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Sample records for abdominal fat depots

  1. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

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    Bhanu Prakash Kn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort. Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. RESULTS: Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01 were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, -17.33±3.07%, -15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, -3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables

  2. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice.

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    Altintas, Mehmet M; Nayer, Behzad; Walford, Eric C; Johnson, Kevin B; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Reiser, Jochen; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Ortega, Luis M; Nayer, Ali

    2012-02-07

    Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver) and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus) organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was noted between ob/ob and control mice. This study

  3. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

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    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  4. Inflammatory characteristics of distinct abdominal adipose tissue depots relate differently to metabolic risk factors for cardiovascular disease Distinct fat depots and vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, Mariette E. G.; van Herwaarden, Joost A.; Stupkova, Tereza; de Jager, Wilco; Vink, Aryan; Moll, Frans L.; Kalkhoven, Eric; Visseren, Frank L. J.

    Objective: Abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, specific contributions of distinct adipose tissue (AT) depots to metabolic complications of obesity are still unclear. In this study, the inflammatory profile of four distinct abdominal AT-depots and

  5. Fatty acid composition of fat depots in wintering Canada geese

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    Austin, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    I determined the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous, abdominal, visceral, and leg saddle depots in adult female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) wintering in north-central Missouri during October 1984-March 1985. Mean levels of C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C18:3 generally were highest in the subcutaneous and abdominal depots. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fats was highest in the leg saddle depot and lowest in the abdominal depot. I also assessed the differences among sexes, seasons, and years in fatty acid composition of abdominal fat depots in adult geese collected during October-March, 1985-1987. Adult females had consistently higher levels of C14:0 in abdominal depots than males. Fatty acid composition of the abdominal depot differed among years but not by season. In the abdominal depot, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, and C18:1 were higher in 1986-1987 compared with the previous two years, whereas C18:3 was highest in 1984-1985. Differences among years reflected changes in winter diet. Fatty acids of wintering geese were similar to those previously found in breeding Canada Geese.

  6. Fat Depots, Free Fatty Acids, and Dyslipidemia

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    Jon O. Ebbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Body fat deposition and excess free fatty acid (FFA metabolism contribute to dyslipidemia and the adverse health consequences of obesity. Individuals with upper body obesity have impaired functioning of adipocytes, the primary fatty acid storage site. Excess visceral fat is strongly associated with impaired suppression of FFA release in response to insulin, as well as with hypertriglyceridemia and low concentrations of high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol. High FFA concentrations can induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver. Furthermore, failure of hyperinsulinemia to normally suppress FFA is associated with impaired carbohydrate oxidation and muscle glucose storage, reduced hepatic insulin clearance and elevated triglycerides. Understanding the impact of body fat distribution on FFA metabolism and dyslipidemia is critical for determining the link between overweight and obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. In the current review, we will explore the relationship between adipose tissue, body fat depots, and FFA metabolism.

  7. Distinct developmental signatures of human abdominal and gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots.

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    Karastergiou, Kalypso; Fried, Susan K; Xie, Hui; Lee, Mi-Jeong; Divoux, Adeline; Rosencrantz, Marcus A; Chang, R Jeffrey; Smith, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    Fat distribution differs in men and women, but in both sexes, a predominantly gluteal-femoral compared with abdominal (central) fat distribution is associated with lower metabolic risk. Differences in cellular characteristics and metabolic functions of these depots have been described, but the molecular mechanisms involved are not understood. Our objective was to identify depot- and sex-dependent differences in gene expression in human abdominal and gluteal sc adipose tissues. Abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue aspirates were obtained from 14 premenopausal women [age 27.5 ± 7.0 yr, body mass index (BMI) 27.3 ± 6.2 kg/m(2), and waist-to-hip ratio 0.82 ± 0.04] and 21 men (age 29.7±7.4 yr, BMI 27.2 ± 4.5 kg/m(2), and waist-to-hip ratio 0.91 ± 0.07) and transcriptomes were analyzed using Illumina microarrays. Expression of selected genes was determined in isolated adipocytes and stromal vascular fractions from each depot, and in in vitro cultures before and after adipogenic differentiation. A total of 284 genes were differentially expressed between the abdominal and gluteal depot, either specifically in males (n = 66) or females (n = 159) or in both sexes (n = 59). Most notably, gene ontology and pathway analysis identified homeobox genes (HOXA2, HOXA3, HOXA4, HOXA5, HOXA9, HOXB7, HOXB8, HOXC8, and IRX2) that were down-regulated in the gluteal depot in both sexes (P = 2 × 10(-10)). Conversely, HOXA10 was up-regulated in gluteal tissue and HOXC13 was detected exclusively in this depot. These differences were independent of BMI, were present in both adipocytes and stromal vascular fractions of adipose tissue, and were retained throughout in vitro differentiation. We conclude that developmentally programmed differences may contribute to the distinct phenotypic characteristics of peripheral fat.

  8. Sympathetic denervation of one white fat depot changes norepinephrine content and turnover in intact white and brown fat depots

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    Harris, Ruth B.S.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that the sympathetic nervous system regulates adipocyte metabolism and recently it has been reported that sensory afferents from white fat overlap anatomically with sympathetic efferents to white fat. The studies described here characterize the response of intact fat pads to selective sympathectomy (local 6-hydroxydopamine injections) of inguinal (ING) or epididymal (EPI) fat in male NIH Swiss mice and provide in vivo evidence for communication between individual white and brown fat depots. The contralateral ING pad, both EPI pads, perirenal and mesenteric pads were significantly enlarged four weeks after denervating one ING pad, but only intrascapular brown fat (IBAT) increased when both ING pads were denervated. Denervation of one or both EPI pad had no effect on fat depot weights. In an additional experiment, NE turnover was inhibited in ING, retroperitoneal, mesenteric and IBAT two days after denervation of both EPI or of both ING pads. NE content was reduced to 10-30% of control values in all fat depots. There was no relation between early changes in NE turnover and fat pad weight 4 weeks after denervation, even though the reduction in NE content of intact fat pads was maintained. These data demonstrate that there is communication among individual fat pads, presumably through central integration of activity of sensory afferent and sympathetic efferent fibers,that changes sympathetic drive to white adipose tissue in a unified manner. In specific situations, removal of sympathetic efferents to one pad induces a compensatory enlargement of other intact depots. PMID:22513494

  9. Distinct Adipose Depots from Mice Differentially Respond to a High-Fat, High-Salt Diet.

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    DeClercq, Vanessa C; Goldsby, Jennifer S; McMurray, David N; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Dietary factors such as high-sodium or high-fat (HF) diets have been shown to induce a proinflammatory phenotype. However, there is limited information with respect to how microenvironments of distinct intra-abdominal adipose depots respond to the combination of a high-salt, HF diet. We tested the hypothesis that HF feeding would cause changes in distinct adipose depots, which would be further amplified by the addition of high salt to the diet. Twenty-seven male C57BL6 mice were fed an HF diet (60% of kcal from fat), an HF + high-salt diet (4% wt:wt), a control diet [low-fat (LF);10% of kcal from fat], or an LF + high-salt diet for 12 wk. The main sources of fat in the diets were corn oil and lard. Adipokines in serum and released from adipose tissue organ cultures were measured by immunoassays. QIAGEN's Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to perform functional analysis of the RNA-sequencing data from distinct adipose depots. Diet-induced obesity resulted in a classical inflammatory phenotype characterized by increased concentrations of circulating inflammatory mediators (38-56%) and reduced adiponectin concentrations (27%). However, high-salt feeding did not exacerbate the HF diet-induced changes in adipokines and cytokines. Leptin and interleukin-6 were differentially released from adipose depots and HF feeding impaired adiponectin and resistin secretion across all 3 depots (34-48% and 45-83%, respectively). The addition of high salt to the HF diet did not further modulate secretion in cultured adipose tissue experiments. Although gene expression data from RNA sequencing indicated a >4.3-fold upregulation of integrin αX (Itgax) with HF feeding in all 3 depots, markers of cellular function were differentially expressed in response to diet across depots. Collectively, these findings highlight the role of distinct adipose depots in mice in the development of obesity and emphasize the importance of selecting specific depots to study the effects of therapeutic

  10. Mechanisms and Metabolic Implications of Regional Differences among Fat Depots

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    Zhu, Yi; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Jensen, Michael D.; Kirkland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Fat distribution is closely linked to metabolic disease risk. Distribution varies with sex, genetic background, disease state, certain drugs and hormones, development, and aging. Preadipocyte replication and differentiation, developmental gene expression, susceptibility to apoptosis and cellular senescence, vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltration, and adipokine secretion vary among depots, as do fatty-acid handling and mechanisms of enlargement with positive-energy and loss with negative-energy balance. How interdepot differences in these molecular, cellular, and pathophysiological properties are related is incompletely understood. Whether fat redistribution causes metabolic disease or whether it is a marker of underlying processes that are primarily responsible is an open question. PMID:23583168

  11. The Genetics of Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Fat Depots

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    Leslie P. Kozak

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that adult humans have functional brown adipose tissue has stirred interest in the possibility that the impressive effectiveness of induction of brown adipocytes to reduce obesity in mice may be translated to the human condition. A major focus recently on the identification of signaling and transcription factor that stimulate the induction of brown adipocytes has come from transgenic and gene KO models. However, these models have created a very complex picture of the regulatory mechanisms for brown fat induction. In this review insights into the critical regulatory pathways involved in brown adipocyte induction in the retroperitoneal fat depot of mice are described from quantitative trait locus analysis of allelic variability determining Ucp1 levels and brown adipocyte induction in A/J vs B6 mice. The key observation is that recombinant genotypes, found in recombinant inbred stains and backcross and intercross progeny , show transgressive variation for Ucp1 mRNA levels. These genetic crosses also show that the levels of Ucp1 mRNA are determined by interactions that control the levels of PPARα, PGC-1α and type 2 deiodinase and that each factor is controlled by a subset of QTLs that also control Ucp1expression. These results indicate that induction of Ucp1 in the retroperitoneal fat depot involves synergy between signaling and transcription factors that vary depending upon the environmental conditions. Inherent in this model is the idea that there is a high level of redundancy that can involve any factor with the potential to influence expression of the core factors, PPARα, PGC-1a and DIO2.

  12. A comparative study of cross sectional anatomy and computer tomography of perirenal fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonkova, P.; Dimitrov, R.; Toneva, J.; Zapryanova, D.

    2010-01-01

    CT is a contemporary non-invasive imaging technique that gains an increasing importance for in vivo investigations of subcutaneous and visceral fat. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the topography and anatomy imaging features of perirenal fat depots at the level of both kidneys in clinically healthy New Zealand White rabbits that attained slaughter weight. The CT consecutive transverse scans from the last thoracic to the fifth lumbar vertebrae showed that in rabbits, perirenal fat appeared as a homogeneous hypodense structure at the background of denser shadows of lumbar and abdominal muscles, kidneys and abdominal organs. Perirenal fat depot exhibited a soft tissue density with average attenuation of −120.97±4.73 HU. On CT scans, the largest dimensions of the perirenal fat depot were 1.3±0.01 cm at the level of the right kidneys cranial pole; 1.96 cm in the plane where the right renal hilus was visualized; 1.66±0.08 cm at the level of the right kidneys caudal pole; 1.10±0.18 cm in the plane where the left renal hilus was visualized and 1.06±0.15 cm at the level of the left kidneys caudal pole. No subcutaneous fat deposits in the abdominal area were seen. Results obtained in the present study could be used as basic information for various anatomy investigations of rabbits as well as experimental designs for study of obesity in animals and humans. (author)

  13. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

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    P. Y. Yonkova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the differences in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in healthy New Zealand White rabbits. Twelve clinically healthy rabbits with an average weight of 3.00±0.03 kg were used. The fatty acid composition of interscapular, inguinal, pericardial, perirenal and omental fat depots was determined by gas chromatography. The palmitic (C16:0 and linoleic (C18:2 acids, followed by oleic acid (C18:1 prevailed in all fat depots. The highest percentage of palmitic acid (C16:0 was detected in subcutaneous depots: inguinal (41.05±1.80% and interscapular (38.30±0.73%, whereas the highest percentage of linoleic acid (C18:2 was found in the visceral depots: perirenal (44.26±0.96% and pericardial (42.77±1.19%. Among the saturated fatty acids, myristic (C14:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 were established in higher content in subcutaneous depots than in visceral ones. Palmitoleic acid (C16:1 content in the pericardial fat depot was 10.63±2.60%, while in the interscapular, perirenal, omental and inguinal FD it was almost twice lower (Р<0.001. In the omental depot, α-linolenic acid (C18:3 content was significantly higher only vs the interscapular depot (P<0.05. The high content of saturated fatty acids in the subcutaneous depots determined their higher atherogenic and saturation index, unlike visceral ones, where a significantly higher content of unsaturated fatty acids was reported. Differences in fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots proved the specific metabolism in each of them. On the other hand, this led to differences in the nutritional value of various parts of rabbit carcass.

  14. Relationships between rodent white adipose fat pads and human white adipose fat depots

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    Daniella E. Chusyd

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to compare and contrast the physiological and metabolic profiles of rodent white adipose fat pads with white adipose fat depots in humans. Human fat distribution and its metabolic consequences have received extensive attention, but much of what has been tested in translational research has relied heavily on rodents. Unfortunately, the validity of using rodent fat pads as a model of human adiposity has received less attention. There is a surprisingly lack of studies demonstrating an analogous relationship between rodent and human adiposity on obesity-related comorbidities. Therefore, we aimed to compare known similarities and disparities in terms of white adipose tissue development and distribution, sexual dimorphism, weight loss, adipokine secretion, and aging. While the literature supports the notion that many similarities exist between rodents and humans, notable differences emerge related to fat deposition and function of white adipose tissue. Thus, further research is warranted to more carefully define the strengths and limitations of rodent white adipose tissue as a model for humans, with a particular emphasis on comparable fat depots, such as mesenteric fat.

  15. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in New Zealand White rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    P. Y. Yonkova; G. S. Mihaylova; S. S. Ribarski; V. Doichev; R. Dimitrov; M. G. Stefanov

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences in the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and visceral fat depots in healthy New Zealand White rabbits. Twelve clinically healthy rabbits with an average weight of 3.00±0.03 kg were used. The fatty acid composition of interscapular, inguinal, pericardial, perirenal and omental fat depots was determined by gas chromatography. The palmitic (C16:0) and linoleic (C18:2) acids, followed by oleic acid (C18:1) prevailed in all fat depots. The...

  16. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.S.; Liu, Y.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.; Smith, A.V.; Heard-Costa, N.; Lohman, K.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Johnson, A.D.; Foster, M.C.; Greenawalt, D.M.; Griffin, P.; Ding, J.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Miljkovic, I.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Launer, L.; Garcia, M.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Posthuma, D.; Carr, J.J.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Cupples, L.A.; Borecki, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants

  17. Assessment of abdominal fat compartments using DXA in premenopausal women from anorexia nervosa to morbid obesity

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    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gill, Corey M.; Keating, Leigh K.; Torriani, Martin; Anderson, Ellen J.; Punyanitya, Mark; Wilson, Kevin E.; Kelly, Thomas L.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a newly developed DXA method for abdominal fat depot quantification in subjects with AN, normal weight, and obesity using CT as a gold standard. Design and Methods 135 premenopausal women (overweight/obese: n=89, normal-weight: n=27, AN: n=19); abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT) areas determined on CT and DXA. Results There were strong correlations between DXA and CT measurements of abdominal fat compartments in all groups with the strongest correlation coefficients in the normal-weight and overweight/obese groups. Correlations of DXA and CT VAT measurements were strongest in the obese group and weakest in the AN group. DXA abdominal fat depots were higher in all groups compared to CT, with the largest % mean difference in the AN group and smallest in the obese group. Conclusions A new DXA technique is able to assess abdominal fat compartments including VAT in premenopausal women across a large weight spectrum However, DXA measurements of abdominal fat were higher than CT, and this percent bias was most pronounced in the AN subjects and decreased with increasing weight, suggesting that this technique may be more useful in obese individuals. PMID:23512706

  18. Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments

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    Scott M. Grundy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC, intraperitoneal fat (IPF, and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black. Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF, ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R2=0.81-0.88 with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82 and IPF (0.29–0.85. The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r=0.358 (men and 0.363 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.480 (men and 0.517 (women; after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r=0.353 (men and 0.348 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.290 (men and 0.221 (women. WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity.

  19. Validity of a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device to measure abdominal and visceral fat: comparison with MRI.

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    Browning, Lucy M; Mugridge, Owen; Chatfield, Mark D; Dixon, Adrian K; Aitken, Sri W; Joubert, Ilse; Prentice, Andrew M; Jebb, Susan A

    2010-12-01

    Abdominal fat, and in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is the critical fat depot associated with metabolic aberrations. At present, VAT can only be accurately measured by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to compare a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device against total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) and VAT area measurements made from an abdominal MRI scan, and to assess its reliability and accuracy. One-hundred twenty participants were recruited, stratified by gender and BMI. Participants had triplicate measures of abdominal fat and waist circumference (WC) with the AB-140 (Tanita, Tokyo, Japan) and WC measurements using a manual tape measure. A single abdominal MRI scan was performed as the reference method. Triplicate measures with the AB-140 showed excellent precision for "visceral fat level," trunk fat %, and WC. AB-140 "visceral fat level" showed significantly stronger correlations with MRI TAAT area than with MRI VAT area (r = 0.94 vs. 0.65 in men and 0.92 vs. 0.64 in women). AB-140 WC showed good correlation with manual WC measurements (r = 0.95 in men and 0.90 in women). AB-140 and manual WCs showed comparable correlations with MRI TAAT area (r = 0.92 and 0.96 in men and 0.88 and 0.88 in women). AB-140 is a simple, quick, and precise technique to measure abdominal fat and WC in healthy adults. It provides a useful proxy for TAAT measured by MRI, comparable to the correlation obtained with manual WC measurements. Neither the AB-140 abdominal fat measures nor WC measurement appear to provide a useful proxy measure of VAT.

  20. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Nellie Y; Neville, Matt J; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A; Fielding, Barbara A; Duncan, Emma L; McCarthy, Mark I; Tobias, Jonathan H; Gregson, Celia L; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-02-03

    Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intrinsic differences in adipocyte precursor cells from different white fat depots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macotela, Yazmín; Emanuelli, Brice; Mori, Marcelo A

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate that adip......, differentiation properties, and responses to environmental/genetic factors. Regulation of these populations may provide a new target for the treatment and prevention of obesity and its metabolic complications.......Obesity and body fat distribution are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Evidence has accumulated that this risk is related to intrinsic differences in behavior of adipocytes in different fat depots. In the current study, we demonstrate...... is higher in obesity-prone C57BL/6 mice than obesity-resistant 129 mice, and the number in both depots is increased by up to 270% by exposure of mice to high-fat diet. Thus, APCs from visceral and subcutaneous depots are dynamic populations, which have intrinsic differences in gene expression...

  2. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

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    ... more difficult procedure. Normal Results The fat pad tissues are normal. What Abnormal Results Mean In the case of amyloidosis, abnormal results mean there is amyloid. This is a protein that collects in tissues and impairs organ and tissue function. Risks There ...

  3. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mapiye, C, Dr

    2015-10-09

    Oct 9, 2015 ... BHP composition of beef products should therefore include feeding designer diets and exploiting fat depot ..... performance and meat quality may therefore include feeding SS and 15% DDGS in forage-based diets and ... Eds: Hobson, P.N. & Stewart, C.S., Academic and Professional, London, UK. pp.

  4. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

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    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  5. Fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and kidney fat depots of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    properties do influence the eating and keeping quality of meat. (Kempster, Cuthbertson & Harrington, 1982). The degree of saturation of fat as determined by the fatty acid composition, is one of the most impor[ant characteristics affecting these quality parameters. Saturated fats solidify easily upon cooling thus affecting the ...

  6. Waist-hip ratio is a poor predictor of changes in visceral fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Droop, A.; Bakker, C J

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of weight loss on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at trochanter level. Changes in fat depots were compared with changes in circumference measures and the waist-hip ratio (WHR) in obese

  7. The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N V Mazurina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статьи The relationship between fat depot-specific preadipocyte differentiation and metabolic syndrome in obese women. Park HТ, Lee ES, Cheon EP, Lee DR, Yang K-S, Kim YT, Hur JY, Kim SH, Lee KW, Kim T. Clinical Endocrinology 2012; 76, 59-66.

  8. Depot-Specific Changes in Fat Metabolism with Aging in a Type 2 Diabetic Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Eun; Park, Cheol-Young; Choi, Jung Mook; Chang, Eugene; Rhee, Eun-Jung; Lee, Won-Young; Oh, Ki Won; Park, Sung Woo; Kang, Eun Seok; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Visceral fat accretion is a hallmark of aging and is associated with aging-induced metabolic dysfunction. PPARγ agonist was reported to improve insulin sensitivity by redistributing fat from visceral fat to subcutaneous fat. The purpose of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms by which aging affects adipose tissue remodeling in a type 2 diabetic animal model and through which PPARγ activation modulates aging-related fat tissue distribution. At the ages of 21, 31 and 43 weeks, OLETF rats as an animal model of type 2 diabetes were evaluated for aging-related effects on adipose tissue metabolism in subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. During aging, the ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S ratio) increased. Aging significantly increased the mRNA expression of genes involved in lipogenesis such as lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid binding protein aP2, lipin 1, and diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1, which were more prominent in visceral fat than subcutaneous fat. The mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase, which is involved in basal lipolysis and fatty acid recycling, was also increased, more in visceral fat compared to subcutaneous fat during aging. The mRNA levels of the genes associated with lipid oxidation were increased, whereas the mRNA levels of genes associated with energy expenditure showed no significant change during aging. PPARγ agonist treatment in OLETF rats resulted in fat redistribution with a decreasing V/S ratio and improved glucose intolerance. The genes involved in lipogenesis decreased in visceral fat of the PPARγ agonist-treated rats. During aging, fat distribution was changed by stimulating lipid uptake and esterification in visceral fat rather than subcutaneous fat, and by altering the lipid oxidation.

  9. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  10. Control of Adipocyte Differentiation in Different Fat Depots; Implications for Pathophysiology or Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuquan eMa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipocyte differentiation and its impact on restriction or expansion of particular adipose tissue depots has physiological and pathophysiological significance in view of the different functions of these depots. Brown or beige fat [BAT] expansion can enhance thermogenesis, lipid oxidation, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; conversely expanded visceral fat [VAT] is associated with insulin resistance, low grade inflammation, dyslipidaemia and cardiometabolic risk. The largest depot, subcutaneous white fat [WAT], has important beneficial characteristics including storage of lipid out of harms way and secretion of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, with positive metabolic effects including lipid oxidation, energy utilisation, enhanced insulin action and an anti-inflammatory role. The absence of these functions in lipodystrophies leads to major metabolic disturbances. An ability to expand WAT adipocyte differentiation would seem an important defence mechanism against the detrimental effects of energy excess and limit harmful accumulation of lipid in ectopic sites, such as liver and muscle.Adipocyte differentiation involves a transcriptional cascade with PPARg being most important in WAT but less so in VAT, with increased angiogenesis also critical. The transcription factor, Islet1, is fairly specific to VAT and in vitro inhibits adipocyte differentiation. The physiological importance of Islet1 requires further study. Basic control of differentiation is similar in BAT but important differences include the effect of PGC-1a on mitochondrial biosynthesis and upregulation of UCP1; also PRDM16 plays a pivotal role in expression of the BAT phenotype.Modulation of the capacity or function of these different adipose tissue depots, by altering adipocyte differentiation or other means, holds promise for interventions that can be helpful in human disease, particularly cardiometabolic disorders associated with the world wide explosion of

  11. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    , our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex......Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants...

  12. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  13. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...... measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure...... (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls...

  14. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  15. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Benedeti, Augusto Cesar Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: fernando@fatesa.edu.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Saude (FATESA), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departmento de Radiologia; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departmento de Medicina Clinica; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility. (author)

  16. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marum Mauad

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6% were men and 62 (61.4% were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years. The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest. We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.

  17. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Sri Wahyuni

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: DMPA treatment induces oxidative stress in visceral fat. Combined high dose vitamin C and E increases oxidative stress and visceral fat mass in rats treated by depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  18. Distribution of ganglionic sympathetic neurons supplying the subcutaneous, perirenal and mesentery fat tissue depots in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Krzysztof; Kraeling, Robert; Klimczuk, Magdalena; Franke-Radowiecka, Amelia; Sienkiewicz, Waldemar; Lakomy, Mirosław

    2002-01-01

    Previous morphological studies revealed that the adipose tissue is innervated by adrenergic nerve fibers. Furthermore, physiological studies showed that the metabolism of adipose tissue is controlled by the adrenergic component of the nervous system. However, nothing is known on the sources of innervation of different fat tissue depots. Therefore, we decided to study the distribution of ganglionic sympathetic neurons innervating adipose tissue in the pig by means of a retrograde tracing method. We used 9 male and 9 female pigs of approximately 50 kg body weight. The retrograde tracer, Fast Blue (FB), was injected into the subcutaneous, perirenal and mesentery fat tissue depots. Results of the present study showed that numerous centers of the sympathetic nervous system innervate adipose tissue in the pig. FB+ neurons projecting to the subcutaneous fat tissue were placed in the thoraco-lumbar region of the sympathetic chain ganglia (SChG). However, neurons supplying perirenal and mesentery fat tissue depots were found in both the SChG and prevertebral ganglia (PVG). We conclude that different adipose tissue depots (subcutaneous, perirenal and mesentery) have different sources of innervation and that there is no significant difference in the distribution of neurons innervating adipose tissue in male and female pigs.

  19. Contrasting Cellularity and Fatty Acid Composition in Fat Depots from Alentejana and Barrosã Bovine Breeds Fed High and Low Forage Diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana S.H.; Lopes, Paula A.; Estevão, Marta; Martins, Susana V.; Alves, Susana P.; Pinto, Rui M.A.; Pissarra, Hugo; Correia, Jorge J.; Pinho, Mário; Fontes, Carlos M.G.A.; Prates, José A.M.

    2012-01-01

    During the finishing phase of bovines, large amounts of subcutaneous and visceral fats are deposited leading to production inefficiencies with major impact on meat quality. A better understanding of the cellularity features of the main fat depots could provide strategies for adipose tissue manipulation. This study assessed the effect of feeding diets with distinct forage to concentrate ratios on the cellularity of two fat depots of beef cattle and their implications on the fatty acid profile. Thus, two phylogenetically distant Portuguese bovine breeds, Alentejana and Barrosã, were selected. The results did not show differences in subcutaneous fat deposition nor in visceral fat depots partitioning. Plasma adipokines concentration failed to show a consistent relationship with fatness, as leptin remained constant in all experimental groups, whereas interleukin-6 was influenced by breed. Fat depot seems to determine the area and number of adipocytes, with larger adipocytes and a lower number of cells in subcutaneous fat than in mesenteric fat. Neither breed nor diet influenced adipocytes area and number. The contents of total fatty acids, partial sums of fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid isomeric profile were affected by breed and fat depot. The incorporation of saturated fatty acids (SFA), trans fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) was higher in mesenteric fat depot, whereas subcutaneous fat depot had greater percentages of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). In addition, SFA and MUFA proportions seem to be breed-related. In spite of the less relevant role of diet, the percentages of PUFA and BCFA were influenced by this factor. Under these experimental conditions, the effect of fat depot on cellularity and fatty acid composition prevails over breed or diet, as reinforced by the principal component analysis. PMID:22253565

  20. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies.

  1. Effect of a weight cycle on visceral fat accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooy, K; Leenen, R; Seidell, J C; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the effect of a single weight cycle on three fat depots: the visceral and subcutaneous abdominal depots and the subcutaneous depot at the trochanter level. Obese subjects (17 men, 15 women) were examined before and after weight-loss intervention and 67 wk

  2. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  3. Depot-specific differences in fat mass expansion in WT and ob/ob mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinxia; Yu, Caihua; Feng, Jie; Chen, Jin; Jiang, Qin; Kuang, Shihuan; Wang, Yizhen

    2017-07-11

    The study was designed to investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying the differential fat expansion in different fat depots in wild type (WT) and ob/ob (OB) mice. At 6 weeks old, no differences in fat mass were found between SAT and VAT in WT mice, while O-SAT showed significantly higher weight than that of O-VAT. The average adipocyte size of SAT (~ 4133.47 μm2) was smaller than that of VAT (~ 7438.91 μm2) in OB mice. O-SAT preadipocytes gained higher triglyceride contents and higher levels of PPARγ and C/EBPα than did O-VAT preadipocytes upon in vitro differentiation. W-SAT and W-VAT displayed no significant differences in fatty acid uptake, while 1.36 fold significantly higher fatty acid uptake was found in O-SAT compared to O-VAT. Approximately 52% of the radioactivity recovered in cellular lipids was found in TAG in O-SAT, which was significantly higher than the other three adipocyte types. Significantly more radiolabelled oleic acid was β-oxidized to CO2 in adipocytes from O-VAT than that from O-SAT. ATP production was significantly lower in W-SAT compared with W-VAT, whereas no significantly ATP level was observed between O-SAT and O-VAT. Expression of UCP-1 in SAT from either WT or OB mice was significantly higher than the counterpart of VAT, which demonstrated higher uncoupled respiration and lower oxidative phosphorylation in SAT. Together, a combined increase in adipogenesis and FA uptake, and decreases in β-oxidation and ATP production, contributed to greater expansion of SAT compared to VAT in obese mice.

  4. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. Methods: This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intraabdominal fat, by comparison with fat ...

  5. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  6. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  7. Abdominal regional fat distribution on MRI correlates with cholecystolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine whether abdominal regional fat distribution pattern on MRI is correlated with cholecystolithiasis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of 163 patients with cholecystolithiasis and 163 non-cholecystolithiasis control subjects admitted to our institution between March 2011 and September 2013 were included in this cross-sectional evaluation. There were 98 women and 65 men in cholecystolithiasis group with an average age of 57±16 years (range 25-86 years. There were 87 women and 76 men in the control group with an average age of 41±16 years (range 14-77 years. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAT of all the subjects at navel level were measured on abdominal MRI. According to the visceral adipose area (cut-off point VAT = 100 cm2, study subjects were divided into 1 increased accumulation of intra-abdominal fat and 2 normal distribution of intra-abdominal fat. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of fat with the presence of cholecystolithiasis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: The incidence of increased intra-abdominal fat accumulation in the cholecystolithiasis group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.000. After adjusting for age and sex, cholecystolithiasis was associated with a one standard deviation increment in the waist circumference (WC (OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.01,1.93; p = 0.00, VAT (OR = 4.26; 95%CI: 1.85,5.29; p = 0.00, VAT/SAT (OR = 8.66; 95%CI: 1.60,12.63; p = 0.00, and VAT/TAT (OR = 6.73; 95%CI: 4.24,12.18; p = 0.00, but not with fat content in the abdominal subcutaneous fat (p = 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The visceral adipose tissue and distribution proportion of abdominal adipose tissue are correlates of cholecystolithiasis.

  8. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  9. Relationship between abdominal fat area measured by screening abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, MyoungJi Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal fat as assessed by abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in asymptomatic Korean individuals. Retrospectively, a medical record analysis was performed in a total of 111 patients with screening abdominal fat CT. The data such as visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat (SF) and VF/SF were elicited by abdominal fat CT, and we analyzed the relationship of VF, SF, and VF/SF with MS and cardiovascular risk factors. In males, VF and SF had a positive correlation with many cardiovascular risk factors and MS, but VF was superior to SF. In females, VF, but not SF, had a positive correlation with some cardiovascular risk factors and MS. The cut-off values of VF and SF to predict MS, which were calculated by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: the cut-off value of VF in men: 136.50 cm{sup 2}, the cut-off value of SF in men: 159.50 cm{sup 2}, and the cut-off value of VF in women: 134.50 cm{sup 2}. In conclusion, VF accumulation was the best predictor of MS and it had a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. SF also had a significant association with MS, especially in men, although it was not superior to VF.

  10. Fatty acid profiles and iodine value correlations between 4 carcass fat depots from pigs fed varied combinations of ractopamine and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, B R; Hinson, R B; Ritter, M J; Carr, S N; Allee, G L

    2011-11-01

    A total of 54 finishing barrows (initial BW = 99.8 ± 5.1 kg; PIC C22 × 337) reared in individual pens were allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 levels of ractopamine (0 and 7.4 mg/kg) and 3 levels of dietary energy (high: 3,537, medium: 3,369, and low: 3,317 kcal/kg of ME) to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine and various dietary energy levels on the fatty acid profile of 4 carcass fat depots (jowl, belly, subcutaneous loin, and intramuscular) and the predictive relationships of calculated iodine value (IV) between these 4 fat depots. Carcasses were sampled for fat tissues at the anterior tip of the jowl, posterior to the sternum on the belly edge, three-quarters the distance around the LM (subcutaneous fat; SC), and within the LM (intramuscular fat; IMF). Feeding ractopamine diets reduced (P ractopamine diets increased (P ractopamine diets shifted the fatty acid profile from SFA to MUFA in the SC depot. Feeding ractopamine diets did not change belly fat profiles, thus avoiding the potential negative effect of softening belly fat, which is detrimental to processing value. The IV of one fat depot may not be a good indication of IV of other fat depots because of weak correlation coefficients and the apparent influence of dietary treatment.

  11. Fat depot-specific gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) adipose-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Masakuni; Inoue, Mayumi; Jiang, Yibin; Barnes, Richard H; Buchner, David A; Chun, Tae-Hwa

    2014-06-01

    Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca1 or Ly6A/E) is a cell surface marker that is widely expressed in mesenchymal stem cells, including adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). We hypothesized that the fat depot-specific gene signature of Sca1(high) ASCs may play the major role in defining adipose tissue function and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in a depot-specific manner. Herein we aimed to characterize the unique gene signature and ECM remodeling of Sca1(high) ASCs isolated from subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal) adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs are found in the adventitia and perivascular areas of adipose tissues. Sca1(high) ASCs purified with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) demonstrate dendrite or round shape with the higher expression of cytokines and chemokines (e.g., Il6, Cxcl1) and the lower expression of a glucose transporter (Glut1). Subcutaneous and visceral fat-derived Sca1(high) ASCs particularly differ in the gene expressions of adhesion and ECM molecules. While the expression of the major membrane-type collagenase (MMP14) is comparable between the groups, the expressions of secreted collagenases (MMP8 and MMP13) are higher in visceral Sca1(high) ASCs than in subcutaneous ASCs. Consistently, slow but focal MMP-dependent collagenolysis was observed with subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived vascular stromal cells, whereas rapid and bulk collagenolysis was observed with visceral adipose tissue-derived cells in MMP-dependent and -independent manners. These results suggest that the fat depot-specific gene signatures of ASCs may contribute to the distinct patterns of ECM remodeling and adipose function in different fat depots. Copyright © 2014 International Society of Matrix Biology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The link between abdominal fat distribution and insulin related cardiovascular risk factors in black and white female hypertensives who were on drug treatment for hypertension was investigated with computed tomography scan, sonar, anthropometric measurements and blood testing. Fasting blood samples were tested for: ...

  13. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  14. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  15. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables.

  16. Using Abdominal CT Data for Visceral Fat Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantitative assessment of body fat is important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to obesity, Computed tomography (CT becoming the standard procedure for measuring the abdominal fat distribution. Material and method: The retrospective study included 111 inpatients, who underwent routine abdominal CT exams in the Radiology Laboratory of SCJU Tg.Mures (2013. MPR MDCT (SOMATOM AS 64 data was processed using a custom written MATLAB R2009b software, ImageJ being used for tracing of the visceral fat area (VFA. Patient data (including blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed using MO Excel and GraphPad Inprism5. Results: Visceral Fat percentage varied in population from 14.59-68.69 (SD = 11.83 with significant difference between sexes (male vs. female, 46.98 vs. 31.62, p 220 mg% and triglycerides >150 mg% are significantly associated with the VF percent (p <0.05. Overall there is a weak correlation between the lab variables and the measured fat, the strongest one being between triglycerides and the VFA (r = +0.23 and between age and VFA percentage (certain samples. Conclusions: The technique used should decreases the human error in marking of the fat areas providing a better estimation of the VF/VF percentage. CT measured VF relates with certain lab tests. Further analysis, is required for a better use of CT in obesity related pathology diagnosis and treatment

  17. Pesticide content of human abdominal fat of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Bautista, E.Rb.; Detera, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 161 abdominal fat samples of Filipinos were analyzed for DDT and its major metabolite, DDE by gas chromatography. The mean value obtained was 2.82 +- 2.18 ppm and the sample range was 0.15 - 11.53 ppm. There was no correlation between the levels of DDT and the age as well as the sex of the individuals. (author)

  18. Pesticide content of human abdominal fat of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Bautista, E.R.B.; Detera, S.D.

    1980-03-01

    A total of 161 abdominal fat samples of Filipinos were analyzed for DDT and its major metabolite, DDE by gas chromatography. The mean value obtained was 2.82 +- 2.18 ppm and the sample range was 0.15 - 11.53 ppm. There was no correlation between the level of DDT and the age as well as the sex of the individuals. (author)

  19. The fatty acid profile of fat depots from Santa Inês sheep fed spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto G; Almeida, Michelly DA; Cruz, George Rodrigo B; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo M; Ribeiro, Neila L; Madruga, Marta S; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Re

    2017-10-01

    Fat is the tissue that varies most in animals from both a quantitative and distribution perspective. It plays a fundamental biological role as energy storage during food scarcity. Renal, pelvic and internal fat are deposited first. These fats are used to identify fatty acid profiles that may be considered beneficial or unhealthy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the fatty acid profile of fat depots in Santa Inês sheep finished in confinement with spineless cactus in their diets. The treatments included increasing levels of spineless cactus (Opuntia fícus-indica Mill.): T1 = 0%, T2 = 30%, T3 = 50%, and T4 = 70%. The diets significantly affected the adipose depots. The orthogonal contrast between the diet with no cactus (control) and the other diets indicates that the quantity of saturated fatty acids decreased and that the levels of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids increased in animals fed spineless cactus. The use of spineless cactus in the diets of Santa Inês sheep affects the lipid profile of their fat depots, reducing the quantity of saturated fatty acids and increasing the quantity of mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fatty acid profile of the fat depots indicates that these fats can be used to formulate meat products and add economic and nutritional value to such products, which increases sheep farmers' incomes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. High Plasma Glucagon Levels Correlate with Waist-to-Hip Ratio, Suprailiac Skinfold Thickness, and Deep Subcutaneous Abdominal and Intraperitoneal Adipose Tissue Depots in Nonobese Asian Indian Males with Type 2 Diabetes in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajith Anoop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to correlate plasma glucagon levels with anthropometric measures and abdominal adipose tissue depots. Nonobese males (n=81; BMI < 25 kg/m2 with T2DM of less than one-year duration and nonobese males without diabetes (n=30 were evaluated for the following: anthropometry (BMI, waist circumference, W-HR, and truncal skinfolds, whole-body DEXA (for body fat and fat-free mass, and MRI scan (for volumes of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT including superficial and deep, intra-abdominal visceral adipose tissue (including intraperitoneal adipose tissue (IPAT, retroperitoneal adipose tissue, liver span and fatty liver, and pancreatic volume. Plasma glucose and glucagon, serum insulin, hepatic transaminases, and lipid profile were measured. Significantly higher levels of fasting and postprandial glucagon (p<0.001 and fasting and postprandial insulin (p<0.001 were seen in patients with T2DM. The mean values of fasting and postprandial plasma glucagon levels were higher in T2DM patients with NAFLD (n=37 as compared to T2DM patients without NAFLD (n=44. Four independent predictors were derived for fasting glucagon levels in patients with T2DM, namely, W-HR, suprailiac skinfold thickness, IPAT, and deep SCAT (p<0.05; r2=0.84. These observations in Asian Indians may have significance for diabetes therapies which impact glucagon levels.

  1. Improving beef hamburger quality and fatty acid profiles through dietary manipulation and exploitation of fat depot heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, Cletos; Aalhus, Jennifer L; Vahmani, Payam; Rolland, David C; McAllister, Timothy A; Block, Hushton C; Uttaro, Bethany; Proctor, Spencer D; Dugan, Michael E R

    2014-01-01

    Hamburger is the most consumed beef product in North America, but lacks in nutritional appeal due to its high fat content and high proportion of saturated fatty acids (SFA). Objectives of the present study were to improve the FA profiles of hamburgers made with perirenal fat (PRF) and subcutaneous fat (SCF) when feeding steers different diets along with examining differences in sensory attributes and oxidative stability. Diets included a control diet containing 70:30 red clover silage: barley based concentrate, a diet containing sunflower-seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15) or 30% DDGS (DDGS-30). Hamburgers were made from triceps brachii and either PRF or SCF (80:20 w/w). Perirenal fat versus SCF hamburgers FA had 14.3% more (P 0.05), but feeding DDGS-30 diet reduced the proportions of (P fat depots offers an opportunity to differentially enhance beef hamburgers with 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products (i.e., t11-18:1) with potential human health benefits without compromising their sensory attributes and oxidative stability during retail display.

  2. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a countr......PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part...... substitution modeling was used to analyze the association between substitution of 1 h of sedentary time to light- or moderate-intensity PA and 1 h light-intensity PA to moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), SAT, and VAT. RESULTS: A negative linear...... association was found for total PAEE and BMI, WC, VAT, and SAT. Exchanging 1 h of sedentary time with light-intensity PA was associated with lower WC (-0.6 cm, P = 0.01), SAT (-0.08 cm, P vigorous-intensity PA resulted in -6.1-cm...

  3. Direct evidence of brown adipocytes in different fat depots in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Rockstroh

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggested the persistence of brown adipocytes in adult humans, as opposed to being exclusively present in infancy. In this study, we investigated the presence of brown-like adipocytes in adipose tissue (AT samples of children and adolescents aged 0 to 18 years and evaluated the association with age, location, and obesity. For this, we analysed AT samples from 131 children and 23 adults by histological, immunohistochemical and expression analyses. We detected brown-like and UCP1 positive adipocytes in 10.3% of 87 lean children (aged 0.3 to 10.7 years and in one overweight infant, whereas we did not find brown adipocytes in obese children or adults. In our samples, the brown-like adipocytes were interspersed within white AT of perirenal, visceral and also subcutaneous depots. Samples with brown-like adipocytes showed an increased expression of UCP1 (>200fold, PRDM16 (2.8fold, PGC1α and CIDEA while other brown/beige selective markers, such as PAT2, P2RX5, ZIC1, LHX8, TMEM26, HOXC9 and TBX1 were not significantly different between UCP1 positive and negative samples. We identified a positive correlation between UCP1 and PRDM16 within UCP1 positive samples, but not with any other brown/beige marker. In addition, we observed significantly increased PRDM16 and PAT2 expression in subcutaneous and visceral AT samples with high UCP1 expression in adults. Our data indicate that brown-like adipocytes are present well beyond infancy in subcutaneous depots of non-obese children. The presence was not restricted to typical perirenal locations, but they were also interspersed within WAT of visceral and subcutaneous depots.

