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Sample records for abdominal fat weight

  1. Interactive thresholded volumetry of abdominal fat using breath-hold T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittsack, H.J.; Cohnen, M.; Jung, G.; Moedder, U.; Poll, L.; Kapitza, C.; Heinemann, L.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: development of a feasible and reliable method for determining abdominal fat using breath-hold T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods: the high image contrast of T1-weighted gradient echo MR sequences makes it possible to differentiate between abdominal fat and non-fat tissue. To obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio, the measurements are usually performed using phased array surface coils. Inhomogeneity of the coil sensitivity leads to inhomogeneity of the image intensities. Therefore, to examine the volume of abdominal fat, an automatic algorithm for intensity correction must be implemented. The analysis of the image histogram results in a threshold to separate fat from other tissue. Automatic segmentation using this threshold results directly in the fat volumes. The separation of intraabdominal and subcutaneous fat is performed by interactive selection in a last step. Results: the described correction of inhomogeneity allows for the segmentation of the images using a global threshold. The use of semiautomatic interactive volumetry makes the analysis more subjective. The variance of volumetry between observers was 4.6%. The mean time for image analysis of a T1-weighted investigation lasted less than 6 minutes. Conclusion: the described method facilitates reliable determination of abdominal fat within a reasonable period of time. Using breath-hold MR sequences, the time of examination is less than 5 minutes per patient. (orig.)

  2. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akopians, Alin L.; Madrigal, Vanessa K.; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J.; Sarma, Manoj K.; Thomas, Albert M.; Grogan, Tristan R.; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A.; Okeya, Bette L.; Abbott, David H.; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. Objective: This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. Design: This is a prospective cohort study. Setting: The setting was an academic medical center. Patients: Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. Intervention(s): All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Main Outcome Measure(s): Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Results: Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Conclusion: Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction. PMID:27571186

  3. Hyperandrogenism Accompanies Increased Intra-Abdominal Fat Storage in Normal Weight Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, Daniel A; Akopians, Alin L; Madrigal, Vanessa K; Ramirez, Emmanuel; Margolis, Daniel J; Sarma, Manoj K; Thomas, Albert M; Grogan, Tristan R; Haykal, Rasha; Schooler, Tery A; Okeya, Bette L; Abbott, David H; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D

    2016-11-01

    Normal weight polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women may have altered adipose structure-function underlying metabolic dysfunction. This study examines whether adipose structure-functional changes exist in normal weight PCOS women and correlate with hyperandrogenism and/or hyperinsulinemia. This is a prospective cohort study. The setting was an academic medical center. Six normal weight PCOS women and 14 age- and body mass index-matched normoandrogenic ovulatory (NL) women were included. All women underwent circulating hormone and metabolic measurements; frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance testing; total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; abdominal magnetic resonance imaging; and SC abdominal fat biopsy. Circulating hormones and metabolites, body fat and its distribution, and adipocyte size were compared between PCOS and NL women, and were correlated with each other in all women. Circulating LH and androgen levels were significantly greater in PCOS than NL women, as were fasting insulin levels, pancreatic β-cell responsiveness to glucose, and total abdominal fat mass. Intra-abdominal fat mass also was significantly increased in PCOS women and was positively correlated with circulating androgen, fasting insulin, triglyceride, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in all women. SC abdominal fat mass was not significantly increased in PCOS women, but contained a greater proportion of small SC abdominal adipocytes that positively correlated with serum androgen levels in all women. Hyperandrogenism in normal weight PCOS women is associated with preferential intra-abdominal fat deposition and an increased population of small SC abdominal adipocytes that could constrain SC adipose storage and promote metabolic dysfunction.

  4. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  5. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amyloidosis - abdominal wall fat pad biopsy; Abdominal wall biopsy; Biopsy - abdominal wall fat pad ... is the most common method of taking an abdominal wall fat pad biopsy . The health care provider cleans the ...

  6. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2012-04-01

    A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet. The present review was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with overall obesity or excess abdominal adiposity, whether in the general population or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The literature search included articles published over the past 30 years that focused on dietary patterns that included bread (refined or whole-grain) and their association with ponderal status and abdominal fat distribution. A total of 38 epidemiological studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (22 cross-sectional, 11 prospective cohort, and five intervention). The results indicate that dietary patterns that include whole-grain bread do not positively influence weight gain and may be beneficial to ponderal status. With respect to dietary patterns that include refined bread, the majority of cross-sectional studies indicate beneficial effects, while most of the well-designed cohort studies demonstrate a possible relationship with excess abdominal fat. Because differences in the study designs make it difficult to form definitive conclusions, more studies are needed that focus specifically on bread consumption, within different dietary patterns, and its influence on ponderal status. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  7. Influence of catch-up growth on abdominal fat distribution in very low birth weight children - cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, João Guilherme; Vasconcelos, Sarita Amorim; de Almeida, Tais Sá; Lages, Raquel; Just, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    A rapid catch-up growth in very low birth weight has been associated both with a higher height growth and a higher risk to metabolic disturbances, including insulin resistance and its consequences. Abdominal fat distribution in early postnatal life may play a role in these outcomes and can help in addressing this neonatal dilemma. This study aimed to compare abdominal fat distribution among very low birth weight (VLBW) children with and without rapid catch-up growth. A cohort study followed 86 VLBW (children born in Brazil, during the first 3 years of life. Rapid catch-up growth was considered as an increased in length >2 Z score during the first year of life. Abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat thickness was determined by ultrasound. χ²-Test and Student's t-test were used to compare the groups. A total of 79 VLBW children completed the study, of whom 22 (27.8%) showed rapid catch-up growth. Abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat thickness showed no differences among children with or without rapid catch-up growth at 3.3 mm vs. 3.8 mm, respectively (p=0.79) and 4.0 mm vs. 4.0 mm (p=0.55), respectively. VLBW children with rapid catch-up growth were also taller. Rapid catch-up growth during the first year of life in VLBW children does not seem to change abdominal fat distribution until the third year of life.

  8. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  9. Abdominal MRI at 3.0 T: LAVA-Flex compared with conventional fat suppression T1-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing Hui; Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Xiao Ming; Ji, Yi Fan; Chen, Tian Wu; Huang, Xiao Hua; Yang, Lin; Zeng, Nan Lin

    2014-07-01

    To study liver imaging with volume acceleration-flexible (LAVA-Flex) for abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3.0 T and compare the image quality of abdominal organs between LAVA-Flex and fast spoiled gradient-recalled (FSPGR) T1-weighted imaging. Our Institutional Review Board approval was obtained in this retrospective study. Sixty-nine subjects had both FSPGR and LAVA-Flex sequences. Two radiologists independently scored the acquisitions for image quality, fat suppression quality, and artifacts and the values obtained were compared with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. According to the signal intensity (SI) measurements, the uniformity of fat suppression, the contrast between muscle and fat and normal liver and liver lesions were compared by the paired t-test. The liver and spleen SI on the fat-only phase were analyzed in the fatty liver patients. Compared with FSPGR imaging, LAVA-Flex images had better and more homogenous fat suppression and lower susceptibility artifact (qualitative scores: 4.70 vs. 4.00, 4.86% vs. 7.14%, 4.60 and 4.10, respectively). The contrast between muscle and fat and between the liver and pathologic lesions was significantly improved on the LAVA-Flex sequence. The contrast value of the fatty liver and spleen was higher than that of the liver and spleen. The LAVA-Flex sequence offers superior and more homogenous fat suppression of the abdomen than does the FSPGR sequence. The fat-only phase can be a simple and effective method of assessing fatty liver. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A high-fat, high-saturated fat diet decreases insulin sensitivity without changing intra-abdominal fat in weight-stable overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Frankenberg, Anize D; Marina, Anna; Song, Xiaoling; Callahan, Holly S; Kratz, Mario; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2017-02-01

    We sought to determine the effects of dietary fat on insulin sensitivity and whether changes in insulin sensitivity were explained by changes in abdominal fat distribution or very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) fatty acid composition. Overweight/obese adults with normal glucose tolerance consumed a control diet (35 % fat/12 % saturated fat/47 % carbohydrate) for 10 days, followed by a 4-week low-fat diet (LFD, n = 10: 20 % fat/8 % saturated fat/62 % carbohydrate) or high-fat diet (HFD, n = 10: 55 % fat/25 % saturated fat/27 % carbohydrate). All foods and their eucaloric energy content were provided. Insulin sensitivity was measured by labeled hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, abdominal fat distribution by MRI, and fasting VLDL fatty acids by gas chromatography. The rate of glucose disposal (Rd) during low- and high-dose insulin decreased on the HFD but remained unchanged on the LFD (Rd-low: LFD: 0.12 ± 0.11 vs. HFD: -0.37 ± 0.15 mmol/min, mean ± SE, p vs. HFD: -0.71 ± 0.26 mmol/min, p = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity did not change. Changes in subcutaneous fat were positively associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on the LFD (r = 0.78, p fat. The LFD led to an increase in VLDL palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0), and palmitoleic (16:1n7c) acids, while no changes were observed on the HFD. Changes in VLDL n-6 docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n6) were strongly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity on both diets (LFD: r = -0.77; p fat and saturated fat adversely affects insulin sensitivity and thereby might contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00930371.

  11. Left ventricular function impairment in patients with normal-weight obesity: contribution of abdominal fat deposition, profibrotic state, reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Wojciech; Jedrzejuk, Diana; Derzhko, Roksolana; Przewlocka-Kosmala, Monika; Mysiak, Andrzej; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grazyna

    2012-05-01

    Obesity predisposes to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and heart failure; however, the risk of these complications has not been assessed in patients with a normal body mass index (BMI) but increased body fat content (normal-weight obesity, NWO). We hypothesized that LV performance in NWO may be impaired and sought to investigate potential contributors to cardiac functional abnormalities. One hundred sixty-eight subjects (age, 38±7 years) with BMI affecting the myocardium were classified on the basis of body fat content into 2 groups: with NWO and without NWO. Echocardiographic indices of LV systolic and diastolic function, including myocardial velocities and deformation, serological fibrosis markers, indicators of proinflammatory activation, and metabolic control, were evaluated. Subjects with NWO demonstrated impaired LV systolic and diastolic function, increased fibrosis intensity (assessed by procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP]), impaired insulin sensitivity, and increased proinflammatory activation as compared with individuals with normal body fat. The independent correlates of LV systolic and diastolic function variables were as follows: for strain, IL-18 (β=-0.17, P<0.006), C-reactive protein (β=-0.20, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.20, P<0.003); for tissue S velocity, PICP (β=-0.21, P<0.002) and abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.43, P<0.0001); for tissue E velocity, abdominal fat deposit (β=-0.30, P<0.0001), PICP (β=-0.31, P<0.0001) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA IR; β=-0.20, P<0.002); and for E/e'-PICP, IL-18 (both β=0.18, P<0.01) and HOMA IR (β=0.16, P<0.04). In patients with NWO, subclinical disturbances of LV function are independently associated with the extent of abdominal fat deposit, profibrotic state (as reflected by circulating PICP), reduced insulin sensitivity, and proinflammatory activation.

  12. Longitudinal changes in abdominal fat distribution with menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ruth M; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Kanaley, Jill A

    2009-03-01

    Increases in abdominal fat have been reported with menopause, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution (visceral vs subcutaneous) is still unclear. The objective of the study was to determine if abdominal fat content (volume) or distribution is altered with menopause. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify total abdominal, subcutaneous, and visceral fat in 8 healthy women, both in the premenopausal state and 8 years later in the postmenopausal state. Physical activity (PA) and blood lipids were also measured. Body weight and waist circumference did not change with menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: body weight, 63.2 +/- 3.1 vs 63.9 +/- 2.5 kg; waist circumference, 92.1 +/- 4.6 vs 93.4 +/- 3.7 cm); however, total abdominal fat, subcutaneous fat, and visceral fat all significantly (P fat distribution was not significantly different after menopause (pre- vs postmenopause: subcutaneous, 73% +/- 3% vs 71% +/- 3%; visceral, 26% +/- 3% vs 28% +/- 3%). Lean mass, fat mass, and PA, along with total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, did not change with menopause. High-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein both increased (P abdominal fat content increased with menopause despite no change in PA, body weight, or waist circumference; however, menopause did not affect the relative abdominal fat distribution in these women.

  13. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks.

  14. Automatic segmentation of abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments in water-fat MRI: Application to weight-loss in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jun; Baum, Thomas; Cordes, Christian; Ott, Beate; Skurk, Thomas; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hauner, Hans; Menze, Bjoern H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2016-09-01

    To develop a fully automatic algorithm for abdominal organs and adipose tissue compartments segmentation and to assess organ and adipose tissue volume changes in longitudinal water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Axial two-point Dixon images were acquired in 20 obese women (age range 24-65, BMI 34.9±3.8kg/m(2)) before and after a four-week calorie restriction. Abdominal organs, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) compartments (abdominal, anterior, posterior), SAT regions along the feet-head direction and regional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were assessed by a fully automatic algorithm using morphological operations and a multi-atlas-based segmentation method. The accuracy of organ segmentation represented by Dice coefficients ranged from 0.672±0.155 for the pancreas to 0.943±0.023 for the liver. Abdominal SAT changes were significantly greater in the posterior than the anterior SAT compartment (-11.4%±5.1% versus -9.5%±6.3%, pabdominal adipose tissue and organ segmentation, and allowed the detection of SAT and VAT subcompartments changes during weight loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, A. M.; El-Senousey, H. K.

    2014-01-01

    The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies. PMID:25050050

  16. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  17. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intak...

  18. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables.

  19. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  20. Excesso de peso e gordura abdominal para a síndrome metabólica em nipo-brasileiros Weight excess and abdominal fat in the metabolic syndrome among Japanese-Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D G Lerario

    2002-02-01

    doenças interligadas pela resistência à insulina, inclusive em população de origem oriental. A alta prevalência de síndrome metabólica nos migrantes japoneses pode ser decorrente da deposição visceral de gordura, implicada na gênese da resistência à insulina.OBJECTIVE: Obesity, especially abdominal, has been associated with cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM. The importance of these risk factors among Japanese-Brazilians was previously shown, although obesity is not a typical characteristic of Japanese migrants. In this study the prevalence of weight excess and central adiposity (CA among Japanese-Brazilians and their association with metabolic disorders was evaluated. METHODS: A sample of 530 1st and 2nd generation Japanese-Brazilians (aged 40--79 years went through anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, lipid profile and oral glucose tolerance tests. The prevalence rate (point and confidence interval of overweight was calculated using a cut-off value of >26.4 kg/m². CA diagnosis was based on waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WHR: > or = 0.85 and 0.95 in women and men, respectively. RESULTS: The prevalence of weight excess was 22.4% (CI 95% 20.6--28.1, and CA was 67.0% (95% CI 63.1--70.9. In addition to higher prevalence of DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia, stratifying by BMI and WHR, people with weight excess and CA revealed a poorer metabolic profile: blood pressure levels were significantly higher among those with weight excess with or without CA; CA individuals had higher glucose, triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol, and lower HDL than those without weight excess or CA; fasting insulinemia was significantly higher among subjects with weight excess (with or without CA than among those without weight excess or CA. CONCLUSION: Comparing subgroups with and without CA supports the hypothesis that abdominal fat accumulation represents a risk factor for insulin resistance-related diseases

  1. Effect of abdominal resistance exercise on abdominal subcutaneous fat of obese women: a randomized controlled trial using ultrasound imaging assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Rostami, Mohsen; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of diet and an abdominal resistance training program to diet alone on abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and waist circumference of overweight and obese women. This randomized clinical trial included 40 overweight and obese women randomly divided into 2 groups: diet only and diet combined with 12 weeks of abdominal resistance training. Waist and hip circumferences and abdominal skin folds of the subjects were measured at the beginning and 12 weeks after the interventions. In addition, abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness of the subjects was measured using ultrasonography. Percentage body fat and lean body mass of all the subjects were also measured using a bioelectric impedance device. After 12 weeks of intervention, the weight of participants in both groups decreased; but the difference between the 2 groups was not significant (P = .45). Similarly, other variables including abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, body fat percentage, and skin fold thickness were reduced in both groups; but there were no significant differences between the groups. This study found that abdominal resistance training besides diet did not reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness compared to diet alone in overweight or obese women. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra-abdominal fat area measurement using chest CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Kouji; Ishii, Akira; Saitou, Kumi; Andou, Tomonori; Kitamura, Naoko; Sakuma, Koutarou

    2007-01-01

    Intra-abdominal fat obesity, which is linked with the metabolic syndrome, is usually characterized by measuring intra-abdominal fat area at the umbilical level of abdominal CT scan. In recent year, the chances of chest CT scanning are increased, as lung cancer screening survey or individual medical examination. Thus, we presented a method of measuring the areas of intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat at the lower slice of chest CT scan. Fat areas found with this method were significantly correlated with those obtained at the umbilical level. (author)

  3. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) wer......, separately, and used as composite risk factor score. Results:  Pearson correlations between ln BF%, ln AFM and AFM/TBF versus composite risk factor score for boys were r = 0.56, r = 0.59 and r = 0.48, all p ...

  5. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    advantage for composition measurement of no radiation exposure ... Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with .... spiral CT scan with 3-mm slices covering the abdomen,.

  6. Clinical and CT imaging features of abdominal fat necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinkun; Bai Renju

    2013-01-01

    Fat necrosis is a common pathological change at abdominal cross-sectional imaging, and it may cause abdominal pain, mimic pathological change of acute abdomen, or be asymptomatic and accompany other pathophysiologic processes. Fat necrosis is actually the result of steatosis by metabolism or mechanical injury. Common processes that are present in fat necrosis include epiploic appendagitis, infarction of the greater omentum, pancreatitis, and fat necrosis related to trauma or ischemia. As a common fat disease, fat necrosis should be known by clinicians and radiologists. Main content of this text is the clinical symptoms and CT findings of belly fat necrosis and related diseases. (authors)

  7. Severe fat embolism in perioperative abdominal liposuction and fat grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima E Souza, Rodrigo; Apgaua, Bruno Tavares; Milhomens, João Daniel; Albuquerque, Francisco Tadeu Motta; Carneiro, Luiz Antônio; Mendes, Márcio Henrique; Garcia, Tiago Carvalho; Paiva, Clerisson; Ladeia, Felipe; Jeunon, Deiler Célio

    2016-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome may occur in patients suffering from multiple trauma (long bone fractures) or plastic surgery (liposuction), compromising the circulatory, respiratory and/or central nervous systems. This report shows the evolution of severe fat embolism syndrome after liposuction and fat grafting. SSS, 42 years old, ASA 1, no risk factors for thrombosis, candidate for abdominal liposuction and breast implant prosthesis. Subjected to balanced general anesthesia with basic monitoring and controlled ventilation. After 45min of procedure, there was a sudden and gradual decrease of capnometry, severe hypoxemia and hypotension. The patient was immediately monitored for MAP and central catheter, treated with vasopressors, inotropes, and crystalloid infusion, stabilizing her condition. Arterial blood sample showed pH=7.21; PCO2=51mmHg; PO2=52mmHg; BE=-8; HCO3=18mEqL(-1), and lactate=6.0mmolL(-1). Transthoracic echocardiogram showed PASP=55mmHg, hypocontractile VD and LVEF=60%. Diagnosis of pulmonary embolism. After 24h of intensive treatment, the patient developed anisocoria and coma (Glasgow coma scale=3). A brain CT was performed which showed severe cerebral hemispheric ischemia with signs of fat emboli in right middle cerebral artery; transesophageal echocardiography showed a patent foramen ovale. Finally, after 72h of evolution, the patient progressed to brain death. Fat embolism syndrome usually occurs in young people. Treatment is based mainly on the infusion of fluids and vasoactive drugs, mechanical ventilation, and triggering factor correction (early fixation of fractures or suspension of liposuction). The multiorgânico involvement indicates a worse prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Standardized anatomic space for abdominal fat quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Torigian, Drew A.

    2014-03-01

    The ability to accurately measure subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from images is important for improved assessment and management of patients with various conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, obstructive sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and degenerative disease. Although imaging and analysis methods to measure the volume of these tissue components have been developed [1, 2], in clinical practice, an estimate of the amount of fat is obtained from just one transverse abdominal CT slice typically acquired at the level of the L4-L5 vertebrae for various reasons including decreased radiation exposure and cost [3-5]. It is generally assumed that such an estimate reliably depicts the burden of fat in the body. This paper sets out to answer two questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? At what anatomic location do the volumes of SAT and VAT correlate maximally with the corresponding single-slice area measures? To answer these questions, we propose two approaches for slice localization: linear mapping and non-linear mapping which is a novel learning based strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. We then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. We demonstrate on 50 abdominal CT data sets that this mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Our results also indicate that maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized.

  9. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  10. Effects of Enzymatically Synthesized Glycogen and Exercise on Abdominal Fat Accumulation in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shohei; Honda, Kazuhisa; Morinaga, Ryoji; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The combination of diet and exercise is the first choice for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. We previously reported that enzymatically synthesized glycogen (ESG) suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in obese rats. However, the effect of the combination of ESG and exercise on abdominal fat accumulation has not yet been investigated. Our goal in this study was therefore to evaluate the effects of dietary ESG and its combination with exercise on abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Male ICR mice were assigned to four groups: HFD, HFD containing 20% ESG, HFD with exercise, HFD containing 20% ESG with exercise. Treadmill exercise was performed for 3 wk (25 m/min, 30 min/d, 3 d/wk) after 5-d adaption to running at that speed. Both ESG and exercise significantly reduced the weights of abdominal adipose tissues. In addition, the combination of ESG and exercise significantly suppressed abdominal fat accumulation, suggesting that ESG and exercise showed an additive effect. Exercise significantly increased the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes such as lipoprotein lipase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta; factor-delta (PPARδ), carnitin palmitoyltransferase b, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), and uncoupling protein-3 in the gastrocnemius muscle. On the other hand, dietary ESG significantly decreased the mRNA levels of PPARδ and ATGL in the gastrocnemius muscle. These results suggest that the combined treatment of ESG and exercise effectively suppresses abdominal fat accumulation in HFD-fed mice by different mechanisms.

  11. Computed tomographic evaluation of abdominal fat in minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinhwa; Jung, Joohyun; Lee, Hyeyeon; Chang, Dongwoo; Yoon, Junghee; Choi, Mincheol

    2011-03-01

    Computed tomography (CT) exams were conducted to determine the distribution of abdominal fat identified based on the CT number measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and to measure the volume of the abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat in minipigs. The relationship between the CT-based fat volumes of several vertebral levels and the entire abdomen and anthropometric data including the sagittal abdominal diameter and waist circumference were evaluated. Moreover, the total fat volumes at the T11, T13, L3, and L5 levels were compared with the total fat volume of the entire abdomen to define the landmark of abdominal fat distribution. Using a single-detector CT, six 6-month-old male minipigs were scanned under general anesthesia. Three radiologists then assessed the HU value of visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat by drawing the region of interest manually at the T11, T13, L1, L3, and L5 levels. The CT number and abdominal fat determined in this way by the three radiologists was found to be correlated (intra-class coefficient = 0.9). The overall HU ranges for the visceral and subcutaneous fat depots were -147.47 to -83.46 and -131.62 to -90.97, respectively. The total fat volume of the entire abdomen was highly correlated with the volume of abdominal fat at the T13 level (r = 0.97, p abdominal adipose tissue measured at the T13 level using CT is a strong and reliable predictor of total abdominal adipose volume.

  12. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siavash, Mansour; Naseri, Mohsen; Rahimi, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE) ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t -test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t -test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group). Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P abdominal fat thickness as well as the waist circumference without causing any side effect.

  13. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Benedeti, Augusto César Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.

  14. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Benedeti, Augusto Cesar Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: fernando@fatesa.edu.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Saude (FATESA), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departmento de Radiologia; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departmento de Medicina Clinica; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility. (author)

  15. [Two compartment model of body composition and abdominal fat area in postmenopausal women - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewska, Magdalena; Mioduszewska, Milena; Pańczyk, Mariusz; Kucharska, Alicja; Sińska, Beata; Dąbrowska-Bender, Marta; Michota-Katulska, Ewa; Zegan, Magdalena; Szabla, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Both menopausal period and aging have influence on body composition, increase of total body fat and visceral fat in particular. We should be aware that changes in body composition, mainly fat translocation to abdominal region, can occur without significant changes in body weight. Therefore quantitative abdominal fat assessment should be our aim. Body composition analysis based on two compartment model and abdominal fat area assessment in cross section. Subjects in postmenopausal period (41 women) were recruited for this study and divided into 2 groups: group 1 - women aged 45-56 years and group 2 - women aged 57-79 years. Body composition analysis and abdominal fat area assessment were conducted by using bioelectrical impedance method with BioScan 920 (Maltron int.) accordingly with standardized procedure. Women in early postmenopausal stage (Group 1) had statistically significant lower total body fat percentage in comparison with women in late postmenopausal period (Group 2) (41.09 ± 7.72% vs. 50.7 ± 9.88%, p=0.0021). Also women in group 1 were characterized by significant lower visceral fat area (VAT) as well as subcutaneous fat area (SAT) in comparison with group 2 (respectively VAT 119.25 ± 30.09 cm2 vs. 199.36 ± 87.38 cm2, p=0.0011; SAT 175.19 ±57.67 cm2 vs. 223.4±74.29 cm2, p=0.0336). According to VAT criteria (>120 cm2), 44% of women in group 1 and 80% in group 2 had excess of visceral fat. Both total body fat and intra-abdominal fat increased with age, independently of weight changes.

  16. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  17. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  18. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat segmentation and bioimpedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Intra-abdominal fat is an important factor in determining the metabolic syndrome/insulin resistance, and thus the risk of diabetes and ischaemic heart disease. Computed Tomography (CT) fat segmentation represents a defined method of quantifying intra-abdominal fat, with attendant radiation risks. Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intra-abdominal fat, by comparison with fat segmentation of an abdominal CT scan in the -30 to -190 HU range. There was a significant (P abdominal fat and mid-upper arm circumference, as well as the bioimpedance parameter, the R/S ratio. Multivariate analysis showed that these were the only independant variables and allowed the derivation of a formula to estimate intra-abdominal fat: IAF = 0.02 × MAC - 0.757 × R/S + 0.036. Circumabdominal bioimpedance spectroscopy may prove a useful method of assessing intra-abdominal fat, and may be suitable for use in studies to enhance other measures of body composition, such as mid-upper arm circumference.

  19. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  20. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat and Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. OBJECTIVES This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm3 and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. RESULTS The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm3 for SAT and an increase of 703 cm3 for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm3 increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. CONCLUSIONS Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. PMID:27687192

  1. Diagnostic ultrasonography in cattle with abdominal fat necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the ultrasonographic findings in 14 cows with abdominal fat necrosis. Ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed the presence of heterogeneous hyperechoic masses and hyperechoic omentum with localized masses floating in a hypoechoic peritoneal fluid. A hyperechogenic rim was imaged around both kidneys. The intestines were coated with hyperechoic capsules and the intestinal lumens were constricted. Ultrasonographic examination of the pancreatic parenchyma showed an overall increased echogenicity which was homogenously distributed in 3 cases. A diagnosis of abdominal fat necrosis was made with ultrasound-guided biopsy of the echogenic masses, and thereafter at postmortem examination. Results from this study demonstrate the efficacy of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for antemortem diagnosis of abdominal lipomatosis in cattle. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first that illustrates ultrasonographic findings in cattle affected with abdominal lipomatosis.

  2. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    with overall and abdominal fat distribution. CONCLUSION: Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with lower BMI, WC, and abdominal fat among Greenland Inuit. The importance of promoting an upward shift of the whole PA intensity distribution and to spur even short bouts of MVPA to limit excessive......PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part...... of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal...

  3. A Study of Physicochemical Properties of Subcutaneous Fat of the Abdomen and its Implication in Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Arvind Kumar; Kumar, Pramod; Kodavoor, Srinivas Aithal; Kotian, Sushma Rama; Yathdaka, Sudhakar Narahari; Nayak, Dayanand; Souza, Anne D; Souza, Antony Sylvan D

    2016-05-01

    The lower abdominal obesity is more resistant to absorption as compared to that of upper abdomen. Differences in the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of the upper and lower abdomen may be responsible for this variation. There is paucity of the scientific literature on the physicochemical properties of the subcutaneous fat of abdomen. The present study was undertaken to create a database of physicochemical properties of abdominal subcutaneous fat. The samples of subcutaneous fat from upper and lower abdomen were collected from 40 fresh autopsied bodies (males 33, females 7). The samples were prepared for physicochemical analysis using organic and inorganic solvents. Various physicochemical properties of the fat samples analysed were surface tension, viscosity, specific gravity, specific conductivity, iodine value and thermal properties. Data was analysed by paired and independent sample t-tests. There was a statistically significant difference in all the physicochemical parameters between males and females except surface tension (organic) and surface tension (inorganic) of upper abdominal fat, and surface tension (organic) of lower abdominal fat. In males, viscosity of upper abdominal fat was more compared to that of lower abdomen (both organic and inorganic) unlike the specific conductivity that was higher for the lower abdominal fat as compared to that of the upper abdomen. In females there were statistically significant higher values of surface tension (inorganic) and specific gravity (organic) of the upper abdomen fat as compared to that of lower abdomen. The initial and final weight loss of the lower abdominal fat as indicated by Thermo Gravimetric Analysis was significantly more in males than in female. The difference in the physicochemical properties of subcutaneous fat between upper and lower abdomen and between males and females could be responsible for the variant behaviour of subcutaneous abdominal fat towards resorption.

  4. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Manniesing, Rashindra; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Heppe, Denise H M; Steegers, Eric A P; Hofman, Albert; Duijts, Liesbeth; Durmuş, Büşra; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-07-01

    Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 6464 children. We measured growth characteristics in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, at birth, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Body mass index, fat mass index (body fat mass/height(2)), lean mass index (body lean mass/height(2)), android/gynoid fat ratio measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and sc and preperitoneal abdominal fat measured by ultrasound at the median age of 6.0 years (90% range, 5.7-7.4). We observed that weight gain in the second and third trimesters of fetal life and in early, mid, and late infancy were independently and positively associated with childhood body mass index (P fat mass index, android/gynoid fat ratio, and abdominal fat in childhood (P Children with both fetal and infant growth acceleration had the highest childhood body mass index, fat mass index, and sc abdominal fat, whereas children with fetal growth deceleration and infant growth acceleration had the highest value for android/gynoid fat ratio and the lowest value for lean mass index (P fat. Fetal growth deceleration followed by infant growth acceleration may lead to an adverse body fat distribution in childhood.

  5. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Katashima, M

    2010-07-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements.

  6. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  7. Relationship between abdominal fat area measured by screening abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seon Jeong

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal fat as assessed by abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in asymptomatic Korean individuals. Retrospectively, a medical record analysis was performed in a total of 111 patients with screening abdominal fat CT. The data such as visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat (SF) and VF/SF were elicited by abdominal fat CT, and we analyzed the relationship of VF, SF, and VF/SF with MS and cardiovascular risk factors. In males, VF and SF had a positive correlation with many cardiovascular risk factors and MS, but VF was superior to SF. In females, VF, but not SF, had a positive correlation with some cardiovascular risk factors and MS. The cut-off values of VF and SF to predict MS, which were calculated by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: the cut-off value of VF in men: 136.50 cm"2, the cut-off value of SF in men: 159.50 cm"2, and the cut-off value of VF in women: 134.50 cm"2. In conclusion, VF accumulation was the best predictor of MS and it had a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. SF also had a significant association with MS, especially in men, although it was not superior to VF

  8. Relationship between abdominal fat area measured by screening abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, MyoungJi Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal fat as assessed by abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in asymptomatic Korean individuals. Retrospectively, a medical record analysis was performed in a total of 111 patients with screening abdominal fat CT. The data such as visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat (SF) and VF/SF were elicited by abdominal fat CT, and we analyzed the relationship of VF, SF, and VF/SF with MS and cardiovascular risk factors. In males, VF and SF had a positive correlation with many cardiovascular risk factors and MS, but VF was superior to SF. In females, VF, but not SF, had a positive correlation with some cardiovascular risk factors and MS. The cut-off values of VF and SF to predict MS, which were calculated by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: the cut-off value of VF in men: 136.50 cm{sup 2}, the cut-off value of SF in men: 159.50 cm{sup 2}, and the cut-off value of VF in women: 134.50 cm{sup 2}. In conclusion, VF accumulation was the best predictor of MS and it had a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. SF also had a significant association with MS, especially in men, although it was not superior to VF.

  9. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F; Andersen, Gregers S; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Background Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... across ethnic groups. Thus, the obesity level at which Inuit and Africans are at increased cardiometabolic risk is likely to differ from that of Europeans....... differences most apparent at higher levels of the anthropometric measures. Similar ethnic differences were seen in the associations with SAT for a given anthropometric measure. Conclusions Conventional anthropometric measures like BMI and waist circumference do not reflect the same amount of VAT and SAT...

  10. Equations of prediction for abdominal fat in brown egg-laying hens fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, C; Jaimes, J J B; Gewehr, C E

    2017-06-01

    The objective was to use noninvasive measurements to formulate equations for predicting the abdominal fat weight of laying hens in a noninvasive manner. Hens were fed with different diets; the external body measurements of birds were used as regressors. We used 288 Hy-Line Brown laying hens, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement, submitted for 16 wk to 2 metabolizable energy levels (2,550 and 2,800 kcal/kg) and 3 levels of crude protein in the diet (150, 160, and 170 g/kg), totaling 6 treatments, with 48 hens each. Sixteen hens per treatment of 92 wk age were utilized to evaluate body weight, bird length, tarsus and sternum, greater and lesser diameter of the tarsus, and abdominal fat weight, after slaughter. The equations were obtained by using measures evaluated with regressors through simple and multiple linear regression with the stepwise method of indirect elimination (backward), with P abdominal fat as predicted by the equations and observed values for each bird were subjected to Pearson's correlation analysis. The equations generated by energy levels showed coefficients of determination of 0.50 and 0.74 for 2,800 and 2,550 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy, respectively, with correlation coefficients of 0.71 and 0.84, with a highly significant correlation between the calculated and observed values of abdominal fat. For protein levels of 150, 160, and 170 g/kg in the diet, it was possible to obtain coefficients of determination of 0.75, 0.57, and 0.61, with correlation coefficients of 0.86, 0.75, and 0.78, respectively. Regarding the general equation for predicting abdominal fat weight, the coefficient of determination was 0.62; the correlation coefficient was 0.79. The equations for predicting abdominal fat weight in laying hens, based on external measurements of the birds, showed positive coefficients of determination and correlation coefficients, thus allowing researchers to determine abdominal fat weight in vivo.

  11. Galectin-3 levels relate in children to total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, and cardiac size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Arvidsson, Daniel; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2018-03-01

    Galectin-3 has recently been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular disease in adults. The purpose of this investigation was to assess relationships between galectin-3 levels and total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, left atrial size, and increase in body fat over a 2-year period in a population-based sample of children. Our study included 170 children aged 8-11 years. Total fat mass and abdominal fat were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Body fat distribution was expressed as abdominal fat/total fat mass. Maximal oxygen uptake was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were measured. Left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness were measured by echocardiography. Frozen serum samples were analyzed for galectin-3 by the Proximity Extension Assay technique. A follow-up DXA scan was performed in 152 children 2 years after the baseline exam. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex and age, between galectin-3 versus body fat measurements indicated weak to moderate relationships. Moreover, left atrial size, left ventricular mass, and relative wall thickness and pulse pressure were also correlated with galectin-3. Neither systolic blood pressure nor maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with galectin-3. There was also a correlation between galectin-3 and increase in total body fat over 2 years, while no such correlations were found for the other fat measurements. More body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, more left ventricular mass, and increased left atrial size were all associated with higher levels of galectin-3. Increase in total body fat over 2 years was also associated with higher levels of galectin-3. What is Known: • Galectin-3 has been linked to obesity and been proposed to be a novel biomarker

  12. Clinical Studies of Sweet Bee Venom to The Effect of Abdominal Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Chung-San

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom to the abdominal fat accumulation clinically. Methods The 20 healthy women volunteers who showed the notice of this study by the home page of Sangji University were treated with Sweet Bee Venom(SBV during twenty times. To investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom of the abdominal fat accumulation, abdominal CT, LFT, Thermography, BMI, Inbody 3.0 etc. were performed during clinical trials. And statistical analysis was carried out the data of 10 volunteers who performed all the schedule of this study. Results Following results were obtained from the clinical studies Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the body weight, thickness of abdominal skin and fat layer, BMI, and increased abdominal heat, but they are not showed statistical significant. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment Sweet Bee Venom on the abdomen was effective to decrease fat tissue but for the treatment of obesity was performed with right diet program and exercise.

  13. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  14. Computer-aided assessment of regional abdominal fat with food residue removal in CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Caturegli, Giorgio; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    Separate quantification of abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat regions is essential to understand the role of regional adiposity as risk factor in epidemiological studies. Fat quantification is often based on computed tomography (CT) because fat density is distinct from other tissue densities in the abdomen. However, the presence of intestinal food residues with densities similar to fat may reduce fat quantification accuracy. We introduce an abdominal fat quantification method in CT with interest in food residue removal. Total fat was identified in the feature space of Hounsfield units and divided into subcutaneous and visceral components using model-based segmentation. Regions of food residues were identified and removed from visceral fat using a machine learning method integrating intensity, texture, and spatial information. Cost-weighting and bagging techniques were investigated to address class imbalance. We validated our automated food residue removal technique against semimanual quantifications. Our feature selection experiments indicated that joint intensity and texture features produce the highest classification accuracy at 95%. We explored generalization capability using k-fold cross-validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with variable k. Losses in accuracy and area under ROC curve between maximum and minimum k were limited to 0.1% and 0.3%. We validated tissue segmentation against reference semimanual delineations. The Dice similarity scores were as high as 93.1 for subcutaneous fat and 85.6 for visceral fat. Computer-aided regional abdominal fat quantification is a reliable computational tool for large-scale epidemiological studies. Our proposed intestinal food residue reduction scheme is an original contribution of this work. Validation experiments indicate very good accuracy and generalization capability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  16. Multicollinearity in associations between multiple environmental features and body weight and abdominal fat: using matching techniques to assess whether the associations are separable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Cinira; Bean, Kathy; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2012-06-01

    Because of the strong correlations among neighborhoods' characteristics, it is not clear whether the associations of specific environmental exposures (e.g., densities of physical features and services) with obesity can be disentangled. Using data from the RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) Cohort Study (Paris, France, 2007-2008), the authors investigated whether neighborhood characteristics related to the sociodemographic, physical, service-related, and social-interactional environments were associated with body mass index and waist circumference. The authors developed an original neighborhood characteristic-matching technique (analyses within pairs of participants similarly exposed to an environmental variable) to assess whether or not these associations could be disentangled. After adjustment for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic variables, body mass index/waist circumference was negatively associated with characteristics of the physical/service environments reflecting higher densities (e.g., proportion of built surface, densities of shops selling fruits/vegetables, and restaurants). Multiple adjustment models and the neighborhood characteristic-matching technique were unable to identify which of these neighborhood variables were driving the associations because of high correlations between the environmental variables. Overall, beyond the socioeconomic environment, the physical and service environments may be associated with weight status, but it is difficult to disentangle the effects of strongly correlated environmental dimensions, even if they imply different causal mechanisms and interventions.

  17. Contactless Abdominal Fat Reduction With Selective RF™ Evaluated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, Jeanine; Kaspar, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Noninvasive body shaping methods seem to be an ascending part of the aesthetics market. As a result, the pressure to develop reliable methods for the collection and presentation of their results has also increased. The most used techniques currently include ultrasound measurements of fat thickness in the treated area, caliper measurements, bioimpedance-based scale measurements or circumferential tape measurements. Although these are the most used techniques, almost all of them have some limitations in reproducibility and/or accuracy. This study shows Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as the new method for the presentation of results in the body shaping industry. Six subjects were treated by a contactless selective radiofrequency device (BTL Vanquish ME, BTL Industries Inc., Boston, MA). The MRI fat thickness was measured at the baseline and at 4-weeks following the treatment. In addition to MRI images and measurements, digital photographs and anthropometric evaluations such as weight, abdominal circumference, and caliper fat thickness measurements were recorded. Abdominal fat thickness measurements from the MRI were performed from the same slices determined by the same tissue artefacts. The MRI fat thickness difference between the baseline measurement and follow up visit showed an average reduction of 5.36 mm as calculated from the data of 5 subjects. One subject dropped out of study due to non-study related issues. The results were statistically significant based on the Student's T-test evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging abdominal fat thickness measurements seems to be the best method for the evaluation of fat thickness reduction after non-invasive body shaping treatments. In this study, this method shows average fat thickness reduction of 5.36 mm while the weight of the subjects didn't change significantly. A large spot size measuring 1317 cm(2) (204 square inches) covers the abdomen flank to flank. The average thickness of 5.36 mm of the fat layer reduced

  18. Validity of a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device to measure abdominal and visceral fat: comparison with MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Lucy M; Mugridge, Owen; Chatfield, Mark; Dixon, Adrian; Aitken, Sri; Joubert, Ilse; Prentice, Andrew M.; Jebb, Susan A

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal fat, and in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is the critical fat depot associated with metabolic aberrations. At present VAT can only be accurately measured by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to compare a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device against total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) and VAT area measurements made from an abdominal MRI scan, and to assess it’s reliability and accuracy.

  19. The subcutaneous abdominal fat and not the intraabdominal fat compartment is associated with anovulation in women with obesity and infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; Zijlstra, Tineke M; Bolster, Johanna H T; Slart, Riemer H J; van der Jagt, Erik J; Kobold, Anneke C Muller; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2010-05-01

    Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1 kg/m(2)) participated. Body fat distribution was measured by anthropometrics, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine which fat compartments significantly contributed to anovulation. Anovulatory women had a higher waist circumference (113 +/- 11 vs. 104 +/- 9 cm; P fat (23.0 +/- 5.3 vs. 19.1 +/- 4.2 kg; P abdominal fat (4.4 +/- 1.3 kg vs. 3.5 +/- 0.9 kg; P fat on single-sliced abdominal computed tomography scan was not significantly different between the two groups (203 +/- 56 vs. 195 +/- 71 cm(3); P = 0.65), but anovulatory women had significantly more sc abdominal fat (SAF) (992 +/- 198 vs. 864 +/- 146 cm(3); P fat, abdominal fat, and SAF were associated with anovulation. Abdominal fat is increased in anovulatory women due to a significant increase in SAF and not in intraabdominal fat. SAF and especially abdominal and trunk fat accumulation are associated with anovulation.

  20. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were ra...

  1. Pesticide content of human abdominal fat of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Bautista, E.Rb.; Detera, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 161 abdominal fat samples of Filipinos were analyzed for DDT and its major metabolite, DDE by gas chromatography. The mean value obtained was 2.82 +- 2.18 ppm and the sample range was 0.15 - 11.53 ppm. There was no correlation between the levels of DDT and the age as well as the sex of the individuals. (author)

  2. Pesticide content of human abdominal fat of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Bautista, E.R.B.; Detera, S.D.

    1980-03-01

    A total of 161 abdominal fat samples of Filipinos were analyzed for DDT and its major metabolite, DDE by gas chromatography. The mean value obtained was 2.82 +- 2.18 ppm and the sample range was 0.15 - 11.53 ppm. There was no correlation between the level of DDT and the age as well as the sex of the individuals. (author)

  3. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2017-10-01

    We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. Data were collected as part of a countrywide cross-sectional health survey in Greenland. A combined accelerometer and HR monitor measured total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and intensities of PA (N = 1536). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed by ultrasonography. Isotemporal substitution modeling was used to analyze the association between substitution of 1 h of sedentary time to light- or moderate-intensity PA and 1 h light-intensity PA to moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), SAT, and VAT. A negative linear association was found for total PAEE and BMI, WC, VAT, and SAT. Exchanging 1 h of sedentary time with light-intensity PA was associated with lower WC (-0.6 cm, P = 0.01), SAT (-0.08 cm, P abdominal fat distribution. Physical activity energy expenditure is associated with lower BMI, WC, and abdominal fat among Greenland Inuit. The importance of promoting an upward shift of the whole PA intensity distribution and to spur even short bouts of MVPA to limit excessive accumulation of SAT and VAT is highlighted.

  4. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  5. Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Grundy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC, intraperitoneal fat (IPF, and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black. Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF, ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R2=0.81-0.88 with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82 and IPF (0.29–0.85. The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r=0.358 (men and 0.363 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.480 (men and 0.517 (women; after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r=0.353 (men and 0.348 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.290 (men and 0.221 (women. WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity.

  6. Tracking of abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass during childhood. The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelezang, S; Gishti, O; Felix, J F; van der Beek, E M; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M; Hofman, A; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2016-04-01

    Overweight and obesity in early life tends to track into later life. Not much is known about tracking of abdominal fat. Our objective was to examine the extent of tracking of abdominal fat measures during the first six years of life. We performed a prospective cohort study among 393 Dutch children followed from the age of 2 years (90% range 1.9; 2.3) until the age of 6 years (90% range 5.7; 6.2). At both ages, we performed abdominal ultrasound to measure abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat distances and areas, and we calculated the preperitoneal/subcutaneous fat distance ratio. High abdominal fat measures were defined as values in the upper 15%. Abdominal subcutaneous fat distance and area, and preperitoneal fat area at 2 years were correlated with their corresponding measures at 6 years (all P-values abdominal subcutaneous fat measures. Preperitoneal fat distance at the age of 2 years was not correlated with the corresponding measure at 6 years. The tracking coefficient for preperitoneal/subcutaneous fat distance ratio from 2 to 6 years was r=0.36 (Pabdominal subcutaneous fat measures at 2 years had increased risk of having high abdominal subcutaneous fat measures at 6 years (odds ratios 9.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-20.8) and 12.4 (95% CI 5.4-28.6) for subcutaneous fat distance and area, respectively). These associations were not observed for preperitoneal fat measures. Our findings suggest that both abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat mass measures track during childhood, but with stronger tracking for abdominal subcutaneous fat measures. An adverse abdominal fat distribution in early life may have long-term consequences.

