Although the original clinical and radiological findings in this case were highly suggestive of acute appendicitis, abdominal actinomycosis should be in the differential for right lower quadrant pain as it may be treated non-operatively.

  10. A Fat strange Repeller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申影; 何阅; 姜玉梅; 何大韧

    2004-01-01

    This article reports an observation on a fat strange repeller, which appears after a characteristic crisis observed in a kicked rotor subjected to a piecewise continuous force field. The discontinuity border in the definition range of the two-dimensional mapping, which describes the system, oscillates as the discrete time develops. At a threshold of a control parameter a fat chaotic attractor suddenly transfers to a fat transient set. The strange repeller, which appears after the crisis, is also a fat fractal. This is the reason why super-transience happens

  11. CT appearances of abdominal tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.-K., E-mail: leewk33@hotmail.com [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Van Tonder, F.; Tartaglia, C.J.; Dagia, C. [Department of Medical Imaging, St Vincent' s Hospital, University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria (Australia); Cazzato, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Universita Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome (Italy); Duddalwar, V.A. [Department of Radiology, Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Chang, S.D. [Department of Medical Imaging, Vancouver General Hospital, University of British Columbia, British Columbia (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this article is to review and illustrate the spectrum of computed tomography (CT) appearances of abdominal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can affect any organ or tissue in the abdomen, and can be mistaken for other inflammatory or neoplastic conditions. The most common sites of tuberculosis in the abdomen include lymph nodes, genitourinary tract, peritoneal cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The liver, spleen, biliary tract, pancreas and adrenals are rarely affected, but are more likely in HIV-seropositive patients and in miliary tuberculosis. This article should alert the radiologist to consider abdominal tuberculosis in the correct clinical setting to ensure timely diagnosis and enable appropriate treatment.

  12. Blunt abdominal trauma in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifat, Sami F; Gilvydis, Rimas P

    2003-04-01

    Abdominal injuries are rare in sports, but when they do occur it is important that the physician recognize the warning signs of potentially life-threatening injury to the liver, spleen, or hollow abdominal viscera. Though the sports medicine physician may not always provide definitive treatment of many of these conditions, he or she should be familiar with the preferred diagnostic modalities and latest treatment options. This information is not only essential to appropriately participate in treatment decisions, but is also important in order to make return-to-play determinations.

  13. [Gallstone ileus. Abdominal CT usefulness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukkarieh, F; Brasseur, P; Bissen, L

    2004-06-01

    The authors report the case of a 93-year old woman referred to the emergency department and presenting with an intestinal obstruction. Abdominal CT reveals a biliary ileus caused by the migration and the impaction of a 3 cm gallstone in the small bowel. Surgical treatment by enterolithotomy was successful. In over 90% of cases, gallstone ileus is a complication of cholelithiasis and accounts for 25% of intestinal obstruction in patients over 65 years. To reduce morbidity and mortality, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are essential. Abdominal CT-scan is the gold standard technique.

  14. Umbilical hernia--a potential donor-site complication of fat injection laryngoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Feng-Shiang; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chang, Ying-Nan; Lee, Jih-Chin

    2012-11-01

    Injection laryngoplasty with autologous fat appears to be an effective and simple technique for the treatment of patients with glottic insufficiency in comparison with other surgical techniques. Despite of its advantages, associated complications have also been reported, including immediate donor-site morbidity (eg, hematoma and abscess), fat extrusion of the injection site, and delayed manifestation of vocal granuloma or overinjected vocal folds. In this article, a patient suffering from accidental injury to the deep abdominal fascia without peritoneal penetration in the fat harvest procedure is presented. Three months after the fat injection laryngoplasty, an umbilical hernia was proved to occur via the clinical imaging. Several etiologies are supposed to induce the herniation of intraabdominal structures, including surgeon's incaution, abdominal obesity, intense wound inflammation and fibrosis, and the native weak point of the abdominal wall around the umbilicus. This case provides information that overdepth and negligence in fat harvest may injure the deep abdominal fascia, then possibly causing the umbilical hernia as a delayed donor-site complication.

  15. Differential Effects of Bariatric Surgery Versus Exercise on Excessive Visceral Fat Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Zong; Huang, Yi-Luan; Wu, Carol C; Wang, Yen-Chi; Pan, Hsiang-Ju; Huang, Chin-Kun; Yeh, Lee-Ren; Wu, Ming-Ting

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare differential impacts of bariatric surgery and exercise-induced weight loss on excessive abdominal and cardiac fat deposition.Excessive fat accumulation around the heart may play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Recent evidences have suggested that bariatric surgery results in relatively less decrease in epicardial fat compared with abdominal visceral fat and paracardial fat.Sixty-four consecutive overweight or obese subjects were enrolled in the study. Clinical characteristics and metabolic profiles were recorded. The volumes of abdominal visceral adipose tissue (AVAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), epicardial (EAT), and paracardial adipose tissue (PAT) were measured by computed tomography in the bariatric surgery group (N = 25) and the exercise group (N = 39) at baseline and 3 months after intervention. Subjects in both the surgery and exercise groups showed significant reduction in body mass index (15.97%, 7.47%), AVAT (40.52%, 15.24%), ASAT (31.40, 17.34%), PAT (34.40%, 12.05%), and PAT + EAT (22.31%, 17.72%) (all P PAT, EAT+PAT) (P PAT, was relatively preserved despite weight reduction in both the groups. The physiological impact of persistent EAT deserves further investigation.

  16. Diagnosis in acute abdominal pain and ongoing abdominal sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiewiet, J.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Acute abdominal pain is a common reason for presentation at the emergency department. To establish a timely and adequate diagnosis, doctors use the pattern of complaints and physical examination as the basis for the evaluation of a patient. In this thesis we conducted a study that showed that surgeo

  17. Hypovitaminosis D and fat mass in healthy older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronese, N; Trevisan, C; Carraro, S; Sarti, S; Zanforlini, B M; De Rui, M; Coin, A; Manzato, E; Sergi, G

    2016-09-01

    Prospective studies have suggested that hypovitaminosis D can predict the onset of obesity, but they relied mainly on body mass index, which could be scarcely reliable in older people. We investigated whether baseline hypovitaminosis D could predict higher fat mass (FM) levels using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in a sample of 116 fit and healthy older subjects. Although no significant differences in FM estimates emerged between subjects with and without hypovitaminosis D at the baseline, abdominal FM was found significantly higher in the former group (with hypovitaminosis D at the baseline) than in the latter after 3 years of follow-up. Adjusted logistic regression analysis confirmed these findings: hypovitaminosis D coincided with an approximately sixfold higher risk of subjects having higher abdominal FM levels at the follow-up. In conclusion, hypovitaminosis D predicts higher abdominal FM levels in the elderly.

  18. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arahata M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Masahisa Arahata,1 Shigeru Shimadoi,1 Satosi Yamatani,1 Shin-ichi Hayashi,2 Shigeharu Miwa,2 Hidesaku Asakura,3 Shinji Nakao4 1Department of Internal Medicine, Nanto Municipal Hospital, Nanto, 2Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 3Department of Internal Medicine (III, 4Department of Cellular Transplantation Biology, Division of Cancer Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan Abstract: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition. Keywords: systemic amyloidosis, amyloid cardiomyopathy, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, subcutaneous fat tissue, hip

  19. MRI and US findings of subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasireddy, Syam; Long, Scott D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Springfield, IL (United States); Sacheti, Bhavna [Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Pediatric Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Children' s Hospital Wisconsin, Department of Critical Care, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Mayforth, Ruth D. [Southern Illinois University, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States); St. John' s Hospital, Department of Surgery, Springfield, IL (United States)

    2009-01-15

    Subcutaneous fat necrosis of the newborn (SCFN) is an uncommon, benign disorder found in full-term or post-mature neonates. It usually presents in neonates who have experienced perinatal difficulty such as asphyxia, peripheral hypoxemia, hypothermia, meconium aspiration or trauma. We present a newborn with abnormal findings on MRI and US within the axilla, neck, and abdominal walls that were pathologically proved via biopsy to be subcutaneous fat necrosis. (orig.)

  20. Know Your Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... palm kernel oil (often called tropical oils) and cocoa butter. For people who need to lower their ... fat. Guidelines for Fats For adults who would benefit from lowering their LDL cholesterol, the American Heart ... This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here.

  1. Learning about Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Learning About Fats KidsHealth > For Kids > Learning About Fats Print A A A What's in ... Kid's Guide to Eating Right MyPlate Food Guide Learning About Proteins Nutrition & Fitness Center Learning About Carbohydrates ...

  2. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  3. Dietary fat and carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woutersen, R.A.; Appel, M.J.; Garderen-Hoetmer, A. van; Wijnands, M.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiologic investigations have suggested a relationship between dietary fat intake and various types of cancer incidences. Furthermore, epidemiologic studies as well as studies with animal models have demonstrated that not only the amount but also the type of fat consumed is important. At present

  4. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  5. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  6. Abdominal Complications of Typhoid Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ketan Vagholkar; Jimmy Mirani; Urvashi Jain; Madhavan Iyengar; Rahul Kumar Chavan

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of typhoid fever poses both a diagnostic and a therapeutic challenge. Awareness of the clinical features of the primary presentation and of the complications are pivotal to early diagnosis. Typically, aggressive supportive care is all that is needed. However abdominal complications do occur and proper surgical care is required to lower morbidity and mortality.