  4. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Yudkin, John S; Ong, Ken K; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women), genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3), African (6.6), and Native American (6.3) ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; pancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001), and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009). Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all pancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  5. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women, genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3, African (6.6, and Native American (6.3 ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; p<0.001. Independent of education level, African ancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001, and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009. Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all p<0.001. Our findings, from an admixed population, indicate that both genomic ancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  6. Validation of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of abdominal fat by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging in an Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Taylor

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indians. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA can be used to determine abdominal fat depots, being more accessible and less costly than gold standard measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. DXA has not been fully validated for use in South Asians. Here, we determined the accuracy of DXA for measurement of abdominal fat in an Indian population by comparison with MRI. DESIGN: 146 males and females (age range 18-74, BMI range 15-46 kg/m(2 from Hyderabad, India underwent whole body DXA scans on a Hologic Discovery A scanner, from which fat mass in two abdominal regions was calculated, from the L1 to L4 vertebrae (L1L4 and from the L2 to L4 vertebrae (L2L4. Abdominal MRI scans (axial T1-weighted spin echo images were taken, from which adipose tissue volumes were calculated for the same regions. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation coefficients between DXA and MRI measures of abdominal fat were high (0.98 for both regions. Although at the level of the individual, differences between DXA and MRI could be large (95% of DXA measures were between 0.8 and 1.4 times MRI measures, at the sample level, DXA only slightly overestimated MRI measures of abdominal fat mass (mean difference in L1L4 region: 2% (95% CI:0%, 5%, mean difference in L2L4 region:4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%. There was evidence of a proportional bias in the association between DXA and MRI (correlation between difference and mean -0.3, with overestimation by DXA greater in individuals with less abdominal fat (mean bias in leaner half of sample was 6% for L1L4 (95%CI: 2, 11% and 7% for L2L4 (95% CI:3,12%. CONCLUSIONS: DXA measures of abdominal fat are suitable for use in Indian populations and provide a good indication of abdominal adiposity at the population level.

  7. An integrative transcriptomic approach to identify depot differences in genes and microRNAs in adipose tissues from high fat fed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayatunga, Nadeeja N.; Pahlavani, Mandana; Kalupahana, Nishan S.; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Coarfa, Cristian; Ramalingam, Latha; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2018-01-01

    Obesity contributes to metabolic disorders such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Characterization of differences between the main adipose tissue depots, white (WAT) [including subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and brown adipose tissue (BAT) helps to identify their roles in obesity. Thus, we studied depot-specific differences in whole transcriptome and miRNA profiles of SAT, VAT and BAT from high fat diet (HFD/45% of calories from fat) fed mice using RNA sequencing and small RNA-Seq. Using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we validated depot-specific differences in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress related genes and miRNAs using mice fed a HFD vs. low fat diet (LFD/10% of calories from fat). According to the transcriptomic analysis, lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were higher in VAT compared to BAT, whereas energy expenditure, fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation were higher in BAT than in VAT of the HFD fed mice. In contrast to BAT, ER stress marker genes were significantly upregulated in VAT of HFD fed mice than the LFD fed mice. For the first time, we report depot specific differences in ER stress related miRNAs including; downregulation of miR-125b-5p, upregulation miR-143-3p, and miR-222-3p in VAT following HFD and upregulation of miR-30c-2-3p only in BAT following a HFD in mice than the LFD mice. In conclusion, HFD differentially regulates miRNAs and genes in different adipose depots with significant induction of genes related to lipogenesis, adipogenesis, inflammation, ER stress, and UPR in WAT compared to BAT. PMID:29507687

  8. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pobesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  9. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-ba...

  10. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p obesity.

  11. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  12. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  13. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her; Lin, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  14. The fatty acid composition of muscles and fat depots of ostriches as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three genotypes of ostrich (South African Black, Zimbabwean Blue Necks and crosses between Zimbabwean Blue Neck males x South African Black females) were used to investigate the influence of genotype on the fatty acid composition of the musculus gastrocnemius and musculus iliofibularis, and abdominal and breast ...

  15. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chou, Yii-Her; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. • Unenhanced CT is now widely used to assess ureteric calculi. • The same CT protocol can provide measurements of abdominal fat distribution. • Ureteric calculi are usually treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). • Greater intra-abdominal fat stores are generally associated with poorer SWL results.

  16. Differential sympathetic outflow to adipose depots is required for visceral fat loss in response to calorie restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Sipe, L M; Yang, C; Ephrem, J; Garren, E; Hirsh, J; Deppmann, C D

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates energy homeostasis in part by governing fatty acid liberation from adipose tissue. We first examined whether SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots changes in response to a weight loss diet in mice. We found that SNS activity toward each adipose depot is unique in timing, pattern of activation, and habituation with the most dramatic contrast between visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots. Sympathetic drive toward visceral epididymal adipos...

  17. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  18. Possible regulatory factors for intra-abdominal fat mass in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranuki, Sachi; Arai, Chie; Terada, Shin; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-02-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) lose body weight primarily due to decreased body fat mass. The purpose of this study was to elucidate possible factors related to reduction in the intra-abdominal fat mass of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated rats, which are frequently used as an animal model for PD. Sham-operated (NPD: n = 4) and unilaterally 6-OHDA-injected (PD: n = 4) 14-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a relatively high-fat diet for 2 wk, during which food intake and body weight were measured. After the 2-wk feeding period, intra-abdominal fat was dissected out and weighed. Carbohydrate and fat absorption-related gene expressions in the jejunum and serum insulin and glucose concentrations were analyzed. Although final body weights did not differ, total intra-abdominal fat weight, expressed relative to body weight, was significantly lower in the PD group than in the NPD group (P NPD rats (P < 0.05). PD model rats displayed loss of intra-abdominal fat, similar to the progressive loss of fat in PD patients. Our results provide preliminary evidence that reduced lipogenesis due to lower insulin levels, rather than impaired digestion/absorption, might have been involved in this decrease in intra-abdominal fat mass. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group. Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001 that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375. Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001, but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004. Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001, although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139. Conclusion: Topical

  20. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fox

    Full Text Available Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09, previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08. Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08, but not men (p = 0.75. Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006 but not men (p = 0.24 for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]. Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a

  1. Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J W; Hsu, C-H; Blew, R M; Irving, A P; Caan, B J; Kwan, M L; Abraham, I; Going, S B

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model. Total body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping. The sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R 2 : 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R 2 : 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R 2 was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R 2 values. This replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Effects of abdominal fat distribution parameters on severity of acute pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Increased visceral fat has been shown to exacerbate the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of acute pancreatitis and abdominal fat distribution parameters measured on computed tomography (CT) scan.

  3. Differential sympathetic outflow to adipose depots is required for visceral fat loss in response to calorie restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, L M; Yang, C; Ephrem, J; Garren, E; Hirsh, J; Deppmann, C D

    2017-04-10

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) regulates energy homeostasis in part by governing fatty acid liberation from adipose tissue. We first examined whether SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots changes in response to a weight loss diet in mice. We found that SNS activity toward each adipose depot is unique in timing, pattern of activation, and habituation with the most dramatic contrast between visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots. Sympathetic drive toward visceral epididymal adipose is more than doubled early in weight loss and then suppressed later in the diet when weight loss plateaued. Coincident with the decline in SNS activity toward visceral adipose is an increase in activity toward subcutaneous depots indicating a switch in lipolytic sources. In response to calorie restriction, SNS activity toward retroperitoneal and brown adipose depots is unaffected. Finally, pharmacological blockage of sympathetic activity on adipose tissue using the β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist, SR59230a, suppressed loss of visceral adipose mass in response to diet. These findings indicate that SNS activity toward discrete adipose depots is dynamic and potentially hierarchical. This pattern of sympathetic activation is required for energy liberation and loss of adipose tissue in response to calorie-restricted diet.

  4. Abdominal fat quantity and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and extent of its relation to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, Enrico; Bucchieri, Salvo; Esposito, Antonella; Del Puente, Antonio; Mansueto, Pasquale; Orio, Francesco; Di Fede, Gaetana; Rini, Giovambattista

    2007-07-01

    Increased abdominal fat has been linked to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Because many patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present abdominal obesity, it may be the cause of insulin resistance in this disorder. Fat quantity and distribution were evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the Departments of Clinical Medicine at the University of Palermo and the University of Naples, Italy. A total of 110 patients with PCOS and 112 weight-matched controls were studied. Anthropometric data, blood glucose, serum insulin, and testosterone were evaluated. Total, trunk, and central abdominal fat quantity were measured by total-body dual x-ray absorptiometry. Compared with weight-matched controls, patients with PCOS had similar quantity of total and trunk fat but higher quantity of central abdominal fat. This difference was not observed when comparing obese PCOS and obese controls but depended on differences between overweight and normoweight patients and controls. All obese subjects, independently of having PCOS or not, had increased central abdominal fat. The same parameter was increased in 71% of overweight PCOS, 50% of overweight controls, and 30% of normoweight PCOS patients. PCOS patients with increased central abdominal fat had significantly higher (P fat. Overweight PCOS patients with normal abdominal fat had significantly higher (P fat. Most obese subjects, independent of being affected by PCOS, have an abdominal form of obesity. However, abdominal fat excess may not be the only determinant of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  5. Comparison between two methods of bioelectrical impedance analyses for accuracy in measuring abdominal visceral fat area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeong Seon; Lee, Dong-Hwa; Lee, JieEun; Kim, Yoon Ji; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Min; Kwak, Soo Heon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) measurements between abdominal dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and whole-body BIA referenced to computed tomography (CT) measures. Abdominal VFAs were measured in 102 individuals: 59 men and 43 women with a mean age of 44.2 ± 16.3 years (range 21 - 76), body mass index 23.9 ± 7.8 kg/m(2) (range 18 - 35) using a DUALSCAN HDS-2000 machine (dual abdominal BIA) and an InBody720 machine (whole-body BIA). The VFA values from each machine were compared with those from CT under various conditions. Mean abdominal VFAs were 116 ± 69 cm(2) by CT, 89 ± 47 cm(2) by dual abdominal BIA, and 84 ± 33 cm(2) by whole-body BIA. The former measure showed a higher correlation with the CT measure than the latter (r=0.89 vs. r=0.64, P<0.001). Both BIA methods tended to underestimate abdominal VFAs compared with CT scans when CT VFA was not small. The dual abdominal BIA had less bias than the whole-body BIA in the assessment of VFAs. The whole-body BIA was affected by subcutaneous fat area. Dual BIA was more accurate in assessing abdominal VFA than whole-body BIA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Clinical Studies of Sweet Bee Venom to The Effect of Abdominal Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Chung-San

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom to the abdominal fat accumulation clinically. Methods The 20 healthy women volunteers who showed the notice of this study by the home page of Sangji University were treated with Sweet Bee Venom(SBV during twenty times. To investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom of the abdominal fat accumulation, abdominal CT, LFT, Thermography, BMI, Inbody 3.0 etc. were performed during clinical trials. And statistical analysis was carried out the data of 10 volunteers who performed all the schedule of this study. Results Following results were obtained from the clinical studies Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the body weight, thickness of abdominal skin and fat layer, BMI, and increased abdominal heat, but they are not showed statistical significant. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment Sweet Bee Venom on the abdomen was effective to decrease fat tissue but for the treatment of obesity was performed with right diet program and exercise.

  8. Relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, abdominal fat and immunometabolic markers in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, T A; Fortaleza, A C S; Buonani, C; Rossi, F E; Neves, L M; Lira, F S; Freitas-Junior, I F

    2015-11-01

    To assess the burden of levels of physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and abdominal fat on the immunometabolic profile of postmenopausal women. Forty-nine postmenopausal women [mean age 59.43 (standard deviation 5.61) years] who did not undertake regular physical exercise participated in this study. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of NEFA, tumour necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, insulin and triacylglycerol were assessed using fasting blood samples. The level of physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer (Actigraph GTX3x), and reported as counts/min, time spent undertaking sedentary activities and time spent undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The following conditions were considered to be risk factors: (i) sedentary lifestyle (active women, sedentary women had higher levels of body fat (%) (p=0.041) and NEFA (p=0.064). Women with higher levels of abdominal fat had impaired insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.016) and spent more time undertaking sedentary activities (p=0.043). Moreover, the women with two risk factors or more had high levels of NEFA and HOMA-IR (pphysical activity, abdominal fat, tumour necrosis factor-α and adiponectin (p>0.05). Postmenopausal women with a combination of hypertriacylglycerolaemia, a high level of abdominal fat and a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to have metabolic disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  10. Relationship between vaspin gene expression and abdominal fat distribution of Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-A; Park, Hye-Soon; Song, Young-Sook; Jang, Yeon-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is a novel adipokine that is thought to have insulin-sensitizing effects. We investigated vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue and examined how gene expression related to abdominal fat distribution and metabolic parameters in Korean women. We measured anthropometric variables, metabolic parameters, serum vaspin concentration, and vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue obtained from women who underwent abdominal gynecological surgery and were aged 18-67 years (n=85). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area were measured in 40 subjects using computed tomography (CT). Vaspin expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative radiotherapy-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) according to abdominal fat distribution. Vaspin mRNA expression was greater in adipocytes than in stroma/vascular cells. In the total subjects, vaspin expression was significantly higher in SAT than in VAT. Vaspin expression in SAT in subcutaneous fat type (VSR ≤0.3) was significantly higher than in visceral fat type (VSR >0.3), although vaspin expression in VAT was similar between subcutaneous and visceral fat type. There was a significant negative correlation between vaspin expression in SAT and VAT area (r=-0.55, p=0.001). Serum vaspin concentration was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.30, p=0.02), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.29, p=0.02), and the ratio of vaspin expression in VAT to vaspin expression in SAT (r=0.41, p=0.04). Vaspin expression in abdominal adipose tissue was adipocyte-specific and vaspin expression in SAT decreased as VAT area increased. (author)

  11. Abdominal fat indicators: anthropometry vs dual energy x-ray absortometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive abdominal fat contributes to the development of chronic nontransmissible diseases. Dual emission X Ray absorptiometry (DXA is a simple to administer technique that allows abdominal fat percentage (%abdominalFDXA to be determined. Anthropometric measurements, which have been validated and are of low cost, such as the abdominal circumferences 2.5cm above the umbilical scar (ABC2,5 and level with the umbilical scar (ABCum, are used as indicators of abdominal fat. Skin folds (SF are little used for this purpose. The objective of this study was to verify which of these anthropometric indicators best correlates with and best explains abdominalFDXA. The sample was made up of 22 women (43.9±11.6 years; 34.7±8.3 %G totalDXA and 18 men (31.9±11.6 years; 19.0±8.0 %G totalDXA who were measured for ABC2.5, ABCum, suprailiac SF (SI, midaxillary SF (AM and abdominal SF (AB, while abdominalF (L1-L4 was measured by DXA. Pearson’s correlation and multivariate linear regression (“enter” method were employed to verify the anthropometric measurements’ correlations and percentage of explanation with relation to abdominalFDXA. Strong correlations and significant levels of explanation (pResumoO excesso de gordura abdominal contribui no desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis. A absortometria de raio-X de dupla energia (AXDE é uma técnica de simples aplicação, que permite a mensuração do percentual de gordura abdominal (%G abdominalAXDE. As medidas antropométricas, validadas e de baixo custo, como os perímetros abdominal 2,5cm acima da cicatriz umbilical (PAB2,5 e ao nível da cicatriz umbilical (PABum, são empregadas como indicadores de gordura abdominal. As dobras cutâneas (DC são pouco estudadas nesse sentido. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi verificar quais destes indicadores antropométricos mais se correlacionam e explicam o %G abdominalAXDE. A amostra foi composta por 22 mulheres (43,9±11,6 anos; 34,7±8,3 %G

  12. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the subcutaneous fat. A preliminary segmentation was carried out into 10 classes using a K-means clustering and. Markov random field algorithm taking spatial coherence into account. This enabled counting of the voxels included within the region of interest (by excluding voxels allocated to −2048 = outside the ROI).

  13. Dietary supplementation of tetradecylthioacetic acid increases feed intake but reduces body weight gain and adipose depot sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensaas, A J; Rustan, A C; Rokling-Andersen, M H; Caesar, R; Jensen, J; Kaalhus, O; Graff, B A; Gudbrandsen, O A; Berge, R K; Drevon, C A

    2009-11-01

    The pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand and fatty acid analogue tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) may reduce plasma lipids and enhance hepatic lipid metabolism, as well as reduce adipose tissue sizes in rats fed on high-fat diets. This study further explores the effects of TTA on weight gain, feed intake and adipose tissue functions in rats that are fed a high-fat diet for 7 weeks. The effects on feed intake and body weight during 7 weeks' dietary supplement with TTA ( approximately 200 mg/kg bw) were studied in male Wistar rats fed on a lard-based diet containing approximately 40% energy from fat. Adipose tissue mass, body composition and expression of relevant genes in fat depots and liver were measured at the end of the feeding. Despite higher feed intake during the final 2 weeks of the study, rats fed on TTA gained less body weight than lard-fed rats and had markedly decreased subcutaneous, epididymal, perirenal and mesenteric adipose depots. The effects of TTA feeding with reduced body weight gain and energy efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) started between day 10 and 13. Body contents of fat, protein and water were reduced after feeding lard plus TTA, with a stronger decrease in fat relative to protein. Plasma lipids, including Non-Esterified Fatty Acids (NEFA), were significantly reduced, whereas fatty acid beta-oxidation in liver and heart was enhanced in lard plus TTA-fed rats. Hepatic UCP3 was expressed ectopically both at protein and mRNA level (>1900-fold), whereas Ucp1 mRNA was increased approximately 30-fold in epididymal and approximately 90-fold in mesenteric fat after lard plus TTA feeding. Our data support the hypothesis that TTA feeding may increase hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation, and thereby reduce the size of adipose tissues. The functional importance of ectopic hepatic UCP3 is unknown, but might be associated with enhanced energy expenditure and thus the reduced feed efficiency.

  14. Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures : the influence of stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; McNeill, G; Seidell, J C; Lean, M.E.J.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20-51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19-85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES:

  15. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  16. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. METHODS: In a ...

  17. Oral anabolic steroid treatment, but not parenteral androgen treatment, decreases abdominal fat in obese, older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Bray, G A; Greeson, C S; Klemperer, M; Morris, J; Partington, C; Tulley, R

    1995-09-01

    To compare the effects of testosterone enanthate (TE), anabolic steroid (AS) or placebo (PL) on regional fat distribution and health risk factors in obese middle-aged men undergoing weight loss by dietary means. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out for 9 months with primary assessments at 3 month intervals. Due to adverse blood lipid changes, the AS group was switched from oral oxandrolone (ASOX) to parenteral nandrolone decaoate (ASND) after the 3 month assessment point. Thirty healthy, obese men, aged 40-60 years, with serum testosterone (T) levels in the low-normal range (2-5 ng/mL). Abdominal fat distribution and thigh muscle volume by CT scan, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), insulin sensitivity by the Minimal Model method, blood lipids, blood chemistry, blood pressure, thyroid hormones and urological parameters. After 3 months, there was a significantly greater decrease in subcutaneous (SQ) abdominal fat in the ASOX group compared to the TE and PL groups although body weight changes did not differ by treatment group. There was also a tendency for the ASOX group to exhibit greater losses in visceral fat, and the absolute level of visceral fat in this group was significantly lower at 3 months than in the TE and PL groups. There were significant main effects of treatment at 3 months on serum T and free T (increased in the TE group and decreased in the ASOX group) and on thyroid hormone parameters (T4 and T3 resin uptake significantly decreased in the ASOX group compared with the other two groups). There was a significant decrease in HDL-C, and increase in LDL-C in the ASOX group, which led to their being switched to the parenteral nandrolone decanoate (ASND) after 3 months. ASND had opposite effects on visceral fat from ASOX, producing a significant increase from 3 to 9 months while continuing to decrease SQ abdominal fat. ASND treatment also decreased thigh muscle area, while ASOX treatment

  18. Differential screening identifies transcripts with depot-dependent expression in white adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Shengli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The co-morbidities of obesity are tied to location of excess fat in the intra-abdominal as compared to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT depot. Genes distinctly expressed in WAT depots may impart depot-dependent physiological functions. To identify such genes, we prepared subtractive cDNA libraries from murine subcutaneous (SC or intra-abdominal epididymal (EP white adipocytes. Results Differential screening and qPCR validation identified 7 transcripts with 2.5-fold or greater enrichment in EP vs. SC adipocytes. Boc, a component of the hedgehog signaling pathway demonstrated highest enrichment (~12-fold in EP adipocytes. We also identified a dramatic enrichment in SC adipocytes vs. EP adipocytes and in SC WAT vs. EP WAT for transcript(s for the major urinary proteins (Mups, small secreted proteins with pheromone functions that are members of the lipocalin family. Expression of Boc and Mup transcript was further assessed in murine tissues, adipogenesis models, and obesity. qPCR analysis reveals that EP WAT is a major site of expression of Boc transcript. Furthermore, Boc transcript expression decreased in obese EP WAT with a concomitant upregulation of Boc transcript in the obese SC WAT depot. Assessment of the Boc binding partner Cdon in adipose tissue and cell fractions thereof, revealed transcript expression similar to Boc; suggestive of a role for the Boc-Cdon axis in WAT depot function. Mup transcripts were predominantly expressed in liver and in the SC and RP WAT depots and increased several thousand-fold during differentiation of primary murine preadipocytes to adipocytes. Mup transcripts were also markedly reduced in SC WAT and liver of ob/ob genetically obese mice compared to wild type. Conclusion Further assessment of WAT depot-enriched transcripts may uncover distinctions in WAT depot gene expression that illuminate the physiological impact of regional adiposity.

  19. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for abdominal fat in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a growing public health problem that affects most people over the age of 65 years and abdominal obesity is one of the risk factors for the development of these diseases. There are several methods that can be used to measure body fat, but their accuracy needs to be evaluated, especially in specific populations such as the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of anthropometric indicators to estimate the percentage of abdominal fat in subjects aged 80 years or older. A total of 125 subjects ranging in age from 80 to 95 years (83.5 ± 3, including 79 women (82.4 ± 3years and 46 men (83.6 ± 3 years, were studied. The following anthropometric indicators were used: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The percentage of abdominal fat was measured by DEXA. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using an ROC curve. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0. 578, 0. 934 and 0. 756 for BMI, respectively; 0.703, 0.820 and 0.761 for WC; 0.938, 0.213 and 0.575 for WHR, and 0.984, 0.344 and 0.664 for WHtR. BMI and WC were the anthropometric indicators with the largest area under the curve and were therefore more adequate to identify the presence or absence of abdominal obesity.

  20. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identifi cation of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more diffi cult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fl uid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that refl ect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower refl ection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fl uid collections. The features that facilitate proper identifi cation of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infi ltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identifi cation of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always

  1. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  2. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  3. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  4. Global adiposity rather than abnormal regional fat distribution characterizes women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Thomas M; Golding, Stephen J; Alvey, Christopher; Wass, John A H; Karpe, Fredrik; Franks, Stephen; McCarthy, Mark I

    2008-03-01

    Obesity-related predisposition to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) could reflect overall adiposity and/or regional accumulation of abdominal visceral fat. The objective of the study was to compare distributions of visceral, abdominal sc, and gluteofemoral sc adipose tissue in PCOS cases vs. control women. This was a cross-sectional study. Fat depot measurements from axial magnetic resonance imaging scans taken at anatomically predefined sites were compared between 22 body mass index (BMI)/fat mass-matched pairs of PCOS cases and controls; whole-group comparisons included 50 PCOS cases vs. 28 female controls. All subjects were of UK British/Irish origin. We measured cross-sectional areas of adipose tissue within visceral (mid-L4), abdominal (mid-L4) sc, and gluteofemoral (greater trochanteric and midfemoral) sc fat depots. Other measurements included fat mass, BMI, testosterone, SHBG, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (a measure of insulin sensitivity). Whole-group analyses were adjusted for fat mass and age. There were no significant differences in fat-depot measurements between BMI/fat mass-matched pairs of PCOS cases and controls: mid-L4 visceral (P=0.40), abdominal sc (P=0.22), gluteal sc (P=0.67), and midfemoral sc (P=0.37) depots. Whole-group comparisons gave similar results after adjustments for fat mass and age. Fasting serum insulin concentrations (P=0.03) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (P=0.03) were significantly higher in the PCOS group than BMI/fat mass-matched controls. PCOS cases and BMI/fat mass-matched control women are indistinguishable with respect to distribution of fat within visceral, abdominal sc, and gluteofemoral sc depots, despite significant differences in insulin resistance between these two groups.

  5. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...

  6. Determination of abdominal fat thickness using dual electrode separation in the focused impedance method (FIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surovy, Nusrat Jahan; Billah, Md Masum; Haowlader, Salahuddin; Al-Quaderi, Golam Dastegir; Rabbani, K Siddique-e

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat layer thickness in the abdomen is a risk indicator of several diseases and disorders like diabetes and heart problems and could be used as a measure of fitness. Skinfold measurement using mechanical calipers is simple but prone to error. Ultrasound scanning techniques are yet to be established as accurate methods for this purpose. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans can provide the answer but are expensive and not available widely. Some initiatives were made earlier to use electrical impedance to this end, but had inadequacies. In the first part of this paper, a 4-electrode focused impedance method (FIM) with different electrode separations has been studied for its possible use in the determination of abdominal fat thickness in a localized region. For this, a saline phantom was designed to provide different electrode separations and different layers of resistive materials adjacent to the electrodes. The background saline simulated the internal organs having low impedance while the resistive layers simulated the subcutaneous fat. The plot of the measured impedance with electrode separation had different ‘slopes’ for different thicknesses of resistive layers, which offered a method to obtain an unknown thickness of subcutaneous fat layer. In the second part, measurements were performed on seven human subjects using two electrode separations. Fat layer thickness was measured using mechanical calipers. A plot of the above ‘slope’ against fat thickness could be fitted using a straight line with an R 2 of 0.93. Then this could be used as a calibration curve for the determination of unknown fat thickness. Further work using more accurate CT and MRI measurements would give a better calibration curve for practical use of this non-invasive and low-cost technique in abdominal fat thickness measurement. (paper)

  7. SU-F-I-33: Estimating Radiation Dose in Abdominal Fat Quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Yang, K; Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) in abdominal fat quantitative CT with another dose estimate D{sub size,L} that also takes into account scan length. Methods: This study complied with the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. At our institution, abdominal fat CT is performed with scan length = 1 cm and CTDI{sub vol} = 4.66 mGy (referenced to body CTDI phantom). A previously developed CT simulation program was used to simulate single rotation axial scans of 6–55 cm diameter water cylinders, and dose integral of the longitudinal dose profile over the central 1 cm length was used to predict the dose at the center of one-cm scan range. SSDE and D{sub size,L} were assessed for 182 consecutive abdominal fat CT examinations with mean water-equivalent diameter (WED) of 27.8 cm ± 6.0 (range, 17.9 - 42.2 cm). Patient age ranged from 18 to 75 years, and weight ranged from 39 to 163 kg. Results: Mean SSDE was 6.37 mGy ± 1.33 (range, 3.67–8.95 mGy); mean D{sub size,L} was 2.99 mGy ± 0.85 (range, 1.48 - 4.88 mGy); and mean D{sub size,L}/SSDE ratio was 0.46 ± 0.04 (range, 0.40 - 0.55). Conclusion: The conversion factors for size-specific dose estimate in AAPM Report No. 204 were generated using 15 - 30 cm scan lengths. One needs to be cautious in applying SSDE to small length CT scans. For abdominal fat CT, SSDE was 80–150% higher than the dose of 1 cm scan length.

  8. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Toshiharu; Kano, Hiroko; Shin, Kouichi; Konjiki, Ou; Ohsawa, Yoko; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author).

  9. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Toshiharu; Kano, Hiroko; Shin, Kouichi; Konjiki, Ou; Ohsawa, Yoko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author)

  10. Associations of trunk fat depots with insulin resistance, β cell function and glycaemia--a multiple technique study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganpule-Rao, Anjali; Joglekar, Charudatta; Patkar, Deepak; Chinchwadkar, Manoj; Bhat, Dattatreya; Lubree, Himangi; Rege, Sonali; Uradey, Bhagyashree; Yajnik, Chittaranjan; Yudkin, John

    2013-01-01

    Central (truncal) adiposity is associated strongly with insulin resistance and diabetes. There are very few reports comparing methods of trunk fat measurement in their ability to predict glycaemia and insulin resistance. We report a comparative analysis of different trunk fat measurements in predicting glycaemia and insulin resistance in middle aged Indian men. Trunk fat measurements were performed using anthropometry, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and computed tomography (CT) on 128 men. Additional measurements were taken to characterise insulin resistance (Matsuda index) and beta cell function (Insulinogenic Index), glycaemia (fasting and 120 min glucose concentrations). Using residual approach we compared the ability of different trunk fat measurement techniques to predict insulin resistance, beta cell function and glycaemia. There was a strong association between trunk fat measures from each technique with glycaemia and insulin resistance indices but not with the Insulinogenic Index. Insulin resistance and glycaemia, were best predicted using anthropometric measurements, notably by waist circumference and subscapular skinfold thickness. Neither MRI measures of trunk or visceral fat nor DXA trunk fat added significantly. CT liver density contributed to some extent to predict insulin resistance and 120 min glucose after anthropometric measurements. Our results suggest that, in Indian men, anthropometric measurements are good predictors of glycaemia and insulin resistance. Other complex measurements such as MRI, DXA and CT make only a small addition to the prediction. This finding supports the application of anthropometry for determining trunk fat in clinical and epidemiological settings.

  11. Increase in visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E J; Gianatti, E; Strauss, B J; Wentworth, J; Lim-Joon, D; Bolton, D; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2011-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer is associated with increases in fat mass and risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the relationship between sex steroid deficiency and abdominal fat distribution remains controversial. We conducted a 12-month prospective observational study at a tertiary referral centre. We investigated changes in abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance in 26 men (70.6±6.8 years) with nonmetastatic prostate cancer during the first year of ADT. Twelve months of ADT increased visceral abdominal fat area by 22% (from 160.8±61.7 to 195.9±69.7 cm(2) ; Pfat area by 13% (from 240.7±107.5 to 271.3±92.8 cm(2) ; PFat mass increased by 14% (+3.4 kg; Ptestosterone (TT) was inversely associated with visceral fat area independent of oestradiol (E2), but E2 was not associated with visceral fat area independent of TT. Visceral fat area, not TT or E2, was independently associated with insulin resistance. ADT for prostate cancer results in accumulation of both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Increased visceral fat area appears more closely linked to testosterone than oestradiol deficiency. Increased insulin resistance may arise secondary to visceral fat accumulation, rather than as a direct result of sex steroid deficiency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Abdominal fat volume estimation by stereology on CT: a comparison with manual planimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manios, G.E.; Mazonakis, M.; Damilakis, J. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Voulgaris, C.; Karantanas, A. [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    To deploy and evaluate a stereological point-counting technique on abdominal CT for the estimation of visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) volumes. Stereological volume estimations based on point counting and systematic sampling were performed on images from 14 consecutive patients who had undergone abdominal CT. For the optimization of the method, five sampling intensities in combination with 100 and 200 points were tested. The optimum stereological measurements were compared with VAF and SAF volumes derived by the standard technique of manual planimetry on the same scans. Optimization analysis showed that the selection of 200 points along with the sampling intensity 1/8 provided efficient volume estimations in less than 4 min for VAF and SAF together. The optimized stereology showed strong correlation with planimetry (VAF: r = 0.98; SAF: r = 0.98). No statistical differences were found between the two methods (VAF: P = 0.81; SAF: P = 0.83). The 95 % limits of agreement were also acceptable (VAF: -16.5 %, 16.1 %; SAF: -10.8 %, 10.7 %) and the repeatability of stereology was good (VAF: CV = 4.5 %, SAF: CV = 3.2 %). Stereology may be successfully applied to CT images for the efficient estimation of abdominal fat volume and may constitute a good alternative to the conventional planimetric technique. (orig.)

  13. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  14. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Fat in MRI-Scans, Using Graph-Cuts and Image Derived Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Larsen, Christian Thode; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    For many clinical studies changes in the abdominal distribution of fat is an important measure. However, the segmentation of abdominal fat in MRI scans is both difficult and time consuming using manual methods. We present here an automatic and flexible software package, that performs both bias fi...... by tuning the image-derived energies used for the segmentation, allowing the method to be applied to other body parts, such as the thighs....

  15. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...

  16. Comparison of the relative contributions of intra-abdominal and liver fat to components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotronen, Anna; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Sevastianova, Ksenia

    2011-01-01

    Abdominally obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome often have excess fat deposition both intra-abdominally (IA) and in the liver, but the relative contribution of these two deposits to variation in components of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We determined the mutually independent...... were correlated (r = 0.65, P density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, plasma glucose, insulin and liver enzyme concentrations, and hepatic...

  17. Longitudinal Profiling of the Tissue-Specific Expression of Genes Related with Insulin Sensitivity in Dairy Cows during Lactation Focusing on Different Fat Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Behnam; Winand, Sarah; Friedrichs, Paula; Kinoshita, Asako; Rehage, Jürgen; Dänicke, Sven; Häussler, Susanne; Breves, Gerhard; Mielenz, Manfred; Sauerwein, Helga

    2014-01-01

    In dairy cows the milk associated energy output in early lactation exceeds the input via voluntary feed intake. To spare glucose for mammary lactose synthesis, peripheral insulin sensitivity (IS) is reduced and fat mobilization is stimulated. For these processes a link between IS and the endocrine functions of adipose tissue (AT) is likely; we thus aimed to characterise the mRNA expression from bovine AT derived proteins and receptors that are related to IS according to the literature in metabolically active tissues plus systemic IS throughout lactation. Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) reduce milk fat thus decreasing the milk drain of energy and potentially dampening lipolysis, but may also affect IS. Subcutaneous (s.c.) AT and liver from pluriparous cows receiving either control fat or CLA supplement (100 g/day from 1 to 182 days in milk each) were biopsied covering week −3 to 36 relative to parturition. In an additional trial with primiparous cows treated analogously and slaughtered on days in milk 1, 42 or 105, samples from liver, udder, skeletal muscle and 3 visceral and 3 s.c. AT were obtained and assayed for mRNA abundance of adiponectin, its receptors, leptin, leptin receptor, PPARγ, PPARγ2, IL-6, and TNF-α. In pluriparous animals, the mRNA abundance of most of the target genes decreased after parturition in s.c. AT but increased in liver. In primiparous cows, AT depot specific differences were mostly related to retroperitoneal AT; adiponectin receptor 1 and TNF-α were affected predominantly. CLA effects in primiparous cows were largely limited to decreased PPARγ2 mRNA abundance in udder tissue. In pluriparous cows, insulin secretion was increased by CLA resulting in decreased systemic IS but without consistent changes in tissue target mRNA abundance. The temporal gene expression profiles from the adipokines and related receptors support their coactive function in adapting to the needs of lactation. PMID:24465964

  18. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  19. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2012-04-01

    A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet. The present review was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with overall obesity or excess abdominal adiposity, whether in the general population or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The literature search included articles published over the past 30 years that focused on dietary patterns that included bread (refined or whole-grain) and their association with ponderal status and abdominal fat distribution. A total of 38 epidemiological studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (22 cross-sectional, 11 prospective cohort, and five intervention). The results indicate that dietary patterns that include whole-grain bread do not positively influence weight gain and may be beneficial to ponderal status. With respect to dietary patterns that include refined bread, the majority of cross-sectional studies indicate beneficial effects, while most of the well-designed cohort studies demonstrate a possible relationship with excess abdominal fat. Because differences in the study designs make it difficult to form definitive conclusions, more studies are needed that focus specifically on bread consumption, within different dietary patterns, and its influence on ponderal status. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Changes in adiponectin and inflammatory genes in response to hormonal imbalances in female mice and exacerbation of depot selective visceral adiposity by high-fat diet: implications for insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xinlei; Aravindakshan, Jayaprakash; Sairam, M Ram

    2007-12-01

    Early obesity and late onset of insulin resistance associated with hormonal imbalances occur in FSH receptor-deficient follitropin receptor knockout female mice. This study tests the hypothesis that chronic high-fat diet aggravates obesogenic changes in a depot-specific manner and explores some molecular links of hormone imbalances with insulin resistance. In SV 129 mice, hormonal imbalances seem obligatory for exacerbation of diet-induced obesity. Visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance, and lipid disturbances in 9-month follitropin receptor knockout females were associated with decrease in adiponectin signaling. High-molecular-weight plasma adiponectin and adipose tissue adiponectin mRNA were decreased. Adiponectin receptors R1 and R2 mRNA was selectively altered in mesenteric fat but not periuterine fat. R2 decreased in the liver and R1 was higher in muscle. Whereas hepatic adenosine monophosphate T-activated protein kinase activity was down-regulated, both phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and glucose-6-phosphatase enzymes were up-regulated. Longitudinally, diminishing sex hormone signaling in adipose tissue was associated with progressive down-regulation of adiponectin activity and gradual impaired glucose tolerance. Chronic high-fat diet in SV129 wild-type mice did not produce overt obesity but induced visceral fat depot changes accompanied by liver lipid accumulation, high cholesterol, and up-regulation of inflammation gene mRNAs. Thus, TNF-alpha, C-C motif chemokine receptor-2, and C-C motif chemokine ligand-2 were selectively elevated in mesenteric fat without altering glucose tolerance and adiponectin signaling. Our study highlights adiponectin signaling and regulation to be involved in hormone imbalance-induced insulin resistance and demonstrates selective visceral adipose depot alterations by chronic high-fat diet and induction of inflammatory genes.

  1. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  2. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  3. The effect of lipoaspirates vs. dissected abdominal fat on breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzouqi, Faris; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Alharbi, Ziyad; Pallua, Norbert

    2017-03-21

    Cancer cells are typically surrounded by stromal cells and embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM). The stromal compartment interacts with cancer cells to promote growth and metastasis. For decades, autologous fasciocutaneous flaps have been safely applied for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. In contrast, the safety of fat grafting (lipofilling) procedure has been under debate regarding the risk of cancer recurrence. Harvested fat tissue (lipoaspirates) and dissected abdominal fat (DAF) were co-cultured with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The vitality of MCF-7 cells was measured using AlamarBlue ® consecutively for 5 days. ECM degradation was determined by detection of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in MCF-7 cells. Integrin α2 was measured by Western blot to assess the degree of adhesion and motility of MFC-7 cells. The MCF-7 proliferation increased substantially when co-cultured with fat tissue. However, there was no significant difference between the proliferation stimulating effects of lipoaspirates and DAF. Similarly, MMP-1 protein expression was equally elevated in MCF-7 cells by both lipoaspirates and DAF. Importantly, MCF-7 cells showed an increased level of integrin α2 once co-cultured with either lipoaspirates or DAF. Fat tissue increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. Our data suggest that lipoaspirates as well as DAF might possess a considerable potency to promote tumorigenic growth of breast cancer cells. Thus, clinical trials are needed to address the safety of lipofilling by breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy.

  4. Abdominal circumference measurement by ultrasound does not enhance estimating the association of visceral fat with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Helena; Pereira, Aline Maria L; Ajzen, Sergio A; Nogueira, Paulo C Koch

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the association between visceral fat and cardiovascular risk factors and to compare the ultrasonographic measurements of abdominal visceral fat with abdominal circumference (AC). This observational cross-sectional study categorized pubertal and postpubertal adolescents into a control group (n = 49) and an obese group (n = 46). Weight, height, AC, blood pressure, biochemical tests (lipid profile, triacylglycerols, fasting glucose for insulinemia, and serum uric acid), and ultrasound to measure visceral fat were assessed. We found significant differences in the vascular risk variables between the groups, except for total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose level. We also observed that 31 subjects in the control group presented abnormalities in cardiovascular risk factors. The correlations between abdominal visceral fat (measured by ultrasound or the AC) and cardiovascular risk factors were significant. In the entire sample, AC presented better sensitivity and specificity than the ultrasound-measured abdominal visceral fat for identifying the presence of a cluster of at least three cardiovascular risk factors (areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve 0.87 and 0.73, respectively). Ultrasonographic measurements of visceral fat were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors, but this association was also demonstrable with AC measurements. Our results suggest that the measurement of visceral fat by ultrasound is unnecessary for the diagnosis of cardiovascular risk in well-nourished or obese adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perirenal fat is related to carotid intima-media thickness in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J-M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Xargay-Torrent, S; Lizarraga-Mollinedo, E; Feliu-Alsina, M; Riera-Pérez, E; Osiniri, I; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2017-09-25

    It is well known that increased abdominal fat is associated with cardiovascular (CV) risk. Perirenal fat has been recently associated with CV risk in adults. However, studies with children are lacking. We investigated the relationship of perirenal fat and other abdominal fat depots (including preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat) with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT-a surrogate marker of CV risk) in prepubertal children, so as to identify novel markers that can be easily assessed and used in the early prevention of cardiovascular disease. Subjects were 702 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children (418 lean, 142 overweight and 142 obese) who were recruited in a primary care setting. Ultrasound measurements (perirenal, preperitoneal, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and cIMT), clinical (body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure) and metabolic parameters (insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin and serum lipids) were assessed. Perirenal fat was associated with diverse metabolic and CV risk factors in all the studied subjects. However, in overweight and obese children, perirenal fat was mostly associated with cIMT (Pfat depot that showed independent associations with cIMT in multivariate analyses (overweight chidren: β=0.250, P=0.003, r 2 =12.8%; obese children: β=0.254, P=0.002, r 2 =15.5%) after adjusting for BMI, gender, age and metabolic parameters. Perirenal fat was also the only fat depot that showed independent associations with HMW-adiponectin in obese children (β=-0.263, P=0.006, r 2 =22.8%). Perirenal fat is the main abdominal fat depot associated with cIMT, especially in overweight and obese children, and may thus represent a helpful parameter for assessing CV risk in the pediatric population.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 24 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.236.