  7. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in genetically fat and lean chickens reveals adipokines, lipogenic genes and a link between hemostasis and leanness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This descriptive study of the abdominal fat transcriptome takes advantage of two experimental lines of meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus), which were selected over seven generations for a large difference in abdominal (visceral) fatness. At the age of selection (9 wk), the fat line (FL) and lean line (LL) chickens exhibit a 2.5-fold difference in abdominal fat weight, while their feed intake and body weight are similar. These unique avian models were originally created to unravel genetic and endocrine regulation of adiposity and lipogenesis in meat-type chickens. The Del-Mar 14K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray was used for a time-course analysis of gene expression in abdominal fat of FL and LL chickens during juvenile development (1–11 weeks of age). Results Microarray analysis of abdominal fat in FL and LL chickens revealed 131 differentially expressed (DE) genes (FDR≤0.05) as the main effect of genotype, 254 DE genes as an interaction of age and genotype and 3,195 DE genes (FDR≤0.01) as the main effect of age. The most notable discoveries in the abdominal fat transcriptome were higher expression of many genes involved in blood coagulation in the LL and up-regulation of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in FL chickens. Many of these DE genes belong to pathways controlling the synthesis, metabolism and transport of lipids or endocrine signaling pathways activated by adipokines, retinoid and thyroid hormones. Conclusions The present study provides a dynamic view of differential gene transcription in abdominal fat of chickens genetically selected for fatness (FL) or leanness (LL). Remarkably, the LL chickens over-express a large number of hemostatic genes that could be involved in proteolytic processing of adipokines and endocrine factors, which contribute to their higher lipolysis and export of stored lipids. Some of these changes are already present at 1 week of age before the divergence in fatness. In contrast, the FL chickens have

  8. Segregation analysis of abdominal visceral fat: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, T; Després, J P; Pérusse, L; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    1997-09-01

    A major gene hypothesis for abdominal visceral fat (AVF) level, both before and after adjustment for total body fat mass, was investigated in 86 white families who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. In this study, sedentary families were tested for a battery of measures (baseline), endurance exercise trained for 20 weeks, and then remeasured again. The baseline measures reported here are unique in that the variance due to a potentially important environmental factor (activity level) was limited. AVF area was assessed at L4 to L5 by the use of computerized tomography scan, and total body fat mass was assessed with underwater weighing. For fat mass, a putative locus accounted for 64% of the variance, but there was no evidence of a multifactorial component (i.e., no polygenic and/or common familial environmental effects). For AVF area, both a major gene effect accounting for 54% of the variance and a multifactorial component accounting for 17% of the variance were significant. However, after AVF area was adjusted for the effects of total level of body fat, the support for a major gene was reduced. In particular, there was a major effect for fat mass-adjusted AVF area, but it was not transmitted from parents to offspring (i.e., the three transmission probabilities were equal). The importance of this study is twofold. First, these results confirm a previous study that suggested that there is a putative major locus for AVF and for total body fat mass. Second, the findings from the HERITAGE Family Study suggest that the factors underlying AVF area in sedentary families may be similar to those in the population at large, which includes both sedentary and active families. Whether the gene(s) responsible for the high levels of AVF area is the same as that which influences total body fat content remains to be further investigated.

  9. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  11. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  12. Neck circumference as a measure of neck fat and abdominal visceral fat in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-Xing; Zhang, Fen; Zhao, Dong; Xin, Zhong; Guo, Shu-Qin; Wang, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Jun; Li, Yan; Yang, Guang-Ran; Yang, Jin-Kui

    2014-04-04

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is a unique pathogenic fatty deposit, in that it is closely correlated with risk of cardiovascular diseases. The present study is to investigate the usefulness of neck circumference (NC) to indicate VAT. Participants aged 35 to 75 years who had taken abdomen and neck computer tomography (CT) examination were included in this study. Neck adipose tissue, abdominal VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) areas, as well as sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) were measured by CT. Body anthropometrics and metabolic parameters including blood glucose, lipid profiles and blood pressure were also measured. A lower abdomen CT examination was carried out on a total of 177 patients (87 male and 90 female) with a mean age of 59 years. Of the 177 participants, 15 men and 15 women also took a neck CT examination. With a comparable age and BMI, neck adipose area was correlated with abdominal VAT area significantly in men (r = 0.57, p = 0.028) and women (r = 0.53, p = 0.041). NC is positively correlated with VAT both in men (r = 0.49, p fat both in men (r = 0.83, p fat area is significantly correlated with abdominal VAT. Meanwhile, SAD is the best predictor for visceral fat in the Chinese population.

  13. [Evaluate the Efficacy of Electroacupuncture Therapy on Abdominal Fat in Obese Women by Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Hu, Dong-Gang; Chen, Yu-Ting; Feng, Li-Cheng; Chen, Zhen-Yan; Li, Fang

    2016-10-25

    To evaluate the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) therapy on abdominal fat in obese women by using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Thirty abdominal obesity women patients were randomly divided into control group ( n =15) and EA group ( n =15). The obesity patients of the control group did not receive any treatment for weight reduction, and those of the EA group were treated by EA stimulation of bilateral Neiting (ST 44), Fenglong (ST 40), Zusanli (ST 36), Huaroumen (ST 24), Tianshu (ST 25), Wailing (ST 26), Shuidao (ST 28), Fujie (SP 14), Daheng (SP 13), etc. for 25 min, once every other day, 3 times per week for 3 months. The patient's body weight, height, waist circumference (WC) were mea-sured with different devices, and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 and S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis and the total abdominal fat volume between the L 4 and S 3 levels were detected using MRI systems before and after the treatment. The effects of the EA group were significantly superior to those of the control group in lowering difference values (between pre- and post-treatment) of BMI, WC and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the levels of the inferior edges of L 4 , L 5 , S 3 and the superior edge of the pubic symphysis(all P abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 (all P abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 ( P abdominal fat volume between L 4 and S 3 in the control group ( P >0.05). EA intervention can effectively reduce abdominal fat in obese women based on the evaluation of MRI.

  14. SU-F-I-33: Estimating Radiation Dose in Abdominal Fat Quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Yang, K; Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) in abdominal fat quantitative CT with another dose estimate D{sub size,L} that also takes into account scan length. Methods: This study complied with the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. At our institution, abdominal fat CT is performed with scan length = 1 cm and CTDI{sub vol} = 4.66 mGy (referenced to body CTDI phantom). A previously developed CT simulation program was used to simulate single rotation axial scans of 6–55 cm diameter water cylinders, and dose integral of the longitudinal dose profile over the central 1 cm length was used to predict the dose at the center of one-cm scan range. SSDE and D{sub size,L} were assessed for 182 consecutive abdominal fat CT examinations with mean water-equivalent diameter (WED) of 27.8 cm ± 6.0 (range, 17.9 - 42.2 cm). Patient age ranged from 18 to 75 years, and weight ranged from 39 to 163 kg. Results: Mean SSDE was 6.37 mGy ± 1.33 (range, 3.67–8.95 mGy); mean D{sub size,L} was 2.99 mGy ± 0.85 (range, 1.48 - 4.88 mGy); and mean D{sub size,L}/SSDE ratio was 0.46 ± 0.04 (range, 0.40 - 0.55). Conclusion: The conversion factors for size-specific dose estimate in AAPM Report No. 204 were generated using 15 - 30 cm scan lengths. One needs to be cautious in applying SSDE to small length CT scans. For abdominal fat CT, SSDE was 80–150% higher than the dose of 1 cm scan length.

  15. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pabdominal fat levels (78 vs. 38%, P=0.030) and in patients with BMI 30 or more compared with less than 30 kg/m (87 vs. 48%, P=0.033), but similar in patients with increased or normal waist circumference (67 vs. 56%, P=0.693). Average levels of abdominal fat, as assessed by abdominal BIA, are mainly present in female patients with NAFLD and are associated with a lower degree of insulin resistance. Increased abdominal fat as assessed by BIA and obesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  16. Assessment of Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Organ Fat Content by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Houchun H.; Nayak, Krishna S.; Goran, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    As the prevalence of obesity continues to rise, rapid and accurate tools for assessing abdominal body and organ fat quantity and distribution are critically needed to assist researchers investigating therapeutic and preventive measures against obesity and its comorbidities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the most promising modality to address such need. It is non-invasive, utilizes no ionizing radiation, provides unmatched 3D visualization, is repeatable, and is applicable to subject cohorts of all ages. This article is aimed to provide the reader with an overview of current and state-of-the-art techniques in MRI and associated image analysis methods for fat quantification. The principles underlying traditional approaches such as T1-weighted imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as more modern chemical-shift imaging techniques are discussed and compared. The benefits of contiguous 3D acquisitions over 2D multi-slice approaches are highlighted. Typical post-processing procedures for extracting adipose tissue depot volumes and percent organ fat content from abdominal MRI data sets are explained. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of each MRI approach with respect to imaging parameters, spatial resolution, subject motion, scan time, and appropriate fat quantitative endpoints are also provided. Practical considerations in implementing these methods are also presented. PMID:21348916

  17. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  18. Genetic selection on abdominal fat content alters the reproductive performance of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Y; Wu, M Q; Wang, S Z; Zhang, H; Du, Z Q; Li, Y M; Cao, Z P; Luan, P; Leng, L; Li, H

    2018-06-01

    The effects of obesity on reproduction have been widely reported in humans and mice. The present study was designed to compare the reproductive performance of lean and fat chicken lines, divergently selected for abdominal fat content. The following parameters were determined and analyzed in the two lines: (1) reproductive traits, including age at first egg and total egg numbers from generations 14 to 18, absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age, semen quality at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18, and fertility and hatchability from generations 14 to 18; (2) reproductive hormones at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18; (3) and the relative mRNA abundance of genes involved in reproduction at 7, 14, 25, 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age in generation 18. In females, birds in the lean line laid more eggs from the first egg to 40 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. In male broilers, the birds in the lean line had higher absolute and relative testicular weights at 7, 14 and 25 weeks of age, but lower absolute and relative testicular weights at 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Male birds in the lean line had greater sperm concentrations and larger numbers of motile and morphologically normal sperms at 30, 45 and 56 weeks of age than the birds in the fat line. Fertility and hatchability were also higher in the lean line than in the fat line. Significant differences in the plasma levels of reproductive hormones and the expression of reproduction-associated genes were also found at different ages in the lean and fat birds, in both males and females. These results suggest that reproductive performance is better in lean birds than in fat birds. In view of the unique divergent lines used in this study, these results imply that selecting for abdominal fat deposition negatively affects the reproductive performance of birds.

  19. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daubenmier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI =31.2 were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR, and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  20. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Kristeller, Jean; Hecht, Frederick M; Maninger, Nicole; Kuwata, Margaret; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Lustig, Robert H; Kemeny, Margaret; Karan, Lori; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  1. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p abdominal adiposity in clinical study and routine clinical practice of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  2. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/Purpose: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical...... activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one......-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Results: Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg.m(-2) and PAEE was 28...

  3. Relation of Pericardial Fat, Intrathoracic Fat, and Abdominal Visceral Fat with Incident Atrial Fibrillation (From the Framingham Heart Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Hoffmann, Udo; Fox, Caroline S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing atrial fibrillation (AF). Different fat depots may have differential associations with cardiac pathology. We examined the longitudinal associations between pericardial, intrathoracic, and visceral fat with incident AF. We studied Framingham Heart Study Offspring and Third Generation Cohorts who participated in the multi-detector computed tomography sub-study examination 1. We constructed multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models for risk of incident AF. Body mass index (BMI) was included in the multivariable-adjusted model as a secondary adjustment. We included 2,135 participants (53.3% women; mean age 58.8 years). During a median follow-up of 9.7 years, we identified 162 cases of incident AF. Across the increasing tertiles of pericardial fat volume, age- and sex-adjusted incident AF rate per 1000 person-years of follow-up were 8.4, 7.5, and 10.2. Based on an age- and sex-adjusted model, greater pericardial fat [hazard ratio (HR) 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.34] and intrathoracic fat (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.06-1.45) were associated with increased risk of incident AF. The HRs (95% CI) for incident AF were 1.13 (0.99-1.30) for pericardial fat, 1.19 (1.01-1.40) for intrathoracic fat, and 1.09 (0.93-1.28) for abdominal visceral fat after multivariable adjustment. After additional adjustment of BMI, none of the associations remained significant (all p>0.05). Our findings suggest that cardiac ectopic fat depots may share common risk factors with AF, which may have led to a lack of independence in the association between pericardial fat with incident AF. PMID:27666172

  4. Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17-36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions.

  5. Long-Lasting Improvements in Liver Fat and Metabolism Despite Body Weight Regain After Dietary Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Sven; Haas, Verena; Utz, Wolfgang; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Jeran, Stephanie; Böhnke, Jana; Mähler, Anja; Luft, Friedrich C.; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Boschmann, Michael; Jordan, Jens; Engeli, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 50 overweight to obese subjects (46 ± 9 years of age; BMI, 32.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2; women, 77%) who had participated in a 6-month hypocaloric diet and were randomized to either reduced carbohydrates or reduced fat content. Before, directly after diet, and at an average of 24 (range, 17–36) months follow-up, we assessed body fat distribution by magnetic resonance imaging and markers of liver function and insulin resistance. RESULTS Body weight decreased with diet but had increased again at follow-up. Subjects also partially regained abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. In contrast, intrahepatic fat decreased with diet and remained reduced at follow-up (7.8 ± 9.8% [baseline], 4.5 ± 5.9% [6 months], and 4.7 ± 5.9% [follow-up]). Similar patterns were observed for markers of liver function, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and hepatic insulin resistance. Changes in intrahepatic fat und intrahepatic function were independent of macronutrient composition during intervention and were most effective in subjects with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease at baseline. CONCLUSIONS A 6-month hypocaloric diet induced improvements in hepatic fat, liver test results, and insulin resistance despite regaining of weight up to 2 years after the active intervention. Body weight and adiposity measurements may underestimate beneficial long-term effects of dietary interventions. PMID:23963894

  6. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    as a percentage of body mass (BF%) and body fat distribution as AFM/TBF. VO(2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during maximal exercise test. Results. Significant relationships existed between body fat measurements and VO(2PEAK) in both boys and girls, with Pearson correlation coefficients for absolute...

  7. Predictors for cecal insertion time: the impact of abdominal visceral fat measured by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Uemura, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Several factors affect the risk for longer cecal insertion time. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of longer insertion time and to evaluate the effect of visceral fat measured by CT. This is a retrospective observational study. Outpatients for colorectal cancer screening who underwent colonoscopies and CT were enrolled. Computed tomography was performed in individuals who requested cancer screening and in those with GI bleeding. Information on obesity indices (BMI, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue area), constipation score, history of abdominal surgery, poor preparation, fellow involvement, diverticulosis, patient discomfort, and the amount of sedation used was collected. The cecal insertion rate was 95.2% (899/944), and 899 patients were analyzed. Multiple regression analysis showed that female sex, lower BMI, lower visceral adipose tissue area, lower subcutaneous adipose tissue area, higher constipation score, history of surgery, poor bowel preparation, and fellow involvement were independently associated with longer insertion time. When obesity indices were considered simultaneously, smaller subcutaneous adipose tissue area (p = 0.038), but not lower BMI (p = 0.802) or smaller visceral adipose tissue area (p = 0.856), was associated with longer insertion time; the other aforementioned factors remained associated with longer insertion time. In the subanalysis of normal-weight patients (BMI abdominal fat, female sex, constipation, history of abdominal surgery, poor preparation, and fellow involvement were predictors of longer cecal insertion time. Among the obesity indices, high subcutaneous fat accumulation was the best predictive factor for easier passage of the colonoscope, even when body weight was normal.

  8. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  9. Change in Intra-Abdominal Fat Predicts the Risk of Hypertension in Japanese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine A; Kahn, Steven E; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Boyko, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In Japanese Americans, intra-abdominal fat area measured by computed tomography is positively associated with the prevalence and incidence of hypertension. Evidence in other populations suggests that other fat areas may be protective. We sought to determine whether a change in specific fat depots predicts the development of hypertension. We prospectively followed up 286 subjects (mean age, 49.5 years; 50.4% men) from the Japanese American Community Diabetes Study for 10 years. At baseline, subjects did not have hypertension (defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg) and were not taking blood pressure or glucose-lowering medications. Mid-thigh subcutaneous fat area, abdominal subcutaneous fat area, and intra-abdominal fat area were directly measured by computed tomography at baseline and 5 years. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of incident hypertension over 10 years in relation to a 5-year change in fat area. The relative odds of developing hypertension for a 5-year increase in intra-abdominal fat was 1.74 (95% confidence interval, 1.28-2.37), after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, baseline intra-abdominal fat, alcohol use, smoking status, and weekly exercise energy expenditure. This relationship remained significant when adjusted for baseline fasting insulin and 2-hour glucose levels or for diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus classification. There were no significant associations between baseline and change in thigh or abdominal subcutaneous fat areas and incident hypertension. In conclusion, in this cohort of Japanese Americans, the risk of developing hypertension is related to the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat rather than the accrual of subcutaneous fat in either the thigh or the abdominal areas. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her; Lin, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  11. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  12. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chou, Yii-Her; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. • Unenhanced CT is now widely used to assess ureteric calculi. • The same CT protocol can provide measurements of abdominal fat distribution. • Ureteric calculi are usually treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). • Greater intra-abdominal fat stores are generally associated with poorer SWL results.

  13. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Yudkin, John S; Ong, Ken K; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women), genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3), African (6.6), and Native American (6.3) ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; pabdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001), and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009). Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all pabdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  14. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  15. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. [Excess weight and abdominal obesity in Galician children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Leis, Rosaura; Martínez, Ana; Malvar, Alberto; Hervada, Xurxo; Suanzes, Jorge

    2017-12-06

    The excess of weight, mainly obesity, during childhood and adolescence increases morbimortality risk in adulthood. The aim of this article is to estimate both the overall prevalence, as well as according to age and gender, of underweight, overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity among schoolchildren aged between 6-15-years-old in the school year 2013-2014. Data were taken from a cross-sectional community-based study carried out on a representative sample, by gender and age, of the Galician population aged between 6 and 15 years-old. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obese children (Cole's cut-off criteria) and abdominal obesity (Taylor's cut-off criteria) were estimated after performing objective measurements of height, weight and waist circumference at school. A total of 7,438 students were weighed and measured in 137 schools. The prevalence of overweight and obese individuals was 24.9% and 8.2%, respectively. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 25.8%, with 4% of children with normal weight having abdominal obesity. These data highlight the need to promote primary prevention measures at early ages in order to decrease the occurrence of the premature onset of disease in the future. The prevalence of excess weight is underestimated if abdominal obesity is not taken into consideration. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  17. Intrahepatic fat, abdominal adipose tissues, and metabolic state: magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tene, Lilac; Cohen, Noa; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Zelicha, Hila; Rein, Michal; Bril, Nitzan; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Dicker, Dror; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-07-01

    Intrahepatic fat (IHF) is best known to associate with waist circumference (WC) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT), but its relation to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue is controversial. While IHF ≥ 5% dichotomously defines fatty liver, %IHF is rarely considered as a continuous variable that includes the normal range. In this study, we aimed to evaluate %IHF association with abdominal fat subdepots, pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats. We evaluated %IHF, abdominal fat subdepots, %pancreatic, and renal-sinus fats, among individuals with moderate abdominal obesity, using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. Among 275 participants, %IHF widely ranged (0.01%-50.4%) and was lower in women (1.6%) than men (7.3%; P fat was positively associated with %IHF (P = .005). In an age, sex, WC, and VAT-adjusted models, elevated liver enzymes, glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were associated with increased %IHF (P fat is differentially associated with abdominal fat subdepots. Intrahepatic-fat as a continuous variable could be predicted by specific traditional parameters, even within the current normal range, and partially independent of VAT. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  19. Assessment of Abdominal Fat Using High-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Anthropometric and Biochemical Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Radaideh, Ali; Tayyem, Reema; Al-Fayomi, Kholoud; Nimer, Nisreen; Malkawi, Amer; Al-Zu Bi, Rana; Agraib, Lana; Athamneh, Imad; Hijjawi, Nawal

    2016-12-01

    To measure the abdominal subcutaneous fat (SF) and visceral fat (VF) volumes using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to investigate their association with selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters among obese and nonobese apparently healthy participants. A cross-sectional study was conducted by recruiting 167 healthy participants. Abdominal scans were acquired at 3T MRI, and the SF and VF were segmented and their volumes were calculated. Selected anthropometric and biochemical measurements were also determined. A significant difference (P abdominal fat volumes, leptin, resistin, adiponectin and waist circumference. Waist circumferences were measured by tape and MRI. Findings revealed that MRI-measured fat volumes were different between males and females and had a significant (P fat volumes were found to correlate moderately with interleukin-6 and weakly with cholesterol, serum triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein. Except for cholesterol, all measured biochemical variables and abdominal fat volumes in the current study were significantly associated with body mass index. All anthropometric and biochemical parameters showed weak-to-strong associations with the MRI-measured fat volumes. Abdominal fat distribution was different between males and females and their correlations with some lipid profiles were found to be sex dependent. These findings revealed that MRI can be used as an alternative tool for obesity assessment. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM......) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor....

  2. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2018-08-01

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m 2 ) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend vs. baseline) but not %renal-parenchymal-fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p < 0.05). In a model adjusted for age, sex, and visceral-adipose-tissue changes, 18 months reduction in renal-sinus-fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p < 0.05 for all) and with decreased cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), triglycerides/HDL-c (β = 0.13; p = 0.05), insulin (β = 0.12; p = 0.05) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (β = 0.24; p = 0.001), but not with improved renal function parameters or blood pressure. Decreased intake of sodium was associated with a reduction in %renal-parenchymal-fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic

  3. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  4. Correlation between Abdominal Fat Amount and Fatty Liver, using Liver to Kidney Echo Ratio on Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yanhg Shin; Lee, Chang Hee; Choi, Kyung Mook; Lee, Jong Mee; Choi, Jae Woong; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2012-01-01

    It has been generally recognized that fatty liver can often be seen in the obese population. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between fatty liver and abdominal fat volume. A total of 105 patients who visited our obesity clinic in the recent three years underwent fat CT scans and abdominal US. Attenuation difference between liver and spleen on CT was considered as a reference standard for the diagnosis of fatty liver. On US, the echogenicity of the liver parenchyma was measured in three different regions of interest (ROI) close to the adjacent right kidney in the same slice, avoiding vessels, bile duct, and calcification. Similar measurements were performed in the right renal cortex. The mean values were calculated automatically on the histogram of the ROI using the PACS program. The hepatorenal echogenicity ratio (HER; mean hepatic echogenicity/ mean renal echogenicity) was then calculated. Abdominal fat volume was measured using a 3 mm slice CT scan at the L4/5 level and was calculated automatically using a workstation. Abdominal fat was classified according to total fat (TF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF). We used Pearson's bivariate correlation method for assessment of the correlation between HER and TF, VF, and SF, respectively. Significant correlation was observed between HER and abdominal fat (TF, VF, and SF). HER showed significant correlation with VF and TF (r = 0.491 and 0.402, respectively; p = 0.000). The correlation between HER and SF (r = 0.255, p = 0.009) was less significant than for VF or TF. Fat measurement (HER) by hepatic ultrasound correlated well with the amount of abdominal fat. In particular, the VF was found to show a stronger association with fatty liver than SF.

  5. BMI, total and abdominal fat distribution, and cardiovascular risk factors in school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gishti, Olta; Gaillard, Romy; Durmus, Busra; Abrahamse, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; de Jonge, Layla L; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-05-01

    More specific total body and abdominal fat mass measures might be stronger associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, than BMI. We examined the independent associations of total and abdominal fat measures with cardiovascular risk factors in school age children. We performed a population-based cohort study among 6,523 children. At the age of 6 y, we measured childhood BMI, and general and abdominal fat mass, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and ultrasound and cardiovascular risk factors. Conditional on BMI, higher fat mass percentage and abdominal fat mass were associated with higher blood pressure, total- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, insulin and c-peptide levels, but with lower left ventricular mass and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (P values children. Higher childhood adiposity measures were associated with increased odds of cardiovascular risk factors clustering, with the strongest effect for fat mass percentage (odds ratios: 3.01 (95% confidence interval: 2.67, 3.9). Our results suggest that general and abdominal fat measures are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in childhood, independent from BMI. These measures may provide additional information for identification of children with an adverse cardiovascular profile.

  6. Total body fat, abdominal fat, body fat distribution and surrogate markers for health related to adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dencker, Magnus; Danielson, Anton; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Thorsson, Ola

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to assess possible relationships between adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) and total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat, body fat distribution, aerobic fitness, blood pressure, cardiac dimensions and the increase in body fat over 2 years in a community sample of children. A cross-sectional study was used in a community sample of 170 (92 boys and 78 girls) children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat (AFM) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). TBF was also expressed as percentage of total body mass (BF%), and body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK) was assessed by indirect calorimetry during a maximal exercise test and scaled to body mass. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) and pulse pressure (PP) were measured. Echocardiography was performed. Left atrial (LA) size was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) was calculated. A follow-up DXA scan was available in 152 children (84 boys and 68 girls). Frozen serum samples were analyzed for FABP4. Partial correlations, with adjustment for sex, between FABP4 vs. ln TBF, ln BF%, ln AFM, AFM/TBF and VO2PEAK were (r=0.69, 0.68, 0.69, 0.49 and -0.39, pfat or change in fat distribution were not correlated.) Conclusions: Findings from this community-based cohort of young children show that increased body fat and abdominal fat, more abdominal body fat distribution, low fitness, more LVM and increased LA, increased SBP and PP were all associated with increased levels of FABP4. Increase in TBF and abdominal fat over 2 years were also associated with increased levels of FABP4.

  7. Bioimpedance to screen for abdominal fat in patients with breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Guerreiro Godoy, Maria; Silva, Edivandra Buzato; de Godoy, Jose Maria Pereira

    2016-07-28

    One of the dreaded complications after the treatment of breast cancer is lymphedema. Therapies used in the treatment of breast cancer such as surgery, radiotherapy, hormone therapy and chemotherapy may be adversely affected by obesity. The objective of this study was to use bioimpedance to assess abdominal fat in women with breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema and suggest this as a screening method. Forty-five female patients with clinical diagnosis of breast cancer treatment-related lymphedema were evaluated in this quantitative cross-sectional study. A control group, composed of 38 patients with varicose veins and women attending a social support group, was matched for age and body mass index (BMI). All participants were submitted to a bioimpedance evaluation (In Body S 10), with particular attention being paid to abdominal fat and their BMI. The unpaired t -test, Fisher Exact test and Mann-Whitney test were used for statistical analysis and an alpha error of 5%. There was no significant difference (p -value = 0.23) in the mean BMI between the study group (27.79 kg∕m2) and the control group (28.80 kg∕m2). The mean abdominal circumference, a measure of abdominal fat, of the women in the study group was 130.54 cm2 and for the control group it was 102.24 cm2 (p -value = 0.0037). Thus the study group had more abdominal fat (p -value = 0.0003). Moreover, on comparing obese patients in the two groups, the study group had more abdominal fat (p -value = 0.02). However, no significant difference was observed comparing non-obese patients (p -value = 0.6). The comparison of obese patients with non-obese patients in the control group identifies an association between obesity and abdominal fat (p -value abdominal fat than the general population with bioimpedance.

  8. Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J W; Hsu, C-H; Blew, R M; Irving, A P; Caan, B J; Kwan, M L; Abraham, I; Going, S B

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model. Total body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping. The sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R 2 : 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R 2 : 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R 2 was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R 2 values. This replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Sonographic assessment of abdominal fat distribution during the first year of infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brei, Christina; Much, Daniela; Heimberg, Ellen; Schulte, Verena; Brunner, Stefanie; Stecher, Lynne; Vollhardt, Christiane; Bauer, Jan S; Amann-Gassner, Ulrike; Hauner, Hans

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal data regarding the fat distribution in the early postnatal period is sparse. We performed ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive approach to investigate the development of abdominal subcutaneous (SC) and preperitoneal (PP) fat depots in infants ≤1 y and compared longitudinal US data with skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements and anthropometry in 162 healthy children at 6 wk, 4 mo, and 1 y postpartum. US was found to be a reproducible method for the quantification of abdominal SC and PP adipose tissue (AT) in this age group. Thickness of SC fat layers significantly increased from 6 wk to 4 mo and decreased at 1 y postpartum, whereas PP fat layers continuously increased. Girls had a significantly higher SC fat mass compared to boys, while there was no sex-specific difference in PP fat thickness. SC fat layer was strongly correlated with SFT measurements, while PP fat tissue was only weakly correlated with anthropometric measures. US is a feasible and reproducible method for the quantification of abdominal fat mass in infants ≤1 y of age. PP and SC fat depots develop differentially during the first year of life.

  10. Effects of abdominal fat distribution parameters on severity of acute pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Increased visceral fat has been shown to exacerbate the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of acute pancreatitis and abdominal fat distribution parameters measured on computed tomography (CT) scan.

  11. Relationship between sudden natural death and abdominal fat evaluated on postmortem CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaichi, Y; Sakane, H; Higashibori, H; Honda, Y; Tatsugami, F; Baba, Y; Iida, M; Awai, K

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the association between sudden natural death and abdominal fat using postmortem computed tomography (CT) scans. Postmortem CT images at the umbilical level of 241 subjects were used to measure abdominal areas of subcutaneous- and visceral fat, the rate of visceral fat and the waist circumference. Of the study subjects, 174 died of sudden natural death (130 men and 44 women), and 67 died of different causes (46 men and 21 women). All were between 40 and 75 years of age. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent abdominal parameters associated with sudden natural death. By univariate analysis, the areas of subcutaneous and visceral fat were significantly larger in sudden natural death than who died of different causes (subcutaneous fat, odds ratio [OR] = 1.004, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.000-1.007, p  = 0.03; visceral fat, OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.003-1.013, p  fat was an independent factor associated with the risk of sudden natural death (OR = 1.008, 95% CI = 1.002-1.015, p  = 0.02). Postmortem CT revealed that sudden natural death was related to abdominal fat deposits.

  12. Selective parasympathetic innervation of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat - functional implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreier, Felix; Fliers, Eric; Voshol, Peter J.; van Eden, Corbert G.; Havekes, Louis M.; Kalsbeek, Andries; van Heijningen, Caroline L.; Sluiter, Arja A.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Romijn, Johannes A.; Sauerwein, Hans P.; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2002-01-01

    The wealth of clinical epidemiological data on the association between intra-abdominal fat accumulation and morbidity sharply contrasts with the paucity of knowledge about the determinants of fat distribution, which cannot be explained merely in terms of humoral factors. If it comes to neuronal

  13. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic parameters for the prediction of abdominal fat traits using blood biochemical indicators in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H L; Xu, Z Q; Yang, L L; Wang, Y X; Li, Y M; Dong, J Q; Zhang, X Y; Jiang, X Y; Jiang, X F; Li, H; Zhang, D X; Zhang, H

    2018-02-01

    1. Excessive deposition of body fat, especially abdominal fat, is detrimental in chickens and the prevention of excessive fat accumulation is an important problem. The aim of this study was to identify blood biochemical indicators that could be used as criteria to select lean Yellow-feathered chicken lines. 2. Levels of blood biochemical indicators in the fed and fasted states and the abdominal fat traits were measured in 332 Guangxi Yellow chickens. In the fed state, the genetic correlations (r g ) of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein levels were positive for the abdominal fat traits (0.47 ≤ r g  ≤ 0.67), whereas total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) showed higher negative correlations with abdominal fat traits (-0.59 ≤ r g  ≤ -0.33). Heritabilities of these blood biochemical parameters were high, varying from 0.26 to 0.60. 3. In the fasted state, HDL-C:LDL-C level was positively correlated with abdominal fat traits (0.35 ≤ r g  ≤ 0.38), but triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, uric acid and creatinine levels were negatively correlated with abdominal fat traits (-0.79 ≤ r g  ≤ -0.35). The heritabilities of these 10 blood biochemical parameters were high (0.22 ≤ h 2  ≤ 0.59). 4. In the fed state, optimal multiple regression models were constructed to predict abdominal fat traits by using triglycerides and LDL-C. In the fasted state, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, total protein, albumin and uric acid could be used to predict abdominal fat content. 5. It was concluded that these models in both nutritional states could be used to predict abdominal fat content in Guangxi Yellow broiler chickens.

  15. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  16. Liver fat contents, abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic prevalent hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hung-Yuan; Lin, Chien-Chu; Chiu, Yen-Ling; Hsu, Shih-Ping; Pai, Mei-Fen; Yang, Ju-Yeh; Wu, Hon-Yen; Peng, Yu-Sen

    2014-01-01

    The liver fat contents and abdominal adiposity correlate well with insulin resistance (IR) in the general population. However, the relationship between liver fat content, abdominal adiposity and IR in non-diabetic hemodialysis (HD) patients remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the associations among these factors. This is a cross-sectional, observational study. All patients received abdominal ultrasound for liver fat content. Abdominal adiposity was quantified with the conicity index (Ci) and waist circumference (WC). We checked the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) for IR. A total of 112 patients (60 women) were analyzed. Subjects with higher liver fat contents and WC had higher IR indices. But Ci did not correlate with IR indices. In both the multi-variable linear regression model and the logistic regression model, only higher liver fat content predicted a severe IR status. Liver fat contents have a remarkable correlation with IR; however, abdominal adiposity, measured either by Ci or WC, dose not independently correlate with IR in non-diabetic prevalent HD patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika; Brage, Søren; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbaek, Annelli; Almdal, Thomas Peter; Gram, Jeppe; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard; Lauritzen, Torsten; Witte, Daniel Rinse

    2015-05-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and physical activity are both independent predictors of Type 2 diabetes. Physical activity and overall obesity are inversely associated with each other. Yet the nature of the association between objectively measured dimensions of physical activity and abdominal fat distribution has not been well characterized. We aimed to do so in a middle-age to elderly population at high risk of diabetes. A cross-sectional analysis of 1134 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were assessed one-dimensionally by ultrasonography and physical activity with combined accelerometry and HR monitoring. Linear regression of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and time spent in different physical activity intensity levels on VAT and SAT was performed. Median body mass index (BMI) was 26.6 kg·m and PAEE was 28.1 kJ·kg·d, with 18.9 h·d spent sedentary, 4.5 h·d in light-intensity physical activity, and 0.4 h·d in moderate-intensity physical activity. PAEE was significantly negatively associated with VAT, and in women, PAEE was also significantly negatively associated with SAT. The difference in VAT was -1.1 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8 to -0.3) per 10-kJ·kg·d increment, and the corresponding difference in SAT for women was -0.6 mm (95% CI = -1.2 to -0.04) in models adjusted for age, sex, and waist circumference. Exchanging 1 h of light physical activity with moderate physical activity was significantly associated with VAT (-4.5 mm, 95% CI = -7.6 to -1.5). Exchanging one sedentary hour with light physical activity was significantly associated with both VAT (-0.9 mm, 95% CI = -0.1 to -1.8) and SAT (-0.4 mm, 95% CI = -0.0 to -0.7). In this population with low physical activity levels, cross-sectional findings indicate that increasing overall physical activity and decreasing time spent sedentary is important to avoid the accumulation of metabolically deleterious VAT.

  18. First national epidemiological survey on the prevalence of obesity and abdominal fat distribution in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantais, E; Tzotzas, T; Ioannidis, I; Mortoglou, A; Bakatselos, S; Kaklamanou, M; Lanaras, L; Kaklamanos, I

    2006-01-01

    To provide estimates of the prevalence of obesity, overweight and body fat distribution among the adult population of Greece. Epidemiological, cross-sectional nationwide survey providing self-reported data. A total of 17,341 men and women aged from 20 to 70 years and classified into five 10-year age groups participated. The selection was conducted by stratified sampling through household family members of Greek children attending school. The participants reported data on weight, height, waist and hip circumference. BMI and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. Abdominal obesity was defined as waist circumference > or = 102 cm in men and > or = 88 cm in women. In the total population, the mean BMI was 26.5 kg/m2, (27.3 in men, 25.7 in women). The overall prevalence of obesity was 22.5%, (26% in men, 18.2% in women) while that of overweight was 35.2% (41.1% in men, 29.9% in women). The percentages of obesity and overweight in men were similar in almost all age groups, while in women they progressively increased with age. Abdominal obesity was more frequent among women than men (35.8 vs. 26.6%, respectively), especially after the age of 50. Excess body weight is reaching epidemic proportions in Greece and obesity rates are among the highest, if not the highest, in Western society. The problem affects particularly men, and women after menopause. Interestingly, more women than men present with abdominal obesity. Preventive and treatment strategies are urgently needed to stop the obesity epidemic in this Mediterranean European country. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Fitriani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin levels positively correlated with Lee index and abdominal fat mass, but negatively correlated with daily food intake. Administration of long-term high-fat diet in this study cannot induce leptin resistance.

  20. Computational method for estimating boundary of abdominal subcutaneous fat for absolute electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Tohru F; Okamoto, Yoshiwo

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal fat accumulation is considered an essential indicator of human health. Electrical impedance tomography has considerable potential for abdominal fat imaging because of the low specific conductivity of human body fat. In this paper, we propose a robust reconstruction method for high-fidelity conductivity imaging by abstraction of the abdominal cross section using a relatively small number of parameters. Toward this end, we assume homogeneous conductivity in the abdominal subcutaneous fat area and characterize its geometrical shape by parameters defined as the ratio of the distance from the center to boundary of subcutaneous fat to the distance from the center to outer boundary in 64 equiangular directions. To estimate the shape parameters, the sensitivity of the noninvasively measured voltages with respect to the shape parameters is formulated for numerical optimization. Numerical simulations are conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. A 3-dimensional finite element method is used to construct a computer model of the human abdomen. The inverse problems of shape parameters and conductivities are solved concurrently by iterative forward and inverse calculations. As a result, conductivity images are reconstructed with a small systemic error of less than 1% for the estimation of the subcutaneous fat area. A novel method is devised for estimating the boundary of the abdominal subcutaneous fat. The fidelity of the overall reconstructed image to the reference image is significantly improved. The results demonstrate the possibility of realization of an abdominal fat scanner as a low-cost, radiation-free medical device. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Abdominal fat sub-depots and energy expenditure: Magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfaty, Dana; Rein, Michal; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Bril, Nitzan; Cohen, Noa; Shemesh, Elad; Sarusi, Benjamin; Kovsan, Julia; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Witkow, Shula; Henkin, Yaakov; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to assess the association between the distinct abdominal sub-depots and resting energy expenditure (REE). We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify abdominal visceral-adipose-tissue (VAT), deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (deep-SAT), and superficial-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue (superficial-SAT). We measured REE by indirect-calorimetry. Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) [1-3 metabolic equivalents (METs)] and exercise thermogenesis (activities of 4+MET S ) were estimated based on 6-days of accelerometry to assess total physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE). We studied 282 participants: 249 men [mean age = 47.4 years, body-mass-index (BMI) = 31 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 34.5%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 24.3%] and 33 women (mean age = 51.2 years, BMI = 30.1 kg/m 2 , mean VAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 22.8%, mean superficial-SAT proportion from total abdominal fat = 37.8%). As expected, women had lower REE [by 32.4% (1488 ± 234 kcal/day vs. 1971 ± 257 kcal/day; p abdominal VAT was the dominant proportional depot, had higher REE (1964 ± 297 kcal/day vs. 1654 ± 352 kcal/day; p Abdominal fat distribution patterns are associated with varying levels of resting energy expenditure, potentially reflecting different metabolic rates of adipose sub-depots and providing an anatomic/anthropometric link to physiological obese sub-phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. Abdominal fat volume estimation by stereology on CT: a comparison with manual planimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, G E; Mazonakis, M; Voulgaris, C; Karantanas, A; Damilakis, J

    2016-03-01

    To deploy and evaluate a stereological point-counting technique on abdominal CT for the estimation of visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) volumes. Stereological volume estimations based on point counting and systematic sampling were performed on images from 14 consecutive patients who had undergone abdominal CT. For the optimization of the method, five sampling intensities in combination with 100 and 200 points were tested. The optimum stereological measurements were compared with VAF and SAF volumes derived by the standard technique of manual planimetry on the same scans. Optimization analysis showed that the selection of 200 points along with the sampling intensity 1/8 provided efficient volume estimations in less than 4 min for VAF and SAF together. The optimized stereology showed strong correlation with planimetry (VAF: r = 0.98; SAF: r = 0.98). No statistical differences were found between the two methods (VAF: P = 0.81; SAF: P = 0.83). The 95% limits of agreement were also acceptable (VAF: -16.5%, 16.1%; SAF: -10.8%, 10.7%) and the repeatability of stereology was good (VAF: CV = 4.5%, SAF: CV = 3.2%). Stereology may be successfully applied to CT images for the efficient estimation of abdominal fat volume and may constitute a good alternative to the conventional planimetric technique. Abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of disease and mortality. Stereology may quantify visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat accurately and consistently. The application of stereology to estimating abdominal volume fat reduces processing time. Stereology is an efficient alternative method for estimating abdominal fat volume.

  3. Serum Chemerin Levels Are Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Juyoung; Kim, So Hun; Suh, Young Ju; Lim, Hyun Ae; Shin, Heekyoung; Cho, Soon Gu; Kim, Chei Won; Lee, Seung Youn; Lee, Dae Hyung; Hong, Seongbin; Kim, Yong Seong; Nam, Moon-Suk

    2016-06-01

    Chemerin is a recently identified adipokine suggested to play a role in obesity and its metabolic complications. The relationship between visceral obesity and serum chemerin levels in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is unknown and may differ from that of subjects without diabetes. Therefore, we evaluated whether serum chemerin was associated with visceral abdominal obesity in patients with T2DM. A total of 218 Korean patients with T2DM were enrolled and metabolic parameters, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, and serum chemerin levels were measured. Serum chemerin level showed positive correlation with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, serum triglyceride, serum creatinine, urine albumin/creatinine ratio, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), fibrinogen, abdominal visceral fat area, visceral to subcutaneous fat area ratio, and negatively correlation with high density lipoprotein cholesterol and creatinine clearance (CCr) after adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. Multiple linear stepwise regression analysis showed that abdominal visceral fat area (β = 0.001, P abdominal visceral fat area, serum triglyceride, hsCRP and fibrinogen and lower level of CCr in patients with T2DM. Serum chemerin may be used as a biomarker of visceral adiposity and chemerin may play a role in inflammation, decreased renal function, and increased cardiovascular risk in T2DM.

  4. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. Objective: The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. Design: We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype–dietary fat interaction was also examined. Results: The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene–dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype–dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:26156739

  5. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Büşra; Heppe, Denise H M; Gishti, Olta; Manniesing, Rashindra; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Duijts, Liesbeth; Gaillard, Romy; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-06-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures. We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and abdominal fat outcomes in children. We performed a population-based, prospective cohort study in 5063 children. Information about infant feeding was obtained by using questionnaires. At the median age of 6.0 y (95% range: 5.7 y, 6.8 y), we measured childhood anthropometric measures, total fat mass and the android:gynoid fat ratio by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and preperitoneal abdominal fat by using ultrasound. We observed that, in the models adjusted for child age, sex, and height only, a shorter breastfeeding duration, nonexclusive breastfeeding, and younger age at the introduction of solid foods were associated with higher childhood general and abdominal fat measures (P-trend fat outcomes are explained by sociodemographic and lifestyle-related factors. Whether infant dietary composition affects specific fat outcomes at older ages should be further studied. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography Correlates with Hyperlipidemia and Steatohepatitis in Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hyun; Kim, Dongwan; Baek, Min Young; Tchah, Hann; Kim, Yeon Sun; Ryoo, Eell; Kim, Yun Mi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by ultrasonography (US) and serum lipid profile and liver transaminases in obese children. One hundred and sixty-six children diagnosed with obesity from May 2001 to December 2013 were included in this study. Data on serum lipid profile and liver transaminases were collected from clinical records. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and grade of hepatic steatosis were evaluated by US. Of the 166 children, 107 were diagnosed with hepatic steatosis by US, 46 with grade I, 56 with grade II, and five children with grade III. According to the grade of hepatic steasosis, the average values of midline abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness and right flank abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured 2.9±0.8 cm and 1.9±0.7 cm in the normal group, 3.3±0.8 cm and 2.0±0.7 cm in grade I, 3.8±0.8 cm and 2.3±0.8 cm in grade II, and 4.1±0.8 cm and 2.8±1.4 cm in grade III, respectively. Abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with grade of hepatic steatosis (pabdominal subcutaneous fat thickness correlated with concentration of serum lipids and liver transaminases in the age group of 12-14 years (pAbdominal subcutaneous fat thickness measured by US can be used as a reliable predictor of possible hyperlipidemia and steatohepatitis in children, especially during the adolescent stage.

  7. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  8. Knee joint loading in knee osteoarthritis: influence of abdominal and thigh fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P; Beavers, Daniel P; Loeser, Richard F; Carr, J Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J; Hunter, David J; Devita, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography, and total lean and fat mass were determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age, 66.3 yr; body mass index, 33.5 kg·m) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Higher total body mass was significantly associated (P ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (P knee extensor moments (P = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (P = 0.0001), shear (P knee extension moment (P = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (P = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found that both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (P ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with knee abduction (P = 0.03) and knee extension moment (P = 0.02). Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA.

  9. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M.; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C.; Chandler-Laney, Paula C.; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/d deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (≤45 points per 1000 kcal; n=40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n=29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (Phypocaloric phase, with no differences in the amount of weight loss with diet assignment (P=0.39). Following weight loss, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (Pdiet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. PMID:23671029

  10. Reproducibility of regional DEXA examinations of abdominal fat and lean tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallroth, Kaj; Kettunen, Jyrki A; Kujala, Urho M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and test the validity of a new repeatable method to delimit abdominal areas for follow-up of fat mass (FM) and lean tissue mass (LM) in DEXA examinations. 37 male volunteers underwent two DEXA examinations. Total body FM and LM measurements and corresponding abdominal measurements in a carefully defined region were calculated from the first scan. After repositioning of the subjects and a second scan, the delimited region was copied and the abdominal tissues re-calculated. The mean LM of the abdominal area was 2.804 kg (SD 0.556), and the mean FM was 1.026 kg (SD 0.537). The intra-class correlation coefficient for the repeated abdominal LM, FM, and LM/FM ratio measurements was 0.99. The mean difference (bias) for the repeated abdominal LM measurements was -13 g (95% confidence interval (CI) -193.0 to 166.8), and for the repeated abdominal FM measurements it was -35 g (95% CI -178.9 to 108.5). The results indicate that regional DEXA is a sensitive method with excellent reproducibility in the measurements of the abdominal fat and lean tissues. The method may serve as a useful tool for evaluation and follow-up of various dietary and training programmes.