  7. Chronic Abdominal Pain in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.M. Gijsbers (Carolien)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractRecurrent abdominal pain (RAP) was first defined in 1958 by Apley as “at least 3 bouts of pain, severe enough to affect activities, over a period of at least 3 months” (1). This was a landmark publication with great impact, showing, that emotional disturbances played a role in many patie

  8. Clinical management of abdominal trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Guo-en; LUO Tian-hang; DU Cheng-hui; BI Jian-wei; XUE Xu-chao; WEI Guo; WENG Zhao-zhang; MA Li-ye; HUA Ji-de

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To improve the prognosis of patients with abdominal trauma. Methods: Between January 1993 and December 2005, 415 patients were enrolled in this research. The patients consisted of 347 males and 68 females with mean age of 36 years ranging from 3-82 years. All abdominal traumas consisted of closed traumas 360 cases, 86.7% and open traumas 55 cases, 13.3%. Results: Atotal of 407 cases 98.1% were fully recovered from trauma and the other 8 cases 1.9% died of multiple injuries. The mean injury severity score ISS of all patients was 22 while the mean ISS of the patients who died in hospital was 42. Postoperative complications were seen in 9 patients such as infection of incisional wounds 6 cases, pancreatic fistula 2 cases and intestinal fistula 1 case. All these postoperative complications were cured by the conservative treatment. Conclusion: Careful case history inquisition and physical examination are the basic methods to diagnose abdomi- nal trauma. Focused abdominal ultrasonography is always the initial imaging examination because it is non-invasive and can be performed repeatedly with high accuracy. The doctors should consider the severity of local injuries and the general status of patients during the assessment of abdominal trauma. The principle of treatment is to save lives at first, then to cure the injuries. Unnecessary laparotomy should be avoided to reduce additional surgical trauma.

  9. Relationship of Social and Lifestyle Factors with Central Fat Distribution Expressed by the Aggregate Fat Distribution Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suder Agnieszka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity is caused by several factors and the explanation of the level of its variability also depends on anthropometric indexes applied for its assessment. The aim was to determine the degree of explanation of the abdominal adiposity variation, presented by the aggregate fat distribution index (AFDI, through the socio-economic status and lifestyle. Subjects and methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted on a sample of 259 healthy working males aged 20-30 from the city of Cracow, Poland. A full model was created using a stepwise backward regression with the social and lifestyle data as independent variables and the AFDI as a dependent variable. The AFDI was created by unitarization applied to selected characteristics of fat distribution which were transformed into [0,1] interval (without measurement unit and then added and averaged to form a composite index. The highest autonomous influence on AFDI is ascribed to age (b = 0.2456 p = 0.000, level of motor fitness b=−0.2392 p=0.000, leisure time physical activity (b=−0.1353 p=0.000 and being born in a rural area (b=0.1300 p=0.000. The variables explain 17% (R2=0.1667 of the variation of the central fat distribution. Variation of the abdominal adiposity was explained with the use of AFDI at the level close to the commonly applied indexes.

  10. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  11. Emergency abdominal surgery in Zaria, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal surgical emergencies constitute a significant portion of a surgeon's ... causes of abdominal emergencies vary from region to region, and even within the ..... Previous studies from our sub-region have consistently shown strangulated ...

  12. Preoperative steroid in abdominal wall reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Brøndum, Tina Lee; Belhage, Bo;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Preoperative administration of high-dose glucocorticoid leads to improved recovery and decreased length of stay after abdominal surgery. Even so, studies on administration of glucocorticoids for patients undergoing abdominal wall reconstruction (AWR) for giant ventral hernia repair ...

  13. Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000240.htm Abdominal aortic aneurysm repair - open - discharge To use the sharing features ... References Orandi BJ, Black JH. Open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  14. Pregnancy complicated by obesity induces global transcript expression alterations in visceral and subcutaneous fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-08-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet not much is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n = 4/group) at the time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations led to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, and ephrin type-B receptor 6, not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis as compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity.

  15. Pregnancy Complicated by Obesity Induces Global Transcript Expression Alterations in Visceral and Subcutaneous Fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashiri, Asher; Heo, Hye J.; Ben-Avraham, Danny; Mazor, Moshe; Budagov, Temuri; Einstein, Francine H.; Atzmon, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for development of both maternal and fetal metabolic complications. Increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance is a metabolic hallmark of pregnancy, yet little is known how obesity alters adipose cellular function and how this may contribute to pregnancy morbidities. We sought to identify alterations in genome-wide transcription expression in both visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits in pregnancy complicated by obesity. Visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat deposits were collected from normal weight and obese pregnant women (n=4/group) at time of scheduled uncomplicated cesarean section. A genome-wide expression array (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 st platform), validated by quantitative real-time PCR, was utilized to establish the gene transcript expression profile in both visceral and abdominal subcutaneous fat in normal weight and obese pregnant women. Global alteration in gene expression was identified in pregnancy complicated by obesity. These regions of variations lead to identification of indolethylamine N-methyltransferase (INMT), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2), and ephrin type-B receptor 6 (EPHB6), not previously associated with fat metabolism during pregnancy. In addition, subcutaneous fat of obese pregnant women demonstrated increased coding protein transcripts associated with apoptosis compared to lean counterparts. Global alteration of gene expression in adipose tissue may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with obesity. PMID:24696292

  16. Three cases of systemic amyloidosis successfully diagnosed by subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahata, Masahisa; Shimadoi, Shigeru; Yamatani, Satosi; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Miwa, Shigeharu; Asakura, Hidesaku; Nakao, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the abdominal fat pad is considered to be a minimally invasive procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis. However, this procedure is sometimes difficult and can be dangerous for elderly patients whose abdominal fat layer is thin because of malnutrition. In such cases, alternative diagnostic methods are required. We report three elderly patients with heart failure complicated by malnutrition. In all cases, electrocardiogram showed low voltage in the limb leads and a pseudoinfarct pattern in the chest leads, and echocardiography showed left ventricular wall thickening with granular sparkling appearance. These patients were suspected of having amyloid cardiomyopathy but could not undergo myocardial biopsies because of their poor conditions. After failed attempts at biopsy of the abdominal fat pad or the other organs, subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy over the hip led to the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis with cardiomyopathy. The resultant diagnosis guided us to choose the appropriate treatment for the patients. This article illustrates that subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy of the hip could be a useful procedure for diagnosing systemic amyloidosis in elderly patients, particularly when a fat tissue biopsy of the abdomen is associated with a high risk of complications because of malnutrition.

  17. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome: pathophysiology and definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Cheatham Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract "Intra-abdominal hypertension", the presence of elevated intra-abdominal pressure, and "abdominal compartment syndrome", the development of pressure-induced organ-dysfunction and failure, have been increasingly recognized over the past decade as causes of significant morbidity and mortality among critically ill surgical and medical patients. Elevated intra-abdominal pressure can cause significant impairment of cardiac, pulmonary, renal, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and central nervous ...

  18. The MRI of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Huangsui [Department of Radiology, the 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Feng Xulin [Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China)]. E-mail: xulf1@21cn.com; Yong Li [Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Yong Zhang [Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Lian Zhongjing [Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China); Ling Liangbi [Department of Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yet-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510120 (China)

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the MR appearances of extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in the abdominal cavity and evaluate the capabilities of MRI in diagnosis of the tumor. Eleven consecutive patients with an extraadrenal pheochromocytoma in abdominal cavity who underwent preoperative 0.5 T (n = 5) or 1.5 T (n = 6) superconductor MRI and had a surgical resection were enrolled in the study. The MR scanning protocol included axial T{sub 2}-weighted imaging with or without fat-suppressed sequences, axial and coronal uncontrast and contrast T{sub 1}-weighted sequences with or without fat suppression. The extraadrenal pheochromocytomas were found in retroperitoneum (n = 5), the urinary bladder (n = 1), the pelvis (n = 1), the right prerenal area (n = 1), the renal hilus (n = 1), the left paramusculus psoas major (n = 1) and liver (n = 1). The mean maximal diameter of tumors was 55.9 mm (range 17.8-162.2 mm). The high signal intensity was seen on T{sub 2}-weighted imaging in all tumors compared to muscle or liver, especially with fat suppression. The intratumoral septa and capsules were shown in 63.6% and 72.7% of cases, respectively, which had low signal intensity on T{sub 2}-weighted imaging. These relative characteristics may be helpful for qualitative diagnosis of extraadrenal pheochromocytomas with MRI. Other usefulness of MRI was to locate the position, to decide the range of tumors and to show well the relationship between the tumor and near structures.

  19. Superman play and pediatric blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machi, J M; Gyuro, J; Losek, J D

    1996-01-01

    Two pediatric patients with life-threatening intra-abdominal injuries associated with Superman play are presented. The cases illustrate the importance of knowing the mechanism of injury in the assessment of children with blunt abdominal trauma. The diagnostic value of liver enzymes and the controversies surrounding the radiographic assessment of pediatric blunt abdominal trauma are presented.