  6. The Impact of Abdominal Fat Levels on All-Cause Mortality Risk in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yajima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although an increased body mass index is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, known as the “obesity paradox,” the relationship of abdominal fat levels with all-cause mortality has rarely been studied. We investigated the impact of computed-tomography-measured abdominal fat levels (visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA on all-cause mortality in this population. A total of 201 patients undergoing HD were enrolled and cross-classified by VFA and SFA levels according to each cutoff point, VFA of 78.7 cm2 and SFA of 93.2 cm2, based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve as following; group 1 (G1: lower VFA and lower SFA, G2: higher VFA and lower SFA, G3: lower VFA and higher SFA, G4: higher VFA and higher SFA. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 67 patients died. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed 10-year survival rates of 29.0%, 50.0%, 62.6%, and 72.4% in G1, G2, G3, and G4 (p < 0.0001, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–1.09, p = 0.070 for G2 vs. G1, 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76, p = 0.0065 for G3 vs. G1, and 0.21 (95% CI 0.07–0.62, p = 0.0035 for G4 vs. G1, respectively. In conclusion, combined SFA and VFA levels were negatively associated with risks for all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD. These results are a manifestation of the “obesity paradox.”

  7. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  8. Chick subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue depots respond differently in lipolytic and adipogenic activity to α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Steven L; Wang, Guoqing; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-07-01

    In birds, α-MSH is anorexigenic, but effects on adipose tissue are unknown. Four day-old chicks were intraperitoneally injected with 0 (vehicle), 5, 10, or 50μg of α-MSH and subcutaneous and abdominal adipose tissue collected at 60min for RNA isolation (n=10). Plasma was collected post-euthanasia at 60 and 180min for measuring non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and α-MSH (n=10). Relative to the vehicle, food intake was reduced in the 50μg-treated group. Plasma NEFAs were greater in 10μg than vehicle-treated chicks at 3h. Plasma α-MSH was 3.06±0.57ng/ml. In subcutaneous tissue, melanocortin receptor 5 (MC5R) mRNA was increased in 10μg, MC2R and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) mRNAs increased in 50μg, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and C/EBPα decreased in 5, 10 and 50μg, and Ki67 mRNA decreased in 50μg α-MSH-injected chicks, compared to vehicle-injected chicks. In abdominal tissue, adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA was greater in 10μg α-MSH- than vehicle-treated chicks. Cells isolated from abdominal fat that were treated with 10 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h expressed more MC5R and perilipin-1 than control cells (n=6). Cells that received 100nM α-MSH expressed more fatty acid binding protein 4 and comparative gene identification-58 mRNA than control cells. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity was greater in cells at 9days post-differentiation that were treated with 1 and 100nM α-MSH for 4h than in control cells (n=3). Results suggest that α-MSH increases lipolysis and reduces adipogenesis in adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  10. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men. The Ohtori study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men. (author)

  11. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution....... to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1–7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5–14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative...

  12. Lifestyle factors and 5-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Kristen G; Vitolins, Mara Z; Norris, Jill M; Anderson, Andrea M; Hanley, Anthony J; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether lifestyle factors were associated with 5-year change in abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) in the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study. We obtained abdominal CT scans at baseline and at 5 years, from African Americans (AA) (N = 339) and Hispanic Americans (N = 775), aged 18-81 years. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue was measured at the L4/L5 vertebral level. Physical activity was documented by self-report of vigorous activity and a 1-year recall instrument. Dietary intake was assessed at follow-up using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire referencing the previous year. Generalized linear models, accounting for family structure, were used to assess the associations between percent change in fat accumulation and smoking, physical activity, total calories, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, protein, and saturated fat intake, percent of calories from sweets, and soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber intake and participation in vigorous activity were inversely related to change in VAT, independent of change in BMI. For each 10 g increase in soluble fiber, rate of VAT accumulation decreased by 3.7% (P = 0.01). Soluble fiber was not associated with change in SAT (0.2%, P = 0.82). Moderately active participants had a 7.4% decrease in rate of VAT accumulation and a 3.6% decrease in rate of SAT accumulation versus less active participants (P = 0.003 and P = 0.01, respectively). Total energy expenditure was also inversely associated with accumulation of VAT. Soluble fiber intake and increased physical activity were related to decreased VAT accumulation over 5 years.

  13. Mast cells, macrophages, and crown-like structures distinguish subcutaneous from visceral fat in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Altintas, Mehmet M.; Azad, Adiba; Nayer, Behzad; Contreras, Gabriel; Zaias, Julia; Faul, Christian; Reiser, Jochen; Nayer, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is accompanied by adipocyte death and accumulation of macrophages and mast cells in expanding adipose tissues. Considering the differences in biological behavior of fat found in different anatomical locations, we explored the distribution of mast cells, solitary macrophages, and crown-like structures (CLS), the surrogates for dead adipocytes, in subcutaneous and abdominal visceral fat of lean and diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. In fat depots of lean mice, mast cells were far less pre...

  14. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  15. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  16. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gishti, O.; Gaillard, R.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Heppe, D.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Durmus, B.u.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. Objective: We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. Design, Settings and participants:We

  17. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by usi...

  18. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  19. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...

  20. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. A phenome database (NEAUHLFPD) designed and constructed for broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Dong, Xiang-yu; Liang, Hao; Leng, Li; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-zhi; Li, Hui; Du, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-05-20

    Effective management and analysis of precisely recorded phenotypic traits are important components of the selection and breeding of superior livestocks. Over two decades, we divergently selected chicken lines for abdominal fat content at Northeast Agricultural University (Northeast Agricultural University High and Low Fat, NEAUHLF), and collected large volume of phenotypic data related to the investigation on molecular genetic basis of adipose tissue deposition in broilers. To effectively and systematically store, manage and analyze phenotypic data, we built the NEAUHLF Phenome Database (NEAUHLFPD). NEAUHLFPD included the following phenotypic records: pedigree (generations 1-19) and 29 phenotypes, such as body sizes and weights, carcass traits and their corresponding rates. The design and construction strategy of NEAUHLFPD were executed as follows: (1) Framework design. We used Apache as our web server, MySQL and Navicat as database management tools, and PHP as the HTML-embedded language to create dynamic interactive website. (2) Structural components. On the main interface, detailed introduction on the composition, function, and the index buttons of the basic structure of the database could be found. The functional modules of NEAUHLFPD had two main components: the first module referred to the physical storage space for phenotypic data, in which functional manipulation on data can be realized, such as data indexing, filtering, range-setting, searching, etc.; the second module related to the calculation of basic descriptive statistics, where data filtered from the database can be used for the computation of basic statistical parameters and the simultaneous conditional sorting. NEAUHLFPD could be used to effectively store and manage not only phenotypic, but also genotypic and genomics data, which can facilitate further investigation on the molecular genetic basis of chicken adipose tissue growth and development, and expedite the selection and breeding of broilers

  2. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Valerio; Yu, Claire; Belliveau, Paul; Hamilton, Andrew; Flynn, Lauren E

    2014-02-01

    Adipose tissue is an abundant source of multipotent progenitor cells that have shown promise in regenerative medicine. In humans, fat is primarily distributed in the subcutaneous and visceral depots, which have varying biochemical and functional properties. In most studies to date, subcutaneous adipose tissue has been investigated as the adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) source. In this study, we sought to develop a broader understanding of the influence of specific adipose tissue depots on the isolated ASC populations through a systematic comparison of donor-matched abdominal subcutaneous fat and omentum, and donor-matched pericardial adipose tissue and thymic remnant samples. We found depot-dependent and donor-dependent variability in the yield, viability, immunophenotype, clonogenic potential, doubling time, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation capacities of the ASC populations. More specifically, ASCs isolated from both intrathoracic depots had a longer average doubling time and a significantly higher proportion of CD34(+) cells at passage 2, as compared with cells isolated from subcutaneous fat or the omentum. Furthermore, ASCs from subcutaneous and pericardial adipose tissue demonstrated enhanced adipogenic differentiation capacity, whereas ASCs isolated from the omentum displayed the highest levels of osteogenic markers in culture. Through cell culture analysis under hypoxic (5% O(2)) conditions, oxygen tension was shown to be a key mediator of colony-forming unit-fibroblast number and osteogenesis for all depots. Overall, our results suggest that depot selection is an important factor to consider when applying ASCs in tissue-specific cell-based regenerative therapies, and also highlight pericardial adipose tissue as a potential new ASC source.

  3. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  4. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloush, Ruba A; Lavrovskaya, Elena; Mody, Dina R; Lager, Donna; Truong, Luan

    2010-01-15

    Systemic amyloidosis (SA) has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA) has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years) during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR). A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain) was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%), suspicious in 1/39 (3%), negative in 28/39 (72%), and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13%) of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  5. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halloush Ruba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR. A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%, suspicious in 1/39 (3%, negative in 28/39 (72%, and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13% of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  6. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odds ratio observed in WHtR (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89). In contrast, WHR was the only associated index in men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06). The trend of increasing obesity measures across the quartiles with the risk of GSD was significant in subgroups of WHtR and BMI in women and WHR in men. No significant association was found between SAT and GSD in men or women. The best anthropometric indicators of the risk of GSD may differ by gender. In men, WHR might be the only preferred index to estimate risk of GSD. WHtR, WHR, VAT and BMI are associated with GSD risk in women, although WHtR might better explain this risk. SAT is the poor indicator for identifying subjects with GSD in both genders.

  7. Eradicating hepatitis C virus ameliorates insulin resistance without change in adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, K-L; Jenkins, A B; Trenell, M; Tid-Ang, J; Samocha-Bonet, D; Weltman, M; Xu, A; George, J; Chisholm, D J

    2014-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is associated with lipid-related changes and insulin resistance; the latter predicts response to antiviral therapy, liver disease progression and the risk of diabetes. We sought to determine whether insulin sensitivity improves following CHC viral eradication after antiviral therapy and whether this is accompanied by changes in fat depots or adipokine levels. We compared 8 normoglycaemic men with CHC (genotype 1 or 3) before and at least 6 months post viral eradication and 15 hepatitis C antibody negative controls using an intravenous glucose tolerance test and two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp with [6,6-(2) H2 ] glucose to assess peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal fat compartments, liver and intramyocellular lipid. Peripheral insulin sensitivity improved (glucose infusion rate during high-dose insulin increased from 10.1 ± 1.6 to 12 ± 2.1 mg/kg/min/, P = 0.025), with no change in hepatic insulin response following successful viral eradication, without any accompanying change in muscle, liver or abdominal fat depots. There was corresponding improvement in incremental glycaemic response to intravenous glucose (pretreatment: 62.1 ± 8.3 vs post-treatment: 56.1 ± 8.5 mm, P = 0.008). Insulin sensitivity after viral clearance was comparable to matched controls without CHC. Post therapy, liver enzyme levels decreased but, interestingly, levels of glucagon, fatty acid-binding protein and lipocalin-2 remained elevated. Eradication of the hepatitis C virus improves insulin sensitivity without alteration in fat depots, adipokine or glucagon levels, consistent with a direct link of the virus with insulin resistance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Abdominal fat distribution measured using computed tomography is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Il-Kook; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Bomin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kim, Jae Gyu; Chang, Se Kyung; Kang, Hyun

    2017-09-01

    A few studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between the visceral fat proportion and colorectal adenomas. We aimed to investigate the association between abdominal fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) and colon adenoma.A total of 336 participants underwent physical examination, blood tests, colonoscopy, and abdominal computed tomography at Chung-Ang University Hospital. The associations between the obesity indicies (body mass index, visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), VFA-to-SFA ratio (VFA/SFA), and colorectal adenomas were evaluated.Of 309 subjects, 119 patients (38.5%) had colorectal adenoma. Mean age and fasting plasma glucose were higher in the patients with colorectal adenoma (P SFA (1.07 vs 0.92, P SFA (P SFA, and VFA/SFA were not associated with the location, size, number, and advancement of colorectal adenoma. In multivariate analysis, colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with VFA rather than VFA/SFA. In addition, colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with VFA rather than VFA/SFA in the men. The VFA, SFA, and VFA/SFA were not associated with colorectal adenoma in the women.The VFA measured by using a CT scan was positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma, especially in men. Furthermore, average risk men with large visceral fat volume should be examined carefully in screening colonoscopy.

  9. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  10. Body composition analysis and adipocytokine concentrations in haemodialysis patients: Abdominal fat gain as an added cardiovascular risk factor. Abdominal fat gain and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena González

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: HD patients exhibit a gain in fat mass over time, especially in the abdomen, evidenced by an increased A/G ratio. These findings might explain the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients.

  11. Abdominal fat is associated with a greater brain reward response to high-calorie food cues in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shan; Romero, Ana; Adam, Tanja C; Hu, Houchun H; Monterosso, John; Page, Kathleen A

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to high-calorie foods may promote overeating by stimulating brain reward pathways and appetite. Abdominal fat has particularly adverse metabolic consequences and may alter brain pathways that regulate feeding behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to test the hypothesis that high-calorie food cues activate brain reward regions and increase appetite, and to examine the relationship between abdominal fat and brain reward responsiveness in Hispanic women. fMRI was performed while 13 volunteers viewed 12 blocks of pictures of food and non-food items. Participants rated hunger and food desire after each block of pictures. Brain activation to high-calorie foods was determined by calculating a contrast of high-calorie food minus non-food images. Pearson's correlations were used to test the relationship between brain reward activation and waist circumference. High-calorie food images activated brain reward regions (Z > 2.3, P calorie foods positively correlated with waist circumference, independent of BMI (r = 0.621, P = 0.031). Exposure to high-calorie food images activates brain reward pathways and increases appetitive drive in Hispanic females. Abdominal fat, independent of BMI, parallels striatal responsiveness to high-calorie food images. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  12. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Sonographically Assessed Intra-Abdominal Fat And Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents with Extreme Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The metabolic and cardiovascular risk of obesity is predominantly defined through the amount of intra-abdominal fat (IAF. Regarding this risk and the benefits of weight reduction gender-specific differences have been described. The aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific relationship between IAF assessed via ultrasound and the cardiometabolic risk profile in extremely obese adolescents before and after weight loss. Methods: In 107 consecutively admitted adolescents (n = 59 girls, mean age 15.4 ± 2.6 years boys and 15.1 ± 2.1 years girls, mean BMI z-score 3.2 ± 0.6 boys and 3.5 ± 0.6 girls anthropometric and fasting laboratory chemical parameters were measured before and after an in-patient long-term therapy (mean durance 5.6 ± 2.3 months. IAF was determined by measuring the intra-abdominal depth (IAD via ultrasound. Results: IAD was higher in boys as compared to girls (58.0 ± 22.4 mm vs. 51.3 ± 16.0 mm. IAD values were positively associated with BMI-z scores, waist circumferences, HOMA-IR and serum levels of γGT, hs-CRP and IL-6 in both genders. In boys, but not in girls, IAD was significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglycerides, ALT as well as adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol. After a marked mean weight loss of -27.1 ± 16.2 kg (-20.1 ± 7.9% in boys and of -20.5 ± 11.5 kg (-17.3 ± 7.1% in girls, IAD decreased by -20.7 ± 16.2 mm (--32.4 ± 16.9% in boys and by -18.4 ± 12,7 mm (-34.3 ± 18.4% in girls, resulting in more pronounced ameliorations of cardiovascular risk factors in boys than in girls. Conclusions: The present study indicates that IAF assessed by ultrasound is a good indicator for the cardiometabolic risk factor profile in extremely obese adolescents. Associations between IAF and risk factors are more pronounced in boys than in girls.

  14. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy for the diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yessica; Collins, A Bernard; Stone, James R

    2018-02-01

    In the past, the diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis often required an invasive biopsy of an internal organ, such as the heart or kidneys. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy (FPEB) offers a less invasive approach, but the sensitivity of this technique has been unclear. To determine the sensitivity of FPEB for immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, we performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of 97 patients who had undergone FPEB, of which 16 were positive for amyloid. The most significant pretest feature predicting a positive FPEB was a serum free light chain κ/λ ratio less than .5, and in this group of patients the probability of a positive biopsy was dependent on the size of the biopsy (P=.004). In FPEBs, the amyloid was present in multiple distinct patterns: pericellular, septal, medium-sized vessel, small vessel, and nodular. For patients with AL amyloidosis for which direct typing was attempted using the FPEB tissue, the amyloid was successfully typed in the FPEB in 90% of cases. The overall sensitivity of FPEB was 79% for AL amyloidosis and 12% for ATTR amyloidosis (P=.0003). In patients with AL amyloidosis, the sensitivity of FPEB was dependent on biopsy size, with small biopsies (≤700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~50%, and large biopsies (>700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~100%. This study demonstrates that FPEB has high sensitivity for AL amyloidosis, and can be routinely used to type the amyloid. However, FPEB has low sensitivity for ATTR amyloidosis in our patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  16. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daubenmier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI =31.2 were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR, and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  17. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Kristeller, Jean; Hecht, Frederick M; Maninger, Nicole; Kuwata, Margaret; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Lustig, Robert H; Kemeny, Margaret; Karan, Lori; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  18. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of body mass index and intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography on the risk of bowel symptoms.

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    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT and bowel symptoms.A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05 different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01, low VAT area (p = 0.01, and low SAT area (p<0.01. Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01 and low SAT area (p<0.01. The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672.Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months.

  20. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  1. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  2. Comparison of metabolic profile and abdominal fat distribution between karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency and age matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Yesil, Gozde; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Yildiz, Seyma

    2014-11-01

    We designed a prospective case-control study in order to investigate the lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the abdominal fat distribution in karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Anthropometric measurements, FSH, estradiol, total testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, the prevalence of MetS and ultrasonographic abdominal fat measurements were assessed in 56 women with POI and 59 healthy controls at the same age range. Serum levels of T, SHBG and FAI were not significantly different between both groups. Total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were higher in women with POI. There were no differences in glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride levels between the two groups. A significant positive correlation was identified between T and TG and also between FAI and LDL-C; SHBG levels were correlated inversely with FSH, and positively with HDL-C in women with POI. The presence of MetS was significantly higher in women with POI. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral fat thicknesses were not significantly different between the groups. Early cessation of ovulatory function may associated with higher levels of serum TC and HDL-C, but does not seem to cause differences in abdominal fat distribution in women with POI. POI is associated with higher risk of MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (-2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (-4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and "dynamic" β-cell response (96.1 · 10(9); P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (-4.8 cm(2); P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (-1.2 cm(2); P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the change in tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.05). A

  4. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  5. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschpichler, M.C.; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W.; Mende, M.; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A.; Kruber, D.; Schick, F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m 2 ). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 ± 0.2 % (0.32 ± 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p 1 H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 ± 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  6. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Siciliano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect evidence suggests that adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs possess different physiological and biological variations related to the anatomical localization of the adipose depots. Accordingly, to investigate the influence of the tissue origin on the intrinsic properties of ASCs and to assess their response to specific stimuli, we compared the biological, functional and ultrastructural properties of two ASC pools derived from mediastinal and subcutaneous depots (thoracic compartment by means of supplements such as platelet lysate (PL and FBS. Subcutaneous ASCs exhibited higher proliferative and clonogenic abilities than mediastinal counterpart, as well as increased secreted levels of IL-6 combined with lower amount of VEGF-C. In contrast, mediastinal ASCs displayed enhanced pro-angiogenic and adipogenic differentiation properties, increased cell diameter and early autophagic processes, highlighted by electron microscopy. Our results further support the hypothesis that the origin of adipose tissue significantly defines the biological properties of ASCs, and that a homogeneric function for all ASCs cannot be assumed.

  7. Estimation of CT-derived abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots from anthropometry in Europeans, South Asians and African Caribbeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie V Eastwood

    Full Text Available South Asians and African Caribbeans experience more cardiometabolic disease than Europeans. Risk factors include visceral (VAT and subcutaneous abdominal (SAT adipose tissue, which vary with ethnicity and are difficult to quantify using anthropometry.We developed and cross-validated ethnicity and gender-specific equations using anthropometrics to predict VAT and SAT.669 Europeans, 514 South Asians and 227 African Caribbeans (70 ± 7 years underwent anthropometric measurement and abdominal CT scanning. South Asian and African Caribbean participants were first-generation migrants living in London. Prediction equations were derived for CT-measured VAT and SAT using stepwise regression, then cross-validated by comparing actual and predicted means.South Asians had more and African Caribbeans less VAT than Europeans. For basic VAT prediction equations (age and waist circumference, model fit was better in men (R(2 range 0.59-0.71 than women (range 0.35-0.59. Expanded equations (+ weight, height, hip and thigh circumference improved fit for South Asian and African Caribbean women (R(2 0.35 to 0.55, and 0.43 to 0.56 respectively. For basic SAT equations, R(2 was 0.69-0.77, and for expanded equations it was 0.72-0.86. Cross-validation showed differences between actual and estimated VAT of <7%, and SAT of <8% in all groups, apart from VAT in South Asian women which disagreed by 16%.We provide ethnicity- and gender-specific VAT and SAT prediction equations, derived from a large tri-ethnic sample. Model fit was reasonable for SAT and VAT in men, while basic VAT models should be used cautiously in South Asian and African Caribbean women. These equations will aid studies of mechanisms of cardiometabolic disease in later life, where imaging data are not available.

  8. Effects of GH and/or sex steroid administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in healthy aged women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, T; Harman, S M; Hees, P; Shapiro, E; Christmas, C; Bellantoni, M F; Stevens, T E; O'Connor, K G; Pabst, K M; St Clair, C; Sorkin, J D; Blackman, M R

    2001-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid axis activity and with increased abdominal fat. We employed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, noncross-over design to study the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone (20 microg/kg BW), sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate in men), or GH + sex hormone on total abdominal area, abdominal sc fat, and visceral fat in 110 healthy women (n = 46) and men (n = 64), 65-88 yr old (mean, 72 yr). GH administration increased IGF-I levels in women (P = 0.05) and men (P = 0.0001), with the increment in IGF-I levels being higher in men (P = 0.05). Sex steroid administration increased levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P = 0.05). In women, neither GH, hormone replacement therapy, nor GH + hormone replacement therapy altered total abdominal area, sc fat, or visceral fat significantly. In contrast, in men, administration of GH and GH + testosterone enanthate decreased total abdominal area by 3.9% and 3.8%, respectively, within group and vs. placebo (P = 0.05). Within-group comparisons revealed that sc fat decreased by 10% (P = 0.01) after GH, and by 14% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, sc fat decreased by 14% (P = 0.05) after GH, by 7% (P = 0.05) after testosterone enanthate, and by 16% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, visceral fat did not decrease significantly after administration of GH, testosterone enanthate, or GH + testosterone enanthate. These data suggest that in healthy older individuals, GH and/or sex hormone administration elicits a sexually dimorphic response on sc abdominal fat. The generally proportionate reductions we observed in sc and visceral fat, after 6 months of GH administration in healthy aged men, contrast with the disproportionate reduction of visceral fat reported after a similar period of GH treatment of nonelderly GH

  9. Associations of adult genetic risk scores for adiposity with childhood abdominal, liver and pericardial fat assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, C; Santos, S; van der Lugt, A; Jaddoe, V W V; Felix, J F

    2017-12-07

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in adult fat distribution. Whether these SNPs also affect abdominal and organ-specific fat accumulation in children is unknown. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 1995 children (median age: 9.8 years, 95% range 9.4-10.8), we tested the associations of six genetic risk scores based on previously identified SNPs for childhood body mass index (BMI), adult BMI, liver fat, waist-hip ratio, pericardial fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio) and four individual SAT- and VAT-associated SNPs for association with SAT (N=1746), VAT (N=1742), VAT/SAT ratio (N=1738), liver fat fraction (N=1950) and pericardial fat mass (N=1803) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Per additional risk allele in the childhood BMI genetic risk score, SAT increased 0.020 s.d. scores (SDS) (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.009 to 0.031, P-value: 3.28 × 10 -4 ) and VAT increased 0.021 SDS (95% CI: 0.009 to 0.032, P-value: 4.68 × 10 -4 ). The adult BMI risk score was positively associated with SAT (0.022 SDS increase, CI: 0.015 to 0.029, P-value: 1.33 × 10 -9 ) and VAT (0.017 SDS increase, CI: 0.010 to 0.025, P-value: 7.00 × 10 -6 ) and negatively with VAT/SAT ratio (-0.012 SDS decrease, CI: -0.019 to -0.006, P-value: 2.88 × 10 -4 ). The liver fat risk score was associated with liver fat fraction (0.121 SDS, CI: 0.086 to 0.157, P-value: 2.65 × 10 -11 ). Rs7185735 (SAT) was associated with SAT (0.151 SDS, CI: 0.087 to 0.214, P-value: 3.00 × 10 -6 ) and VAT/SAT ratio (-0.126 SDS, CI: -0.186 to -0.065, P-value: 4.70 × 10 -5 ). After stratification by sex the associations of the adult BMI risk score with SAT and VAT and of the liver fat risk score with liver fat fraction remained in both sexes. Associations of the childhood BMI risk score with SAT, and the adult BMI risk score with VAT/SAT ratio, were present among boys only, whereas the

  10. Subcutaneous Infiltration of Carbon Dioxide (Carboxytherapy) for Abdominal Fat Reduction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Sadhwani, Divya; Geisler, Amelia; Aslam, Imran; Makin, Inder Raj S; Schlessinger, Daniel I; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Voravutinon, Nataya; Weil, Alexandra; Chen, Brian R; West, Dennis P; Veledar, Emir; Poon, Emily

    2018-04-23

    Non-invasive fat removal is preferred because of decreased downtime and lower perceived risk. It is important to seek new non-invasive fat removal treatments that are both safe and efficacious. To assess the extent to which carboxytherapy, the insufflation of carbon dioxide gas into subcutaneous fat, results in reduction of fat volume. Randomized, sham-controlled, split-body study. Adults (BMI 22-29) were randomized to receive five weekly infusions of 1000 cc CO 2 to one side of the abdomen, and five sham treatments to the contralateral side. Primary outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of fat layer thickness, as well as total circumference before and after treatment. Sixteen participants completed the study. Ultrasound measurement indicated less fat volume on the sides treated with carboxytherapy one week after the last treatment, (p=0.011), but was not maintained at 28 weeks. Total circumference decreased nominally but not significantly at Week 5 compared to baseline (p=0.0697). Participant body weights did not change over the entire course of the study (p=1.00) LIMITATIONS: Limitations included modest sample size and some sources of error in circumference and fat layer measurements. Carboxytherapy provides a transient decrease in subcutaneous fat that may not persist. Treatment is well-tolerated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Consumo de bebida alcoólica e adiposidade abdominal em doadores de sangue Consumo de bebida alcohólica y adiposidad abdominal en donadores de sangre Alcohol consumption and abdominal fat in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    ón lineal múltiple, con los modelos ajustados para la edad, actividad física, tabaquismo y adiposidad total. RESULTADOS: Posterior al ajuste, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/cuadril se mantuvieron asociados positivamente al consumo de cerveza (p=0,02 y al total de alcohol consumido (p=0,01 y 0,03, respectivamente. El consumo de aguardiente mostró asociación solamente con la circunferencia de la cintura (p=0,04. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de alcohol, particularmente de cerveza, se asoció con la localización abdominal de gordura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of male blood donors (n=1,235, aged 20-59 years, in the city of Cuiabá, Central-West Brazil, between August 1999 and January 2000. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were indicators of abdominal fat, adjusted for total adiposity. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Alcohol consumption was evaluated using a questionnaire collecting information on type, frequency, and amount of consumption. The association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat was assessed through multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, physical activity, smoking, and percent of body fat. RESULTS: After adjustment, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were positively associated with beer (p = 0.02 and total alcohol consumption (p=0.01; p=0.03, respectively. Waist circumference was positively associated with spirit consumption (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake, particularly beer, was positively associated to abdominal fat.

  12. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p muscle area and an increase (+1%, p muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  13. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: II. carcass and parts yield and abdominal fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate carcass and parts' yield, abdominal fat deposition and breast and foot pad blisters of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent in broilers houses with yellow and blue curtains. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. The litter was reused six times or until flock 6. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. A total of 288 birds were evaluated for carcass yield. Curtain color did not affect carcass or parts' yield. The effect of lighting program and curtain color on carcass yield may depend on other factors related to flock. Intermittent lighting program promoted the highest drumstick and thigh yields. Lighting programs and curtain colors did not affect abdominal fat deposition or the presence of breast and foot pad blisters.

  14. Effects of testosterone supplementation on whole body and regional fat mass and distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Parker, Robert A; Sattler, Fred; Haubrich, Richard; Alston, Beverly; Umbleja, Triin; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2007-03-01

    Whole body and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease. The effects of testosterone therapy on whole body and visceral fat mass in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone therapy on intraabdominal fat mass and whole body fat distribution in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity. IN this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 88 HIV-positive men with abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.95 or mid-waist circumference > 100 cm) and total testosterone 125-400 ng/dl, or bioavailable testosterone less than 115 ng/dl, or free testosterone less than 50 pg/ml on stable antiretroviral regimen, and HIV RNA less than 10,000 copies per milliliter were randomized to receive 10 g testosterone gel or placebo daily for 24 wk. Fat mass and distribution were determined by abdominal computerized tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry during wk 0, 12, and 24. We used an intention-to-treat approach and nonparametric statistical methods. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. In 75 subjects evaluated, median percent change from baseline to wk 24 in visceral fat did not differ significantly between groups (testosterone 0.3%, placebo 3.1%, P = 0.75). Total (testosterone -1.5%, placebo 4.3%, P = 0.04) and sc (testosterone-7.2%, placebo 8.1%, P fat mass decreased in testosterone-treated men, but increased in placebo group. Testosterone therapy was associated with significant decrease in whole body, trunk, and appendicular fat mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (all P fat increased significantly in the placebo group. The percent of individuals reporting a decrease in abdomen (P = 0.01), neck (P = 0.08), and breast size (P = 0.01) at wk 24 was significantly greater in testosterone-treated than placebo-treated men. Testosterone-treated men had greater increase in lean body mass than placebo

  15. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  16. Serotonin transporter deficiency increases abdominal fat in female, but not male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  17. Serotonin Transporter Deficiency Increases Abdominal Fat in Female, but Not Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  18. Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness--a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of

  19. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    In AL-amyloidosis the cause of amyloid fibril formation in beta-pleated sheets from the precursor protein immunoglobulin light chain is not established, but studies of AL-proteins indicate that amino acid substitutions are important in the pathogenesis. Amyloid material was extracted from...... a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  20. Construction of multiple linear regression models using blood biomarkers for selecting against abdominal fat traits in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J Q; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Jiang, X F; Zhang, K; Ma, G W; Wu, M Q; Li, H; Zhang, H

    2018-01-01

    Plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) can be used to select for low body fat or abdominal fat (AF) in broilers, but its correlation with AF is limited. We investigated whether any other biochemical indicator can be used in combination with VLDL for a better selective effect. Nineteen plasma biochemical indicators were measured in male chickens from the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for AF content (NEAUHLF) in the fed state at 46 and 48 d of age. The average concentration of every parameter for the 2 d was used for statistical analysis. Levels of these 19 plasma biochemical parameters were compared between the lean and fat lines. The phenotypic correlations between these plasma biochemical indicators and AF traits were analyzed. Then, multiple linear regression models were constructed to select the best model used for selecting against AF content. and the heritabilities of plasma indicators contained in the best models were estimated. The results showed that 11 plasma biochemical indicators (triglycerides, total bile acid, total protein, globulin, albumin/globulin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid, creatinine, and VLDL) differed significantly between the lean and fat lines (P linear regression models based on albumin/globulin, VLDL, triglycerides, globulin, total bile acid, and uric acid, had higher R2 (0.73) than the model based only on VLDL (0.21). The plasma parameters included in the best models had moderate heritability estimates (0.21 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.43). These results indicate that these multiple linear regression models can be used to select for lean broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Urinary bladder incarceration and infarction by an intra-abdominal fat pad in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.

  2. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  3. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  4. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung [Center for Occupational Health Research, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  5. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  6. Risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Stephanie; Hosalli, Prakash; Furtado, Vivek A; Davis, John M

    2016-04-14

    Risperidone is the first new generation antipsychotic drug made available in a long-acting injection formulation. To examine the effects of depot risperidone for treatment of schizophrenia or related psychoses in comparison with placebo, no treatment or other antipsychotic medication.To critically appraise and summarise current evidence on the resource use, cost and cost-effectiveness of risperidone (depot) for schizophrenia. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (December 2002, 2012, and October 28, 2015). We also checked the references of all included studies, and contacted industry and authors of included studies. Randomised clinical trials comparing depot risperidone with other treatments for people with schizophrenia and/or schizophrenia-like psychoses. Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we calculated the risk ratio (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). For continuous data, we calculated mean differences (MD). We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created 'Summary of findings' tables using GRADE. Twelve studies, with a total of 5723 participants were randomised to the following comparison treatments: Risperidone depot versus placebo Outcomes of relapse and improvement in mental state were neither measured or reported. In terms of other primary outcomes, more people receiving placebo left the study early by 12 weeks (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.74 95% CI 0.63 to 0.88, very low quality evidence), experienced severe adverse events in short term (1 RCT, n=400, RR 0.59 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93, very low quality evidence). There was however, no difference in levels of weight gain between groups (1 RCT, n=400, RR 2.11 95% CI 0.48 to 9.18, very low quality evidence). Risperidone depot versus general oral antipsychotics The outcome of improvement in mental state was not presented due to high levels of attrition, nor were levels of severe adverse events explicitly reported

  7. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  8. A Novel Polymorphism of VLDLR Signal Peptide Coding Region and Its Association with Growth and Abdominal Fat Traits of Gaoyou Domestic Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ming-liang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The VLDLR gene plays important roles in the growth and adiposity in humans and mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VLDLR gene genetic polymorphisms and growth and abdominal fat traits of the Gaoyou domestic duck. A total of 267 Gaoyou ducks were employed for testing. A 18bp deletion was identified in VLDLR signal peptide coding region. The results of c2 test suggested that the genotype frequencies of VLDLR signal peptide coding region were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Least squares analysis showed that body weight (BW of -18bp/-18bp genotype ducks was significantly higher than those of other genotypes from six (BW6 (p0.05 and body weight for AFP and different genotypes had a significant effect on AFP (p<0.05. The results of Bonferroni t-test revealed that the abdominal fat percentage (AFP of -18bp/-18bp genotype was significantly lower than those of +18bp/-18bp (p<0.05. Preliminary studies have shown that VLDLR may be a candidate gene for the selection for growth and abdominal fat, and the results of the present study indicate that VLDLR strongly influences carcass abdominal fat content of Gaoyou ducks.

  9. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral......, glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose...

  10. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine h.; Faerch, Kirstine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    . Results: Independent of SAT and overall obesity, VAT was associated with higher triglyceride andlower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in both men and women and additionallyassociated with higher total cholesterol in men. SAT was independently associated with highertotal cholesterol...... and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both sexes, and SAT was additionallyassociated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels in women andwith higher blood pressure in participants with diabetes. Conclusion: Both abdominal VAT and SAT are independent of overall obesity...

  11. A high fat diet enhances the sensitivity of chick adipose tissue to the effects of centrally injected neuropeptide Y on gene expression of adipogenesis-associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Williams, Carli A; McConn, Betty R; Cline, Mark A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how dietary macronutrient composition and exogenous neuropeptide Y (NPY) affect mRNA abundance of factors associated with lipid metabolism in chick adipose tissue. Chicks were fed one of three isocaloric (3000kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg) diets after hatch: high carbohydrate (HC; control), high fat (HF; 30% of ME from soybean oil) or high protein (HP; 25% crude protein). On day 4 post-hatch, vehicle or 0.2nmol of NPY was injected intracerebroventricularly and abdominal and subcutaneous fat depots collected 1h later. In abdominal fat, mRNA abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) increased after NPY injection in HF diet-fed chicks. NPY injection decreased expression of PPARγ and sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 (SREBP1) in the subcutaneous fat of HC diet-fed chicks, whereas SREBP1 expression was increased in the subcutaneous fat of HF diet-fed chicks after NPY injection. An acutely increased central concentration of NPY in chicks affects adipose tissue physiology in a depot- and diet-dependent manner. The chick may serve as a model to understand the relationship between diet and the brain-fat axis' role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis, as well as to understand metabolic distinctions among fat depots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Depot Maintenance: Executed Workload and Maintenance Operations at DOD Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    software. This enclosure provides detailed information about each of the 17 depots on executed workload, personnel, capital investments, process...services’ depots from fiscal year 2012 through 2015, and provides detailed information for each of the 17 depots, on executed workload, personnel...Depot Maintenance: Additional Information Needed to Meet DOD’s Core Capability Reporting Requirements, GAO-13-194 (Washington, D.C.: Feb. 11, 2013

  13. Changes in abdominal fat following antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected individuals correlate with waist circumference and self-reported changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Priya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; McComsey, Grace A; Brown, Todd T; Moser, Carlee; Sugar, Catherine A; Currier, Judith S

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and self-reported abdominal size changes can estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes for those initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prospectively collected data from ACTG A5257 and its metabolic substudy, A5260s, were used for this analysis. ART-naive HIV-infected participants were randomized to one of three contemporary ART regimens. Changes in abdominal CT-measured VAT and total adipose tissue (TAT) and DXA-measured trunk fat were tested for association with WC changes (by Pearson correlation) and categories of self-reported abdominal size changes (by ANOVA) between entry and week 96. Linear models compared WC and self-reported changes. The study population (n=328) was predominantly male (90%) and White non-Hispanic (44%) with a baseline median age of 36 years and body mass index of 25 kg/m 2 . At week 96, median WC change was +2.8 cm. Of those reporting at week 96, 53% indicated 'no change/lost', 39% 'gained some/somewhat larger' and 8% 'gained a lot/much larger' as their self-reported changes. Trunk fat, VAT and TAT changes differed across self-reported groups (ANOVA P<0.0001 for all), and the group ordering was as expected. WC changes were strongly correlated with CT and DXA changes (trunk fat: ρ=0.72, p<0.0001; VAT: ρ=0.52, p<0.0001; TAT: ρ=0.62, p<0.0001). While WC changes explained a greater proportion of VAT, TAT and trunk fat variation, self-reported changes remained a significant predictor after controlling for WC (p<0.05). WC and self-reported abdominal changes each correlated directly with imaging-derived abdominal fat measures, and can be used as reliable, affordable tools for central adiposity assessment.

  14. Evidence of pleiotropic loci for fasting insulin, total fat mass, and abdominal visceral fat in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Després, J P; Rice, T; Nadeau, A; Province, M A; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2000-03-01

    To examine whether there is a major gene effect on fasting insulin and pleiotropic loci for fasting insulin, total fat mass (FM), and abdominal visceral fat (AVF). A major gene hypothesis for fasting plasma insulin levels was assessed using segregation analyses of data on 495 members in 98 normolipidemic sedentary families of white descent who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Segregation analyses were performed on insulin adjusted for age, on insulin adjusted for age and FM, and on insulin adjusted for age and AVF. Before adjustment for AVF and FM, a major gene effect on fasting insulin levels was indicated. The putative locus accounted for 54% of the variance under a recessive inheritance pattern, affecting 11% of the sample (i.e., allele frequency = 0.33). However, after adjusting for the effects of AVF or FM, neither a major effect alone nor a multifactorial component alone could be rejected, and support for a major gene was equivocal, i.e., neither the hypothesis of Mendelian tau values or that of the equal tau(s) were rejected and the equal tau model fit the data better than the Mendelian tau model. This pattern (i.e., major gene evidence for insulin before but not after adjustment for AVF or FM) suggests that there is a putative locus with pleiotropic effects on both insulin and FM and another pleiotropic locus for both insulin and AVF. Although these data do not directly support an additional major gene for insulin independent of AVF and FM, such support cannot be ruled out because there is still a significant major effect on FM- or AVF-adjusted insulin (albeit the Mendelian nature of this effect is ambiguous).

  15. The effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and non-fermented Ginkgo biloba on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality of Peking duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Zhou, Jinglong; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2017-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and non-fermented G. biloba (NFG) on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality, 270 female Peking ducks were randomly assigned to the following experimental groups: a control group (fed a basal diet), an NFG group (fed a basal diet + 0.3% NFG), and an FG group (fed a basal diet + 0.3% FG). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly, and feed conversion ratio was calculated to assess growth performance. After 6 wk, 18 ducks from each group were killed. Abdominal fat ratio and pH (at 45 min and 24 h postmortem), color parameters (lightness, redness, and yellowness), water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force, and intramuscular fat and fatty acid contents were measured. Six more ducks were killed to isolate RNA from their abdominal fat tissue for measurements of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), obese (leptin), and adiponectin (ADP) expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that body weight gain was higher in the FG group than in the control and NFG groups, whereas feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat contents were lower in the NFG and FG groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). The NFG and FG groups had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (mainly palmitic acid) and higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) than the control group. The mRNA expressions of PPARγ, leptin, and ADP in abdominal fat tissue were significantly increased in the NFG and FG groups, and the mRNA expression of PPARγ was higher in the FG group than in the NFG group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that fermenting G. biloba reduces the deposition of abdominal fat and improves the fatty acid profile of Peking duck meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Longitudinal associations of the endocrine environment on fat partitioning in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Darnell, Betty E; Brown, Marian A; Oster, Robert A; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Among postmenopausal women, declining estrogen may facilitate fat partitioning from the periphery to the intra-abdominal space. Furthermore, it has been suggested that excess androgens contribute to a central fat distribution pattern in women. The objective of this longitudinal study was to identify independent associations of the hormone milieu with fat distribution in postmenopausal women. Fifty-three healthy postmenopausal women, either using or not using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) were evaluated at baseline and 2 years. The main outcomes were intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue, and total thigh fat analyzed by computed tomography scanning and leg fat and total body fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum estradiol, estrone, estrone sulfate, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and cortisol were assessed. On average, in all women combined, IAAT increased by 10% (10.5 cm(2)) over 2 years (P testosterone was inversely associated with, and SHBG was positively associated with, 2-year gain in IAAT. These results suggest that in postmenopausal women using HRT, greater circulating estradiol may play an integral role in limiting lipid deposition to the intra-abdominal cavity, a depot associated with metabolically detrimental attributes. However, a high proportion of weak estrogens may promote fat partitioning to the intra-abdominal cavity over time. Furthermore, among postmenopausal women not using HRT, greater circulating free testosterone may limit IAAT accrual.

  17. Abdominal Adiposity Distribution in Diabetic/Prediabetic and Nondiabetic Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane J. Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.