  11. Effect of Abdominal Visceral Fat Change on Regression of Erosive Esophagitis: Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Kim, Young Woo; Park, Bum Joon; Ryu, Kum Hei; Kim, Hyun Boem

    2018-05-04

    Although abdominal visceral fat has been associated with erosive esophagitis in cross-sectional studies, there are few data on the longitudinal effect. We evaluated the effects of abdominal visceral fat change on the regression of erosive esophagitis in a prospective cohort study. A total of 163 participants with erosive esophagitis at baseline were followed up at 34 months and underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography at both baseline and follow-up. The longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the regression of erosive esophagitis were evaluated using relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Regression was observed in approximately 49% of participants (n=80). The 3rd (RR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.71) and 4th quartiles (RR, 0.07; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.38) of visceral fat at follow-up were associated with decreased regression of erosive esophagitis. The highest quartile of visceral fat change reduced the probability of the regression of erosive esophagitis compared to the lowest quartile (RR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.28). Each trend showed a dose-dependent pattern (p for trend fat at follow-up and a greater increase in visceral fat reduced the regression of erosive esophagitis in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Fat-plug myringoplasty of ear lobule vs abdominal donor sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Mustafa; Yazıcı, Demet; San, Turhan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the success rates of fat-graft myringoplasties harvesting adipose grafts from different donor sites (ear lobule vs abdomen). The clinical records of 61 patients (24 males and 37 females) who underwent fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) were reviewed retrospectively. Fat from ear lobule (FEL) and abdominal fat were used as graft materials. The impact of age, gender, systemic diseases, topography of the perforation, utilization of fat graft materials of different origin on the tympanic membrane closure rate and the effect of FPM on hearing gain was analyzed. Our tympanic membrane (TM) closure rate was 82 %. No statistical significant difference was observed regarding age, gender, comorbidities (septal deviation, hypertension and diabetes mellitus) or habits (smoking). Posterior TM perforations had significantly lower healing rate. The change in TM closure rate considering different adipose tissue donor sites was not statistically significant. The hearing gain of the patients was mostly below 20 dB. Fat-plug myringoplasty (FPM) is a safe, cost-effective and easy operation for selected patients. Abdominal fat graft is as effective as ear lobe fat graft on tympanic membrane healing, has cosmetic advantages and should be taken into consideration when planning fat as the graft source.

  13. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Sonik, Arvind; Madhuranthakam, Ananth J.; Venkatesan, Ramesh; Lai, Peng; Brau, Anja C.S.

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric body MRI exams often cover multiple body parts, making the development of broadly applicable protocols and obtaining uniform fat suppression a challenge. Volumetric T2 imaging with Dixon-type fat-water separation might address this challenge, but it is a lengthy process. We develop and evaluate a faster two-echo approach to volumetric T2 imaging with fat-water separation. A volumetric spin-echo sequence was modified to include a second shifted echo so two image sets are acquired. A region-growing reconstruction approach was developed to decompose separate water and fat images. Twenty-six children were recruited with IRB approval and informed consent. Fat-suppression quality was graded by two pediatric radiologists and compared against conventional fat-suppressed fast spin-echo T2-W images. Additionally, the value of in- and opposed-phase images was evaluated. Fat suppression on volumetric images had high quality in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 80-100%) and were preferred over or considered equivalent to conventional two-dimensional fat-suppressed FSE T2 imaging in 96% of cases (95% confidence interval of 78-100%). In- and opposed-phase images had definite value in 12% of cases. Volumetric fat-water separated T2-weighted MRI is feasible and is likely to yield improved fat suppression over conventional fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging. (orig.)

  14. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry spine scans to determine abdominal fat in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J W; Blew, R M; Going, S B; Hsu, C-H; Lee, M C; Lee, V R; Caan, B J; Kwan, M L; Lohman, T G

    2016-11-01

    Body composition may be a better predictor of chronic disease risk than body mass index (BMI) in older populations. We sought to validate spine fat fraction (%) from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans as a proxy for total abdominal fat. Total body DXA scan abdominal fat regions of interest (ROI) that have been previously validated by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed among healthy, postmenopausal women who also had antero-posterior spine scans (n = 103). ROIs were (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC), manually selected by two independent raters, and (3) trunk, auto-selected by DXA software. Intra-class correlation coefficients evaluated intra and inter-rater reliability on a random subset (N = 25). Linear regression models, validated by bootstrapping, assessed the relationship between spine fat fraction (%) and total abdominal fat (%) ROIs. Mean age, BMI, and total body fat were 66.1 ± 4.8 y, 25.8 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 and 40.0 ± 6.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences within or between raters. Linear regression models adjusted for several participant and scan characteristics were equivalent to using only BMI and spine fat fraction. The model predicted L2-L4 (Adj. R 2 : 0.83) and L2-IC (Adj. R 2 : 0.84) abdominal fat (%) well; the adjusted R 2 for trunk fat (%) was 0.78. Model validation demonstrated minimal over-fitting (Adj. R 2 : 0.82, 0.83, and 0.77 for L2-L4, L2-IC, and trunk fat, respectively). The strong correlation between spine fat fraction and DXA abdominal fat measures make it suitable for further development in postmenopausal chronic disease risk prediction models. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:918-926, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A phenome database (NEAUHLFPD) designed and constructed for broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Dong, Xiang-yu; Liang, Hao; Leng, Li; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-zhi; Li, Hui; Du, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-05-20

    Effective management and analysis of precisely recorded phenotypic traits are important components of the selection and breeding of superior livestocks. Over two decades, we divergently selected chicken lines for abdominal fat content at Northeast Agricultural University (Northeast Agricultural University High and Low Fat, NEAUHLF), and collected large volume of phenotypic data related to the investigation on molecular genetic basis of adipose tissue deposition in broilers. To effectively and systematically store, manage and analyze phenotypic data, we built the NEAUHLF Phenome Database (NEAUHLFPD). NEAUHLFPD included the following phenotypic records: pedigree (generations 1-19) and 29 phenotypes, such as body sizes and weights, carcass traits and their corresponding rates. The design and construction strategy of NEAUHLFPD were executed as follows: (1) Framework design. We used Apache as our web server, MySQL and Navicat as database management tools, and PHP as the HTML-embedded language to create dynamic interactive website. (2) Structural components. On the main interface, detailed introduction on the composition, function, and the index buttons of the basic structure of the database could be found. The functional modules of NEAUHLFPD had two main components: the first module referred to the physical storage space for phenotypic data, in which functional manipulation on data can be realized, such as data indexing, filtering, range-setting, searching, etc.; the second module related to the calculation of basic descriptive statistics, where data filtered from the database can be used for the computation of basic statistical parameters and the simultaneous conditional sorting. NEAUHLFPD could be used to effectively store and manage not only phenotypic, but also genotypic and genomics data, which can facilitate further investigation on the molecular genetic basis of chicken adipose tissue growth and development, and expedite the selection and breeding of broilers

  16. Intra-abdominal fat measurement by ultrasonography: association with anthropometry and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Rommel L R; Café, Ana Carolina C; Morais, Aisha A; Bila, Wendell C; Santos, Gilson D da S; Lopes, Carlos Alexandre de O; Belo, Vinícius S; Romano, Márcia Christina C; Lamounier, Joel A

    2018-04-27

    To associate intra-abdominal fat thickness measured by ultrasonography to the factors related to metabolic syndrome and to determine cutoff points of intra-abdominal fat measurement associated with a greater chance of metabolic syndrome in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study, with 423 adolescents from public schools. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography. Anthropometric data were collected, and biochemical analyses were performed. Intra-abdominal fat was measured by ultrasonography, showing a statistically significant association with the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (p=0.037), body mass index (p<0.001), elevated triglyceride levels (p=0.012), decreased plasma HDL levels (p=0.034), and increased systemic blood pressure values (p=0.023). Cutoff values of intra-abdominal fat thickness measurements were calculated by ultrasound to estimate the individuals most likely to develop metabolic syndrome. In the logistic regression models, the cutoff values that showed the highest association with metabolic syndrome in males were 4.50, 5.35, 5.46, 6.24, and 6.50cm for the ages of 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18/19 years, respectively. In the female gender, the cutoff values defined for the same age groups were 4.46, 4.55, 4.45, 4.90, and 6.46cm. In an overall analysis using the ROC curve, without gender and age stratification, the cut-off of 3.67cm showed good sensitivity, but low specificity. Ultrasonography is a useful method to estimate intra-abdominal adipose tissue in adolescents, which is associated with the main factors related to obesity and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship between vaspin gene expression and abdominal fat distribution of Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-A; Park, Hye-Soon; Song, Young-Sook; Jang, Yeon-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is a novel adipokine that is thought to have insulin-sensitizing effects. We investigated vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue and examined how gene expression related to abdominal fat distribution and metabolic parameters in Korean women. We measured anthropometric variables, metabolic parameters, serum vaspin concentration, and vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue obtained from women who underwent abdominal gynecological surgery and were aged 18-67 years (n=85). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area were measured in 40 subjects using computed tomography (CT). Vaspin expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative radiotherapy-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) according to abdominal fat distribution. Vaspin mRNA expression was greater in adipocytes than in stroma/vascular cells. In the total subjects, vaspin expression was significantly higher in SAT than in VAT. Vaspin expression in SAT in subcutaneous fat type (VSR ≤0.3) was significantly higher than in visceral fat type (VSR >0.3), although vaspin expression in VAT was similar between subcutaneous and visceral fat type. There was a significant negative correlation between vaspin expression in SAT and VAT area (r=-0.55, p=0.001). Serum vaspin concentration was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.30, p=0.02), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.29, p=0.02), and the ratio of vaspin expression in VAT to vaspin expression in SAT (r=0.41, p=0.04). Vaspin expression in abdominal adipose tissue was adipocyte-specific and vaspin expression in SAT decreased as VAT area increased. (author)

  18. Abdominal fat indicators: anthropometry vs dual energy x-ray absortometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive abdominal fat contributes to the development of chronic nontransmissible diseases. Dual emission X Ray absorptiometry (DXA is a simple to administer technique that allows abdominal fat percentage (%abdominalFDXA to be determined. Anthropometric measurements, which have been validated and are of low cost, such as the abdominal circumferences 2.5cm above the umbilical scar (ABC2,5 and level with the umbilical scar (ABCum, are used as indicators of abdominal fat. Skin folds (SF are little used for this purpose. The objective of this study was to verify which of these anthropometric indicators best correlates with and best explains abdominalFDXA. The sample was made up of 22 women (43.9±11.6 years; 34.7±8.3 %G totalDXA and 18 men (31.9±11.6 years; 19.0±8.0 %G totalDXA who were measured for ABC2.5, ABCum, suprailiac SF (SI, midaxillary SF (AM and abdominal SF (AB, while abdominalF (L1-L4 was measured by DXA. Pearson’s correlation and multivariate linear regression (“enter” method were employed to verify the anthropometric measurements’ correlations and percentage of explanation with relation to abdominalFDXA. Strong correlations and significant levels of explanation (pResumoO excesso de gordura abdominal contribui no desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis. A absortometria de raio-X de dupla energia (AXDE é uma técnica de simples aplicação, que permite a mensuração do percentual de gordura abdominal (%G abdominalAXDE. As medidas antropométricas, validadas e de baixo custo, como os perímetros abdominal 2,5cm acima da cicatriz umbilical (PAB2,5 e ao nível da cicatriz umbilical (PABum, são empregadas como indicadores de gordura abdominal. As dobras cutâneas (DC são pouco estudadas nesse sentido. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi verificar quais destes indicadores antropométricos mais se correlacionam e explicam o %G abdominalAXDE. A amostra foi composta por 22 mulheres (43,9±11,6 anos; 34,7±8,3 %G

  19. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial123

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Background: Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. Objective: We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. Design: In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). Results: At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ∼40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Conclusion: Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:22258266

  20. Effects of 4 weight-loss diets differing in fat, protein, and carbohydrate on fat mass, lean mass, visceral adipose tissue, and hepatic fat: results from the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Hall, Kevin D; LeBoff, Meryl S; Loria, Catherine M; Laranjo, Nancy M; Sacks, Frank M; Smith, Steven R

    2012-03-01

    Weight loss reduces body fat and lean mass, but whether these changes are influenced by macronutrient composition of the diet is unclear. We determined whether energy-reduced diets that emphasize fat, protein, or carbohydrate differentially reduce total, visceral, or hepatic fat or preserve lean mass. In a subset of participants in a randomized trial of 4 weight-loss diets, body fat and lean mass (n = 424; by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and abdominal and hepatic fat (n = 165; by using computed tomography) were measured after 6 mo and 2 y. Changes from baseline were compared between assigned amounts of protein (25% compared with 15%) and fat (40% compared with 20%) and across 4 carbohydrate amounts (35% through 65%). At 6 mo, participants lost a mean (±SEM) of 4.2 ± 0.3 kg (12.4%) fat and 2.1 ± 0.3 kg (3.5%) lean mass (both P fat (P ≥ 0.34), or 65% and 35% carbohydrate (P ≥ 0.27). Participants lost 2.3 ± 0.2 kg (13.8%) abdominal fat: 1.5 ± 0.2 kg (13.6%) subcutaneous fat and 0.9 ± 0.1 kg (16.1%) visceral fat (all P fat than did men relative to total-body fat loss. Participants regained ~40% of these losses by 2 y, with no differences between diets (P ≥ 0.23). Weight loss reduced hepatic fat, but there were no differences between groups (P ≥ 0.28). Dietary goals were not fully met; self-reported contrasts were closer to 2% protein, 8% fat, and 14% carbohydrate at 6 mo and 1%, 7%, and 10%, respectively, at 2 y. Participants lost more fat than lean mass after consumption of all diets, with no differences in changes in body composition, abdominal fat, or hepatic fat between assigned macronutrient amounts. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

  1. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Fat in MRI-Scans, Using Graph-Cuts and Image Derived Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Larsen, Christian Thode; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    For many clinical studies changes in the abdominal distribution of fat is an important measure. However, the segmentation of abdominal fat in MRI scans is both difficult and time consuming using manual methods. We present here an automatic and flexible software package, that performs both bias fi...

  2. Intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in a sample of Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, C; Ramos-Ibáñez, N; Azprioz-Leehan, J; Ortiz-Hernández, L

    2017-09-01

    Few studies in Latin American paediatric populations have differentiated fat deposits in specific areas, such as intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF). Research in diverse populations is needed, as patterns of fat accumulation vary by ethnicity. The aim of this study was to determine whether IAF and/or SAF are related to cardiometabolic risk factors, independent of total body fat (TBF), in a group of Mexican schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mexico City with 94 children aged between 5 and 11 years. IAF and SAF were assessed by magnetic resonance using two different estimation methods: (a) at the midpoint of lumbar vertebras 4 and 5 (L4-L5) and (b) the sum of the areas of four slices (L1-L2, L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5, which will be referred to as 'total' IAF and SAF). TBF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The following cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed: total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, blood pressure, insulin resistance, number of risk factors and metabolic syndrome score. After adjusting for sex, age and TBF, total SAF was related to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors and metabolic syndrome score. Although IAF at L4-L5 was also related to the number of cardiometabolic risk factors, there was evidence of collinearity with TBF. In this sample of Mexican schoolchildren, TBF and SAF, but not IAF, were associated with higher cardiometabolic risk.

  3. Abdominal fat and risk of coronary heart disease in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Beate G.; Visseren, Frank L. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.; van der Graaf, Yolanda

    Objective: We investigated whether the presence of concomitant coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be explained by intra-abdominal fat accumulation and compared different measures of adiposity as predictors of CHD in patients with PAD. Research Methods

  4. Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures : the influence of stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; McNeill, G; Seidell, J C; Lean, M.E.J.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20-51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19-85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES:

  5. Evaluation of abdominal fat index by ultrasonography and its relationship with psoriasis and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönül, Müzeyyen; Tatar, İdil; Canpolat, Filiz; Işıl Kurmus, Gökçe; Ergin, Can; Hekimoğlu, Baki

    2017-10-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that psoriasis is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Psoriasis and obesity share similar inflammatory mediators, and obesity may potentiate some inflammatory cytokines seen in psoriasis. Body fat distribution, particularly visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is an important factor in metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic diseases. An association has been demonstrated between psoriasis and abdominal VAT measured by computed tomography (CT). To measure abdominal VAT noninvasively by ultrasonography (USG) in patients with psoriasis and investigated its relation to psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. The study population consisted of 41 psoriasis patients and 41 control subjects matched for age, sex, and body mass index. The maximal preperitoneal fat thickness (Pmax) at the anterior surface of the liver and the minimal subcutaneous fat thickness (Smin) of the abdomen were measured by USG. The abdominal fat index (AFI = Pmax/Smin ratio) was calculated and the results were compared between groups. The rate of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in psoriasis patients ( p = 0.0018). The mean AFI was similar in both groups. AFI was not associated with psoriasis in subjects with metabolic syndrome ( p = 0.495) or with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index ( r = 0.123, p = 0.443). This is the first study to evaluate abdominal VAT by USG. Computed tomography may be more reliable than USG, but its high cost and radiation exposure are major disadvantages. Further studies are required to determine the relationships between psoriasis and VAT.

  6. Cost reduction in abdominal CT by weight-adjusted dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Tobarra, Eva; Sierra, Consuelo

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the influence of contrast dose adjusted by weight vs. fixed contrast dose in the attenuation and cost of abdominal computed tomography (CT). Materials and methods: A randomised, consecutive, parallel group study was conducted in 151 patients (74 men and 77 women, age range 22-67 years), studied with the same CT helical protocol. A dose at 1.75 ml/kg was administered in 101 patients while 50 patients had a fixed dose of 120 ml of same non-ionic contrast material (320 mg/ml). Mean enhancements were measured at right hepatic lobe, superior abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. Statistical analysis was weight-stratified ( 81 kg). Results: Aortic attenuation was significantly superior (p 61 kg in dose-adjusted group, presented higher hepatic attenuation, being statistically significant in those >81 kg (p 80 kg, there was an over cost of Euro 10.7 per patient. Conclusions: An injection volume of 1.75 ml/kg offers an optimal diagnostic quality with a global savings of Euro 1.34 per patient.

  7. Cost reduction in abdominal CT by weight-adjusted dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Tobarra, Eva; Sierra, Consuelo

    2009-06-01

    To analyze the influence of contrast dose adjusted by weight vs. fixed contrast dose in the attenuation and cost of abdominal computed tomography (CT). A randomised, consecutive, parallel group study was conducted in 151 patients (74 men and 77 women, age range 22-67 years), studied with the same CT helical protocol. A dose at 1.75 ml/kg was administered in 101 patients while 50 patients had a fixed dose of 120 ml of same non-ionic contrast material (320 mg/ml). Mean enhancements were measured at right hepatic lobe, superior abdominal aorta and inferior cava vein. Statistical analysis was weight-stratified (81 kg). Aortic attenuation was significantly superior (p61 kg in dose-adjusted group, presented higher hepatic attenuation, being statistically significant in those >81 kg (p80 kg, there was an over cost of euro 10.7 per patient. An injection volume of 1.75 ml/kg offers an optimal diagnostic quality with a global savings of euro 1.34 per patient.

  8. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P lean mass and baseline fat mass). Consumption of a relatively low GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  9. Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is a hypertension risk factor in young adulthood: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Atsushi; Tayama, Jun; Yamasaki, Hironori; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Sayaka; Saigo, Tatsuo; Kawano, Hiroaki; Abiru, Norio; Hayashida, Masaki; Maeda, Takahiro; Shirabe, Susumu

    2016-11-01

    Accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is related to hypertension. Despite this, a relationship between hypertension and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood is not clear. In this study, we verify whether intra-abdominal fat accumulation increases a hypertension risk in young adult subjects.In a cross-sectional study, intra-abdominal fat area was measured using a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis instrument in 697 university students (20.3 ± 0.7 years, 425 men). Blood pressure and anthropometric factors were measured. Lifestyle variables including smoking, drinking, physical activity, and eating behavior were assessed with questionnaire. High blood pressure risk (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg) with increasing intra-abdominal fat area was evaluated.Participants were divided into 5 groups according to their intra-abdominal fat area (≤24.9, 25-49.9, 50-74.9, 75-99.9, and ≥100 cm). As compared with the values of the smallest intra-abdominal fat area group, the crude and lifestyle-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were elevated in larger intra-abdominal fat area groups [OR 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-2.80; OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.60-7.57; OR 7.71, 95% CI 2.75-22.22; OR 18.74, 95% CI 3.93-105.64, respectively). The risk increase was observed only in men.Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is related to high blood pressure in men around 20 years of age. These results indicate the importance of evaluation and reduction of intra-abdominal fat to prevent hypertension.

  10. A Novel Polymorphism of VLDLR Signal Peptide Coding Region and Its Association with Growth and Abdominal Fat Traits of Gaoyou Domestic Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ming-liang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The VLDLR gene plays important roles in the growth and adiposity in humans and mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VLDLR gene genetic polymorphisms and growth and abdominal fat traits of the Gaoyou domestic duck. A total of 267 Gaoyou ducks were employed for testing. A 18bp deletion was identified in VLDLR signal peptide coding region. The results of c2 test suggested that the genotype frequencies of VLDLR signal peptide coding region were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Least squares analysis showed that body weight (BW of -18bp/-18bp genotype ducks was significantly higher than those of other genotypes from six (BW6 (p0.05 and body weight for AFP and different genotypes had a significant effect on AFP (p<0.05. The results of Bonferroni t-test revealed that the abdominal fat percentage (AFP of -18bp/-18bp genotype was significantly lower than those of +18bp/-18bp (p<0.05. Preliminary studies have shown that VLDLR may be a candidate gene for the selection for growth and abdominal fat, and the results of the present study indicate that VLDLR strongly influences carcass abdominal fat content of Gaoyou ducks.

  11. Investigation of relation between visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat volumes and calcified aortic plaques via multislice computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Duran; Aygün, Fatih; Acar, Türker; Yildiz, Melda; Gemici, Kazım

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated effect of subcutaneous fat volume and abdominal visceral fat volume on aortic atherosclerosis via multislice computed tomography. The present study comprised 424 subjects who underwent non-contrast-enhanced abdominal CT in our clinic between June 2012 and June 2013. Using dedicated software visceral fat volume was calculated for each individual and then subcutaneous fat volume was calculated by subtracting visceral fat volume from total fat volume. By dividing visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume participants were assigned to three groups according to their mean visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume: Group 1 consisted of subjects with visceral fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume lower than 0.48 (Group 1 fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume equal to or higher than 0.48 and lower than 0.69 (0.48 ≤ Group 2 fat volume/subcutaneous fat volume equal to or higher than 0.69 (Group 3 ≥ 0.69). The mean abdominal aortic calcium scores according to Agatston scoring (au) were 136.8 ± 418.7 au in Group 1, 179.9 ± 463 au in Group 2 and 212.2 ± 486.9 in Group 3, respectively. We have demonstrated a significant correlation between visceral fat volume and abdominal aorta atherosclerosis, while there was absence of significant correlation between subcutaneous fat volume and abdominal atherosclerosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Effect of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Su Youn; Kim, Young-Woo; Park, Bum Joon; Ryu, Kum Hei; Choi, Il Ju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Hyun Boem

    2017-04-01

    Although abdominal visceral fat has been associated with erosive oesophagitis in cross-sectional studies, there are no data that describe its longitudinal effects. We aimed to evaluate the longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis in patients who did not have erosive oesophagitis at baseline. This was a single-centre prospective study. A total of 1503 participants without erosive oesophagitis at baseline were followed up for 34 months and they underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and computed tomography at both baseline and during follow-up. The longitudinal effects of abdominal visceral fat on the development of new erosive oesophagitis were evaluated using odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). New oesophagitis developed in 83 patients. Compared with the first quartile, the third (OR=3.96, 95% CI: 1.54-10.18) and the fourth (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.79-12.23) of baseline visceral fat quartiles, the third (OR=3.03, 95% CI: 1.14-8.04) and the fourth (OR=7.50, 95% CI: 2.92-19.25) follow-up visceral fat quartiles, and the fourth visceral fat change quartile (OR=2.76, 95% CI: 1.47-5.21) were associated with increased development of new erosive oesophagitis, and the P value for each trend was less than 0.001. New erosive oesophagitis was inversely related to the follow-up Helicobacter pylori status and it was associated positively with the presence of a hiatal hernia and smoking during follow-up, but it was not associated with reflux symptoms, the H. pylori status, presence of a hiatal hernia or smoking at baseline. Higher level of visceral fat at baseline and follow-up visceral fat, and greater changes in the visceral level were associated linearly with the development of new erosive oesophagitis in this longitudinal study.

  13. Fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall: Incidental finding on abdominal computed tomography: A case report

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    Park, Min Ho; Moon, Sung Kyoung; Ahn, Sung Eun; Park, Seong Jin; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Dong Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Medical Center, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In a computed tomography (CT) scan, fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall is seen as a linear hypoattenuating band surrounded by soft tissue density. It is uncommon, but is often seen in normal cases. However, there is no report of fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall in Korea. The authors encountered a 62-year-old male patient who showed an incidental hypoattenuating band in the urinary bladder wall on abdominal CT. The patient showed no clinical signs related to fat deposition in the urinary bladder wall. When the patient's previous abdominal CT was retrospectively reviewed, the same CT finding was seen. This linear hypoattenuating band within the urinary bladder wall should be considered as a normal CT finding, although it is uncommon.

  14. Developmental patterns of fetal fat and corresponding signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondiaux, Eleonore; Chougar, Lydia; Ducou le Pointe, Hubert; Garel, Catherine; Gelot, Antoinette; Valence, Stephanie; Audureau, Etienne; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Dhombres, Ferdinand

    2018-01-01

    Evaluation of subcutaneous fetal fat layer thickness on T1-weighted sequences can be used to predict birth weight. Little is known about normal MR signal patterns of subcutaneous tissue throughout pregnancy. To establish developmental patterns of subcutaneous fetal fat signal on T1-weighted sequences during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. We retrospectively examined T1-weighted images of 110 fetal MRI scans. We measured signal intensity of subcutaneous fat on thighs, buttocks, trunk, nuchal region, chin and scalp. We then calculated the ratios of the obtained values with fetal muscle, amnios and maternal fat signal, and compared the results with those of immunohistochemical examination of adipose tissue extracted from the abdominal wall of fetuses as part of standard autopsy protocol. We included 60 MRI scans in fetuses without intra-uterine growth restriction or macrosomia of non-diabetic mothers (range 23-37 weeks of gestation). Fat T1 intensity of all anatomical regions was low in all fetuses before 26 weeks of gestation. It became more hyperintense with increasing gestational age, in the following order: chin and nuchal region, then buttocks, thighs and trunk, and eventually the scalp at 33 weeks of gestation. After 33 weeks of gestation, all fetal subcutaneous tissues demonstrated overall hyperintense signal. This progression followed the conversion at immunohistochemistry of fetal adipose tissue composition from predominant brown to white adipose cells in 19 fetuses (19-41 weeks of gestation). Between 26 weeks and 33 weeks of gestation, subcutaneous fetal fat signal changed in an orderly pattern from chin to buttocks and scalp. This may reflect the conversion from predominant brown to white adipose tissues in subcutaneous fetal fat. (orig.)

  15. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  16. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  17. Sonographically Assessed Intra-Abdominal Fat And Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents with Extreme Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The metabolic and cardiovascular risk of obesity is predominantly defined through the amount of intra-abdominal fat (IAF. Regarding this risk and the benefits of weight reduction gender-specific differences have been described. The aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific relationship between IAF assessed via ultrasound and the cardiometabolic risk profile in extremely obese adolescents before and after weight loss. Methods: In 107 consecutively admitted adolescents (n = 59 girls, mean age 15.4 ± 2.6 years boys and 15.1 ± 2.1 years girls, mean BMI z-score 3.2 ± 0.6 boys and 3.5 ± 0.6 girls anthropometric and fasting laboratory chemical parameters were measured before and after an in-patient long-term therapy (mean durance 5.6 ± 2.3 months. IAF was determined by measuring the intra-abdominal depth (IAD via ultrasound. Results: IAD was higher in boys as compared to girls (58.0 ± 22.4 mm vs. 51.3 ± 16.0 mm. IAD values were positively associated with BMI-z scores, waist circumferences, HOMA-IR and serum levels of γGT, hs-CRP and IL-6 in both genders. In boys, but not in girls, IAD was significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglycerides, ALT as well as adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol. After a marked mean weight loss of -27.1 ± 16.2 kg (-20.1 ± 7.9% in boys and of -20.5 ± 11.5 kg (-17.3 ± 7.1% in girls, IAD decreased by -20.7 ± 16.2 mm (--32.4 ± 16.9% in boys and by -18.4 ± 12,7 mm (-34.3 ± 18.4% in girls, resulting in more pronounced ameliorations of cardiovascular risk factors in boys than in girls. Conclusions: The present study indicates that IAF assessed by ultrasound is a good indicator for the cardiometabolic risk factor profile in extremely obese adolescents. Associations between IAF and risk factors are more pronounced in boys than in girls.

  18. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for abdominal fat in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a growing public health problem that affects most people over the age of 65 years and abdominal obesity is one of the risk factors for the development of these diseases. There are several methods that can be used to measure body fat, but their accuracy needs to be evaluated, especially in specific populations such as the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of anthropometric indicators to estimate the percentage of abdominal fat in subjects aged 80 years or older. A total of 125 subjects ranging in age from 80 to 95 years (83.5 ± 3, including 79 women (82.4 ± 3years and 46 men (83.6 ± 3 years, were studied. The following anthropometric indicators were used: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The percentage of abdominal fat was measured by DEXA. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using an ROC curve. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0. 578, 0. 934 and 0. 756 for BMI, respectively; 0.703, 0.820 and 0.761 for WC; 0.938, 0.213 and 0.575 for WHR, and 0.984, 0.344 and 0.664 for WHtR. BMI and WC were the anthropometric indicators with the largest area under the curve and were therefore more adequate to identify the presence or absence of abdominal obesity.

  19. Suprascarpal fat pad thickness may predict venous drainage patterns in abdominal wall flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, John; Pitcher, Austin A; Small, Kevin; Otterburn, David M

    2016-02-01

    Abdominal wall flaps are routinely used in reconstructive procedures. In some patients inadequate venous drainage from the deep vein may cause fat necrosis or flap failure. Occasionally the superficial inferior epigastric vessels (SIEV) are of sufficient size to allow for microvascular revascularization. This study looked at the ratio of the sub- and suprascarpal fat layers, the number of deep system perforators, and SIEV diameter to determine any correlation of the fat topography and SIEV. 50 abdominal/pelvic CT angiograms (100 hemiabdomens) were examined in women aged 34-70 years for number of perforators, SIEV diameter, and fat pad thickness above and below Scarpa's fascia. Data was analyzed using multivariate model. The average suprascarpal and subscarpal layers were 18.6 ± 11.5 mm and 6.2 ± 7.2 mm thick, respectively. The average SIEV diameter was 2.06 ± 0.81 mm and the average number of perforators was 2.09 ± 1.03 per hemiabdomen. Hemiabdomens with suprascarpal thickness>23 mm had greater SIEV diameter [2.69 mm vs. 1.8 mm (P fat layer thickness did not correlate with the number of perforators. Neither subscarpal fat thickness nor suprascarpal-to-subscarpal fat layer thickness correlated significantly with SIEV caliber or number of perforators in multivariate model. Suprascarpal fat pad thicker than 23 mm had larger SIEVs irrespective of the number of deep system perforators. This may indicate a cohort of patients at risk of venous congestion from poor venous drainage if only the deep system is revascularized. We recommend harvesting the SIEV in patients with suprascarpal fat pad >23 mm to aid in superficial drainage. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Cocaine's appetite for fat and the consequences on body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, Lawrence; Ersche, Karen D

    2015-03-01

    For many individuals in treatment for cocaine dependence, weight gain is a substantial problem during recovery. This weight gain causes significant distress and seems to increase the risk of relapse. The mechanisms underlying cocaine's effects on weight remain elusive. It is widely assumed that this weight gain reflects a metabolic or behavioural compensatory response to the cessation of cocaine use. Here we challenge this assumption and outline potential mechanisms by which chronic cocaine use produces disturbances in the regulation of fat intake and storage, through its effects on the central and peripheral nervous systems, specifically the sympathetic nervous system. We hypothesize that the cocaine-induced alteration in fat regulation results in cocaine users developing a pronounced appetite for fatty food but keeps their fat mass low. This altered fat appetite subsequently leads to excessive weight gain when individuals enter treatment and stop using cocaine. Our aim is to shed light on the neurobiological mechanisms that may underlie the alterations in eating and fat regulation in cocaine-dependent individuals, to open up potential new avenues to support these individuals in recovery.

  1. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  2. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  3. Effect of Gender on the Total Abdominal Fat, Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Abdominal Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue among Indian Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Jaya Prakash; Kumari, Savita; Jain, Sanjay

    2016-04-01

    Abdominal obesity is a better marker of adverse metabolic profile than generalized obesity in hypertensive subjects. Further, gender has effect on adiposity and its distribution. Effect of gender on obesity and the distribution of fat in different sub-compartments of abdomen among Indian hypertensive subjects. This observational study included 278 adult subjects (Males-149 & Females-129) with essential hypertension from a tertiary care centre in north India over one year. A detailed history taking and physical examination including anthropometry were performed in all patients. Total Abdominal Fat (TAF) and abdominal adipose tissue sub-compartments like Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue (IAAT) and Sub-Cutaneous Adipose Tissue (SCAT) were measured using the predictive equations developed for Asian Indians. Female hypertensive subjects had higher Body Mass Index (BMI) with more overweight (BMI ≥ 23kg/m(2)), and obesity (BMI≥ 25 kg/m(2)). Additionally, they had higher prevalence of central obesity based on both Waist Circumference (WC) criteria (WC≥ 90 cm in males and WC≥ 80 cm in females) and TAF criteria {≥245.6 cm(2) (males) and ≥203.46 cm(2) (females)} than male patients. But there was no difference in the prevalence of central obesity based on Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) criteria (WHR ≥0.90 in males and WHR ≥ 0.85 in females) between two genders. High TAF & IAAT were present in more females although there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT between two genders. Female hypertensive subjects were more obese with higher abnormal TAF & IAAT compared to male patients. However, there was no difference in the distribution of high SCAT among them.

  4. Fat necrosis after abdominal surgery: A pitfall in interpretation of FDG-PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Tima; Lotan, Eyal; Klang, Eyal; Nissan, Johnatan; Goldstein, Jeffrey; Goshen, Elinor; Ben-Haim, Simona; Apter, Sara; Chikman, Bar

    2018-06-01

    We describe FDG-PET/CT findings of postoperative fat necrosis in patients following abdominal surgery, and evaluate their changes in size and FDG uptake over time. FDG-PET/CT scans from January 2007-January 2016 containing the term 'fat necrosis' were reviewed. Lesions meeting radiological criteria of fat necrosis in patients with prior abdominal surgery were included. Forty-four patients, 30 males, mean age 68.4 ± 11.0 years. Surgeries: laparotomy (n=37; 84.1 %), laparoscopy (n=3; 6.8 %), unknown (n=4; 9.1 %). CTs of all lesions included hyperdense well-defined rims surrounding a heterogeneous fatty core. Sites: peritoneum (n=34; 77 %), omental fat (n=19; 43 %), subcutaneous fat (n=8; 18 %), retroperitoneum (n=2; 5 %). Mean lesion long axis: 33.6±24.9 mm (range: 13.0-140.0). Mean SUVmax: 2.6±1.1 (range: 0.6-5.1). On serial CTs (n=34), lesions decreased in size (p=0.022). Serial FDG-PET/CT (n=24) showed no significant change in FDG-avidity (p=0.110). Mean SUVmax did not correlate with time from surgery (p=0.558) or lesion size (p=0.259). Postsurgical fat necrosis demonstrated characteristic CT features and may demonstrate increased FDG uptake. However, follow-up of subsequent imaging scans showed no increases in size or FDG-avidity. Awareness of this entity is important to avoid misinterpretation of findings as recurrent cancer. • Postsurgical fat necrosis may mimic cancer in FDG-PET/CT. • Follow-up of fat necrosis showed no increase in FDG intensity. • CT follow-up showed a decrease in lesion size. • FDG uptake did not correlate with time lapsed from surgery.

  5. Determination of abdominal fat thickness using dual electrode separation in the focused impedance method (FIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surovy, Nusrat Jahan; Billah, Md Masum; Haowlader, Salahuddin; Al-Quaderi, Golam Dastegir; Rabbani, K Siddique-e

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat layer thickness in the abdomen is a risk indicator of several diseases and disorders like diabetes and heart problems and could be used as a measure of fitness. Skinfold measurement using mechanical calipers is simple but prone to error. Ultrasound scanning techniques are yet to be established as accurate methods for this purpose. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans can provide the answer but are expensive and not available widely. Some initiatives were made earlier to use electrical impedance to this end, but had inadequacies. In the first part of this paper, a 4-electrode focused impedance method (FIM) with different electrode separations has been studied for its possible use in the determination of abdominal fat thickness in a localized region. For this, a saline phantom was designed to provide different electrode separations and different layers of resistive materials adjacent to the electrodes. The background saline simulated the internal organs having low impedance while the resistive layers simulated the subcutaneous fat. The plot of the measured impedance with electrode separation had different ‘slopes’ for different thicknesses of resistive layers, which offered a method to obtain an unknown thickness of subcutaneous fat layer. In the second part, measurements were performed on seven human subjects using two electrode separations. Fat layer thickness was measured using mechanical calipers. A plot of the above ‘slope’ against fat thickness could be fitted using a straight line with an R 2 of 0.93. Then this could be used as a calibration curve for the determination of unknown fat thickness. Further work using more accurate CT and MRI measurements would give a better calibration curve for practical use of this non-invasive and low-cost technique in abdominal fat thickness measurement. (paper)

  6. Reproducibility of ultrasonography for assessing abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, A; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbæk, Annelli

    2013-01-01

    the reproducibility of this method have been published.Objective:The aim of this study was to investigate the reproducibility of ultrasonography in the assessment of abdominal fat distribution in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.Design and Methods:Ultrasonography was used to estimate visceral......- and interobserver variation, and Bland-Altman plots were drawn for all three substudies.Results:Coefficients of variation for intra- and interobserver variation were in the range 3.4-6.1%, except for interobserver variation for subcutaneous fat (9.5%). Short-term variation over a median of 35 days had a coefficient...

  7. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  8. Differential Nongenetic Impact of Birth Weight Versus Third-Trimester Growth Velocity on Glucose Metabolism and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Abdominal Obesity in Young Healthy Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilgaard, Kasper; Mosbech, Thomas Hammershaimb; Grunnet, Louise

    2011-01-01

    Context: Low birth weight is associated with type 2 diabetes, which to some extent may be mediated via abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance. Fetal growth velocity is high during the third trimester, constituting a potential critical window for organ programming. Intra-pair differences among......-pair differences in young healthy twins.Methods: Fifty-eight healthy twins (42 monozygotic/16 dizygotic) aged 18-24 yr participated. Insulin sensitivity was assessed using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps. Whole-body fat was assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan, whereas abdominal visceral and sc fat...

  9. Skin Colour, Abdominal Fat, and Carcass Fat of Male Alabio Duck (Anas plathyrhincos Borneo Fed Azolla Based Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Samudera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This was conducted to know the effect of Azzola usage in their dietary toward skin color abdomen fat and carcass fat of male Alabio duck. The subject of this research was male Alabio duck attain the age 3 weeks as number 80 tails, with average first body weight 390,82 ± 0,63 g.  The dietary contain 16% protein and 3000 kcal energy.  Observation parameters including abdomen fat percentage, carcass fat, and skin color. Complete Random Design (RAL consist of 4 treatments and 5 repeating was applied.  Each treatment unit consisted of 4 tails of male Alabio duck.  Set as treatment was levels of Azzola pinnata flour usage as much as 0 (A0; 7.5 (A2; 15 (A3; and 22.5% (A4.  The effect of treatment towards abdomen fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 1.50; 1.41; 1.23; 0.92 %, carcass fat (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 7.99; 7.53; 5.74; 5.25 %, and skin color (A0, A1, A2, and A3 / 2.66; 3.62; 3.94; 4.20.  this research showed result of that treatment influence was significantly difference (P < 0.05.   Conclusion of this research, that azolla usage within dietary is able to decrease abdomen fat degree and carcass fat, reform skin color, thus, produce yellow color or un-pale. (Animal Production 10(3: 164-167 (2008   Key Words: Alabio duck, azolla, skin color, abdomen fat, carcass fat

  10. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Toshiharu; Kano, Hiroko; Shin, Kouichi; Konjiki, Ou; Ohsawa, Yoko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author)

  11. Abdominal fat volume estimation by stereology on CT: a comparison with manual planimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manios, G.E.; Mazonakis, M.; Damilakis, J. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Voulgaris, C.; Karantanas, A. [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    To deploy and evaluate a stereological point-counting technique on abdominal CT for the estimation of visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) volumes. Stereological volume estimations based on point counting and systematic sampling were performed on images from 14 consecutive patients who had undergone abdominal CT. For the optimization of the method, five sampling intensities in combination with 100 and 200 points were tested. The optimum stereological measurements were compared with VAF and SAF volumes derived by the standard technique of manual planimetry on the same scans. Optimization analysis showed that the selection of 200 points along with the sampling intensity 1/8 provided efficient volume estimations in less than 4 min for VAF and SAF together. The optimized stereology showed strong correlation with planimetry (VAF: r = 0.98; SAF: r = 0.98). No statistical differences were found between the two methods (VAF: P = 0.81; SAF: P = 0.83). The 95 % limits of agreement were also acceptable (VAF: -16.5 %, 16.1 %; SAF: -10.8 %, 10.7 %) and the repeatability of stereology was good (VAF: CV = 4.5 %, SAF: CV = 3.2 %). Stereology may be successfully applied to CT images for the efficient estimation of abdominal fat volume and may constitute a good alternative to the conventional planimetric technique. (orig.)

  12. Cerebral Fat Embolism: Diffusion-weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.W.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To demonstrate the diffusion-weighted (DWI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, and the follow-up MRI findings, of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial DWI and clinical findings of six patients with cerebral fat embolism were retrospectively evaluated. The finding of DWI with a b-value of 1000 s/mm 2 (b=1000) was compared with that of DWI with a b-value of 0 s/mm 2 (b=0). In three patients who underwent follow-up MRI, the interval change of the lesion on T2-weighted images was investigated. RESULTS: The characteristic DWI finding of cerebral fat embolism in the acute stage was multiple, hyperintense, dot-like lesions disseminated in the brain. These lesions were distributed dominantly in the bilateral border-zone areas. Some lesions had an ancillary location including the cortex, deep white matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. The lesions were more intense and numerous in DWI (b=1000) than in DWI (b=0). The findings on the follow-up T2-weighted images were multiple confluent hyperintense lesions in the white matter with progression since the initial MRI. CONCLUSION: DWI could be a sensitive tool for detecting cerebral fat embolism in the acute phase. It is recommended that DWI be included in the initial evaluation of cerebral fat embolism with MRI

  13. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM...