  20. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Scicchitano B; Humphreys G; Mitton SG; Jaiganesh T

    2014-01-01

    Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome&...

  1. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-05-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37/sup 0/C with 10 ..mu..g/ml /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ or /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/. In both depots, the cellular uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ and /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/ was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 2/ and /sup 125/I-HDL/sub 3/. In obese patients, the uptake of /sup 125/I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular /sup 125/I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity.

  2. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ridha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003. This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms.

  3. Intra-Abdominal Actinomycosis Mimicking Malignant Abdominal Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguejiofor, Njideka; Al-Abayechi, Sarah; Njoku, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease, caused by gram positive anaerobic bacteria, that may appear as an abdominal mass and/or abscess (Wagenlehner et al. 2003). This paper presents an unusual case of a hemodynamically stable 80-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with 4 weeks of worsening abdominal pain and swelling. He also complains of a 20-bound weight loss in 2 months. A large tender palpable mass in the right upper quadrant was noted on physical exam. Laboratory studies showed a normal white blood cell count, slightly decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit, and mildly elevated total bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. A CT with contrast was done and showed a liver mass. Radiology and general surgery suspected malignancy and recommended CT guided biopsy. The sample revealed abundant neutrophils and gram positive rods. Cytology was negative for malignancy and cultures eventually grew actinomyces. High dose IV penicillin therapy was given for 4 weeks and with appropriate response transitioned to oral antibiotic for 9 months with complete resolution of symptoms. PMID:28299215

  4. Fat quantification and analysis of lung transplant patients on unenhanced chest CT images based on standardized anatomic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.; Wu, Caiyun; Christie, Jason; Lederer, David J.

    2016-03-01

    Chest fat estimation is important for identifying high-risk lung transplant candidates. In this paper, an approach to chest fat quantification based on a recently formulated concept of standardized anatomic space (SAS) is presented. The goal of this paper is to seek answers to the following questions related to chest fat quantification on single slice versus whole volume CT, which have not been addressed in the literature. What level of correlation exists between total chest fat volume and fat areas measured on single abdominal and thigh slices? What is the anatomic location in the chest where maximal correlation of fat area with fat volume can be expected? Do the components of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) have the same area-to-volume correlative behavior or do they differ? The SAS approach includes two steps: calibration followed by transformation which will map the patient slice locations non-linearly to SAS. The optimal slice locations found for SAT and VAT based on SAS are different and at the mid-level of the T8 vertebral body for SAT and mid-level of the T7 vertebral body for VAT. Fat volume and area on optimal slices for SAT and VAT are correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. The correlation of chest fat volume with abdominal and thigh fat areas is weak to modest.

  5. MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Dieckmeyer, Michael; Ruschke, Stefan; Franz, Daniela; Hauner, Hans; Kirschke, Jan S; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-08-01

    The assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using magnetic resonance (MR) methods has recently gained significant attention as it further extends our pathophysiological understanding of diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, or type 2 diabetes mellitus, and allows more detailed insights into treatment response and effects of lifestyle interventions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review the current literature on MR-based assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. PubMed search was performed to identify relevant studies on the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics using MR methods. T1-, T2-weighted MR Imaging (MRI), Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), and chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI have been successfully used for the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. The relationship of insulin resistance and serum lipids with abdominal adipose tissue (i.e. subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue), liver, muscle, and bone marrow fat content have been extensively investigated and may help to understand the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the multifaceted obese phenotype. MR methods have also been used to monitor changes of body fat distribution and characteristics after interventions (e.g. diet or physical activity) and revealed distinct, adipose tissue-specific properties. Lastly, chemical shift-encoding based water-fat MRI can detect brown adipose tissue which is currently the focus of intense research as a potential treatment target for obesity. In conclusion, MR methods reliably allow the assessment of body fat distribution and characteristics. Irrespective of the promising findings based on these MR methods the clinical usefulness remains to be established.

  6. [Regional distribution of the body fat: use of image techniques as tools for nutritional diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Miguelsanz, M J; Cabrera Parra, W; Varela Moreiras, G; Garaulet, M

    2010-01-01

    Fat mass is the most variable component in the human body, both when comparing several individuals and when considering changes in the same person throughout life. Obesity is characterized by an excess of body fat that affects health and well-being of individuals. Risk associated with excess body fat is due, in part, to location of fat rather than to total amount. Today is stated that causes and metabolic consequences of regional distribution of fat are of particular clinical importance. To identify a compartment of morbid adipose tissue and to be able to act on it is one of the main aims of the present research. In this review, we have revised the existing literature on location and characteristics of total body fat in human adult. We have focused on abdominal region, basing this review on the use of modern imaging techniques available nowadays, such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, with their advantages and limitations. The purpose of this review is to assess whether it is possible to know the body composition and fat distribution on the basis of image methods. Computed tomography technique was first applied in studies of obesity, but today, due to the inconvenience of irradiating the patient, this technique is being replaced by magnetic resonance that, in addition to avoid radiation, provides images of extraordinary quality. Both methods allow to subdivide the classic general fat depots in others more specific. Subcutaneous fat depot can be superficial or deep, while visceral can be divided in mesenteric, omental or epiploic, retroperitoneal and perirrenal fat. In addition, these modern techniques of imaging permit to study muscular fat, considered by some authors as the new fat compartment. Muscular fat includes fat located between skeletal muscle fibers, called extramyocellular fat, as well as lipids located within skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular fat). Its importance lies not only in size, similar to visceral fat, but on its

  7. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-04-06

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  8. Alternate-Day High-Fat Diet Induces an Increase in Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities and Protein Content in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Kawamura, Takuji; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Long-term high-fat diet increases muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and endurance performance. However, excessive calorie intake causes intra-abdominal fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an alternating day high-fat diet on muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities, protein content, and intra-abdominal fat mass in rats. Male Wistar rats were given a standard chow diet (CON), high-fat diet (HFD), or alternate-day high-fat diet (ALT) for 4 weeks. Rats in the ALT group were fed a high-fat diet and standard chow every other day for 4 weeks. After the dietary intervention, mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in skeletal muscle were measured. Although body weight did not differ among groups, the epididymal fat mass in the HFD group was higher than those of the CON and ALT groups. Citrate synthase and beta-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities in the plantaris muscle of rats in HFD and ALT were significantly higher than that in CON rats, whereas there was no difference between HFD and ALT groups. No significant difference was observed in muscle glycogen concentration or glucose transporter-4 protein content among the three groups. These results suggest that an alternate-day high-fat diet induces increases in mitochondrial enzyme activities and protein content in rat skeletal muscle without intra-abdominal fat accumulation. PMID:27058555

  9. The Diagnostic Value of Intra-abdominal Pressure in Patients with Blunt Acute Abdominal Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Narci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose:The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of intra-abdominal pressure measurement in blunt abdominal trauma patients. Method: A prospective study was performed in 49 patients with blunt trauma in our university hospital for 1 years. Patients were randomly into two groups as intra-abdominal trauma (n=28 and extraabdominal trauma (n=21 groups. Intra-abdominal pressures was measured an classified as normal (10 cm H2O or less, elevated (more than 10 cm H2O determined indirectly. Results: No significant differences were found between abdominal trauma and extra-abdominal trauma groups from the point of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP. One the other hand, in abdominal trauma group; significant differences were observed between operated patients. Intra-abdominal bleeding was found in 10 patients and all of them elevated IAP values (exceeding 16 cm H2O. For determining the intra-abdominal injury, IAP had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity 38% in patients. Conclusion: IAP exceeding 16 cm H2O with blunt abdominal trauma patients abdominal trauma can be detected. It is thought that IAP, indirect monitoring of abdominal trauma patients is a reproducible, scientific guide and simple method.To determine the efficacy of the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure in blunt abdominal trauma patients, further studies should be done. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(3.000: 157-161

  10. Acupuncture Treatment of Abdominal Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金生

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case History Mr. Li, a university student aged 23 years, paid his first visit on July 16, 2001, with the chief complaint of abdominal pain for one day. The patient stated that one day before when it happened to be the weekend, he got abdominal pain after supper, which went worse gradually and caused him to roll all over in bed. The pain was slightly alleviated half an hour later after he had taken some pain killers. Upon inquiry, the patient said that because of their newly graduation from the university, he and his classmates were so excited that they went to have a sumptuous lunch with alcoholic drinks. And in the evening he ate again a delicious supper cooked for him by his mother, after which he continued to have some fruit and dessert.

  11. Abdominal obesity has the highest impact on metabolic profile in an overweight African population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, L. N.; Witte, D. R.; Mwaniki, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    ), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, arm fat area and arm muscle area) separately as independent variables were carried out. Results: Mean age of study participants was 42.1 years (SD = 9.6) and 26.5% of the participants were men. The median BMI was 28.6 kg/m2 (Q1 = 26.3; Q3 = 31.3). Of the six...

  12. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, HyunSuk; Yoon, Joohwan; Gil, HyunJi; Jung, Sharon Jiyoon; Kim, Min-Suk; Lee, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Young-Jae; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2016-01-01

    The primo vascular system (PVS) is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs) into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson's trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density.