  18. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  19. Effect of increasing body condition on key regulators of fat metabolism in subcutaneous adipose tissue depot and circulation of nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, L; Häussler, S; Laubenthal, L; Singh, S P; Winkler, J; Kinoshita, A; Kenéz, Á; Rehage, J; Huber, K; Sauerwein, H; Dänicke, S

    2015-02-01

    In response to negative energy balance, overconditioned cows mobilize more body fat than thin cows and subsequently are prone to develop metabolic disorders. Changes in adipose tissue (AT) metabolism are barely investigated in overconditioned cows. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing body condition on key regulator proteins of fat metabolism in subcutaneous AT and circulation of dairy cows. Nonlactating, nonpregnant dairy cows (n=8) investigated in the current study served as a model to elucidate the changes in the course of overcondition independent from physiological changes related to gestation, parturition, and lactation. Cows were fed diets with increasing portions of concentrate during the first 6wk of the experiment until 60% were reached, which was maintained for 9wk. Biopsy samples from AT of the subcutaneous tailhead region were collected every 8wk, whereas blood was sampled monthly. Within the experimental period cows had an average BW gain of 243±33.3 kg. Leptin and insulin concentrations were increased until wk 12. Based on serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids, the surrogate indices for insulin sensitivity were calculated. High-concentrate feeding led to decreased quantitative insulin sensitivity check index and homeostasis model assessment due to high insulin and glucose concentrations indicating decreased insulin sensitivity. Adiponectin, an adipokine-promoting insulin sensitivity, decreased in subcutaneous AT, but remained unchanged in the circulation. The high-concentrate diet affected key enzymes reflecting AT metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and hormone-sensitive lipase, both represented as the proportion of the phosphorylated protein to total protein, as well as fatty acid synthase. The extent of phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase and the protein expression of fatty acid synthase were inversely regulated throughout the experimental period, whereas

  20. Excesso de peso e adiposidade central em adultos de Teresina-PI Overweight and abdominal fat in adult population of Teresina, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Guimarães Martins Holanda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de excesso de peso e adiposidade abdominal em adultos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Teresina-PI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerados. Foram avaliados 464 adultos, entre 20 e 59 anos, residentes na zona urbana do município de Teresina-PI. O estado nutricional foi classificado com base no Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC, e o acúmulo de gordura abdominal foi estimado pela medida da circunferência da cintura. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of overweight and abdominal fat in adult population in the urban area of Teresina-PI. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The study evaluated 464 adults, 20 to 59 years of age living in the urban area of Teresina-PI. Nutritional status was classified by the body mass index (BMI and abdominal fat accumulation was estimated according to waist circumference. The significance level was set at 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to nutritional status based on BMI was, respectively, 30.0% and 7.7%. There was an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among men with progressively higher family income. Highest rates of obesity were found among individuals 50 to 59 years of age with stable marriages and nonsmokers. No association was found between individual or family income and presence of abdominal fat in the population. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of overweight in the study population follows the Brazilian trend. Proportions of overweight and obesity were higher among men and increased with age. Women and married persons showed a greater tendency for abdominal obesity.

  1. Adipose tissue in muscle : a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Dympna; Kuznia, Patrick; Heshka, Stanley; Albu, Jeanine; Heymsfield, Steven B; Goodpaster, Bret H; Visser, Marjolein; Harris, Tamara B

    BACKGROUND: The manner in which fat depot volumes and distributions, particularly the adipose tissue (AT) between the muscles, vary by race is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify a previously unstudied and novel intermuscular AT (IMAT) depot and subcutaneous AT, visceral AT (VAT), and

  2. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

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    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  3. Sirtuins 1-7 expression in human adipose-derived stem cells from subcutaneous and visceral fat depots: influence of obesity and hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Stefania; Di Rocco, Giuliana; Toietta, Gabriele; Russo, Matteo A; Petrangeli, Elisa; Salvatori, Luisa

    2017-09-01

    The sirtuin family comprises seven NAD + -dependent deacetylases which control the overall health of organisms through the regulation of pleiotropic metabolic pathways. Sirtuins are important modulators of adipose tissue metabolism and their expression is higher in lean than obese subjects. At present, the role of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells has not been investigated yet. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the expression of the complete panel of sirtuins in adipose-derived stem cells isolated from both subcutaneous and visceral fat of non-obese and obese subjects. We aimed at investigating the influence of obesity on sirtuins' levels, their role in obesity-associated inflammation, and the relationship with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta, which also plays functions in adipose tissue metabolism. The mRNA levels in the four types of adipose-derived stem cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in untreated cells and also after 8 h of hypoxia exposure. Correlations among sirtuins' expression and clinical and molecular parameters were also analyzed. We found that sirtuin1-6 exhibited significant higher mRNA expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells compared to subcutaneous adipose-derived stem cells of non-obese subjects. Sirtuin1-6 levels were markedly reduced in visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients. Sirtuins' expression in visceral adipose-derived stem cells correlated negatively with body mass index and C-reactive protein and positively with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta. Finally, only in the visceral adipose-derived stem cells of obese patients hypoxia-induced mRNA expression of all of the sirtuins. Our results highlight that sirtuins' levels in adipose-derived stem cells are consistent with protective effects against visceral obesity and inflammation, and suggest a transcriptional mechanism through which acute hypoxia up-regulates sirtuins in the visceral

  4. Validation of a free software for unsupervised assessment of abdominal fat in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalo, Michele; Zorza, Ivan; Zubani, Stefano; Nocivelli, Giorgio; Calandra, Giulio; Soldini, Pierantonio; Mascaro, Lorella; Maroldi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    To demonstrate the accuracy of an unsupervised (fully automated) software for fat segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed software is a freeware solution developed in ImageJ that enables the quantification of metabolically different adipose tissues in large cohort studies. The lumbar part of the abdomen (19cm in craniocaudal direction, centered in L3) of eleven healthy volunteers (age range: 21-46years, BMI range: 21.7-31.6kg/m 2 ) was examined in a breath hold on expiration with a GE T1 Dixon sequence. Single-slice and volumetric data were considered for each subject. The results of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessments obtained by the unsupervised software were compared to supervised segmentations of reference. The associated statistical analysis included Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots and volumetric differences (VD % ). Values calculated by the unsupervised software significantly correlated with corresponding supervised segmentations of reference for both subcutaneous adipose tissue - SAT (R=0.9996, psoftware is capable of segmenting the metabolically different adipose tissues with a high degree of accuracy. This free add-on software for ImageJ can easily have a widespread and enable large-scale population studies regarding the adipose tissue and its related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  6. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  7. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Yang, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM

  8. Effect of Distinct Lifestyle Interventions on Mobilization of Fat Storage Pools: CENTRAL Magnetic Resonance Imaging Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gepner, Yftach; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Zelicha, Hila; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Tsaban, Gal; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Komy, Oded; Wolak, Arik; Chassidim, Yoash; Golan, Rachel; Avni-Hassid, Hila; Bilitzky, Avital; Sarusi, Benjamin; Goshen, Eyal; Shemesh, Elad; Henkin, Yaakov; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Rudich, Assaf; Stampfer, Meir J; Shai, Iris

    2018-03-13

    We aimed to assess whether distinct lifestyle strategies can differentially affect specific body adipose depots. We performed an 18-month randomized controlled trial among 278 sedentary adults with abdominal obesity (75%) or dyslipidemia in an isolated workplace with a monitored provided lunch. Participants were randomized to isocaloric low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate (MED/LC) diet+28 g walnuts/day with/without added moderate physical activity (PA; 80% aerobic; supervised/free gym membership). Overall primary outcome was body fat redistribution, and the main specific end point was visceral adipose tissue (VAT). We further followed the dynamics of different fat depots (deep and superficial subcutaneous, liver, pericardial, muscle, pancreas, and renal sinus) by magnetic resonance imaging. Of 278 participants (age, 48 years, 89% men, body mass index, 30.8 kg/m 2 ), 86% completed the trial with good adherence. The low-fat group preferentially decreased reported fat intake (-21.0% versus -11.5% for the MED/LC; P carbohydrates intake (-39.5% versus -21.3% for the low-fat group; P weight loss was indifferent, exercise attenuated the waist circumference rebound with the greatest effect in the MED/LC PA+ group ( P fats declines were higher than pancreatic and femur intermuscular fats (1% to 2%) loss. Independent of weight loss, PA + with either diet had a significantly greater effect on decreasing VAT (mean of difference, -6.67cm 2 ; 95% confidence interval, -14.8 to -0.45) compared with PA - . The MED/LC diet was superior to the low-fat diet in decreasing intrahepatic, intrapericardial, and pancreatic fats ( P fats were not differentially altered by lifestyle interventions but by weight loss per se. In multivariate models further adjusted for weight loss, losing VAT or intrahepatic fat was independently associated with improved lipid profile, losing deep subcutaneous adipose tissue with improved insulin sensitivity, and losing superficial subcutaneous adipose

  9. Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood College Preparatory School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting and to enhance children's learning [1]. Since this theory, the current study was designed to examine the significance of mechanical effects of intra-abdominal on posture/balance control among the Algerian Childhood Primary Schools. Since our teachers emphasise the good classroom settings as a discipline pedagogical aspect of success learning. While High-quality educational programs for children in preschool and kindergarten have play at the centre of the curriculum [2]. Our interventions in this study aimed to examine Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood Preparatory Schools. for the purpose, a total of 61 schoolboys of Slimane provinces Naama, Municipality Mecheria, Algeria male gender their average age 5±1.52 years distributed into two homogeneous groups, according to them, school attendance (kindergarten School (29 boys - preschool (32 boys. Tested by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage-Abdominal circumference - Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance and standing balance. Based on the analysis statistics, we confirm: • Prolonged periods classroom settings increase Intra-Abdominal Fat which represents big risk posture/balance control. • Primary schools posture needs an interactive play method Learning classroom to improve body imbalance as health benefits physical activities. Based on the differences acquired by the research team, we emphasise that prolonged periods classroom settings Primary Schools increase the intra-abdominal which owing to the weakness of skeletal muscle fatigue and abnormal pathological alignment. While as a recommendation pedagogy practised, we suggested to our teachers, who work with these children to know that the balanced posture requires more energy in the class, Considering that our student seat more than 6 hours a day, 30 per week, and

  10. Increased intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the fractional catabolic rate of Lp A-I in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, Zoltan; Terry, James G; Brinton, Eliot A

    2002-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles without apolipoprotein A-II (Lp A-I) may be more anti-atherogenic than HDL with apo A-II (Lp A-I/AII) and Lp A-I is reported selectively to be reduced in cases of intra-abdominal obesity. We explored the mechanisms of this reduction by studying the turnover of Lp A-I and Lp A-I/A-II in postmenopausal women well characterized for total body, regional and sub-regional adiposity by body mass index (BMI), truncal girth ratio, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We tested for possible cause-effect relationships by measuring inter-correlations among these variables. Intra-abdominal fat area correlated strongly and positively with the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of Lp A-I (r=0.98, P=0.003). Intra-abdominal fat only showed a non-significant trend toward correlation with the FCR of Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.84, P=0.07), and had no correlation with the production or transport rate (TR) of either Lp A-I or Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.48 and 0.02, respectively, P>0.1). Subjects were studied both with and without estrogen replacement, allowing exploration of a possible interaction of adiposity with estrogen effects on HDL turnover. Response of HDL turnover to estrogen did not correlate with adiposity, except for a parameter of waist to hip ratio (WHR), which predicted the increase in LP A-I TR with estrogen (r=0.84, P=0.04). We conclude that intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the FCR of Lp A-I, suggesting a mechanism by which central adiposity may be proatherogenic.

  11. Makahiki+WattDepot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Philip M.; Xu, Yongwen; Brewer, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    Satisfying the radically different requirements and operating assumptions of the next generation smart grid requires new kinds of software that enable research and experimentation into the ways that electrical energy production and consumption can be collected, analyzed, visualized, and provided ......, Django, Memcache). In this paper, we detail the novel features of WattDepot and Makahiki, our experiences using them for research and education, and additional ways they can be used for next generation energy research and education....

  12. Detection of amyloid in abdominal fat pad aspirates in early amyloidosis: Role of electron microscopy and Congo red stained cell block sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Devata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA of the abdominal fat pad is a minimally invasive procedure to demonstrate tissue deposits of amyloid. However, protocols to evaluate amyloid in fat pad aspirates are not standardized, especially for detecting scant amyloid in early disease. Materials and Methods: We studied abdominal fat pad aspirates from 33 randomly selected patients in whom subsequent tissue biopsy, autopsy, and/or medical history for confirmation of amyloidosis (AL were also available. All these cases were suspected to have early AL, but had negative results on abdominal fat pad aspirates evaluated by polarizing microscopy of Congo Red stained sections (CRPM. The results with CRPM between four reviewers were compared in 12 cases for studying inter observer reproducibility. 24 cases were also evaluated by ultrastructural study with electron microscopy (EM. Results: Nine of thirty-three (27% cases reported negative by polarizing microscopy had amyloidosis. Reanalysis of 12 mixed positive-negative cases, showed considerable inter-observer variability with frequent lack of agreement between four observers by CRPM alone (Cohen′s Kappa index of 0.1, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.36. EM showed amyloid in the walls of small blood vessels in fibroadipose tissue in four out of nine cases (44% with amyloidosis. Conclusion: In addition to poor inter-observer reproducibility, CRPM alone in cases with scant amyloid led to frequent false negative results (9 out of 9, 100%. For improved detection of AL, routine ultrastructural evaluation with EM of fat pad aspirates by evaluating at least 15 small blood vessels in the aspirated fibroadipose tissue is recommended. Given the high false negative rate for CRPM alone in early disease, routine reflex evaluation with EM is highly recommended to avert the invasive option of biopsying various organs in cases with high clinical suspicion for AL.

  13. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade ultrassonográfica como método para medida da gordura abdominal e visceral Reproducibility of ultrasonography as a method to measure abdominal and visceral fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a variabilidade interobservador do método ultrassonográfico para medida da gordura subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal por meio de técnica padronizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes entre novembro de 2006 e janeiro de 2007. A medida da espessura subcutânea foi realizada com transdutor linear de 7,5 MHz posicionado transversalmente a 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical. Para a gordura visceral foi utilizado transdutor de 3,5 MHz posicionado 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical, considerando-se a medida entre a face interna do músculo reto abdominal e a parede posterior da aorta na linha média do abdome. A gordura perirrenal foi medida no terço médio do rim direito, com transdutor posicionado na linha axilar média. RESULTADOS: A reprodutibilidade interobservador foi analisada por meio do teste t de Student, com significância de 95%. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias das medidas das gorduras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal, com p = 0,7141, 0,7286 e 0,6368, respectivamente. As médias encontradas, com seus respectivos desvios-padrão, foram: 2,64 ± 1,37 para a espessura subcutânea, 6,84 ± 2,38 para a espessura visceral e 4,89 ± 2,6 para a espessura perirrenal. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia apresentou boa reprodutibilidade interobservador para avaliação da gordura abdominal por meio das medidas das espessuras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interobserver variability of ultrasound in the measurement of subcutaneous, visceral and perirenal fat through standard technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2006 to January 2007, 50 patients were evaluated. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. For the visceral fat, a 3.5 MHz transducer was also positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar, considering the

  14. Regional variations in HDL metabolism in human fat cells: effect of cell size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, J.; Fong, B.S.; Julien, P.; Jimenez, J.; Angel, A.

    1987-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is related to reduced plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and both are associated with cardiovascular disease risk. The authors have observed that plasma membranes from abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes have a greater HDL binding capacity than omental fat cell plasma membranes. The present study examined whether these binding characteristics could be due to differences in fat cell size or cholesterol concentration between the two adipose depots. Abdominal subcutaneous and deep omental fat were obtained from massively obese patients at surgery. Subcutaneous abdominal fat cells were significantly larger and their cellular cholesterol content greater than omental adipocytes. The uptake of HDL by collagenase-isolated fat cells was studied by incubating the cells for 2 h at 37 0 C with 10 μg/ml 125 I-HDL 2 or 125 I-HDL 3 . In both depots, the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 was specifically inhibited by addition of 25-fold excess unlabeled HDL and a close correlation was observed between the cellular uptake of 125 I-HDL 2 and 125 I-HDL 3 . In obese patients, the uptake of 125 I-HDL was higher in subcutaneous cells than in omental cells. The cellular 125 I-HDL uptake was significantly correlated with adipocyte size and fat cell cholesterol content but not with adipocyte cholesterol concentration. These results suggest that the higher HDL uptake observed in subcutaneous cells compared with omental cells in obesity is the result of differences in adipocyte size rather than differences in the cholesterol concentration (cholesterol-to-triglyceride ratio). The increased interaction of HDL with hypertrophied abdominal adipocytes may play an important role in determining the lipid composition of HDL in obesity

  15. Younger, premenopausal women with major depressive disorder have more abdominal fat and increased serum levels of prothrombotic factors: implications for greater cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Farideh; Mistry, Sejal; Martinez, Pedro E; Torvik, Sara; Kotila, Christine; Sebring, Nancy; Drinkard, Bart E; Levy, Catherine; Reynolds, James C; Csako, Gyorgy; Gold, Philip W; Horne, McDonald; Cizza, Giovanni

    2005-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric illnesses in the adult population. It is often associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We measured body fat distribution as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration and factor VIII (fVIII) activity at 8:00 am and 8:00 pm in 45 premenopausal women with MDD vs 28 healthy controls (age, 37 +/- 6.8 vs 35 +/- 6.5; weight [kg], 75.3 +/- 17.2 vs 67.9 +/- 10.2; mean +/- SD] participating in a prospective study of bone turnover, the POWER Study. At the time of evaluation, women with MDD were mildly depressed and mostly in clinical remission on antidepressants. After adjusting for body weight, women with MDD had greater waist circumference and abdominal fat as well as significantly higher evening (8:00 pm) PAI-1 and fVIII levels than controls. Even when age-, race-, and body mass index-matched subsets were compared, the MDD group continued to exhibit statistically higher PAI-1 and fVIII levels. The observed alterations in body fat distribution (increased abdominal fat) and prothrombotic factors (increased PAI-1 and fVIII) may be in part responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease reported in association with major depression.

  16. Thermogenic capacity is antagonistically regulated in classical brown and white subcutaneous fat depots by high fat diet and endurance training in rats: impact on whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Michelle V; Bikopoulos, George; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-12-05

    This study investigated the regulation of thermogenic capacity in classical brown adipose tissue (BAT) and subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) white adipose tissue (WAT) and how it affects whole-body energy expenditure in sedentary and endurance-trained rats fed ad libitum either low fat or high fat (HF) diets. Analysis of tissue mass, PGC-1α and UCP-1 content, the presence of multilocular adipocytes, and palmitate oxidation revealed that a HF diet increased the thermogenic capacity of the interscapular and aortic brown adipose tissues, whereas exercise markedly suppressed it. Conversely, exercise induced browning of the SC Ing WAT. This effect was attenuated by a HF diet. Endurance training neither affected skeletal muscle FNDC5 content nor circulating irisin, but it increased FNDC5 content in SC Ing WAT. This suggests that locally produced FNDC5 rather than circulating irisin mediated the exercise-induced browning effect on this fat tissue. Importantly, despite reducing the thermogenic capacity of classical BAT, exercise increased whole-body energy expenditure during the dark cycle. Therefore, browning of subcutaneous WAT likely exerted a compensatory effect and raised whole-body energy expenditure in endurance-trained rats. Based on these novel findings, we propose that exercise-induced browning of the subcutaneous WAT provides an alternative mechanism that reduces thermogenic capacity in core areas and increases it in peripheral body regions. This could allow the organism to adjust its metabolic rate to accommodate diet-induced thermogenesis while simultaneously coping with the stress of chronically increased heat production through exercise. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Association between changes in fat distribution and biomarkers for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; May, Anne M; Elias, Sjoerd G; van der Palen, Job; Veldhuis, Wouter; Stapper, Maaike; Stellato, Rebecca K; Schuit, Jantine A; Peeters, Petra H

    2017-06-01

    We assessed the associations between changes in total and abdominal fat and changes in biomarkers for breast cancer risk using data of the SHAPE-2 trial. In the SHAPE-2 trial, 243 postmenopausal overweight women were included. The intervention in this trial consisted of 5-6 kg weight loss either by diet only or exercise plus diet. After 16 weeks, we measured serum sex hormones, inflammatory markers, total body fat (measured by DEXA scan) and intra and subcutaneous abdominal fat (measured by MRI). Associations between changes in different body fat depots and biomarkers were analysed by linear regression using the study cohort irrespective of randomisation to make maximal use of the distribution of changes in fat measures. We found that a loss in total body fat was associated with favourable changes in free oestradiol, free testosterone, leptin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). The loss of intra-abdominal fat was associated with a decrease in free testosterone, hsCRP and leptin, and an increase in SHBG. In the multivariable analysis, the best fitted models for the biomarkers free oestradiol, SHBG leptin and adiponectin included only total body fat. For free testosterone, this was subcutaneous abdominal fat, and for hsCRP and IL-6, only intra-abdominal fat change was important. For IL-6 and adiponectin, however, associations were weak and not significant. We conclude that, in our population of healthy overweight postmenopausal women, loss of fat at different body locations was associated with changes in different types of biomarkers, known to be related to risk of breast cancer. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil Prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students of a city in the mountains of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahna dos Reis Roth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é considerada a mais importante desordem nutricional devido ao aumento acelerado de suas prevalências nos últimos anos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de 11 a 14 anos (meninos e meninas de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil, e verificar as possíveis associações com classificação econômica, sexo, idade, hábitos alimentares, hábitos de vida (atividades físicas e atividades sedentárias e insatisfação com a imagem corporal. Foram avaliados 1230 escolares através de um estudo transversal. As variáveis antropométricas estudadas foram circunferência da cintura e as dobras cutâneas do tríceps e da panturrilha. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva e uma bivariada entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal foram 28,7% e 40,1%, respectivamente. Houve associação estatítisca significante com maior número de refeições e insatisfação com a imagem corporal para obesidade abdominal, que também esteve associada com os avaliados do sexo feminino, e para excesso de gordura corporal e. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal estão elevadas e justificam a implementação de ações de saúde nas escolas.Obesity is considered the most important nutritional disorder due to a rapid increase in its prevalence in recent years. The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students aged 11 to 14 (boys and girls from a town in the mountains of southern Brazil, and to verify the possible associations with economic classification, gender, age, eating habits, lifestyle habits (physical activity and sedentary activities and dissatisfaction with body image. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1230 students. The anthropometric variables studied were the waist circumference and the skin folds of

  19. Function Point Analysis Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, R.; Martinez, El; Szafran, J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Function Point Analysis (FPA) Depot is a web application originally designed by one of the NE-C3 branch's engineers, Jamie Szafran, and created specifically for the Software Development team of the Launch Control Systems (LCS) project. The application consists of evaluating the work of each developer to be able to get a real estimate of the hours that is going to be assigned to a specific task of development. The Architect Team had made design change requests for the depot to change the schema of the application's information; that information, changed in the database, needed to be changed in the graphical user interface (GUI) (written in Ruby on Rails (RoR and the web service/server side in Java to match the database changes. These changes were made by two interns from NE-C, Ricardo Muniz from NE-C3, who made all the schema changes for the GUI in RoR and Edwin Martinez, from NE-C2, who made all the changes in the Java side.

  20. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  1. Dose-ranging pilot randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for reducing abdominal fat in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasai H

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Sasai,1–3,* Keisuke Ueda,4,5,* Takehiko Tsujimoto,6,7 Hiroyuki Kobayashi,1 Chiaki Sanbongi,4 Shuji Ikegami,4 Yoshio Nakata1 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 2Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda, Tokyo, 3Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Meguro, Tokyo, 4Food Science Research Laboratories, Meiji Co., Ltd., Odawara, Kanagawa, 5Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, 6Faculty of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 7Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, Shimane, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effective dose of an amino acid mixture comprising arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine combined with physical activity promotion in reducing abdominal fat among overweight adults.Methods: A 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging, pilot trial was conducted in Mito, Japan, from January through April 2016, and the data were analyzed from May through November 2016. The study participants were 35 overweight adults, aged 20–64 years, with no regular exercise habit. Participants were randomly assigned to high-dose (3,000 mg/d, n=9, medium-dose (1,500 mg/d, n=9, low-dose (750 mg/d, n=8, or placebo (0 mg/d, n=9 groups, and the test beverage containing the amino acid mixture or placebo was administered for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle during the study period through monthly physical activity promotion sessions and smartphone-based self-monitoring with wearable trackers. Primary outcomes were changes in abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, assessed by computed tomography.Results: Of the 35 enrolled participants, 32 completed the 12-week follow-up visit. The intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the changes in abdominal total fat

  2. Inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells and suppression of abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice after downregulation of hyaluronic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, E; Jung, M Y; Park, J H; Kim, S; Seo, C R; Park, K W; Lee, E K; Yeom, C H; Lee, S

    2014-08-01

    Adipogenesis can be spatially and temporally regulated by extracellular matrix (ECM). We hypothesized that the regulation of hyaluronic acid (HA), a component of the ECM, can affect adipogenesis in fat cells. The effects of HA on adipogenesis were investigated in vitro in 3T3-L1 cells and in vivo in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice. We investigated the effects of HA by degradation of pre-existing or synthesized HA and artificial inhibition of HA synthesis in adipogenesis. In vitro adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells was inhibited by treating them with exogenous hyaluronidase (HYAL) and with 4-methylumbelliferone, which inhibited the synthesis of HA in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo, abdominal fat accumulation in high-fat diet-feeding C57BL/6J mice was suppressed by exogenous HYAL 10(4) IU injections, which was associated with reduction of lipid accumulation in liver and increase of insulin sensitivity. Changes in the ECM such as accumulation of high molecular weight of HA by HAS and degradation of HA by endogenous HYAL were essential for adipogenesis both in vitro and in vivo.

  3. Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasakabe T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Sasakabe1, Hajime Haimoto2, Hiroyuki Umegaki3, Kenji Wakai41Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, JapanBackground: Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM.Patients and methods: Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age ± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride levels.Results: The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812 ± 375 kcal/day, % carbo-hydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women. Significant decreases (P = 0.05 in BMI and HbA1c levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021 in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001 in women. VAT (–21.6 cm², P < 0.001 in men; –19.6 cm², P < 0.001 in women and SAT (–13.5 cm², P = 0.004 in men; –19.1 cm², P = 0.003 in women significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT in women (P = 0.022. A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss

  4. Changes of renal sinus fat and renal parenchymal fat during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelicha, Hila; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Shelef, Ilan; Gepner, Yftach; Tsaban, Gal; Tene, Lilac; Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Sarusi, Benjamin; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Haviv, Yosef S; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2017-05-02

    Data regarding the role of kidney adiposity, its clinical implications, and its dynamics during weight-loss are sparse. We investigated the effect of long-term weight-loss induced intervention diets on dynamics of renal-sinus-fat, an ectopic fat depot, and %renal-parenchymal-fat, lipid accumulation within the renal parenchyma. We randomized 278 participants with abdominal obesity/dyslipidemia to low-fat or Mediterranean/low-carbohydrate diets, with or without exercise. We quantified renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat by whole body magnetic-resonance-imaging. Participants (age = 48 years; 89% men; body-mass-index = 31 kg/m 2 ) had 86% retention to the trial after 18 months. Both increased renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat were directly associated with hypertension, and with higher abdominal deep-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue and visceral-adipose-tissue (p of trend weight. Higher renal-sinus-fat was associated with lower estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate and with higher microalbuminuria and %HbA1C beyond body weight. After 18 months of intervention, overall renal-sinus-fat (-9%; p fat (-1.7%; p = 0.13 vs. baseline) significantly decreased, and similarly across the intervention groups. Renal-sinus-fat and %renal-parenchymal-fat changes were correlated with weight-loss per-se (p fat associated with decreased pancreatic, hepatic and cardiac fats (p fat, after adjustment for 18 months weight-loss (β = 0.15; p = 0.026) and hypertension (β = 0.14; p = 0.04). Renal-sinus-fat and renal-parenchymal-fat are fairly related to weight-loss. Decreased renal-sinus-fat is associated with improved hepatic parameters, independent of changes in weight or hepatic fat, rather than with improved renal function or blood pressure parameters. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT01530724. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. The utility of dual bioelectrical impedance analysis in detecting intra-abdominal fat area in obese patients during weight reduction therapy in comparison with waist circumference and abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakage, Hajime; Ito, Ryo; Tochiya, Mayu; Muranaka, Kazuya; Tanaka, Masashi; Matsuo, Yoshiyuki; Odori, Shinji; Kono, Shigeo; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2014-01-01

    An increase in intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) is an essential component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Waist circumference (WC) is not a precise measure of IAFA, and computed tomography (CT) is unsuitable for frequent monitoring. Here, we examined utility of a dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (Dual BIA) for measuring IAFA in obese patients during weight reduction. Fat distribution was measured by Dual BIA and CT in 100 obese outpatients. All fat areas including total, IAFA, and subcutaneous fat by Dual BIA were more closely correlated with those by CT than WC. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was significantly correlated with number of MetS components as well as CT, but WC was not. Furthermore, in 61 obese patients who received 6-month weight reduction therapy, estimated IAFA by Dual BIA showed an earlier and greater decrease as well as that by CT than WC and BMI. In addition, decrease in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA through weight reduction had a higher correlation with decrease in IAFA by CT, than WC. This study is the first to demonstrate that the change in estimated IAFA by Dual BIA was highly correlated with that in IAFA by CT during weight reduction therapy. Our findings also indicate that estimated IAFA by Dual BIA is, potentially, a better indicator of severity of MetS, cardiovascular risk factors, and effectiveness of weight reduction than WC, and equal to IAFA by CT. Estimated IAFA by Dual BIA may be useful for monitoring the effectiveness of weight reduction therapy in obese patients.

  6. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  7. Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M B; Visser, M; Dekker, J M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, N.; Kanaya, A.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, Frances A; Seidell, J C

    AIMS: We investigated whether low subcutaneous thigh fat is an independent risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, and whether these associations differ between sexes, and between white and black adults. Our secondary aim was to investigate which body composition characteristics (lean

  8. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  9. Children with moderate-high infection with Entamoeba coli have higher percentage of body and abdominal fat than non-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G A; García, O P; Campos-Ponce, M; Ronquillo, D; Caamaño, M C; Doak, C M; Rosado, J L

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal parasites, virus and bacterial infections are positively associated with obesity and adiposity in vitro and in animal models, but conclusive evidence of this relationship in humans is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine differences in adiposity between infected and non-infected children, with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and obesity. A total of 296 school-aged children (8.0 ± 1.5 years) from a rural area in Querétaro, Mexico, participated in this study. Anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference) and body fat (DXA) were measured in all children. A fresh stool sample was collected from each child and analysed for parasites. Questionnaires related to socioeconomic status and clinical history were completed by caretakers. Approximately 11% of the children were obese, and 19% were overweight. The overall prevalence of infection was 61%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil transmitted helminth (16%) followed by hookworm. Entamoeba coli was the predominant protozoa (20%) followed by Endolimax nana, Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Giardia lamblia. Children with moderate-heavy infection of E. coli had significantly higher waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, body and abdominal fat than children not infected or with light-intensity infection (p < 0.05). These findings raise the possibility that a moderate or heavy infection with E. coli may contribute to fat deposition and thereby have long-term consequences on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand if E. coli contributes directly to fat deposition and possible mechanisms. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  10. Genetic backgrounds determine brown remodeling of white fat in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Ferrannini

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Rodent genetic background determines the brown remodeling of different white fat depots. This study provides new insights into the role of genetic variation in fat remodeling in susceptibility to metabolic diseases.

  11. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m2. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity. PMID:28932012

  12. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...

  13. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m 2 . The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity.

  14. NOX1-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species in abdominal fat-derived mesenchymal stromal cells impinges on long-term proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, M; Tirza, G; Ravid, O; Volovitz, I; Solodeev, I; Friedman, O; Zipori, D; Gur, E; Krelin, Y; Shani, N

    2015-04-16

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are multipotent and can be derived from different adult tissues including fat. Our repeated attempts to produce long-term proliferative cultures of rat abdominal adipose stem cells (aASCs) under normal oxygen concentration (21%) were unsuccessful. We set to examine the events controlling this cytostasis of aASCs and found that it resulted from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that led to apoptosis. ROS overproduction in aASCs was accompanied by increased expression of NOX1 but not of NOX2 or NOX4. NOX family members are an important source of intracellular ROS pointing to NOX1 involvement in ROS accumulation. This was verified when aASCs that were grown under 3% oxygen conditions expanded long term, displaying reduced NOX1 expression and decreased ROS accumulation. NOX1 involvement in aASC cytostasis was reaffirmed when cells that were expanded under normoxic conditions in the presence of a specific NOX1 inhibitor, ML171, demonstrated reduced ROS accumulation, reduced apoptosis and long-term expansion. aASC expansion arrest was accompanied also by a weak fat differentiation and migratory potential, which was enhanced by NOX1 inhibition. This suggests an inhibitory role for NOX1-induced ROS overproduction on aASCs, their fat differentiation and migratory potential. In contrast to aASCs, similar cells produced from subcutaneous fat were easily expanded in normoxic cultures, exhibiting low ROS concentrations, a low number of apoptotic cells and improved fat differentiation and migration. Taken together, our results show, for the first time, that NOX1-induced ROS accumulation halts ASC expansion and reduces their differentiation and migratory potential under normoxic conditions. Importantly, this phenotype comprises a tissue-specific signature as it was evident in aASCs but not in subcutaneous ASCs. NOX-induced ROS accumulation and cytokine production by fat are part of the metabolic syndrome. The similarity of this

  15. Eating habits and total and abdominal fat in Spanish adolescents: influence of physical activity. The AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Martínez-Gómez, David; Perez de Heredia, Fatima; Romeo, Javier; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Castillo, Manuel; Rey-López, Juan-Pablo; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Moreno, Luis; Marcos, Ascensión

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the association between specific dietary habits and body fatness in Spanish adolescents, and to analyze the role of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in this association. In this cross-sectional study, 1,978 adolescents (1,017 girls) aged 13.0-18.5 years from the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study were included. Particular dietary habits (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and nighttime snack, as well as time spent eating, number of meals, consumption of soft drinks, and ready-to-eat foods) and LTPA were self-reported and analyzed as dichotomic variables (yes/no). The sum of six skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference (WC) values were the main body fatness variables. Skinfolds and WC values were lower in adolescents who reported consumption of mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, more than four meals per day, and an adequate speed of eating, independently of participation in LTPA. Moreover, a beneficial influence of breakfast consumption on skinfolds and WC values was observed in those adolescent boys who did not participate in LTPA (p for interactions = .044 and .040, respectively). In Spanish adolescents, certain healthy dietary habits (i.e., mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, > 4 meals per day, adequate eating speed) are associated with lower body fatness, independently of engaging in LTPA. In addition, among boys with non-LTPA, those who skipped breakfast showed the highest body fatness values, indicating a beneficial influence of daily breakfast on body fat in this particular group. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation is associated with the results of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan, Futoshi; Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Eshima, Nobuoki

    2007-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased abdominal visceral accumulation (VFA) is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The fat distribution was evaluated by measuring the VFA by abdominal computed tomography at the umbilical level. The study group consisted of 24 type 2 diabetic patients with high VFA (≥100 cm 2 , age 60 ± 8 years, high VFA group). The control group consisted of 19 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal VFA ( 2 , age 60 ± 7 years, normal VFA group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed 123 I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p 123 I-MIBG was higher (p 123 I-MIBG during the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that the level of VFA is associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  17. Use of MRI and CT for fat imaging in children and youth: what have we learned about obesity, fat distribution and metabolic disease risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, A; Ventura, E E; Alfadda, A A; Goran, M I

    2012-08-01

    Childhood obesity is a matter of great concern for public health. Efforts have been made to understand its impact on health through advanced imaging techniques. An increasing number of studies focus on fat distribution and its associations with metabolic risk, in interaction with genetics, environment and ethnicity, in children. The present review is a qualitative synthesis of the existing literature on visceral and subcutaneous abdominal, intrahepatic and intramuscular fat. Our search revealed 80 original articles. Abdominal as well as ectopic fat depots are prevalent already in childhood and contribute to abnormal metabolic parameters, starting early in life. Visceral, hepatic and intramuscular fat seem to be interrelated but their patterns as well as their independent contribution on metabolic risk are not clear. Some ethnic-specific characteristics are also prevalent. These results encourage further research in childhood obesity by using imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. These imaging methods can provide a better understanding of fat distribution and its relationships with metabolic risk, compared to less detailed fat and obesity assessment. However, studies on bigger samples and with a prospective character are warranted. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  19. 11Beta-HSD type 1 expression in human adipose tissue: impact of gender, obesity, and fat localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Pedersen, Steen Bønløkke; Fisker, Sanne

    2007-01-01

    of the metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to compare 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in different fat depots (visceral, subcutaneous abdominal, and subcutaneous gluteal) in lean and obese men and women. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A cross-sectional study design was used for healthy patients undergoing minor...... women had lower 11beta-HSD1 gene expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue compared with men (62% lower, p difference was found between obese men and women. 11Beta-HSD1 mRNA in human adipose tissue was higher in obese subjects compared with lean subjects in both women...... and men and in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. No difference in mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 between visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue or between subcutaneous adipose tissue from different depots was found. CONCLUSIONS: 11Beta-HSD1 in adipose tissue is increased in obesity in both...

  20. Fat Attenuation at CT in Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Corey M.; Torriani, Martin; Murphy, Rachel; Harris, Tamara B.; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the composition, cross-sectional area (CSA), and hormonal correlates of different fat depots in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and control subjects with normal weights to find out whether patients with AN have lower fat CSA but higher attenuation than did control subjects and whether these changes may be mediated by gonadal steroids, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Written informed consent was obtained. Forty premenopausal women with AN and 40 normal-weight women of comparable age (mean age ± standard deviation, 26 years ± 5) were studied. All individuals underwent computed tomography of the abdomen and thigh with a calibration phantom. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh SAT, and thigh intermuscular adipose tissue CSA and attenuation were quantified. Serum estradiol, thyroid hormones, and urinary free cortisol levels were assessed. Variables were compared by using analysis of variance. Associations were examined by using linear regression analysis. Results Women with AN had higher fat attenuation than did control subjects (−100.1 to −46.7 HU vs −117.6 to −61.8 HU, P < .0001), despite lower fat CSA (2.0–62.8 cm2 vs 5.5–185.9 cm2, P < .0001). VAT attenuation but not CSA was inversely associated with lowest prior lifetime body mass index in AN (r = −0.71, P = .006). Serum estradiol levels were inversely associated with fat attenuation (r = −0.34 to −0.61, P = .03 to <.0001) and were positively associated with fat CSA of all compartments (r = 0.42–0.64, P = .007 to <.0001). Thyroxine levels and urinary free cortisol levels were positively associated with thigh SAT attenuation (r = 0.64 [P = .006] and r = 0.68 [P = .0004], respectively) and were inversely associated with abdominal SAT and VAT CSA (r = −0.44 to −0.58, P = .04 to .02). Conclusion Women with AN have differences in fat

  1. Testosterone stimulates adipose tissue 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in a depot-specific manner in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lijun; Hou, Miao; Sun, Bin; Burén, Jonas; Zhang, Li; Yi, Jun; Hernell, Olle; Li, Xiaonan

    2010-07-01

    Activation of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta-HSD1) in adipose tissue results in the production of excess tissue glucocorticoids and the induction of adiposity and visceral obesity in particular. Androgens may affect body fat distribution by regulating the local metabolism of cortisol. Our objective was to study 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in abdominal sc and omental (om) adipose tissue in children after in vitro testosterone and cortisol treatment. Paired fat biopsies (sc and om) were obtained from 19 boys (age 6-14 yr, body mass index 14.6-25.3 kg/m(2), BMI sd score SDS -1.6-3.1) undergoing open abdominal surgery. Pieces of adipose tissue were incubated with testosterone, cortisol, or both hormones for 24 h, whereupon mRNA expression of 11beta-HSD1 and hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (H6PDH) were measured by real-time PCR, and 11beta-HSD1 enzyme activity was determined. Testosterone treatment up-regulated 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression compared with control incubations in the absence of testosterone (P Testosterone and cortisol both increased 11beta-HSD1 mRNA expression in om but not sc adipose tissue in a depot-specific manner by 2.5- and 2.9-fold, respectively (P Testosterone and cortisol stimulated 11beta-HSD1 and H6PDH mRNA expression and 11beta-HSD1 activity in om but not in sc adipose tissue. This suggests that these hormones may contribute to fat distribution and accumulation during childhood.

  2. Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L Y; Fang, Y J; Guo, X Y

    2011-04-01

    1. Unlike mammals, uricotelic species, such as the duck, cannot synthesise endogenous arginine (Arg). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-Arg supplementation might regulate body fat deposition in ducks without affecting their fast growth rate. 2. A total of 160 21-d-old male and female White Pekin ducks were assigned randomly to two treatments: a non-supplemented control and supplementation at 10 g/kg L-Arg of a maize and soybean meal-based diet. 3. The 3-week feeding trial showed that the addition of L-Arg had no significant effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain by 5·2 %, breast muscle weight relative to live body weight by 9·9%, carcase crude protein content by 9·2%, ether extract content in breast muscle by 11·9%. Arg supplementation significantly decreased skin with fat and abdominal fat pad contents by 7·6% and 4·9% respectively and the ether extract content of carcase by 7·2%. 4. The results of this study indicate that a diet with 10 g/kg supplemental L-Arg could reduce the fat deposition of carcase and abdominal adipose cell size (diameter and volume), enhance intramuscular fat in breast muscles, as well as increase muscle and protein gain. The decreased fat depot in the carcase may be attributed to a reduction of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity.

  3. Abdominal visceral fat accumulation is associated with the results of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Futoshi [Oita Red Cross Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Oita (Japan); Oita University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Oita (Japan); Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu [Oita University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Oita (Japan); Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori [Oita University, Department of Cardiovascular Science, Oita (Japan); Eshima, Nobuoki [Oita University, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Oita (Japan)

    2007-08-15

    We tested the hypothesis that increased abdominal visceral accumulation (VFA) is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The fat distribution was evaluated by measuring the VFA by abdominal computed tomography at the umbilical level. The study group consisted of 24 type 2 diabetic patients with high VFA ({>=}100 cm{sup 2}, age 60 {+-} 8 years, high VFA group). The control group consisted of 19 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal VFA (<100 cm{sup 2}, age 60 {+-} 7 years, normal VFA group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p < 0.005 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and the percent washout rate of {sup 123}I-MIBG was higher (p < 0.0005) in the high VFA group than in the normal VFA group. The fasting plasma insulin concentrations (p < 0.005) and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index values (p < 0.0005) were higher in the high VFA group than in normal VFA group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the level of VFA was independently predicted by the HOMA index values and the myocardial uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG during the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that the level of VFA is associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  4. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cilius E. Fonvig

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in youth are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20 with a body mass index (BMI >90th percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle fat content (MFC was measured in the psoas muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The patients were assigned to two groups: MFC <5% or ³5%. Visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Blood samples were obtained from 119 patients, and liver enzyme concentrations and other variables were measured. The data were analysed to detect any associations between MFC and BMI standard deviation scores, VAT and SAT, blood values, and physical activity levels. The mean BMI standard deviation score (SDS was 3.04 (range 1.32-5.02. The mean MFC was 8.9% (range 0.8-46.7, and 118 (74.2% of 159 patients had an MFC ³5%. Children with a high MFC had a higher BMI SDS (P=0.03 and had a higher VAT, but not SAT or SAT/VAT ratio. Both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL and extramyocellular lipid (EMCL content were elevated in patients with an MFC ³5%. Blood values and physical activity levels did not differ between the two groups. Severely obese children and adolescents tend to have a high MFC, which is associated with elevated VAT and IMCL and EMCL content. An increased MFC may be associated with impaired metabolic processes, which may predispose young people to obesity-related complications.