  14. Normal Weight but Low Muscle Mass and Abdominally Obese: Implications for the Cardiometabolic Risk Profile in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beijers, Rosanne J H C G; van de Bool, Coby; van den Borst, Bram; Franssen, Frits M E; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J

    2017-06-01

    It is well established that low muscle mass affects physical performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We hypothesize that combined low muscle mass and abdominal obesity may also adversely influence the cardiometabolic risk profile in COPD, even in those with normal weight. The cardiometabolic risk profile and the responsiveness to 4 months high-intensity exercise training was assessed in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass stratified by abdominal obesity. This is a cross-sectional study including 81 clinically stable patients with COPD (age 62.5 ± 8.2 years; 50.6% males; forced expiratory volume in 1 second 55.1 ± 19.5 percentage predicted) with fat-free mass index risk profile. Triglycerides showed a significant decrease, while the HOMA-IR increased. Abdominal obesity is highly prevalent in normal-weight patients with COPD with low muscle mass who showed an increased cardiometabolic risk compared with patients without abdominal obesity. This cardiometabolic risk profile was not altered after 4 months of exercise training. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interleukins 6 and 8 and abdominal fat depots are distinct correlates of lipid moieties in healthy pre- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Dyer, Roy B; Trushin, Sergey A; Bondar, Olga P; Singh, Ravinder J; Klee, George G

    2016-12-01

    Available data associate lipids concentrations in men with body mass index, anabolic steroids, age, and certain cytokines. Data were less clear in women, especially across the full adult lifespan, and when segmented by premenopausal and postmenopausal status. 120 healthy women (60 premenopausal and 60 postmenopausal) in Olmsted County, MN, USA, a stable well studied clinical population. Dependent variables: measurements of 10 h fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. testosterone, estrone, estradiol, 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone, and sex-hormone binding globulin (by mass spectrometry); insulin, glucose, and albumin; abdominal visceral, subcutaneous, and total abdominal fat [abdominal visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, total abdominal fat by computerized tomography scan]; and a panel of cytokines (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Multivariate forward-selection linear-regression analysis was applied constrained to P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal visceral fat (P abdominal fat and interleukin-8 (P = 2.0 × 10 -5 , 16.9 % of variance; and P = 0.0031, 9.4 % of variance, respectively). Premenopausal vs. postmenopausal comparisons identified specific relationships that were stronger in premenopausal than postmenopausal individuals, and vice versa. Age was a stronger correlate of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; interleukin-6 of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein; and both sex-hormone binding globulin and total abdominal fat of non high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in premenopausal than postmenopausal women. Conversely, sex-hormone binding globulin, abdominal visceral fat, interleukin-8, adiponectin were stronger correlates of triglycerides; abdominal visceral fat, and testosterone of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and age of both non high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein in postmenopausal than premenopausal women. Our data

  16. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and non-fermented Ginkgo biloba on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality of Peking duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Zhou, Jinglong; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2017-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and non-fermented G. biloba (NFG) on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality, 270 female Peking ducks were randomly assigned to the following experimental groups: a control group (fed a basal diet), an NFG group (fed a basal diet + 0.3% NFG), and an FG group (fed a basal diet + 0.3% FG). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly, and feed conversion ratio was calculated to assess growth performance. After 6 wk, 18 ducks from each group were killed. Abdominal fat ratio and pH (at 45 min and 24 h postmortem), color parameters (lightness, redness, and yellowness), water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force, and intramuscular fat and fatty acid contents were measured. Six more ducks were killed to isolate RNA from their abdominal fat tissue for measurements of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), obese (leptin), and adiponectin (ADP) expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that body weight gain was higher in the FG group than in the control and NFG groups, whereas feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat contents were lower in the NFG and FG groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). The NFG and FG groups had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (mainly palmitic acid) and higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) than the control group. The mRNA expressions of PPARγ, leptin, and ADP in abdominal fat tissue were significantly increased in the NFG and FG groups, and the mRNA expression of PPARγ was higher in the FG group than in the NFG group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that fermenting G. biloba reduces the deposition of abdominal fat and improves the fatty acid profile of Peking duck meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Can abdominal bioelectrical impedance refine the determination of visceral fat from waist circumference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, S; Blundell, H L; Evans, W D; Griffiths, H; Newcombe, R G; Rees, D A

    2009-01-01

    Ryo et al (2005 Diabetes Care 28 451–3) reported a new method for measuring the visceral fat area (VFA) by combining abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with measurement of waist circumference (WC), but very few methodological details were provided. Furthermore, the study did not test the use of WC alone as an indicator of VFA even though others had previously reported a strong correlation. We sought to determine the optimal measurement technique and analysis for measuring VFA by abdominal BIA and WC. 18 volunteers (age 23–64 years) underwent measurement of WC, abdominal impedance (Bodystat 500 four-electrode system) and a single cross-sectional CT scan at the umbilicus. VFA derived using WC 3 and measurements of abdominal impedance from electrode pairs sited at the flank predicted the value of VFA measured by CT with correlation r = 0.904 (p 1.9 alone, without involving BIA at all, provided a similar correlation (r = 0.923). Our small preliminary study shows that abdominal BIA is potentially a practicable non-invasive technique for measurement of VFA but casts doubt on whether it adds any value to the use of WC alone. Larger studies are now required to test this finding. (note)

  19. Insulin sensitivity, fat distribution, and adipocytokine response to different diets in lean and obese cats before and after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, M; Thomaseth, K; Waldron, M; Ferguson, D C

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in cats and a risk factor for diabetes. It has been postulated that cats are always gluconeogenic and that the rise in obesity might be related to high dietary carbohydrates. We examined the effect of a high-carbohydrate/low-protein (HC) and a high-protein/low-carbohydrate (HP) diet on glucose and fat metabolism during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, adipocytokines, and fat distribution in 12 lean and 16 obese cats before and after weight loss. Feeding diet HP led to greater heat production in lean but not in obese cats. Regardless of diet, obese cats had markedly decreased glucose effectiveness and insulin resistance, but greater suppression of nonesterified fatty acids during the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp was seen in obese cats on diet HC compared with lean cats on either diet or obese cats on diet HP. In contrast to humans, obese cats had abdominal fat equally distributed subcutaneously and intra-abdominally. Weight loss normalized insulin sensitivity; however, increased nonesterified fatty acid suppression was maintained and fat loss was less in cats on diet HC. Adiponectin was negatively and leptin positively correlated with fat mass. Lean cats and cats during weight loss, but not obese cats, adapted to the varying dietary carbohydrate/protein content with changes in substrate oxidation. We conclude that diet HP is beneficial through maintenance of normal insulin sensitivity of fat metabolism in obese cats, facilitating the loss of fat during weight loss, and increasing heat production in lean cats. These data also show that insulin sensitivity of glucose and fat metabolism can be differentially regulated in cats.

  20. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry spine scans to determine abdominal fat in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J. W.; Blew, R. M.; Going, S. B.; Hsu, C-H; Lee, M. C.; Lee, V. R.; Caan, B.J.; Kwan, M.L.; Lohman, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    Body composition may be a better predictor of chronic disease risk than body mass index (BMI) in older populations. Objectives We sought to validate spine fat fraction (%) from dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) spine scans as a proxy for total abdominal fat. Methods Total body DXA scan abdominal fat regions of interest (ROI) that have been previously validated by magnetic resonance imaging were assessed among healthy, postmenopausal women who also had antero-posterior spine scans (n=103). ROIs were 1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and 2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC), manually selected by two independent raters, and 3) trunk, auto-selected by DXA software. Intra-class correlation coefficients evaluated intra and inter-rater reliability on a random subset (N=25). Linear regression models, validated by bootstrapping, assessed the relationship between spine fat fraction (%) and total abdominal fat (%) ROIs. Results Mean age, BMI and total body fat were: 66.1 ± 4.8y, 25.8 ± 3.8kg/m2 and 40.0 ± 6.6%, respectively. There were no significant differences within or between raters. Linear regression models adjusted for several participant and scan characteristics were equivalent to using only BMI and spine fat fraction. The model predicted L2-L4 (Adj. R2: 0.83) and L2-IC (Adj.R2:0.84) abdominal fat (%) well; the adjusted R2 for trunk fat (%) was 0.78. Model validation demonstrated minimal over-fitting (Adj. R2: 0.82, 0.83, and 0.77 for L2-L4, L2-IC, and trunk fat respectively). Conclusions The strong correlation between spine fat fraction and DXA abdominal fat measures make it suitable for further development in post-menopausal chronic disease risk prediction models. PMID:27416964

  1. Abdominal fat-evaluation by use of single scan computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, V.; Steinkamp, M.; Kirchner, J.; Fischer, H.; Diedrich, C.F.; Kollath, J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies emphasised the importance of the relationship between intraabdominal and total body adipose tissue as a risk factor for the development of metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether a single scan computed tomography is able to determine the whole intraabdominal fat volume with high accuracy and reproducibility. Materials and methods: Regions of interests (ROIs) were drawn manually for measuring intraabdominal fat in 51 unsuspicious abdominal CT. Results: The sexual differentiation of adipose tissue already described in a lot of studies could be confirmed in this study. Fat still predominates in females in lower half of the body (gynoid obesity). In men it predominates in the upper half (android obesity). Significant correlation concerning measuring the whole intraabdominal fat volume could be found in L1-level in women (r=0.992) and in L2-level in men (r=0.992). Measurement of a single scan enables us to assess whole intraabdominal fat volume due to a special formula. Conclusion: The determination of intraabdominal fat measured by a single scan computed tomography is a procedure associated with high accuracy and reproducibility. (orig.) [de

  2. Relationship Between Changes in Fat and Lean Depots Following Weight Loss and Changes in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Peter M

    2018-04-04

    Gluteofemoral fat mass has been associated with improved cardiovascular disease risk factors. It is not clear if loss of this protective fat during weight loss partially negates the effect of loss of visceral fat. The aim of this study was to examine regional fat loss in a large weight-loss cohort from one center and to determine if fat loss in the leg and total lean tissue loss is harmful. We combined the data from 7 of our previously published 3-month weight-loss studies and examined the relationship between regional fat and lean tissue loss and changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors in 399 participants. At baseline, leg fat was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and inversely with fasting triglyceride level in both sexes. Abdominal lean tissue was also related to systolic blood pressure in men. Changes in regional fat and lean tissue were positively associated with changes in glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic and diastolic blood pressure ( r =0.11-0.22, P lean tissue dominating in multivariate regression. After adjustment for total weight or total fat change, these relationships disappeared except for a positive relationship between arm and lean leg mass loss and changes in triglycerides and systolic blood pressure. Loss of leg fat and leg lean tissue was directly associated with beneficial changes in cardiovascular disease risk markers. Loss of lean tissue may not have an adverse effect on cardiovascular disease risk, and measures to retain lean tissue during weight loss may not be necessary. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  3. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens. We used the Del-Mar 14 K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray to take time-course snapshots of global gene transcription in abdominal fat of juvenile [1-11 weeks of age (wk)] chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages (8 and 36 wk). Further, a RNA sequencing analysis was completed on the same abdominal fat samples taken from high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) cockerels at 7 wk, the age with the greatest divergence in body weight (3.2-fold) and visceral fatness (19.6-fold). Time-course microarray analysis revealed 312 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05) as the main effect of genotype (HG versus LG), 718 genes in the interaction of age and genotype, and 2918 genes as the main effect of age. The RNA sequencing analysis identified 2410 differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat of HG versus LG chickens at 7 wk. The HG chickens are fatter and over-express numerous genes that support higher rates of visceral adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In abdominal fat of LG chickens, we found higher expression of many genes involved in hemostasis, energy catabolism and endocrine signaling, which likely contribute to their leaner phenotype and slower growth. Many transcription factors and their direct target genes identified in HG and LG chickens could be involved in their divergence in adiposity and growth rate. The present analyses of the visceral fat transcriptome in

  4. Association between abdominal fat distribution and atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oike, Miki; Yokokawa, Hirohide; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Haniu, Tomomi; Oka, Fukuko; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Isonuma, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between abdominal fat distribution (e.g., abdominal visceral fat area [VFA], subcutaneous fat area [SFA], and total fat area [TFA]), waist circumference (WC), or body mass index (BMI) and atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery after adjusting for common risk factors. The present study is a hospital-based, cross-sectional study. Study participants included 223 Japanese individuals who underwent a medical health checkup at Juntendo University Hospital, Tokyo, between December 2005 and August 2011. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between abdominal VFA, SFA, TFA, the VFA/SFA ratio, WC, or BMI and intima-media thickness [IMT] (mean IMT≥1.1mm or maximum IMT≥1.2mm) as atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that VFA (OR for ≥150cm(2) versus <100cm(2), 3.88; 95% CI, 1.39-10.85), BMI (OR for ≥27.6kg/m(2) versus <25kg/m(2), 5.22; 95% CI, 1.69-16.16), and TFA (OR for 200-285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 4.15; 95% CI, 1.34-12.86: OR for ≥285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 5.53; 95% CI, 1.76-17.35) were significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes in men. After adjustment for BMI, only TFA (OR for ≥285cm(2) versus <200cm(2), 3.76; 95%CI, 1.03-13.79) in men was significantly associated with atherosclerotic changes in the carotid artery. Our results indicate that VFA, TFA, and BMI are independently associated with atherosclerotic changes in Japanese men. TFA may be considered as a valuable measure of atherosclerotic changes. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyk, Christopher W.; Chen, Chuming; Huang, Hongzhan; Wu, Cathy H.; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Duclos, Michel J.; Cogburn, Larry A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus) is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity) mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5–2.8-fold) difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses that govern

  6. The relationship between regional abdominal fat distribution and both insulin resistance and subclinical chronic inflammation in non-diabetic adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with a high risk of insulin resistance (IR) and its metabolic complications. It is still debated that distributions of adipose tissue relate to an excess risk of IR and chronic inflammation in different race. This study was designed to examine the relation between insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and central fat distribution in non-diabetic volunteers in Taiwanese. Methods There were 328 volunteers without family history of diabetes mellitus and with normal oral glucose tolerance test enrolled. Total body fat and abdominal fat were measured. Abdominal fat was categorized into intraperitoneal (IP), retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) fat. The IR index was estimated by homeostatic model assessment. Five inflammatory markers: adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosing factor-α (TNF-α), resistin and high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) were measured. Results IR was related to IP fat (r = 0.23, p fat, SC fat or total body fat. After correcting for age and sex, IP fat was the only significant predictor of IR (r2 = 58%, p = 0.001). Leptin showed the strongest relationship with all fat compartments (IP fat: r = 0.44, p = 0.001; RP fat: r = 0.36, p = 0.005, SC fat: r = 0.54, p fat: r = 0.61, p fat (r = 0.29, p = 0.004; r = -0.29, p = 0.005, respectively), but not RP, or SC fat. TNF-α and resistin were not correlated to any fat compartment. After correcting for age and sex, leptin variance was mostly explained by SC fat (41.3%), followed by IP fat (33.6%) and RP fat (25.3%). The hs-CRP and adiponectin variance were mostly explained by IP fat (40% and 49% respectively). Conclusions IP fat is better predictors of IR and subclinical chronic inflammation in Taiwanese adults. A disproportionate accumulation of abdominal fat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24684833

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and its utility in clinical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gameren, Ingrid I.; Hazenberg, BPC; Bijzet, J.; van Rijswijk, M.H.

    Objective. Aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat is a simple and fast method for detecting systemic amyloidosis; however, the sensitivity of this approach remains undetermined. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of fat tissue aspiration for detecting systemic amyloidosis and the

  8. Correlation of Abdominal Fat Distribution with Different Types of Diabetes in a Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anhui Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate abdominal fat distribution in Chinese subjects with diabetes and its correlation with different types of diabetes. A total of 176 diabetic subjects were enrolled, 92 with type 1 and 84 with type 2, with a mean age of 27.41 and 49.3 yrs. No subject has history of severe diseases. Multi-slice CT was used to measure total abdominal adipose (TA and visceral adipose (VA tissues. Subcutaneous adipose (SA tissue was obtained by subtracting VA from TA. There were differences between subjects with T1DM and T2DM for TA, VA, SA, VA/SA, body mass index (BMI, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein, but not total Cholesterol or low density lipoprotein. There were positive correlations between TA, VA, SA, VA/SA and T1DM and T2DM (P0.86. In subjects with T1DM, VA was negatively correlated with HDL, positively with BMI and age, and SA was positively correlated with BMI and sex (P0.86 for all. In subjects with T2DM, VA was positively correlated to BMI, TG and age, and SA was positively correlated to TG and sex (P0.86 for all. Abdominal fat content was positively correlated to diabetes in Chinese, which differs in different types of diabetes.

  9. Consumo de bebida alcoólica e adiposidade abdominal em doadores de sangue Consumo de bebida alcohólica y adiposidad abdominal en donadores de sangre Alcohol consumption and abdominal fat in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    ón lineal múltiple, con los modelos ajustados para la edad, actividad física, tabaquismo y adiposidad total. RESULTADOS: Posterior al ajuste, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/cuadril se mantuvieron asociados positivamente al consumo de cerveza (p=0,02 y al total de alcohol consumido (p=0,01 y 0,03, respectivamente. El consumo de aguardiente mostró asociación solamente con la circunferencia de la cintura (p=0,04. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de alcohol, particularmente de cerveza, se asoció con la localización abdominal de gordura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of male blood donors (n=1,235, aged 20-59 years, in the city of Cuiabá, Central-West Brazil, between August 1999 and January 2000. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were indicators of abdominal fat, adjusted for total adiposity. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Alcohol consumption was evaluated using a questionnaire collecting information on type, frequency, and amount of consumption. The association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat was assessed through multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, physical activity, smoking, and percent of body fat. RESULTS: After adjustment, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were positively associated with beer (p = 0.02 and total alcohol consumption (p=0.01; p=0.03, respectively. Waist circumference was positively associated with spirit consumption (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake, particularly beer, was positively associated to abdominal fat.

  10. A Common Variant of NGEF Is Associated with Abdominal Visceral Fat in Korean Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seungbok; Son, Ho-Young; Hwang, Jinha; Chae, Jeesoo; Yun, Jae Moon; Kwon, Hyuktae; Kim, Jong-Il; Cho, Belong

    2015-01-01

    Central adiposity, rather than body mass index (BMI), is a key pathophysiological feature of the development of obesity-related diseases. Although genetic studies by anthropometric measures such as waist circumference have been widely conducted, genetic studies for abdominal fat deposition measured by computed tomography (CT) have been rarely performed. A total of 1,243 participants who were recruited from two health check-up centers were included in this study. We selected four and three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NGEF and RGS6, respectively, and analyzed the associations between the seven SNPs and central adiposity measured by CT using an additive, dominant, or recessive model. The participants were generally healthy middle-aged men (50.7 ± 5.3 years). In the additive model, the rs11678490 A allele of NGEF was significantly associated with total adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (all P fat-associated SNP, rs11678490 of NGEF, in Korean men. This study suggests that the genetic background of central adiposity and BMI is different, and that additional efforts should be made to find the unique genetic architecture of intra-abdominal fat accumulation.

  11. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  12. Subcutaneous Infiltration of Carbon Dioxide (Carboxytherapy) for Abdominal Fat Reduction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Sadhwani, Divya; Geisler, Amelia; Aslam, Imran; Makin, Inder Raj S; Schlessinger, Daniel I; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Voravutinon, Nataya; Weil, Alexandra; Chen, Brian R; West, Dennis P; Veledar, Emir; Poon, Emily

    2018-04-23

    Non-invasive fat removal is preferred because of decreased downtime and lower perceived risk. It is important to seek new non-invasive fat removal treatments that are both safe and efficacious. To assess the extent to which carboxytherapy, the insufflation of carbon dioxide gas into subcutaneous fat, results in reduction of fat volume. Randomized, sham-controlled, split-body study. Adults (BMI 22-29) were randomized to receive five weekly infusions of 1000 cc CO 2 to one side of the abdomen, and five sham treatments to the contralateral side. Primary outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of fat layer thickness, as well as total circumference before and after treatment. Sixteen participants completed the study. Ultrasound measurement indicated less fat volume on the sides treated with carboxytherapy one week after the last treatment, (p=0.011), but was not maintained at 28 weeks. Total circumference decreased nominally but not significantly at Week 5 compared to baseline (p=0.0697). Participant body weights did not change over the entire course of the study (p=1.00) LIMITATIONS: Limitations included modest sample size and some sources of error in circumference and fat layer measurements. Carboxytherapy provides a transient decrease in subcutaneous fat that may not persist. Treatment is well-tolerated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Abdominal fat analyzed by DEXA scan reflects visceral body fat and improves the phenotype description and the assessment of metabolic risk in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyi; Wilson, Jenny L.; Khaksari, Mohammad; Cowley, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical studies have demonstrated a strong relationship between visceral fat content and metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes and liver steatosis. Obese mouse models are an excellent tool to study metabolic diseases; however, there are limited methods for the noninvasive measurement of fat distribution in mice. Although micromagnetic resonance imaging and microcomputed tomography are the “gold standards” in the measurement of fat distribution, more economical and accessible methods are required. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) is an effective method in characterizing fat content; however, it cannot discriminate between visceral and subcutaneous fat depots. We demonstrate that an evaluation of abdominal fat content measured by DEXA through the selection of one localized abdominal area strongly correlates with visceral fat content in C57BL/6J mice. We found that DEXA is able to measure fat pad volume ex vivo with high accuracy; however, the measurement of visceral fat in vivo shows an overestimation caused by subcutaneous tissue interference. The overestimation is almost constant for a wide range of values, and thus it is possible to correct the data for a more accurate estimation of visceral fat content. We demonstrate the utility of this technique in characterizing phenotypes of several obese mouse models (ob/ob, db/db, MC4R-KO, and DIO) and evaluating the effect of treatments on visceral fat content in longitudinal studies. Additionally, we also establish abdominal obesity as a potential biomarker for metabolic abnormalities (liver fat accumulation, insulin resistance/diabetes) in mice, similar to that described in humans. PMID:22761161

  14. Leisure-time physical activity and intra-abdominal fat in young adulthood: A monozygotic co-twin control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Väisänen, Karoliina; Aaltonen, Sari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M

    2016-05-01

    To investigate differences in abdominal fat compartments between young adult monozygotic twin pairs discordant for leisure-time physical activity. Ten young adult male monozygotic twin pairs (age range 32-36 years) discordant for leisure-time physical activity during the past 3 years were systematically selected from a population-based Finnish twin cohort. Magnetic resonance image at the level of the L2-L3 intervertebral disc was used to predict intra-abdominal and subcutaneous abdominal fat masses. Dietary intake was assessed with a 4-day food diary. Inactive twins had 31% more intra-abdominal fat than their active co-twins (mean difference 0.52 kg, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.91, P = 0.016), whereas the difference in subcutaneous abdominal fat was only 13% (P = 0.21) and 3% in body mass index (P = 0.28). Intraperitoneal fat mass was 41% higher among inactive twins compared to their active co-twins (mean difference 0.41 kg, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.70, P = 0.012). Dietary intake did not differ between co-twins. A lower level of physical activity is related to greater accumulation of intra-abdominal fat among healthy adult males in their mid-30s. The findings highlight the importance of leisure-time physical activity independent of genes and diet in the prevention of intra-abdominal fat accumulation from early adulthood onward. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  15. The Impact of Abdominal Fat Levels on All-Cause Mortality Risk in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yajima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although an increased body mass index is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, known as the “obesity paradox,” the relationship of abdominal fat levels with all-cause mortality has rarely been studied. We investigated the impact of computed-tomography-measured abdominal fat levels (visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA on all-cause mortality in this population. A total of 201 patients undergoing HD were enrolled and cross-classified by VFA and SFA levels according to each cutoff point, VFA of 78.7 cm2 and SFA of 93.2 cm2, based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve as following; group 1 (G1: lower VFA and lower SFA, G2: higher VFA and lower SFA, G3: lower VFA and higher SFA, G4: higher VFA and higher SFA. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 67 patients died. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed 10-year survival rates of 29.0%, 50.0%, 62.6%, and 72.4% in G1, G2, G3, and G4 (p < 0.0001, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–1.09, p = 0.070 for G2 vs. G1, 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76, p = 0.0065 for G3 vs. G1, and 0.21 (95% CI 0.07–0.62, p = 0.0035 for G4 vs. G1, respectively. In conclusion, combined SFA and VFA levels were negatively associated with risks for all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD. These results are a manifestation of the “obesity paradox.”

  16. Age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution in Japanese adults in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Masako; Oka, Rie; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakamura, Koshi; Moriuchi, Tadashi; Miyamoto, Susumu; Takeda, Yoshiyu; Yagi, Kunimasa; Yamagishi, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Early studies have indicated that body fat shifts from peripheral stores to central stores with aging. The objective of this study was to investigate age-related changes in abdominal fat distribution of Japanese men and women of the general population over a wide range of body mass indices (BMI). A total of 2,220 non-diabetic, apparently healthy Japanese adults (1,240 men and 980 women; age range 40-69 years) were included in the study sample. All subjects underwent a CT scan at the level of the umbilicus, and the areas of visceral adipose tissue (AT) and subcutaneous AT were quantified. When the subjects were stratified by BMI into 18.5-23.0 kg/m(2), 23.0-27.5 kg/m(2), and 27.5 kg/m(2) or higher, visceral AT was positively correlated with age in all of the BMI strata in both genders (pabdominal fat distribution, women retained the subcutaneous-dominant type of fat distribution up to 70 years.

  17. Association of abdominal fat with serum amylase in an older cohort: The Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Schrack, Jennifer A; Shardell, Michelle D; Egan, Josephine M; Studenski, Stephanie

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal fat is a major determinant of metabolic diseases in older individuals. Obesity and diabetes are associated with low serum amylase (SA) levels, but the association between SA and metabolic disease is poorly understood. We investigated the association of low SA with diabetes and sex-specific associations of serum amylase with abdominal fat in older adults. In community-dwelling volunteers from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (778 participants, age 66.8±13.6years), we assessed abdominal fat by computed tomography and diabetes status using the American Diabetes Association criteria. Linear regression analyses assessed the cross-sectional associations between abdominal fat and SA, and logistic regression assessed the odds of diabetes, given low SA. In unadjusted analyses, individuals in the lowest SA quartile (abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, dm(2)) or BMI. In adjusted analyses, VAT and SAT were significantly associated with SA in both sexes. Among women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with SAT or BMI; VAT (β=-0.117±0.048, Pabdominal visceral fat. In women, SA was more strongly associated with VAT than with BMI or SAT. These findings provide motivation for future mechanistic studies on SA's role in metabolic diseases. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements in predicting normal birth weight in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neff, Karl J

    2013-06-24

    To construct a clinical management matrix using serial fetal abdominal circumference measurements (ACMs) that will predict normal birth weight in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes (GDM) and reduce unnecessary ultrasound examination in women with GDM.

  19. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  20. Histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted in the temporomandibular joint of the rabbit following condylectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulis, G; Slavin, J; Morrison, W

    2011-02-01

    The histological fate of abdominal dermis-fat grafts implanted into the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) following condylectomy was studied. 21 rabbits underwent left TMJ discectomies and condylectomies; 6 were controls (Group A; no graft used); 15 (Group B) had autogenous abdominal grafts transplanted into the left TMJ. Animals were killed after 4, 12 and 20 weeks. Specimens of the TMJ were histologically and histomorphometrically evaluated. At 4 weeks, fat necrosis was clear in all specimens. The dermis component survived and formed cysts with no necrosis. By 12 weeks, viable fat deposits appeared with no evidence of necrotic fat. At 20 weeks, large amounts of viable fat were present in Group B specimens. Group A had no fat, although the missing condyles regenerated. In the presence of viable fat, Group B showed little condyle regeneration 20 weeks after condylectomy. Non-vascularised fat grafts do not survive transplantation, but stimulate neoadipogenesis. The fate of the dermis component of the graft is independent of the fat component. Fat in the joint space disrupts the regeneration of a new condylar head. Neoadipogensis inhibits growth of new bone and cartilage. This has clinical implications for TMJ ankylosis management and preventing heterotopic bone formation around prosthetic joints. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men. The Ohtori study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men. (author)

  2. Waist Circumference Adjusted for Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna; Borra, Ronald; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Iozzo, Patricia; Parkkola, Riitta; Nuutila, Pirjo; Ross, Robert; Allison, David B.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM) than WC alone. We studied the prediction of abdominal subcutaneous fat mass (ASFM) and IAFM by WC alone and by addition of BMI as an explanatory factor. Methodology/Principal Findings WC, BMI and magnetic resonance imaging data from 742 men and women who participated in clinical studies in Canada and Finland were pooled. Total adjusted squared multiple correlation coefficients (R2) of ASFM and IAFM were calculated from multiple linear regression models with WC and BMI as explanatory variables. Mean BMI and WC of the participants in the pooled sample were 30 kg/m2 and 102 cm, respectively. WC explained 29% of the variance in ASFM and 51% of the variance in IAFM. Addition of BMI to WC added 28% to the variance explained in ASFM, but only 1% to the variance explained in IAFM. Results in subgroups stratified by study center, sex, age, obesity level and type 2 diabetes status were not systematically different. Conclusion/Significance The prediction of IAFM by WC is not improved by addition of BMI. PMID:22384179

  3. Abdominal fat thickness measurement using Focused Impedance Method (FIM) - phantom study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haowlader, Salahuddin; Baig, Tanveer Noor; Siddique-e Rabbani, K.

    2010-04-01

    Abdominal fat thickness is a risk indicator of heart diseases, diabetes, etc., and its measurement is therefore important from the point of view of preventive care. Tetrapolar electrical impedance measurements (TPIM) could offer a simple and low cost alternative for such measurement compared to conventional techniques using CT scan and MRI, and has been tried by different groups. Focused Impedance Method (FIM) appears attractive as it can give localised information. An intuitive physical model was developed and experimental work was performed on a phantom designed to simulate abdominal subcutaneous fat layer in a body. TPIM measurements were performed with varying electrode separations. For small separations of current and potential electrodes, the measured impedance changed little, but started to decrease sharply beyond a certain separation, eventually diminishing gradually to negligible values. The finding could be explained using the intuitive physical model and gives an important practical information. TPIM and FIM may be useful for measurement of SFL thickness only if the electrode separations are within a certain specific range, and will fail to give reliable results if beyond this range. Further work, both analytical and experimental, are needed to establish this technique on a sound footing.

  4. Association of Changes in Abdominal Fat Quantity and Quality With Incident Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jane J; Pedley, Alison; Hoffmann, Udo; Massaro, Joseph M; Fox, Caroline S

    2016-10-04

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with adverse cardiometabolic risk profiles. This study explored the degree to which changes in abdominal fat quantity and quality are associated with changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Study participants (n = 1,106; 44.1% women; mean baseline age 45.1 years) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study Third Generation cohort who participated in the computed tomography (CT) substudy Exams 1 and 2. Participants were followed for 6.1 years on average. Abdominal adipose tissue volume in cm(3) and attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) were determined by CT-acquired abdominal scans. The mean fat volume change was an increase of 602 cm(3) for SAT and an increase of 703 cm(3) for VAT; the mean fat attenuation change was a decrease of 5.5 HU for SAT and an increase of 0.07 HU for VAT. An increase in fat volume and decrease in fat attenuation were associated with adverse changes in CVD risk factors. An additional 500 cm(3) increase in fat volume was associated with incident hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 for SAT; OR: 1.30 for VAT), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.15 for SAT; OR: 1.56 for VAT), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.43 for SAT; OR: 1.82 for VAT; all p abdominal adipose tissue attenuation. Most associations remained significant even after further accounting for body mass index change, waist circumference change, or respective abdominal adipose tissue volumes. Increasing accumulation of fat quantity and decreasing fat attenuation are associated with worsening of CVD risk factors beyond the associations with generalized adiposity, central adiposity, or respective adipose tissue volumes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Associations of parents' self, child, and other "fat talk" with child eating behaviors and weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Riley, Kristen E; Grilo, Carlos M

    2018-03-15

    Fat talk, negative communication about weight, is common in the media, peer groups, and families. Little is known about parental fat talk directed at oneself or others. This study examined associations between different forms of parental fat talk and child disordered eating behaviors and weight, and differences by child sex and age. Parents of preadolescents or adolescents (n = 581) reported fat talk about themselves (self-fat talk), others (obesity-fat talk), and their child (child-fat talk). 76.0% of parents reported regular self-fat talk in front of children, 51.5% reported obesity-fat talk, and 43.6% reported child-fat talk. Fat talk did not differ significantly between parents of preadolescents and adolescents but was more common with sons than daughters. Of the three forms of fat talk, only child-fat talk was associated with all child eating and weight variables (binge eating, overeating, secretive eating, and overweight/obesity); associations were strongest for adolescent girls. Child sex was associated with secretive eating and overweight/obesity. Parents reported using different forms of fat talk frequently. Parent self- and obesity-fat talk were reported more frequently, but child-fat talk was the most strongly associated with children's eating and weight. Because of associations with disordered eating behaviors, intervening to reduce fat talk might contribute to improving pediatric disordered eating and weight-related interventions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. High-intensity interval training reduces abdominal fat mass in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, F; Rousset, S; Pereira, B; Traore, A; de Pradel Del Amaze, P; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Boisseau, N

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m -2 ) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77-85% HR max , 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55-60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure whole-body and regional FM content, including abdominal adiposity and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and HbA 1c levels were measured. Levels of nutritional intake and physical activity were evaluated by 7-day self-reports. Dietary energy (caloric) intake, physical activity level and total body mass did not vary in either group from the beginning to the end of the training intervention. Overall, total FM decreased and total fat-free mass significantly increased over time (by around 2-3%). Total FM reduction at the end of the intervention was not significantly different between groups. However, significant loss of total abdominal (-8.3±2.2%) and visceral (-24.2±7.7%) FM was observed only with HIIT. Time effects were noted for HbA 1c and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. With no concomitant caloric restriction, an HIIT program in postmenopausal women with T2D (twice a week for 16 weeks) appeared to be more effective for reducing central obesity than MICT, and could be proposed as an alternative exercise training program for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1–7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5–14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative...... beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution....

  8. School-based study found that physical activity and aerobic fitness predicted increases in total body fat and abdominal fat at a mean age of 9.8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Anton; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K; Wollmer, Per; Andersen, Lars B; Dencker, Magnus

    2018-02-22

    We assessed whether baseline measurements of physical activity, aerobic fitness, body fat and abdominal fat were predictors of changes in body fat measurements over a two-year period. The study comprised of 204 children aged 9.8 ± 0.6 years with a normal body mass distribution, who recruited from four schools in middle-class areas of Malmö, Sweden, from 2001 to 2004. Peak oxygen uptake and physical activity were measured at baseline. Body fat was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and two years later. Physical activity, aerobic fitness and total body fat or abdominal fat were predictors of change in total body fat or abdominal fat over a period of two years. Changes in the percentage of body fat were not related to any of the baseline measurements. Our two-year follow-up of children with a mean age of 9.8 years at baseline showed that physical activity, aerobic fitness and body fat or abdominal fat predicted changes in total body fat or abdominal fat, but not the percentage of body fat. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The relationship of body mass index and abdominal fat on the radiation dose received during routine computed tomographic imaging of the abdomen and pelvis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Victoria O; McDermott, Shaunagh; Buckley, Orla; Allen, Sonya; Casey, Michael; O'Laoide, Risteard; Torreggiani, William C

    2012-11-01

    To determine the relationship of increasing body mass index (BMI) and abdominal fat on the effective dose acquired from computed tomography (CT) abdomen and pelvis scans. Over 6 months, dose-length product and total milliamp-seconds (mAs) from routine CT abdomen and pelvis scans of 100 patients were recorded. The scans were performed on a 64-slice CT scanner by using an automatic exposure control system. Effective dose (mSv) based on dose-length product, BMI, periumbilical fat thickness, and intra-abdominal fat were documented for each patient. BMI, periumbilical fat thickness, and intra-abdominal fat were compared with effective dose. Thirty-nine men and 61 women were included in the study (mean age, 56.3 years). The mean BMI was 26.2 kg/m(2). The mean effective dose was 10.3 mSv. The mean periumbilical fat thickness was 2.4 cm. Sixty-five patients had a small amount of intra-abdominal fat, and 35 had a large amount of intra-abdominal fat. The effective dose increased with increasing BMI (P abdominal fat (P abdominal fat significantly increases the effective dose received from CT abdomen and pelvis scans. Copyright © 2012 Canadian Association of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Does objectively measured physical activity modify the association between early weight gain and fat mass in young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Elin; Horta, Bernardo L; Wells, Jonathan; Brage, Soren; Barros, Fernando C; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro C

    2017-11-25

    Substantial evidence suggests that weight gain in early life is associated with increased adiposity and other metabolic disorders later in life. It is, however, unknown whether physical activity (PA) may modify these associations. We aimed to examine whether objectively measured PA at 30 years modified the associations between conditional weight gain in infancy (0-2 y) and childhood (2-4 y) with fat mass index (FMI) and visceral abdominal fat measured at age 30 years. Prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, including 1874 participants with weight data at birth, two and four years of age, and measures of FMI, visceral abdominal fat and PA at a mean age of 30.2 years. At age 30, time spent (min/day) in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured objectively using a wrist-worn accelerometer worn for four to seven consecutive days.. Multiple linear regression analyses was performed to assess the associations between conditional weight gain and outcome variables at 30 years, adjusting for covariates. We examined whether PA modified the association between conditional weight gain and the outcomes of interest by introducing an interaction term (conditional weight gain × PA) in the models. Conditional weight gain in infancy and childhood were both positively associated with later FMI (infancy weight gain: β = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.48, 0.88; P gain: β = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.70, 1.11; P gain and later FMI (β = -0.006, 95% CI: -0.011, -0.001; P = 0.029), suggesting stronger associations between weight gain and FMI in those with lower levels of MVPA. Conditional weight gain in childhood was also positively associated with visceral abdominal fat (β = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.15, 0424, P gain between 2 and 4 years of age is associated with increased FMI at age 30 years. However, higher levels of MVPA appear to attenuate this detrimental association.

  11. Association of ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac and coronary artery calcification in african ancestry men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Zmuda, Joseph M; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Nair, Sangeeta; Cvejkus, Ryan; Bunker, Clareann H; Patrick, Alan L; Wassel, Christina L; Miljkovic, Iva

    2017-08-01

    There is strong evidence that fat accumulating in non-adipose sites, "ectopic fat", is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), including vascular calcification. Most previous studies of this association have assessed only a single ectopic fat depot. Therefore, our aim was to assess the association of total, regional, and ectopic fat with abdominal aorto-illiac calcification (AAC) and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in 798 African ancestry men. Participants (mean age 62) were from the Tobago Bone Health Study cohort. Adiposity was assessed via clinical examination, dual x-ray absorptiometry, and computed tomography (CT). Ectopic fat depots included: abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), liver attenuation, and calf intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Vascular calcification was assessed by CT and quantified as present versus absent. Associations were tested using multiple logistic regression adjusted for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Models of ectopic fat were additionally adjusted for total body fat and standing height. All adiposity measures, except VAT, were associated with AAC. Lower liver attenuation or greater calf IMAT was associated with 1.2-1.3-fold increased odds of AAC (p fat measure was associated with CAC. Greater adiposity in the skeletal muscle and liver, but not in the visceral compartment, was associated with increased odds of AAC in African ancestry men. These results highlight the potential importance of both quantity and location of adiposity accumulation throughout the body. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  13. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Yang, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM

  14. The Influence of Abdominal and Ectopic Fat Accumulation on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Chongqing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xu; Liu, Yu-Hui; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang; Deng, Juan; Liu, Juan; He, Hong-Bo; Xu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-16

    To investigate the effects of abdominal obesity (AO) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) with or without AO on carotid arteries by determining carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). A total of 2745 Chinese Han adults (aged between 40 and 50 years old) were recruited and divided into 4 groups: (1) NW-no NAFL group: the normal body weight without NAFLD (n = 1888); (2) AO-no NAFL group: AO without NAFLD (n = 259); (3) NW-with NAFL group: NAFLD without AO (n = 93); and (4) AO-with NAFL group: AO with NAFLD (n = 505). The CIMT rate of each group was compared among 4 groups and the regression analysis was further used to correct confounders. We found that the NW-with NAFL group had a significantly higher CIMT rate than the AO-no NAFL group ([.87 ± .31] versus [.72 ± .29] P < .01) and the AO-with NAFL group ([.87 ± .31] versus [.79 ± .26], P < .01). The ectopic liver fat accumulation may increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Therefore, screening NAFLD in the population with normal weight may be beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis at an early stage. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Ramadan fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake and abdominal fat distribution in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, E B; Turan, G A; Ince, O; Karadeniz, M; Tatar, S; Kasap, E; Sahin, N; Guclu, S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Ramadan intermittent fasting on metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and abdominal visceral fat thickness (VFT) in pregnancy. Seventy-eight healthy pregnant subjects who had fasted for at least 15 days during the month of Ramadan in 2012 and 2013 and 78 controls were included in this study. Metabolic markers, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and ultrasonographic VFT were calculated for each subject before and after Ramadan fasting. When before and after Ramadan values in the fasting group were compared, we found that daily protein intake was increased (p effects and reduction in VFT during pregnancy. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4): 298-303.

  16. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gishti, O.; Gaillard, R.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Heppe, D.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Durmus, B.u.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. Objective: We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. Design, Settings and participants:We

  17. Parental Smoking During Pregnancy and Total and Abdominal Fat Distribution in School-age Children: the Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Taal, H.R.; Manniesing, R.; Raat, H.; Hofman, A.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children.Methods:We performed a population-based prospective cohort study

  18. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  19. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...

  20. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, B; Heppe, D H M; Taal, H R; Manniesing, R; Raat, H; Hofman, A; Steegers, E A P; Gaillard, R; Jaddoe, V W V

    2014-07-01

    Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. We performed a population-based prospective cohort study among 5243 children followed from early pregnancy onward in the Netherlands. Information about parental smoking was obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. At the median age of 6.0 years (90% range: 5.7-7.4), we measured anthropometrics, total fat and android/gynoid fat ratio by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and preperitoneal and subcutaneous abdominal fat were measured by ultrasound. The associations of maternal smoking during pregnancy were only present among girls (P-value for sex interactionpaternal smoking during pregnancy. Both continued maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight. The corresponding odds ratios were 1.19 (95% CI: 0.98-1.46) and 1.32 (1.10-1.58), respectively. Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy are associated with an adverse body and abdominal fat distribution and increased risk of overweight in children. Similar effects of maternal and paternal smoking suggest that direct intrauterine mechanisms and common family-based lifestyle-related factors explain the associations.

  1. Randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shioya, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakata, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture (A-mix) ingestion at 1,500 mg/day in combination with the promotion of physical activity for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial for 12 weeks combined with a 4-week follow-up period was conducted at a single center in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, between December 2016 and May 2017. Data were analyzed between June and August 2017. The study participants were 200 overweight adults within the age range of 20-64 years. The participants were randomly assigned to the A-mix group (n=100) or a placebo group (n=100) and were administered 500 mL of test beverage containing 1,500 or 0 mg of A-mix, respectively, for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle between week 0 and week 12 through monthly sessions of physical activity. The primary outcomes were the 12-week changes in the abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, as assessed by computed tomography. Of the 200 enrolled participants, 199 (99%) accomplished the 12-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. The per-protocol-based analysis for 194 participants demonstrated that the abdominal total fat area decreased significantly in the A-mix group compared with that in the placebo group (difference, 10.0 cm 2 ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-19.6 cm 2 ; P =0.041). Comparable outcomes were obtained for the abdominal subcutaneous fat area (difference, 7.4 cm 2 ; 95% CI: 0.1-14.7 cm 2 ; P =0.047). No study-related unfavorable events occurred. A-mix supplementation in combination with physical activity promotion facilitated abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.

  2. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  3. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  4. Effect of inulin supplementation and dietary fat source on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, abdominal fat deposition, and tissue fatty acid composition in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, S; Ortiz, L T; Alzueta, C; Rebolé, A; Treviño, J; Rodríguez, M L

    2010-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding inulin to diets containing 2 different types of fat as energy sources on performance, blood serum metabolites, liver lipids, and fatty acids of abdominal adipose tissue and breast and thigh meat. A total of 240 one-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 5 chicks per pen. The experiment consisted of a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments including 3 concentrations of inulin (0, 5, and 10 g/kg of diet) and 2 types of fat [palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO)] at an inclusion rate of 90 g/kg of diet. The experimental period lasted from 1 to 34 d. Dietary fat type did not affect BW gain but impaired feed conversion (P abdominal fat deposition and serum lipid and glucose concentrations. Triacylglycerol contents in liver were higher in the birds fed PO diets. Dietary fat type also modified fatty acids of abdominal and i.m. fat, resulting in a higher concentration of C16:0 and C18:1n-9 and a lower concentration of C18:2n-6 in the birds fed PO diets. The addition of inulin to diets modified (P = 0.017) BW gain quadratically without affecting feed conversion. Dietary inulin decreased the total lipid concentration in liver (P = 0.003) and that of triacylglycerols and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (up to 31%) in blood serum compared with the control groups. The polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio increased in abdominal and i.m. fat when inulin was included in the SO-containing diets. The results from the current study suggest that the addition of inulin to broiler diets has a beneficial effect on blood serum lipids by decreasing triacylglyceride concentrations The results also support the use of inulin to increase the capacity of SO for enhancing polyunsaturated fatty acid:saturated fatty acid ratio of i.m. fat in broilers.

  5. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  6. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halloush Ruba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR. A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%, suspicious in 1/39 (3%, negative in 28/39 (72%, and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13% of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  7. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloush, Ruba A; Lavrovskaya, Elena; Mody, Dina R; Lager, Donna; Truong, Luan

    2010-01-15

    Systemic amyloidosis (SA) has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA) has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years) during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR). A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain) was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%), suspicious in 1/39 (3%), negative in 28/39 (72%), and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13%) of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  8. Randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Ueda,1,2 Hiroyuki Sasai,3 Takehiko Tsujimoto,4 Chiaki Sanbongi,1 Shuji Ikegami,1 Hiroyuki Kobayashi,5 Nobuhiko Shioya,6 Satoru Suzuki,7 Yoshio Nakata5 1Food Science and Technology Research Laboratories, Meiji Co., Ltd, Hachiouji, 2Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 3Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 6KSO Corporation, Tokyo, 7Shinagawa Season Terrace Health Care Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture (A-mix ingestion at 1,500 mg/day in combination with the promotion of physical activity for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.Methods: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial for 12 weeks combined with a 4-week follow-up period was conducted at a single center in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, between December 2016 and May 2017. Data were analyzed between June and August 2017. The study participants were 200 overweight adults within the age range of 20–64 years. The participants were randomly assigned to the A-mix group (n=100 or a placebo group (n=100 and were administered 500 mL of test beverage containing 1,500 or 0 mg of A-mix, respectively, for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle between week 0 and week 12 through monthly sessions of physical activity. The primary outcomes were the 12-week changes in the abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, as assessed by computed tomography.Results: Of the 200 enrolled participants, 199 (99% accomplished the 12-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. The per-protocol-based analysis for 194 participants demonstrated that the abdominal total fat area decreased significantly in the A-mix group compared with

  9. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odds ratio observed in WHtR (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89). In contrast, WHR was the only associated index in men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06). The trend of increasing obesity measures across the quartiles with the risk of GSD was significant in subgroups of WHtR and BMI in women and WHR in men. No significant association was found between SAT and GSD in men or women. The best anthropometric indicators of the risk of GSD may differ by gender. In men, WHR might be the only preferred index to estimate risk of GSD. WHtR, WHR, VAT and BMI are associated with GSD risk in women, although WHtR might better explain this risk. SAT is the poor indicator for identifying subjects with GSD in both genders.

  10. The Effects of Exercise on Abdominal Fat and Liver Enzymes in Pediatric Obesity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ruiz, Katherine; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Peterson, Mark D; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Despite the prevalence of obesity and the multiple position stands promoting exercise for the treatment of obesity and hepatic function, a meta-analytic approach has not previously been used to examine the effects in the pediatric population. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of exercise interventions on abdominal fat, liver enzymes, and intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese youth. A computerized search was made using three databases. The analysis was restricted to studies that examined the effect of supervised exercise interventions on abdominal fat (visceral and subcutaneous fat), liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase), and intrahepatic fat. Fourteen clinical trials (1231 youths) were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Standardized mean difference [SMD] and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Exercise was associated with a significant reduction in visceral (SMD = -0.661; 95% CI, -0.976 to -0.346; p exercise programs that involve aerobic exercise longer than three sessions per week. This meta-analysis supports current recommendation for physical exercise, mainly aerobic, as an effective intervention for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression by targeting hepatic lipid composition, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42016042163.