  13. Observation of a Flowing Duct in the Abdominal Wall by Using Nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HyunSuk Jang

    Full Text Available The primo vascular system (PVS is being established as a circulatory system that corresponds to acupuncture meridians. There have been two critical questions in making the PVS accepted as a novel liquid flowing system. The first one was directly to show the flow of liquid in PVS and the second one was to explain why it was not observed in the conventional histological study of animal tissues. Flow in the PVS in the abdominal cavity was previously verified by injecting Alcian blue into a primo node. However, the tracing of the dye to other subsystems of the PVS has not been done. In the current work we injected fluorescent nanoparticles (FNPs into a primo node and traced them along a primo vessel which was inside a fat tissue in the abdominal wall. Linea alba is a white middle line in the abdominal skin of a mammal and a band of fat tissue is located in parallel to the linea alba in the parietal side of the abdominal wall of a rat. In this fat band a primo vessel runs parallel to the prominent blood vessels in the fat band and is located just inside the parietal peritoneum. About the second question on the reason why the PVS was not in conventional histological study the current work provided the answer. Histological analysis with hematoxyline and eosine, Masson's trichrome, and Toluidine blue could not discriminate the primo vessel even when we knew the location of the PVS by the trace of the FNPs. This clearly explains why the PVS is hard to observe in conventional histology: it is not a matter of resolution but the contrast. The PVS has very similar structure to the connective tissues that surround the PVS. In the current work we propose a method to find the PVS: Observation of mast cell distribution with toluidine blue staining and the PN has a high density of mast cells, while the lymph node has low density.

  14. What Are the Types of Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of fats are: • Monounsaturated fats • Polyunsaturated fats • Saturated fats • Trans fats Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are known ... your own salads instead of using commercial dressings. Saturated fats and trans fats are known as the “harmful ...

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis for abdominal hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mele, G; Loizzi, P; Greco, P; Gargano, G; Varcaccio Garofalo, G; Belsanti, A

    1988-01-01

    Three different regimens of antibiotic treatment have been employed in order to evaluate their efficacy as a profilaxis for abdominal hysterectomy. Two short term administrations (Cephtriaxone and Cephamandole plus Tobramycine) and a conventional full dose treatment (Cephazoline) have been compared over a group of homogeneous patients. No significant differences, except a reduction in postoperative time spent in hospital, have been found among the groups. A reduction in urinary tract infection has also been reported with a single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis.

  16. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper......% of either animal fat, palm oil mix, palm oil, vegetable oil mix, coconut oil, or rapeseed oil were tested in weaned and growing pigs. It was concluded that several vegetable fat sources (palm oil mix, palm oil, coconut oil, rapeseed oil) could be used as alternatives to animal fat in pig feed, whereas fat...

  17. Impaired oxidative capacity due to decreased CPT1b levels as a contributing factor to fat accumulation in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Cecilia; Madsen, Andreas Nygaard; Kristensen, Line Vildbrad

    2015-01-01

    In order to characterize mechanisms responsible for fat accumulation we used a selectively bred obesity-prone (OP) and obesity-resistant (OR) rat model, where the rats were fed a Western diet for 76 days. Body composition was assessed by MRI scans and as expected the OP rats developed a higher...... degree of fat accumulation compared to OR rats. Indirect calorimetry showed that the OP rats had higher respiratory exchange ratio (RER) compared to OR rats indicating an impaired ability to oxidize fat. The OP rats had lower expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1b in intra-abdominal fat...

  18. How to Lose Fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Maxwell; 钱俊

    2005-01-01

    Here is yet another article about losing body fat. The Interact is riddled with such articles, Some propose complex diets; others give worth while valuable advice and most are trying to sell something.

  19. Drink Water, Fight Fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_165714.html Drink Water, Fight Fat? When you have it in place ... HealthDay News) -- If you choose a glass of water instead of a beer or a sugar-sweetened ...

  20. [Spuriously unhealthy animal fats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-11-01

    Animal fats are generally considered as a source of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, identified with arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (cardiovascular diseases with heart attack, stroke, cerebral claudication). The real reason of arteriosclerosis are inflammation states of blood vessel endothelium caused by oxidative stress, hiperhomocysteinemia, hipertrigliceridemia, presence of artificial trans isomers and excess of eicosanoids originated from poliunsaturated fatty acids n-6. Present status of science proves that both saturated fatty acids and cholesterol present in animal food can not cause inflammation state. Moreover, animal fats are source of antioxidants active both in food and in human organism. Due to high oxidative stability animal fats do not make threat to human health. Milk fat, though high content of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, possesses comprehensive pro-health activity--against arteriosclerosis and cancerogenesis.

  1. Facts about trans fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... biscuits, sweet rolls, and donuts Breads and crackers Frozen foods, such as frozen dinners, pizza, ice cream, frozen yogurt, milk shakes, and pudding Snack foods Fast food Solid fats, such as shortening and ...

  2. Facts about saturated fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at room temperature. Foods like butter, palm and coconut oils, cheese, and red meat have high amounts of ... pudding, cheese, whole milk) Solid fats such as coconut oil, palm, and palm kernel oils (found in packaged ...

  3. Abdominal wound closure: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams ZF

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary F Williams, William W Hope Department of Surgery, South East Area Health Education Center, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Wilmington, NC, USA Abstract: This review examines both early and late wound complications following laparotomy closure, with particular emphasis on technical aspects that reduce hernia formation. Abdominal fascial closure is an area of considerable variation within the field of general surgery. The formation of hernias following abdominal wall incisions continues to be a challenging problem. Ventral hernia repairs are among the most common surgeries performed by general surgeons, and despite many technical advances in the field, incisional hernia rates remain high. Much attention and research has been directed to the surgical management of hernias. Less focus has been placed on prevention of hernia formation despite its obvious importance. This review examines the effects of factors such as the type of incision, suture type and size, closure method, patient risk factors, and the use of prophylactic mesh. Keywords: incisional, abdominal, hernia, prevention, wound closure techniques 

  4. Appendicitis following blunt abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Travis

    2017-09-01

    Appendicitis is a frequently encountered surgical problem in the Emergency Department (ED). Appendicitis typically results from obstruction of the appendiceal lumen, although trauma has been reported as an infrequent cause of acute appendicitis. Intestinal injury and hollow viscus injury following blunt abdominal trauma are well reported in the literature but traumatic appendicitis is much less common. The pathophysiology is uncertain but likely results from several mechanisms, either in isolation or combination. These include direct compression/crush injury, shearing injury, or from indirect obstruction of the appendiceal lumen by an ileocecal hematoma or traumatic impaction of stool into the appendix. Presentation typically mirrors that of non-traumatic appendicitis with nausea, anorexia, fever, and right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and/or peritonitis. Evaluation for traumatic appendicitis requires a careful history and physical exam. Imaging with ultrasound or computed tomography is recommended if the history and physical do not reveal an acute surgical indication. Treatment includes intravenous antibiotics and surgical consultation for appendectomy. This case highlights a patient who developed acute appendicitis following blunt trauma to the abdomen sustained during a motor vehicle accident. Appendicitis must be considered as part of the differential diagnosis in any patient who presents to the ED with abdominal pain, including those whose pain begins after sustaining blunt trauma to the abdomen. Because appendicitis following trauma is uncommon, timely diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Fat Overload Reprograms Brown Fat Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE eLETTIERI BARBATO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic nutrient overload accelerates the onset of several aging-related diseases reducing life expectancy. Although the mechanisms by which overnutrition affects metabolic processes in many tissues are known, its role on BAT physiology is still unclear. Herein, we investigated the mitochondrial responses in BAT of female mice exposed to high fat diet (HFD at different steps of life. Although adult mice showed an unchanged mitochondrial amount, both respiration and OxPHOS subunits were strongly affected. Differently, offspring pups exposed to HFD during pregnancy and lactation displayed reduced mitochondrial mass but high oxidative efficiency that, however, resulted in increased bioenergetics state of BAT rather than augmented uncoupling respiration. Interestingly, the metabolic responses triggered by HFD were accompanied by changes in mitochondrial dynamics characterized by decreased content of the fragmentation marker Drp1 both in mothers and offspring pups. HFD-induced inactivation of the FoxO1 transcription factor seemed to be the up-stream modulator of Drp1 levels in brown fat cells. Furthermore, HFD offspring pups weaned with normal diet only partially reverted the mitochondrial dysfunctions caused by HFD. Finally these mice failed in activating the thermogenic program upon cold exposure. Collectively our findings suggest that maternal dietary fat overload irreversibly commits BAT unresponsiveness to physiological stimuli such as cool temperature and this dysfunction in the early stage of life might negatively modulates health and lifespan.

  6. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation into diets with two different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sevilay

    or without supplemental L-carnitine (0 or 50 mg/kg diet) on growth performance and ... It was concluded that additional studies are required to clarify .... some internal organs), abdominal fat content (as an absolute weight) and chemical composition of edible ...... Xu, Z.R., Wang, M.Q., Mao, H.X., Zhan, X.A. & Hu, C.H., 2003.