  5. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Visceral and Hepatic Fat in Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Shuyun; Chen, Zhenyan

    2017-04-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat deposition are the most important risk factors for women's health. Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture (EA), is used to treat obesity throughout the world. The effect of EA is evaluated mainly by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Few studies have assessed its effect in reducing VAT volume and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) based on an exact measurement method such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to resolve this issue. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 15) did not receive any intervention and maintained a normal diet and their usual exercise habits. The treatment group (n = 15) received EA three times a week for 3 months. BMI and WC were measured using different devices. VAT and HFF were measured by MRI and calculated by related software before and after the intervention. A marked difference was evident in group that received EA treatment in the following tests. The differences in BMI (U = 21.00, p treatment group were distinct and significant compared with those of the control group. Three months later, the treatment group showed a lower BMI (W = 91.00, p = 0.001), WC (t = 4.755, p treatment group showed a lower VAT volume (t = 60.00, p = 0.029) after 3 months of treatment. After 3 months, the control group showed higher mean HFF (t = -2.900, p = 0.012) and VAT volume (W = 11.50, p = 0.006) compared with their initial levels. Based on MRI evaluation, this randomized controlled study proved that EA treatment reduces BMI and WC as well as VAT volume and HFF in women with abdominal obesity.

  6. Effect of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone and Rosiglitazone for HIV-Associated Abdominal Fat Accumulation on Adiponectin and other Markers of Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Vivien; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Kotler, Donald P.; Albu, Jeanine; Zhu, Yuan-Shan; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen S.; Hammad, Hoda; Christos, Paul; Donovan, Daniel S.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective In a previous report of HIV-infected patients with fat redistribution, we found that recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy reduced visceral adipose tissue (VAT) but increased insulin resistance, and that the addition of rosiglitazone reversed the negative effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity. In this study, we sought to determine the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and rosiglitazone therapy on an array of inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers. Methods 72 patients with HIV-associated abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to treatment with rhGH, rosiglitazone, the combination of rhGH and rosiglitazone, or placebo for 12 weeks. Subjects with plasma and serum samples available at weeks 0 (n = 63) and 12 (n = 46-48) were assessed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP), homocysteine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) antigen, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen. Results Treatment with both rosiglitazone alone and the combination of rosiglitazone and rhGH for 12 weeks resulted in significant increases in adiponectin levels from baseline. Adiponectin levels did not change significantly in the rhGH alone arm. There were no significant changes in the other biomarkers amongst the different treatment groups. Discussion In this study of HIV-infected patients with altered fat distribution, treatment with rosiglitazone had beneficial effects on adiponectin concentrations, an effect that was also seen with combination rosiglitazone and rhGH. RhGH administration alone, however, did not demonstrate any significant impact on adiponectin levels despite reductions in VAT. PMID:27077672

  7. Fatty acid profile of three adipose depots in seven Spanish breeds of suckling kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcada, A; Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B

    2012-10-01

    Intramuscular, subcutaneous and kidney knob fat depot fatty acid profiles were studied in 104 male suckling kids from seven Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtibérica, Moncaína, Negra Serrana-Castiza, Pirenaica, Malagueña and Murciano-Granadina. Kids were raised in the traditional production system on mother's milk and slaughtered at around 7kg live weight. Differences were observed between dairy (Malagueña) and meat breeds (Blanca Andaluza, Blanca Celtibérica, Moncaína, Negra Serrana-Castiza, and Pirenaica). Malagueña showed higher monounsaturated and conjugated linoleic fatty acid levels than the other breeds. Highest percentages of saturated fatty acids were observed in meat breeds. For intramuscular fat depot, the range for desirable fatty acids was 66.16-72.27% was. The influence of breed on fatty acid profiles of intramuscular, subcutaneous and kidney knob fat depots studied was evident. Intramuscular fat depot is proposed as a differentiating factor between dairy and meat breed goat kids, but not between meat breed kids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Saturated Fats from Butter but Not from Cheese Increase HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity from J774 Macrophages in Men and Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Didier; Arsenault, Benoît J; Boyer, Marjorie; Bernic, Daniela; Tessier-Grenier, Maude; Talbot, Denis; Tremblay, Angelo; Levy, Emile; Asztalos, Bela; Jones, Peter J H; Couture, Patrick; Lamarche, Benoît

    2018-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and coronary artery disease risk varies according to food sources. How SFAs from butter and cheese influence HDL-mediated cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC), a key process in reverse cholesterol transport, is currently unknown. In a predefined secondary analysis of a previously published trial, we have examined how diets rich in SFAs from either cheese or butter influence HDL-mediated CEC, compared with diets rich in either monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). In a randomized crossover controlled consumption trial, 46 men and women with abdominal obesity consumed 5 isocaloric diets, each for 4 wk. Two diets were rich in SFAs either from cheese (CHEESE) or butter (BUTTER) [12.4-12.6% of energy (%E) as SFAs, 32%E as fat, 52%E as carbohydrates]. In 2 other diets, SFAs (5.8%E) were replaced with either MUFAs from refined olive oil (MUFA) or PUFAs from corn oil (PUFA). Finally, a lower fat and carbohydrate diet was used as a control (5.8%E as SFAs, 25.0%E as fat, 59%E as carbohydrates; CHO). Post-diet HDL-mediated CEC was determined ex vivo using radiolabelled J774 macrophages incubated with apolipoprotein B-depleted serum from the participants. Mean (±SD) age was 41.4 ± 14.2 y, and waist circumference was 107.6 ± 11.5 cm in men and 94.3 ± 12.4 cm in women. BUTTER and MUFA increased HDL-mediated CEC compared with CHEESE (+4.3%, P = 0.026 and +4.7%, P = 0.031, respectively). Exploring the significant diet × sex interaction (P = 0.044) revealed that the increase in HDL-mediated CEC after BUTTER compared with CHEESE was significant among men (+6.0%, P = 0.047) but not women (+2.9%, P = 0.19), whereas the increase after MUFA compared with CHEESE was significant among women (+9.1%, P = 0.008) but not men (-0.6%, P = 0.99). These results provide evidence of a food matrix effect modulating the impact of dairy SFAs on HDL

  9. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; P<0.03 for each). The relations with FM, FM%, TF%, VAT and DSAT were significantly modified by sex (P for interaction=0.02, 0.005 and <0.001, 0.002, 0.03, respectively) with greater reductions associated with increase of adiponectin in men than in women. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  10. Associação de variáveis sócio-demográficas e comportamentais com a gordura abdominal em adultos: estudo de base populacional no Sul do Brasil Socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults: a population-based survey in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Castanheira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a distribuição antropométrica da gordura abdominal em uma população adulta e o efeito de variáveis sócio-demográficas, reprodutivas e comportamentais sobre essa distribuição. O desfecho estudado foi definido como o maior perímetro da região abdominal, sendo entrevistados e medidos 3.464 adultos, de 20 a 69 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As diferenças entre as médias de perímetro foram testadas empregando-se ANOVA e regressão múltipla, visando o controle de confundimento. Homens mais velhos, de cor branca, vivendo com companheira e com alta renda familiar (p This article describes the anthropometric distribution of abdominal fat in the urban adult population in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and the influence of independent variables on this distribution. In a cross-sectional population-based study, 3,464 adults from 20 to 69 years of age were selected in a multistage systematic sampling. They were interviewed and had their largest abdominal circumference measured. Means were compared using one-way ANOVA, while multiple linear regression models were employed to adjust for confounding. According to the study, older white married men with higher family incomes were more likely to have the highest mean abdominal circumferences (p < 0.001. Women at greatest risk for abdominal fat were older married mothers with a history of 4 or more pregnancies and less schooling (p < 0.001. Former smokers had the highest mean abdominal circumferences in both males and females, while other lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption and physical activity showed no association with the outcome after adjusting for confounding.

  11. Space Transportation Infrastructure Supported By Propellant Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitherman, David; Woodcock, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    A space transportation infrastructure is described that utilizes propellant depots to support all foreseeable missions in the Earth-Moon vicinity and deep space out to Mars. The infrastructure utilizes current expendable launch vehicles such as the Delta IV Heavy, Atlas V, and Falcon 9, for all crew, cargo, and propellant launches to orbit. Propellant launches are made to a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Depot and an Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 1 (L1) Depot to support new reusable in-space transportation vehicles. The LEO Depot supports missions to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) for satellite servicing, and to L1 for L1 Depot missions. The L1 Depot supports Lunar, Earth-Sun L2 (ESL2), Asteroid, and Mars missions. A Mars Orbital Depot is also described to support ongoing Mars missions. New concepts for vehicle designs are presented that can be launched on current 5-meter diameter expendable launch vehicles. These new reusable vehicle concepts include a LEO Depot, L1 Depot, and Mars Orbital Depot based on International Space Station (ISS) heritage hardware. The high-energy depots at L1 and Mars orbit are compatible with, but do not require, electric propulsion tug use for propellant and/or cargo delivery. New reusable in-space crew transportation vehicles include a Crew Transfer Vehicle (CTV) for crew transportation between the LEO Depot and the L1 Depot, a new reusable Lunar Lander for crew transportation between the L1 Depot and the lunar surface, and a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) to support crew missions from the L1 Depot to ESL2, Asteroid, and Mars destinations. A 6 meter diameter Mars lander concept is presented that can be launched without a fairing based on the Delta IV heavy Payload Planners Guide, which indicates feasibility of a 6.5 meter fairing. This lander would evolve to re-usable operations when propellant production is established on Mars. Figure 1 provides a summary of the possible missions this infrastructure can support. Summary mission profiles are presented

  12. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A; Wright Bates, G; Gower, Barbara A

    2014-10-01

    To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40% energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (pdiets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (-7.1%, -4.6%, and -11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (pPCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rapid development of fasting-induced hepatic lipidosis in the American mink (Neovison vison): effects of food deprivation and re-alimentation on body fat depots, tissue fatty acid profiles, hematology and endocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvinen-Watt, Kirsti; Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Conway, Rebecca; Pal, Catherine; Harris, Lora; Saarela, Seppo; Strandberg, Ursula; Nieminen, Petteri

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic lipidosis is a common pathological finding in the American mink (Neovison vison) and can be caused by nutritional imbalance due to obesity or rapid body weight loss. The objectives of the present study were to investigate the timeline and characterize the development of hepatic lipidosis in mink in response to 0-7 days of food deprivation and liver recovery after 28 days of re-feeding. We report here the effects on hematological and endocrine variables, body fat mobilization, the development of hepatic lipidosis and the alterations in the liver lipid classes and tissue fatty acid (FA) sums. Food deprivation resulted in the rapid mobilization of body fat, most notably visceral, causing elevated hepatosomatic index and increased liver triacylglycerol content. The increased absolute amounts of liver total phospholipids and phosphatidylcholine suggested endoplasmic reticulum stress. The hepatic lipid infiltration and the altered liver lipid profiles were associated with a significantly reduced proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) in the livers and the decrease was more evident in the females. Likewise, re-feeding of the female mink resulted in a more pronounced recovery of the liver n-3 PUFA. The rapid decrease in the n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio in response to food deprivation could trigger an inflammatory response in the liver. This could be a key contributor to the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in mink influencing disease progression.

  14. The Ratio Between Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat Assessed by Computed Tomography Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality and Cardiac Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeiras-Lopes, Ricardo; Sampaio, Francisco; Bettencourt, Nuno; Fontes-Carvalho, Ricardo; Ferreira, Nuno; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Gama, Vasco

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is an important cardiovascular risk factor and the location of fat deposits seems to be an important determinant of its metabolic impact. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) exerts a harmful effect on metabolic homeostasis, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated the prognostic impact of the ratio of VAT to subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). This study aimed to evaluate whether the VAT/SAT ratio was associated with all-cause mortality and cardiac events. Registry-based retrospective cohort study. Eligible patients consisted of those without known heart disease referred to cardiac computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). We included all patients with available information on VAT and SAT areas and coronary artery calcium (CAC) score. We assessed the combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction or revascularization procedure at least 1 month after cardiac CT. The final population consisted of 713 participants (61% male; mean age, 57.7±10.2 years) followed up for a median of 1.3 years. The combined endpoint occurred in 66 patients; these patients showed a higher VAT/SAT ratio (1.06±0.74 vs 0.80±0.52, P=.0001). The VAT/SAT ratio was an independent predictor of death and cardiac events (HR = 1.43; 95%CI, 1.03-1.99), irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. The ratio between abdominal VAT/SAT was an independent predictor of death and coronary events, irrespective of cardiovascular risk factors, CAC, and the presence of CAD. This ratio is a CT-derived metric that may help to better identify patients with increased risk of death or cardiac events. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. MRI sagittal abdominal diameter is a stronger predictor of metabolic syndrome than visceral fat area or waist circumference in a high-risk vascular cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel R Hoenig

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Michel R HoenigUniversity of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaObjective: To determine whether sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD is associated with the metabolic syndrome independently of visceral fat area (VFA and waist circumference (WC.Methods: Forty-three high-risk vascular patients were evaluated for metabolic syndrome criteria and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI to quantify SAD and VFA at the L4–L5 disc.Comparisons: 1. Baseline differences in patients with and without the metabolic syndrome 2. Forward binary logistic regression analysis of predictors of the metabolic syndrome with SAD, VFA and WC as independents 3. Correlates of SAD.Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome had greater SAD, VFA and WC than patients without the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.01. Of SAD, VFA and WC, only SAD was associated with metabolic syndrome on forward binary logistic regression; beta 0.68, Wald’s statistic 10.8 (P = 0.001 and c-statistic 0.89 (P < 0.001. A > 22.7 cm SAD threshold identified metabolic syndrome with a 91% sensitivity and 80% specificity. SAD correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.918, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (r = –0.363, triglyceride (r = 0.401, fasting glucose (r = 0.428 and the QUICK index of insulin sensitivity (r = –0.667 (all P < 0.05.Conclusions: MRI-measured SAD is associated with the metabolic syndrome and renders the current gold standard of VFA redundant. This measure of obesity-related cardiovascular risk requires validation and evaluation in a prospective cohort.Keywords: obesity, insulin resistance

  16. Storage depot for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulinski, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Vertical drilling of cylindrical holes in the soil, and the lining of such holes, provides storage vaults called caissons. A guarded depot is provided with a plurality of such caissons covered by shielded closures preventing radiation from penetrating through any linear gap to the atmosphere. The heat generated by the radioactive material is dissipated through the vertical liner of the well into the adjacent soil and thus to the ground surface so that most of the heat from the radioactive material is dissipated into the atmosphere in a manner involving no significant amount of biologically harmful radiation. The passive cooling of the radioactive material without reliance upon pumps, personnel, or other factor which might fail, constitutes one of the most advantageous features of this system. Moreover this system is resistant to damage from tornadoes or earthquakes. Hermetically sealed containers of radioactive material may be positioned in the caissons. Loading vehicles can travel throughout the depot to permit great flexibility of loading and unloading radioactive materials. Radioactive material can be shifted to a more closely spaced caisson after ageing sufficiently to generate much less heat. The quantity of material stored in a caisson is restricted by the average capacity for heat dissipation of the soil adjacent such caisson

  17. The genetics of fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleinitz, Dorit; Böttcher, Yvonne; Blüher, Matthias; Kovacs, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Fat stored in visceral depots makes obese individuals more prone to complications than subcutaneous fat. There is good evidence that body fat distribution (FD) is controlled by genetic factors. WHR, a surrogate measure of FD, shows significant heritability of up to ∼60%, even after adjusting for BMI. Genetic variants have been linked to various forms of altered FD such as lipodystrophies; however, the polygenic background of visceral obesity has only been sparsely investigated in the past. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for measures of FD revealed numerous loci harbouring genes potentially regulating FD. In addition, genes with fat depot-specific expression patterns (in particular subcutaneous vs visceral adipose tissue) provide plausible candidate genes involved in the regulation of FD. Many of these genes are differentially expressed in various fat compartments and correlate with obesity-related traits, thus further supporting their role as potential mediators of metabolic alterations associated with a distinct FD. Finally, developmental genes may at a very early stage determine specific FD in later life. Indeed, genes such as TBX15 not only manifest differential expression in various fat depots, but also correlate with obesity and related traits. Moreover, recent GWAS identified several polymorphisms in developmental genes (including TBX15, HOXC13, RSPO3 and CPEB4) strongly associated with FD. More accurate methods, including cardiometabolic imaging, for assessment of FD are needed to promote our understanding in this field, where the main focus is now to unravel the yet unknown biological function of these novel 'fat distribution genes'.

  18. Regional distribution of muscle and fat mass in men--new insight into the risk of abdominal obesity using computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Björntorp, P; Sjöström, L.; Sannerstedt, R; Krotkiewski, M; Kvist, H

    1989-01-01

    We studied 24 healthy men (25-50 years old) covering a wide range of fatness (body mass index range: 21-34 kg/m2) and fat distribution (waist/hip range: 0.75-1.06). Computed tomography scans were taken at five levels (thigh, hip, waist, arm, and liver) from which fat, muscle and bone areas were

  19. Tuberculosis abdominal Abdominal tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rubio; M. T. Gaztelu; A. Calvo; M. Repiso; H. Sarasíbar; F. Jiménez Bermejo; A. Martínez Echeverría

    2005-01-01

    La tuberculosis abdominal cursa con un cuadro inespecífico, con difícil diagnóstico diferencial respecto a otras entidades de similar semiología. Presentamos el caso de un varón que ingresa por presentar dolor abdominal, pérdida progresiva y notoria de peso corporal y fiebre de dos meses de evolución. El cultivo de la biopsia de colon mostró presencia de bacilo de Koch.Abdominal tuberculosis develops according to a non-specific clinical picture, with a difficult differential diagnosis with re...

  20. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  1. Dairy Foods in a Moderate Energy Restricted Diet Do Not Enhance Central Fat, Weight, and Intra-Abdominal Adipose Tissue Losses nor Reduce Adipocyte Size or Inflammatory Markers in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta D. Van Loan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Research on dairy foods to enhance weight and fat loss when incorporated into a modest weight loss diet has had mixed results. Objective. A 15-week controlled feeding study to determine if dairy foods enhance central fat and weight loss when incorporated in a modest energy restricted diet of overweight and obese adults. Design. A 3-week run-in to establish energy needs; a 12-week 500 kcal/d energy reduction with 71 low-dairy-consuming overweight and obese adults randomly assigned to diets: ≤1 serving dairy/d (low dairy, LD or ≤4 servings dairy/d (adequate dairy, AD. All foods were weighed and provided by the metabolic kitchen. Weight, fat, intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT macrophage number, SAT inflammatory gene expression, and circulating cytokines were measured. Results. No diet differences were observed in weight, fat, or IAAT loss; nor SAT mRNA expression of inflammation, circulating cytokines, fasting lipids, glucose, or insulin. There was a significant increase (P=0.02 in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in the AD group. Conclusion. Whether increased dairy intake during weight loss results in greater weight and fat loss for individuals with metabolic syndrome deserves investigation. Assessment of appetite, hunger, and satiety with followup on weight regain should be considered.

  2. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information

  3. Serum Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Concentrations Are Positively and Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Abdominal Fat among Parameters in Health Check-Ups in Ordinary Middle-Aged Japanese Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masami; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Honma, Kazue; Miyauchi, Rie; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    We wished to examine potential associations among blood concentrations of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and parameters in health check-ups such as abdominal fat area (AFA) and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged Japanese males. We conducted a cross-sectional study of males who participated in health check-ups in Japan. We excluded participants diagnosed with metabolic diseases by the time of their check-up. A total of 305 subjects (30-64 [mean±standard deviation, 47.3±8.5] y) were recruited. Areas of total-abdominal, visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured using computed tomography. We compared the association of serum concentrations of FABP4 with various clinical parameters by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) analyses, and by step-wise multivariate linear regression analyses (MLRA). PPMCC analyses showed that blood concentrations of FABP4 were positively associated with: body mass index; areas of fat (total abdominal, visceral, subcutaneous); systolic BP; diastolic BP; total cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; triacylglycerol; activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase; white blood cell count; and levels of creatinine. Step-wise MLRA showed that AFAs (visceral and subcutaneous) and diastolic BP were positively and independently associated with serum concentrations of FABP4 among the parameters tested. These data suggest that serum concentrations of FABP4 are independently and positively associated with BP and AFA among parameters measured in health check-ups in middle-aged Japanese males.

  4. Abdominal tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... You then receive a local numbing medicine. The tap needle is inserted 1 to 2 inches (2. ...

  5. Androgens, body fat Distribution and Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerradi, Mouna; Dereumetz, Julie; Boulet, Marie-Michèle; Tchernof, André

    2014-12-01

    Androgens are regulators of important adipocyte functions such as adipogenesis, lipid storage, and lipolysis. Through depot-specific impact on the cells of each fat compartment, androgens could modulate body fat distribution patterns in humans. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes to lipid-storing adipocytes in several models including primary cultures of human adipocytes from both men and women. Androgen effects have also been observed on some markers of lipid metabolism such as LPL activity, fatty acid uptake, and lipolysis. Possible depot-specific and sex-specific effects have been observed in some but not all models. Transformation of androgen precursors to active androgens or their inactivation by enzymes that are expressed and functional in adipose tissue may contribute to modulate the local availability of active hormones. These phenomena, along with putative depot-specific interactions with glucocorticoids may contribute to human body fat distribution patterns.

  6. The use of dilute calogen[reg] as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, Duncan W.; Markham, Derrian H.; Morgan, Bruno; Rodgers, Peter M.; Liddicoat, Amanda J.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: Oral contrast media are commonly given prior to computed tomography (CT) examination of the upper abdomen. Although positive oral contrast media are normally used, there is increasing interest in using negative agents such as water and less commonly fat density products. The aim of this study was to compare a positive oral contrast medium, water, and a diluted emulsion of arachis oil (Calogen[reg], a fat density food supplement) for assessment of the upper abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-one patients referred for upper abdominal CT were randomized to receive either 500 ml water, 2% sodium diatrizoate or a dilute suspension of Calogen[reg]. The CT images were scored independently by three radiologists. Distension and anatomical identification was assessed for the stomach, duodenum and jejunum; with anatomical identification recorded for the pancreas, retroperitoneum, liver, gallbladder and spleen. RESULTS: Dilute Calogen[reg] produced a significant improvement (P < 0.01) in distension and anatomical visualization of the stomach and proximal duodenum. Only minimal differences were demonstrated between the three contrast media for visualization of more distal small bowel or identification of the other upper abdominal viscera. Significantly more artifacts were caused by positive contrast media than with the Calogen[reg] mixture. CONCLUSION: A dilute suspension of Calogen[reg] as an oral contrast medium is recommended when disease is suspected within the stomach or proximal duodenum. Ramsay, D.W. et al. (2001)

  7. Long-term testosterone administration increases visceral fat in female to male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbers, J M; Asscheman, H; Seidell, J C; Megens, J A; Gooren, L J

    1997-07-01

    The amount of intraabdominal (visceral) fat is an important determinant of disturbances in lipid and glucose metabolism. Cross-sectional studies in women have found associations between high androgen levels and visceral fat accumulation. The causal relation between these phenomena is unknown. We, therefore, studied prospectively the effect of testosterone administration on body fat distribution in 10 young, nonobese, female to male transsexuals undergoing sex reassignment. Before, after 1 yr, and after 3 yr of testosterone administration, magnetic resonance images were obtained at the level of the abdomen, hip, and thigh to quantify both sc and visceral fat depots. After 1 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots at all levels showed significant reductions compared to baseline measurements. The mean visceral fat area did not change significantly, but subjects who gained weight in the first year after testosterone administration showed an increase in visceral fat. After 3 yr of testosterone administration, sc fat depots were no longer significantly lower compared to pretreatment measurements, but the mean visceral fat depot had increased significantly by 13 cm2 (95% confidence interval, 4-22 cm2), a relative increase of 47% (95% confidence interval, 8-91%) from baseline. The increase in visceral fat was most pronounced in those subjects who had gained weight. We conclude that long term testosterone administration in young, nonobese, female subjects increases the amount of visceral fat. In addition, an increase in weight in this hyperandrogenic state leads to a preferential storage of fat in the visceral depot.

  8. Characterization of stromal vascular fraction and adipose stem cells from subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral morbidly obese human adipose tissue depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Karina Ribeiro; Côrtes, Isis; Liechocki, Sally; Carneiro, João Regis Ivar; Souza, Antônio Augusto Peixoto; Borojevic, Radovan; Maya-Monteiro, Clarissa Menezes; Baptista, Leandra Santos

    2017-01-01

    The pathological condition of obesity is accompanied by a dysfunctional adipose tissue. We postulate that subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral obese abdominal white adipose tissue depots could have stromal vascular fractions (SVF) with distinct composition and adipose stem cells (ASC) that would differentially account for the pathogenesis of obesity. In order to evaluate the distribution of SVF subpopulations, samples of subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral adipose tissues from morbidly obese women (n = 12, BMI: 46.2±5.1 kg/m2) were collected during bariatric surgery, enzymatically digested and analyzed by flow cytometry (n = 12). ASC from all depots were evaluated for morphology, surface expression, ability to accumulate lipid after induction and cytokine secretion (n = 3). A high content of preadipocytes was found in the SVF of subcutaneous depot (p = 0.0178). ASC from the three depots had similar fibroblastoid morphology with a homogeneous expression of CD34, CD146, CD105, CD73 and CD90. ASC from the visceral depot secreted the highest levels of IL-6, MCP-1 and G-CSF (p = 0.0278). Interestingly, preperitoneal ASC under lipid accumulation stimulus showed the lowest levels of all the secreted cytokines, except for adiponectin that was enhanced (p = 0.0278). ASC from preperitoneal adipose tissue revealed the less pro-inflammatory properties, although it is an internal adipose depot. Conversely, ASC from visceral adipose tissue are the most pro-inflammatory. Therefore, ASC from subcutaneous, visceral and preperitoneal adipose depots could differentially contribute to the chronic inflammatory scenario of obesity.

  9. Trans fatty acids adversely affect blood lipids but not intra-abdominal and liver fat deposition - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intake of industrially produced trans fatty acids (TFA) is, according to observational studies, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Besides inducing dyslipidemia, TFA intake is suspected of promoting abdominal and liv...

  10. The androgen receptor in bone marrow progenitor cells negatively regulates fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Patricia K; Mangiafico, Salvatore; Fam, Barbara C; Clarke, Michele V; Marin, Evelyn S; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Wiren, Kristine M; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Davey, Rachel A

    2018-04-01

    It is well established that testosterone negatively regulates fat mass in humans and mice; however, the mechanism by which testosterone exerts these effects is poorly understood. We and others have shown that deletion of the androgen receptor (AR) in male mice results in a phenotype that mimics the three key clinical aspects of hypogonadism in human males; increased fat mass and decreased bone and muscle mass. We now show that replacement of the Ar gene specifically in mesenchymal progenitor cells (PCs) residing in the bone marrow of Global-ARKO mice, in the absence of the AR in all other tissues (PC-AR Gene Replacements), completely attenuates their increased fat accumulation. Inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissue and intra-abdominal retroperitoneal visceral adipose tissue depots in PC-AR Gene Replacement mice were 50-80% lower than wild-type (WT) and 75-90% lower than Global-ARKO controls at 12 weeks of age. The marked decrease in subcutaneous and visceral fat mass in PC-AR Gene Replacements was associated with an increase in the number of small adipocytes and a healthier metabolic profile compared to WT controls, characterised by normal serum leptin and elevated serum adiponectin levels. Euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp studies reveal that the PC-AR Gene Replacement mice have improved whole-body insulin sensitivity with higher glucose infusion rates compared to WT mice and increased glucose uptake into subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat. In conclusion, these data provide the first evidence for an action of androgens via the AR in mesenchymal bone marrow PCs to negatively regulate fat mass and improve metabolic function. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. Serum glycine is associated with regional body fat and insulin resistance in functionally-limited older adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Lustgarten

    Full Text Available Metabolic profiling may provide insight into biologic mechanisms related to age-related increases in regional adiposity and insulin resistance.The objectives of the current study were to characterize the association between mid-thigh intermuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissue (IMAT, SCAT, respectively and, abdominal adiposity with the serum metabolite profile, to identify significant metabolites as further associated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and, to develop a HOMA-IR associated metabolite predictor set representative of regional adiposity, in 73 functionally-limited (short physical performance battery ≤10; SPPB older adults (age range, 70-85 y.Fasting levels of 181 total metabolites, including amino acids, fatty acids and acylcarnitines were measured with use of an untargeted mass spectrometry-based metabolomic approach. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression was used in all analyses.Thirty-two, seven and one metabolite(s were found to be associated with IMAT, abdominal adiposity and, SCAT, respectively, including the amino acid glycine, which was positively associated with SCAT and, negatively associated with both IMAT and abdominal adiposity. Glycine and four metabolites found to be significantly associated with regional adiposity were additionally associated with HOMA-IR. Separate stepwise regression models identified glycine as a HOMA-IR associated marker of both IMAT (model R(2 = 0.51, p<0.0001 and abdominal adiposity (model R(2 = 0.41, p<0.0001.Our findings for a positive association between glycine with SCAT but, a negative association between glycine with IMAT and abdominal adiposity supports the hypothesis that SCAT metabolic processes are different from that found in other fat depots. In addition, because of the significant associations found between glycine with HOMA-IR, IMAT, SCAT and abdominal adiposity, our results suggest glycine as a serum biomarker of both insulin sensitivity

  12. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2011-01-01

    We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to k-LocVRP is a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k vehicles each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so t...

  13. Depot medroxyprogesterone injectable contraception at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the introduction of post-abortal and puerperal administrations of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and its new formulation; depo sub-Q provera in all our .... disease, uterine fibroids, ectopic pregnancy, iron- deficiency anemia and ovarian .... contraception. Clinical Gynaecologic Endocrinology and. Infertility. 15th ed.

  14. Abdominal Fat Is Associated With Lower Bone Formation and Inferior Bone Quality in Healthy Premenopausal Women: A Transiliac Bone Biopsy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, David W.; Recker, Robert R.; Lappe, Joan M.; Zhou, Hua; Zwahlen, Alexander; Müller, Ralph; Zhao, Binsheng; Guo, Xiaotao; Lang, Thomas; Saeed, Isra; Liu, X. Sherry; Guo, X. Edward; Cremers, Serge; Rosen, Clifford J.; Stein, Emily M.; Nickolas, Thomas L.; McMahon, Donald J.; Young, Polly; Shane, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Context: The conventional view that obesity is beneficial for bone strength has recently been challenged by studies that link obesity, particularly visceral obesity, to low bone mass and fractures. It is controversial whether effects of obesity on bone are mediated by increased bone resorption or decreased bone formation. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate bone microarchitecture and remodeling in healthy premenopausal women of varying weights. Design: We measured bone density and trunk fat by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry in 40 women and by computed tomography in a subset. Bone microarchitecture, stiffness, remodeling, and marrow fat were assessed in labeled transiliac bone biopsies. Results: Body mass index (BMI) ranged from 20.1 to 39.2 kg/m2. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-trunk fat was directly associated with BMI (r = 0.78, P < .001) and visceral fat by computed tomography (r = 0.79, P < .001). Compared with women in the lowest tertile of trunk fat, those in the highest tertile had inferior bone quality: lower trabecular bone volume (20.4 ± 5.8 vs 29.1 ± 6.1%; P = .001) and stiffness (433 ± 264 vs 782 ± 349 MPa; P = .01) and higher cortical porosity (8.8 ± 3.5 vs 6.3 ± 2.4%; P = .049). Bone formation rate (0.004 ± 0.002 vs 0.011 ± 0.008 mm2/mm · year; P = .006) was 64% lower in the highest tertile. Trunk fat was inversely associated with trabecular bone volume (r = −0.50; P < .01) and bone formation rate (r = −0.50; P < .001). The relationship between trunk fat and bone volume remained significant after controlling for age and BMI. Conclusions: At the tissue level, premenopausal women with more central adiposity had inferior bone quality and stiffness and markedly lower bone formation. Given the rising levels of obesity, these observations require further investigation. PMID:23515452

  15. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mancio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS. However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. Aims To determine the association of body mass index (BMI and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Results Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05. At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.9; p = 0.021 and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1–5.8; p = 0.031 compared with obese/low VAF patients. Conclusions In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of decentralized biomass processing depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Patrick; Roni, Mohammad S; Tumuluru, Jaya S; Jacobson, Jacob J; Cafferty, Kara G; Hansen, Jason K; Kenney, Kevin; Teymouri, Farzaneh; Bals, Bryan

    2015-10-01

    Decentralized biomass processing facilities, known as biomass depots, may be necessary to achieve feedstock cost, quantity, and quality required to grow the future U.S. bioeconomy. In this paper, we assess three distinct depot configurations for technical difference and economic performance. The depot designs were chosen to compare and contrast a suite of capabilities that a depot could perform ranging from conventional pelleting to sophisticated pretreatment technologies. Our economic analyses indicate that depot processing costs are likely to range from ∼US$30 to US$63 per dry metric tonne (Mg), depending upon the specific technology implemented and the energy consumption for processing equipment such as grinders and dryers. We conclude that the benefits of integrating depots into the overall biomass feedstock supply chain will outweigh depot processing costs and that incorporation of this technology should be aggressively pursued. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Associations between Ultrasound Measures of Abdominal Fat Distribution and Indices of Glucose Metabolism in a Population at High Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: The ADDITION-PRO Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Jørgensen, Marit E; Vistisen, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices...... standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt......'s index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations...

  18. Circulating sex hormones and gene expression of subcutaneous adipose tissue oestrogen and alpha-adrenergic receptors in HIV-lipodystrophy: implications for fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ove; Pedersen, Steen B; Svenstrup, Birgit; Hansen, Birgitte R; Paulsen, Søren K; Rathje, Gulla S; Richelsen, Bjørn; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Madsbad, Sten; Iversen, Johan; Haugaard, Steen B

    2007-08-01

    Circulating oestradiol and testosterone, which have been shown to increase in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), may influence fat distribution and insulin sensitivity. Oestradiol increases subcutaneous adipose tissue in humans possibly through binding to oestrogen-receptor-alpha, which in turn activates anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor. To address these issues circulating pituitary-gonadal-axis hormones and gene expression of receptors in subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined in 31 nondiabetic HIV-infected male patients receiving HAART (16 with lipodystrophy), in whom measures of fat distribution (CT and DEXA-scans) and insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp) were available. Total and free oestradiol and testosterone were decreased in lipodystrophic patients compared to nonlipodystrophic patients, whereas luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and prolactin were similar and normal in both study groups. Ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, limb fat, and insulin sensitivity, which were all decreased in lipodystrophic patients, correlated positively with both plasma oestradiol and testosterone (n = 31). Glycerol concentration during clamp (a marker of lipolysis) correlated inversely with expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor, ratio of subcutaneous to total abdominal fat mass, and limb fat, respectively. Expression of alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor correlated positively with expression of oestrogen-receptor-alpha. The results fit the hypothesis that sex hormones play a role in altered fat distribution and insulin sensitivity of male patients with HIV-lipodystrophy. The effect of oestradiol on the subcutaneous fat depot and lipolysis may be mediated in part through binding to the oestrogen-receptor-alpha, in turn activating anti-lipolytic alpha2A-adrenergic-receptor.

  19. Body Mass Index, Abdominal Fatness, and Heart Failure Incidence and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Romundstad, Pål; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J

    2016-02-16

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk of heart failure, but whether overweight also increases risk is unclear. It is also unclear whether abdominal adiposity is more strongly associated with heart failure risk than general adiposity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between general and abdominal adiposity and the risk of heart failure. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to October 10, 2014. Summary relative risks were calculated using random-effects models. A total of 28 studies (27 publications) were included. Twenty-three prospective studies with >15 905 incident cases among 647 388 participants were included in the analysis of body mass index and heart failure incidence, and 4 studies were included for heart failure mortality. The summary relative risk for a 5-unit increment in body mass index was 1.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.47; I(2)=83%) for heart failure incidence and 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.87; I(2)=95%) heart failure mortality. Although the test for nonlinearity was significant (Pfailure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND DYNAMICS OF ACCUMULATION OF FAT IN BODY CAVITY OF THE CASPIAN SEA GREY MULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Adueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches fatness of grey mullets during their reproductive cycle. It was established that in spring fat depot is practically absent in grey mullets body-cavity. In summer accumulation of energy substances takes place. In August most of the examined fish had fatness of 2-3 points, but in September the number of fish with minimal fatness increases. Large content of fat in the body-cavity of grey mullets (female is found in the prime of ovogenesis. In the IV stage of ma-turity, when intensive trophoplasmic growth of acolytes takes place, fatness sharply decreases and grey mullets come to the prespawning period practically with waste fat depot. Accumulation of lipids in muscular tissue of grey mullets as against fat depot in body-cavity takes place independently of maturation of ovary. 

  1. Análise da relação entre a estatura e o perímetro abdominal em indivíduos portadores de percentuais normais de gordura Relationship between the stature and abdominal circumference in individuals with normal fat percentages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Celso de Lima

    2010-03-01

    da razão cintura-estatura entre indivíduos do sexo masculino de faixa etária entre 18 e 25 anos portadores de percentual normal de gordura de 43% do valor de sua estatura.BACKGROUND: Obese people have evident morphologic changes characterizing the syndrome. Different parameters and index are used to analyze their anthropometric measurements related to metabolic diseases. Many of these are applied widely to the population in general. AIM: To verify the existence of the waist-height common in male individuals from 18 to 25 years of age, with normal percentages of fat, to provide a method for measuring the circumference (perimeter abdominal. METHODS: It was selected a non-probabilistic intentional 380 male subjects group, aged between 18 and 45 years (2004 to 2008 with160 to 169 cm, 170 to 179 cm and 180 to 189 cm of height, taken from the database Outpatient Clinic School Company IBRATE - Brazilian Institute of Therapy and Education, based in Curitiba, PR, Brasil. From this population were screened 174 individuals, aged between 18 and 25 years, owners of percentage of fat within the normal range between 4% and 16%. Spearman's correlation coefficient (r was used between fat percentage and waist circumference, determined by mean and standard deviation of all variables, with confidence interval of 95% for average waist circumference and population reasons waist-height. RESULTS: The analysis showed 174 men with age 21,2 + 2,1 y; height 174,3 + 6,2 cm; fat percentage of 10,8 %; abdominal circumference of 75,5 + 5,7 cm and waist-height reason of 0,43 + 0,033. CONCLUSION: There is a correlation in the waist-height among men from 18 and 25 years old with normal fat percentage of 43% of the stature.

  2. Obesity associated disease risk: the role of inherent differences and location of adipose depots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jessica H; Solt, Claudia; Foster, Michelle T

    2018-03-16

    Obesity and associated metabolic co-morbidities are a worldwide public health problem. Negative health outcomes associated with obesity, however, do not arise from excessive adiposity alone. Rather, deleterious outcomes of adipose tissue accumulation are a result of how adipocytes are distributed to individual regions in the body. Due to our increased understanding of the dynamic relationship that exists between specific adipose depots and disease risk, an accurate characterization of total body adiposity as well as location is required to properly evaluate a population's disease risk. Specifically, distinctive tissue depots within the body include the lower body, upper body and abdominal (deep and superficial) subcutaneous regions, as well as visceral (mesenteric and omental) regions. Upper body and visceral adipose tissues are highly associated with metabolic dysfunction and chronic disease development, whereas lower body gluteofemoral subcutaneous adipose tissue imparts protection against diet-induced metabolic derangement. Each adipose depot functions distinctly as an endocrine organ hence it has a different level of impact on health outcomes. Effluent from adipose tissue can modulate the functions of other tissues, whilst receiving differential communication from the rest of the body via central nervous system innervation, metabolites and other signaling molecules. More so, adipose depots contain a diverse reservoir of tissue-resident immune cells that play an integral part in both maintaining tissue homeostasis, as well as propagating metabolically-induced inflammation. Overall, the conceptualization of obesity and associated risks needs updating to reflect the complexities of obesity. We review adipose tissue characteristics that are linked to deleterious or beneficial adipose tissue distributions.

  3. Clinical usefulness of abdominal bioimpedance (ViScan) in the determination of visceral fat and its application in the diagnosis and management of obesity and its comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; González-Crespo, Ignacio; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Moncada, Rafael; Valentí, Víctor; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Silva, Camilo; Gil, María J; Salvador, Javier; Benito, Alberto; Colina, Inmaculada; Frühbeck, Gema

    2018-04-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) has been shown to be profoundly responsible of most of the obesity-associated metabolic derangements. The measurement of VAT usually implies the use of imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (CT). Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of the determination of VAT by means of abdominal bioimpedance (BIA) with the ViScan device in comparison with CT and its clinical usefulness in the management of obesity. We studied a sample of 140 subjects (73 males/67 females) with BMI ranging from 17.7 to 50.4 kg/m 2 to evaluate the accuracy of the ViScan in comparison to CT to determine VAT. To further analyze ViScan's clinical usefulness we studied a separate cohort (n = 2849) analyzing cardiometabolic risk factors. Furthermore, we studied the ability of the ViScan to detect changes in VAT after weight gain (n = 107) or weight loss (n = 335). The study was performed from October 2009 through June 2015. ViScan determines VAT with a good accuracy in individuals with a CT-VAT up to 200 cm 2 , and then with lower precision with increasing body mass, exhibiting a moderate-high correlation with CT-VAT (r = 0.75, P VAT determination with the ViScan exhibits better correlations with several cardiometabolic risk factors such as glucose, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and markers of fatty liver than anthropometric measurements such as BMI or waist circumference. ViScan is able to detect VAT variations after body weight changes. Since the possibility of measuring VAT by imaging techniques is not always available, abdominal BIA represents a good alternative to estimate VAT, allowing the identification of patients with increased VAT-related cardiometabolic risk and a better management of obese patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01055626 and NCT01572090. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic stress and comfort foods: self-medication and abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallman, Mary F; Pecoraro, Norman C; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2005-07-01

    Central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) networks are recruited by chronic stressors and elevated glucocorticoids (GCs) that initiate recruitment of central CRF activity in the amygdala. Increased central activity of the CRF network stimulates all monoaminergic cell groups, as well as premotor autonomic and other limbic structures resulting in the typical arousal, behavioral changes, autonomic, and neuroendocrine changes that accompany the chronic imposition of a stressor. By contrast, elevated GCs appear, through a variety of means to counteract the effects of central CRF, which they have initiated. Together with insulin, the GCs stimulate drive for and ingestion of "comfort foods" that may directly result in reduction of the negative effects of the chronic stressor in the nucleus Accumbens, through stimulation of the anterior, more pleasure-associated part of this cell group, thus reducing the weight of the stress-stimulated posterior, more defensive part. Furthermore, the shift in caloric intake from chow to preference for "comfort foods," together with elevated GCs and insulin, reorganize energy stores from a peripheral to a central distribution, primarily as abdominal fat. A signal associated with this fat depot appears, as with eating "comfort foods," to reduce the influence of the chronic stress network on behaviors, autonomic, and neuroendocrine outflow.