  11. High maysin corn silk extract reduces body weight and fat deposition in C57BL/6J mice fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Young; Kim, Sun Lim; Kang, Hyeon Jung; Kim, Myung Hwan; Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Woo Kyoung

    2016-12-01

    The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration. Body weight and body fat were measured, and mRNA expression levels of proteins involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, fat synthesis, lipolysis, and fat oxidation in adipose tissue and the liver were measured. After experimental diet intake for 8 weeks, body weight was significantly lower in the HFCS group compared to the HF group ( P corn silk extract inhibits expression of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, fat accumulation, and fat synthesis as well as promotes expression of genes involved in lipolysis and fat oxidation, further inhibiting body fat accumulation and body weight elevation in experimental animals.

  12. TFAP2B influences the effect of dietary fat on weight loss under energy restriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stocks, Tanja; Angquist, Lars; Banasik, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction.......Numerous gene loci are related to single measures of body weight and shape. We investigated if 55 SNPs previously associated with BMI or waist measures, modify the effects of fat intake on weight loss and waist reduction under energy restriction....

  13. Increased Flap Weight and Decreased Perforator Number Predict Fat Necrosis in DIEP Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn L. Mulvey, BS

    2013-05-01

    Conclusions: Flaps with increasing weight have increased risk of fat necrosis. These data suggest that inclusion of more than 1 perforator may decrease odds of fat necrosis in large flaps. Perforator flap breast reconstruction can be performed safely; however, considerations concerning race, body mass index, staging with tissue expanders, perforator number, and flap weight may optimize outcomes.

  14. Body composition analysis and adipocytokine concentrations in haemodialysis patients: abdominal fat gain as an additional cardiovascular risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Elena; Díez, Juan J; Pérez Torres, Almudena; Bajo, María Auxiliadora; Del Peso, Gloria; Sánchez-Villanueva, Rafael; Grande, Cristina; Rodríguez, Olaia; Coronado, Mónica; Gómez Candela, Carmen; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael

    Abdominal fat and its increment over time in particular has become a cardiovascular risk factor in uraemic patients. To analyse changes in abdominal fat in haemodialysis patients over one year and study their possible correlation with the variation in adipocytokine serum levels. As a secondary objective, we tried to validate the data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) with data obtained by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A prospective one-year study was performed in 18 patients on haemodialysis (HD). In each patient, body composition by BIA and DXA was estimated at baseline and after one year. Several adipocytokine and biochemical parameters were determined. A significant increase in phase angle [4.8° (4.1-5.6) vs. 5.2° (4.4-5.8), Pfat measured by DXA [1.00 (0.80-1.26) vs. 1.02 (0.91-1.30), Pfat mass measured by BIA, as well as the abdominal fat percentage estimated by DXA, was found (Pfat mass over time, especially in the abdomen, evidenced by an increased A/G ratio. These findings might explain the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum concentrations of phthalate metabolites are related to abdominal fat distribution two years later in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind P Monica

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalates, commonly used to soften plastic goods, are known PPAR-agonists affecting lipid metabolism and adipocytes in the experimental setting. We evaluated if circulating concentrations of phthalates were related to different indices of obesity using data from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS study. Data from both dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were used. Methods 1,016 subjects aged 70 years were investigated in the PIVUS study. Four phthalate metabolites were detected in the serum of almost all subjects (> 96% by an API 4000 liquid chromatograph/tandem mass spectrometer. Abdominal MRI was performed in a representative subsample of 287 subjects (28%, and a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan was obtained in 890 (88% of the subjects two year following the phthalate measurements. Results In women, circulating concentrations of mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP were positively related to waist circumference, total fat mass and trunk fat mass by DXA, as well as to subcutaneous adipose tissue by MRI following adjustment for serum cholesterol and triglycerides, education, smoking and exercise habits (all p Conclusions The present evaluation shows that especially the phthalate metabolite MiBP was related to increased fat amount in the subcutaneous abdominal region in women measured by DXA and MRI two years later.

  16. Visceral fat accumulation in obese subjects : relation to energy expenditure and response to weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Deurenberg, P.; Seidell, J C; Weststrate, J A; Schouten, F J; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Seventy-eight healthy obese subjects, 40 premenopausal women and 38 men aged 27-51 yr received a 4.2 MJ/day energy-deficit diet for 13 wk. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) and diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat areas were

  17. Android fat depot is more closely associated with metabolic syndrome than abdominal visceral fat in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seon Mee; Yoon, Ji Won; Ahn, Hwa Young; Kim, So Yeon; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Hayley; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2011-01-01

    Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring regional fat deposition in association with metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been well described particularly in an elderly population. As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects (287 male, 75.9±8.6 years and 278 female, 76.0±8.8 years) with regional body composition data using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for android/gynoid area, computed tomography for visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT), and cardiometabolic markers including adiponectin and high-sensitivity CRP were enrolled. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Mean VAT and SAT area was 131.4±65.5 cm(2) and 126.9±55.2 cm(2) in men (P = 0.045) and 120.0±46.7 cm(2) and 211.8±65.9 cm(2) in women (Pandroid and gynoid fat amount was 1.8±0.8 kg and 2.5±0.8 kg in men and 2.0±0.6 kg and 3.3±0.8 kg in women, respectively (both Pandroid fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS. Measurement of android fat may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variations in fat distribution.

  18. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of Prediabetes and Abdominal Obesity Among Healthy-Weight Adults: 18-Year Trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Jo, Ara; Anton, Stephen D

    2016-07-01

    Trends in sedentary lifestyle may have influenced adult body composition and metabolic health among individuals at presumably healthy weights. This study examines the nationally representative prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity among healthy-weight adults in 1988 through 2012. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) and NHANES for the years 1999 to 2012, focusing on adults aged 20 years and older who have a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.99 and do not have diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed. We defined prediabetes using glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ranges from 5.7% to 6.4%, as specified by the American Diabetes Association. Abdominal obesity was measured by waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. The prevalence of prediabetes among healthy-weight adults, aged 20 years and older and without diagnosed or undiagnosed diabetes, increased from 10.2% in 1988-1994 to 18.5% in 2012. Among individuals aged 45 years and older, the prevalence of prediabetes increased from 22.0% to 33.1%. The percentage of adults aged 20 years and older with an unhealthy waist circumference increased from 5.6% in 1988-1994 to 7.6% in 2012. The percentage of individuals with an unhealthy waist-to-height ratio increased from 27.2% in 1988-1994 to 33.7% in 2012. Adjusted models found that measures of abdominal obesity were not independent predictors of prediabetes among adults with a healthy BMI. Among individuals within a healthy BMI range, the prevalence of prediabetes and abdominal obesity has substantially increased. Abdominal obesity does not appear to be the primary cause of the increase. © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  20. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  1. Enhanced cortisol production rates, free cortisol, and 11beta-HSD-1 expression correlate with visceral fat and insulin resistance in men: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jonathan Q; Kahn, Steven E; Samuels, Mary H; Brandon, David; Loriaux, D Lynn; Brunzell, John D

    2009-02-01

    Controversy exists as to whether endogenous cortisol production is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We therefore quantified cortisol production and clearance rates, abdominal fat depots, insulin sensitivity, and adipocyte gene expression in a cohort of 24 men. To test whether the relationships found are a consequence rather than a cause of obesity, eight men from this larger group were studied before and after weight loss. Daily cortisol production rates (CPR), free cortisol levels (FC), and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured by stable isotope methodology and 24-h sampling; intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) by computed tomography; insulin sensitivity (S(I)) by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; and adipocyte 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11beta-HSD-1) gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR from subcutaneous biopsies. Increased CPR and FC correlated with increased IAF, but not SQF, and with decreased S(I). Increased 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression correlated with both IAF and SQF and with decreased S(I). With weight loss, CPR, FC, and MCR did not change compared with baseline; however, with greater loss in body fat than lean mass during weight loss, both CPR and FC increased proportionally to final fat mass and IAF and 11beta-HSD-1 decreased compared with baseline. These data support a model in which increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in men promotes selective visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance and may promote weight regain after diet-induced weight loss, whereas 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression in SQF is a consequence rather than cause of adiposity.

  2. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy for the diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yessica; Collins, A Bernard; Stone, James R

    2018-02-01

    In the past, the diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis often required an invasive biopsy of an internal organ, such as the heart or kidneys. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy (FPEB) offers a less invasive approach, but the sensitivity of this technique has been unclear. To determine the sensitivity of FPEB for immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, we performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of 97 patients who had undergone FPEB, of which 16 were positive for amyloid. The most significant pretest feature predicting a positive FPEB was a serum free light chain κ/λ ratio less than .5, and in this group of patients the probability of a positive biopsy was dependent on the size of the biopsy (P=.004). In FPEBs, the amyloid was present in multiple distinct patterns: pericellular, septal, medium-sized vessel, small vessel, and nodular. For patients with AL amyloidosis for which direct typing was attempted using the FPEB tissue, the amyloid was successfully typed in the FPEB in 90% of cases. The overall sensitivity of FPEB was 79% for AL amyloidosis and 12% for ATTR amyloidosis (P=.0003). In patients with AL amyloidosis, the sensitivity of FPEB was dependent on biopsy size, with small biopsies (≤700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~50%, and large biopsies (>700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~100%. This study demonstrates that FPEB has high sensitivity for AL amyloidosis, and can be routinely used to type the amyloid. However, FPEB has low sensitivity for ATTR amyloidosis in our patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Lower-Carbohydrate, Higher-Fat Diet Reduces Abdominal and Intermuscular Fat and Increases Insulin Sensitivity in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Methods: Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. Results: As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (−2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (−4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and “dynamic” β-cell response (96.1 · 109; P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (−4.8 cm2; P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (−1.2 cm2; P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (−0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the

  4. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  5. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschpichler, M.C.; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W.; Mende, M.; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A.; Kruber, D.; Schick, F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m 2 ). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 ± 0.2 % (0.32 ± 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p 1 H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 ± 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  6. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  7. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootveld, Laura R.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K.; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361

  8. Unsuitable value of abdominal fat tissue aspirate examination for the diagnosis of amyloidosis in long-term hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfila, C; Goffinet, F; Goudable, C; Eche, J P; Ton That, H; Manuel, Y; Suc, J M

    1988-01-01

    Abdominal fat tissue aspiration was used in 22 long-term hemodialysis patients (5-17 years). Fourteen of these patients had carpal tunnel syndrome and amyloid deposits of beta 2-microglobulin in the synovium. One patient had a spontaneous rupture of the spleen with amyloid deposits in spleen vessels. Seven other patients presented carpal tunnel syndrome and/or articular pains, and radiological lytic lesions in bone, strongly suggesting an amyloid origin. As a control group, in 22 patients with biopsy-proven amyloidosis, abdominal fat tissue aspirates were performed and were studied under the same conditions: by light microscopy these tissues were stained with Congo red and examined with a polarizing microscope; these specimens were also studied by electron microscopy. In all hemodialyzed patients, no amyloid deposit was present in fat tissue with Congo red staining and by electron microscopy. On the contrary, amyloid was observed in 17 of 22 cases in other types of amyloidosis. It seems that this method which has been proved to be simple and sensitive for the diagnosis of systemic amyloidosis is not a good marker for the presence of amyloid in long-term hemodialysis patients.

  9. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fat-suppressed MRI of musculoskeletal infection: fast T2-weighted techniques versus gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, T.T.; Randolph, D.A. Jr.; Staron, R.B.; Feldman, F.; Cushin, S.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate gadolinium's role in imaging musculoskeletal infection by comparing the conspicuity and extent of inflammatory changes demonstrated on gadolinium-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images versus fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted sequences. Design. Eighteen patients with infection were imaged in a 1.5-T unit, using frequency-selective and/or inversion recovery fat-suppressed fast T2-weighted images (T2WI) and gadolinium-enhanced frequency-selective fat-suppressed T1-weighted images (T1WI). Thirty-four imaging planes with both a fat-suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence and a fat-suppressed T2-weighted sequence were obtained. Comparison of the extent and conspicuity of signal intensity changes was made for both bone and soft tissue in each plane. Results. In bone, inflammatory change was equal in extent and conspicuity on fat-suppressed T2WI and fat-suppressed T1WI with gadolinium in 19 planes, more extensive or conspicuous on T2WI in three planes, and less so on T2WI in two planes. Marrow was normal on all three sequences in 10 cases. In soft tissue, inflammatory change was seen equally well in 20 instances, more extensively or conspicuously on the T2WI in 11 instances, and less so on T2WI in 2 instances. One case had no soft tissue involvement on any of the sequences. Five abscesses and three joint effusions were present, all more conspicuously delineated from surrounding inflammatory change on the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium. The average imaging time for the fat-saturated T1WI with gadolinium was 6.75 min, while that of the T2-weighted sequences was 5.75 min. Conclusion. Routine use of gadolinium is not warranted. Instead, gadolinium should be reserved for clinically suspected infection in or around a joint, and in cases refractory to medical or surgical treatment due to possible abscess formation. (orig.)

  11. Prolonged thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin for abdominal or pelvic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten Schnack; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Major abdominal and pelvic surgery carries a high risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The efficacy of thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH) administered during the in-hospital period is well documented, but the optimal duration of thromboprophylaxis after surgery...... evaluating prolonged thromboprophylaxis with LMWH as compared to control or placebo. 133 studies were found in the searches, of which only 4 were found eligible for inclusion, and 129 were excluded. The incidence of overall VTE after major abdominal or pelvic surgery was 14.3% (95% confidence interval 11...... significant reduction of even the incidence of symptomatic VTE from 1.7% (95% CI 0.8% - 3.4%) in the control group to 0.2 % (95% CI 0.0% - 1.2%) in patients receiving prolonged thromboprophylaxis, Peto Odds ratio 0.22 (95% CI 0.06 -0.80), P = 0.02. The respective incidence of bleeding in the control and LMWH...

  12. Clinical trial experience with fat-restricted vs. carbohydrate-restricted weight-loss diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    It is unlikely that one diet is optimal for all overweight or obese persons. Both low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to induce weight loss and reduce obesity-related comorbidities. Low-carbohydrate diets cause greater short-term (up to 6 months) weight loss than low-fat diets, but the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of these diets has not been studied.

  13. Epidemiology, Assessment, and Management of Excess Abdominal Fat in Persons with HIV Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moyle, Graeme; Moutschen, Michel; Martínez, Esteban; Domingo, Pere; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Raffi, François; Behrens, Georg; Reiss, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic and morphologic abnormalities in persons with HIV remain common contributors to stigma and morbidity. Increased abdominal circumference and visceral adiposity were first recognized in the late 1990s, soon after the advent of effective combination antiretroviral therapy. Visceral adiposity

  14. Children with moderate-high infection with Entamoeba coli have higher percentage of body and abdominal fat than non-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G A; García, O P; Campos-Ponce, M; Ronquillo, D; Caamaño, M C; Doak, C M; Rosado, J L

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal parasites, virus and bacterial infections are positively associated with obesity and adiposity in vitro and in animal models, but conclusive evidence of this relationship in humans is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine differences in adiposity between infected and non-infected children, with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and obesity. A total of 296 school-aged children (8.0 ± 1.5 years) from a rural area in Querétaro, Mexico, participated in this study. Anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference) and body fat (DXA) were measured in all children. A fresh stool sample was collected from each child and analysed for parasites. Questionnaires related to socioeconomic status and clinical history were completed by caretakers. Approximately 11% of the children were obese, and 19% were overweight. The overall prevalence of infection was 61%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil transmitted helminth (16%) followed by hookworm. Entamoeba coli was the predominant protozoa (20%) followed by Endolimax nana, Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Giardia lamblia. Children with moderate-heavy infection of E. coli had significantly higher waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, body and abdominal fat than children not infected or with light-intensity infection (p fat deposition and thereby have long-term consequences on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand if E. coli contributes directly to fat deposition and possible mechanisms. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  15. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order(γ = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; ρ < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order (γ = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; ρ < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT

  16. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  17. Lumbosacral lipoma : gadolinium-enhanced fat saturation T1 weighted MR image is necessary?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Man Won; Kim, Hyun Chul; Chung, Tae Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Chung, Gwang Woo; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Kim, Jae Kyu; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted imaging for the evaluation of spinal lipoma, compared with clinical symptoms and surgical findings. Ten patients with lipomyelomeningocele, confirmed by surgery, were included in this study. In all cases, conventional spin echo T1-and T2-weighted MR imaging, and contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted imaging was performed to evaluate clinical symptoms, the position of the conus medullaris, the presence of cord tethering, and associated anomalies, and to compare the relative usefulness of the techniques. All ten patients were suffering from lipomyelomeningocele without filum terminale fibrolipoma or intradural lipoma. All cases were associated with cord tethering. As associated anomalies, there were seven cases of syringomyelia without hydrocephalus or anorectal anomaly. To evaluate the position of the spinal conus and the presence of cord tethering, conventional T1-weighted imaging was more useful than the contrast-enhanced fat saturation equivalent. In patients with early-stage spinal lipoma, MRI is useful for evaluation of the causes and position of cord tethering and associated anomalies Our results suggest that contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted images do not provide additional information concerning spinal lipoma, and that for the diagnosis of this condition, conventional T1 and T2-weighted images are more useful than those obtained by contrast-enhanced fat saturation T1-weighted imaging

  18. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  19. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: II. carcass and parts yield and abdominal fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate carcass and parts' yield, abdominal fat deposition and breast and foot pad blisters of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent in broilers houses with yellow and blue curtains. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. The litter was reused six times or until flock 6. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. A total of 288 birds were evaluated for carcass yield. Curtain color did not affect carcass or parts' yield. The effect of lighting program and curtain color on carcass yield may depend on other factors related to flock. Intermittent lighting program promoted the highest drumstick and thigh yields. Lighting programs and curtain colors did not affect abdominal fat deposition or the presence of breast and foot pad blisters.

  20. Optimization of abdominal fat quantification on CT imaging through use of standardized anatomic space: A novel approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Yubing; Udupa, Jayaram K., E-mail: jay@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Radiology, Medical Image Processing Group, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States); Torigian, Drew A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104-6021 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The quantification of body fat plays an important role in the study of numerous diseases. It is common current practice to use the fat area at a single abdominal computed tomography (CT) slice as a marker of the body fat content in studying various disease processes. This paper sets out to answer three questions related to this issue which have not been addressed in the literature. At what single anatomic slice location do the areas of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) estimated from the slice correlate maximally with the corresponding fat volume measures? How does one ensure that the slices used for correlation calculation from different subjects are at the same anatomic location? Are there combinations of multiple slices (not necessarily contiguous) whose area sum correlates better with volume than does single slice area with volume? Methods: The authors propose a novel strategy for mapping slice locations to a standardized anatomic space so that same anatomic slice locations are identified in different subjects. The authors then study the volume-to-area correlations and determine where they become maximal. To address the third issue, the authors carry out similar correlation studies by utilizing two and three slices for calculating area sum. Results: Based on 50 abdominal CT data sets, the proposed mapping achieves significantly improved consistency of anatomic localization compared to current practice. Maximum correlations are achieved at different anatomic locations for SAT and VAT which are both different from the L4-L5 junction commonly utilized currently for single slice area estimation as a marker. Conclusions: The maximum area-to-volume correlation achieved is quite high, suggesting that it may be reasonable to estimate body fat by measuring the area of fat from a single anatomic slice at the site of maximum correlation and use this as a marker. The site of maximum correlation is not at L4-L5 as commonly assumed

  1. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Hung Geng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD were analyzed. In all, 197 (60% were classified as stone-free and 132 (40% as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA, abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals: 9.49 (3.72–24.20, 2.25 (1.22–4.14, 2.20 (1.10–4.40, and 2.89 (1.35–6.21 respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these

  2. Noncontrast computed tomography can predict the outcome of shockwave lithotripsy via accurate stone measurement and abdominal fat distribution determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jiun-Hung; Tu, Hung-Pin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Jang, Mei-Yu; Wu, Wen-Jen; Li, Ching-Chia; Chou, Yii-Her; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Urolithiasis is a common disease of the urinary system. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) has become one of the standard treatments for renal and ureteral stones; however, the success rates range widely and failure of stone disintegration may cause additional outlay, alternative procedures, and even complications. We used the data available from noncontrast abdominal computed tomography (NCCT) to evaluate the impact of stone parameters and abdominal fat distribution on calculus-free rates following SWL. We retrospectively reviewed 328 patients who had urinary stones and had undergone SWL from August 2012 to August 2013. All of them received pre-SWL NCCT; 1 month after SWL, radiography was arranged to evaluate the condition of the fragments. These patients were classified into stone-free group and residual stone group. Unenhanced computed tomography variables, including stone attenuation, abdominal fat area, and skin-to-stone distance (SSD) were analyzed. In all, 197 (60%) were classified as stone-free and 132 (40%) as having residual stone. The mean ages were 49.35 ± 13.22 years and 55.32 ± 13.52 years, respectively. On univariate analysis, age, stone size, stone surface area, stone attenuation, SSD, total fat area (TFA), abdominal circumference, serum creatinine, and the severity of hydronephrosis revealed statistical significance between these two groups. From multivariate logistic regression analysis, the independent parameters impacting SWL outcomes were stone size, stone attenuation, TFA, and serum creatinine. [Adjusted odds ratios and (95% confidence intervals): 9.49 (3.72-24.20), 2.25 (1.22-4.14), 2.20 (1.10-4.40), and 2.89 (1.35-6.21) respectively, all p < 0.05]. In the present study, stone size, stone attenuation, TFA and serum creatinine were four independent predictors for stone-free rates after SWL. These findings suggest that pretreatment NCCT may predict the outcomes after SWL. Consequently, we can use these predictors for selecting

  3. Relative effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipid levels in the dietary treatment of obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R; van der Kooy, K; Meyboom, S; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Weststrate, J A

    1993-01-01

    The independent effects of weight loss and dietary fat modification on serum lipids were investigated in two groups of healthy moderately obese men and women. In one group (sequential group, n = 19), a weight-stable low-fat, low-saturated-fat diet (Low-Sat) was given for 7 weeks (= dietary

  4. Commingling effect of gynoid and android fat patterns on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okosun, I S; Seale, J P; Lyn, R

    2015-05-18

    To determine the independent and commingling effect of android and gynoid percent fat (measured using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry) on cardiometabolic dysregulation in normal weight American adults. The 2005-2006 data (n=1802) from the United States National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used in this study. Associations of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat and their joint occurrence with risks of cardiometabolic risk factors were estimated using prevalence odds ratios from logistic regression analyses. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was more highly correlated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or body mass index. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with much greater odds of cardiometabolic risk factors than either android or gynoid adiposities. Commingling of android and gynoid adiposities was associated with 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.42-2.93), 1.48 (95% CI=1.32-1.91), 1.61 (95% CI=1.50-1.89), 3.56 (95% CI=2.91-4.11) and 1.86 (95% CI=1.49-1.96) increased odds of elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, elevated triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, respectively. Normal weight subjects who present with both android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks. Both android and gynoid fat accumulations should be considered in developing public health strategies for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk in normal weight subjects.

  5. Influence of Parental Overweight on the Association of Birth Weight and Fat Distribution Later in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegboye, Amanda Rodrigues Amorim; Andersen, Lars Bo; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the association between birth weight and fat distribution in childhood is modified by parental overweight. Methods: Cross-sectional study of 728 Danish children aged 8-10 and 14-16 years. The main outcomes were waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, subscapular......: The association between birth weight and fat distribution seems to be influenced by parental overweight. Lower birth weights are associated with central adiposity among offspring of overweight parents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg....

  6. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  7. Pancreas segmentation from 3D abdominal CT images using patient-specific weighted subspatial probabilistic atlases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasawa, Kenichi; Oda, Masahiro; Hayashi, Yuichiro; Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Misawa, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Rueckert, Daniel; Mori, Kensaku

    2015-03-01

    Abdominal organ segmentations from CT volumes are now widely used in the computer-aided diagnosis and surgery assistance systems. Among abdominal organs, the pancreas is especially difficult to segment because of its large individual differences of the shape and position. In this paper, we propose a new pancreas segmentation method from 3D abdominal CT volumes using patient-specific weighted-subspatial probabilistic atlases. First of all, we perform normalization of organ shapes in training volumes and an input volume. We extract the Volume Of Interest (VOI) of the pancreas from the training volumes and an input volume. We divide each training VOI and input VOI into some cubic regions. We use a nonrigid registration method to register these cubic regions of the training VOI to corresponding regions of the input VOI. Based on the registration results, we calculate similarities between each cubic region of the training VOI and corresponding region of the input VOI. We select cubic regions of training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region. We subspatially construct probabilistic atlases weighted by the similarities in each cubic region. After integrating these probabilistic atlases in cubic regions into one, we perform a rough-to-precise segmentation of the pancreas using the atlas. The results of the experiments showed that utilization of the training volumes having the top N similarities in each cubic region led good results of the pancreas segmentation. The Jaccard Index and the average surface distance of the result were 58.9% and 2.04mm on average, respectively.

  8. Serotonin Transporter Deficiency Increases Abdominal Fat in Female, but Not Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  9. Serotonin transporter deficiency increases abdominal fat in female, but not male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  10. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy M. Egras

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss.

  11. Quantification of Abdominal Fat in Obese and Healthy Adolescents Using 3 Tesla Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Free Software for Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloi, Juliana Cristina; Epifanio, Matias; de Gonçalves, Marília Maia; Pellicioli, Augusto; Vieira, Patricia Froelich Giora; Dias, Henrique Bregolin; Bruscato, Neide; Soder, Ricardo Bernardi; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Mouzaki, Marialena; Baldisserotto, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    Computed tomography, which uses ionizing radiation and expensive software packages for analysis of scans, can be used to quantify abdominal fat. The objective of this study is to measure abdominal fat with 3T MRI using free software for image analysis and to correlate these findings with anthropometric and laboratory parameters in adolescents. This prospective observational study included 24 overweight/obese and 33 healthy adolescents (mean age 16.55 years). All participants underwent abdominal MRI exams. Visceral and subcutaneous fat area and percentage were correlated with anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, glucose metabolism, and insulin resistance. Student's t test and Mann-Whitney's test was applied. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare proportions. To determine associations Pearson's linear correlation or Spearman's correlation were used. In both groups, waist circumference (WC) was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001 and P = 0.01 respectively), and triglycerides were associated with fat percentage (P = 0.046 and P = 0.071 respectively). In obese individuals, total cholesterol/HDL ratio was associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.03) and percentage (P = 0.09), and insulin and HOMA-IR were associated with visceral fat area (P = 0.001) and percentage (P = 0.005). 3T MRI can provide reliable and good quality images for quantification of visceral and subcutaneous fat by using a free software package. The results demonstrate that WC is a good predictor of visceral fat in obese adolescents and visceral fat area is associated with total cholesterol/HDL ratio, insulin and HOMA-IR.

  12. The effect of long-term weight-loss intervention strategies on the dynamics of pancreatic-fat and morphology: An MRI RCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tene, Lilac; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tsaban, Gal; Zelicha, Hila; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusy, Benjamin; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2018-04-01

    The ability to mobilize pancreatic-fat and the meaning of decreased fat in the pancreas remain controversial. We followed the dynamics of pancreatic-fat and its morphology during various long weight-loss induced lifestyle-interventions. In isolated workplace with monitored/provided lunch, we randomly assigned healthy persons with abdominal obesity or dyslipidemia for one of two 18-month equal-caloric diets: low-fat (LF) or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (Med/LC, with provided 1oz walnuts/day), with or without added moderate exercise (supervised gym membership). We used magnetic-resonance-imaging to quantify pancreatic-fat and morphology. At baseline, 277 eligible participants (mean age = 48 years; 88% men; pancreatic-fat = 17.4 ± 5.1%) had higher pancreatic-fat in men (17.7 ± 4.9% vs 14.9 ± 5.5% in women; p = 0.004). Following 18-month intervention (adherence = 86.3%) and moderate weight-loss (mean = -3.0 ± 5.5 kg), pancreatic-fat decreased moderately but significantly (-0.26 ± 2.18% units; p = 0.049). Med/LC diet induced a greater decrease in pancreatic-fat compared to LF (p = 0.043), and the combination of Med/LC diet + exercise exhibited the highest reduction (-0.69% units) as compared to LF diet without exercise (+0.12%units; p = 0.027 between groups). In multivariate regression models, after further adjusted for visceral adipose-tissue (ΔVAT), pancreatic-fat loss associated with both decreases in pancreatic-morphology ratio (perimeter divided by area; beta = 0.361; p  0.2 for all). Pancreatic-fat loss is mainly associated with improved lipid, rather than glycemic profiles. Med/LC diet, mostly with exercise, may benefit pancreatic-fat loss. Pancreatic-morphology could serve as a biomarker of pancreatic-fat state. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01530724). Copyright © 2018 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    , glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral...... between 1 and 3 pm for 40 weeks. Endpoints included changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), limb fat mass, percentage of limb fat, plasma lipids, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. RESULTS: VAT and trunk fat mass decreased significantly in the GH group compared...

  15. Effects of weight reduction surgery on the abdominal wall fascial wound healing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krpata, David M; Criss, Cory N; Gao, Yue; Sadava, Emmanuel E; Anderson, James M; Novitsky, Yuri W; Rosen, Michael J

    2013-09-01

    Bariatric surgery patients enter into a catabolic state postoperatively, which can lead to an aberrant wound healing process. To improve the future treatment of morbidly obese patients, the aim of our study was to understand the link between bariatric surgery and alterations in the wound healing processes. A total of 18 morbidly obese Zucker rats were separated into three groups and underwent one of three surgical procedures: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB; n = 6); sleeve gastrectomy (GS; n = 6); or midline laparotomy only (n = 6). The rats were weighed on postoperative day 0, 3, 7, and 14. On day 14, the abdominal wall was harvested and underwent histologic and biomechanical evaluation. A significant difference was found in the weight gain between the laparotomy control group (LC) and bariatric surgical groups at 7 and 14 d. By postoperative day 7, the GS and RYGB rats weighed significantly less than the LC group, losing, on average, 7% and 6% of their initial body weight, respectively, and the LC gained 4% of their weight (P gained 20% of their original weight, and the two bariatric groups both weighed significantly less (P bariatric surgery negatively affects wound healing both histologically and biomechanically compared with nonbariatric models. Although obesity remains a significant factor in the wound healing process, understanding the link between bariatric surgery and alterations in wound healing is imperative before advocating simultaneous repair of ventral hernias during concomitant bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Fat-free mass mediates the association between birth weight and aerobic fitness in youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridgway, C L; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Anderssen, S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To investigate whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of later aerobic fitness, and whether fat-free mass may mediate this association. Methods. The European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is a population-based cohort of two age groups (9 and 15 years) from Denmark...... test. Physical activity was collected in a subset (n = 1 505) using a hip-worn accelerometer and defined as total activity counts/wear time, all children with >600 minutes/day for ≥3 days of wear were included. Results. Lower birth weight was associated with lower aerobic fitness, after adjusting...... may have long-term influences on fat-free mass and differences in fat-free mass mediate the observed association between birth weight and aerobic fitness....

  17. Independent effects of endurance training and weight loss on peak fat oxidation in moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Pernille; Rosenkilde, Mads; Ploug, Thorkil

    2015-01-01

    Endurance training increases peak fat oxidation (PFO) during exercise, but whether this is independent of changes in body weight is not known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of endurance training with or without weight loss or a diet-induced weight loss on PFO...... and on key skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins involved in fat oxidation. Sixty moderately overweight, sedentary but otherwise healthy men were randomized to 12 wk of training (T), diet (D), training and increased caloric intake (T-iD), or continuous sedentary control (C). Isoenergetic deficits...... corresponding to 600 kcal/day were comprised of endurance exercise for T and caloric restriction for D. T-iD completed similar training but was not in 600 kcal deficit because of dietary replacement. PFO and the exercise intensity at which this occurred (FatMax) were measured by a submaximal exercise test...

  18. Construction of multiple linear regression models using blood biomarkers for selecting against abdominal fat traits in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J Q; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Jiang, X F; Zhang, K; Ma, G W; Wu, M Q; Li, H; Zhang, H

    2018-01-01

    Plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) can be used to select for low body fat or abdominal fat (AF) in broilers, but its correlation with AF is limited. We investigated whether any other biochemical indicator can be used in combination with VLDL for a better selective effect. Nineteen plasma biochemical indicators were measured in male chickens from the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for AF content (NEAUHLF) in the fed state at 46 and 48 d of age. The average concentration of every parameter for the 2 d was used for statistical analysis. Levels of these 19 plasma biochemical parameters were compared between the lean and fat lines. The phenotypic correlations between these plasma biochemical indicators and AF traits were analyzed. Then, multiple linear regression models were constructed to select the best model used for selecting against AF content. and the heritabilities of plasma indicators contained in the best models were estimated. The results showed that 11 plasma biochemical indicators (triglycerides, total bile acid, total protein, globulin, albumin/globulin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid, creatinine, and VLDL) differed significantly between the lean and fat lines (P linear regression models based on albumin/globulin, VLDL, triglycerides, globulin, total bile acid, and uric acid, had higher R2 (0.73) than the model based only on VLDL (0.21). The plasma parameters included in the best models had moderate heritability estimates (0.21 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.43). These results indicate that these multiple linear regression models can be used to select for lean broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Predicting anti-fat attitudes: individual differences based on actual and perceived body size, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Shannon Rich; Rosen, Lisa H

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relative impact of actual and perceived weight, weight importance, entity mindset, and ethnicity on anti-fat attitudes as well as to examine whether certain variables play the role of mediator. Participants included a multiethnic U.S. sample of 923 female undergraduates who completed a series of measures online. Lower BMI, higher perceived weight, higher importance of weight, endorsement of an entity mindset, and identification as White as compared to Black, Hispanic, or Asian predicted higher overall anti-fat attitudes. Examination of the individual Antifat Attitudes Questionnaire subscales (i.e. dislike, fear of fat, and willpower) using Relative Weight Analysis suggested that weight importance is an important predictor of multiple aspects of anti-fat attitudes. In addition, weight importance mediated the relationship between perceived weight and fear of fat as well as the relationship between ethnicity and dislike. Implications of findings and future research directions are discussed.

  20. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  1. Urinary bladder incarceration and infarction by an intra-abdominal fat pad in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.

  2. Abdominal fat-evaluation by use of single scan computed tomography; Computertomographische Bestimmung des intraabdominellen Fettvolumens mittels Einschicht-Messung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobi, V. [Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik; Steinkamp, M. [Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik; Kirchner, J. [Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Inst. fuer Allgemeine Roentgendiagnostik; Fischer, H. [Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Diedrich, C.F. [Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Kollath, J. [Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). 2. Medizinische Klinik

    1997-02-01

    Purpose: Several studies emphasised the importance of the relationship between intraabdominal and total body adipose tissue as a risk factor for the development of metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine whether a single scan computed tomography is able to determine the whole intraabdominal fat volume with high accuracy and reproducibility. Materials and methods: Regions of interests (ROIs) were drawn manually for measuring intraabdominal fat in 51 unsuspicious abdominal CT. Results: The sexual differentiation of adipose tissue already described in a lot of studies could be confirmed in this study. Fat still predominates in females in lower half of the body (gynoid obesity). In men it predominates in the upper half (android obesity). Significant correlation concerning measuring the whole intraabdominal fat volume could be found in L1-level in women (r=0.992) and in L2-level in men (r=0.992). Measurement of a single scan enables us to assess whole intraabdominal fat volume due to a special formula. Conclusion: The determination of intraabdominal fat measured by a single scan computed tomography is a procedure associated with high accuracy and reproducibility. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Da in zahlreichen Studien hervorgehobene Bedeutung des intraabdominellen Fettgewebes gegenueber dem Gesamtkoerperfett als Risikofaktor fuer die Entwicklung metabolischer und kardiovaskulaerer Erkrankungen fordert ein Verfahren zur annaehernd exakten Bestimmung des intraabdominellen Fettgewebes. Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war zu pruefen, ob mit genuegender Genauigkeit die Verwendung einer Einschicht-Methode einen gezielten Einsatz der Computertomographie ermoeglicht und welche Lokalisation der zu waehlenden Schicht die aussagekraeftigste Messung ermoeglicht. Material und Methode: Anhand von 51 Computertomographien des Abdomens anderer Indikation (Normalbefunde) wurde das gesamte intraabdominelle Fettvolumen semiautomatisch mittels ROI

  3. Catalpic acid decreases abdominal fat deposition, improves glucose homeostasis and upregulates PPAR alpha expression in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontecillas, Raquel; Diguardo, Maggie; Duran, Elisa; Orpi, Marcel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-10-01

    Catalpic acid (CAT) is a conjugated linolenic acid (CLN) isomer containing trans-9, trans-11, cis-13 double bonds in an 18-carbon chain and it is found primarily in the seed oil of ornamental and medicinal trees and shrubs of the family Bignoniaceae. The objective of this study was to investigate whether CAT decreases obesity and ameliorates insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in mice fed high-fat diets. To test the efficacy of CAT in decreasing obesity and diabetes we used both a model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and a genetic model of obesity (i.e., mice lacking the leptin receptor). Blood was collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for determining fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in plasma. In addition, a glucose tolerance test was administered on day 28. We found that dietary CAT (1g/100g) decreased fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, ameliorated the glucose normalizing ability following glucose challenge and decreased abdominal white adipose tissue accumulation. In white adipose tissue (WAT), CAT upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and its responsive genes [i.e., stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD1) and enoyl-coenzyme A hydratase (ECH)], increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. CAT decreased abdominal fat deposition, increased HDL cholesterol, decreased TG concentrations, decreased glucose and insulin homeostasis and modulated WAT gene expression in a manner reminiscent of the actions of the PPAR alpha-activating fibrate class of lipid-lowering drugs.

  4. Hypopressive abdominal physical activity and its influence on postpartum weight recovery: a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Sánchez-García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The woman presents during pregnancy a weight gain that, in most cases, does not carry risks associated with weight gain, but that if that gain is not lost adequately in the postpartum, it can be harmful to their health. Promoting physical exercise programs during the postpartum period can be an effective tool in the recovery of women's pregestational weight, in addition, it can also be associated with an improvement in the healthy habits of both the woman and her family. Aim. To analyze the results of a program of hipopressive abdominal physical activity in a sample of women, starting four months after birth, and its influence on the recovery of pregestational weight. Material and methods. A randomized clinical trial was performed of observational and longitudinal cut. The study included a behavioral intervention, starting at 16 weeks postpartum and ended 12 weeks later. A moderate-intensity exercise program was followed, according to the Low Pressure Fitness methodology. The evolution of weight gained during pregnancy was known through the personal interview between the weeks 14-16 postpartum. Weight retention was assessed during the postpartum period, and measured again at week 28 postpartum. Results. At the beginning of the intervention, the women did not present statistically significant gestational weight gains between the two groups, being recommended by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG, which ranged from 8.05 kg to 11.63 kg. The total drop out rate for the trial was 7.8%. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups in the evolution of the woman's weight from the beginning to the end of the intervention. Neither when comparing the weights at the beginning and at the end of the intervention of each group. The value of p was 0.751 for CG and 0.691 for EG. No statistically significant differences were found in the characteristics of the sample. Conclusion. Statistically, no

  5. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung [Center for Occupational Health Research, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  6. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  7. Servo-control for maintaining abdominal skin temperature at 36C in low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J C

    2002-01-01

    Randomized trials have shown that the neonatal mortality rate of low birth-weight babies can be reduced by keeping them warm. For low birth-weight babies nursed in incubators, warm conditions may be achieved either by heating the air to a desired temperature, or by servo-controlling the baby's body temperature at a desired set-point. In low birth weight infants, to determine the effect on death and other important clinical outcomes of targeting body temperature rather than air temperature as the end-point of control of incubator heating. Standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. Searches were made of the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) (Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2001) and MEDLINE, 1966 to November 2001. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials which test the effects of having the heat output of the incubator servo-controlled from body temperature compared with setting a constant incubator air temperature. Trial methodologic quality was systematically assessed. Outcome measures included death, timing of death, cause of death, and other clinical outcomes. Categorical outcomes were analyzed using relative risk and risk difference. Meta-analysis assumed a fixed effect model. Two eligible trials were found. In total, they included 283 babies and 112 deaths. Compared to setting a constant incubator air temperature of 31.8C, servo-control of abdominal skin temperature at 36C reduces the neonatal death rate among low birth weight infants: relative risk 0.72 (95% CI 0.54, 0.97); risk difference -12.7% (95% CI -1.6, -23.9). This effect is even greater among VLBW infants. During at least the first week after birth, low birth weight babies should be provided with a carefully regulated thermal environment that is near the thermoneutral point. For LBW babies in incubators, this can be achieved by adjusting incubator temperature to maintain an anterior abdominal skin temperature of at least 36C, using either servo-control or frequent manual

  8. Dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity in a cohort of young Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Arruda, Soraia Pinheiro; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Kac, Gilberto; Vilela, Ana Amélia Freitas; Goldani, Marcelo; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate whether dietary patterns are associated with excess weight and abdominal obesity among young adults (23-25 years). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2061 participants of a birth cohort from Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, started in 1978-1979. Twenty-seven subjects with caloric intake outside ±3 standard deviation range were excluded, leaving 2034 individuals. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)), abdominal obesity as waist circumference (WC > 80 cm for women; >90 cm for men) and waist/hip ratio (WHR > 0.85 for women; >0.90 for men). Poisson regression with robust variance adjustment was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) adjusted for socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Four dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis: healthy, traditional Brazilian, bar and energy dense. In the adjusted analysis, the bar pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of excess weight (PR 1.46; 95 % CI 1.23-1.73) and abdominal obesity based on WHR (PR 2.19; 95 % CI 1.59-3.01). The energy-dense pattern was associated with a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.73; 95 % CI 0.61-0.88). Men with greater adherence to the traditional Brazilian pattern showed a lower prevalence of excess weight (PR 0.65; 95 % CI 0.51-0.82), but no association was found for women. There was no association between the healthy pattern and excess weight/abdominal obesity. In this sample, the bar pattern was associated with higher prevalences of excess weight and abdominal obesity, while the energy-dense (for both genders) and traditional Brazilian (only for men) patterns were associated with lower prevalences of excess weight.

  9. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota...

  10. Evaluation of green pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) juice on the weight gain and changes in lipid profile in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Na-Hyung; Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum pepper (green pepper, Capsicum annuum L.), a natural product available in many countries, is considered to be a food additive, with healthful or medical applications. The aim of this study was to evaluate green pepper juice for its potential to reduce weight gain and to determine its effects on lipid profiles in C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet. Mice given a high-fat diet with green pepper juice gained significantly less weight and showed a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, and alanine aminotransferase compared to mice given only a high-fat diet (P juice were similar to those in mice in the control group. In addition, abdominal fat volume (subcutaneous and visceral), which was quantified by using 4.7 T magnetic resonance imaging, including multi-slice spin-echo T2-weighted images, in mice administered a high-fat diet with green pepper juice tended to decrease compared to the fat volume of mice administered only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that green pepper juice, as a drink, may possibly be helpful in reducing weight gain by regulating the levels of serum lipids. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Genetic parameters for carcass weight, conformation and fat in five beef cattle breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kause, A; Mikkola, L; Strandén, I; Sirkko, K

    2015-01-01

    Profitability of beef production can be increased by genetically improving carcass traits. To construct breeding value evaluations for carcass traits, breed-specific genetic parameters were estimated for carcass weight, carcass conformation and carcass fat in five beef cattle breeds in Finland (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus, Simmental, Charolais and Limousin). Conformation and fat were visually scored using the EUROP carcass classification. Each breed was separately analyzed using a multitrait animal model. A total of 6879-19 539 animals per breed had phenotypes. For the five breeds, heritabilities were moderate for carcass weight (h 2=0.39 to 0.48, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and slightly lower for conformation (h 2=0.30 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04) and carcass fat (h 2=0.29 to 0.44, s.e.=0.02 to 0.04). The genetic correlation between carcass weight and conformation was favorable in all breeds (r G=0.37 to 0.53, s.e.=0.04 to 0.05), heavy carcasses being genetically more conformed. The phenotypic correlation between carcass weight and carcass fat was moderately positive in all breeds (r P=0.21 to 0.32), implying that increasing carcass weight was related to increasing fat levels. The respective genetic correlation was the strongest in Hereford (r G=0.28, s.e.=0.05) and Angus (r G=0.15, s.e.=0.05), the two small body-sized British breeds with the lowest conformation and the highest fat level. The correlation was weaker in the other breeds (r G=0.08 to 0.14). For Hereford, Angus and Simmental, more conformed carcasses were phenotypically fatter (r P=0.11 to 0.15), but the respective genetic correlations were close to zero (r G=-0.05 to 0.04). In contrast, in the two large body-sized and muscular French breeds, the genetic correlation between conformation and fat was negative and the phenotypic correlation was close to zero or negative (Charolais: r G=-0.18, s.e.=0.06, r P=0.02; Limousin: r G=-0.56, s.e.=0.04, r P=-0.13). The results indicate genetic variation for the genetic

  12. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  13. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge José Marciano; Fernando de Sá Del Fiol; Alessandra Cristina Marciano Tardelli Ferreira; Maria Cláudia Marques; Luciane Lopes Santana

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus) into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobac...