  7. Changes in Skinfold Thicknesses and Body Fat in Ultra-endurance Cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischof, Martin; Knechtle, Beat; A Rüst, Christoph; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigated the changes in single skinfold thicknesses and body fat during an ultra-endurance cycling race. One hundred and nineteen ultra-endurance cyclists in the 'Swiss Cycling Marathon' covering a distance of 600 km were included. Changes in skinfold thickness, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass and total body water were estimated using anthropometric methods. The subjects were riding at a mean speed of 23.5±4.0 km/h and finished the race within 1,580±296 min. During the race, body mass decreased by 1.5±1.2 kg (P0.05). The decrease in body mass correlated to the decrease in fat mass (r = 0.20, P=0.03). The skinfold thicknesses at pectoral (-14.7%), abdominal (-14.9%), and thigh (-10.2%) site showed the largest decrease. The decrease in abdominal skinfold was significantly and negatively related to cycling speed during the race (r = -0.31, Pskinfold thicknesses. The largest decrease in skinfold thickness was recorded for pectoral, abdominal, and thigh site. The decrease in abdominal skinfold thickness was negatively related to cycling speed. The body seems to reduce adipose subcutaneous fat during an ultra-endurance performance at the site of the thickest skinfold.

  8. Association between changes in fat distribution and biomarkers for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; Monninkhof, Evelyn M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/260610178; May, Anne M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658; Elias, Sjoerd G|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/261632590; van der Palen, Job; Veldhuis, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/249572915; Stapper, Maaike; Stellato, Rebecca K; Schuit, Jantine A; Peeters, Petra H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655

    We assessed the associations between changes in total and abdominal fat and changes in biomarkers for breast cancer risk using data of the SHAPE-2 trial. In the SHAPE-2 trial, 243 postmenopausal overweight women were included. The intervention in this trial consisted of 5-6 kg weight loss either by

  9. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution and adipocytokines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Beers, R.M. van; Stolk, R.P.; Schaafsma, G.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on fat distribution, adipose tissue secreted proteins (adiponectin and resistin), and insulin sensitivity in healthy middle-aged men with abdominal obesity. Research Methods and Procedures: Thirty-four healthy men between 35 and 70

  10. Paniculitis mesentérica como causa poco frecuente de dolor abdominal agudo Mesenteric panniculitis as a rare cause of acute abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luiza Fatahi Bandpey

    2012-12-01

    -tissue mass depending on the predominant tissue component (fat, inflammation or fibrosis. We report 3 cases of patients who presented at the Emergency Department with acute abdominal pain and were diagnosed with mesenteric panniculitis.

  11. Different Measurements Of The Sagittal Abdominal Diameter And Waist Perimeter In The Prediction Of Homa-ir [mediciones Distintas Del Diámetro Abdominal Sagital Y Del Perímetro De La Cintura En La Predicción Del Homa-ir Diferentes Aferições Do Diâmetro Abdominal Sagital E Do Perímetro Da Cintura Na Predição Do Homa-ir

    OpenAIRE

    Vasques A.C.J.; Rosado L.E.F.P.D.L.; Rosado G.P.; Ribeiro R.D.C.L.; Franceschini S.D.C.C.; Geloneze B.; Priore S.E.; De Oliveira D.R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The correlation between the increase in visceral fat and insulin resistance makes the sagittal abdominal diameter and the waist perimeter as potential tools for the prediction of insulin resistance. Objectives: To assess the reproducibility of different measurements of the sagittal abdominal diameter and the waist perimeter and analyze the discriminating power of the measurements when predicting insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 190 adult males were studied. The sagittal abd...

  12. Urgent Abdominal Re-Explorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peskersoy Mustafa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of a number of complications that occur after abdominal surgeries may require that Urgent Abdominal Re-explorations (UARs, the life-saving and obligatory operations, are performed. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the reasons for performing UARs, outcomes of relaparotomies (RLs and factors that affect mortality. Methods Demographic characteristics; initial diagnoses; information from and complications of the first surgery received; durations and outcomes of UAR(s performed in patients who received early RLs because of complicated abdominal surgeries in our clinic between 01.01.2000 and 31.12.2004 were investigated retrospectively. Statistical analyses were done using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests. Results Early UAR was performed in 81 out of 4410 cases (1.8%. Average patient age was 50.46 (13–81 years with a male-to-female ratio of 60/21. Fifty one (62.96% patients had infection, 41 (50.61% of them had an accompanying serious disease, 24 (29.62% of them had various tumors and 57 (70.37% patients were operated under emergency conditions during first operation. Causes of urgent abdominal re-explorations were as follows: leakage from intestinal repair site or from anostomosis (n:34; 41.97%; hemorrhage (n:15; 18.51%; intestinal perforation (n:8; 9.87%; intraabdominal infection or abscess (n:8; 9.87%; progressive intestinal necrosis (n:7; 8.64%; stomal complications (n:5; 6.17%; and postoperative ileus (n:4; 4.93%. Two or more UARs were performed in 18 (22.22% cases, and overall mortality was 34.97% (n:30. Interval between the first laparotomy and UAR averaged as 6.95 (1–20 days, and average hospitalization period was 27.1 (3–78 days. Mortality rate was found to be higher among the patients who received multiple UARs. The most common (55.5% cause of mortality was sepsis/multiple organ failure (MOF. The rates for common mortality and sepsis/MOF-dependent mortality that occured following UAR were

  13. Fat Body Organ Culture System in Aedes Aegypti, a Vector of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hae-Na; Rodriguez, Stacy D; Carpenter, Victoria K; Vulcan, Julia; Bailey, C Donovan; Nageswara-Rao, Madhugiri; Li, Yiyi; Attardo, Geoffrey M; Hansen, Immo A

    2017-08-19

    The insect fat body plays a central role in insect metabolism and nutrient storage, mirroring functions of the liver and fat tissue in vertebrates. Insect fat body tissue is usually distributed throughout the insect body. However, it is often concentrated in the abdomen and attached to the abdominal body wall. The mosquito fat body is the sole source of yolk proteins, which are critical for egg production. Therefore, the in vitro culture of mosquito fat body tissues represents an important system for the study of mosquito physiology, metabolism, and, ultimately, egg production. The fat body culture process begins with the preparation of solutions and reagents, including amino acid stock solutions, Aedes physiological saline salt stock solution (APS), calcium stock solution, and fat body culture medium. The process continues with fat body dissection, followed by an experimental treatment. After treatment, a variety of different analyses can be performed, including RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq), qPCR, Western blots, proteomics, and metabolomics. In our example experiment, we demonstrate the protocol through the excision and culture of fat bodies from the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, a principal vector of arboviruses including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. RNA from fat bodies cultured under a physiological condition known to upregulate yolk proteins versus the control were subject to RNA-Seq analysis to demonstrate the potential utility of this procedure for investigations of gene expression.

  14. Abdominal lift for laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Koti, Rahul; Davidson, Brian R

    2013-08-31

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (key-hole removal of the gallbladder) is now the most often used method for treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum, which is now introduced to allow laparoscopic cholecystectomy. These cardiopulmonary changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared to pneumoperitoneum in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2013. We included all randomised clinical trials comparing abdominal wall lift (with or without pneumoperitoneum) versus pneumoperitoneum. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on intention-to-treat analysis with both the fixed-effect and the random-effects models using the Review Manager (RevMan) software. For abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum versus pneumoperitoneum, a total of 130 participants (all with low anaesthetic risk) scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomised in five trials to abdominal wall lift with pneumoperitoneum (n = 53) versus pneumoperitoneum only (n = 52). One trial which included 25 people did not state the number of participants in each group. All five trials had a high risk of bias. There was no mortality or conversion to open cholecystectomy in any of the participants in the trials that reported these outcomes. There was no significant difference in the rate of serious adverse events between the two groups (two trials; 2/29 events (0.069 events per person) versus 2/29 events (0.069 events per person); rate ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0

  15. Clinical Importance of Epicardial Fat Thickness Defining in Obese Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina A. Chumakova, PhD, ScD¹´³

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a global epidemic characteristic of the 21st century; therefore, studying the subclinical markers of coronary atherosclerosis in overweight patients is current and relevant. With weight increase, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of adipocytes occur not only in the abdominal area, but also in the ectopic local fat depots, including the epicardial ones. As the myocardium and coronary arteries are anatomically related, hormonally active epicardial fat seems to be a pathologic link between obesity and coronary heart disease (CHD. The objective of this research is to study the relationship between epicardial adiposity and abdominal obesity with metabolic risk factors and visceral fat adipokines. The influence of epicardial fat thickness (EFT and waist circumference (WC on the risk of development of significant coronary atherosclerosis in obese patients with CHD was studied (138 men, 55.47±9.07 years and BMI 35.2±5.2 kg/m². The ROC analysis reveals that EFT is more informative in diagnosing significant stenoses (≥70 %: sensitivity of the given marker constituted 80.4 %, specificity – 67.6 % (cut-off value=6 mm. On comparison of the epicardial and abdominal adiposity as predictors of coronary atherosclerosis, EFT was found to be more significant than WC. In patients with CHD, the increase in EFT is associated with the more serious involvement of the coronary arteries, whereas the WC analysis did not establish similar regularities. Evaluation of EFT in obese patients can be used as a noninvasive marker indicative of the presence of subclinical stenoses of the coronary arteries.