  5. Associations between ultrasound measures of abdominal fat distribution and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes: the ADDITION-PRO study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelotte Philipsen

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue measured by CT or MRI is strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile. We assessed whether similar associations can be found with ultrasonography, by quantifying the strength of the relationship between different measures of obesity and indices of glucose metabolism in a population at high risk of type 2 diabetes.A cross-sectional analysis of 1342 participants of the ADDITION-PRO study. We measured visceral adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue with ultrasonography, anthropometrics and body fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance. Indices of glucose metabolism were derived from a three point oral glucose tolerance test. Linear regression of obesity measures on indices of glucose metabolism was performed.Mean age was 66.2 years, BMI 26.9kg/m2, subcutaneous adipose tissue 2.5cm and visceral adipose tissue 8.0cm. All measures of obesity were positively associated with indicators of glycaemia and inversely associated with indicators of insulin sensitivity. Associations were of equivalent magnitude except for subcutaneous adipose tissue and the visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio, which showed weaker associations. One standard deviation difference in BMI, visceral adipose tissue, waist circumference, waist/height ratio and body fat percentage corresponded approximately to 0.2mmol/l higher fasting glucose, 0.7mmol/l higher 2-hr glucose, 0.06-0.1% higher HbA1c, 30 % lower HOMA index of insulin sensitivity, 20% lower Gutt's index of insulin sensitivity, and 100 unit higher Stumvoll's index of beta-cell function. After adjustment for waist circumference visceral adipose tissue was still significantly associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, whereas there was a trend towards inverse or no associations with subcutaneous adipose tissue. After adjustment, a 1cm increase in visceral adipose tissue was associated with ~5% lower insulin sensitivity (p≤0.0004 and ~0.18mmol/l higher 2-hr

  6. Abdominal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordany, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Abdominal injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. Ten percent of trauma-related deaths are due to abdominal injury. Thousands of children are involved in auto accidents annually; many suffer severe internal injury. Child abuse is a second less frequent but equally serious cause of internal abdominal injury. The descriptions of McCort and Eisenstein and their associates in the 1960s first brought to attention the frequency and severity of visceral injury as important manifestations of the child abuse syndrome. Blunt abdominal trauma often causes multiple injuries; in the past, many children have been subjected to exploratory surgery to evaluate the extent of possible hidden injury. Since the advent of noninvasive radiologic imaging techniques including radionuclide scans and ultrasound and, especially, computed tomography (CT), the radiologist has been better able to assess (accurately) the extent of abdominal injury and thus allow conservative therapy in many cases. Penetrating abdominal trauma occurs following gunshot wounds, stabbing, and other similar injury. This is fortunately, a relatively uncommon occurrence in most pediatric centers and will not be discussed specifically here, although many principles of blunt trauma diagnosis are valid for evaluation of penetrating abdominal trauma. If there is any question that a wound has extended intraperitonelly, a sinogram with water-soluble contrast material allows quick, accurate diagnosis. The presence of large amounts of free intraperitoneal gas suggests penetrating injury to the colon or other gas-containing viscus and is generally considered an indication for surgery

  7. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Adipose Tissues Reveals that ECM-Receptor Interaction Is Involved in the Depot-Specific Adipogenesis in Cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Jeong Lee

    Full Text Available Adipocytes mainly function as energy storage and endocrine cells. Adipose tissues showed the biological and genetic difference based on their depots. The difference of adipocytes between depots might be influenced by the inherent genetic programing for adipogenesis. We used RNA-seq technique to investigate the transcriptomes in 3 adipose tissues of omental (O, subcutaneous (S and intramuscular (I fats in cattle. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the bovine genome using Tophat2. Differentially expressed genes (DEG between adipose tissues were detected by EdgeR. We identified 5797, 2156, and 5455 DEGs in the comparison between OI, OS, and IS respectively and also found 5657 DEGs in the comparison between the intramuscular and the combined omental and subcutaneous fats (C (FDR<0.01. Depot specifically up- and down- regulated DEGs were 853 in S, 48 in I, and 979 in O. The numbers of DEGs and functional annotation studies suggested that I had the different genetic profile compared to other two adipose tissues. In I, DEGs involved in the developmental process (eg. EGR2, FAS, and KLF7 were up-regulated and those in the immune system process were down-regulated. Many DEGs from the adipose tissues were enriched in the various GO terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that the ECM-receptor interaction was one of commonly enriched pathways in all of the 3 adipose tissues and also functioned as a sub-pathway of other enriched pathways. However, genes involved in the ECM-receptor interaction were differentially regulated depending on the depots. Collagens, main ECM constituents, were significantly up-regulated in S and integrins, transmembrane receptors, were up-regulated in I. Different laminins were up-regulated in the different depots. This comparative transcriptome analysis of three adipose tissues suggested that the interactions between ECM components and transmembrane receptors of fat cells

  8. Recombinant human growth hormone and rosiglitazone for abdominal fat accumulation in HIV-infected patients with insulin resistance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall J Glesby

    Full Text Available Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT volume.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA. Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02; by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03 differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004, increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5% or control arms (-1.9%. SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter.The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00130286.

  9. Recombinant human growth hormone and rosiglitazone for abdominal fat accumulation in HIV-infected patients with insulin resistance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glesby, Marshall J; Albu, Jeanine; Chiu, Ya-Lin; Ham, Kirsis; Engelson, Ellen; He, Qing; Muthukrishnan, Varalakshmi; Ginsberg, Henry N; Donovan, Daniel; Ernst, Jerry; Lesser, Martin; Kotler, Donald P

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) reduces visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume in HIV-infected patients but can worsen glucose homeostasis and lipoatrophy. We aimed to determine if adding rosiglitazone to rhGH would abrogate the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity (SI) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volume. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial using a 2×2 factorial design in which HIV-infected subjects with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance were randomized to rhGH 3 mg daily, rosiglitazone 4 mg twice daily, combination rhGH + rosiglitazone, or double placebo (control) for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in SI by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test from entry to week 12. Body composition was assessed by whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dual Xray absorptiometry (DEXA). Seventy-seven subjects were randomized of whom 72 initiated study drugs. Change in SI from entry to week 12 differed across the 4 arms by 1-way ANCOVA (P = 0.02); by pair-wise comparisons, only rhGH (decreasing SI; P = 0.03) differed significantly from control. Changes from entry to week 12 in fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve on 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test differed across arms (1-way ANCOVA P = 0.004), increasing in the rhGH arm relative to control. VAT decreased significantly in the rhGH arms (-17.5% in rhGH/rosiglitazone and -22.7% in rhGH) but not in the rosiglitazone alone (-2.5%) or control arms (-1.9%). SAT did not change significantly in any arm. DEXA results were consistent with the MRI data. There was no significant rhGH x rosiglitazone interaction for any body composition parameter. The addition of rosiglitazone abrogated the adverse effects of rhGH on insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance while not significantly modifying the lowering effect of rhGH on VAT. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00130286.

  10. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at greater risk of having anxiety as young adults [2] . Abdominal pain or bellyaches in children What ... can help the overall situation for the child. Teaching kids self-hypnosis [8] or guided imagery [8a] ...

  11. Abdominal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diverticulitis ) Inflammation of the pancreas ( acute or chronic pancreatitis ) Liver abscess Pockets of infection (retroperitoneal abscess, abdominal abscess , pelvic abscess) Pregnancy outside of the uterus ( ectopic pregnancy ) Scar tissue ...

  12. Abdominal Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to ease your pain. For instance, eat smaller meals if your pain is accompanied by indigestion. Avoid ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/abdominal-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050728 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  13. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alojz Pleskovič

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most common cause of abdominal trauma is blunt trauma, gunshot wounds and stab wounds are rare. Most commonly injured organs in abdominal cavity are the spleen and the liver.Conclusions. Early diagnosis is very important and include precise phisical examination and all available diagnostic methods. The final decission about the method of treatmet depends on patients clinical condition, surgeon’s experience and other local conditions.

  14. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Heretofore, discussions of space fuel depots assumed the depots would be supplied from Earth. However, the confirmation of deposits of water ice at the lunar poles in 2009 suggests the possibility of supplying a space depot with liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen produced from lunar ice. This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar resources. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the location of the depot (on the Moon, or at L1, GEO, or LEO), the location of propellant transfer (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the method of propellant transfer (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 potential architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a satellite servicing mission and a cargo mission to Mars - were used to create demand for propellants, while a third DRM - a propellant delivery mission - was used to examine supply issues. The architectures were depicted graphically in a network diagram with individual segments representing the movement of propellant from the Moon to the depot, and from the depot to the customer.

  15. Stock Funding of Depot Level Reparables: Win, Lose, or Draw?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    trends Identified, Based on this analysis, it appears that the stook funiding of depot level reparables in adversely affauting •qulpmnnt availability...Deborah A. Elliot, "The Effect of Defense Management Revlow Decision 904. Stook Funding of Depot Level Reparables, on Cash Flow within the Reparable

  16. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate in Petroleum Depot Workers and Petrol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) values in litres per minute were determined in petrol depot loaders, petrol station attendants and in control subjects. The PEFR values were 315 ± 94, 386 + 91 and 529 + 94 litres/min. in depot workers, petrol attendants and control subjects respectively. The value in the control subjects ...

  17. Expression of Genes Related to Prostaglandin Synthesis or Signaling in Human Subcutaneous and Omental Adipose Tissue: Depot Differences and Modulation by Adipogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréanne Michaud

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To examine depot-specific PGE2 and PGF2α release and mRNA expression of enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling in human adipose tissues; (2 to identify changes in expression of these transcripts through preadipocyte differentiation; and (3 to examine associations between adipose tissue mRNA expression of these transcripts and adiposity measurements. Methods. Fat samples were obtained surgically in women. PGE2 and PGF2α release by preadipocytes and adipose tissue explants was measured. Expression levels of mRNA coding for enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling were measured by RT-PCR. Results. Cultured preadipocytes and explants from omental fat released more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot and the corresponding transcripts showed consistent depot differences. Following preadipocyte differentiation, expression of PLA2G16 and PTGER3 mRNA was significantly increased whereas COX-1, COX-2, PTGIS, and PTGES mRNA abundance were decreased in both compartments (P≤0.01 for all. Transcripts that were stimulated during adipogenesis were those that correlated best with adiposity measurements. Conclusion. Cells from the omental fat compartment release more PGE2 and PGF2α than those from the subcutaneous depot. Obesity modulates expression of PG-synthesizing enzymes and PG receptors which likely occurs through adipogenesis-induced changes in expression of these transcripts.

  18. Sonographic evaluation of visceral fat by measuring para- and perirenal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Satsuki; Aoki, Kazutaka; Hasegawa, Osamu; Numata, Kazushi; Tanaka, Katsuaki; Shibata, Naomi; Shimada, Sumiko; Okamura, Atsushi; Terauchi, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate a new method of determining visceral fat amount by measuring para- and perirenal fat on abdominal sonography. Fifty-seven patients hospitalized for treatment of their diabetes were examined via waist circumference, abdominal sonography, and CT. On sonography, the thickness of combined para- and perirenal fat was measured between the kidney and the inner aspect of the abdominal musculature. Measurements on both sides were averaged as the ultrasound fat thickness (UFT). The visceral fat area was measured on abdominal CT scans at the umbilicus level. Visceral fat deposition was considered elevated above 100 cm2. UFT correlated significantly with VFA and waist circumference (p or =10 mm reflects increased visceral fat deposition. (Copyright) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enhanced cortisol production rates, free cortisol, and 11beta-HSD-1 expression correlate with visceral fat and insulin resistance in men: effect of weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jonathan Q; Kahn, Steven E; Samuels, Mary H; Brandon, David; Loriaux, D Lynn; Brunzell, John D

    2009-02-01

    Controversy exists as to whether endogenous cortisol production is associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance in humans. We therefore quantified cortisol production and clearance rates, abdominal fat depots, insulin sensitivity, and adipocyte gene expression in a cohort of 24 men. To test whether the relationships found are a consequence rather than a cause of obesity, eight men from this larger group were studied before and after weight loss. Daily cortisol production rates (CPR), free cortisol levels (FC), and metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were measured by stable isotope methodology and 24-h sampling; intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous fat (SQF) by computed tomography; insulin sensitivity (S(I)) by frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; and adipocyte 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (11beta-HSD-1) gene expression by quantitative RT-PCR from subcutaneous biopsies. Increased CPR and FC correlated with increased IAF, but not SQF, and with decreased S(I). Increased 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression correlated with both IAF and SQF and with decreased S(I). With weight loss, CPR, FC, and MCR did not change compared with baseline; however, with greater loss in body fat than lean mass during weight loss, both CPR and FC increased proportionally to final fat mass and IAF and 11beta-HSD-1 decreased compared with baseline. These data support a model in which increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in men promotes selective visceral fat accumulation and insulin resistance and may promote weight regain after diet-induced weight loss, whereas 11beta-HSD-1 gene expression in SQF is a consequence rather than cause of adiposity.

  20. Ligand Depot: a data warehouse for ligands bound to macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zukang; Chen, Li; Maddula, Himabindu; Akcan, Ozgur; Oughtred, Rose; Berman, Helen M; Westbrook, John

    2004-09-01

    Ligand Depot is an integrated data resource for finding information about small molecules bound to proteins and nucleic acids. The initial release (version 1.0, November, 2003) focuses on providing chemical and structural information for small molecules found as part of the structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank. Ligand Depot accepts keyword-based queries and also provides a graphical interface for performing chemical substructure searches. A wide variety of web resources that contain information on small molecules may also be accessed through Ligand Depot. Ligand Depot is available at http://ligand-depot.rutgers.edu/. Version 1.0 supports multiple operating systems including Windows, Unix, Linux and the Macintosh operating system. The current drawing tool works in Internet Explorer, Netscape and Mozilla on Windows, Unix and Linux.

  1. Celtic steel - an evaluation of depot finds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presslinger, H.; Mayr, M. [Vereinigte Oesterreichische Eisen- und Stahlwerke AG (VOeST)-Alpine Industrieanlagenbau GmbH, Linz (Austria)

    2001-08-01

    In the course of archaeological excavations on the Gruendberg in Linz/Austria, several depots containing a total of 45 steel objects were discovered. These depots had been set up around 100 before Christ (BC). 25 objects were used to take samples for metallographic and microanalytical investigations. In the exercise of his trade, the Celtic smith could resort to different steel grades: non-alloyed, carbon alloyed, phosphorus alloyed. The technique applied was that of fire-forging single pieces of steel - which had previously been widened by hammering - to give flat bars showing a multi-layer structure. For workpieces with special requirements with regard both to hardness and to toughness, a number of carefully selected flat bars with differing contents of alloying metals were bonded by forge welding, which produced a compound material. Hardening by cold working as well as by torquing was already known to these Celtic craftsmen. To obtain tools with a hard edge and a tough core, cementation was used. (orig.)

  2. Metabolic regulation and the anti-obesity perspectives of human brown fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-01-01

    is depot specific and originating from BAT. In conclusion, to utilize the anti-obesity potential of human BAT focus should be directed towards identifying novel regulators of brown and beige fat progenitor cells, as well as feedback mechanisms of BAT activation. This would allow for identification of novel...... shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat. Batokines also seems to be involved in BAT recruitment by stimulating proliferation...... and differentiation of brown fat progenitors. Increasing human BAT capacity could thus include inducing brown fat biogenesis as well as identifying novel batokines. Another attractive approach would be to induce a brown fat phenotype, the so-called brite or beige fat, within the white fat depots. In adult humans...

  3. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  4. Local androgen inactivation in abdominal visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Karine; Richard, Christian; Bélanger, Chantal; Dupont, Pierre; Daris, Marleen; Laberge, Philippe; Luu-The, Van; Tchernof, André

    2003-12-01

    We examined the expression and activity of two enzymes from the aldoketoreductase (AKR) family 1C, namely type 5 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD-5, AKR1C3) and type 3 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3alpha-HSD-3, AKR1C2) in female sc and omental adipose tissue and in preadipocyte primary cultures. 17beta-HSD-5 preferentially synthesizes testosterone from the inactive adrenal precursor androstenedione, whereas 3alpha-HSD-3 inactivates dihydrotestosterone. mRNAs of both enzymes were detected in adipose tissue from the omental and sc compartments. Real-time PCR quantification indicated a 3-fold higher 3alpha-HSD-3 expression compared with 17beta-HSD-5, and the expression of both enzymes tended to be higher in the sc vs. the omental depot. Accordingly, dose-response and time-course experiments performed in preadipocyte primary cultures indicated that 3alpha-HSD activity was higher than 17beta-HSD activity (13-fold maximum velocity difference). We measured 3alpha-HSD activity in omental and sc adipose tissue samples of 32 women for whom body composition and body fat distribution were evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and CT, respectively. We found that androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue through 3alpha-HSD activity was significantly higher in women with elevated vs. low visceral adipose tissue accumulation (1.7-fold difference; P < 0.05). Moreover, omental adipose tissue 3alpha-HSD activity was positively and significantly associated with CT-measured visceral adipose tissue (r = 0.43; P < 0.02) and omental adipocyte diameter (r = 0.42; P < 0.02). These results indicate that local androgen inactivation is a predominant reaction in female abdominal adipose tissue, with the greatest conversion rates observed in the presence of abdominal visceral obesity. Increased androgen inactivation in omental adipose tissue of abdominally obese women may impact locally on the regulation of adipocyte metabolism.

  5. Fat grafting to the hand in patients with Raynaud phenomenon: a novel therapeutic modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, Jonathan; Fuller, Sam M; Henry, Ginard I; Zachary, Lawrence S

    2014-05-01

    Raynaud phenomenon causes progressively decreasing blood flow to the extremities, resulting from an imbalance between vasoconstriction and vasodilation. Treatment options include biofeedback, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, calcium channel inhibitors, botulinum toxin injection, or surgical sympathectomy. The authors propose fat grafting to the hands as a method to delay progression of the disease. Indications included symptomatic Raynaud phenomenon with failure of previous management. Fat is harvested from abdominal depots. Approximately 30 ml of decanted fat is injected by means of blunt cannulae: 10 to 15 ml in the dorsum of the hand, 2 to 3 ml in the snuffbox, 1 to 2 ml in each dorsal webspace, 3 to 4 ml along the superficial palmar arch, 1 to 2 ml in volar webspaces 2 to 4, and 2 to 3 ml in the first webspace. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative laser speckle imaging study to assess changes in perfusion. A total of 13 patients were treated (21 hands). Twelve patients had undergone prior botulinum toxin injection, and 11 patients had prior sympathectomies. Findings included reduced pain (average reduction, 6.86 of 10 to 2.38 of 10), fewer cold attacks, improved skin and soft-tissue texture, decrease in ulcerations, and patient-reported improved function. Three patients had no changes. Increased blood flow per imaging was noted in five of 11 hands tested. Six patients had decreased readings on laser imaging. None of the laser speckle imaging changes were statistically significant, and they did not correlate clinically. There were no major complications. Preliminary results of fat grafting to the hands of patients with Raynaud phenomenon revealed improved symptomatology with evidence suggestive of measurably increased perfusion in some cases. Fat grafting may benefit the management of this patient population. Therapeutic, IV.

  6. Sedentary lifestyle related exosomal release of Hotair from gluteal-femoral fat promotes intestinal cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiaozhao; Bai, Danna; Liu, Xiangwei; Zhou, Chen; Yang, Guodong

    2017-01-01

    Pioneering epidemiological work has established strong association of sedentary lifestyle and obesity with the risk of colorectal cancer, while the detailed underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we show that Hotair (HOX transcript antisense RNA) is a pro-adipogenic long non-coding RNA highly expressed in gluteal-femoral fat over other fat depots. Hotair knockout in adipose tissue results in gluteal-femoral fat defect. Squeeze of the gluteal-femoral fat induces intestinal proliferation in...

  7. Abdominal Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, Jan J

    2016-08-01

    Abdominal infections are an important challenge for the intensive care physician. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, selecting the appropriate regimen is important and, with new drugs coming to the market, correct use is important more than ever before and abdominal infections are an excellent target for antimicrobial stewardship programs. Biomarkers may be helpful, but their exact role in managing abdominal infections remains incompletely understood. Source control also remains an ongoing conundrum, and evidence is increasing that its importance supersedes the impact of antibiotic therapy. New strategies such as open abdomen management may offer added benefit in severely ill patients, but more data are needed to identify its exact role. The role of fungi and the need for antifungal coverage, on the other hand, have been investigated extensively in recent years, but at this point, it remains unclear who requires empirical as well as directed therapy.

  8. Sucrose-sweetened beverages increase fat storage in the liver, muscle, and visceral fat depot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærsk, Maria; Sparre, Anita Belza; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of sucrose-sweetened soft drinks (SSSDs) has been associated with obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders in observational and short-term intervention studies. Too few long-term intervention studies in humans have examined the effects of soft drinks....

  9. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A; Biscotti, D; Vicennati, V; Gagliardi, L; Colitta, D; Fiorini, S; Cognigni, G E; Filicori, M; Morselli-Labate, A M

    2000-08-01

    Abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Dietary-induced weight loss and the administration of insulin-lowering drugs, such as metformin, are usually followed by improved hyperandrogenism and related clinical abnormalities. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined hypocaloric diet and metformin on body weight, fat distribution, the glucose-insulin system, and hormones in a group of 20 obese PCOS women [body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2] with the abdominal phenotype (waist to hip ratio >0.80), and an appropriate control group of 20 obese women who were comparable for age and pattern of body fat distribution but without PCOS. At baseline, we measured sex hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and leptin blood concentrations and performed an oral glucose tolerance test and computerized tomography (CT) at the L4-L5 level, to measure sc adipose tissue area (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue area. All women were then given a low-calorie diet (1,200-1,400 kcal/day) alone for one month, after which anthropometric parameters and CT scan were newly measured. While continuing dietary treatment, PCOS women and obese controls were subsequently placed, in a random order, on metformin (850 mg/os, twice daily) (12 and 8, respectively) or placebo (8 and 12, respectively), according to a double-blind design, for the following 6 months. Blood tests and the CT scan were performed in each woman at the end of the study while they were still on treatment. During the treatment period, 3 women of the control group (all treated with placebo) were excluded because of noncompliance; and 2 PCOS women, both treated with metformin, were also excluded because they became pregnant. Therefore, the women cohort available for final statistical analysis included 18 PCOS (10 treated with metformin and 8 with placebo) and 17 control women (8 treated with metformin and 9 with placebo). The treatment was

  10. Abdominal pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... citrus, high-fat foods, fried or greasy foods, tomato products, caffeine, alcohol, and carbonated beverages. Avoid aspirin, ... especially if bright red, maroon or dark, tarry black) Have chest, neck, or shoulder pain Have sudden, ...

  11. Locating Depots for Capacitated Vehicle Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gørtz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    depots, one for each vehicle, and compute routes for the vehicles so that all demands are satisfied and the total cost is minimized. Our main result is a constant-factor approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP. In obtaining this result, we introduce a common generalization of the k-median and minimum...... spanning tree problems (called k median forest), which might be of independent interest. We give a local-search based (3+ε)-approximation algorithm for k median forest, which leads to a (12+ε)-approximation algorithm for k-LocVRP, for any constant ε>0.......We study a location-routing problem in the context of capacitated vehicle routing. The input to the k-location capacitated vehicle routing problem (k-LocVRP) consists of a set of demand locations in a metric space and a fleet of k identical vehicles, each of capacity Q. The objective is to locate k...

  12. Examination of adipose depot-specific PPAR moieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, M.V.; Vierck, J.L.; Hausman, G.J.; Guan, L.L.; Fernyhough, M.E.; Poulos, S.P.; Mir, P.S.; Jiang, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are being defined rapidly, as illustrated by the volume of papers published. Much of the research is directed towards a clinical end-point/application; however, the non-homogeneous nature of adipose depots in laboratory animals is spurring similar research in domestic meat animals (such as beef cattle). Moreover, the size of adipose depots in meat animals remains an attractive feature for using them to obtain cells for PPAR research. Examination of meat-animal depot-specific PPAR moieties may provide novel information about adipocyte regulation that might be extrapolated to all animals.

  13. DEPOT database: Reference manual and user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clancey, P.; Logg, C.

    1991-03-01

    DEPOT has been developed to provide tracking for the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) control system equipment. For each piece of equipment entered into the database, complete location, service, maintenance, modification, certification, and radiation exposure histories can be maintained. To facilitate data entry accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, barcoding technology has been used extensively. DEPOT has been an important tool in improving the reliability of the microsystems controlling SLC. This document describes the components of the DEPOT database, the elements in the database records, and the use of the supporting programs for entering data, searching the database, and producing reports from the information.

  14. Increased Adipocyte Size, Macrophage Infiltration, and Adverse Local Adipokine Profile in Perirenal Fat in Cushing's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerink, S.H.P.P.; Wagenmakers, M.A.E.M.; Langenhuijsen, J.F.; Ballak, D.B.; Rooijackers, H.M.M.; D'Ancona, F.C.H.; Dielen, F.M. van; Smit, J.W.A.; Plantinga, T.S.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze changes in fat cell size, macrophage infiltration, and local adipose tissue adipokine profiles in different fat depots in patients with active Cushing's syndrome. METHODS: Subcutaneous (SC) and perirenal (PR) adipose tissue of 10 patients with Cushing's syndrome was compared to

  15. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  16. Preferential impact of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A deficiency on visceral fat in mice on high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A; Harstad, Sara L; Tchkonia, Tamar; Kirkland, James L

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of visceral fat, more so than subcutaneous fat, is strongly associated with severe metabolic complications. However, the factors regulating depot-specific adipogenesis are poorly understood. In this study, we show differential expression of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), a secreted regulator of local insulin-like growth factor (IGF) action, in adipose tissue of mice. PAPP-A mRNA expression was fivefold higher in visceral (mesenteric) fat compared with subcutaneous (inguinal, subscapular), perirenal, and brown fat of mice. To investigate the possible role of depot-specific PAPP-A expression in fat accumulation, wild-type (WT) and PAPP-A knockout (KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for up to 20 wk. Adipocyte size increased in subcutaneous and perirenal depots similarly in WT and PAPP-A KO mice. However, fat cell size and in vivo lipid uptake were significantly reduced in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO compared with WT mice. After 20 wk on HFD, phosphorylation of AKT, a downstream signaling intermediate of IGF-I and insulin receptor activation, was significantly decreased by 50% in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in WT mice, but was significantly increased threefold in mesenteric compared with subcutaneous fat in PAPP-A KO mice. This appeared to be because of enhanced insulin-stimulated signaling in mesenteric fat of PAPP-A KO mice. These data establish fat depot-specific expression of PAPP-A and indicate preferential impact of PAPP-A deficiency on visceral fat in the mouse that is associated with enhanced insulin receptor signaling. Thus, PAPP-A may be a potential target for treatment and/or prevention strategies for visceral obesity and related morbidities.

  17. Inventory Accuracy at the Defense Depot, Columbus, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, F

    1997-01-01

    We identified issues on the accuracy of inventory reporting for materiel stored at the Defense Depot, Columbus, Ohio during our overall audit of the inventory accounts in the FY 1996 Defense Business...

  18. Air Force Depot Maintenance: Analysis of Its Financial Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Air Force depot maintenance activity group is part of the Air Force Working Capital Fund, a revolving fund that relies on sales revenue rather than direct congressional appropriations to finance its operations...

  19. Expandable Cryogenic Tankage for On Orbit Depot Storage, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed expandable depot storage tanks would make it possible to have an on-orbit tank larger in volume than any existing or planned launch vehicles. The size...

  20. Analysis of Light Armored Vehicle Depot Level Maintenance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mullins, Michael; Adams, Troy; Simms, Robert

    2005-01-01

    An analysis of Light Armored Vehicle (LAV) Depot Level Maintenance is conducted to examine the scheduled maintenance cycle and processes in order to determine potential inefficiencies related to cost or time...

  1. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.J. Vitkus

    2008-04-07

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC’s Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007.

  2. Ontogeny and Thermogenic Role for Sternal Fat in Female Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Belinda A; Pope, Mark; Birtwistle, Mark; Loughnan, Rachael; Alagal, Reham; Fuller-Jackson, John-Paul; Perry, Viv; Budge, Helen; Clarke, Iain J; Symonds, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue acting through a unique uncoupling protein (UCP1) has a critical role in preventing hypothermia in newborn sheep but is then thought to rapidly disappear during postnatal life. The extent to which the anatomical location of fat influences postnatal development and thermogenic function in adulthood, particularly following feeding, is unknown, and we examined both in our study. Changes in gene expression of functionally important pathways (i.e., thermogenesis, development, adipogenesis, and metabolism) were compared between sternal and retroperitoneal fat depots together with a representative skeletal muscle over the first month of postnatal life, coincident with the loss of brown fat and the accumulation of white fat. In adult sheep, implanted temperature probes were used to characterize the thermogenic response of fat and muscle to feeding and the effects of reduced or increased adiposity. UCP1 was more abundant in sternal fat than in retroperitoneal fat and was retained only in the sternal depot of adults. Distinct differences in the abundance of gene pathway markers were apparent between tissues, with sternal fat exhibiting some similarities with muscle that were not apparent in the retroperitoneal depot. In adults, the postprandial rise in temperature was greater and more prolonged in sternal fat than in retroperitoneal fat and muscle, a difference that was maintained with altered adiposity. In conclusion, sternal adipose tissue retains UCP1 into adulthood, when it shows a greater thermogenic response to feeding than do muscle and retroperitoneal fat. Sternal fat may be more amenable to targeted interventions that promote thermogenesis in large mammals. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. Trip Reports. Hazardous Waste Minimization and Control at Army Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    regulations because it processes aircraft. Most depot personel expressed the belief that control technology is too expensive and may not be practicable because...perldot, gloss beads, and plastic. A few depots W use some sood as a blasting media, but It is being phased out as a remlt of helth conrns. A da base... technology . Letterkenny is interested in recycling chromium rinse water. These efforts are potential projects under the current Task Order. Tobyhanna’s

  4. Spatial Analysis of Depots for Advanced Biomass Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, Michael R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Webb, Erin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eaton, Laurence M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Martinez Gonzalez, Maria I. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this work was to perform a spatial analysis of the total feedstock cost at the conversion reactor for biomass supplied by a conventional system and an advanced system with depots to densify biomass into pellets. From these cost estimates, the conditions (feedstock cost and availability) for which advanced processing depots make it possible to achieve cost and volume targets can be identified.

  5. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.

    1985-09-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which faciltated the differential diagnosis to tumor recurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so obvious after gastrointestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolus injection. (orig.).

  6. Computed tomography, after abdominal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.; Toedt, H.C.; Hamburg Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The CT-examinations of 131 patients were analyzed after abdominal surgery. After nephrectomy, splenectomy, partial hepatectomy and pancreatectomy a displacement of the neighbouring intraabdominal and retroperitoneal organs was seen. Scar-tissue was observed containing fat, which fascilated the differentialdiagnosis to tumorrecurrency. The changes of the roentgenmorphology were not so abvious after gastro-intestinal surgery. After vascular surgery the permeability of an anastomosis or an operated artery could be demonstrated by bolusinjection. (orig.) [de

  7. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    OpenAIRE

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © 2015 by the Endocrine Society. Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were ...

  8. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression: depot differences and effects of diet and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Rongze

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue play an important role in lipid regulation and metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gene expression levels of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 and fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH are different in subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue, and whether hypocaloric diet and aerobic exercise influence subcutaneous adipose tissue CB1 and FAAH gene expression in obese women. Methods Thirty overweight or obese, middle-aged women (BMI = 34.3 ± 0.8 kg/m2, age = 59 ± 1 years underwent one of three 20-week weight loss interventions: caloric restriction only (CR, N = 9, caloric restriction plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CRM, 45-50% HRR, N = 13, or caloric restriction plus vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (CRV, 70-75% HRR, N = 8. Subcutaneous abdominal and gluteal adipose tissue samples were collected before and after the interventions to measure CB1 and FAAH gene expression. Results At baseline, FAAH gene expression was higher in abdominal, compared to gluteal adipose tissue (2.08 ± 0.11 vs. 1.78 ± 0.10, expressed as target gene/β-actin mRNA ratio × 10-3, P Conclusions There are depot differences in subcutaneous adipose tissue endocannabinoid system gene expression in obese individuals. Aerobic exercise training may preferentially modulate abdominal adipose tissue endocannabinoid-related gene expression during dietary weight loss. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00664729.

  10. Thermal Examination of an Orbiting Cryogenic Fuel Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Patrick V.; Canfield, Steven L.; Carrington, Connie; Fikes, John

    2002-01-01

    For many years NASA has been interested in the storage and transfer of cryogenic fuels in space. Lunar, L2 and other chemical propulsive space vehicle missions now have staged refueling needs that a fuel depot would satisfy. The depot considered is located in lower earth orbit. Many considerations must go into designing and building such a station. Multi-layer insulation systems, thermal shielding and low conductive structural supports are the principal means of protecting the system from excessive heat loss due to boiloff. This study focuses on the thermal losses associated with storing LH2 in a passively cooled fuel depot in a lower earth equatorial orbit. The corresponding examination looks at several configurations of the fuel depot. An analytical model has been developed to determine the thermal advantages and disadvantages of three different fuel depot configurations. Each of the systems consists of three Boeing rocket bodies arranged in various configurations. The first two configurations are gravity gradient stabilized while the third one is a spin-stabilized concept. Each concept was chosen for self-righting capabilities as well as the fuel settling capabilities, however the purpose of this paper is to prove which of the three concepts is the most efficient passively cooled system. The specific areas to be discussed are the heating time from the fusion temperature to the vaporization temperature and the amount of boiloff for a specific number of orbits. Each of the previous points is compared using various sun exposed surface areas of the tanks.

  11. Architecture Study for a Fuel Depot Supplied from Lunar Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Thomas M.; Casler, James G.

    2016-01-01

    This architecture study sought to determine the optimum architecture for a fuel depot supplied from lunar assets. Four factors - the location of propellant processing (on the Moon or on the depot), the depot location (on the Moon, L1, GEO, or LEO), the propellant transfer location (L1, GEO, or LEO), and the propellant transfer method (bulk fuel or canister exchange) were combined to identify 18 candidate architectures. Two design reference missions (DRMs) - a commercial satellite servicing mission and a Government cargo mission to Mars - created demand for propellants, while a propellant delivery DRM examined supply issues. The study concluded Earth-Moon L1 is the best location for an orbiting depot. For all architectures, propellant boiloff was less than anticipated, and was far overshadowed by delta-v requirements and resulting fuel consumption. Bulk transfer is the most flexible for both the supplier and customer. However, since canister exchange bypasses the transfer of bulk cryogens and necessary chilldown losses, canister exchange shows promise and merits further investigation. Overall, this work indicates propellant consumption and loss is an essential factor in assessing fuel depot architectures.

  12. Pengembangan Merek dan Pengkajian Strategi Pemasaran di Depot Rasa Suka Kediri

    OpenAIRE

    Raharjo, Rini; Surjani, Rosita Meitha; Rinawiyanti, Esti Dwi

    2013-01-01

    Depot Rasa Suka is a culinary business that provides a variety of Indonesian dishes. However people still do not know and yet loyal to Depot Rasa Suka due to the unavailability of parking space, quite a long serving time, hot room, less attractive promotion and room design. Therefore Depot Rasa Suka need to devise strategies to develop brands through brand equity analysis and improvement of brand elements as well as designing a marketing strategies. The goal of this research is to make Depot ...

  13. Screening for total and abdominal obesity among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of total body fat and distribution has been stressed as a major risk factor for both adults and children. There is paucity of information concerning total and abdominal obesity among university students in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to screen for total and abdominal obesity among university of ...

  14. Prevalence of abdominal obesity among rural South African children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Early detection for increased abdominal fat may be crucial in early prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of the current study was to explore the development of abdominal obesity of Ellisras rural children aged 6 to 14 years over time. Height, waist and hip circumferences were measured twice, yearly from ...

  15. Effects of 8 weeks jogging programme on body fat in untrained Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal fat and total fat mass (TFM) were estimated before and after the training programme. Results indicated no significant (p > 0.05) training effect on abdominal fat but a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in TFM was observed. It was concluded that exercise training of 8-week duration may have significant impact on ...

  16. Clinical pilot study for the automatic segmentation and recognition of abdominal adipose tissue compartments from MRI data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.B.; Bauer, J.S.; Ganter, C.; Markus, C.; Rummeny, E.J.; Engels, H.P.; Hauner, H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In the diagnosis and risk assessment of obesity, both the amount and distribution of adipose tissue compartments are critical factors. We present a hybrid method for the quantitative measurement of human body fat compartments. Materials and Methods: MRI imaging was performed on a 1.5 T scanner. In a pre-processing step, the images were corrected for bias field inhomogeneity. For segmentation and recognition a hybrid algorithm was developed to automatically differentiate between different adipose tissue compartments. The presented algorithm is designed with a combination of shape and intensity-based techniques. To incorporate the presented algorithm into the clinical routine, we developed a graphical user interface. Results from our methods were compared with the known volume of an adipose tissue phantom. To evaluate our method, we analyzed 40 clinical MRI scans of the abdominal region. Results: Relatively low segmentation errors were found for subcutaneous adipose tissue (3.56 %) and visceral adipose tissue (0.29 %) in phantom studies. The clinical results indicated high correlations between the distribution of adipose tissue compartments and obesity. Conclusion: We present an approach that rapidly identifies and quantifies adipose tissue depots of interest. With this method examination and analysis can be performed in a clinically feasible timeframe. (orig.)

  17. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilsanz, Vicente; Chung, Sandra A.; Kaplowitz, Neil

    2011-01-01

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  18. Computer-aided acquisition and logistics support (CALS): Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, N.C.; Greer, D.K.

    1993-04-01

    This CALS Concept of Operations for Depot Maintenance provides the foundation strategy and the near term tactical plan for CALS implementation in the depot maintenance environment. The user requirements enumerated and the overarching architecture outlined serve as the primary framework for implementation planning. The seamless integration of depot maintenance business processes and supporting information systems with the emerging global CALS environment will be critical to the efficient realization of depot user's information requirements, and as, such will be a fundamental theme in depot implementations.

  19. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot - A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect of criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  20. Technology requirements for an orbiting fuel depot: A necessary element of a space infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, R. M.; Corban, R. R.; Willoughby, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    Advanced planning within NASA has identified several bold space exploration initiatives. The successful implementation of these missions will require a supporting space infrastructure which would include a fuel depot, an orbiting facility to store, transfer and process large quantities of cryogenic fluids. In order to adequately plan the technology development programs required to enable the construction and operation of a fuel depot, a multidisciplinary workshop was convened to assess critical technologies and their state of maturity. Since technology requirements depend strongly on the depot design assumptions, several depot concepts are presented with their effect on criticality ratings. Over 70 depot-related technology areas are addressed.

  1. Redistributing Stock in Library Systems with a Depot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, Gerlach; Roodbergen, Kees Jan; van Foreest, Nicky

    Public library organizations often utilize depots for carrying out shipments to libraries in case of stock-outs and for storing low demand rental items at low cost. Similar systems may be employed by rental companies for other rental products such as tools, DVDs, and jewelry. Since shipments deplete

  2. Locoregional cancer therapy using polymer-based drug depots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramazani, F.; van Nostrum, C.F.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.; Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Hennink, W.E.; Kok, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Locoregional delivery of anticancer drugs is an attractive approach to minimize adverse effects associated with intravenous chemotherapy. Polymer-based drug depots injected or implanted intratumorally or adjacent to the tumor can provide long-term local drug exposure. This review highlights studies

  3. Contraception with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical experience with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital st st between 1 of January 2004 and 31 of December 2013 is presented. This was a descriptive retrospective study aimed at establishing the acceptance, safety and ...

  4. Simultaneously Recovering Rolling Stock Schedules and Depot Plans Under Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider two important railway optimization problems. In particular, we focus on the Rolling Stock Rescheduling problem and the Depot Replanning problem, respectively. We present an integrated framework for solving these two problems simultaneously, and show that it is fast enoug...

  5. Multiple-Depot Integrated Vehicle and Crew Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Huisman (Dennis); R. Freling (Richard); A.P.M. Wagelmans (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents two different models and algorithms for integrated vehicle and crew scheduling in the multiple-depot case. The algorithms are both based on a combination of column generation and Lagrangian relaxation. Furthermore, we compare those integrated approaches with each

  6. Whole tree transportation system for timber processing depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Lancaster; Tom Gallagher; Tim  McDonald; Dana Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand for alternative energy has led those who are interested in producing sustainable energy from renewable timber to devise new concepts to satisfy those demands. The concept of timber processing depots, where whole stem trees will be delivered for future processing into wood products and high quality energy fuel, has led to the re-evaluation of our...