  14. Ultrasonographic extended-view technique for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Cesare; Battaglia, Bruno; Mancini, Fulvia; Paradisi, Roberto; Fabbri, Raffaella; Venturoli, Stefano

    2011-06-01

    To estimate whether, by using a new ultrasonographic technique (extended view; XTD view), young lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have a more android fat distribution in comparison with normally menstruating women with ultrasonographic evidence of polycystic ovaries (PCO) and healthy control subjects, matched for both age and body mass index. Prospective observational study. University Hospital. Forty-nine lean women with PCOS, 42 eumenorrheic women with bilateral PCO and 40 healthy volunteers with regular ovulatory cycles. Fasting blood sampling, ultrasonographic and Doppler analyses and blood pressure monitoring. Medical examination, biochemical and hormonal parameters, ultrasonographic abdominal fat measurements, ultrasonographic evaluation of carotid intima-media thickness and Doppler analysis of ophthalmic artery. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed to analyze glucose, insulin and C-peptide levels. The XTD ultrasonographic preperitoneal area was significantly larger in women with PCOS than in control subjects (p=0.011). The preperitoneal/subcutaneous ratio was significantly higher in women with PCOS (1.1±0.26) compared with women with PCO (0.84±0.13; p=0.05) and control women (0.67±0.13; pPCOS women (1.93±0.57) than in control subjects (1.84±0.38; p=0.041). Total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher in women with PCOS than in those with PCO and in control subjects. Women with PCOS have an android fat pattern correlated with an age-dependent increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. © 2011 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2011 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Carey, Vincent J; Smith, Steven R; Ryan, Donna H; Anton, Stephen D; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M; Bishop, Louise M; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S; Rood, Jennifer C; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L; Loria, Catherine M; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A

    2009-02-26

    The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of which macronutrients they emphasize

  16. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M.; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy; Leboff, Meryl S.; Rood, Jennifer C.; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.; Obarzanek, Eva; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guidelines for cardiovascular health. The participants were offered group and individual instructional sessions for 2 years. The primary outcome was the change in body weight after 2 years in two-by-two factorial comparisons of low fat versus high fat and average protein versus high protein and in the comparison of highest and lowest carbohydrate content. RESULTS At 6 months, participants assigned to each diet had lost an average of 6 kg, which represented 7% of their initial weight; they began to regain weight after 12 months. By 2 years, weight loss remained similar in those who were assigned to a diet with 15% protein and those assigned to a diet with 25% protein (3.0 and 3.6 kg, respectively); in those assigned to a diet with 20% fat and those assigned to a diet with 40% fat (3.3 kg for both groups); and in those assigned to a diet with 65% carbohydrates and those assigned to a diet with 35% carbohydrates (2.9 and 3.4 kg, respectively) (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Among the 80% of participants who completed the trial, the average weight loss was 4 kg; 14 to 15% of the participants had a reduction of at least 10% of their initial body weight. Satiety, hunger, satisfaction with the diet, and attendance at group sessions were similar for all diets; attendance was strongly associated with weight loss (0.2 kg per session attended). The diets improved lipid-related risk factors and fasting insulin levels. CONCLUSIONS Reduced-calorie diets result in clinically meaningful weight loss regardless of

  17. T2-based temperature monitoring in abdominal fat during HIFU treatment of patients with uterine fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhinsky, Eugene; Kohi, Maureen; Ghanouni, Pejman; Rieke, Viola

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we have implemented T2-based monitoring of near-field heating in patients undergoing HIFU ablation of uterine fibroids using Insightec ExAblate system. In certain areas, near-field heating can reach 18°C and the tissue may experience sustained heating of more than 10°C for the period of 2 hours or more. This indicates a cumulative thermal dose that may cause necrosis. Our results show the feasibility and importance of measuring near-field heating in subcutaneous fat.

  18. Dynamics of intrapericardial and extrapericardial fat tissues during long-term, dietary-induced, moderate weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaban, Gal; Wolak, Arik; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Henkin, Yaakov; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Yaskolka-Meir, Anat; Komy, Oded; Bilitzky, Avital; Chassidim, Yoash; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Dicker, Dror; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2017-10-01

    Background: In view of evidence linking pericardial fat accumulation with increased cardiovascular disease risk, strategies to reduce its burden are needed. Data comparing the effects of specific long-term dietary interventions on pericardial fat tissue mobilization are sparse. Objective: We sought to evaluate intrapericardial-fat (IPF) and extrapericardial-fat (EPF) changes during weight-loss interventions by different dietary regimens. Design: During 18 mo of a randomized controlled trial, we compared a Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet plus 28 g walnuts/d with a calorically equal low-fat (LF) diet among randomly assigned participants with moderate abdominal obesity. We performed whole-body MRI and volumetrically quantified IPF and EPF among 80 participants to follow the 18-mo changes. Results: The participants [mean age: 48.6 y; mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ); 31.7; 90% men] had baseline IPF and EPF (mean ± SD) volumes of 172.4 ± 53.3 mL and 194.9 ± 71.5 mL, respectively. The 18-mo moderate weight loss of 3.7 kg was similar in both groups, but the reduction in waist circumference was higher in the MED/LC group (-6.9 ± 6.6 cm) than in the LF diet group (-2.3 ± 6.5 cm; P = 0.01). After 18 mo, the IPF volume had reduced twice as much in the MED/LC group compared with the LF group [-37 ± 26.2 mL (-22% ± 15%) compared with -15.5 ± 26.2 mL (-8% ± 15%), respectively; P EPF volume had reduced similarly in both groups [-41.6 ± 30.2 mL (-23% ± 16%) in the MED/LC group compared with -37.9 ± 28.3 mL (-19% ± 14%) in the LF group; P > 0.1]. After controlling for weight loss, IPF and EPF volume reduction paralleled changes in lipid profile but not with improved glycemic profile variables: the IPF relative reduction was associated with a decrease in triglycerides (TGs) (β = 0.090; 95% CI: 0.026, 0.154; P = 0.007) and the ratio of TGs to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (β = 2.689; 95% CI: 0.373, 5.003; P = 0.024), and the EPF relative

  19. Baseline estradiol concentration in community-dwelling Japanese American men is not associated with intra-abdominal fat accumulation over 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocarnik, Beverly M; Boyko, Edward J; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Leonetti, Donna L; Page, Stephanie T

    The role of plasma estradiol in the accumulation of intra-abdominal fat (IAF) in men is uncertain. Cross-sectional studies using imaging of IAF have shown either a positive or no association. In contrast, a randomised controlled trial using an aromatase inhibitor to suppress estradiol production found an association between oestrogen deficiency and short-term IAF accumulation. No longitudinal study has been conducted to examine the relationship between plasma estradiol concentration and the change in IAF area measured using direct imaging. This is a longitudinal observational study in community-dwelling Japanese-American men (n=215, mean age 52 years, BMI 25.4kg/m 2 ). IAF and subcutaneous fat areas were assessed using computerized tomography (CT) at baseline, 5 and 10 years. Baseline plasma estradiol concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Univariate analysis found no association between baseline estradiol concentration and baseline IAF, or 5- or 10-year changes in IAF area (r=-0.05 for both time points, p=0.45 and p=0.43, respectively). Multivariate linear regression analysis of the change in IAF area by baseline estradiol concentration adjusted for age, baseline IAF area, and weight change found no association with either the 5- or 10-year IAF area change (p=0.52 and p=0.55, respectively). Plasma estradiol concentration was not associated with baseline IAF nor with change in IAF area over 5 or 10 years based on serial CT scans in community-dwelling Japanese-American men. These results do not support a role for oestrogen deficiency in IAF accumulation in men. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. All rights reserved.

  20. Metastatic spinal tumor. Assessment with fat-saturation T1-weighted MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Toshifumi; Sugimura, Kazuro; Uchida, Nobue; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Komatsu, Akio; Okui, Shouji; Kimino, Katsuji.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI) and chemical shift fat-saturation T1-weighted imaging (fat-sat T1-WI) by a diagnosis of the bone metastases. Thirty-two patients (143 vertebrae) with non-neoplastic lesions (normal group) and 32 patients (82 vertebrae) with spinal metastases (metastatic group) were evaluated using both images. The signal intensity (SI) distribution of both groups regarding T1-WI provided various patterns, and the SI measurements were not significantly different between the two groups ; however, the metastases which were mixed, showed a low SI. Regarding fat-sat T1-WI, all non-neoplastic lesions had a low-intensity homogeneous appearance ; however, the metastases were mixed to a high SI. The SI measurement data of the metastatic group was significantly higher than that of the normal group. In conclusion, fat-sat T1-WI was useful for evaluating the vertebral metastases. When fat-sat T1-WI demonstrated a mixed to high SI in patients suspected of having vertebral metastasis, Gd-DTPA enhancement was thought to be the problem. (author)

  1. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  2. Weight loss with a low-carbohydrate, Mediterranean, or low-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shai, Iris; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Henkin, Yaakov; Shahar, Danit R; Witkow, Shula; Greenberg, Ilana; Golan, Rachel; Fraser, Drora; Bolotin, Arkady; Vardi, Hilel; Tangi-Rozental, Osnat; Zuk-Ramot, Rachel; Sarusi, Benjamin; Brickner, Dov; Schwartz, Ziva; Sheiner, Einat; Marko, Rachel; Katorza, Esther; Thiery, Joachim; Fiedler, Georg Martin; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Stampfer, Meir J

    2008-07-17

    Trials comparing the effectiveness and safety of weight-loss diets are frequently limited by short follow-up times and high dropout rates. In this 2-year trial, we randomly assigned 322 moderately obese subjects (mean age, 52 years; mean body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], 31; male sex, 86%) to one of three diets: low-fat, restricted-calorie; Mediterranean, restricted-calorie; or low-carbohydrate, non-restricted-calorie. The rate of adherence to a study diet was 95.4% at 1 year and 84.6% at 2 years. The Mediterranean-diet group consumed the largest amounts of dietary fiber and had the highest ratio of monounsaturated to saturated fat (Pcarbohydrate group consumed the smallest amount of carbohydrates and the largest amounts of fat, protein, and cholesterol and had the highest percentage of participants with detectable urinary ketones (Ploss was 2.9 kg for the low-fat group, 4.4 kg for the Mediterranean-diet group, and 4.7 kg for the low-carbohydrate group (Plosses were 3.3 kg, 4.6 kg, and 5.5 kg, respectively. The relative reduction in the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 20% in the low-carbohydrate group and 12% in the low-fat group (P=0.01). Among the 36 subjects with diabetes, changes in fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels were more favorable among those assigned to the Mediterranean diet than among those assigned to the low-fat diet (Pcarbohydrate diets may be effective alternatives to low-fat diets. The more favorable effects on lipids (with the low-carbohydrate diet) and on glycemic control (with the Mediterranean diet) suggest that personal preferences and metabolic considerations might inform individualized tailoring of dietary interventions. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00160108.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society

  3. Glucose tolerance in obese pregnant women determines newborn fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Emma Malchau; Renault, Kristina Martha; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Offspring of obese women have both short- and long-term increased morbidities. We investigated the relationship between maternal 2-h plasma glucose level determined by oral glucose tolerance test, degree of obesity, gestational weight gain and total fat, abdominal fat, and fat-free ...

  4. Fat-saturated diffusion-weighted imaging with three-dimensional MP-RAGE sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numano, Tomokazu; Homma, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Hirose, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Image misrepresentation due to chemical shifts can create image artifacts on MR images. Distinguishing the organization and affected area can be difficult due to the chemical shift artifacts. Chemical shift selective (CHESS) is a method of decreasing chemical shift artifacts. In this study we have developed a new sequence for fat-saturated three-dimensional diffusion weighted MR imaging. This imaging was done during in vivo studies using an animal experiment MR imaging system at 2.0 T. In this sequence a preparation phase with a ''CHESS-90 deg RF-Motion Proving Gradient (MPG-180 deg RF-MPG-90 deg RF pulse train) was used to sensitize the magnetization to fat-saturated diffusion. Centric k-space acquisition order is necessary to minimize saturation effects from tissues with short relaxation times. From experimental results obtained with a phantom, the effect of the diffusion weighting and the effect of the fat-saturation were confirmed. From rat experimental results, fat-saturated diffusion weighted image data (0.55 x 0.55 x 0.55 mm 3 : voxel size) were obtained. This sequence was useful for in vivo imaging. (author)

  5. Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks, Frank Martin; Bray, George A.; Carey, Vincent James; Smith, Steven R.; Ryan, Donna H.; Anton, Stephen D.; McManus, Katherine; Champagne, Catherine M.; Bishop, Louise M.; Laranjo, Nancy M; Leboff, Meryl Susan; Rood, Jennifer Evelyn; de Jonge, Lilian; Greenway, Frank L.; Loria, Catherine M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year. METHODS: We randomly assigned 811 overweight adults to one of four diets; the targeted percentages of energy derived from fat, protein, and carbohydrates in the four diets were 20, 15, and 65%; 20, 25, and 55%; 40, 15, and 45%; and 40, 25, and 35%. The diets consisted of similar foods and met guideli...

  6. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  7. Excesso de peso e adiposidade central em adultos de Teresina-PI Overweight and abdominal fat in adult population of Teresina, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Guimarães Martins Holanda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de excesso de peso e adiposidade abdominal em adultos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Teresina-PI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerados. Foram avaliados 464 adultos, entre 20 e 59 anos, residentes na zona urbana do município de Teresina-PI. O estado nutricional foi classificado com base no Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC, e o acúmulo de gordura abdominal foi estimado pela medida da circunferência da cintura. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of overweight and abdominal fat in adult population in the urban area of Teresina-PI. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The study evaluated 464 adults, 20 to 59 years of age living in the urban area of Teresina-PI. Nutritional status was classified by the body mass index (BMI and abdominal fat accumulation was estimated according to waist circumference. The significance level was set at 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to nutritional status based on BMI was, respectively, 30.0% and 7.7%. There was an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among men with progressively higher family income. Highest rates of obesity were found among individuals 50 to 59 years of age with stable marriages and nonsmokers. No association was found between individual or family income and presence of abdominal fat in the population. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of overweight in the study population follows the Brazilian trend. Proportions of overweight and obesity were higher among men and increased with age. Women and married persons showed a greater tendency for abdominal obesity.

  8. Linseed Dietary Fibers Reduce Apparent Digestibility of Energy and Fat and Weight Gain in Growing Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Astrup

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fibers (DF may affect energy balance, an effect often ascribed to the viscous nature of some water soluble DF, which affect luminal viscosity and thus multiple physiological processes. We have tested the hypothesis that viscous linseed DF reduce apparent nutrient digestibility, and limit weight gain, in a randomized feeding trial where 60 male, growing, Wistar rats, with an initial weight of ~200 g, were fed different diets (n = 10 per group: low DF control (C, 5% DF from cellulose (5-CEL, CEL + 5% DF from whole (5-WL or ground linseed (5-GL, CEL + 5% DF from linseed DF extract (5-LDF, and CEL + 10% DF from linseed DF extract (10-LDF. Diets were provided ad libitum for 21 days. Feed intake and faecal output were measured during days 17–21. Faecal fat excretion increased with increasing DF content and was highest in the 10-LDF group. Apparent fat digestibility was highest with the C diet (94.9% ± 0.8% and lowest (74.3% ± 0.6% with the 10-LDF diet, and decreased in a non-linear manner with increasing DF (p < 0.001. Apparent fat digestibility also decreased with increased accessibility of DF (5-WL vs. 5-GL and when the proportion of viscous DF increased (5-GL vs. 5-LDF. The 10-LDF resulted in a lower final body weight (258 ± 6.2 g compared to C (282 ± 5.9 g, 5-CEL (281 ± 5.9 g, and 5-WL (285 ± 5.9 g (p < 0.05. The 10-LDF diet reduced body fat compared to 5-CEL (p < 0.01. In conclusion, DF extracted from linseed reduced apparent energy and fat digestibility and resulted in restriction of body weight gain in growing rats.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  10. Does this Tweet make me look fat? A content analysis of weight stigma on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydecker, Janet A; Cotter, Elizabeth W; Palmberg, Allison A; Simpson, Courtney; Kwitowski, Melissa; White, Kelly; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-06-01

    Weight stigma involves stereotyping individuals based on body size. Individuals with obesity face weight stigma in many areas of their lives, and consequences can include impairment of mental and physical health, relationships, and academic performance. Weight-stigmatizing messages are pervasive in mass media, but the degree and characteristics of its presence within new-media social environments remain comparatively unknown. This study examined weight stigma on Twitter by coding Tweet content that included the word "fat" within a 4-h timeframe (N = 4596). Coding marked demographic characteristics represented in content, messages about weight, and perceived intent of the message. Of all messages, 56.57 % were negative and 32.09 % were neutral. Of those containing weight-stigmatizing messages (n = 529), themes relating to fatness included: gluttonous (48.58 %), unattractive (25.14 %), not sexually desirable (2.65 %), sedentary (13.80 %), lazy (5.86 %), and stupid (4.16 %). Weight-stigmatizing messages are evident in the increasingly important arena of social media, and themes appear similar to those that emerge in other forms of media. Prevention and intervention body image programs should consider targeting social networks to help individuals manage societal messages.

  11. Holding fat stereotypes is associated with lower body dissatisfaction in normal weight Caucasian women who engage in body surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jean; Jarry, Josée L

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of body surveillance on the relationship between fat stereotype endorsement and body dissatisfaction in normal weight women. Participants (N=225) completed online measures of fat stereotyping, body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and internalized thin ideals. After accounting for thin ideals, body surveillance moderated the relationship between fat stereotypes and body dissatisfaction. Contrary to hypotheses, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted lower body dissatisfaction in women with higher body surveillance. Conversely, higher fat stereotype endorsement predicted greater body dissatisfaction in women with lower body surveillance. Thus, endorsing fat stereotypes appears protective against body dissatisfaction in normal weight women who extensively engage in body surveillance. For women who hold fat stereotypes and report high body surveillance, we propose that downward appearance comparison may create a contrast between themselves and the people with overweight whom they denigrate, thus improving body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of a fetal weight chart using serial trans-abdominal ultrasound in an East African population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, Christentze; Scheike, Thomas; Oesterholt, Mayke

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce a fetal weight chart representative of a Tanzanian population, and compare it to weight charts from Sub-Saharan Africa and the developed world. METHODS: A longitudinal observational study in Northeastern Tanzania. Pregnant women were followed throughout pregnancy with serial...... trans-abdominal ultrasound. All pregnancies with pathology were excluded and a chart representing the optimal growth potential was developed using fetal weights and birth weights. The weight chart was compared to a chart from Congo, a chart representing a white population, and a chart representing...... a white population but adapted to the study population. The prevalence of SGA was assessed using all four charts. RESULTS: A total of 2193 weight measurements from 583 fetuses/newborns were included in the fetal weight chart. Our chart had lower percentiles than all the other charts. Most importantly...

  13. Fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI appearance of subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Kubo, Yusuke; Iwamoto, Yukihide [Kyushu University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Our aims were to investigate the imaging appearance of subchondral insufficiency fracture (SIF) of the femoral head based on fat-suppressed T2-weighted MRI, and evaluate its correlation with the clinical outcomes following conservative treatment. We retrospectively evaluated 40 hips in 37 patients with SIF of the femoral head (12 males and 25 females; mean age 55.8 years, range 22-78 years). MRI examinations were performed within 3 months after the onset of hip pain. Using fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging, we evaluated the hips for the intensity of the subchondral bone (corresponding to the area superior to the low intensity band on T1-weighted images) as well as bone marrow edema, joint effusion, and presence of the band lesion. We then correlated the intensity of the subchondral bone with clinical outcomes. The hips were classified into three types based on subchondral intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted images: type 1 (21 hips) showed high intensity, type 2 (eight hips) showed heterogeneous intensity, and type 3 (11 hips) showed low intensity. The mean period between pain onset and MRI examination was significantly longer for type 2 hips than for type 1. Healing rates were 86 % for type 1, 75 % for type 2, and 18 % for type 3. SIF cases were classified into three types based on subchondral intensity on fat-suppressed T2-weighted imaging performed within 3 months after pain onset. Type 3 SIF tended to be intractable to conservative treatment compared to type 1 and type 2. (orig.)

  14. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  15. Bartter syndrome presenting as poor weight gain and abdominal mass in an infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Annie; Steffensen, Thora S; Gilbert-Barness, Enid; Perlman, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Bartter syndrome, a group of disorders that encompasses multiple genetic defects with similar clinical presentation, has been divided into six different genotypes, according to different genetic defects, and into three main clinical variants (or phenotypes). Classic laboratory findings in all variants include hypochloremia, hypokalemia, and metabolic alkalosis with excessive excretion of chloride and potassium. Classic Bartter syndrome, neonatal Bartter syndrome, and Gitelman syndrome are the three main clinical variants. Classic Bartter syndrome and neonatal Bartter syndrome have defects in genes that affect transport channels in the ascending loop of Henle, where as in Gitleman syndrome the defect occurs in the transport channels of the distal convoluted tubule. Classic Bartter syndrome and neonatal Bartter syndrome have similar presenting symptoms, potential outcomes, and treatment, but different ages at presentation. Gitelman syndrome, a more benign condition than the other clinical variants, has the classic hallmark finding of hypomagnesemia and low to normal excretion of calcium. This differentiates it from the classic and neonatal variants of the disease. With early diagnosis and proper treatment, Bartter syndrome has a good prognosis. But failure to identify it can lead to tubulointerstitial nephritis and renal failure. We present a case of a 6-month-old boy with Bartter syndrome who presented with poor weight gain and an abdominal mass.

  16. Validation of a free software for unsupervised assessment of abdominal fat in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalo, Michele; Zorza, Ivan; Zubani, Stefano; Nocivelli, Giorgio; Calandra, Giulio; Soldini, Pierantonio; Mascaro, Lorella; Maroldi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    To demonstrate the accuracy of an unsupervised (fully automated) software for fat segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed software is a freeware solution developed in ImageJ that enables the quantification of metabolically different adipose tissues in large cohort studies. The lumbar part of the abdomen (19cm in craniocaudal direction, centered in L3) of eleven healthy volunteers (age range: 21-46years, BMI range: 21.7-31.6kg/m 2 ) was examined in a breath hold on expiration with a GE T1 Dixon sequence. Single-slice and volumetric data were considered for each subject. The results of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessments obtained by the unsupervised software were compared to supervised segmentations of reference. The associated statistical analysis included Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots and volumetric differences (VD % ). Values calculated by the unsupervised software significantly correlated with corresponding supervised segmentations of reference for both subcutaneous adipose tissue - SAT (R=0.9996, psoftware is capable of segmenting the metabolically different adipose tissues with a high degree of accuracy. This free add-on software for ImageJ can easily have a widespread and enable large-scale population studies regarding the adipose tissue and its related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low birth weight may increase body fat mass in adult women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Minooee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women engaged with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, as the commonest endocrine disorder, are known to have a specific type of adiposity. Birth weight is among different contributors reported to be responsible for this diversity. Objective: We aimed to compare the relation between birth weight and body fat mass (BFM/ body lean mass (BLM in PCOS and their age and body mass index (BMI matched normal controls. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, a total number of 70 reproductive aged women, diagnosed with PCOS and 70 age- BMI matched healthy women without hirsutism and/or ovulatory dysfunction were recruited., control group had no polycystic ovaries in ultrasonographic scans. A detailed history of birth weight was taken and was divided into the following categories: <2,500 (low birth weight, LBW and 2,500-4,000 (normal birth weight; NBW. Results: Results showed that LBW prevalence was higher in women with PCOS than in controls (19.3% (27 vs. 15.7% (22. Also body fat and lean mass (BFM, BLM have increased in adult women with PCOS who were born underweight compared to their normal (19.8±9.05 vs. 12.9±4.5, p=0.001 and 48.9±6.9 vs. 43.2±5.8, p=0.004 respectively. Conclusion: Fetal birth weight influences on the adulthood obesity, BFM and BLM. This impact is different among women with and without PCOS

  18. MR staging of pelvic endometriosis. Role of fat-suppression T{sub 1}-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oishi-Tanaka, Yumiko; Itai, Yuji; Anno, Izumi; Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Ebihara, Reiko; Nishida, Masato [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Clinical Medicine

    1996-05-01

    We examined whether MR can determine the stage of endometriosis according to the scoring system established and revised by the American Fertility Society (r-AFS), a system which is widely used by gynecologists. We also studied the utility of fat suppression T{sub 1}-weighted images in improving accuracy. Seventeen patients with endometriosis examined by conventional MR were included in this study. All the patients had surgically proved stage III or IV disease. We determined the stage by MR using the following criteria according to the r-AFS system: adnexal masses without normal ovarian tissue were considered deep ovarian lesions, while those with normal tissue were considered superficial. A lack of fat between the lesion and surrounding structures was considered a dense adhesion, and hyperintense spots were considered peritoneal implants. The MR scores of patients with and without fat suppression were correlated with the surgical scores. MR staging corresponded to surgical staging in 15 of the 17 patients. In eight patients, peritoneal implants of less than 1.5 cm were depicted only by fat-suppression images. However, these lesions did not change the score significantly. MR imaging could determine the stage in advanced endometriosis. Fat-suppression could highlight smaller implants. These tiny lesions had little clinical meaning in these advanced cases; however, the clinical value of this technique should be evaluated in milder disease. (author)

  19. MR staging of pelvic endometriosis. Role of fat-suppression T1-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi-Tanaka, Yumiko; Itai, Yuji; Anno, Izumi; Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Ebihara, Reiko; Nishida, Masato

    1996-01-01

    We examined whether MR can determine the stage of endometriosis according to the scoring system established and revised by the American Fertility Society (r-AFS), a system which is widely used by gynecologists. We also studied the utility of fat suppression T 1 -weighted images in improving accuracy. Seventeen patients with endometriosis examined by conventional MR were included in this study. All the patients had surgically proved stage III or IV disease. We determined the stage by MR using the following criteria according to the r-AFS system: adnexal masses without normal ovarian tissue were considered deep ovarian lesions, while those with normal tissue were considered superficial. A lack of fat between the lesion and surrounding structures was considered a dense adhesion, and hyperintense spots were considered peritoneal implants. The MR scores of patients with and without fat suppression were correlated with the surgical scores. MR staging corresponded to surgical staging in 15 of the 17 patients. In eight patients, peritoneal implants of less than 1.5 cm were depicted only by fat-suppression images. However, these lesions did not change the score significantly. MR imaging could determine the stage in advanced endometriosis. Fat-suppression could highlight smaller implants. These tiny lesions had little clinical meaning in these advanced cases; however, the clinical value of this technique should be evaluated in milder disease. (author)

  20. Consumption of a liquid high-fat meal increases triglycerides but decreases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Lu, Huixia; Liu, Fukang; Cai, Huizhen; Xia, Hui; Guo, Fei; Xie, Yulan; Huang, Guiling; Miao, Miao; Shu, Guofang; Sun, Guiju

    2017-07-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance, which may be a potential contributor to dyslipidemia. However, the relationship between postprandial insulin resistance and lipid metabolism in abdominally obese subjects remains unknown. We hypothesized that postprandial dyslipidemia would be exaggerated in abdominally obese subjects with high postprandial insulin resistance. To test this hypothesis, serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B were measured at baseline and postprandial state at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after a liquid high-fat meal in non-abdominally obese controls (n=44) and abdominally obese subjects with low (AO-LPIR, n=40), middle (n=40), and high postprandial insulin resistance (AO-HPIR, n=40) based on the tertiles ratio of the insulin to glucose areas under the curve (AUC). Their serum adipokines were tested at baseline only. Fasting serum leptin was higher (Pinsulin resistance and controls. The present study indicated that the higher degree of postprandial insulin resistance, the more adverse lipid profiles in abdominally obese subjects, which provides insight into opportunity for screening in health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  2. Adherence to low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets in relation to weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tian; Yao, Lu; Reynolds, Kristi; Niu, Tianhua; Li, Shengxu; Whelton, Paul K; He, Jiang; Steffen, Lyn M; Bazzano, Lydia A

    2016-03-01

    A low-carbohydrate diet can reduce body weight and some cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more than a low-fat diet, but differential adherence may play a role in these effects. Data were used from 148 adults who participated in a 12-month clinical trial examining the effect of a low-carbohydrate diet (fat diet (fat, fat) on weight and CVD risk factors. We compared attendance at counseling sessions, deviation from nutrient goals, urinary ketone presence, and composite scores representing the overall adherence based on the distribution of these individual indicators between two interventions. Composite scores were similar between the two groups. A one-interquartile-range increase in composite score representing better adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with 2.2 kg or 2.3 % greater weight loss, 1.1 greater reduction in percent fat mass, and 1.3 greater increase in proportion of lean mass. Indicators of adherence to a low-fat diet was not associated with changes in weight, fat mass or lean mass. Despite comparable adherence between groups, a low-carbohydrate diet was associated with greater reductions in body weight and improvement in body composition, while a low-fat diet was not associated with weight loss.

  3. Fat intake and weight development from 9 to 16 years of age: the European youth heart study - a longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Andersen, Lars Bo; Heitmann, Berit

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The literature on associations between fat intake and weight development among both children and adults is inconsistent, even if it is generally assumed that a high dietary fat intake is a major determinant of obesity. The present study aimed at investigating the association between fat...... fat intake and 6-year weight change among 9-year-old children. No interaction was seen between number of overweight parents on the relation between fat intake and subsequent weight change....... intake and weight development among a cohort of children aged 9-10 years at baseline and 15-16 years at follow-up, and, further, at investigating whether parents' obesity is modifying the association. METHOD: Among 384 subjects aged 9 years, data on dietary intake, BMI z-score, physical activity...

  4. The role of body weight, fat distribution and weight change in ethnic differences in the 9-year incidence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, Laura R; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Peters, Ron J G; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanne K; Brewster, Lizzy M; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the role of body composition (body weight, fat distribution and weight change over time) in ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension in an ethnic Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background population living in the Netherlands. We included 361 participants without hypertension at baseline (147 ethnic Dutch, 82 South Asian Surinamese, 132 African Surinamese), aged 35-60 years, in whom anthropometric measurements and blood pressures were measured at baseline and after mean 9 years of follow-up. Data were analysed using logistic regression analyses, with hypertension at follow up as a dependent variable. Body weight, fat distribution and weight gain were positively associated with the risk of developing hypertension; these associations did not statistically significantly differ between ethnic groups [odds ratios (ORs), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) per SD: BMI 1.5 (1.2-2.0); waist circumference 1.5 (1.2-1.9); waist to hip ratio (WHR) 1.4 (1.1-1.9), weight gain of 1-2.9 kg/m 1.8 (0.9-3.8)]. As compared with Dutch, a higher incidence of hypertension was found among South Asian Surinamese [OR 2.6 (1.4-4.8)] and in particular among African Surinamese [OR 3.1 (1.76-5.30)]. Among South Asian Surinamese, adjustment for WHR attenuated the OR the most [OR 1.9 (1.0-3.7)]; among African Surinamese, the strongest effect was observed for adjustment by BMI and WHR simultaneously [OR 2.5 (1.4-4.4)]. The ethnic differences in the incidence of hypertension among a middle-aged group with a Dutch, South Asian Surinamese and African Surinamese background were partly explained by body composition. This suggests that other factors may be involved, including genetic factors or unidentified other determinants.

  5. Diffusion-weighted imaging in the evaluation of hormonal cyclic changes in abdominal wall endometriomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genç, B.; Solak, A.; Şahin, N.; Genç, M.; Oğul, H.; Sivrikoz, O. Nermin; Kantarcı, M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the utility of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of abdominal wall endometrioma (AWE) and to compare the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) values of AWE with those of the uterine endometrium during two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods: A total of 22 women aged between 27 and 42 years (mean 32.8 years) and who had regular menstrual cycles were included in the study. These patients had a total of 25 AWE lesions. The mean and standard deviation of the ADC values of the normal endometrium/AWE were calculated for the menstrual and luteal phases. All examinations were performed using a 1.5 T magnet (b-values of 50, 400, and 800 mm/s 2 ). The results were analysed using the Shapiro–Wilk test, the Pearson correlation test, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test, and the paired sample t-test. Results: The ADC values of the endometrium were different in the two phases of the menstrual cycle (menstrual phase: 0.924 ± 0.171; luteal phase: 1.171 ± 0.135). Similarly, the ADC values of the AWE were different in these phases (menstrual phase: 0.937 ± 0.256, luteal phase: 1.256 ± 0.215). In both AWE and the uterine endometrium, the ADC measurements were significantly lower in the menstrual phase than during the luteal phase. This difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the ADC values between the endometrial layer and AWE during the same phase (p = 0.216 for menstrual phase, p = 0.104 for luteal phase, paired sample t-test). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that in all patients, the DWI features of AWEs were significantly similar to those of the uterine endometrial tissue. Additionally, the ADC measurements of the patients showed similar cyclical changes. These results suggest that the ADC values of a lesion close to the uterine endometrium may be used to differentiate AWE from the other disease entities of the abdominal wall

  6. Fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Katrine Kleberg

    In 1727, the English physician Thomas Short wrote: “I believe no Age did ever afford more instances of Corpulency than our own.” Even in the 18th century, fatness was addressed as an issue of special contemporary concern. This thesis probes concepts and perceptions of fatness in Western European...... Medicine c. 1700–1900. It has been written with particular attention to whether and how fatness has been regarded as a disease during that period in history. One purpose of the thesis is to investigate the immediate period before fatness allegedly became problematized. Another purpose has been to grasp...

  7. Whole-body electromyostimulation as a means to impact muscle mass and abdominal body fat in lean, sedentary, older female adults: subanalysis of the TEST-III trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemmler W

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Kemmler, Simon von StengelInstitute of Medical Physics, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, GermanyBackground: The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 months of whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS exercise on appendicular muscle mass and abdominal fat mass in subjects specifically at risk for sarcopenia and abdominal obesity, but unable or unwilling to exercise conventionally.Methods: Forty-six lean, nonsportive (<60 minutes of exercise per week, elderly women (aged 75 ± 4 years with abdominal obesity according to International Diabetes Federation criteria were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n=23 which performed 18 minutes of intermittent, bipolar WB-EMS (85 Hz three sessions in 14 days or an "active" control group (n=23. Whole-body and regional body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine appendicular muscle mass, upper leg muscle mass, abdominal fat mass, and upper leg fat mass. Maximum strength of the leg extensors was determined isometrically by force plates.Results: After 12 months, significant intergroup differences were detected for the primary endpoints of appendicular muscle mass (0.5% ± 2.0% for the WB-EMS group versus −0.8% ± 2.0% for the control group, P=0.025 and abdominal fat mass (−1.2% ± 5.9% for the WB-EMS group versus 2.4% ± 5.8% for the control group, P=0.038. Further, upper leg lean muscle mass changed favorably in the WB-EMS group (0.5% ± 2.5% versus −0.9% ± 1.9%, in the control group, P=0.033, while effects for upper leg fat mass were borderline nonsignificant (−0.8% ± 3.5% for the WB-EMS group versus 1.0% ± 2.6% for the control group, P=0.050. With respect to functional parameters, the effects for leg extensor strength were again significant, with more favorable changes in the WB-EMS group (9.1% ± 11.2% versus 1.0% ± 8.1% in the control group, P=0.010.Conclusion: In summary, WB-EMS showed positive effects on the

  8. [PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT LOSS AND FAT IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT: SEX, AGE, BMI AND CONSULTING ASSISTANCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    WL%: percentage of weight loss; % FL: percentage fat loss; PNLWF: patients who lose weight or fat; PLWF: patients who lose weight and fat. assess whether the% WL and FL% in the dietary treatment was affected by gender, age, BMI and assistance to the query. 4,700 consultations, 670 patients (BMI ≥25), in the south-east of Spain (2006-12). Balanced and hypo-caloric diet was used. Two types of patients: PNLWF and PLWF (91.9%). in PLWF, men and those attending a greater number of occasions to the consultation have shown a greater loss against women (%FL: 23.0 vs 14.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.7 vs 6.6%, p = 0.020), and those who attend less frequently (%FL: 19.1 vs 7.3%, p = 0.000; %WL: 7.8 vs 2.9%, p = 0.000). Multinomial regression analysis (PNLWF / PLWF) indicates that only attend more than one and a half to the consultation is a factor in the loss, OR 8.3 (IC 95% 4.5-15.1; p = 0.000). the body fat measurement provides additional information lost weight; Most patients attend more than six weeks, obtained a high %FL; attendance is a predictor of loss; the %FL indicates that the dietary management plays a major role in the resolution of this pathology; It is recommended to design practical schemes of action process nutritionists according to the IMCI and variable. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Adipose tissue (P)RR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamansurova, Zulaykho; Tan, Paul; Ahmed, Basma; Pepin, Emilie; Seda, Ondrej; Lavoie, Julie L

    2016-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(P)RR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (P)RR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. An adipose tissue-specific (P)RR knockout (KO) mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (P)RR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND) diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD) to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT). Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (P)RR. (P)RR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes.

  10. Increased intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the fractional catabolic rate of Lp A-I in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, Zoltan; Terry, James G; Brinton, Eliot A

    2002-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles without apolipoprotein A-II (Lp A-I) may be more anti-atherogenic than HDL with apo A-II (Lp A-I/AII) and Lp A-I is reported selectively to be reduced in cases of intra-abdominal obesity. We explored the mechanisms of this reduction by studying the turnover of Lp A-I and Lp A-I/A-II in postmenopausal women well characterized for total body, regional and sub-regional adiposity by body mass index (BMI), truncal girth ratio, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We tested for possible cause-effect relationships by measuring inter-correlations among these variables. Intra-abdominal fat area correlated strongly and positively with the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of Lp A-I (r=0.98, P=0.003). Intra-abdominal fat only showed a non-significant trend toward correlation with the FCR of Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.84, P=0.07), and had no correlation with the production or transport rate (TR) of either Lp A-I or Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.48 and 0.02, respectively, P>0.1). Subjects were studied both with and without estrogen replacement, allowing exploration of a possible interaction of adiposity with estrogen effects on HDL turnover. Response of HDL turnover to estrogen did not correlate with adiposity, except for a parameter of waist to hip ratio (WHR), which predicted the increase in LP A-I TR with estrogen (r=0.84, P=0.04). We conclude that intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the FCR of Lp A-I, suggesting a mechanism by which central adiposity may be proatherogenic.

  11. Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood College Preparatory School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting and to enhance children's learning [1]. Since this theory, the current study was designed to examine the significance of mechanical effects of intra-abdominal on posture/balance control among the Algerian Childhood Primary Schools. Since our teachers emphasise the good classroom settings as a discipline pedagogical aspect of success learning. While High-quality educational programs for children in preschool and kindergarten have play at the centre of the curriculum [2]. Our interventions in this study aimed to examine Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood Preparatory Schools. for the purpose, a total of 61 schoolboys of Slimane provinces Naama, Municipality Mecheria, Algeria male gender their average age 5±1.52 years distributed into two homogeneous groups, according to them, school attendance (kindergarten School (29 boys - preschool (32 boys. Tested by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage-Abdominal circumference - Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance and standing balance. Based on the analysis statistics, we confirm: • Prolonged periods classroom settings increase Intra-Abdominal Fat which represents big risk posture/balance control. • Primary schools posture needs an interactive play method Learning classroom to improve body imbalance as health benefits physical activities. Based on the differences acquired by the research team, we emphasise that prolonged periods classroom settings Primary Schools increase the intra-abdominal which owing to the weakness of skeletal muscle fatigue and abnormal pathological alignment. While as a recommendation pedagogy practised, we suggested to our teachers, who work with these children to know that the balanced posture requires more energy in the class, Considering that our student seat more than 6 hours a day, 30 per week, and

  12. Relationship of the Reported Intakes of Fat and Fatty Acids to Body Weight in US Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Conrad, Zach; Johnson, LuAnn K; Picklo, Matthew J; Jahns, Lisa

    2017-04-28

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categories (1) for the US adult population and, (2) by sociodemographic groups. Reported dietary intake data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and What We Eat in America (WWEIA) surveys in the years 2005-2012 were analyzed. Overall, we found that the reported intake of carbohydrate, protein, total fat, total saturated fat (as well as long-chain saturated fatty acids 14:0-18:0), and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) were positively associated with BMI; while lauric acid (a medium-chain saturated fatty acid, 12:0) and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (as well as all individual PUFAs) were not associated with BMI. Non-Hispanic black individuals demonstrated a negative association between BMI and energy intake and a positive association between total PUFAs, linoleic acid (LA), α-linolenic acid (ALA) and BMI. Individuals with less than a high school education showed a negative association between BMI and DHA. Mexican-Americans reported intakes with no association between BMI and energy, any macronutrient, or individual fatty acids. These findings support those of experimental studies demonstrating fatty acid-dependent associations between dietary fatty acid composition and body weight. Notably, we observed divergent results for some sociodemographic groups which warrant further investigation.

  13. Effects of peroxidized corn oil on performance, AMEn, and abdominal fat pad weight in broiler chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a trend to use more alternative lipids in poultry diets, either through animal-vegetable blends, distillers corn oil, or yellow grease. This has resulted in the use of lipids in poultry diets with a higher concentration of unsaturated fatty acids which have a greater potential for peroxidat...

  14. Comparison among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, modified dixon method, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in measuring bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Gong, Xiuqun; Weiss, Jessica; Jin, Ye

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI)), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI). Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 (P BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 (P < 0.001) in femoral necks. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  15. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  16. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prioreschi, Alessandra; Munthali, Richard J; Kagura, Juliana; Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity. To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa. Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females). Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years) using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were recorded. Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, page and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22. The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  17. Concordant lipoprotein and weight responses to dietary fat changein identical twins with divergent exercise levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.; Blanche, Patricia J.; Rawlings, Robin; Krauss, Ronald M.

    2004-06-01

    Background/Objective: The purpose of this study is to testthe extent that individual lipoprotein responses to diet can beattributed to genes in the presence of divergent exercise levels.Design:Twenty-eight pairs of male monozygotic twins (one mostly sedentary, theother running an average of 50 km/week more than the sedentary twin) wentfrom a 6-week 40 percent fat diet to a 6-week 20 percent fat diet in acrossover design. The diets reduced fat primarily by reducing saturatedand polyunsaturated fat (both from 14 percent to 4 percent), whileincreasing carbohydrate intake from 45 percent to 65 percent. Results:Despite the twins' differences in physical activity, the dietarymanipulation produced significantly correlated changes (P<0.05) in thetwin's total cholesterol (r=0.56), low-density lipoprotein(LDL)-cholesterol (r=0.70), large, buoyant LDL (Sf7-12, r=0.52), apo A-I(r=0.49), Lp(a) (r=0.49), electrophoresis measurements of LDL-I (LDLsbetween 26 and 28.5 nm diameter, r=0.48), LDL-IIB (25.2-24.6 nm, r=0.54),LDL-IV (22-24.1 nm, r=0.50), and body weights (r=0.41). Replacing fatswith carbohydrates significantly decreased the size and ultracentrifugeflotation rate of the major LDL, the LDL mass concentrations of Sf7-12,LDL-I, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and apo A-I, andsignificantly increased LDL-IIIA (24.7-25.5 nm diameter) and Lp(a).Conclusions: Even in the presence of extreme exercise difference, genessignificantly affect changes in LDL, apo A-I, Lp(a) and body weight whendietary fats are replaced with carbohydrates.

  18. Dietary fat intake and subsequent weight change in adults: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sharp, Stephen J; Du, Huaidong

    2009-01-01

    weight divided by duration of follow-up). DESIGN: We analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from 6 cohorts of the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study. Using country-specific food-frequency questionnaires, we examined the association between baseline fat intake......). CONCLUSIONS: We found no significant association between the amount or type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change in this large prospective study. These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain....

  19. Detection of amyloid in abdominal fat pad aspirates in early amyloidosis: Role of electron microscopy and Congo red stained cell block sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Devata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA of the abdominal fat pad is a minimally invasive procedure to demonstrate tissue deposits of amyloid. However, protocols to evaluate amyloid in fat pad aspirates are not standardized, especially for detecting scant amyloid in early disease. Materials and Methods: We studied abdominal fat pad aspirates from 33 randomly selected patients in whom subsequent tissue biopsy, autopsy, and/or medical history for confirmation of amyloidosis (AL were also available. All these cases were suspected to have early AL, but had negative results on abdominal fat pad aspirates evaluated by polarizing microscopy of Congo Red stained sections (CRPM. The results with CRPM between four reviewers were compared in 12 cases for studying inter observer reproducibility. 24 cases were also evaluated by ultrastructural study with electron microscopy (EM. Results: Nine of thirty-three (27% cases reported negative by polarizing microscopy had amyloidosis. Reanalysis of 12 mixed positive-negative cases, showed considerable inter-observer variability with frequent lack of agreement between four observers by CRPM alone (Cohen′s Kappa index of 0.1, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.36. EM showed amyloid in the walls of small blood vessels in fibroadipose tissue in four out of nine cases (44% with amyloidosis. Conclusion: In addition to poor inter-observer reproducibility, CRPM alone in cases with scant amyloid led to frequent false negative results (9 out of 9, 100%. For improved detection of AL, routine ultrastructural evaluation with EM of fat pad aspirates by evaluating at least 15 small blood vessels in the aspirated fibroadipose tissue is recommended. Given the high false negative rate for CRPM alone in early disease, routine reflex evaluation with EM is highly recommended to avert the invasive option of biopsying various organs in cases with high clinical suspicion for AL.

  20. Low carbohydrate, high fat diet increases C-reactive protein during weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Janet W; Turpyn, Abigail D

    2007-04-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with elevated risk of heart disease and may be linked to oxidative stress in obesity. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of weight loss diet composition (low carbohydrate, high fat, LC or high carbohydrate, low fat, HC) on inflammation and to determine whether this was related to oxidative stress. Twenty nine overweight women, BMI 32.1 +/- 5.4 kg/m(2), were randomly assigned to a self-selected LC or HC diet for 4 wks. Weekly group sessions and diet record collections helped enhance compliance. Body weight, markers of inflammation (serum interleukin-6, IL-6; C-reactive protein, CRP) oxidative stress (urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha, 8-epi) and fasting blood glucose and free fatty acids were measured weekly. The diets were similar in caloric intake (1357 kcal/d LC vs. 1361 HC, p=0.94), but differed in macronutrients (58, 12, 30 and 24, 59, 18 for percent of energy as fat, carbohydrate, and protein for LC and HC, respectively). Although LC lost more weight (3.8 +/- 1.2 kg LC vs. 2.6 +/- 1.7 HC, p=0.04), CRP increased 25%; this factor was reduced 43% in HC (p=0.02). For both groups, glucose decreased with weight loss (85.4 vs. 82.1 mg/dl for baseline and wk 4, p<0.01), while IL-6 increased (1.39 to 1.62 pg/mL, p=0.04). Urinary 8-epi varied differently over time between groups (p<0.05) with no consistent pattern. Diet composition of the weight loss diet influenced a key marker of inflammation in that LC increased while HC reduced serum CRP but evidence did not support that this was related to oxidative stress.