  16. ELBW survivors in early adulthood have higher hepatic, pancreatic and subcutaneous fat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D.; Yellin, Samuel A.; Ong, Frank J.; Singh, Nina P.; Konyer, Norman; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Schmidt, Louis A.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.

    2016-01-01

    Premature birth in conjunction with extremely low birth weight (<1 kg, ELBW) is associated with insulin resistance and increased cardiometabolic health risk compared to birth at full term with normal birth weight (NBW). However, little is known regarding the biologic mediators of these effects. Abdominal and ectopic lipid accumulation is linked to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction, yet whether ELBW survivors are predisposed to aberrant lipid deposition in adulthood is unknown. We used magnetic resonance imaging in a cohort of 16 NBW and 29 ELBW participants to determine if ELBW survivors have differences in pancreatic, hepatic, subcutaneous and visceral fat distribution compared to NBW participants. ELBW individuals had a higher proportion of liver and pancreatic fat compared to NBW subjects (P < 0.05). Abdominal subcutaneous fat, but not visceral fat, area was higher in ELBW survivors compared to NBW individuals. In multivariate analyses, tissue fat measures were most highly related to BMI and sex, but not preterm birth. This work highlights that fat deposition is enhanced in adults born preterm and suggests that ectopic fat accretion driven by their relatively greater adiposity may contribute to the higher rates of metabolic dysfunction seen in ELBW survivors. PMID:27530702

  17. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 2. Clinical application of a unique densitometry CT technique for determination of fat tissue areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Abdominal CT scanning was performed to establish normal spectra of abdominal tissue areas on 291 subjects. Using the data file of measurements of abdominal fat tissue areas of 133 normal subjects, means and their standard deviations (S.D.) were calculated for each fat tissue area at the four levels for each gender. On 158 persons with abnormal body mass index (BMI) values, S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area from the mean of the control in each age group of each gender was compared with each other. Ratios of visceral fat tissue area to subcutaneous fat tissue area (V/S ratio) were also calculated. The visceral fat tissue area of normal male subjects was significantly larger at all the four levels than those of female ones, while the subcutaneous fat tissue area were smaller at all levels. Although the area of entire and subcutaneous fat tissues of female subjects showed a peak at the age of 50 years old, those in male subjects did not show any peak at any age group. Although there was a statistically significant correlation between values of BMI and S.D.-distance of each fat tissue area at each level, the coefficient between BMI and S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area was very low at the level of 60 mm in female. Seven of 74 female subjects with abnormal BMI had more than 10 S.D.-distance of subcutaneous fat tissue area at all levels and 8 of them had more S.D.-distance than of all fat tissue area at any level. The V/S ratio of the male subjects was significantly larger than that in female. Besides, there was no correlation between V/S ratio and S.D.-distance of visceral fat tissue area in both male and female subjects. These findings indicate that the V/S ratio does not reflect the size of fat tissue area. The determination of fat tissue areas by the abdominal CT at several levels is quite a useful way for accurate evaluation of obesity. (S.Y.).

  18. Body size, body composition and fat distribution: comparative analysis of European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine C; Freitas, Ismael; Plank, Lindsay D

    2009-08-01

    Although there is evidence that Asian Indians, Polynesians and Europeans differ in their body fat (BF)-BMI relationships, detailed comparative analysis of their underlying body composition and build characteristics is lacking. We investigated differences in the relationships between body fatness and BMI, fat distribution, muscularity, bone mineral mass, leg length and age-related changes in body composition between these ethnic groups. Cross-sectional analysis of 933 European, Maori, Pacific Island and Asian Indian adult volunteers was performed for total and percentage of BF, abdominal fat, thigh fat, appendicular muscle mass, bone mineral content and leg length measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Asian Indian men and women (BMI of 24 and 26 kg/m2, respectively) had the same percentage of BF as Europeans with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or Pacific men and women with BMI of 34 and 35 kg/m2, respectively. Asian Indians had more fat, both total and in the abdominal region, with less lean mass, skeletal muscle and bone mineral than all other ethnic groups. Leg length was relatively longer in Pacific men and Asian and Pacific women than in other ethnic groups. In Asian Indians, abdominal fat increased with increasing age, while the percentage of BF showed little change. In the other ethnic groups, both abdominal and total BF increased with age. In conclusion, ethnic differences in fat distribution, muscularity, bone mass and leg length may contribute to ethnic-specific relationships between body fatness and BMI. The use of universal BMI cut-off points may not be appropriate for the comparison of obesity prevalence between ethnic groups.

  19. Expression analysis of bone morphogenetic protein 4 between fat and lean birds in adipose tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, B H; Leng, L; Wu, M Q; Zhang, Q; Zhang, X Y; Xu, S S; Cao, Z P; Li, Y M; Luan, P; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to characterize the tissue expression of chicken (Gallus gallus) bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) and compare differences in its expression in abdominal fat tissue and serum between fat and lean birds and to determine a potential relationship between the expression of BMP4 and abdominal fat tissue growth and development. The results showed that chicken BMP4 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein were expressed in various tissues, and the expression levels of BMP4 transcript and protein were relatively higher in adipose tissues. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression levels of BMP4 in abdominal fat tissue of fat males were lower than those of lean males at 1, 2, 5, and 7 wk of age (P fat males was lower than that of lean males at 7 wk of age (P fat deposition through differences in its expression level. The results of this study will provide basic molecular information for studying the role of BMP4 in the regulation of adipogenesis in avian species.

  20. Ectopic fat deposition in prediabetic overweight and obese minority adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Corral, Claudia M; Alderete, Tanya L; Hu, Houchun H; Nayak, Krishna; Esplana, Sherryl; Liu, Ting; Goran, Michael I; Weigensberg, Marc J

    2013-03-01

    Optimizing effective prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes in youth is limited by incomplete understanding of its pathophysiology and how this varies across ethnicities with high risk. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), hepatic fat fraction (HFF), and pancreatic fat fraction (PFF) to prediabetes in overweight/obese African American (AA) and Latino youth. We conducted a cross-sectional study in an academic pediatric care facility. A total of 148 healthy, overweight/obese adolescents (56 AA, 92 Latino; 72 males, 76 females; age, 15.5 ± 1.2 y; BMI z-score, 2.1 ± 0.5) participated in the study. They were normal glucose tolerant (n = 106) and prediabetic (n = 42), based on fasting glucose of 100-125 mg/dL and/or 2-hour glucose of 140-199 mg/dL, and/or hemoglobin A1C 6.0-6.4%. We measured sc abdominal adipose tissue, VAT, HFF, and PFF by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and measured total body fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Adolescents with prediabetes had 30% higher HFF (P = .001) and 31% higher PFF (P = .042), compared to those with normal glucose tolerance after controlling for age, sex, pubertal stage, ethnicity, total percentage body fat, and VAT. Logistic regression showed that PFF predicted prediabetes in AAs and HFF predicted prediabetes in Latinos, with the odds of having prediabetes increased by 66% for every 1% increase in PFF in African Americans, and increased by 22% for every 1% increase in HFF in Latinos. These data demonstrate that ectopic fat phenotypes associated with prediabetes are established by adolescence. Ethnic differences in the deposition of ectopic fat in adolescents with prediabetes may differ, with pancreatic fat in AAs, vs hepatic fat in Latino adolescents, being associated with diabetes risk.

  1. Self-reported experiences of discrimination and visceral fat in middle-aged African-American and Caucasian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T; Kravitz, Howard M; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H

    2011-06-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participants were 402 (45% African-American, 55% Caucasian) middle-aged women from the Chicago, Illinois, site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Visceral and subcutaneous fat were assessed via computed tomography scans between 2002 and 2005. Linear regression models were conducted to test associations among discrimination and visceral and subcutaneous fat. After adjustment for age and race, every one-point increase on the discrimination scale was associated with a 13.03-cm(2) higher amount of visceral fat (P = 0.04). This association remained significant after further adjustments for total body fat and relevant risk factors, including depressive symptoms. Discrimination was not associated with subcutaneous fat in minimally (P = 0.95) or fully adjusted models. Associations did not differ by race. Findings suggest that visceral fat may be one potential pathway through which experiences of discrimination increase cardiovascular risk.

  2. Abdominal compartment syndrome. Interesting aspects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Rubio Silveira

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The management of the abdominal compartiment syndrome is still a controversial point nowadays. Its early diagnosis and treatment constitute a challenge for surgeons and physicians at the intensive care unit who have to face these cases . The physiopathologic changes that can occur can lead to the patients death, constituting pulmonary thromboembolism and multiorgan failure the principal causes of death. This paper presents the principal clinical parameters and technical procedures for its diagnosis and treatment with the aim of diminishing its morbi-mortality raits in our hospitals

  3. Peritoneoscopy of the liver after abdominal surgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawaguchi,Kenji

    1983-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of intraperitoneal adhesion after abdominal surgery was studied. Peritoneoscopy was performed in 933 patients with liver diseases over the 6 year 5 month period from March 1974 to July 1980. Of the patients, 352 (37.7% had undergone an abdominal operation, and intraperitoneal adhesion was detected in 205 (58.2% of these patients. The liver was not observable in 5 out of 61 patients with adhesions after upper abdominal operations. Whereas, the liver was clearly observable in patients with lower abdominal operations in spite of adhesions. Out of the 581 patients without any abdominal operations, 30 patients (5.2% had adhesions in the abdominal cavity, and 6 of them had extensive adhesions that partially obscured the observation of liver surface. In all patients, peritoneoscopy was performed without complications by avoiding the surgical scar for puncture sites and ensuring a free air lumen before trocar puncture.