  7. Training Needs Analysis for Bus Depot Managers at GSRTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hardik; Gopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: With rapid industrialization and population growth in the urban and rural areas in India, the demand for public transport has risen sharply. In the fast changing scenario in the public transit sector, the role of a bus depot manager (DM) has also undergone substantial transformation. This paper aims to identify and gauge the…

  8. Brown adipose tissue quantification in human neonates using water-fat separated MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerod M Rasmussen

    Full Text Available There is a major resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT biology, particularly regarding its determinants and consequences in newborns and infants. Reliable methods for non-invasive BAT measurement in human infants have yet to be demonstrated. The current study first validates methods for quantitative BAT imaging of rodents post mortem followed by BAT excision and re-imaging of excised tissues. Identical methods are then employed in a cohort of in vivo infants to establish the reliability of these measures and provide normative statistics for BAT depot volume and fat fraction. Using multi-echo water-fat MRI, fat- and water-based images of rodents and neonates were acquired and ratios of fat to the combined signal from fat and water (fat signal fraction were calculated. Neonatal scans (n = 22 were acquired during natural sleep to quantify BAT and WAT deposits for depot volume and fat fraction. Acquisition repeatability was assessed based on multiple scans from the same neonate. Intra- and inter-rater measures of reliability in regional BAT depot volume and fat fraction quantification were determined based on multiple segmentations by two raters. Rodent BAT was characterized as having significantly higher water content than WAT in both in situ as well as ex vivo imaging assessments. Human neonate deposits indicative of bilateral BAT in spinal, supraclavicular and axillary regions were observed. Pairwise, WAT fat fraction was significantly greater than BAT fat fraction throughout the sample (ΔWAT-BAT = 38 %, p<10(-4. Repeated scans demonstrated a high voxelwise correlation for fat fraction (Rall = 0.99. BAT depot volume and fat fraction measurements showed high intra-rater (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.93, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93 and inter-rater reliability (ICCBAT,VOL = 0.86, ICCBAT,FF = 0.93. This study demonstrates the reliability of using multi-echo water-fat MRI in human neonates for quantification throughout the torso of BAT depot volume and fat

  9. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jung Wook

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer

  10. Radiologic findings of abdominal wall endometriosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook [Inje Univ. Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-01

    To evaluate the imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis. In seven of 17 patients with surgically proven endometriosis of the abdominal wall, we retrospectively reviewed the findings of radiologic studies such as abdominal US (n=3), CT (n=4), and MRI (n=1). One patient under went more than one type of imaging, apparently. The surgical history of the seven, and their symptoms and preoperative diagnosis were reviewed, and the size, location, margin and nature of the mass, and the contrast enhancement patterns observed at radiologic studies, were assessed. The chief symptoms were palpable abdominal wall mass (n=5) and lower abdominal pain (n=2) around a surgical scar. Previous surgery included cesarean section (n=5), cesarean section with oophorectomy (n=1) and appendectomy (n=1). Masses were located in the subcutaneous fat layer (n=5) or rectus abdominis muscle (n=2), and their maximum diameter was 2.6 cm. Imaging findings, which correlated closely with the pathologic findings, included a well (n=5) or poorly marginated (n=2) solid mass, with a focal cystic area apparent in two cases. Although imaging findings of abdominal wall endometriosis may not be specific for diagnosis, the presence of a solid abdominal mass in female patients of reproductive age with a history of surgery is a diagnostic pointer.

  11. Beige Adipocytes are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Boström, Pontus; Sparks, Lauren M.; Ye, Li; Choi, Jang Hyun; Giang, An-Hoa; Khandekar, Melin; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schaart, Gert; Huang, Kexin; Tu, Hua; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Hoeks, Joris; Enerbäck, Sven; Schrauwen, Patrick; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Brown fat defends against hypothermia and obesity through thermogenesis mediated by mitochondrial UCP1. Recent data suggest that there are two distinct types of brown fat: classical brown fat derived from a myf-5 cellular lineage and UCP1-positive cells that emerge in white fat from a non-myf-5 lineage. Here we report the cloning of “beige” cells from murine white fat depots. Beige cells resemble white fat cells in having extremely low basal expression of UCP1, but like classical brown fat, they respond to cyclic AMP stimulation with high UCP1 expression and respiration rates. Beige cells have a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown fat and are preferentially sensitive to the polypeptide hormone irisin. Finally, we show that deposits of brown fat previously observed in adult humans are composed of beige adipose cells. These data illustrate a new cell type with therapeutic potential in mouse and human. PMID:22796012

  12. Diagnostic performance of transthyretin measurement in fat tissue of patients with ATTR amyloidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazenberg, B.P.C.; Van Schijndel, B.; Bijzet, J.; Limburg, P.C.; Bos, R.; Haagsma, E.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The diagnostic performance was studied of a transthyretin (TTR) ELISA for detection and characterisation of transthyretin-derived (ATTR) amyloid in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue. Methods: Fat tissue specimens were analysed of 38 consecutive patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis,

  13. Comparison of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging-measured adipose tissue depots in HIV-infected and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Bacchetti, Peter; Kotler, Donald; Lewis, Cora E; Shlipak, Michael G; Punyanitya, Mark; Heymsfield, Steven B; Grunfeld, Carl

    2008-10-01

    Studies in persons without HIV infection have compared adipose tissue measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but no such study has been conducted in HIV-infected (HIV+) subjects, who have a high prevalence of regional fat loss. We compared DXA- with MRI-measured trunk, leg, arm, and total fat in HIV+ and control subjects. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 877 HIV+ subjects and 260 control subjects in FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV Infection), stratified by sex and HIV status. Univariate associations of DXA with MRI were strongest for total and trunk fat (r > or = 0.92) and slightly weaker for leg (r > or = 0.87) and arm (r > or = 0.71) fat. The average estimated limb fat was substantially greater for DXA than for MRI for HIV+ and control men and women (all P < 0.0001). Less of a difference was observed in trunk fat measured by DXA and MRI, but the difference was still statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Bland-Altman plots showed increasing differences and variability. Greater average limb fat in control and HIV+ subjects (both P < 0.0001) was associated with greater differences between DXA and MRI measurements. Because the control subjects had more limb fat than did the HIV+ subjects, greater amounts of fat were measured by DXA than by MRI when control subjects were compared with HIV+ subjects. More HIV+ subjects had leg fat in the bottom decile of the control subjects by DXA than by MRI (P < 0.0001). Although DXA- and MRI-measured adipose tissue depots correlate strongly in HIV+ and control subjects, differences increase as average fat increases, particularly for limb fat. DXA may estimate a higher prevalence of peripheral lipoatrophy than does MRI in HIV+ subjects.

  14. EFFECTS OF FOOD AND DRINK INGESTION ON BODY COMPOSITION VARIABLES OF ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; Martínez Blanco, Javier; García Vega, María del Mar; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-11-01

    to know the changes in trunk fat and visceral fat level determined by abdominal bioelectrical impedance (BIA) as well as other anthropometric measures related to the central or abdominal fat after the ingestion of a lunch. the experimental study was conducted to assess a longitudinal intervention descriptive study. 21 subjects (10 male and 11 female), volunteers who have access to a medical assessment, with an age of 74 ± 13.43 years. Maximal waist circumference in standing position, waist circumference at navel level in supine position and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). In the same position trunk fat and visceral fat level by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis with Tanita AB-140 (ViScan) were obtained before and after meal. anthropometric measures as waist circumference in supine position and SAD did not show significant differences (P > 0.05), after food ingestion, except for a significant increase of the maximal waist circumference in standing position (P 0.05). The percentage changes of the measures were less than 2% for waist circumference in standing position, waist circumference by Viscan, sagittal abdominal diameter and trunk fat and 5.9% for visceral fat ratio. the effects on trunk fat and visceral fat ratio by abdominal bioelectrical impedance are minimal after the ingestion of a portion of food and drink, although it is always recommended to do it in fasting conditions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  15. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  16. Radiological Final Status Survey of the Hammond Depot, Hammond, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitkus, T.J.

    2008-01-01

    ORISE conducted extensive scoping, characterization, and final status surveys of land areas and structures at the DNSC's Hammond Depot located in Hammond, Indiana in multiple phases during 2005, 2006 and 2007. This report provides a detailed discussion of the radiological survey planning, survey implementation, remediation, and the results for these activities supporting the conclusion that radioactive contamination previously identified at the Hammond Depot (HD) has been reduced to levels such that the site may be released without radiological restrictions. The objective of the radiological final status survey (FSS) was to obtain the data necessary to demonstrate compliance with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-approved site-specific derived concentration guideline levels (DCGLs) for both structural surfaces and outdoor areas (ORISE 2006a and NRC 2007). The DCGLs were modeled such that any residual licensed material would not exceed the NRC's basic dose limit for license termination of 25 millirem per year (mrem/y)

  17. [Treatment of Adult Schizophrenic Patients With Depot Antipsychotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Luis Eduardo; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; García Valencia, Jenny; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Ávila-Guerra, Mauricio; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    To determine the indications of long-acting antipsychotic injection and what its effectiveness and safety in adult patients with schizophrenia during the treatment maintenance phase. A clinical practice guideline was elaborated under the parameters of the Methodological Guide of the Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social to identify, synthesize and evaluate the evidence and make recommendations about the treatment and follow-up of adult patients with schizophrenia. The evidence of NICE guide 82 was adopted and updated. The evidence was presented to the Guideline Developing Group and recommendations, employing the GRADE system, were produced. The literature review shows that the evidence has moderate to low quality. 8 articles were used. The risk of relapse was lower with depot risperidone and paliperidone palmitate when compared with placebo. For the risk of hospitalizations comparing depot antipsychotics (APD) versus oral AP, the result is inconclusive. Globally the second-generation APD had a lower risk of discontinuation when compared with placebo. The second generation AP had higher risk of extrapyramidal syndromes than placebo, as in the use of antiparkinsonian. The comparison of second-generation AP injections versus placebo showed an increased risk of early weight gain. The use of depot antipsychotics in the maintenance phase of adult patients diagnosed with schizophrenia is recommended if there is no adherence to oral antipsychotics as the patient's preference. It is not recommended depot antipsychotics in the acute phase of schizophrenia in adults. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. The Home Depot Upgrades its Corporate Building Prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-03-01

    The Home Depot partnered with the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to build new, low-energy buildings that are at least 50% below Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.

  19. DIEP breast reconstruction following multiple abdominal liposuction procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, Mohammed; Nicholson, Simon; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Akali, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Previous abdominal wall surgery is viewed as a contraindication to abdominal free tissue transfer. We present two patients who underwent multiple abdominal liposuction procedures, followed by successful free deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap. We review the literature pertaining to reliability of abdominal free flaps in those with previous abdominal surgery. Review of case notes and radiological investigations of two patients, and a PubMed search using the terms "DIEP", "deep inferior epigastric", "TRAM", "transverse rectus abdominis", "perforator" and "laparotomy", "abdominal wall", "liposuction", "liposculpture", "fat graft", "pfannenstiel", with subsequent appraisal of relevant papers by the first and second authors. Patient 1 had 3 episodes of liposuction from the abdomen for fat grafting to a reconstructed breast. Subsequent revision reconstruction of the same breast with DIEP flap was preceded by CT angiography, which demonstrated normal perforator anatomy. The reconstruction healed well with no ischaemic complications. Patient 2 had 5 liposuction procedures from the abdomen to graft fat to a wide local excision defect. Recurrence of cancer led to mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with free DIEP flap. Preoperative MR angiography demonstrated a large perforator right of the umbilicus, with which the intraoperative findings were consistent. The patient had an uneventful recovery and good healing with no fat necrosis or wound dehiscence. We demonstrate that DIEP flaps can safely be raised without perfusion-related complications following multiple liposuction procedures to the abdomen. The safe interval between procedures is difficult to quantify, but we demonstrate successful free flap after 16 months.

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... accurate. In emergency cases, it can reveal internal injuries and bleeding quickly enough to help save lives. ... kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA), injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of trauma. ...

  2. Characterization of brown adipose tissue by water-fat separated magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romu, Thobias; Elander, Louise; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Persson, Anders; Enerbäck, Sven; Borga, Magnus

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the possibility of quantifying brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume and fat concentration with a high resolution, long echo time, dual-echo Dixon imaging protocol. A 0.42 mm isotropic resolution water-fat separated MRI protocol was implemented by using the second opposite-phase echo and third in-phase echo. Fat images were calibrated with regard to the intensity of nearby white adipose tissue (WAT) to form relative fat content (RFC) images. To evaluate the ability to measure BAT volume and RFC contrast dynamics, rats were divided into two groups that were kept at 4° or 22°C for 5 days. The rats were then scanned in a 70 cm bore 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner and a human dual energy CT. Interscapular, paraaortal, and perirenal BAT (i/pa/pr-BAT) depots as well as WAT and muscle were segmented in the MRI and CT images. Biopsies were collected from the identified BAT depots. The biopsies confirmed that the three depots identified with the RFC images consisted of BAT. There was a significant linear correlation (P fat concentration, induced by cold stimulation. The high correlation between RFC and HU suggests that the fat concentration is the main RFC image contrast mechanism. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Metabolic regulation and the anti-obesity perspectives of human brown fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Camilla; Nielsen, Søren

    2017-08-01

    Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans increase glucose and fatty acid clearance as well as resting metabolic rate, whereas a prolonged elevation of BAT activity improves insulin sensitivity. However, substantial reductions in body weight following BAT activation has not yet been shown in humans. This observation raise the possibility for feedback mechanisms in adult humans in terms of a brown fat-brain crosstalk, possibly mediated by batokines, factors produced by and secreted from brown fat. Batokines also seems to be involved in BAT recruitment by stimulating proliferation and differentiation of brown fat progenitors. Increasing human BAT capacity could thus include inducing brown fat biogenesis as well as identifying novel batokines. Another attractive approach would be to induce a brown fat phenotype, the so-called brite or beige fat, within the white fat depots. In adult humans, white fat tissue transformation into beige has been observed in patients with pheochromocytoma, a norepinephrine-producing tumor. Interestingly, human beige fat is predominantly induced in regions that were BAT during early childhood, possibly reflecting that a presence of human beige progenitors is depot specific and originating from BAT. In conclusion, to utilize the anti-obesity potential of human BAT focus should be directed towards identifying novel regulators of brown and beige fat progenitor cells, as well as feedback mechanisms of BAT activation. This would allow for identification of novel anti-obesity targets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Ultrasonography of anterior abdominal wall lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.N.; Lee, S. K.; Park, H. Y.; Kim, Y. S.; Park, B. H. [Maryrnoll Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    The anterior abdominal wall has received little attention in the ultrasonic evaluation. However recently the improved resolution of ultrasound scanning devices has made possible routine examination of the anterior abdominal wall. The authors evaluated ultrasonographic findings of anterior abdominal wall lesions in 27 cases for 1 year(from July '82 to Aug. '83), which were finally diagnosed pathologically and clinically. The results were as follows: 1. Well defined peritoneal line and layers of the anterior abdominal wall made it possible to localize the lesions accurately from adjacent structures. 2. Abscess and hematoma were lower in echogenecity than adjacent tissues, such as muscle layer or subcutaneous fat space and were well delineated from normal structures. 3. In hernia, easy differentiation was made due to oval shape, poor or decreased echo pattern and protrustion from skin layer. Conclusively, in the doubtful cases of palpable mass in the abdominal wall, postoperative complications of sequele, such as accurately but also the guide of treatment. Ultrasonography of anterior abdominal wall is useful to demonstrate the exact location, extent of the lesions and to decrease the frequency of useless laparatomy

  5. How to get fat: nutritional mechanisms of seasonal fat accumulation in migratory songbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairlein, Franz

    2002-01-01

    Many migratory birds accumulate large amounts of lipids as the prime energy source for their long-distance flights. This fat accumulation is mostly under endogenous control, reflecting genetically programmed temporal shifts of the body mass set point. It is accompanied by an increase in daily food intake and food utilisation efficiency and by a seasonal shift in food selection. In particular, seasonal frugivory appears to play a key role in many migrants. Fruits have a high content of fatty acids indispensable for building up the specific depot lipids. In addition, plant secondary compounds seem to play some kind of supportive role, but the mechanisms are not yet known. The effect of being fat on the metabolic situation in migrant birds appears to be similar to the metabolic syndrome in obese humans. The fat migratory bird provides a model through which to study nutritional factors as well as the biochemical and endocrine regulation of food intake, body mass and obesity.

  6. The interactions between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I and abdominal obesity with metabolism and blood pressure in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmond, R; Björntorp, P

    1998-12-01

    --> T/IGF-I --> WHR or D --> insulin --> triglycerides with additional direct input of blunted Dex on insulin values (see Figure 1). With BMI as determinant, essentially the same results were found with the addition of a direct pathway between Dex and BMI as well as between IGF-I-T and insulin (Figure 2). There was no evidence for pathways where WHR or BMI determined endocrine variables. The results suggest that abdominal obesity with or without endocrine abnormalities exerts a major impact on abnormalities in metabolic and hemodynamic variables. Abdominal obesity seems to be dependent on endocrine abnormalities, which in turn show direct or indirect relationships to the metabolic and circulatory variables, including a direct pathway between HPA-axis perturbations and accumulation of total body fat as indicated by the BMI. It is therefore suggested that endocrine perturbations are followed by obesity and by storage of an elevated proportion of fat in visceral depots, followed by metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities. This is statistical evidence which is supported by evidence of mechanistic links in previous studies, suggesting the possibility of causal relationships. The results also indicate subgroups of abdominal obesity and its associated metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities, which might be due to the input of different pathogenetic factors.

  7. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy products, like cheese, ice cream and butter. Animal fats ... saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy products, like cheese, ice cream and butter. Animal fats ...

  8. Fat containing chylous mesenteric lymphangiomatosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soon Yong; Lim, Jae Hoon; Ko, Young Tae; Lee, Sun Wha; Oh, Soo Myung

    1984-01-01

    We have experienced an unusual case of mesenteric lymphangiomatosis in a 6-month-old male infant. Computed tomography (CT) disclosed fatty abdominal masses with attenuation coefficient being -5∼-28 Hounsfield units (HU). Laparotomy disclosed innumerable small and large chyle containing masses in the mesentery as well as mesenteric root. Pathologically these were confirmed to be cavernous and cystic lymphangiomatosis. One must bear in mind the possibility of lymphangioma in case of fat containing mesenteric mass on CT

  9. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  10. Asociación entre tejido graso abdominal y riesgo de morbilidad: efectos positivos del ejercicio físico en la reducción de esta tendencia Positive effects of physical exercise on reducing the relationship between subcutaneous abdominal fat and morbility risk

    OpenAIRE

    G. González Calvo; S. Hernández Sánchez; P. Pozo Rosado; D. García López

    2011-01-01

    Justificación: Las consecuencias derivadas de la acumulación de grasa abdominal por encima de niveles saludables infligen un considerable daño a nivel orgánico. Entre las consecuencias fisiológicas destacan las enfermedades cardiovasculares, hipertensión, diabetes tipo 2, obesidad y síndrome metabólico, que reducen drásticamente la calidad y esperanza de vida. Hay evidencias de que la mejora de la salud es proporcional al incremento de actividad física. No obstante, el ejercicio físico puede ...

  11. Maternal obesity programs increased leptin gene expression in rat male offspring via epigenetic modifications in a depot-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecoutre, Simon; Oger, Frederik; Pourpe, Charlène; Butruille, Laura; Marousez, Lucie; Dickes-Coopman, Anne; Laborie, Christine; Guinez, Céline; Lesage, Jean; Vieau, Didier; Junien, Claudine; Eberlé, Delphine; Gabory, Anne; Eeckhoute, Jérôme; Breton, Christophe

    2017-08-01

    According to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease (DOHaD) concept, maternal obesity and accelerated growth in neonates predispose offspring to white adipose tissue (WAT) accumulation. In rodents, adipogenesis mainly develops during lactation. The mechanisms underlying the phenomenon known as developmental programming remain elusive. We previously reported that adult rat offspring from high-fat diet-fed dams (called HF) exhibited hypertrophic adipocyte, hyperleptinemia and increased leptin mRNA levels in a depot-specific manner. We hypothesized that leptin upregulation occurs via epigenetic malprogramming, which takes place early during development of WAT. As a first step, we identified in silico two potential enhancers located upstream and downstream of the leptin transcription start site that exhibit strong dynamic epigenomic remodeling during adipocyte differentiation. We then focused on epigenetic modifications (methylation, hydroxymethylation, and histone modifications) of the promoter and the two potential enhancers regulating leptin gene expression in perirenal (pWAT) and inguinal (iWAT) fat pads of HF offspring during lactation (postnatal days 12 (PND12) and 21 (PND21)) and in adulthood. PND12 is an active period for epigenomic remodeling in both deposits especially in the upstream enhancer, consistent with leptin gene induction during adipogenesis. Unlike iWAT, some of these epigenetic marks were still observable in pWAT of weaned HF offspring. Retained marks were only visible in pWAT of 9-month-old HF rats that showed a persistent "expandable" phenotype. Consistent with the DOHaD hypothesis, persistent epigenetic remodeling occurs at regulatory regions especially within intergenic sequences, linked to higher leptin gene expression in adult HF offspring in a depot-specific manner.

  12. Cellular Responses and Tissue Depots for Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Martinez-Skinner

    Full Text Available Long-acting nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART induces a range of innate immune migratory, phagocytic and secretory cell functions that perpetuate drug depots. While recycling endosomes serve as the macrophage subcellular depots, little is known of the dynamics of nanoART-cell interactions. To this end, we assessed temporal leukocyte responses, drug uptake and distribution following both intraperitoneal and intramuscular injection of nanoformulated atazanavir (nanoATV. Local inflammatory responses heralded drug distribution to peritoneal cell populations, regional lymph nodes, spleen and liver. This proceeded for three days in male Balb/c mice. NanoATV-induced changes in myeloid populations were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS with CD45, CD3, CD11b, F4/80, and GR-1 antibodies. The localization of nanoATV within leukocyte cell subsets was determined by confocal microscopy. Combined FACS and ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry assays determined nanoATV carriages by cell-based vehicles. A robust granulocyte, but not peritoneal macrophage nanoATV response paralleled zymosan A treatment. ATV levels were highest at sites of injection in peritoneal or muscle macrophages, dependent on the injection site. The spleen and liver served as nanoATV tissue depots while drug levels in lymph nodes were higher than those recorded in plasma. Dual polymer and cell labeling demonstrated a nearly exclusive drug reservoir in macrophages within the liver and spleen. Overall, nanoART induces innate immune responses coincident with rapid tissue macrophage distribution. Taken together, these works provide avenues for therapeutic development designed towards chemical eradication of human immunodeficiency viral infection.

  13. Analysis of Tobyhanna Army Depot's Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Pilot Program: RFID as an Asset Management Tool

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miertschin, Keith W; Forrest, Brian D

    2005-01-01

    ...) used for inventory and asset management at the Tobyhanna Army Maintenance Depot. Tobyhanna Army Depot recently partnered with WhereNet Corporation for a pilot program to incorporate a real-time locating system that uses RFID...

  14. Involvement of AMP - activated protein kinase in fat depot-specific metabolic changes during starvation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šponarová, Jana; Mustard, K. J.; Horáková, Olga; Flachs, Pavel; Rossmeisl, Martin; Brauner, Petr; Bardová, Kristina; Thomason-Hughes, M.; Braunerová, Radka; Janovská, Petra; Hardie, D. G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 579, č. 27 (2005), s. 6105-6110 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/2580; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB5011303 Grant - others:Wellcome Trust(GB) 02760; European Commission(XE) LSHM-CT-2004-005272; Diabetes UK(GB) Project Grant; Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council(GB) Research Studentship; GA-(GB) Novo-Nordisk Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : lipid metabolism * AMPK * starvation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.415, year: 2005

  15. Fatty acid composition of beef steers as affected by diet and fat depot

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subcutaneous and perirenal fatty acid (FA) profiles were compared in steers fed a control diet (70 : 30 red clover silage (RC) : barley concentrate), a diet with sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS-15 and DDGS-30) substituted for RC and SS.

  16. Developmental Changes of Fat Depots-in Male Saanen ·Goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty'jour male British Saan~~ goats w~re"reared on milk substitutes from birth to weaning at 35 days and .... The animals were artificially reared on Denkavit Lamb ewe milk replacer until weaning at 35 days of age. The milk. Tanzania J.Agric.Sc. (2005) Vol.6 No.2, 99-103 ..... of Sen-ana kids from Montesinho Natural Park.

  17. Comparison of heuristic approaches for the multiple depot vehicle scheduling problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Pepin; G. Desaulniers (Guy); A. Hertz (Alain); D. Huisman (Dennis)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractGiven a set of timetabled tasks, the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problem is a well-known problem that consists of determining least-cost schedules for vehicles assigned to several depots such that each task is accomplished exactly once by a vehicle. In this paper, we propose to

  18. Treating allergic rhinitis with depot-steroid injections increase risk of osteoporosis and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Vaag, Allan

    2013-01-01

    In Denmark, 23% of the adult population have allergic rhinitis. We have previously demonstrated that a majority of hay fever patients are treated with depot-steroid injections in violation of the guidelines. It has been hypothesised that 1-2 annual depot-steroid injections are not harmful...

  19. A hybrid metaheuristic algorithm for the multi-depot covering tour vehicle routing problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allahyari, S.; Salari, M.; Vigo, D.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a generalization of themulti-depot capacitated vehicle routing problem where the assumption of visiting each customer does not hold. In this problem, called the Multi-Depot Covering Tour Vehicle Routing Problem (MDCTVRP), the demand of each customer could be satisfied in two different

  20. Modeling and Solving the Multi-depot Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Window by Considering the Flexible end Depot in Each Route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mirabi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the multi-depot vehicle routing problem with time window in which each vehicle starts from a depot and there is no need to return to its primary depot after serving customers. The mathematical model which is developed by new approach aims to minimizing the transportation cost including the travelled distance, the latest and the earliest arrival time penalties. Furthermore, in order to reduce the problem searching space, a novel GA clustering method is developed. Finally, Experiments are run on number problems of varying depots and time window, and customer sizes. The method is compared to two other clustering techniques, fuzzy C means (FCM and K-means algorithm. Experimental results show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  1. Measuring Customer Satisfaction of Depot Maintenance: An Analysis of Customer Satisfaction of F/A-18 Maintenance at Naval Aviation Depot North Island, CA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Forsyth, Brian

    1997-01-01

    .... A key focus of commercial practices is delivering customer satisfaction. To this extent, it is imperative that DoD depots understand and properly measure their customer's concerns if they wish to improve their performance...

  2. Depressive Symptoms and Change in Abdominal Obesity Among Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelzangs, Nicole; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Beekman, Aartjan TF; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Penninx, Brenda WJH

    2012-01-01

    Context Depression has been hypothesized to result in abdominal obesity through the accumulation of visceral fat. No large study has tested this hypothesis longitudinally. Objective To examine whether depressive symptoms predict an increase in abdominal obesity in a large population-based sample of well-functioning older persons. Design The Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study, with 5 years of follow-up. Setting Community-dwelling older persons residing in the areas surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. Participants 2088 well-functioning white and black persons aged 70–79 years. Main Outcome Measures Baseline depression was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) score of ≥ 16. At baseline and after 5 years, overall obesity measures included body mass index and percent body fat (measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry). Abdominal obesity measures included waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and visceral fat (measured by computed tomography). Results After adjustment for sociodemographics, lifestyle, diseases and overall obesity, baseline depression was associated with a 5-year increase in sagittal diameter (β=.054, p=.01) and visceral fat (β=.080, p=.001). Conclusions This study shows that depressive symptoms result in an increase in abdominal obesity, independent of overall obesity, suggesting that there may be specific pathophysiological mechanisms which link depression with visceral fat accumulation. These results might also help explain why depression increases risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:19047525

  3. Intra-abdominal Adiposity In Preterm Infants: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Taroni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the total body fat mass and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue between preterm infants assessed at term corrected age and full-term newborns. Methods: An observational explorative study was conducted. 25 preterm and 10 full term infants were evaluated at 0-1 month of corrected and postnatal age, respectively. The total body fat mass was assessed by means of an air displacement plethysmography system (Pea Pod COSMED, USA and the intra-abdominal adipose tissue by means of magnetic resonance imaging (software program SliceOMatic, Version 4.3,Tomovision, Canada. Results: Total body fat mass (g of preterm and term infants was 633 (±183 and 538 (±203 respectively while intra-abdominal fat mass (g was 14.2 (±4.9 and 19.9 (±11.4. Conclusions: Preterm infants, although exhibiting a total body fat mass higher than full term infants, do not show an increased intra-abdominal adipose tissue.

  4. Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Zeyneloğlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome are causes of morbidity and mortality in critical care patients. Timely diagnosis and treatment may improve organ functions. Intra-abdominal pressure monitoring is vital during evaluation of the patients and in the management algorithms. The incidence, definition and risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of intraabdominal hypertension and Abdominal compartment syndrome were reviewed here.

  5. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Natacha Pena

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker (PCK1 c.2456C>A has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase (SCD gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example.

  6. Genetic Marker Discovery in Complex Traits: A Field Example on Fat Content and Composition in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Ramona Natacha; Ros-Freixedes, Roger; Tor, Marc; Estany, Joan

    2016-12-14

    Among the large number of attributes that define pork quality, fat content and composition have attracted the attention of breeders in the recent years due to their interaction with human health and technological and sensorial properties of meat. In livestock species, fat accumulates in different depots following a temporal pattern that is also recognized in humans. Intramuscular fat deposition rate and fatty acid composition change with life. Despite indication that it might be possible to select for intramuscular fat without affecting other fat depots, to date only one depot-specific genetic marker ( PCK1 c.2456C>A) has been reported. In contrast, identification of polymorphisms related to fat composition has been more successful. For instance, our group has described a variant in the stearoyl-coA desaturase ( SCD ) gene that improves the desaturation index of fat without affecting overall fatness or growth. Identification of mutations in candidate genes can be a tedious and costly process. Genome-wide association studies can help in narrowing down the number of candidate genes by highlighting those which contribute most to the genetic variation of the trait. Results from our group and others indicate that fat content and composition are highly polygenic and that very few genes explain more than 5% of the variance of the trait. Moreover, as the complexity of the genome emerges, the role of non-coding genes and regulatory elements cannot be disregarded. Prediction of breeding values from genomic data is discussed in comparison with conventional best linear predictors of breeding values. An example based on real data is given, and the implications in phenotype prediction are discussed in detail. The benefits and limitations of using large SNP sets versus a few very informative markers as predictors of genetic merit of breeding candidates are evaluated using field data as an example.

  7. Artificial immune algorithm for multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongyi; Wang, Donggen; Xia, Linyuan; Chen, Xiaoling

    2008-10-01

    In the fast-developing logistics and supply chain management fields, one of the key problems in the decision support system is that how to arrange, for a lot of customers and suppliers, the supplier-to-customer assignment and produce a detailed supply schedule under a set of constraints. Solutions to the multi-depot vehicle scheduling problems (MDVRP) help in solving this problem in case of transportation applications. The objective of the MDVSP is to minimize the total distance covered by all vehicles, which can be considered as delivery costs or time consumption. The MDVSP is one of nondeterministic polynomial-time hard (NP-hard) problem which cannot be solved to optimality within polynomial bounded computational time. Many different approaches have been developed to tackle MDVSP, such as exact algorithm (EA), one-stage approach (OSA), two-phase heuristic method (TPHM), tabu search algorithm (TSA), genetic algorithm (GA) and hierarchical multiplex structure (HIMS). Most of the methods mentioned above are time consuming and have high risk to result in local optimum. In this paper, a new search algorithm is proposed to solve MDVSP based on Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), which are inspirited by vertebrate immune systems. The proposed AIS algorithm is tested with 30 customers and 6 vehicles located in 3 depots. Experimental results show that the artificial immune system algorithm is an effective and efficient method for solving MDVSP problems.

  8. Fraccionamiento de la grasa abdominal de pollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotero Solis, Victor

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine physical and chemical properties of the products from the abdominal chicken fat fractionation. Melting point, consistency, solid fat content, fatty acid composition, iodine and saponification values were determined. Results showed that chicken fat has 67.2 % of unsaturated fatty acids. Chicken fat at 10 ºC was plastic and spreadable. A linear relationship between consistency and solid fat content was obtained. Oleins high yield (> 84 % suggest that these fractions can be used as frying oils. Stearins can be applied as components in the fat manufacturing, in pastry and in puff-pastry margarines.En este trabajo, se realizó la evaluación de las propiedades físicas y químicas de los productos del fraccionamiento de la grasa abdominal de pollo. Los análisis realizados fueron: punto de fusión, consistencia, contenido de grasa sólida, composición de los ácidos grasos e índices de iodo y de saponificación. De acuerdo a los resultados se observa que la grasa de pollo presenta 67.2 % de ácidos grasos insaturados. La grasa de pollo se presentó plástica y de buen esparcimiento a la temperatura de 10 ºC. Se obtuvo una relación lineal entre la consistencia y el contenido de grasa sólida. La alta concentración de oleínas (> 84 % sugiere la posibilidad de su aplicación como aceite de fritura. La estearina podría ser usada como base en la preparación de margarinas para pastelería.

  9. Differential mesenteric fat deposition in bovines fed on silage or concentrate is independent of glycerol membrane permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Paula; Lopes, Paula A.; Costa, Ana Sofia H.; Martins, Susana V.; Santos, Nuno C.; Prates, José A. M.; Moura, Teresa F.; Soveral, Graça

    2011-01-01

    © The Animal Consortium 2011 In the meat industry, the manipulation of fat deposition in cattle is of pivotal importance to improve production efficiency, carcass composition and ultimately meat quality. There is an increasing interest in the identification of key factors and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of specific fat depots. This study aimed at elucidating the influence of breed and diet on adipose tissue membrane permeability and fluidity and their interplay on ...

  10. Dietary fats explained

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some vegetable oils, such as coconut, palm, and palm kernel oil, also contain saturated fats. These fats are solid ... acids are unhealthy fats that form when vegetable oil hardens in a process ... Hydrogenated fats, or "trans fats," are often used ...

  11. Frequency-Selective Fat Suppression Radiofrequency Pulse Train to Remove Olefinic Fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    CHESS pulse can suppress the signal originating from aliphatic fat protons but cannot suppress the signal from olefinic fat protons, which is near the resonance frequency of water protons. Adipose tissue contains various fat species; aliphatic fat comprises about 90 % and olefinic fat about 10 % of adipose tissue. Thus, CHESS pulse cannot be used to suppress the signal from adipose tissue completely. The purpose of this study was to find a method to suppress the signal from adipose tissue completely. The Fatsat train pulse, created with an arbitrary flip angle and insensitive to B1 inhomogeneity, was used. Because B1 inhomogeneity is larger on higher field magnetic resonance imaging, the fat suppression radiofrequency pulse needs to be B1-insensitive. To investigate a percentage of olefinic fat in adipose tissues, the excitation frequency of the Fatsat train pulse was varied from -240 to +400 Hz and the images and fat-suppressed images were obtained. The presence of olefinic fat comprising about 10 % of abdominal adipose tissue was identified. The result agreed with some previous papers. Complete fat suppression could be achieved by partial (10 %) inversion of longitudinal aliphatic fat magnetization and by canceling out the two fat magnetizations. The flip angle was identified to about 95°. In conclusion, the cause that the signal from adipose tissues cannot be suppressed completely has been found. Improved images that signals from adipose tissues were suppressed completely have been demonstrated. This technique can also be applied to several pulse sequences.

  12. [Abdominal pregnancy, institutional experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfante Ramírez, E; Bolaños Ancona, R; Simón Pereyra, L; Juárez García, L; García-Benitez, C Q

    1998-07-01

    Abdominal pregnancy is a rare entity, which has been classified as primary or secondary by Studiford criteria. A retrospective study, between January 1989 and December 1994, realized at Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, found 35,080 pregnancies, from which 149 happened to be ectopic, and 6 of them were abdominal. All patients belonged to a low income society class, age between 24 and 35 years, and average of gestations in 2.6. Gestational age varied from 15 weeks to 32.2 weeks having only one delivery at term with satisfactory postnatal evolution. One patient had a recurrent abdominal pregnancy, with genital Tb as a conditional factor. Time of hospitalization varied from 4 to 5 days, and no further patient complications were reported. Fetal loss was estimated in 83.4%. Abdominal pregnancy is often the sequence of a tubarian ectopic pregnancy an when present, it has a very high maternal mortality reported in world literature, not found in this study. The stated frequency of abdominal pregnancy is from 1 of each 3372, up to 1 in every 10,200 deliveries, reporting in the study 1 abdominal pregnancy in 5846 deliveries. The study had two characteristic entities one, the recurrence and two, the delivery at term of one newborn. Abdominal pregnancy accounts for 4% of all ectopic pregnancies. Clinical findings in abdominal pregnancies are pain, transvaginal bleeding and amenorrea, being the cardinal signs of ectopic pregnancy.

  13. MR signal-fat-fraction analysis and T2* weighted imaging measure BAT reliably on humans without cold exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstila, Milja; Pesola, Marko; Saari, Teemu; Koskensalo, Kalle; Raiko, Juho; Borra, Ronald J H; Nuutila, Pirjo; Parkkola, Riitta; Virtanen, Kirsi A

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is compositionally distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) in terms of triglyceride and water content. In adult humans, the most significant BAT depot is localized in the supraclavicular area. Our aim is to differentiate brown adipose tissue from white adipose tissue using fat T2* relaxation time mapping and signal-fat-fraction (SFF) analysis based on a commercially available modified 2-point-Dixon (mDixon) water-fat separation method. We hypothesize that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can reliably measure BAT regardless of the cold-induced metabolic activation, with BAT having a significantly higher water and iron content compared to WAT. The supraclavicular area of 13 volunteers was studied on 3T PET-MRI scanner using T2* relaxation time and SFF mapping both during cold exposure and at ambient temperature; and 18 F-FDG PET during cold exposure. Volumes of interest (VOIs) were defined semiautomatically in the supraclavicular fat depot, subcutaneous WAT and muscle. The supraclavicular fat depot (assumed to contain BAT) had a significantly lower SFF and fat T2* relaxation time compared to subcutaneous WAT. Cold exposure did not significantly affect MR-based measurements. SFF and T2* values measured during cold exposure and at ambient temperature correlated inversely with the glucose uptake measured by 18 F-FDG PET. Human BAT can be reliably and safely assessed using MRI without cold activation and PET-related radiation exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Abnormal Peri-Organ or Intra-organ Fat (APIFat) Deposition: An Underestimated Predictor of Vascular Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsiki, Niki; Athyros, Vasilios G; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2016-01-01

    Adipose tissue, a major endocrine organ, consists of brown and white adipocytes. Brown fat may play a beneficial role in cardiometabolic disorders. Brown adipose tissue can also improve glucose and lipid metabolism. In contrast, the expansion of white adipose tissue has been related to obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both the quantity and the quality of the white adipose tissue as well as its distribution may affect CVD risk. In this context, the link between adiposity and CVD risk is greater for visceral than subcutaneous fat. Apart from these fat depots, there are other adipose tissues that are either systemically (i.e. in the liver, muscle or neck) or mainly locally acting (i.e. pericardial/epicardial, perivascular and perirenal). These fat depots can affect the nearby anatomic organs via lipid accumulation and cytokine secretion. In the present narrative review, the associations of excessive peri-organ adipose tissue, namely intrahepatic, epicardial/ pericardial, perivascular, intramuscular, peripancreatic and perirenal fat, with cardiometabolic and CVD risk factors are discussed. The effects of drugs that target vascular risk and/or different fat depots are also considered.

  15. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are the limitations of Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? What is Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging? Ultrasound is safe and ... as the liver or kidneys. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? Abdominal ...

  16. Obesity and regional fat distribution in Kenyan populations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dirk L.; Eis, Jeannette; Hansen, Andreas W.

    2008-01-01

    thickness were measured. Body mass index (BMI), arm fat area (AFA) and arm muscle area (AMA,) were calculated. Results: Among 1430 individuals (58.3% females) aged 17-68 years, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat, BMI, AFA and waist circumference (WC) increased with age, and were highest in the Maasai...... and in the urban population. AMA was only higher with increasing age among males. The prevalence of overweight (BMI >= 25) (39.8% vs. 15.8%) and obesity (BMI >= 30) (15.5% vs. 5.1%) was highest in the urban vs. rural population. Conclusion: Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness was higher with urban...

  17. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dankook University Hospital, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m{sup 2} ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R{sup 2}=0.474).

  18. The Relationship of Abdominal Obesity and Lipid Profiles by Computed Tomography in Adult Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Young

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity, especially, visceral obesity is thought to be a risk factor of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease such as hypertension, hyperlipidemia, coronary artery disease. Based on previous studies visceral fat accumulation is highly related to these diseases compared to subcutaneous fat accumulation. The purpose of this study was to see the relation between abdominal obesity and lipid profiles in adult women. The included subjects were 25 adult women(BMI > 23 kg/m 2 ), who visited the obesity clinic in a general hospital from April 2006 to September 2007. Blood pressure, fasting glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The abdominal fat distribution had been assessed by CT scan at the level of L4-L5. From bivariate analyses, the visceral fat accumulation showed negative correlations with TC and TC/HDL. The BMI, total abdominal fat and Visceral fat/Subcutaneous fat ratio showed significant correlations with visceral fat accumulation. From linear regression analyses of all the study subjects, TC, TG and HDL were found to be determinants of the visceral fat accumulation (R 2 =0.474).

  19. Visceral fat mass determination in rodent: validation of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric techniques in fat and lean rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courteix Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because abdominal obesity is predisposed to various metabolic disorders, it is of major importance to assess and track the changes with time of this specific fat mass. The main issue for clinicians or researchers is to use techniques for assessing abdominal fat deposition and its accumulation or changes over time, without sacrificing of experimental subjects. In the rat, techniques to investigate in-vivo visceral fat mass are lacking. The purpose of the study was to validate indirect Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry technique and abdominal circumference measurement as tools to predict visceral adipose tissue in rats. Forty-three Wistar male rats from different body weight, fat mass and ages were included in the study. Visceral fat mass was assessed by weighing the total perirenal and peri-epididymal adipose tissues after dissection. Statistical methods were used to discriminate the best region of interest allowing the in-vivo measure of Central Fat Mass by DXA. Abdominal circumference was measured at the same time as the DXA scan. Results A region of interest including Central Fat Mass from the whole body DXA scan (extending from L2 to L5 vertebrae, correlated strongly with ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.94, p ex-vivo Fat Mass (r = 0.82, p ex-vivo Fat Mass but disappeared for the lean group between abdominal circumference and ex-vivo Fat Mass. Conclusions This study validates the Central Fat Mass determined by DXA as a non-sacrificial technique to assess visceral fat for in-vivo investigations in rats. The abdominal circumference measure appears useful in studying overweight or obese rats. These two techniques could be convenient tools in follow-up and longitudinal studies.

  20. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter: Application in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Da Silva-Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Excess visceral fat is associated with cardiovascular risk factors. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD has recently been highlighted as an indicator of abdominal obesity, and also may be useful in predicting cardiovascular risk. The purpose of the present study was to review the scientific literature on the use of SAD in adult nutritional assessment. A search was conducted for scientific articles in the following electronic databases: SciELO , MEDLINE (PubMed and Virtual Health Library. SAD is more associated with abdominal fat (especially visceral, and with different cardiovascular risk factors, such as, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and serum lipoproteins than the traditional methods of estimating adiposity, such as body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can also be used in association with other anthropometric measures. There are still no cut-off limits established to classify SAD as yet. SAD can be an alternative measure to estimate visceral adiposity. However, the few studies on this diameter, and the lack of consensus on the anatomical site to measure SAD, are obstacles to establish cut-off limits to classify it.