  1. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade ultrassonográfica como método para medida da gordura abdominal e visceral Reproducibility of ultrasonography as a method to measure abdominal and visceral fat

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    Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a variabilidade interobservador do método ultrassonográfico para medida da gordura subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal por meio de técnica padronizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes entre novembro de 2006 e janeiro de 2007. A medida da espessura subcutânea foi realizada com transdutor linear de 7,5 MHz posicionado transversalmente a 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical. Para a gordura visceral foi utilizado transdutor de 3,5 MHz posicionado 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical, considerando-se a medida entre a face interna do músculo reto abdominal e a parede posterior da aorta na linha média do abdome. A gordura perirrenal foi medida no terço médio do rim direito, com transdutor posicionado na linha axilar média. RESULTADOS: A reprodutibilidade interobservador foi analisada por meio do teste t de Student, com significância de 95%. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias das medidas das gorduras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal, com p = 0,7141, 0,7286 e 0,6368, respectivamente. As médias encontradas, com seus respectivos desvios-padrão, foram: 2,64 ± 1,37 para a espessura subcutânea, 6,84 ± 2,38 para a espessura visceral e 4,89 ± 2,6 para a espessura perirrenal. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia apresentou boa reprodutibilidade interobservador para avaliação da gordura abdominal por meio das medidas das espessuras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interobserver variability of ultrasound in the measurement of subcutaneous, visceral and perirenal fat through standard technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2006 to January 2007, 50 patients were evaluated. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. For the visceral fat, a 3.5 MHz transducer was also positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar, considering the

  2. Comparison of the relative contributions of intra-abdominal and liver fat to components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotronen, Anna; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Sevastianova, Ksenia

    2011-01-01

    insulin sensitivity independent of age, gender, subcutaneous (SC) fat, and/or lean body mass (LBM). Including both liver and IA fat, liver and IA fat both explained variation in TG, HDL cholesterol, insulin and hepatic insulin sensitivity independent of each other and of age, gender, SC fat, and LBM....... Liver fat independently predicted glucose and liver enzymes. SC fat and age explained variation in blood pressure. In conclusion, both IA and liver fat independently of each other explain variation in serum TG, HDL cholesterol, insulin concentrations and hepatic insulin sensitivity, thus supporting...

  3. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose...... tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously) in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio......-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08), but not men (p = 0.75). Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006) but not men (p = 0.24) for BMI...

  4. The blunted effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in obese subjects is partly reversed by weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, M; Arngrim, N; Simonsen, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) appears to have impaired effect on subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue metabolism in obese subjects. The aim of the present study was to examine whether weight loss may reverse the impaired effect of GIP on subcutaneous abdominal...... adipose tissue in obese subjects. METHODS: Five obese males participated in a 12-week weight loss program, which consisted of caloric restriction (800 Cal day(-)(1)) followed by 4 weeks of weight-maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, subcutaneous adipose tissue lipid metabolism was studied...... after weight loss, Pobese subjects, weight...

  5. Low-fat versus low-carbohydrate weight reduction diets: effects on weight loss, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Una; Spence, Michelle; Courtney, C Hamish; McKinley, Michelle C; Ennis, Cieran N; McCance, David R; McEneny, Jane; Bell, Patrick M; Young, Ian S; Hunter, Steven J

    2009-12-01

    Low-fat hypocaloric diets reduce insulin resistance and prevent type 2 diabetes in those at risk. Low-carbohydrate, high-fat diets are advocated as an alternative, but reciprocal increases in dietary fat may have detrimental effects on insulin resistance and offset the benefits of weight reduction. We investigated a low-fat (20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) versus a low-carbohydrate (60% fat, 20% carbohydrate) weight reduction diet in 24 overweight/obese subjects ([mean +/- SD] BMI 33.6 +/- 3.7 kg/m(2), aged 39 +/- 10 years) in an 8-week randomized controlled trial. All food was weighed and distributed, and intake was calculated to produce a 500 kcal/day energy deficit. Insulin action was assessed by the euglycemic clamp and insulin secretion by meal tolerance test. Body composition, adipokine levels, and vascular compliance by pulse-wave analysis were also measured. Significant weight loss occurred in both groups (P loss with no difference between groups (P = 0.71). The change in overall systemic arterial stiffness was, however, significantly different between diets (P = 0.04); this reflected a significant decrease in augmentation index following the low-fat diet, compared with a nonsignificant increase within the low-carbohydrate group. This study demonstrates comparable effects on insulin resistance of low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets independent of macronutrient content. The difference in augmentation index may imply a negative effect of low-carbohydrate diets on vascular risk.

  6. Effect of weight, sex and hunting period on fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from wild boar

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    Artūras Šiukščius

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of weight, sex and month of hunting on the fatty acid composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat from 49 free ranging wild boars hunted in Lithuania during the winter season. A total number of 27 and 25 fatty acids were identified in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous tissue of wild boars, respectively. The weight of the wild boar had mainly affected only the levels of separate fatty acids both in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. Higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA were found in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat of males compared with females. The effect of both weight and sex on the levels of fatty acids was higher in the subcutaneous fat than in the intramuscular fat. Weight, sex and hunting month had no effect on PUFA/SFA and n-6 PUFA/n-3 PUFA ratios in the intramuscular and subcutaneous fat. The atherogenic (AI and thrombogenic (TI indexes and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic ratio in subcutaneous fat were more favorable in females compared with males and in the January hunting season than in November and December.

  7. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would...... be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel...... electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P

  8. Modest weight loss in moderately overweight postmenopausal women improves heart rate variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Astrup, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of weight loss on heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) parameters in overweight postmenopausal women. Design and Methods: Forty-nine overweight postmenopausal women with an average body mass index of 28.8 1.9 kg/m2 underwent a 12-week dietary weight......-to-normal intervals for each 5-min period (SDNNindex). Baseline body fat mass (FM%) and changes in body composition was determined by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Before and after the weight-loss period, total abdominal fat, intra-abdominal fat (IAAT), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SCAT) were measured by single...

  9. Weight loss with a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austel, A; Ranke, C; Wagner, N; Görge, J; Ellrott, T

    2015-08-01

    There is evidence that Mediterranean diets with a high proportion of olive oil and nuts can be effective for weight management and prevention of cardiovascular disease. It might be difficult for populations with other eating habits to follow such diets. Therefore, a modified Mediterranean-type diet using fat modification through neutral and butter-flavored canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil with two portion-controlled sweet daily snacks was tested in Germany. Randomized waiting-list control study with overweight/grade 1 obese subjects: 12-week self-help modified Mediterranean-type diet, 6 weeks of diet plans and 6 weeks of weight loss maintenance training. Trial duration was 12 months. Intervention group (IG) included 100 participants (average age of 52.4 years, weight 85.1 kg and body mass index (BMI) 30.1 kg/m(2)), waiting-list control group (CG) included 112 participants (52.6 years, 84.1 kg and 30.1 kg/m(2)). Per-protocol weight loss after 12 weeks was 5.2 kg in IG vs 0.4 kg in CG (P ⩽ 0.0001), BMI -1.8 vs -0.1 kg/m(2) (P ⩽ 0.0001), waist circumference -4.7 vs -0.9 cm (P ⩽ 0.0001). Triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol improved significantly in IG but not in CG. One-year dropouts: 44% in IG and 53% in CG. Weight loss after 12 months: 4.2 kg (pooled data). A five-meal modified Mediterranean-type diet with two daily portion-controlled sweet snacks was effective for weight management in a self-help setting for overweight and grade 1 obese subjects. Fat modification through canola oil, walnuts and walnut oil improved blood lipids even at 12 months.

  10. Whey protein reduces early life weight gain in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt Tranberg

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (P<0.001-0.05. Hereafter weight gain was similar resulting in a 15% lower final body weight in the whey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, P<0.001. Food intake was unaffected by protein source throughout the study period. Fasting insulin was lower in the whey group (P<0.01 and glucose clearance was improved after an oral glucose challenge (P<0.05. Plasma cholesterol was lowered by whey compared to casein (P<0.001. The composition of the fecal microbiota differed between high- and low-fat groups at 13 weeks (P<0.05 whereas no difference was seen between whey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey.

  11. Excessive gestational weight gain is associated with long-term body fat and weight retention at 7 y postpartum in African American and Dominican mothers with underweight, normal, and overweight prepregnancy BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widen, Elizabeth M; Whyatt, Robin M; Hoepner, Lori A; Ramirez-Carvey, Judyth; Oberfield, Sharon E; Hassoun, Abeer; Perera, Frederica P; Gallagher, Dympna; Rundle, Andrew G

    2015-12-01

    Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with postpartum weight retention (PPWR) and abdominal adiposity, but long-term effects are understudied in low-income and minority populations at high risk of obesity and associated sequelae. We examined associations between GWG and long-term PPWR and adiposity in a prospective cohort of African American and Dominican mothers in the Bronx and Northern Manhattan. Women (n = 302) were enrolled during pregnancy and were followed for 7 y postpartum. Linear regression was used to relate excessive GWG [greater than 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines] to outcomes [percentage body fat and long-term PPWR (change in weight from prepregnancy to 7 y postpartum)], adjusting for covariates and included an interaction term between prepregnancy body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) and GWG. Mean ± SD prepregnancy BMI and total GWG were 25.6 ± 5.8 (42% of women had BMI ≥25) and 16.6 ± 7.8 kg (64% of women had total GWG greater than IOM guidelines), respectively. Associations between GWG and long-term PPWR and the percentage body fat varied by prepregnancy BMI (P-interaction ≤ 0.06); excessive GWG was associated with a higher percentage body fat and greater long-term PPWR in mothers with lower prepregnancy BMI. To illustrate the interaction, a predicted covariate-adjusted model, which was used to derive estimates for the percentage body fat and PPWR associated with excessive GWG, was estimated for 2 prepregnancy BMI examples. For a woman with prepregnancy BMI of 22, excessive GWG was associated with 3.0% higher body fat (P mothers were predicted by interacting effects of prepregnancy BMI and excessive GWG. The provision of support for mothers to begin pregnancy at a healthy weight and to gain weight appropriately during pregnancy may have important lasting implications for weight-related health in this population. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00043498. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil Prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students of a city in the mountains of southern Brazil

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    Lahna dos Reis Roth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é considerada a mais importante desordem nutricional devido ao aumento acelerado de suas prevalências nos últimos anos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de 11 a 14 anos (meninos e meninas de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil, e verificar as possíveis associações com classificação econômica, sexo, idade, hábitos alimentares, hábitos de vida (atividades físicas e atividades sedentárias e insatisfação com a imagem corporal. Foram avaliados 1230 escolares através de um estudo transversal. As variáveis antropométricas estudadas foram circunferência da cintura e as dobras cutâneas do tríceps e da panturrilha. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva e uma bivariada entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal foram 28,7% e 40,1%, respectivamente. Houve associação estatítisca significante com maior número de refeições e insatisfação com a imagem corporal para obesidade abdominal, que também esteve associada com os avaliados do sexo feminino, e para excesso de gordura corporal e. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal estão elevadas e justificam a implementação de ações de saúde nas escolas.Obesity is considered the most important nutritional disorder due to a rapid increase in its prevalence in recent years. The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students aged 11 to 14 (boys and girls from a town in the mountains of southern Brazil, and to verify the possible associations with economic classification, gender, age, eating habits, lifestyle habits (physical activity and sedentary activities and dissatisfaction with body image. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1230 students. The anthropometric variables studied were the waist circumference and the skin folds of

  13. Effects of Endogenous Androgens and Abdominal Fat Distribution on the Interrelationship Between Insulin and Non-Insulin-Mediated Glucose Uptake in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Uche; Pall, Marita; Mathur, Ruchi; Dey, Damini; Berman, Daniel; Chen, Ida Y.; Dumesic, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance. Glucose disposal occurs via noninsulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU) and insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU). It is unknown whether in PCOS NIMGU increases to compensate for declining IMGU and whether androgens and fat distribution influence this relationship. Objectives: The objective of the study was to compare in women with PCOS and controls the interrelationship between NIMGU [ie, glucose effectiveness (Sg)] and IMGU [ie, the insulin sensitivity index (Si)] and the role of androgens and fat distribution. Participants: Twenty-eight PCOS (by National Institutes of Health 1990 criteria) and 28 control (age, race, and body mass index matched) women were prospectively studied. A subset of 16 PCOS subjects and 16 matched controls also underwent abdominal computed tomography. Main Outcome Measures: Glucose disposal (by a frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test), circulating androgens, and abdominal fat distribution [by waist to hip ratio and visceral (VAT) and sc (SAT) adipose tissue content] were measured. Results: PCOS women had lower mean Si and similar Sg and abdominal fat distribution compared with controls. PCOS women with Si below the PCOS median (more insulin resistant) had a lower mean Sg than controls with Si above the control median (more insulin sensitive). In PCOS only, body mass index, free T, modified Ferriman-Gallwey score, and waist to hip ratio independently predicted Sg, whereas Si did not. In PCOS, VAT and SAT independently and negatively predicted Si and Sg, respectively. Conclusion: The decreased IMGU in PCOS is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in NIMGU or associated with excessive VAT accumulation. Increased general obesity, SAT, and hyperandrogenism are primary predictors of the deterioration of NIMGU in PCOS. PMID:23450052

  14. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  15. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    with the RW group (+0.15±1.28 and -0.04±0.82 kg, respectively; Pmass in the WGR group tended to exceed that in the WGW group (P=0.07). Overall, no effect of diet on appetite sensation was observed; however, energy intake from study products...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...... was ~200 kcal lower in the WGR group when compared with that in the RW group (Penergy intake did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a role for WGR foods in body weight regulation, when provided ad libitum. The effect may be mediated by satiation reflected...

  16. The associations between adult body composition and abdominal adiposity outcomes, and relative weight gain and linear growth from birth to age 22 in the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort, South Africa.

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    Alessandra Prioreschi

    Full Text Available The growing prevalence of overweight and obesity in low- or middle-income countries precipitates the need to examine early life predictors of adiposity.To examine growth trajectories from birth, and associations with adult body composition in the Birth to Twenty Plus Cohort, Soweto, South Africa.Complete data at year 22 was available for 1088 participants (536 males and 537 females. Conditional weight and height indices were generated indicative of relative rate of growth between years 0-2, 2-5, 5-8, 8-18, and 18-22. Whole body composition was measured at year 22 (range 21-25 years using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Total fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM, fat mass, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT were recorded.Birth weight was positively associated with FFSTM and fat mass at year 22 (β = 0.11, p<0.01 and β = 0.10, p<0.01 respectively. Relative weight gain from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM, fat mass, VAT, and SAT at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 22 was positively associated with FFSTM at year 22. Relative linear growth from birth to year 2 was positively associated with VAT at year 22. Being born small for gestational age and being stunted at age 2 years were inversely associated with FFSTM at year 22.The importance of optimal birth weight and growth tempos during early life for later life body composition, and the detrimental effects of pre- and postnatal growth restriction are clear; yet contemporary weight-gain most strongly predicted adult body composition. Thus interventions should target body composition trajectories during childhood and prevent excessive weight gain in early adulthood.

  17. Resistant starch and exercise independently attenuate weight regain on a high fat diet in a rat model of obesity

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    Johnson Ginger C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-term weight reduction remains elusive for many obese individuals. Resistant starch (RS and exercise may be useful for weight maintenance. The effects of RS, with or without exercise, on weight regain was examined during relapse to obesity on a high carbohydrate, high fat (HC/HF diet. Methods Obesity-prone rats were fed ad libitum for 16 weeks then weight reduced on a low fat diet to induce a 17% body weight loss (weight reduced rats. Weight reduced rats were maintained on an energy-restricted low fat diet for 18 weeks, with or without a daily bout of treadmill exercise. Rats were then allowed free access to HC/HF diet containing low (0.3% or high (5.9% levels of RS. Weight regain, energy balance, body composition, adipocyte cellularity, and fuel utilization were monitored as rats relapsed to obesity and surpassed their original, obese weight. Results Both RS and exercise independently attenuated weight regain by reducing the energy gap between the drive to eat and suppressed energy requirements. Exercise attenuated the deposition of lean mass during relapse, whereas its combination with RS sustained lean mass accrual as body weight returned. Early in relapse, RS lowered insulin levels and reduced the deposition of fat in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Exercise cessation at five weeks of relapse led to increased weight gain, body fat, subcutaneous adipocytes, and decreased lean mass; all detrimental consequences to overall metabolic health. Conclusions These data are the first to show the complimentary effects of dietary RS and regular exercise in countering the metabolic drive to regain weight following weight loss and suggest that exercise cessation, in the context of relapse on a HC/HF diet, may have dire metabolic consequences.

  18. [Relation between leptin serun with weight and body fat distribution in postmenopausal women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Ospino, Yubire; Díaz, N; Meertens, L; Naddaf, G; Solano, L; Fernández, M; Flores, A; González, M

    2010-01-01

    Leptin is a peptidic hormone secreted by the fat tissue and plays an important role in body weight regulation. After menopause, weight gain increases as well as android-like obesity. Previous studies suggest a relationship between leptin level, body mass index (BMI) and fat distribution. To establish the relationships between serum leptin, BMI, waist circumference (WC), and waist/hip ratio (WHR). 48 women under the age of 60 years and with amenorrhea for longer than one year were assessed. Leptin and estradiol (ELISA) levels were determined; normal values: 3.63-11.09 ng/mL and 0-65 pg/Ml. BMI (WHO), WC > 88 cm, and WHR > 0.80 were considered as indicators of cardiometabolic risk. Mean age for the group was 54 +/- 3.9 years; leptin: 8.4 +/- 3.7 ng/mL, and estradiol: 17.6 +/- 10.0 pg/mL; BMI: 27.0 +/- 4.9 kg/m(2); WC: 86.2 +/- 8.6 cm; and WHR: 0.84 +/- 0.06. Twenty percent of the women had hyperleptinemia, 58.4% malnourishment due to excessive intake, 35% presented WC cardiovascular risk. The highest leptin value was found in obese women. There was no association between serum leptin levels and anthropometrical variables. There was a significantly positive correlation between weight, height, BMI, WC, hip circumference, and estradiol. Postmenopausal women presented a high prevalence of overweight/obesity, android-like body fat distribution and normal serum leptin levels. The group assessed is considered to be at risk for cardiometabolic diseases according to anthropometrical indicators.

  19. Whey Protein Reduces Early Life Weight Gain in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranberg, Britt; Hellgren, Lars I.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Jeamet, Aymeric; Rune, Ida; Ellekilde, Merete; Nielsen, Dennis S.; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that dairy products, including whey protein, alleviate several disorders of the metabolic syndrome. Here, we investigated the effects of whey protein isolate (whey) in mice fed a high-fat diet hypothesising that the metabolic effects of whey would be associated with changes in the gut microbiota composition. Five-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet ad libitum for 14 weeks with the protein source being either whey or casein. Faeces were collected at week 0, 7, and 13 and the fecal microbiota was analysed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses of PCR-derived 16S rRNA gene (V3-region) amplicons. At the end of the study, plasma samples were collected and assayed for glucose, insulin and lipids. Whey significantly reduced body weight gain during the first four weeks of the study compared with casein (Pwhey group relative to casein (34.0±1.0 g vs. 40.2±1.3 g, Pwhey group (Pwhey compared to casein (Pwhey and casein. In conclusion, whey initially reduced weight gain in young C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet compared to casein. Although the effect on weight gain ceased, whey alleviated glucose intolerance, improved insulin sensitivity and reduced plasma cholesterol. These findings could not be explained by changes in food intake or gut microbiota composition. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms behind the metabolic effects of whey. PMID:23940754

  20. Adipose tissue (PRR regulates insulin sensitivity, fat mass and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulaykho Shamansurova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We previously demonstrated that the handle-region peptide, a prorenin/renin receptor [(PRR] blocker, reduces body weight and fat mass and may improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat fed mice. We hypothesized that knocking out the adipose tissue (PRR gene would prevent weight gain and insulin resistance. Methods: An adipose tissue-specific (PRR knockout (KO mouse was created by Cre-loxP technology using AP2-Cre recombinase mice. Because the (PRR gene is located on the X chromosome, hemizygous males were complete KO and had a more pronounced phenotype on a normal diet (ND diet compared to heterozygous KO females. Therefore, we challenged the female mice with a high-fat diet (HFD to uncover certain phenotypes. Mice were maintained on either diet for 9 weeks. Results: KO mice had lower body weights compared to wild-types (WT. Only hemizygous male KO mice presented with lower total fat mass, higher total lean mass as well as smaller adipocytes compared to WT mice. Although food intake was similar between genotypes, locomotor activity during the active period was increased in both male and female KO mice. Interestingly, only male KO mice had increased O2 consumption and CO2 production during the entire 24-hour period, suggesting an increased basal metabolic rate. Although glycemia during a glucose tolerance test was similar, KO males as well as HFD-fed females had lower plasma insulin and C-peptide levels compared to WT mice, suggesting improved insulin sensitivity. Remarkably, all KO animals exhibited higher circulating adiponectin levels, suggesting that this phenotype can occur even in the absence of a significant reduction in adipose tissue weight, as observed in females and, thus, may be a specific effect related to the (PRR. Conclusions: (PRR may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and its associated complications such as type 2 diabetes. Keywords: (Prorenin receptor, Renin-angiotensin system, Adipose

  1. Comparison of a low carbohydrate and low fat diet for weight maintenance in overweight or obese adults enrolled in a clinical weight management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curry Chelsea

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that a low carbohydrate (LC diet may be equally or more effective for short-term weight loss than a traditional low fat (LF diet; however, less is known about how they compare for weight maintenance. The purpose of this study was to compare body weight (BW for participants in a clinical weight management program, consuming a LC or LF weight maintenance diet for 6 months following weight loss. Methods Fifty-five (29 low carbohydrate diet; 26 low fat diet overweight/obese middle-aged adults completed a 9 month weight management program that included instruction for behavior, physical activity (PA, and nutrition. For 3 months all participants consumed an identical liquid diet (2177 kJ/day followed by 1 month of re-feeding with solid foods either low in carbohydrate or low in fat. For the remaining 5 months, participants were prescribed a meal plan low in dietary carbohydrate (~20% or fat (~30%. BW and carbohydrate or fat grams were collected at each group meeting. Energy and macronutrient intake were assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months. Results The LC group increased BW from 89.2 ± 14.4 kg at 3 months to 89.3 ± 16.1 kg at 9 months (P = 0.84. The LF group decreased BW from 86.3 ± 12.0 kg at 3 months to 86.0 ± 14.0 kg at 9 months (P = 0.96. BW was not different between groups during weight maintenance (P = 0.87. Fifty-five percent (16/29 and 50% (13/26 of participants for the LC and LF groups, respectively, continued to decrease their body weight during weight maintenance. Conclusion Following a 3 month liquid diet, the LC and LF diet groups were equally effective for BW maintenance over 6 months; however, there was significant variation in weight change within each group.

  2. Morphometric measurement of submucosal thickness in areas of fat deposition in the terminal ileum and colonic sections, with correlation with body mass index, weight and age: a male autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, Hector; Drawz, Sarah; Dykoski, Richard; Manivel, Juan Carlos

    2015-10-01

    An increased amount of submucosal (SM) fat in the colon on imaging is considered to be characteristic of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, a recent study in patients without IBD reported a correlation between colonic SM fat deposition and body weight (BW). The aim of this study was to perform a morphometric investigation of SM thickness in areas of fat deposition in the terminal ileum (TI), ileocaecal valve (ICV), and colonic sections, to determine whether there are variations by site, and whether it shows a correlation with BW, body mass index (BMI), or age. Representative samples of TI, ICV and colonic sections were collected prospectively from 115 autopsy cases without IBD. All of the study subjects were male (Veterans Hospital). SM thickness was measured in areas of fat deposition. Correlation analysis was performed between SM thickness and BW, BMI, and age. Fat deposition was common; however, with the exception of the ICV, it was neither consistent nor prominent, and it did not show a statistical correlation with BW, BMI, or age. SM fat deposition is common but not uniform or conspicuous in the TI or colon. In contrast to extravisceral intra-abdominal fat, it does not show a correlation with BW or BMI, and is not associated with ageing. As all study subjects were male, gender-dependent variability cannot be excluded. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Effect of short-term carbohydrate overfeeding and long-term weight loss on liver fat in overweight humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Santos, Alexandre; Kotronen, Anna; Hakkarainen, Antti; Makkonen, Janne; Silander, Kaisa; Peltonen, Markku; Romeo, Stefano; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Fielding, Barbara A; Rissanen, Aila; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2012-10-01

    Cross-sectional studies have identified a high intake of simple sugars as an important dietary factor predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We examined whether overfeeding overweight subjects with simple sugars increases liver fat and de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and whether this is reversible by weight loss. Sixteen subjects [BMI (kg/m²): 30.6 ± 1.2] were placed on a hypercaloric diet (>1000 kcal simple carbohydrates/d) for 3 wk and, thereafter, on a hypocaloric diet for 6 mo. The subjects were genotyped for rs739409 in the PNPLA3 gene. Before and after overfeeding and after hypocaloric diet, metabolic variables and liver fat (measured by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were measured. The ratio of palmitate (16:0) to linoleate (18:2n-6) in serum and VLDL triglycerides was used as an index of DNL. Carbohydrate overfeeding increased weight (±SEM) by 2% (1.8 ± 0.3 kg; P fat by 27% from 9.2 ± 1.9% to 11.7 ± 1.9% (P = 0.005). DNL increased in proportion to the increase in liver fat and serum triglycerides in subjects with PNPLA3-148IIbut not PNPLA3-148MM. During the hypocaloric diet, the subjects lost 4% of their weight (3.2 ± 0.6 kg; P fat content (from 11.7 ± 1.9% to 8.8 ± 1.8%; P Carbohydrate overfeeding for 3 wk induced a >10-fold greater relative change in liver fat (27%) than in body weight (2%). The increase in liver fat was proportional to that in DNL. Weight loss restores liver fat to normal. These data indicate that the human fatty liver avidly accumulates fat during carbohydrate overfeeding and support a role for DNL in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This trial was registered at www.hus.fi as 235780.

  4. T1-weighted dual-echo MRI for fat quantification in pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, Lucia; Martino, Michele Di; Catalano, Carlo; Panebianco, Valeria; Bezzi, Mario; Anania, Caterina; Chiesa, Claudio

    2011-07-07

    To determine in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) the accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in assessing liver fat concentration. A case-control study was performed. Cases were 25 obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Controls were 25 obese children matched for age and gender, without NAFLD at ultrasonography and with normal levels of aminotransferases and insulin. Hepatic fat fraction (HFF) by MRI was obtained using a modification of the Dixon method. HFF ranged from 2% to 44% [mean, 19.0% (95% CI, 15.1-27.4)] in children with NAFLD, while in the controls this value ranged from 0.08% to 4.69% [2.0% (1.3-2.5), P steatosis (r = 0.883, P steatosis, the mean HFF was 8.7% (95% CI, 6.0-11.6) for mild, 21.6% (15.3-27.0) for moderate, and 39.7% (34.4-45.0) for severe fatty liver infiltration. With a cutoff of 4.85%, HFF had a sensitivity of 95.8% for the diagnosis of histological steatosis ≥ 5%. All control children had HFF lower than 4.85%; thus, the specificity was 100%. After 12 mo, children with weight loss displayed a significant decrease in HFF. MRI is an accurate methodology for liver fat quantification in pediatric NAFLD.

  5. High-protein, low-fat diets are effective for weight loss and favorably alter biomarkers in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Carol S; Tjonn, Sherrie L; Swan, Pamela D

    2004-03-01

    Although popular and effective for weight loss, low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat (Atkins) diets have been associated with adverse changes in blood and renal biomarkers. High-protein diets low in fat may represent an equally appealing diet plan but promote a more healthful weight loss. Healthy adults (n = 20) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 low-fat (vs. the high-carbohydrate diet (3.9 +/- 1.4 and 0.7 +/- 1.7 g N/d, respectively, P low-fat, energy-restricted diets of varying protein content (15 or 30% energy) promoted healthful weight loss, but diet satisfaction was greater in those consuming the high-protein diet.

  6. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  7. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  8. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Transgenic rescue of adipocyte glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor expression restores high fat diet-induced body weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugleholdt, Randi; Pedersen, Jens; Bassi, Maria Rosaria

    2011-01-01

    that was similar between the groups. In contrast, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-mediated insulin secretion does not seem to be important for regulation of body weight after high fat feeding. The study supports a role of the adipocyte GIPr in nutrient-dependent regulation of body weight and lean mass...

  10. PPARβ expression in rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus and its relationship with glucolipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the relationship between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPARβ expression in rectus abdominis as well as abdominal subcutaneous fat of patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM and glucolipid metabolism. Methods: The pregnant women who received routine antenatal care and planned to receive selective caesarean section in Obstetrics Department of our hospital between May 2012 and March 2016 were retrospectively analyzed, and 74 healthy pregnant women and 58 pregnant women with GDM were screened and included in the control group and gestational diabetes mellitus group (GDM group respectively. Rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat were collected during Cesarean section to determine the expression of PPARβ was measured; peripheral blood was collected at middle-late pregnancy to determine the content of blood glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism indexes as well as adipocytokines. Results: PARβ mRNA expression and protein expression in rectus abdominis and abdominal subcutaneous fat of GDM group were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; homeostasis model assessment insulin secretion index (HOMA-β, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and OGTT glucose curve (AUCG levels as well as serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, triglyceride (TG, cholesterol (TC, Leptin, Resistin and Chemerin content of GDM group were significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05 while early insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30 and insulin sensitive index composite (ISIcomp levels as well as serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Omentin-1 and Omentin-1 and adiponectin (ADPN content were significantly lower than those of control group (P<0.05; PARβ mRNA expression and protein expression were negatively correlated with HOMA-β, HOMA IR, area under the AUCG, LDL-C, TG, TC, Leptin, Resistin and Chemerin, and positively correlated with ΔI30/

  11. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... with astrocyte-targeted IL-6 expression (GFAP-IL6 mice) with a high-fat diet (55% kcal from fat) versus a control diet (10%). The results demonstrate that the GFAP-IL6 mice are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat, apparently without altering food intake and with no evidences...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high...

  12. Dose-ranging pilot randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for reducing abdominal fat in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasai H

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Sasai,1–3,* Keisuke Ueda,4,5,* Takehiko Tsujimoto,6,7 Hiroyuki Kobayashi,1 Chiaki Sanbongi,4 Shuji Ikegami,4 Yoshio Nakata1 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 3Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo, 4Food Science Research Laboratories, Meiji Co., Ltd., Odawara, Kanagawa, 5Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 7Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effective dose of an amino acid mixture comprising arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine combined with physical activity promotion in reducing abdominal fat among overweight adults.Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, pilot trial was conducted in Mito, Japan, from January through April 2016, and the data were analyzed from May through November 2016. The study participants were 35 overweight adults, aged 20–64 years, with no regular exercise habit. Participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (3,000 mg/d, n=9, medium-dose (1,500 mg/d, n=9, low-dose (750 mg/d, n=8, or placebo (0 mg/d, n=9 groups, and the test beverage containing the amino acid mixture or placebo was administered for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle during the study period through monthly physical activity promotion sessions and smartphone-based self-monitoring with wearable trackers. Primary outcomes were changes in abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, assessed by computed tomography.Results: Of the 35 enrolled participants, 32 completed the 12-week follow-up visit. The intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the changes in abdominal total fat

  13. Multidetector CT Evaluation of Food Stasis in Remnant Stomach and Body Fat Change after Subtotal Gastrectomy by Laparoscopic versus Open Abdominal Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ah Young; Yu, Jeong Sik; Choi, Seung Ho; Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    This study aimed to compare the degree of gastric food stasis and following body fat changes after laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LSTG) versus open subtotal gastrectomy (OSTG). For 284 consecutive gastric cancer patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy (213 LSTG and 71 OSTG), the one-year follow-up CT images were reviewed retrospectively. The characteristics of gastric stasis was divided into 5 degrees (0, no residue; 1, small secretion; 2, poorly-defined amorphous food; 3, well-delineated measurable food; 4, bezoar-like food). The residual food volume was calculated for the patients with degree 3 or 4 gastric stasis. Postoperative visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat changes were measured on CT and were correlated with the residual food volume. The LSTG group showed higher degrees of gastric stasis [degree 3 (LSTG, 15.0%; OSTG, 9.9%), degree 4 (LSTG, 6.5%; OSTG, 2.8%)] (p = 0.072). The mean residual food volume of the LSTG group was larger than that of the OSTG group (13779 cc versus 6295 cc) (p = 0.059). Postoperative abdominal fat change was not significantly different between the 2 groups and was not correlated with the residual food volume. LSTG tends to develop gastric stasis more frequently compared with OSTG, but gastric stasis might hardly affect the postoperative body fat status.

  14. Comparison of a reduced carbohydrate and reduced fat diet for LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses during 9-months of weight maintenance subsequent to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCheminant, James D; Smith, Bryan K; Westman, Eric C; Vernon, Mary C; Donnelly, Joseph E

    2010-06-01

    This study compared LDL, HDL, and VLDL subclasses in overweight or obese adults consuming either a reduced carbohydrate (RC) or reduced fat (RF) weight maintenance diet for 9 months following significant weight loss. Thirty-five (21 RC; 14 RF) overweight or obese middle-aged adults completed a 1-year weight management clinic. Participants met weekly for the first six months and bi-weekly thereafter. Meetings included instruction for diet, physical activity, and behavior change related to weight management. Additionally, participants followed a liquid very low-energy diet of approximately 2092 kJ per day for the first three months of the study. Subsequently, participants followed a dietary plan for nine months that targeted a reduced percentage of carbohydrate (approximately 20%) or fat (approximately 30%) intake and an energy intake level calculated to maintain weight loss. Lipid subclasses using NMR spectroscopy were analyzed prior to weight loss and at multiple intervals during weight maintenance. Body weight change was not significantly different within or between groups during weight maintenance (p>0.05). The RC group showed significant increases in mean LDL size, large LDL, total HDL, large and small HDL, mean VLDL size, and large VLDL during weight maintenance while the RF group showed increases in total HDL, large and small HDL, total VLDL, and large, medium, and small VLDL (p0.05). Some individual lipid subclasses improved in both dietary groups. Large and medium VLDL subclasses increased to a greater extent across weight maintenance in the RF group.

  15. Fast spin-echo T2-weighted MR imaging of tongue cancer; the value of fat-suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zu Byoung; Na, Dong Gyu; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Byun, Hong Sik; Baek, Chung Whan; Son, Yong Ik

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted MR imaging with and without fat suppression. Twelve patients (7 men and 5 women; mean age, 48 years) with pathologically proven cancer of the tongue were included in this study. In all of these, FSE T2-weighted MR images with and without fat suppression were obtained in the same imaging planes before surgery or biopsy. Two radiologists visually compared the images thus obtained in terms of detection, extent, and conspicuity of the tumor, and the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each tumor was also calculated. In all patients, both imaging modalities were equal in terms of tumor detection. In 4 of 12(33%), the extent of the tumor was greater with fat suppression, while in eight (67%), it was almost the same both with and without. In ten patients (83%), the tumor was more conspicuous with fat suppression, and percentage CNRs were significantly higher with fat suppression than without (180±70% and 113±61%, respectively; p=0.02). For the evaluation of patients with tongue cancer, fat-suppressed FSE T2-weighted MR imaging is superior to its conventional equivalent

  16. The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on body weight gain and fat accrual in C57Bl/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel L; Nagy, Tim R; Wilson, Landon S; Dong, Shengli; Barnes, Stephen; Allison, David B

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity in industrialized societies has become markedly elevated. In contrast, model organism research shows that reducing caloric intake below ad libitum levels provides many health and longevity benefits. Despite these benefits, few people are willing and able to reduce caloric intake over prolonged periods. Prior research suggests that mannooligosaccharide (MOS or mannan) supplementation can increase lifespan of some livestock and in rodents can reduce visceral fat without reducing caloric intake. Hence, we tested the effect of MOS supplementation as a possible calorie restriction (CR) mimetic (CRM) in mice. C57Bl/6J male mice were fed a high-fat "western" type diet with or without 1% MOS (by weight) supplementation (n = 24/group) from 8 to 20 weeks of age. Animals were housed individually and provided 95% of ad libitum food intake throughout the study. Body weight was measured weekly and body composition (lean and fat mass) measured noninvasively every 3 weeks. Individual fat depot weights were acquired by dissection at study completion. Supplementation of a high-fat diet with 1% MOS tended to reduce total food intake (mean +/- s.d.; control (CON): 293.69 +/- 10.53 g, MOS: 288.10 +/- 11.82 g; P = 0.09) during the study. Moreover, MOS supplementation had no significant effect on final body weight (CON: 25.21 +/- 2.31 g, MOS: 25.28 +/- 1.49 g; P = 0.91), total fat (CON: 4.72 +/- 0.90 g, MOS: 4.82 +/- 0.83 g; P = 0.69), or visceral fat (CON: 1.048 +/- 0.276 g, MOS: 1.004 +/- 0.247 g; P = 0.57). Contrary to previous research, MOS supplementation had no discernable effect on body weight gain or composition during this 12-week study, challenging the potential use of MOS as a CRM or body composition enhancer.

  17. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Renal function following long-term weight loss in individuals with abdominal obesity on a very-low-carbohydrate diet vs high-carbohydrate diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Grant D; Buckley, Jonathan D; Noakes, Manny; Clifton, Peter M

    2010-04-01

    A frequently cited concern of very-low-carbohydrate diets is the potential for increased risk of renal disease associated with a higher protein intake. However, to date, no well-controlled randomized studies have evaluated the long-term effects of very-low-carbohydrate diets on renal function. To study this issue, renal function was assessed in 68 men and women with abdominal obesity (age 51.5+/-7.7 years, body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 33.6+/-4.0) without preexisting renal dysfunction who were randomized to consume either an energy-restricted ( approximately 1,433 to 1,672 kcal/day), planned isocaloric very-low-carbohydrate (4% total energy as carbohydrate [14 g], 35% protein [124 g], 61% fat [99 g]), or high-carbohydrate diet (46% total energy as carbohydrate [162 g], 24% protein [85 g], 30% fat [49 g]) for 1 year. Body weight, serum creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin excretion were assessed before and after 1 year (April 2006-July 2007). Repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted. Weight loss was similar in both groups (very-low-carbohydrate: -14.5+/-9.7 kg, high-carbohydrate: -11.6+/-7.3 kg; P=0.16). By 1 year, there were no changes in either group in serum creatinine levels (very-low-carbohydrate: 72.4+/-15.1 to 71.3+/-13.8 mumol/L, high-carbohydrate: 78.0+/-16.0 to 77.2+/-13.2 mumol/L; P=0.93 time x diet effect) or estimated glomerular filtration rate (very-low-carbohydrate: 90.0+/-17.0 to 91.2+/-17.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2), high-carbohydrate: 83.8+/-13.8 to 83.6+/-11.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2); P=0.53 time x diet effect). All but one participant was classified as having normoalbuminuria at baseline, and for these participants, urinary albumin excretion values remained in the normoalbuminuria range at 1 year. One participant in high-carbohydrate had microalbuminuria (41.8 microg/min) at baseline, which decreased to a value of 3.1 microg/min (classified as normoalbuminuria) at 1 year. This study provides preliminary

  19. Effect of Low-Fat vs. Other Diet Interventions on Long-Term Weight Change in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tobias, Deirdre K.; Chen, Mu; Manson, JoAnn E.; Ludwig, David S.; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effectiveness of low-fat diets for long-term weight loss has been debated for decades, with dozens of randomized trials (RCTs) and recent reviews giving mixed results. Methods: We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of RCTs to estimate the long-term effect of low-fat vs. higher fat dietary interventions on weight loss. Our search included RCTs conducted in adult populations reporting weight change outcomes at ≥1 year, comparing low-fat with higher fat interventions, publi...

  20. Effects of a stimulant-free dietary supplement on body weight and fat loss in obese adults: a six-week exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodgate, Derek E; Conquer, Julie A

    2003-04-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, osteoarthritis, and stroke. Stimulants, such as ephedrine and caffeine and their herbal counterparts, have proved effective in facilitating body weight loss, but their use is controversial due to their undesired effects. Other nutraceuticals have shown moderate success in reducing body weight, whereas several other compounds have demonstrated little or no effect. Therefore, a tolerable and effective nutraceutical that can increase energy expenditure and/or decrease caloric intake is desirable for body weight reduction. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the tolerability and effectiveness of a novel, stimulant-free, dietary supplement containing glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, Gymnema sylvestre, and vitamin C on body weight and fat loss and change in body composition in obese adults. In this single-center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted at the University of Guelph (Guelph, Ontario, Canada), obese adults (aged 20-50 years; body mass index [BMI], ≥30 kg/m(2)) were randomized to the treatment or placebo group. The treatment group received 6 capsules of a dietary supplement containing a proprietary blend of glucomannan, chitosan, fenugreek, G sylvestre, and vitamin C daily for 6 weeks, and the placebo group received 6 capsules of rice flour daily for 6 weeks. Body weight; percentage of body fat; absolute fat mass; lean body mass; BMI; upper abdominal, waist, and hip circumference; and anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline and at study end. Patients completed daily dietary intake records on days 1 to 3 and days 40 to 42. They also completed weekly activity logs throughout the study. Twenty-four subjects (mean [SD] age, 37.0 [8.2] years [range, 21-48years]; mean [SD] BMI, 35.7 [6.2] kg/m(2) [range, 28.9-50.9 kg/m(2)]) were assigned to the treatment group (8 women, 4 men) or the placebo

  1. Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essah, P A; Levy, J R; Sistrun, S N; Kelly, S M; Nestler, J E

    2010-08-01

    To compare the effects of weight loss by an energy-restricted low-fat diet vs low-carbohydrate diet on serum peptide YY (PYY) levels. 8-Week prospective study of 30 obese adults (mean age: 42.8+/-2.0 years, mean body mass index 35.5+/-0.6 kg m(-2)). After 8 weeks, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost substantially more weight than those on the low-fat diet (5.8 vs 0.99 kg, Plow-fat or low-carbohydrate diet likely represents a compensatory response to maintain energy homeostasis and contributes to difficulty in weight loss during energy-restricted diets.

  2. Co-Rumination of Fat Talk and Weight Control Practices: An Application of Confirmation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa; Segrin, Chris; Harwood, Jake; Bonito, Joseph A

    2017-04-01

    Grounded in confirmation theory, the current research sought to explore the relationship between co-rumination of fat talk and weight control practices (i.e., binging and purging, exercising, and healthy eating behaviors), with a particular interest in whether perceptions of friends' responses during these interactions exacerbate or mitigate this relationship. Female friendship dyads completed online questionnaires at three time points across 2 weeks. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that (a) co-rumination was positively associated with binging and purging and exercising, (b) women who perceived their friends as accepting reported less binging and purging, more exercising, and more healthy eating behaviors, (c) acceptance and challenge interacted to predict binging and purging, (d) acceptance moderated the relationships between co-rumination and binging and purging, and (e) challenge moderated the relationship between co-rumination and healthy eating behaviors.

  3. A randomized controlled trial: the effect of inulin on weight management and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guess, Nicola D; Dornhorst, Anne; Oliver, Nick; Bell, Jimmy D; Thomas, E Louise; Frost, Gary S

    2015-01-01

    Fat infiltration of the liver, muscle and pancreas is associated with insulin resistance and risk of diabetes. Weight loss reduces ectopic fat deposition and risk of diabetes, but is difficult to sustain to due to compensatory increases in appetite. Fermentable carbohydrates have been shown to decrease appetite and food intake, and promote weight loss in overweight subjects. In animal studies, fermentable carbohydrate reduces ectopic fat independent of weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of the fermentable carbohydrate inulin on weight maintenance, appetite and ectopic fat in subjects with prediabetes. Forty-four subjects with prediabetes were randomized to 18 weeks' inulin or cellulose supplementation. During weeks 1-9 (weight loss phase) all subjects had four visits with a dietitian to guide them towards a 5 % weight loss. During weeks 10-18 (weight maintenance phase) subjects continued taking their assigned supplementation and were asked to maintain the weight they had lost but were offered no further support. All subjects attended study sessions at baseline, 9 and 18 weeks for measurement of weight; assessment of adipose tissue and ectopic fat content by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy; glucose, insulin and GLP-1 levels following a meal tolerance test; and appetite by ad libitum meal test and visual analogue scales. Both groups lost approximately 5 % of their body weight by week nine (-5.3 ± 0.1 % vs -4.3 ± 0.4 %, p = 0.13, but the inulin group lost significantly more weight between 9 and 18 weeks (-2.3 ± 0.5 % vs -0.6 ± 0.4 %, p = 0.012). Subjects taking inulin had lower hepatic (p = 0.02) and soleus muscle (p fat content at 18 weeks compared to control even after controlling for weight loss and consumed less at the ad libitum meal test (p = 0.027). Fasting glucose significantly decreased at week nine only (p = 0.005), insulin concentrations did not change, and there

  4. INDICATORS OF SUCCESS IN THE DIETARY MANAGEMENT OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY: WEIGHT, BODY FAT LOSS AND QUALITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig García-Galbis, Manuel; Rizo Baeza, Mercedes; Cortés Castell, Ernesto

    2015-09-01

    %WL: Percentage of weight loss; %FL: Percentage of fat loss. evaluate which unit of measurement for weight loss could determine the success or failure of dietary treatment for overweight and obesity. 4,625 consultations carried out on 616 patients in the southeast of Spain from 2006 to 2012. All of the patients were over 25 years of age and suffered from overweight or obesity. The consultations were carried out every fortnight, using the Mediterranean or low-calorie diet. The patients were divided into four groups according to their %WL and %FL. most of the sample consisted of: women; participants between 25-45 years of age; attended consultations for over a month and a half; obese. 80% of the patients obtained a %FL ≥ 5% (15.5 } 12.8). The groups with a higher %FL obtained significant differences in weight loss (22.6 vs 11.2%, p = 0.000). The multinomial analysis shows significant differences between the groups with the highest %FL and the lowest %WL and %FL: sex (p = 0.006 vs p = 0.005), BMI (p = 0.010 vs p = 0.003) and attendance (p = 0.000 vs p = 0.000). the patients who lost weight and fat); most of the sample lost ≥ 5% of fat. This means that the method of personalised dietary treatment results in a high fat loss; fat is an indicator of the quality loss obtained. use the measurement of fat as a complementary unit of measurement to weight loss; establish a limit of 5% to evaluate such loss; and increase this type of research in any method of weight loss. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. Intimal cell masses in the abdominal aortas of swine fed a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet for up to twelve years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D N; Schmee, J; Lee, K T; Thomas, W A

    1985-05-01

    The normal subendothelial intima of large arteries in man, swine and most other species is a variegated structure from birth onwards. In some regions it contains only a few scattered cells; in others there may be a continuous single layer of cells; and in still others the cells pile up to form what we have called intimal cell masses (ICM). The cells in the normal ICM are mostly smooth muscle cells although there is also a small resident population of monocyte-like cells. We have been studying the ICM in swine with emphasis on the abdominal aorta. We have found that atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta of swine induced by high-fat high-cholesterol diets begin by a hyperplastic reaction of the smooth muscle cells in the ICM and progress to form large lesions characterized by extensive regions of lipid-rich calcific necrotic debris similar to advanced lesions in man. Because of the putative key role of the ICM in atherogenesis we think that it is important to learn as much as possible about their natural history under conditions as normal as possible. In this report we present data on ICM in the abdominal aortas of 34 male and female Hormel miniature swine maintained on a low-fat low-cholesterol diet for up to 12 years of age. The ICM grow slowly with aging and in the distal portion of the aorta account for an average of 9% in the male and 15% in the female of the total cells in the aortic wall (intima + media).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Does stress influence sleep patterns, food intake, weight gain, abdominal obesity and weight loss interventions and vice versa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Astrup, Arne; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2018-01-01

    subjects. This review summarizes the scientific evidence on the role mental stress (either in or not in association with impaired sleep) may play in poor sleep, enhanced appetite, cravings and decreased motivation for physical activity. All these factors contribute to weight gain and obesity, possibly via...