  4. Alternative fat sources to animal fat for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Lauridsen, Charlotte; Christensen, Thomas Bruun; Halekoh, Ulrich; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2007-01-01

    The use of fats and oils in diets for pigs is of great importance due to their high energy value. As a consequence of the BSE-crisis in the European Union, the amount of animal fat available for animal feeds has been reduced, and alternative fat sources are of increasing importance. In this paper, we review our main findings on the effects of diets with different fat sources on apparent fat digestibility in pigs. A method for quantitative measurement of fat extraction from feed and faeces has...

  5. Clinical profile of abdominal tuberculosis in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ira Shah; Ramya Uppuluri

    2010-01-01

    Aim: A retrospective study was conducted in children, suffering from abdominal TB, attending Pediatric TB clinic from 2007 to 2009. Materials And Methods: Age-wise distribution and type of abdominal TB were analyzed with clinical features. Results : Out of 285 children with TB, 32 (11.2%) had abdominal tuberculosis. Male: Female ratio was 2.1:1. 7 (21.9%) children were 10 years of age. The most comm...

  6. [Internationalization and innovation of abdominal acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Zhou

    2013-09-01

    Characteristics of abdominal acupuncture are analyzed through three aspects of inheriting and innovation, collaborated research as well as international visual field. It is pointed that abdominal acupuncture is based on clinical practice, focuses on enhancing the therapeutic effect and expending the clinical application. It also promots the thinking on how to recall the tradition and how to inherit tradition availably. The modern medical problems should be studied and innovation resolutions should be searched, which can help the internationalization and modernization of abdominal acupuncture.

  7. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome due to OHSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Veisi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal compartment syndrome is a dangerous clinical situation, usually following abdominal injuries&operations. It is seldom observed in patients with gynecologic and obstetric problems. Abdominalcompartment syndrome may be consequence ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. A 28-year-old womanpresented as a sever ovarian hyperstimulation.The increased IAP indicated that OHSS may beconsidered a compartment syndrome. Abdominal compartment syndrome needs laparotomy orparacentesis for reduction of pressure.

  8. Subcutaneous abdominal preadipocyte differentiation in vitro inversely correlates with central obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Permana, Paska A; Nair, Saraswathy; Lee, Yong-Ho

    2004-01-01

    obesity and the level of in vitro preadipocyte differentiation in Pima Indians. Subcutaneous abdominal stromal vascular fractions containing preadipocytes were cultured from 58 nondiabetic subjects [31 M/27 F, 30 +/- 6 yr, body fat 34 +/- 8% by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (means +/- SD)]. The average...... percentage of preadipocyte differentiation (PDIFF; cell count by microscopy) was 11 +/- 11% (range 0.2-51%). PDIFF correlated negatively with percent body fat (r = -0.35, P = 0.006) and waist circumference (r = -0.45, P = 0.0004). Multiple regression analysis indicated that waist circumference (P = 0.......01), sex (P = 0.01), and percent body fat (P = 0.05) were significant determinants of PDIFF. Molecular characterization of predifferentiated cultured cells was performed by real-time PCR measurements of glucocorticoid receptor-alpha (GRalpha), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), peroxisome...

  9. Dynamical fat link fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Williams, A G; Kamleh, Waseem; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; 10.1016/j.nuclphysbps.2003.12.058

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. Frequently, fat link actions make use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants.

  10. Measurement of visceral fat: should we include retroperitoneal fat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Sheng Hung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Whether retroperitoneal fat should be included in the measurement of visceral fat remains controversial. We compared the relationships of fat areas in peritoneal, retroperitoneal, and subcutaneous compartments to metabolic syndrome, adipokines, and incident hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: We enrolled 432 adult participants (153 men and 279 women in a community-based cohort study. Computed tomography at the umbilicus level was used to measure the fat areas. RESULTS: Retroperitoneal fat correlated significantly with metabolic syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR, 5.651, p<0.05 and the number of metabolic abnormalities (p<0.05. Retroperitoneal fat area was significantly associated with blood pressure, plasma glycemic indices, lipid profile, C-reactive protein, adiponectin (r =  -0.244, P<0.05, and leptin (r = 0.323, p<0.05, but not plasma renin or aldosterone concentrations. During the 2.94 ± 0.84 years of follow-up, 32 participants developed incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area (hazard ration (HR 1.62, p = 0.003 and peritoneal fat area (HR 1.62, p = 0.009, but not subcutaneous fat area (p = 0.14 were associated with incident hypertension. Neither retroperitoneal fat area, peritoneal fat area, nor subcutaneous fat areas was associated with incident diabetes after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Retroperitoneal fat is similar to peritoneal fat, but differs from subcutaneous fat, in terms of its relationship with metabolic syndrome and incident hypertension. Retroperitoneal fat area should be included in the measurement of visceral fat for cardio-metabolic studies in human.

  11. Abdominal Pain in the Geriatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magidson, Phillip D; Martinez, Joseph P

    2016-08-01

    With an aging population, emergency department clinicians can expect an increase in geriatric patients presenting with abdominal pain. Compared with younger patients, this patient population is less likely to present with classic symptoms, physical examination findings, and laboratory values of abdominal disease. However, the morbidity and mortality associated with elderly patients presenting with abdominal pathologic conditions are significant. For this reason, the clinician must be familiar with some subtle and not so subtle differences when caring for the geriatric patient with abdominal pain to ensure timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  12. Abdominal migraine in childhood: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scicchitano B

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice Scicchitano,1 Gareth Humphreys,1 Sally G Mitton,2 Thiagarajan Jaiganesh1 1Children's Emergency Department, 2Department of Paediatric Gastroenterology, St Georges Hospital, St Georges Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom Abstract: The childhood condition of abdominal migraine has been described under many different synonyms, including "abdominal epilepsy", "recurrent abdominal pain", "cyclical vomiting syndrome", and "functional gastrointestinal disorder". In the early literature, abdominal migraine is included in the "childhood periodic syndrome", first described by Wyllie and Schlesinger in 1933. Abdominal migraine has emerged over the last century as a diagnostic entity in its own right thanks to the development of well defined diagnostic criteria and its recent inclusion in the International Headache Society's Classification of Headache disorders. Despite this progress, little is known about the pathophysiology of the condition, and the treatment options are poorly defined. Here we summarize the recent literature, with particular focus on establishing the diagnosis of abdominal migraine and its pathophysiology, and suggest an approach to management. Keywords: abdominal migraine, recurrent abdominal pain, abdominal epilepsy, cyclical vomiting

  13. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding-Hui Dong; Wen-Yan Liu; Hai-Bo Feng; Yi-Li Fu; Shi Huang; Jun-Xi Xiang; Yi Lyu

    2015-01-01

    Background:Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI),relying on magnetic force,can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity.Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT) deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI.The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT,and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT,resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI.Methods:For MASI,ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment.We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans.We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT.Results:Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3) is the thickest during chosen points.Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness."BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane,and the expression was as follow:f(x) =P1 × x2 + P2 x x + P3,where P1 =0.03916 (0.01776,0.06056),P2 =1.098 (0.03197,2.164),P3 =-18.52 (-31.64,-5.412),R-square:0.99.Conclusions:Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT.BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT.In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve,we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI,resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  14. Socioeconomic determinants of abdominal obesity in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz S Álvarez-Castaño

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Excess weight associated with the distribution of body fat is one of the major risk factors for morbidity and mortality. This study analyzes data obtained from the survey “Food and Nutritional Profile of Medellín” carried out in 2010, aimed to establish some socio economic determinants of abdominal obesity.Material and Methods: Study descriptive, cross-sectional, the sample consisted of 2719 households and 5556 adults, ages 18 to 64. Abdominal obesity was assessed as >80cm for females and >94 cm for males. The social and economic determinants analyzed were family monthly income measured as the capacity to cover a basic food basket (>USD777, educational level, social stratum measured by the house and neighborhood characteristics and occupational activity as measured by the National Department of Statistics of Colombia.Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 45%, higher in women than in men (55% vs 27%. Related to social determinants, abdominal obesity is higher in persons of low (OR 1,8; CI95% 1.4-2.2 and medium stratum (OR 1.6; CI95% 1.3-2.0. It affects persons with primary/elementary educational levels (OR 1.9; CI95% 1.7-2.3 more than those of high school education (OR 1.5; CI95% 1.3-1.7. Likewise abdominal obesity is higher among those with a family income less than (USD777 –not enough to acquire the basic food basket– (OR 1.6; CI95% 1.3-1.9. In men family income shows no association with abdominal obesity.Conclusions: For this population some social determinants of abdominal obesity are level of education, social stratum and family income.

  15. Abdominal obesity can induce both systemic and follicular fluid oxidative stress independent from polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Nahid; Moini, Ashraf; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak; Karimian, Leila; Salman-Yazdi, Reza; Zolfaghari, Zahra; Arabipoor, Arezoo

    2015-01-01

    The abdominal form of obesity is prevalent in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Visceral fat accumulation seems to play an important role in etiology of PCOS. In this cross-sectional study we evaluated the association of oxidative stress (OS) induced with PCOS and abdominal obesity in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of infertile women. A total of 80 women younger than 37 years old undergoing an IVF program were studied in the same period of time from September 2012 to October 2013. Blood serum and FF obtained from 40 women with PCOS (diagnosed by the Rotterdam 2004 criteria) and 40 women without PCOS undergoing IVF were evaluated for two OS markers: lipid peroxide (LPO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), after puncture. The patients were divided into 4 groups on the basis of presence of PCOS and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) or abdominal obesity (OA). Healthy and PCOS women with abdominal obesity had significantly higher amounts of LPO in the serum and FF as compared with women without abdominal obesity. LPO concentration in FF was significantly lower than in serum and corroborates the hypothesis that the germinal cells have a potent antioxidant mechanism. We also found that LPO concentration in the PCOS group associated with AO had an increasing trend vs. those AO patients without PCOS but this difference was not significant, so the increase in LPO level was approximately independent of PCOS. Based on our results, the association and interaction between PCOS and AO can lead to TAC concentration reduction in patients. Abdominal obesity can induce local and systemic oxidative stress in PCOS and non-PCOS patients. We suggest that PCOS-induced disorders are likely to be exacerbated in the presence of abdominal obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of Individual Characteristic Abdominal Wall Thickness Based on Magnetic Anchored Surgical Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnetic anchored surgical instruments (MASI, relying on magnetic force, can break through the limitations of the single port approach in dexterity. Individual characteristic abdominal wall thickness (ICAWT deeply influences magnetic force that determines the safety of MASI. The purpose of this study was to research the abdominal wall characteristics in MASI applied environment to find ICAWT, and then construct an artful method to predict ICAWT, resulting in better safety and feasibility for MASI. Methods: For MASI, ICAWT is referred to the thickness of thickest point in the applied environment. We determined ICAWT through finding the thickest point in computed tomography scans. We also investigated the traits of abdominal wall thickness to discover the factor that can be used to predict ICAWT. Results: Abdominal wall at C point in the middle third lumbar vertebra plane (L3 is the thickest during chosen points. Fat layer thickness plays a more important role in abdominal wall thickness than muscle layer thickness. "BMI-ICAWT" curve was obtained based on abdominal wall thickness of C point in L3 plane, and the expression was as follow: f(x = P1 × x 2 + P2 × x + P3, where P1 = 0.03916 (0.01776, 0.06056, P2 = 1.098 (0.03197, 2.164, P3 = −18.52 (−31.64, −5.412, R-square: 0.99. Conclusions: Abdominal wall thickness of C point at L3 could be regarded as ICAWT. BMI could be a reliable predictor of ICAWT. In the light of "BMI-ICAWT" curve, we may conveniently predict ICAWT by BMI, resulting a better safety and feasibility for MASI.

  17. Percutaneous drainage of abdominal abcess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Sueleyman E-mail: suleyman.men@deu.edu.tr; Akhan, Okan; Koeroglu, Mert

    2002-09-01

    The mortality in undrained abdominal abscesses is high with a mortality rate ranging between 45 and 100%. The outcome in abdominal abscesses, however, has improved due to advances in image guided percutaneous interventional techniques. The main indications for the catheter drainage include treatment or palliation of sepsis associated with an infected fluid collection, and alleviation of the symptoms that may be caused by fluid collections by virtue of their size, like pancreatic pseudocele or lymphocele. The single liver abscesses may be drained with ultrasound guidance only, whereas the multiple abscesses usually require computed tomography (CT) guidance and placement of multiple catheters. The pancreatic abscesses are generally drained routinely and urgently. Non-infected pancreatic pseudocysts may be simply observed unless they are symptomatic or cause problems such as pain or obstruction of the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract. Percutaneous routes that have been described to drain pelvic abscesses include transrectal or transvaginal approach with sonographic guidance, a transgluteal, paracoccygeal-infragluteal, or perineal approach through the greater sciatic foramen with CT guidance. Both the renal and the perirenal abscesses are amenable to percutaneous drainage. Percutaneous drainage provides an effective and safe alternative to more invasive surgical drainage in most patients with psoas abscesses as well.

  18. MR angiography in abdominal neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squillaci, E. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Crecco, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Grandinetti, M.L. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Maspes, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Lo Presti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy); Squillaci, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Cancer Research Inst. (Regina Elena), Rome (Italy); Simonetti, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Rome-2 Univ., Hospital S. Eugenio, Rome (Italy)

    1994-10-01

    The role of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in the evaluation of vascular involvement was studied in 55 patients with abdominal neoplasms. A 2-D time-of-flight (TOF) technique was used in all patients. All patients underwent CT and MR examinations before MRA. Also, MR angiograms were compared with digital subtraction angiography in 22 cases, with Doppler US in 13 cases, and with surgical findings in 20 cases. In all patients with liver neoplasms (n=29) MRA demonstrated the absence of flow in the infiltrated segments. Pericapsular neovascularization was observed in 12 patients. Portal vein involvement was correctly detected in 27 patients. In all cases MRA demonstrated in relationship between the tumor and venous structures. Portosystemic shunts were visualized in 20 of 21 patients with portal hypertension. Vena cava thrombosis (3 cases), compression (5 cases), and displacement (2 cases) were correctly demonstrated. In renal (n=6) and adrenal gland (n=3) tumors renal vein compression was correctly detected in 2 cases, displacement in 1 case, and thrombosis in 3 cases, with only 1 false-positive finding. In 7 patients with pancreatic tumors MRA demonstrated splenic vein thrombosis in 2 cases and compression in 2 cases, with one false-positive finding. Our results indicate that MRA provides precise information regarding venous vascular involvement in abdominal neoplasms, but preoperative arterial mapping is still problematic. (orig.)

  19. Whole abdominal wall segmentation using augmented active shape models (AASM) with multi-atlas label fusion and level set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Abramson, Richard G.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2016-03-01

    The abdominal wall is an important structure differentiating subcutaneous and visceral compartments and intimately involved with maintaining abdominal structure. Segmentation of the whole abdominal wall on routinely acquired computed tomography (CT) scans remains challenging due to variations and complexities of the wall and surrounding tissues. In this study, we propose a slice-wise augmented active shape model (AASM) approach to robustly segment both the outer and inner surfaces of the abdominal wall. Multi-atlas label fusion (MALF) and level set (LS) techniques are integrated into the traditional ASM framework. The AASM approach globally optimizes the landmark updates in the presence of complicated underlying local anatomical contexts. The proposed approach was validated on 184 axial slices of 20 CT scans. The Hausdorff distance against the manual segmentation was significantly reduced using proposed approach compared to that using ASM, MALF, and LS individually. Our segmentation of the whole abdominal wall enables the subcutaneous and visceral fat measurement, with high correlation to the measurement derived from manual segmentation. This study presents the first generic algorithm that combines ASM, MALF, and LS, and demonstrates practical application for automatically capturing visceral and subcutaneous fat volumes.

  20. Determination of fat tissue area in the abdomen and evaluation of degree of obesity. Pt. 1. A unique application of a densitometric technique of computed tomography for CT values of fat tissue area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Fumie [Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-06-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanning images were taken from 26 normal subjects, 23 obesity patients and 11 with leanness to determine fat tissue values. Setting three regions of interest (ROIs) for fat tissues identified by a double-window display, a total of 52 images were employed. Histograms were constructed for each of the 3 ROIs, and the maximum, mean and minimum values were computed for each fat tissues. Areas of entire fat tissues were computed on each image with the above-cited CT software for thyroidal iodine contents by setting ROIs along the outline of body, the abdominal wall and the wall of colon, respectively. Areas of subcutaneous fat tissues were calculated by simply subtracting the values of visceral fat tissues from those of entire fat tissues. Means of maximum and minimum CT values of visceral fat tissues on 52 images were -34.7 HU and -162.1 HU, respectively. The double-window display indicated that the spectrum of CT values of fat tissue included not only visceral and subcutaneous fat tissues but fecal materials with air bubbles in the colon. Areas of fecal materials with the same CT values as that of the fat tissues occupied 2.5{+-}3.0% of that of the visceral fat tissue. The areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues were largest at the levels of -20 to 0 mm and 60 to 100 mm, respectively, on all images. At the level of 0 mm, the areas of visceral fat tissue did not show any differences among normal subjects, obesity patients and patients with leanness. It was concluded that the CT software is applicable to obtain satisfactory values for areas of visceral fat tissue, and that CT images at the levels of 0, 40, 60 and 100 mm are necessary to accurately determine areas of visceral fat tissues. (S.Y.).