  7. Effect of weight loss by a low-fat diet and a low-carbohydrate diet on peptide YY levels

    OpenAIRE

    Essah, P. A.; Levy, J. R.; Sistrun, S. N.; Kelly, S. M.; Nestler, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of weight loss by an energy-restricted low-fat diet versus low-carbohydrate diet on serum peptide YY (PYY) levels. Design 8-week prospective study of 30 obese adults (mean age: 42.8 ± 2.0 years, mean BMI 35.5 ± 0.6 kg/m2). Results After 8 weeks, subjects on the low-carbohydrate diet lost substantially more weight than those on the low-fat diet (5.8 kg vs. 0.99 kg, p

  8. Dietary fat, body weight, and cancer: contributions of studies in rodents to understanding these cancer risk factors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A E; Sullivan, L M; Hafer, L J

    1999-12-01

    Understanding diet and energy balance as risk factors for breast, colon, and other cancers requires information on the contribution of each factor and of interactions among factors to cancer risk. Rodent models for breast cancer provide extensive data on effects of dietary fat and calories, energy balance, body weight gain, and physical activity on tumor development. Analyses of the combined data from many studies have shown clearly that quality and quantity of dietary fat and energy balance contribute independently to increased mammary gland tumorigenesis. These findings were seen in female rats fed diets high in fat (35-40% of calories) compared to rats fed control diets, with approximately 10% of calories as fat (Fay and Freedman, 1997, Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 46, 215-223). The methods used permit comparison of experimental and epidemiological data, and they may be useful in extrapolating between species and developing public health recommendations. In addition to the contributions of lifetime-diet composition, intake, energy balance, and physical activity to cancer risk, there are questions about the timing and duration of alterations in these factors and about the "dose-response" characteristics of cancer risk to the factors. Endocrine mechanisms may be significant in mammary gland tumor risk, but experimental and epidemiological data indicate that cancers at other sites, such as colon and liver, also are influenced by the factors listed. Other diet and lifestyle factors that influence energy, or specifically fat, metabolism may also affect risk for cancers that are promoted by increased intake of fat and calories. Studies of separate and interactive effects of dietary fat, black tea, weight gain, and mammary gland tumorigenesis (Rogers, et al, 1998, Carcinogenesis 19, 1269-1273) have been analyzed. Using adjustment of carcinogenesis endpoints for body weight, tumor burden, and latency, they were found to be related to weight gain within treatment groups in

  9. Both food restriction and high-fat diet during gestation induce low birth weight and altered physical activity in adult rat offspring: the "Similarities in the Inequalities" model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio da Silva Cunha

    Full Text Available We have previously described a theoretical model in humans, called "Similarities in the Inequalities", in which extremely unequal social backgrounds coexist in a complex scenario promoting similar health outcomes in adulthood. Based on the potential applicability of and to further explore the "similarities in the inequalities" phenomenon, this study used a rat model to investigate the effect of different nutritional backgrounds during gestation on the willingness of offspring to engage in physical activity in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley rats were time mated and randomly allocated to one of three dietary groups: Control (Adlib, receiving standard laboratory chow ad libitum; 50% food restricted (FR, receiving 50% of the ad libitum-fed dam's habitual intake; or high-fat diet (HF, receiving a diet containing 23% fat. The diets were provided from day 10 of pregnancy until weaning. Within 24 hours of birth, pups were cross-fostered to other dams, forming the following groups: Adlib_Adlib, FR_Adlib, and HF_Adlib. Maternal chow consumption and weight gain, and offspring birth weight, growth, physical activity (one week of free exercise in running wheels, abdominal adiposity and biochemical data were evaluated. Western blot was performed to assess D2 receptors in the dorsal striatum. The "similarities in the inequalities" effect was observed on birth weight (both FR and HF groups were smaller than the Adlib group at birth and physical activity (both FR_Adlib and HF_Adlib groups were different from the Adlib_Adlib group, with less active males and more active females. Our findings contribute to the view that health inequalities in fetal life may program the health outcomes manifested in offspring adult life (such as altered physical activity and metabolic parameters, probably through different biological mechanisms.

  10. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  11. Dietary supplementation of Chardonnay grape seed flour reduces plasma cholesterol concentration, hepatic steatosis, and abdominal fat content in high-fat diet-induced obese hamsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Ca...

  12. Hormone replacement therapy dissociates fat mass and bone mass, and tends to reduce weight gain in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L B; Vestergaard, P; Hermann, A P

    2003-01-01

    in women randomized to HRT (1.94 +/- 4.86 kg) than in women randomized to no HRT (2.57 +/- 4.63, p = 0.046). A similar pattern was seen in the group receiving HRT or not by their own choice. The smaller weight gain in women on HRT was almost entirely caused by a lesser gain in fat. The main determinant...... of the weight gain was a decline in physical fitness. Women opting for HRT had a significantly lower body weight at inclusion than the other participants, but the results in the self-selected part of the study followed the pattern found in the randomized part. The change in fat mass was the strongest predictor...... of bone changes in untreated women, whereas the change in lean body mass was the strongest predictor when HRT was given. Body weight increases after the menopause. The gain in weight is related to a decrease in working capacity. HRT is associated with a smaller increase in fat mass after menopause. Fat...

  13. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...... fat content (MFC) was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC...

  14. Ultrafast T2-weighted single shot spin-echo sequences: applications on abdominal and pelvic pathologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Martin, C.; Falco, J.; Esteban, L.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences that obtain all the data using a sole excitation pulse of 90 degree centigrade, filling the K space in a single repetition time (TR) is known as snap shot or single shot (SS). The SS sequence based on the rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (SS-RARE) method, designed by Hening (1) and a variation of it with a half-Fourier reconstruction (SS-HF-RARE (HASTEL)) (2, 3) are capable of obtaining high contrast images in T2, in very short times, that oscillate between one to several seconds. The clinical application of these sequences to abdominal and pelvic pathologies is increasing, providing and improvement in the contrast resolution, but also in the spatial resolution, with a high relation signal/noise ratio, high contrast and absence of movement artifacts. (Author)

  15. Prevalência e fatores associados à obesidade abdominal e ao excesso de peso em adultos maranhenses Prevalence and factors associated with abdominal obesity and excess weight among adults from Maranhão, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Jane Ferreira Veloso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a prevalência de excesso de peso e obesidade abdominal e analisar associações com fatores socioeconômicos, demográficos e comportamentais em adultos maranhenses. MÉTODOS: Amostra probabilística por conglomerados em múltiplos estágios, investigada por meio de inquérito domiciliar com 1.005 adultos de 20 a 59 anos (393 homens e 612 mulheres. Foram aferidos peso, estatura e circunferência da cintura (CC. A obesidade abdominal foi considerada quando CC > 80 para mulheres e > 94 para homens. Índice de massa corporal (IMC, peso em quilogramas dividido pelo quadrado da altura em metros, >25 kg/m² foi considerado excesso de peso. A variável dependente foi dividida em quatro categorias: IMC e CC normais, excesso de peso sem obesidade abdominal (EP, obesidade abdominal sem excesso de peso (OA e obesidade abdominal com excesso de peso (OAEP. Foi utilizada a análise de regressão logística multinomial e as estimativas levaram em consideração o delineamento complexo de amostragem. RESULTADOS: Nos homens, a prevalência de OA isolada foi 1,3%, EP 20,3% e OAEP 27,5%. Nas mulheres, 15,5% tinham OA, 1,3% EP e 42,0% apresentavam OAEP (p-valor 9 anos e estar unido foram fatores associados à maior prevalência de EP. Idade > 35 anos, renda familiar > 2 salários mínimos e viver com companheira se associaram à maior prevalência de OAEP. Nas mulheres, idade > 35 anos e viver com companheiro se associaram à maior prevalência de OA. Idade > 35 anos, viver com companheiro e escolaridade Objective: To determine the prevalence of excess body weight and abdominal obesity and assess the association with socioeconomic, demographic and behavioral factors among adults of Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: Multistage cluster sample investigated through a household survey on 1,005 adults aged 20 to 59 years (393 men and 612 women. Anthropometric measures: weight, height and waist circumference (WC were assessed. Abdominal obesity was

  16. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging of abdominal wall endometriomas during the cyclic menstrual changes: A preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solak, Aynur; Şahin, Neslin; Genç, Berhan; Sever, Ali Rıza; Genç, Mine; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for the evaluation of cyclic morphological and hemorrhagic changes in abdominal wall endometriomas (AWE). Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with a total of 17 lesions who were admitted with complaints of abdominal wall mass and cyclic pain were evaluated by MRI. Patients were scanned during the first three days of the menstrual cycle and during the mid-cycle phase (day 13–15). In addition to conventional images SWI was performed. The signal changes within the lesions on SWI were compared and graded on both studies. Results: There was no significant difference in the size of the lesions in the early days of the menstruation compared to the mid-menstrual period. The SWI taken on mid-cycle phase showed that the center was hyperintense and the peripheral zone was hypointense in all lesions. A signal void related to increased blood and the shrinkage of complete disappearance of hyperintensity in the venter of the lesion was seen 15 (88%) of the 17 cases on the SWI series performed during the menstrual phase scan. Conclusion: SWI is a sensitive technique and has the capability to show hemorrhage and deposition of hemosiderin within the lesions. For patients suspected with AWE, valuable diagnostic findings may be obtained if the MRI examination including SWI is performed during the early and mid phase menstrual cycle

  17. Diagnostic value of susceptibility-weighted imaging of abdominal wall endometriomas during the cyclic menstrual changes: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solak, Aynur, E-mail: aynursolak@yahoo.com [Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Şahin, Neslin, E-mail: neslinshn@gmail.com [Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Genç, Berhan, E-mail: be.genc@hotmail.com [Radiology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Sever, Ali Rıza, E-mail: arsever@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Maidstone Hospital, Breast Unit, Maidstone, Kent (United Kingdom); Genç, Mine, E-mail: drminegenc@hotmail.com [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Fevzipasa Boulvard 172/2, Basmane, Izmir (Turkey); Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin, E-mail: onsoral@yahoo.com [Pathology Department of Sifa University Hospital, 35240, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the value of susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) for the evaluation of cyclic morphological and hemorrhagic changes in abdominal wall endometriomas (AWE). Materials and methods: Fourteen patients with a total of 17 lesions who were admitted with complaints of abdominal wall mass and cyclic pain were evaluated by MRI. Patients were scanned during the first three days of the menstrual cycle and during the mid-cycle phase (day 13–15). In addition to conventional images SWI was performed. The signal changes within the lesions on SWI were compared and graded on both studies. Results: There was no significant difference in the size of the lesions in the early days of the menstruation compared to the mid-menstrual period. The SWI taken on mid-cycle phase showed that the center was hyperintense and the peripheral zone was hypointense in all lesions. A signal void related to increased blood and the shrinkage of complete disappearance of hyperintensity in the venter of the lesion was seen 15 (88%) of the 17 cases on the SWI series performed during the menstrual phase scan. Conclusion: SWI is a sensitive technique and has the capability to show hemorrhage and deposition of hemosiderin within the lesions. For patients suspected with AWE, valuable diagnostic findings may be obtained if the MRI examination including SWI is performed during the early and mid phase menstrual cycle.

  18. [Examination of upper abdominal region in high spatial resolution diffusion-weighted imaging using 3-Tesla MRI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masaki; Matsushita, Hiroki; Oosugi, Masanori; Inoue, Kazuyasu; Yaegashi, Taku; Anma, Takeshi

    2009-03-20

    The advantage of the higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (3-Tesla) has the possibility of contributing to the improvement of high spatial resolution without causing image deterioration. In this study, we compared SNR and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value with 3-Tesla as the condition in the diffusion-weighted image (DWI) parameter of the 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (1.5-Tesla) and we examined the high spatial resolution images in the imaging method [respiratory-triggering (RT) method and breath free (BF) method] and artifact (motion and zebra) in the upper abdominal region of DWI at 3-Tesla. We have optimized scan parameters based on phantom and in vivo study. As a result, 3-Tesla was able to obtain about 1.5 times SNR in comparison with the 1.5-Tesla, ADC value had few differences. Moreover, the RT method was effective in correcting the influence of respiratory movement in comparison with the BF method, and image improvement by the effective acquisition of SNR and reduction of the artifact were provided. Thus, DWI of upper abdominal region was a useful sequence for the high spatial resolution in 3-Tesla.

  19. Who Wants a Fat Child?: Care for Obese Children in Weight Obsessed Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Bogart

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of obese people in our society, especially fat children gives rise to much indignation ("Fat", "fatness" - rather than "obese, obesity" - are preferred terms among groups and individuals protesting societal and traditional public health treatment of large persons. Not all obese individuals are poor; but being excessively overweight tends to be inversely related to socio economic status among women and their children in post industrial societies. Poor children who are fat often have the hardest experiences because they are large, are in poverty, and are dependent on parents and others for their welfare. Fat people are not protected from discrimination in most jurisdictions. Human rights laws should be amended to shield obese individuals from prejudicial actions. In addition, activism, public health models, and various legal interventions, to be discussed, need to focus on people, especially children, eating/drinking nutritiously and being physically active - with their weight being a secondary consideration. These issues are illustrated by discussing programs in the United States designed to assist poor families to eat and drink more nutritiously. El tratamiento de las personas obesas en nuestra sociedad, especialmente en el caso de los niños, da lugar a mucha indignación (se usan términos como "gordo", "gordura", en lugar de "obeso, obesidad", entre los grupos e individuos que protestan por el tratamiento social y la sanidad púbica tradicional para tratar a las personas grandes. No todas las personas obesas son pobres; pero en las sociedades postindustriales, entre mujeres y sus hijos tener un sobrepeso excesivo tiende a estar inversamente relacionado con la posición socioeconómico. Los niños pobres que están gordos sufren, a menudo, las experiencias más duras, porque son grandes, están en situación de pobreza, y su bienestar depende de sus padres y otras personas. En la mayoría de jurisdicciones, las personas gordas no

  20. Impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and endothelial function in LDL receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbein, Heike; Hofmann, Anja; Brunssen, Coy; Goettsch, Winfried; Morawietz, Henning

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and physical inactivity are important cardiovascular risk factors. Regular physical exercise has been shown to mediate beneficial effects in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. However, the impact of physical exercise on endothelial function in proatherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient (LDLR(-/-)) mice has not been studied so far. Six-week-old male LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet (39 kcal% fat diet) for 20 weeks. The impact of high-fat diet and voluntary running on body weight and amount of white adipose tissue was monitored. Basal tone and endothelial function was investigated in aortic rings using a Mulvany myograph. LDLR(-/-) mice on high-fat diet had increased cumulative food energy intake, but also higher physical activity compared to mice on control diet. Body weight and amount of visceral and retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of LDLR(-/-) mice were significantly increased by high-fat diet and partially reduced by voluntary running. Endothelial function in aortae of LDLR(-/-) mice was impaired after 20 weeks on standard and high-fat diet and could not be improved by voluntary running. Basal tone showed a trend to be increased by high-fat diet. Voluntary running reduced body weight and amount of white adipose tissue in LDLR(-/-) mice. Endothelial dysfunction in LDLR(-/-) mice could not be improved by voluntary running. In a clinical context, physical exercise alone might not have an influence on functional parameters and LDL-C levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. However, physical activity in these patients may be in general beneficial and should be performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body fat percentage is better than indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliosa, Polyana Romano; Zaniqueli, Divanei; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Barbosa, Miriam Carmo Rodrigues; Mill, José Geraldo

    2018-01-05

    To assess whether the indicators of weight status body mass index and waist-to-height ratio are similar to body fat percentage to identify obese children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile. This was a cross-sectional study involving 840 children and adolescents (6-18 years). The same individuals were classified as non-obese (

    fat percentage and indicators of weight status, body mass index, and waist-to-height ratio. Body fat percentage was obtained by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance. Linear association between obesity and increased lipid fractions was tested by ANCOVA. Normal distribution curves of non-HDL cholesterol were designed for obese and non-obese. To provide the proportion of obese individuals with elevated non-HDL-c across all indicators, Z-score was calculated. Obese boys presented higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese, classified by body mass index (107±28 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p=0.001), waist-to-height ratio (115±29 vs. 94±25mg/dL, p<0.001) and body fat percentage (119±33 vs. 94±24mg/dL, p<0.001). Differently, obese girls presented with higher non-HDL cholesterol when compared with those non-obese only according to the body fat percentage classification (118±24 vs. 96±26mg/dL, p=0.001). A large shift to the right in the distribution curve of non-HDL cholesterol among obese girls compared with non-obese was observed only when body fat percentage was used to discriminate between obese and non-obese. Body fat percentage was better than the indicators of weight status to identify children and adolescents with unfavorable lipid profile, mainly among girls. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. CNS β3-adrenergic receptor activation regulates feeding behavior, white fat browning, and body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Jennifer E; López-Ferreras, Lorena; Chanclón, Belén; Eerola, Kim; Micallef, Peter; Skibicka, Karolina P; Wernstedt Asterholm, Ingrid

    2017-09-01

    Pharmacological β 3 -adrenergic receptor (β 3 AR) activation leads to increased mitochondrial biogenesis and activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), a process commonly referred to as "browning", and transiently increased insulin release. These effects are associated with improved metabolic function and weight loss. It is assumed that this impact of β 3 AR agonists is mediated solely through activation of β 3 ARs in adipose tissue. However, β 3 ARs are also found in the brain, in areas such as the brain stem and the hypothalamus, which provide multisynaptic innervation to brown and white adipose depots. Thus, contrary to the current adipocentric view, the central nervous system (CNS) may also have the ability to regulate energy balance and metabolism through actions on central β 3 ARs. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate whether CNS β 3 ARs can regulate browning of WAT and other aspects of metabolic regulation, such as food intake control and insulin release. We found that acute central injection of β 3 AR agonist potently reduced food intake, body weight, and increased hypothalamic neuronal activity in rats. Acute central β 3 AR stimulation was also accompanied by a transient increase in circulating insulin levels. Moreover, subchronic central β 3 AR agonist treatment led to a browning response in both inguinal (IWAT) and gonadal WAT (GWAT), along with reduced GWAT and increased BAT mass. In high-fat, high-sugar-fed rats, subchronic central β 3 AR stimulation reduced body weight, chow, lard, and sucrose water intake, in addition to increasing browning of IWAT and GWAT. Collectively, our results identify the brain as a new site of action for the anorexic and browning impact of β 3 AR activation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Barbara V; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Beresford, Shirley A; Frank, Gail; Jones, Bobette; Rodabough, Rebecca J; Snetselaar, Linda; Thomson, Cynthia; Tinker, Lesley; Vitolins, Mara; Prentice, Ross

    2006-01-04

    Obesity in the United States has increased dramatically during the past several decades. There is debate about optimum calorie balance for prevention of weight gain, and proponents of some low-carbohydrate diet regimens have suggested that the increasing obesity may be attributed, in part, to low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets. To report data on body weight in a long-term, low-fat diet trial for which the primary end points were breast and colorectal cancer and to examine the relationships between weight changes and changes in dietary components. Randomized intervention trial of 48,835 postmenopausal women in the United States who were of diverse backgrounds and ethnicities and participated in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial; 40% (19,541) were randomized to the intervention and 60% (29,294) to a control group. Study enrollment was between 1993 and 1998, and this analysis includes a mean follow-up of 7.5 years (through August 31, 2004). The intervention included group and individual sessions to promote a decrease in fat intake and increases in vegetable, fruit, and grain consumption and did not include weight loss or caloric restriction goals. The control group received diet-related education materials. Change in body weight from baseline to follow-up. Women in the intervention group lost weight in the first year (mean of 2.2 kg, Pfruit servings, and a nonsignificant trend toward weight loss occurred with increasing intake of fiber. A low-fat eating pattern does not result in weight gain in postmenopausal women. Clinical Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00000611.

  5. The administration of long-term high-fat diet in ovariectomized wistar rat (Study on Daily Food Intake, Lee Index, Abdominal Fat Mass and Leptin Serum Levels)

    OpenAIRE

    Fitriani, Dita; Meliala, Andreanyta; Agustiningsih, Denny

    2016-01-01

    Background: Leptin and estrogen are the hormone that has an important function in energy homeostasis through anorexic effects on the central nervous system. Leptin and estrogen action can decrease food intake, increases energy expenditure and thermogenesis. However, the administration of long-term high-fat diet can lead to impaired leptin function. In addition, estrogen deficiency is also considered a risk factor that may increase the occurrence of obesity in menopause. Objective: This st...

  6. Radiation Effect on Body Weight and Hematological Changes of Hybrid Mice by Conventional Fraction, Large Abdominal Field Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Heon; Shin, Sei One; Kim, Myung Se

    1985-01-01

    Radiation effect on mammals, especially on hematologic changes, has been studied since discovery of x-ray. Various experimental animals were tried for radiobiological studies. 72 hybrid mice with conventional fraction (5X/week), large abdominal field (2 x 3cm, from symphysis pubic to xyphoid process) were used. Body weight was declined gradually by increasing irradiation doses, nadir was about 29.7% in male ; 30.4% in female at 6000 rad irradiation group. Hemoglobin value was nearly normal throughout entire treatment. Significant dropping of WBC count was noted to 40-50% of pretreatment values by only 1000 rad irradiation. Change of differential count was interesting; lymphocyte proportion showed gradual reduction, instead of gradual increasing of segmented neutrophil. Those proportion were reversed after 6000 rad irradiation. Urinary protein tests showed + - +++, showing no correlation with dosage. Application. of our study in clinical combination therapy (radiation + chemotherapy) was discussed

  7. Relationship between visceral fat and PAI-1 in overweight men and women before and after weight loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kockx, M.; Leenen, R.; Seidell, J.; Princen, H.M.G.; Kooistra, T.

    1999-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the relationship between visceral fat accumulation and plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in healthy, obese men and women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, 25 men and 25 premenopausal women, aged between 26 and 49 years, with an

  8. Effects of genetic strain on stress-induced weight and body fat loss in rats: Application to air pollution research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to some air pollutants is suspected of contributing to obesity. Hazelton chambers are commonly used in air pollution studies but we found unexpected reductions in body weight and body fat of rats housed in Hazelton chambers under control conditions. We suspect that stres...

  9. Visceral fat and weight loss in obese subjects : relationship to serum lipids, energy expenditure and sex hormones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the relationships between visceral fat accumulation and serum lipids, energy expenditure, and sex hormone levels in healthy obese men and premenopausal women undergoing weight loss therapy. The subjects, aged 27-51 years, with an initial body mass index of 28-38 kg/m

  10. Effect of weight loss on the postprandial response to high-fat and high-carbohydrate meals in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, J; Gruson, E; Dallinga-Thie, G; Pigeyre, M; Gomila, S; Romon, M

    2007-06-01

    To assess the effect of weight loss on the plasma lipid and remnant-like lipoprotein cholesterol (RLPc) response to a high-fat or a high-carbohydrate meal in a population of obese women. Nutritional intervention study. Sixteen obese women (mean body mass index (BMI): 37.6+/-5 kg/m(2)). Subjects were asked to follow an energy-restricted diet (800 kcal/day) for 7 weeks, followed by a 1-week maintenance diet. Before and after weight loss, each participant was given (in random order) two iso-energetic meals containing either 80% fat and 20% protein (the high-fat meal) or 80% carbohydrate and 20% protein (the high-carbohydrate meal). Blood samples were collected over the following 10-h period. A two-way analysis of variance with repeated measures was used to assess the effect of the meal and postprandial time on biological variables and postprandial responses (notably RLPc levels). Weight loss was associated with a significant decrease in fasting triglyceride (P=0.0102), cholesterol (Pfat meal was less intense after weight reduction than before (interaction Pcarbohydrate meal was biphasic (i.e. with two peaks, 1 and 6 h after carbohydrate intake). After adjustment on baseline values, weight reduction was associated with a trend towards a reduction in the magnitude of the second triglyceride peak (interaction Ploss, again after adjustment on baseline levels. Our data suggest that weight loss preferentially affects postprandial triglyceride metabolism.

  11. Fat suppression at three-dimensional T1-weighted MR imaging of the hands: Dixon method versus CHESS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchgesner, T; Perlepe, V; Michoux, N; Larbi, A; Vande Berg, B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the effectiveness of fat suppression and the image quality of the Dixon method with those of the chemical shift-selective (CHESS) technique in hands of normal subjects at non-enhanced three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR imaging. Both hands of 14 healthy volunteers were imaged with 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) T1-weighted Dixon, 3D FSPGR T1-weighted CHESS and 3D T1-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) CHESS sequences in a 1.5T MR scanner. Three radiologists scored the effectiveness of fat suppression in bone marrow (EFS BM ) and soft tissues (EFS ST ) in 20 joints per subject. One radiologist measured the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in 10 bones per subject. Statistical analysis used two-way ANOVA with random effects (PCHESS sequence and the 3D FSE T1-weighted CHESS sequence (PCHESS sequence (PCHESS sequence in the axial plane (P=0.0028). Mean SNR was statistically significantly higher for 3D FSPGR T1-weighted Dixon sequence than for 3D FSPGR T1-weighted CHESS and 3D FSE T1-weighted CHESS sequences (PCHESS technique at 3D T1-weighted MR imaging of the hands. Copyright © 2017 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional Comparison for Lipid Metabolism and Intestinal and Fecal Microflora Enzyme Activities between Low Molecular Weight Chitosan and Chitosan Oligosaccharide in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chen-Yuan; Feng, Shih-An; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2017-07-24

    The present study investigated and compared the regulatory effects on the lipid-related metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase/fecal bacterial enzyme activities between low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Diet supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan showed greater efficiency than chitosan oligosaccharide in suppressing the increased weights in body and in liver and adipose tissues of high-fat-diet-fed rats. Supplementation of low molecular weight chitosan also showed a greater improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in imbalance of plasma, hepatic, and fecal lipid profiles, and intestinal disaccharidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. Moreover, both low molecular weight chitosan and chitosan oligosaccharide significantly decreased the fecal microflora mucinase and β-glucuronidase activities in high-fat-diet-fed rats. These results suggest that low molecular weight chitosan exerts a greater positive improvement than chitosan oligosaccharide in lipid metabolism and intestinal disaccharidase activity in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats.

  13. Utilização de diferentes níveis de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae em dietas e seus efeitos no desempenho, rendimento da carcaça e gordura abdominal em frangos de cortes - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2004 Use of different levels of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effects, on carcass and abdominal fat in broilers - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes Galão

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o desempenho, o rendimento de carcaça, a gordura abdominal de frangos de corte alimentados com diferentes níveis de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Utilizaram-se 288 pintos de um dia, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, fatorial 3x2. (3 níveis levedura - 0%; 5% e 10% e dois sexos, 4 repetições, 12 aves por parcela. Não houve efeito significativo para o desempenho de frangos de corte com a inclusão de levedura na dieta até os 21 dias de idade, porém, na fase de engorda, no nível de 10% houve uma piora no ganho de peso e na conversão alimentar, concluindo-se que a inclusão de 10% de levedura (Saccharomyces cerevisiae às dietas de frango de corte afetou o desempenho, mas não foram afetados o rendimento da carcaça e a gordura abdominal.The objective of this work was to study performance, carcass yield and abdominal fat of cut chickens fed with different yeast levels (Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 288 one-year-old chickens were used, distributed in an outline of randomized blocks, factorial 3x2, (3 yeast levels - 0%; 5% and 10% and two sexes, four repetitions, 12 birds per portion. There was not any significant effect on the performance of cut chickens with the yeast inclusion in the diet until 21 days of age, however, in the fattening phase on the level of 10%, there was a worsening in weight earnings and in feeding conversion. At the end, the inclusion of 10% of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae to in diets of cut chicken affected the performance. However, the carcass yield and the abdominal fat were not affected.

  14. Effect of myostatin depletion on weight gain, hyperglycemia, and hepatic steatosis during five months of high-fat feeding in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerri Burgess

    Full Text Available The marked hypermuscularity in mice with constitutive myostatin deficiency reduces fat accumulation and hyperglycemia induced by high-fat feeding, but it is unclear whether the smaller increase in muscle mass caused by postdevelopmental loss of myostatin activity has beneficial metabolic effects during high-fat feeding. We therefore examined how postdevelopmental myostatin knockout influenced effects of high-fat feeding. Male mice with ubiquitous expression of tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase were fed tamoxifen for 2 weeks at 4 months of age. This depleted myostatin in mice with floxed myostatin genes, but not in control mice with normal myostatin genes. Some mice were fed a high-fat diet (60% of energy for 22 weeks, starting 2 weeks after cessation of tamoxifen feeding. Myostatin depletion increased skeletal muscle mass ∼30%. Hypermuscular mice had ∼50% less weight gain than control mice over the first 8 weeks of high-fat feeding. During the subsequent 3 months of high-fat feeding, additional weight gain was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice. After 5 months of high-fat feeding, the mass of epididymal and retroperitoneal fat pads was similar in control and myostatin-deficient mice even though myostatin depletion reduced the weight gain attributable to the high-fat diet (mean weight with high-fat diet minus mean weight with low-fat diet: 19.9 g in control mice, 14.1 g in myostatin-deficient mice. Myostatin depletion did not alter fasting blood glucose levels after 3 or 5 months of high-fat feeding, but reduced glucose levels measured 90 min after intraperitoneal glucose injection. Myostatin depletion also attenuated hepatic steatosis and accumulation of fat in muscle tissue. We conclude that blocking myostatin signaling after maturity can attenuate some of the adverse effects of a high-fat diet.

  15. Atypical abdominal paediatric lymphangiomatosis: diagnosis aided by diffusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, Paul D.; Olsen, Oeystein E.; Wynne, Catherine S.; Sebire, Neil J.

    2006-01-01

    We report a 4-year-old child with a mesenteric mass, which on ultrasound, CT and conventional MRI appeared solid, raising lymphoma as a possible diagnosis. Diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI), however, suggested a low-cellularity lesion, making lymphoma less likely. Biopsy confirmed lymphangioma. DW-MRI may be a useful adjunct to conventional imaging, even in the abdomen. (orig.)

  16. Genetic variation in PNPLA3 (adiponutrin) confers sensitivity to weight loss-induced decrease in liver fat in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastianova, Ksenia; Kotronen, Anna; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Perttilä, Julia; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Suojanen, Laura; Orho-Melander, Marju; Lundbom, Nina; Ferrannini, Eleuterio; Rissanen, Aila; Olkkonen, Vesa M; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele

    2011-07-01

    The rs738409 C→G single nucleotide polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3; adiponutrin) leads to a missense mutation (I148M), which is associated with increased liver fat but not insulin resistance. The I148M mutation impedes triglyceride hydrolysis in vitro, and its carriers have an increased risk of developing severe liver disease. We explored whether the rs738409 PNPLA3 G allele influences the ability of weight loss to decrease liver fat or change insulin sensitivity. We recruited 8 subjects who were homozygous for the rs738409 PNPLA3 G allele (PNPLA3-148MM) and 10 who were homozygous for the rs738409 PNPLA3 C allele (PNPLA3-148II). To allow comparison of changes in liver fat, the groups were matched with respect to baseline age, sex, body mass index, and liver fat. The subjects were placed on a hypocaloric low-carbohydrate diet for 6 d. Liver fat content (proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy), whole-body insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism (euglycemic clamp technique), and lipolysis ([(2)H(5)]glycerol infusion) were measured before and after the diet. At baseline, fasting serum insulin and C-peptide concentrations were significantly lower in the PNPLA3-148MM group than in the PNPLA3-148II group, as predicted by study design. Weight loss was not significantly different between groups (PNPLA3-148MM: -3.1 ± 0.5 kg; PNPLA3-148II: -3.1 ± 0.4 kg). Liver fat decreased by 45% in the PNPLA3-148MM group (P loss is effective in decreasing liver fat in subjects who are homozygous for the rs738409 PNPLA3 G or C allele. This trial was registered at www.hus.fi as 233775.

  17. Effect of Low-Fat vs. Other Diet Interventions on Long-Term Weight Change in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Deirdre K.; Chen, Mu; Manson, JoAnn E.; Ludwig, David S.; Willett, Walter; Hu, Frank B.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of low-fat diets for long-term weight loss has been debated for decades, with dozens of randomized trials (RCTs) and recent reviews giving mixed results. Methods We conducted a random effects meta-analysis of RCTs to estimate the long-term effect of low-fat vs. higher fat dietary interventions on weight loss. Our search included RCTs conducted in adult populations reporting weight change outcomes at ≥1 year, comparing low-fat with higher fat interventions, published through July 2014. The primary outcome measure was mean difference in weight change between interventions. Findings Fifty-three studies met inclusion criteria representing 68,128 participants. In the setting of weight loss trials, low-carbohydrate interventions led to significantly greater weight loss than low-fat interventions (n comparisons=18; weighted mean difference [WMD]=1.15 kg, 95% CI=0.52 to 1.79; I2=10%). Low-fat did not lead to differences in weight change compared with other moderate fat weight loss interventions (n=19; WMD=0.36, 95% CI=-0.66 to 1.37; I2=82%), and were superior only when compared with “usual diet” (n=8; WMD=-5.41, 95% CI=-7.29 to −3.54; I2=68%). Similarly, non-weight loss trials and weight maintenance trials, for which there were no low-carbohydrate comparisons, had similar effects for low-fat vs moderate fat interventions, and were superior compared with “usual diet”. Weight loss trials achieving a greater difference in fat intake at follow-up significantly favored the higher fat dietary interventions, as indicated by difference of ≥5% of calories from fat (n=18; WMD=1.04, 95% CI=0.06 to 2.03; I2=78%) or by difference in change serum triglycerides of ≥5 mg/dL (n=17; WMD=1.38, 95% CI=0.50 to 2.25; I2=62%). Interpretation These findings suggest that the long-term effect of low-fat diets on body weight depends on the intensity of intervention in the comparison group. When compared to dietary interventions of similar intensity

  18. Genetic Polymorphisms and Weight Loss in Obesity: A Randomised Trial of Hypo-Energetic High- versus Low-Fat Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Thorkild I. A; Boutin, Philippe; Taylor, Moira A; Larsen, Lesli H; Verdich, Camilla; Petersen, Liselotte; Holst, Claus; Echwald, Søren M; Dina, Christian; Toubro, Søren; Petersen, Martin; Polak, Jan; Clément, Karine; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Langin, Dominique; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Stich, Vladimir; Macdonald, Ian; Arner, Peter; Saris, Wim H. M; Pedersen, Oluf; Astrup, Arne; Froguel, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study if genes with common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with obesity-related phenotypes influence weight loss (WL) in obese individuals treated by a hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. Design: Randomised, parallel, two-arm, open-label multi-centre trial. Setting: Eight clinical centres in seven European countries. Participants: 771 obese adult individuals. Interventions: 10-wk dietary intervention to hypo-energetic (−600 kcal/d) diets with a targeted fat energy of 20%–25% or 40%–45%, completed in 648 participants. Outcome Measures: WL during the 10 wk in relation to genotypes of 42 SNPs in 26 candidate genes, probably associated with hypothalamic regulation of appetite, efficiency of energy expenditure, regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function, lipid and glucose metabolism, or production of adipocytokines, determined in 642 participants. Results: Compared with the noncarriers of each of the SNPs, and after adjusting for gender, age, baseline weight and centre, heterozygotes showed WL differences that ranged from −0.6 to 0.8 kg, and homozygotes, from −0.7 to 3.1 kg. Genotype-dependent additional WL on low-fat diet ranged from 1.9 to −1.6 kg in heterozygotes, and from 3.8 kg to −2.1 kg in homozygotes relative to the noncarriers. Considering the multiple testing conducted, none of the associations was statistically significant. Conclusions: Polymorphisms in a panel of obesity-related candidate genes play a minor role, if any, in modulating weight changes induced by a moderate hypo-energetic low-fat or high-fat diet. PMID:16871334

  19. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In; Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Sang Gyu; Lee, Inkyu; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yoon, Duhak; Ryoo, Zae Young

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes

  20. Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Ruth J F; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Li, Shengxu; Wheeler, Eleanor; Zhao, Jing Hua; Prokopenko, Inga; Inouye, Michael; Freathy, Rachel M; Attwood, Antony P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Berndt, Sonja I; Bergmann, Sven; Bennett, Amanda J; Bingham, Sheila A; Bochud, Murielle; Brown, Morris; Cauchi, Stéphane; Connell, John M; Cooper, Cyrus; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian; Dina, Christian; De, Subhajyoti; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T; Doney, Alex S F; Elliott, Katherine S; Elliott, Paul; Evans, David M; Farooqi, I Sadaf; Froguel, Philippe; Ghori, Jilur; Groves, Christopher J; Gwilliam, Rhian; Hadley, David; Hall, Alistair S; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hebebrand, Johannes; Heid, Iris M; Herrera, Blanca; Hinney, Anke; Hunt, Sarah E; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johnson, Toby; Jolley, Jennifer D M; Karpe, Fredrik; Keniry, Andrew; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Luben, Robert N; Mangino, Massimo; Marchini, Jonathan; McArdle, Wendy L; McGinnis, Ralph; Meyre, David; Munroe, Patricia B; Morris, Andrew D; Ness, Andrew R; Neville, Matthew J; Nica, Alexandra C; Ong, Ken K; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Papadakis, Konstantinos; Potter, Simon; Pouta, Anneli; Qi, Lu; Randall, Joshua C; Rayner, Nigel W; Ring, Susan M; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Scherag, André; Sims, Matthew A; Song, Kijoung; Soranzo, Nicole; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Syddall, Holly E; Teichmann, Sarah A; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tobias, Jonathan H; Uda, Manuela; Vogel, Carla I Ganz; Wallace, Chris; Waterworth, Dawn M; Weedon, Michael N; Willer, Cristen J; Wraight, Vicki L; Yuan, Xin; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Strachan, David P; Ouwehand, Willem H; Caulfield, Mark J; Samani, Nilesh J; Frayling, Timothy M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Deloukas, Panos; McCarthy, Mark I; Wareham, Nicholas J; Barroso, Inês; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chanock, Stephen J; Hayes, Richard B; Lamina, Claudia; Gieger, Christian; Illig, Thomas; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H-Erich; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Hunter, David J; Hu, Frank B; Lyon, Helen N; Voight, Benjamin F; Ridderstrale, Martin; Groop, Leif; Scheet, Paul; Sanna, Serena; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Albai, Giuseppe; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Schlessinger, David; Jackson, Anne U; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Collins, Francis S; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L

    2009-01-01

    To identify common variants influencing body mass index (BMI), we analyzed genome-wide association data from 16,876 individuals of European descent. After previously reported variants in FTO, the strongest association signal (rs17782313, P = 2.9 × 10−6) mapped 188 kb downstream of MC4R (melanocortin-4 receptor), mutations of which are the leading cause of monogenic severe childhood-onset obesity. We confirmed the BMI association in 60,352 adults (per-allele effect = 0.05 Z-score units; P = 2.8 × 10−15) and 5,988 children aged 7–11 (0.13 Z-score units; P = 1.5 × 10−8). In case-control analyses (n = 10,583), the odds for severe childhood obesity reached 1.30 (P = 8.0 × 10−11). Furthermore, we observed overtransmission of the risk allele to obese offspring in 660 families (P (pedigree disequilibrium test average; PDT-avg) = 2.4 × 10−4). The SNP location and patterns of phenotypic associations are consistent with effects mediated through altered MC4R function. Our findings establish that common variants near MC4R influence fat mass, weight and obesity risk at the population level and reinforce the need for large-scale data integration to identify variants influencing continuous biomedical traits. PMID:18454148

  1. Overexpression of Jazf1 reduces body weight gain and regulates lipid metabolism in high fat diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Woo Young; Bae, Ki Beom; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yu, Dong Hun; Kim, Hei Jung; Ji, Young Rae; Park, Seo Jin; Park, Si Jun; Kang, Min-Cheol; Jeong, Ja In [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang-Joon [College of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Gyu [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Inkyu [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, 680 Gukchaebosang-ro, Jung-gu, Daegu 700-842 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Ok [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Duhak, E-mail: dhyoon@knu.ac.kr [School of Animal BT Sciences, Sangju Campus, Kyungpook National University, 386 Gajang-dong, Sangju, Gyeongsangbuk-do 742-211 (Korea, Republic of); Ryoo, Zae Young, E-mail: jaewoong64@hanmail.net [School of Life Science and Biotechnology, Kyungpook National University, 1370 Sankyuk-dong, Buk-ku, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    Highlights: • The expression of Jazf1 in the liver suppressed lipid accumulation. • Jazf1 significantly increases transcription of fatty acid synthase. • Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of energy and lipid homeostasis. • Jazf1 associates the development of metabolic disorder. • Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of metabolic disorder. - Abstract: Jazf1 is a 27 kDa nuclear protein containing three putative zinc finger motifs that is associated with diabetes mellitus and prostate cancer; however, little is known about the role that this gene plays in regulation of metabolism. Recent evidence indicates that Jazf1 transcription factors bind to the nuclear orphan receptor TR4. This receptor regulates PEPCK, the key enzyme involved in gluconeogenesis. To elucidate Jazf1’s role in metabolism, we fed a 60% fat diet for up to 15 weeks. In Jazf1 overexpression mice, weight gain was found to be significantly decreased. The expression of Jazf1 in the liver also suppressed lipid accumulation and decreased droplet size. These results suggest that Jazf1 plays a critical role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Finally, Jazf1 may provide a new therapeutic target in the management of obesity and diabetes.

  2. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation is associated with the results of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan, Futoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Eshima, Nobuoki

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased abdominal visceral accumulation (VFA) is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The fat distribution was evaluated by measuring the VFA by abdominal computed tomography at the umbilical level. The study group consisted of 24 type 2 diabetic patients with high VFA (≥100 cm 2 , age 60 ± 8 years, high VFA group). The control group consisted of 19 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal VFA ( 2 , age 60 ± 7 years, normal VFA group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed 123 I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p 123 I-MIBG was higher (p 123 I-MIBG during the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that the level of VFA is associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  3. Predictors of initial weight loss among women with abdominal obesity: a path model using self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Kang, Hyuncheol

    2015-05-01

    To identify predictors of initial weight loss among women with abdominal obesity by using a path model. Successful weight loss in the initial stages of long-term weight management may promote weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal study design. Study participants were 75 women with abdominal obesity, who were enrolled in a 12-month Community-based Heart and Weight Management Trial and followed until a 6-month assessment. The Weight Efficacy Lifestyle, Exercise Self-Efficacy and Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II measured diet self-efficacy, exercise self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviour respectively. All endogenous and exogenous variables used in our path model were change variables from baseline to 6 months. Data were collected between May 2011-May 2012. Based on the path model, increases in both diet and exercise self-efficacy had significant effects on increases in health-promoting behaviour. Increases in diet self-efficacy had a significant indirect effect on initial weight loss via increases in health-promoting behaviour. Increases in health-promoting behaviour had a significant effect on initial weight loss. Among women with abdominal obesity, increased diet self-efficacy and health-promoting behaviour were predictors of initial weight loss. A mechanism by which increased diet self-efficacy predicts initial weight loss may be partially attributable to health-promoting behavioural change. However, more work is still needed to verify causality. Based on the current findings, intensive nursing strategies for increasing self-efficacy for weight control and health-promoting behaviour may be essential components for better weight loss in the initial stage of a weight management intervention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Changes in energy expenditure associated with ingestion of high protein, high fat versus high protein, low fat meals among underweight, normal weight, and overweight females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Barry D

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic rate is known to rise above basal levels after eating, especially following protein consumption. Yet, this postprandial rise in metabolism appears to vary among individuals. This study examined changes in energy expenditure in response to ingestion of a high protein, high fat (HPHF meal versus an isocaloric high protein, low fat (HPLF meal in underweight, normal weight, or overweight females (n = 21 aged 19–28 years. Methods Energy expenditure, measured using indirect calorimetry, was assessed before and every 30 minutes for 3.5 hours following consumption of the meals on two separate occasions. Height and w