  1. Abdominal tuberculous lymphadenopathy: MRI features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backer, A.I. De [General Hospital Sint-Lucas, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Mortele, K.J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Division of Abdominal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Deeren, D. [Ziekenhuisnetwerk Antwerpen, Department of Internal Medicine, Campus Stuivenberg, Antwerp (Belgium); Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium); Vanschoubroeck, I.J. [Ziekenhuisnetwerk Antwerpen, Department of Internal Medicine, Campus Stuivenberg, Antwerp (Belgium); Keulenaer, B.L. De [Royal Darwin Hospital, Intensive Care Unit, Tiwi, NT (Australia)

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the MRI features of abdominal tuberculous lymphadenopathy. MRI studies of 13 patients with abdominal tuberculous lymphadenopathy were reviewed with regard to anatomic distribution and size. Signal intensities, in relation to abdominal wall muscle, on unenhanced T1- and T2-weighted images and patterns of contrast enhancement of lymphadenopathy were evaluated in each patient. In each patient, the largest lymph node with the same imaging characteristic was evaluated. The upper paraaortic region was the most common site of involvement (n=12 patients), followed by the lesser omentum (n=10 patients), the anterior pararenal space (n=9 patients), the lower paraaortic area (n=8 patients), the small bowel mesentery (n=6 patients), the greater omentum (n=2 patients) and the originating site of the inferior mesenteric artery (n=2 patients). The mean lymph node size was 1.8 cm (range 0.5-5 cm). The overall mean lymph node number per patient was 16 (range 2-50). A total of 41 lymph nodes were evaluated in 13 patients. On T2-weighted images, 40 lesions were hyperintense and one lesion was isointense. Nine hyperintense lesions showed a hypointense peripheral rim and seven internal heterogeneity. Perinodal T2-hyperintensity was present in 23 lesions. The latter finding was valid for all patients. On T1-weighted images, 30 lesions were hypointense and 11 isointense. Nine hypointense lesions demonstrated a hyperintense peripheral rim, and six were heterogeneous. Contrast-enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images demonstrated predominant peripheral enhancement in 28 lesions: (1) peripheral uniform, thin (n=19); (2) thick irregular, complete (n=3); and (3) conglomerate group of nodes showing peripheral and central areas of rim enhancement (n=6). Heterogeneous and homogeneous enhancement was present in ten and three lesions, respectively. Combinations of enhancing patterns in the same nodal group and different nodal groups were seen in eight and

  2. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG CT for upper abdominal pathology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quadrant pain. Abdom Imaging 2003; 28: 643-651. 3. Ramsay DW, Markham DH, Morgan B, Rodgers PM, Liddicoat AJ. The use of dilute Calogen as a fat density oral contrast medium in upper abdominal computed tomography, compared with the use of water and positive oral contrast media. Clin Radiol 2001; 56: 670-673.

  4. Couches Minces de Titanate de Baryum Par Depot Organometallique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousi Benomar, Wahib

    1993-01-01

    Nous avons demontre la possibilite de realiser des couches minces de titanate de baryum par depot organometallique. Les films sont obtenus apres dissolution d'organometalliques choisis dans un solvant et une cuisson a une temperature determinee par thermogravimetrie. Apres un second traitement thermique a des temperatures plus elevees, les echantillons presentent une structure polycristalline tetragonale; les cristallites sont observes par microscopie electronique a balayage. La mesure de la constante dielectrique a permis de mettre en evidence une transition de phase de la structure tetragonale a la structure cubique a une temperature d'environ 125^circC. Les mesures d'indice ont ete effectuees. On note une augmentation de l'indice de refraction des films avec la temperature indiquant une meilleure densification des films. Nous avons aussi montre qu'il etait possible d'utiliser ce materiau en tant que guide d'onde optique pour pouvoir exploiter ses proprietes electrooptiques dans l'avenir.

  5. MODELING OF HIGH STORAGE SHEET DEPOT WITH PLANT SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Jardzioch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing processes are becoming increasingly automated. Introduction of innovative solutions often necessitate processing very large number of signals from various devices. Correctness tests of the components configuration becomes a compiled operation requiring vast expenditure of time and knowledge. The models may be a mathematical reflection of the actual object. Many actions can be computer-assisted to varying degree. One example is construction of simulation models. These can also be simulation models developed in advanced software. The stages of creating a model may be purely random. This paper aims at a closer analysis of the simulation model based on the high storage sheet depot modeling using Plant Simulation software. The results of analysis can be used for optimization, but this stage is a separate issue.

  6. The Linehaul-Feeder Vehicle Routing Problem with Virtual Depots and Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Kuo Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the linehaul-feeder vehicle routing problem with virtual depots and time windows (LFVRPTW. Small and large vehicles deliver services to customers within time constraints; small vehicles en route may reload commodities from either the physical depot or from the larger vehicle at a virtual depot before continuing onward. A two-stage solution heuristic involving Tabu search is proposed to solve this problem. The test results show that the LFVRPTW performs better than the vehicle routing problem with time windows in terms of both objective value and the number of small vehicles dispatched.

  7. Abdominal tuberculosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablin, D.S.; Jain, K.A.; Azouz, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    Four boys with abdominal tuberculosis, one of whom had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, are presented. Abdominal imaging findings on plain radiography, ultrasonography, computer tomography, and gastrointestinal contrast studies included tuberculous peritonitis and ascites in all patients, tuberculous adenopathy in two, gastrointestinal tuberculosis in two, and omental tuberculosis in two. The radiographic features particularly characteristic of abdominal tuberculosis were: (1) Low attenuating adenopathy with rim enhancement, (2) omental or ileocecal inflammatory mass, (3) high density ascites, and (4) gastrointestinal enteritis involving the ileocecal region. (orig./MG)

  8. Macro fat and micro fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanjun; Gaillard, Jonathan R; McLaughlin, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    of body fat is unknown. In this study, we investigate adipose tissue dynamics in response to various isocaloric diet compositions, comparing gender- and insulin sensitivity-dependent differences. A body composition model is used to predict fat mass changes in response to changes in diet composition for 28...... the relative change of fat mass for each diet composition, respectively. We find that adipose cell-size dynamics are associated with different modulations dependent on gender and insulin resistance. Larger turnover and growth/shrinkage rates in insulin resistant individuals suggest they may be more sensitive......The adipose cell-size distribution is a quantitative characterization of adipose tissue morphology. At a population level, the adipose cell-size distribution is insulin-sensitivity dependent, and the observed correlation between obesity and insulin resistance is believed to play a key role...

  9. Endometrioma de parede abdominal Abdominal wall endometrioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Accetta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A incidência exata da endometriose na população geral é desconhecida. A confirmação desta doença só é possível através da análise histopatológica de um fragmento obtido por algum procedimento invasivo, pois não existe até o momento, nenhum marcador clínico seguro. OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência com as manifestações clínicas e o tratamento cirúrgico em pacientes com endometrioma de parede abdominal. MÉTODO: Análise retrospectiva das pacientes operadas por endometrioma de parede abdominal, dando ênfase aos dados relativos à idade, sintomas, cesariana prévia, relação dos sintomas com o ciclo menstrual, exames físicos e complementares, tratamento cirúrgico, evolução pósoperatória e resultado histopatológico dos espécimes. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 14 pacientes no período estudado, com idade entre 28 e 40 anos. A presença de massa e dor local que piorava durante a menstruação foram as queixas principais. Ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada foram exames importantes em localizar precisamente a doença. O tratamento cirúrgico foi exérese ampla da tumoração e dos tecidos comprometidos. As pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente e o histopatológico confirmou a suspeita de endometrioma de parede abdominal em todos os casos. CONCLUSÂO: Foi nítida a relação entre cesariana prévia e endometrioma de parede abdominal e estudos ultrassonográficos e tomográficos auxiliaram a planejar a abordagem cirúrgica permitindo a exérese da tumoração e de todos os tecidos adjacentes comprometidos.BACKGROND: The exact incidence of endometriosis in the general population is unknown. Confirmation of this disease is only possible by histopathological analysis of a fragment obtained by some invasive procedure, because there is so far, no clinical secure marker. AIM: To report the experience with the clinical manifestations and surgical treatment in patients with abdominal wall endometrioma. METHODS

  10. Potential link between excess added sugar intake and ectopic fat: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiantao; Karlsen, Micaela C.; Chung, Mei; Jacques, Paul F.; Saltzman, Edward; Smith, Caren E.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2016-01-01

    Context: The effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat accumulation is a subject of debate. Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to examine the potential effect of added sugar intake on ectopic fat depots. Data Sources: MEDLINE, CAB Abstracts, CAB Global Health, and EBM (Evidence-Based Medicine) Reviews – Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for studies published from 1973 to September 2014. Data Extraction: RCTs with a minimum of 6 days’ duration of added sugar exposure in the intervention group were selected. The dosage of added sugar intake as a percentage of total energy was extracted or calculated. Means and standard deviations of pre- and post-test measurements or changes in ectopic fat depots were collected. Data Synthesis: Fourteen RCTs were included. Most of the studies had a medium to high risk of bias. Meta-analysis showed that, compared with eucaloric controls, subjects who consumed added sugar under hypercaloric conditions likely increased ectopic fat, particularly in the liver (pooled standardized mean difference = 0.9 [95%CI, 0.6–1.2], n = 6) and muscles (pooled SMD = 0.6 [95%CI, 0.2–1.0], n = 4). No significant difference was observed in liver fat, visceral adipose tissue, or muscle fat when isocaloric intakes of different sources of added sugars were compared. Conclusions: Data from a limited number of RCTs suggest that excess added sugar intake under hypercaloric diet conditions likely increases ectopic fat depots, particularly in the liver and in muscle fat. There are insufficient data to compare the effect of different sources of added sugars on ectopic fat deposition or to compare intake of added sugar with intakes of other macronutrients. Future well-designed RCTs with sufficient power and duration are needed to address the role of sugars on ectopic fat deposition. PMID:26518034

  11. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Jose M.; Madureira, Antonio J.; Vieira, Alberto; Ramos, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis

  12. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page How should I prepare? You ... of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including ...

  13. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be asked to remove hearing aids and removable dental work. Women will be asked to remove bras ... can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster ...

  14. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  15. Abdominal tuberculosis: Imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Jose M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)]. E-mail: jmpjesus@yahoo.com; Madureira, Antonio J. [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Vieira, Alberto [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal); Ramos, Isabel [Department of Radiology, Hospital de S. Joao, Porto (Portugal)

    2005-08-01

    Radiological findings of abdominal tuberculosis can mimic those of many different diseases. A high level of suspicion is required, especially in high-risk population. In this article, we will describe barium studies, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) findings of abdominal tuberculosis (TB), with emphasis in the latest. We will illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis of abdominal tuberculosis and describe imaging features that differentiate it from other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, particularly lymphoma and Crohn's disease. As tuberculosis can affect any organ in the abdomen, emphasis is placed to ileocecal involvement, lymphadenopathy, peritonitis and solid organ disease (liver, spleen and pancreas). A positive culture or hystologic analysis of biopsy is still required in many patients for definitive diagnosis. Learning objectives:1.To review the relevant pathophysiology of abdominal tuberculosis. 2.Illustrate CT findings that can help in the diagnosis.

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... experienced radiologist can diagnose many causes of abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the need for additional, more ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is done because a potential abnormality needs further evaluation with additional views or a special imaging technique. ... GI) contrast exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as ...

  18. Abdominal Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have a clear idea about the cause of pain. Sometimes a diagnosis is made and treatment can be started. In ... tests. Treatment What treatments are available for abdominal pain? Once a diagnosis is made, treatment can proceed for that condition. ...

  19. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, noninvasive and accurate. ... help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel ...

  20. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... organs and is often used to determine the cause of unexplained pain. CT scanning is fast, painless, ... procedure is typically used to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of ...

  1. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, ... exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or ...

  2. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the technologist verifies that the images are of high enough quality for accurate interpretation. The CT examination ... abdominal pain or injury from trauma with very high accuracy, enabling faster treatment and often eliminating the ...

  3. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ... Content Some imaging tests and treatments have special pediatric considerations. The teddy ...

  4. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as lymphoma. kidney and bladder stones. abdominal aortic ... and properly administer radiation treatments for tumors as well as monitor response to chemotherapy. top of page ...

  5. Imaging in Tuberculosis abdominal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Tatiana; Garcia, Vanessa; Tamara, Estrada; Acosta, Federico

    2010-01-01

    In this article we illustrate and discuss imaging features resulting from Tuberculosis abdominal affectation. We present patients evaluated with several imaging modalities who had abdominal symptoms and findings suggestive of granulomatous disease. Diagnosis was confirm including hystopatology and clinical outgoing. Cases involved presented many affected organs such as lymphatic system, peritoneum, liver, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, ureters, adrenal glands and pelvic organs Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis renal, Tuberculosis hepatic, Tuberculosis splenic Tomography, x-ray, computed

  6. The Numerical Investigation of Temperature and Velocity Distribution in the High-Bay Depot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehong Wu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High-bay depot plays an important role in the storage industry. Due to large and high space of high-bay depot, it is difficult to make temperature distribution uniform, which will influence the storage time of raw materials. In this paper, the aim is to find the reasonable air supply and energy-saving method; a supply-air method of high-bay depot is investigated as an example. The results show the radius and spacing of the supply-air inlet have great influence on temperature distribution. The temperature nonuniformity coefficient of summer is smaller than that of winter. The investigated results can provide a theoretical reference for the high-bay depot design and economic operation.

  7. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: Towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymańska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.; Duynhoven, J.P.M. van; Mela, D.J.; MacDonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid

  8. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymańska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.; van Duynhoven, J.P.M.; Mela, D.J.; Macdonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136 lipid

  9. Gender-dependent associations of metabolite profiles and body fat distribution in a healthy population with central obesity: Towards metabolomics diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanska, E.; Bouwman, J.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Kangas, A.J.; Soininen, P.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Mela, D.J.; Macdonald, I.A.; Vreeken, R.J.; Smilde, A.K.; Jacobs, D.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes especially when the fat is accumulated to central depots. Novel biomarkers are crucial to develop diagnostics for obesity and related metabolic disorders. We evaluated the associations between metabolite profiles (136

  10. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo County, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    Denver, CO. Rippeteau, Bruce. 1977. 5LA1115: Hackberry Springs, a Colorado Millenial Source. Office of the State Archaeologist Publication Series No 9...AD-Ai59 239 AN ARCHEOLOGICAL OVERVIEW AND MANAGEMENT PLAN FOR THE 1/2 PUEBLO DEPOT ACTIVI.(U) WOODWARD-CLYDE CONSULTANTS WALNUT CREEK CR R KNUDSON 81...7 --- Final /Report No. 19 October 1, 1984 CJ 0 An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Pueblo Depot Activity, Pueblo County, Colorado

  11. Paliperidone palmitate three-month depot formulation: a helpful innovation with practical pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Judith D; Keks, Nicholas A

    2018-04-01

    Paliperidone palmitate is now available as a three-month depot injection. This paper will review the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, efficacy and tolerability, as well as practical issues and pitfalls for clinicians with this innovative treatment for schizophrenia. The three-month depot formulation of paliperidone for the treatment of schizophrenia is not a new compound. The nanocrystalline structure of the three-month formulation is larger and takes longer to disperse than the one-month formulation, hence its extended depot action. As expected, it is non-inferior to one-month depot paliperidone, and superior to placebo, for the treatment of schizophrenia. The side effect profile of three-month paliperidone is identical to the one-month formulation. The relapse rate on treatment is low, and the median time to relapse after ceasing the drug is 395 days. An understanding of half-life and kinetics is crucial for clinicians using this compound, and the loading strategy is important to ensure effectiveness. There are significant challenges: ensuring timely administration and switching a three-month depot treatment to another antipsychotic may be problematic. Paliperidone palmitate three-month depot injection represents an advance for both convenience and effectiveness in the long term psychopharmacological treatment of schizophrenia.

  12. Body fat distribution and its associated factors in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chan Hee; Yuk, Jin Sung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Yi, Kyung Wook; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Shin, Jung-Ho

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the body fat distribution in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the association of those distribution with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles. A total 90 patients with PCOS and 97 women without PCOS (control group) were included in this study. Total body fat, abdominal visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat were determined on abdominal fat computed tomography. Lipid profiles and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), and cortisol were measured in PCOS group. Total body fat and body fat distribution in the PCOS group were not significantly different from the control group in Korean women (P = 0.054, P = 0.761, P = 0.104), but abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio was larger in the PCOS group than the control group (P = 0.047). Not only total body fat and visceral fat, but also subcutaneous fat in the PCOS group had a positive correlation with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, free testosterone, FAI, body mass index, but negative correlation with SHBG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Korean PCOS women had the same body fat distribution as the control group. Subcutaneous fat was also correlated with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles in the Korean PCOS group. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Are there sex differences in Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Farah, Nadine

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine if Fetal Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue (FAST) measurements using antenatal ultrasound differ between male and female fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had an ultrasound examination for fetal growth between 20 and 40 weeks gestation were studied. Women with diabetes mellitus were excluded. The fetal anterior abdominal subcutaneous tissue was measured on the anterior abdominal wall in millimetres anterior to the margins of the ribs, using magnification at the level of the abdominal circumference. The fetal sex was recorded after delivery. RESULTS: A total of 557 fetuses were measured, 290 male and 267 female. The FAST measurements increased with gestational age. The FAST increased at the same rate for both male and female fetuses and at any given week there was no sex difference. CONCLUSIONS: The increased fat composition in females reported after birth was not found in abdominal wall subcutaneous fat measurements using ultrasound during pregnancy. Antenatal centile charts for FAST do not need to be based on sex.

  14. Abdominal emergencies in pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coca Robinot, D; Liébana de Rojas, C; Aguirre Pascual, E

    2016-05-01

    Abdominal symptoms are among the most common reasons for pediatric emergency department visits, and abdominal pain is the most frequently reported symptom. Thorough history taking and physical examination can often reach the correct diagnosis. Knowing the abdominal conditions that are most common in each age group can help radiologists narrow the differential diagnosis. When imaging tests are indicated, ultrasonography is usually the first-line technique, enabling the diagnosis or adding relevant information with the well-known advantages of this technique. Nowadays, plain-film X-ray studies are reserved for cases in which perforation, bowel obstruction, or foreign body ingestion is suspected. It is also important to remember that abdominal pain can also occur secondary to basal pneumonia. CT is reserved for specific indications and in individual cases, for example, in patients with high clinical suspicion of abdominal disease and inconclusive findings at ultrasonography. We review some of the most common conditions in pediatric emergencies, the different imaging tests indicated in each case, and the imaging signs in each condition. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furutate R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ryuko Furutate1, Takeo Ishii1,2, Ritsuko Wakabayashi1, Takashi Motegi1,2, Kouichi Yamada1,2, Akihiko Gemma2, Kozui Kida1,21Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.Methods: We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101 and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62. We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA, subcutaneous fat area (SFA, and the extent of emphysema.Results: The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.Conclusion: COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.Keywords: abdominal obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, emphysema

  16. Dopamine Signaling Regulates Fat Content through β-Oxidation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida; Bridi, Jessika Cristina; de Souza, Bruno Rezende; de Castro Júnior, Célio; de Lima Torres, Karen Cecília; Malard, Leandro; Jorio, Ado; de Miranda, Débora Marques; Ashrafi, Kaveh; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate mechanisms through which dopamine modulates energy storage. We showed that dopamine signaling regulates fat reservoirs in Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that the fat reducing effects of dopamine were dependent on dopaminergic receptors and a set of fat oxidation enzymes. Our findings reveal an ancient role for dopaminergic regulation of fat and suggest that dopamine signaling elicits this outcome through cascades that ultimately mobilize peripheral fat depots. PMID:24465759

  17. Safety and tolerability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate among HIV-infected women on antiretroviral therapy: ACTG A5093.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, D Heather; Park, Jeong-Gun; Cohn, Susan E; Yu, Song; Hitti, Jane; Stek, Alice; Clax, Pamela A; Muderspach, Laila; Lertora, Juan J L

    2008-02-01

    Concomitant use of antiretroviral (ARV) and hormonal contraceptives may change the metabolism of each and the resulting safety profiles. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) among women on ARV. HIV-infected women on selected ARV regimens or no ARV were administered DMPA 150 mg intramuscularly and evaluated for 12 weeks for adverse events, changes in CD4+ count and HIV RNA levels, and ovulation. Seventy evaluable subjects were included, 16 on nucleoside only or no ARV, 21 on nelfinavir-containing regimens, 17 on efavirenz-containing regimens and 16 on nevirapine-containing regimens. Nine Grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in seven subjects; none were judged related to DMPA. The most common findings possibly related to DMPA were abnormal vaginal bleeding (nine, 12.7%), headache (three, 4.2%), abdominal pain, mood changes, insomnia, anorexia and fatigue, each occurring in two (2.9%) subjects. No significant changes in CD4+ count or HIV RNA levels occurred with DMPA. No evidence of ovulation was detected, and no pregnancies occurred. The clinical profile associated with DMPA administration in HIV-infected women, most on ARV, appears similar to that seen in HIV-uninfected women. DMPA prevented ovulation and did not affect CD4+ counts or HIV RNA levels. In concert with previously published DMPA/ARV interaction data, these data suggest that DMPA can be used safely by HIV-infected women on the ARV studied.

  18. [Obesity, fat and bones: friends or foes ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biver, Emmanuel

    2017-04-19

    Low fat mass is associated with an increased risk of fracture because of low bone mineral density (BMD) and altered bone micro-architecture. Conversely, overweight and obese patients also have an increased risk of fracture, particularly of the humerus and ankle, despite greater BMD. Visceral abdominal fat, which is the most metabolically active, may be associated with poorer quality of bone tissue properties, as suggested in diabetes. Other factors may contribute to higher fracture risk in overweight patients, notably higher frequency of falls and lower bioavailability of vitamin D stoked in fat. Thus, fat mass and its distribution should be taken into account beyond BMD and classical clinical risk factors in the assessment of fracture risk.

  19. Performance Gains of Propellant Management Devices for Liquid Hydrogen Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; McQuillen, John B.; Chato, David J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents background, experimental design, and preliminary experimental results for the liquid hydrogen bubble point tests conducted at the Cryogenic Components Cell 7 facility at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The purpose of the test series was to investigate the parameters that affect liquid acquisition device (LAD) performance in a liquid hydrogen (LH2) propellant tank, to mitigate risk in the final design of the LAD for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer Technology Demonstration Mission, and to provide insight into optimal LAD operation for future LH2 depots. Preliminary test results show an increase in performance and screen retention over the low reference LH2 bubble point value for a 325 2300 screen in three separate ways, thus improving fundamental LH2 LAD performance. By using a finer mesh screen, operating at a colder liquid temperature, and pressurizing with a noncondensible pressurant gas, a significant increase in margin is achieved in bubble point pressure for LH2 screen channel LADs.

  20. Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konen, Osnat; Rathaus, Valeria; Shapiro, Myra [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba (Israel); Dlugy, Elena [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Schneider Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Freud, Enrique [Department of Paediatric Surgery, Sapir Medical Centre, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University (Israel); Kessler, Ada [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Sourasky Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Horev, Gadi [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Schneider Medical Centre, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2002-02-01

    Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications. Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma. Materials and methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases. Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two

  1. Ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risi, D.; Alessi, G.; Meli, C.; Marzano, M.; Fiori, E.; Caterino, S.

    1989-01-01

    From February 1986 to March 1988 113 abdominal US exams were performed in emergency situation to evaluate the accuracy of this methodology: 13 were blunt traumas, 18 post-operative complications. A real-time scanner with a linear probe of 5 MHz was employed. The results were confirmed by surgical and/or clinical and instrumental evaluation. In 81% of the examinations, ultrasonography allowed a diagnosis to be made. Gallbladder and biliary pathologies were the most common findings. The results (sensibility 96%, specificity 88%, accuracy 95%) confirm the affidability of ultrasonography in abdominal emergencies, as shown in literature

  2. ATTITUDES OF SHOP FLOOR EMPLOYEES TOWARD WOMEN MANAGERS IN FUEL DEPOTS: A CASE OF THE FUEL DEPOTS IN LUBUMBASHI, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen N. M. Nzuve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Labour Organization and all organizations of human rights advocate against any form of negative attitude in employment based on gender, its terms, promotion and relations. Shop floor employees play a very important role in the daily advancement and profitability of an organisation. The purpose of this study was to establish the attitude of shop floor employees toward women managers in fuel depots in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with the population consisting of one hundred and ninety three (193 shop floor employees. A semi structured questionnaire was used to collect primary data. In total one hundred and twenty one (121 shop floor employees responded yielding a response rate of sixty three percent (63%. The findings of this study indicate that a negative attitude toward woman managers is prevalent in the Fuel Depots of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo. At the fuel depots, the number of women working was less than a third of the males. In spite of this, women managers are rated higher in management qualities and are considered to be more honest, diligent, compassionate, creative and intelligent when compared to their male counterparts. The study recommends a culture change among employees in fuel depots in Lubumbashi in order to enable them perceive women as equal partners at the work place.

  3. Differential effect of gender on hepatic fat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilsanz, Vicente [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chung, Sandra A. [Children' s Hospital Los Angeles, USC, Keck School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, MS 81, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kaplowitz, Neil [USC, Keck School of Medicine, USC Research Center for Liver Disease, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-09-15

    There are discrepant data on whether men or women have a higher risk for hepatic steatosis. To examine the influence of gender on hepatic adiposity in teenagers and young adults. We measured subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF), intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and hepatic tissue density (a surrogate measure of hepatic fat) using CT in 505 healthy teenagers and young adults (254 males, 251 females; ages 15-22.9 years). Overall, compared to men, women had higher values of SAF (P < 0.0001) but similar measures of IAF and liver tissue density (P = 0.09 and 0.92, respectively). However, when compared to overweight/obese men, overweight/obese women had strikingly similar IAF values (P = 0.85) but lower hepatic fat (P = 0.009). Multiple regression analyses indicated that, after adjusting for age and SAF, IAF independently predicted hepatic density in males (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P = 0.36). Hepatic fat increased with body mass in males from lean to overweight and obese (P < 0.0001) but not in females (P > 0.05). When compared to overweight and obese young women, overweight and obese young men are at greater risk for hepatic steatosis, independent of IAF. (orig.)

  4. An abdominal tuberculosis case mimicking an abdominal mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal tuberculosis is rare in childhood. It may be difficult to diagnose as it mimics various disorders. We present a 12-year-old child with an unusual clinical presentation who was diagnosed with abdominal tuberculosis only perioperatively.

  5. Abdominal radiation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that your doctor or dietitian recommends for you. Eat small meals and eat more often during the day. Eat ... are high in fat. Drink cool liquids between meals. Eat foods that are cool or at room temperature, ...

  6. Staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviloglu, Korhan

    2003-07-01

    To review the current developments in staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma. To overview the steps of damage control laparotomy. The ever increasing importance of the resuscitation phase with current intensive care unit (ICU) support techniques should be emphasized. General surgeons should be familiar to staged abdominal re-operation for abdominal trauma and collaborate with ICU teams, interventional radiologists and several other specialties to overcome this entity.

  7. Yogurt consumption and abdominal obesity reversion in the PREDIMED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, S; Sayón-Orea, C; Babio, N; Ruiz-Canela, M; Martí, A; Corella, D; Estruch, R; Fitó, M; Aros, F; Ros, E; Gómez-García, E; Fiol, M; Lapetra, J; Serra-Majem, Ll; Becerra-Tomás, N; Salas-Salvadó, J; Pinto, X; Schröder, H; Martínez, J A

    2016-06-01

    Evidence on the association yogurt consumption and obesity is not conclusive. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the association between yogurt consumption, reversion of abdominal obesity status and waist circumference change in elderly. 4545 individuals at high cardiovascular risk were prospectively followed. Total, whole-fat and low-fat yogurt consumption were assessed using food frequency questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations were used to analyze the association between yogurt consumption and waist circumference change (measured at baseline and yearly during the follow-up). Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the reversion rate of abdominal obesity for each quintile of yogurt consumption compared with the lowest quintile. After multivariable adjustment, the average yearly waist circumference change in the quintiles of whole-fat yogurt consumption was: Q1: 0.00, Q2: 0.00 (-0.23 to 0.23), Q3: -0.15 (-0.42 to 0.13), Q4: 0.10 (-0.21 to 0.42), and Q5: -0.23 (-0.46 to -0.00) cm; p for trend = 0.05. The ORs for the reversion of abdominal obesity for whole-fat yogurt consumption were Q1: 1.00, Q2: 1.40 (1.04-1.90), Q3: 1.33 (0.94-1.89), Q4: 1.21 (0.83-1.77), and Q5: 1.43 (1.06-1.93); p for trend = 0.26. Total yogurt consumption was not significantly associated with reversion of abdominal obesity status and a lower waist circumference. However, consumption of whole-fat yogurt was associated with changes in waist circumference and higher probability for reversion of abdominal obesity. Therefore, it seems that whole-fat yogurt has more beneficial effects in management of abdominal obesity in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  8. Abdominal tuberculosis mimicking intra-abdominal malignancy: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abdominal TB usually presents with nonspecific findings and may thus mimic a multitude of gastrointestinal disorders. Abdominal tuberculosis may therefore present as large and palpable intra-abdominal masses usually arising from lymphadenopathy which may mimic lymphomas and other malignancies.

  9. Weighted abdominal traction for assistance in abdominal closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Jo Svetanoff

    2018-02-01

    Discussion: One of the concerns with temporary abdominal closure is retraction of the fascia. We report three cases where the fascia and abdominal wall were placed on weighted traction, which allowed for retention of abdominal domain and delayed primary closure without grafts or mesh. This approach adds to the options available to aid in closure of the complex abdomen.

  10. Correlation between serum lipoproteins and abdominal fat pad in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this experiment, four hundred day-old broiler chicks were assigned randomly to 16 floor pens with 25 chicks each. Three diets containing 0% fish oil + 7% soybean oil, 3.5% fish oil + 3.5% soybean oil and 7% fish oil + 0% soybean oil and a free oil control diet were formulated. The birds fed fish oil diet showed a lower ...

  11. Alterations in serum lipid, lipoprotein and visceral abdominal fat pad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Commercially available garlic preparation in the form of garlic oil, garlic powder and pills are widely used for certain therapeutic purposes, including lowering blood pressure and improving lipid profile. The aim of the present study was to determine short term effects of dietary consumption of garlic on the serum levels of ...

  12. Associations of objectively measured physical activity and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Annelotte; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2015-01-01

    . The difference in VAT was -1.1 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = -1.8 to -0.3) per 10-kJ.kg(-1).d(-1) increment, and the corresponding difference in SAT for women was -0.6 mm (95% CI = -1.2 to -0.04) in models adjusted for age, sex, and waist circumference. Exchanging 1 h of light physical activity...... with moderate physical activity was significantly associated with VAT (-4.5 mm, 95% CI = -7.6 to -1.5). Exchanging one sedentary hour with light physical activity was significantly associated with both VAT (-0.9 mm, 95% CI = -0.1 to -1.8) and SAT (-0.4 mm, 95% CI = -0.0 to -0.7). Conclusions: In this population...... with low physical activity levels, cross-sectional findings indicate that increasing overall physical activity and decreasing time spent sedentary is important to avoid the accumulation of metabolically deleterious VAT....

  13. Endometriosis Abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Carriquiry, L.

    2003-01-01

    Endometriosis of abdominal wall is a rare entity wi ch frequently appears after gynecological surgery. Case history includes three cases of parietal endometriosis wi ch were treated in Maciel Hospital of Montevideo. The report refers to etiological diagnostic aspects and highlights the importance of total resection in order to achieve definitive healing

  14. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to help diagnose the cause of abdominal or pelvic pain and diseases of the internal organs, small bowel and colon, such as: infections such as appendicitis , pyelonephritis or infected fluid collections, also known as abscesses. inflammatory bowel disease such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's ...

  15. Adult abdominal hernias.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2014-06-01

    Educational Objectives and Key Points. 1. Given that abdominal hernias are a frequent imaging finding, radiologists not only are required to interpret the appearances of abdominal hernias but also should be comfortable with identifying associated complications and postrepair findings. 2. CT is the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of a known adult abdominal hernia in both elective and acute circumstances because of rapid acquisition, capability of multiplanar reconstruction, good spatial resolution, and anatomic depiction with excellent sensitivity for most complications. 3. Ultrasound is useful for adult groin assessment and is the imaging modality of choice for pediatric abdominal wall hernia assessment, whereas MRI is beneficial when there is reasonable concern that a patient\\'s symptoms could be attributable to a hernia or a musculoskeletal source. 4. Fluoroscopic herniography is a sensitive radiologic investigation for patients with groin pain in whom a hernia is suspected but in whom a hernia cannot be identified at physical examination. 5. The diagnosis of an internal hernia not only is a challenging clinical diagnosis but also can be difficult to diagnose with imaging: Closed-loop small-bowel obstruction and abnormally located bowel loops relative to normally located small bowel or colon should prompt assessment for an internal hernia.

  16. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease , pancreatitis or liver cirrhosis. cancers of the liver, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries and bladder as well as ... injuries to abdominal organs such as the spleen, liver, kidneys or other internal organs in cases of ...

  17. Abdominal and Pelvic CT

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exams and ultrasound are preferred for evaluation of acute abdominal conditions in babies, such as vomiting or blood in stool. For some conditions, including but not limited to some liver, kidney, pancreatic, uterine or ovarian abnormalities, the evaluation and diagnosis ...

  18. Effects of different sources of fat (calcium soap of palm oil vs. extruded linseed) in lactating ewes' diet on the fatty acid profile of their suckling lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Cortés, P; Gallardo, B; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Manso, T

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementing lactating ewe diets with extruded linseed on the fatty acid (FA) composition of intramuscular and subcutaneous fat depots of suckling lambs. Twenty-four pregnant Churra ewes were divided into two groups based on the milk production, age, body weight and parity, and assigned to one of two treatments. Each ewe of the Control treatment was supplemented with 70 g/day of FAs from a calcium soap of palm oil, while the other treatment group (Lin) was supplemented with 128 g/day of extruded linseed. All lambs were reared exclusively on milk and were slaughtered when they reached 11 kg live weight. FA profiles of ewe milk, lamb meat and subcutaneous adipose tissue were determined by GC. Lamb performance was not affected by the treatments. Muscle fat and adipose tissue from the Lin treatment showed higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The percentages of α-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), docosahexaenoic (C22:6 n-3), vaccenic (trans-11 C18:1) and rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2) acids in both fat depots were higher in Lin than in Control suckling lambs. Furthermore, meat fat from Lin carcasses displayed a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than Control samples. Intramuscular depots clearly showed a greater content of PUFA, including cis-9, trans-11 C18:2, and a lower n-6/n-3 ratio than subcutaneous fat. The results from this study demonstrate that dietary extruded linseed supplementation of lactating ewes enhances the nutritional quality of suckling lamb fat depots such as intramuscular and subcutaneous fats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or ...

  20. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... particularly valuable for evaluating abdominal, pelvic or scrotal pain in children. Preparation will depend on the type ... help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, abscesses or an ...

  1. Incision for abdominal laparoscopy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal laparoscopy is a useful aid in diagnosing disease or trauma in the abdominal cavity with less scarring than ... as liver and pancreatic resections may begin with laparoscopy to exclude the presence of additional tumors (metastatic ...

  2. Children's (Pediatric) Abdominal Ultrasound Imaging

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Except for traumatic injury, appendicitis is the most common reason for emergency abdominal surgery. Ultrasound imaging can also: help a physician determine the source of abdominal pain, such as gallstones, kidney stones, ...

  3. Anthropometry, DXA and leptin reflect subcutaneous but not visceral abdominal adipose tissue by MRI in 197 healthy adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tinggaard, Jeanette; Hagen, Casper P; Christensen, Anders Nymark

    2017-01-01

    Background Abdominal fat distribution is associated with the development of cardio-metabolic disease independently of body mass index (BMI). We assessed anthropometry, serum adipokines, and DXA as markers of abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) using.......001) and VAT% in boys (R2=16.4%, PAnthropometry and circulating leptin are valid markers of SAT%, but not of VAT%....

  4. Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartog, Dennis; Tuinebreijer, Wim; Oprel, Pim; Patka, Peter

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a computed tomography (CT) scan. Repair consisted of an open anatomical reconstruction of the abdominal wall layers with reinforcement by an intraperitoneal composite mesh. The patient recovered well and...

  5. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  6. Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate) use after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Clarissa; Murthy, Amitasrigowri S

    2016-01-01

    In the US, obesity rates are increasing greatly. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 68.5% of Americans, including 63.9% of adult women older than 20 years, are overweight (body mass index between 25 kg/m 2 and 29.9 kg/m 2 ) or obese (body mass index >30 kg/m 2 ). In light of this, it is not surprising that the rates of bariatric surgery have also been increasing. When considering the metabolic changes associated with both bariatric surgery and contraceptive use, in combination with the unique medical considerations of obese women, it is indisputable that clear guidelines are needed when counseling obese patients of reproductive age after bariatric surgery. In this literature review, we focus on depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and the implications of its use in obese women, preweight and postweight loss following bariatric surgery. Both DMPA use and bariatric surgery are known to cause bone loss, but it is still unclear whether there is an additive effect of the two factors on bone loss and whether either of these factors directly leads to an increased risk of bone fracture. The current consensus guidelines do not impose a restriction on the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. DMPA use is associated with weight gain, and it is unclear whether weight loss blunting occurs with the use of DMPA after bariatric surgery. Prior studies had demonstrated an association with weight gain in adolescents, and therefore, those prescribing DMPA use after bariatric surgery in adolescents should proceed with caution. Adult women do not have a similar response to the use of DMPA. DMPA use has rarely been associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The obesity-associated increase in VTE should be mitigated by surgically induced weight loss. The concurrent use of DMPA in the post bariatric surgical period should not further increase the risk of VTE.

  7. Acute traumatic abdominal wall hernia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); P.P. Oprel (Pim); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAlthough blunt abdominal trauma is frequent, traumatic abdominal wall hernias (TAWH) are rare. We describe a large TAWH with associated intra-abdominal lesions that were caused by high-energy trauma. The diagnosis was missed by clinical examination but was subsequently revealed by a

  8. Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Andrusaitis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 69-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension presented with 1 hour of severe low back pain that radiated to his abdomen. The patient was tachycardic and had an initial blood pressure of 70/40. He had a rigid and severely tender abdomen. The patient’s history of hypertension, abnormal vital signs, severity and location of his pain were suspicious for a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA. Therefore, a computed tomography angiogram (CTA was ordered. Significant findings: CTA demonstrated a ruptured 7.4 cm infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm with a large left retroperitoneal hematoma. Discussion: True abdominal aortic aneurysm is defined as at least a 3cm dilatation of all three layers of the arterial wall of the abdominal aorta.1 An estimated 15,000 people die per year in the US of this condition.2 Risk factors for AAA include males older than 65, tobacco use, and hypertension.1,3,4 There are also congenital, mechanical, traumatic, inflammatory, and infectious causes of AAA.3 Rupture is often the first manifestation of the disease. The classic triad of abdominal pain, pulsatile mass, and hypotension is seen in only 50% of ruptured AAAs.5 Pain (abdominal, groin, or back is the most common symptom. The most common misdiagnoses of ruptured AAAs are renal colic, diverticulitis, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.6 Bedside ultrasonography is the fastest way to detect this condition and is nearly 100% sensitive.1 One study showed that bedside ultrasounds performed by emergency physicians had a sensitivity of .94 [95% CI = .86-1.0] and specificity of 1 [95% CI = .98-1.0] for detecting AAAs.7 CTA has excellent sensitivity (approximately 100% and yields the added benefit of facilitating surgical planning and management.1 Without surgical treatment, a ruptured AAA is almost uniformly fatal, and 50% of those who undergo surgery do not survive.1 Early resuscitation and coordination with vascular surgery should be

  9. Maternal omega-3 supplementation increases fat mass in male and female rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverly Sara Muhlhausler

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Adipogenesis and lipogenesis are highly sensitive to the nutritional environment in utero and in early postnatal life. Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA inhibit adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adult rats, however it is not known whether supplementing the maternal diet with omega-3 LCPUFA results in reduced fat deposition in the offspring. Female Albino Wistar rats were fed either a standard chow (Control, n=10 or chow designed to provide ~15mg/kg/day of omega-3 LCPUFA, chiefly as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, throughout pregnancy and lactation (Omega-3, n=11 and all pups were weaned onto a commercial rat chow. Blood and tissues were collected from pups at 3wks and 6wks of age and weights of visceral and subcutaneous fat depots recorded. The expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the subcutaneous and visceral fat depots were determined using qRT-PCR. Birth weight and postnatal growth were not different between groups. At 6 weeks of age, total percentage body fat was significantly increased in both male (5.09 ± 0.32% vs 4.56 ± 0.2%, P<0.04 and female (5.15 ± 0.37% vs 3.89 ± 0.36%, P<0.04 offspring of omega-3 dams compared to controls. The omega-3 LCPUFA content of erythrocyte phospholipids (as a % of total fatty acids was higher in omega-3 offspring (6.7 ± 0.2 % vs 5.6 ± 0.2%, P<0.001. There was no effect of maternal omega-3 LCPUFA supplementation on the expression of adipogenic or lipogenic genes in the offspring in either the visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. We have therefore established that an omega-3 rich environment during pregnancy and lactation in a rodent model increases fat accumulation in both male and female offspring, particularly in subcutaneous depots, but that this effect is not mediated via upregulation adipogenic/lipogenic gene transcription. These data suggest that maternal n-3 LCPUFA supplementation during pregnancy/lactation may not be an effective strategy for reducing fat deposition in

  10. Differential patterns of serum concentration and adipose tissue expression of chemerin in obesity: adipose depot specificity and gender dimorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfadda, Assim A; Sallam, Reem M; Chishti, Muhammad Azhar; Moustafa, Amr S; Fatma, Sumbul; Alomaim, Waleed S; Al-Naami, Mohammed Y; Bassas, Abdulelah F; Chrousos, George P; Jo, Hyunsun

    2012-06-01

    Chemerin, a recognized chemoattractant, is expressed in adipose tissue and plays a role in adipocytes differentiation and metabolism. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences in human chemerin expression have not been well characterized. Therefore, these differences were assessed in the present study. The body mass index (BMI) and the circulating levels of chemerin and other inflammatory, adiposity and insulin resistance markers were assessed in female and male adults of varying degree of obesity. Chemerin mRNA expression was also measured in paired subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples obtained from a subset of the study subjects. Serum chemerin concentrations correlated positively with BMI and serum leptin levels and negatively with high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. No correlation was found between serum chemerin concentrations and fasting glucose, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, C-reactive protein or adiponectin. Similarly, no relation was observed with the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values. Gender- and adipose tissue-specific differences were observed in chemerin mRNA expression levels, with expression significantly higher in women than men and in subcutaneous than visceral adipose tissue. Interestingly, we found a significant negative correlation between circulating chemerin levels and chemerin mRNA expression in subcutaneous fat. Among the subjects studied, circulating chemerin levels were associated with obesity markers but not with markers of insulin resistance. At the tissue level, fat depot-specific differential regulation of chemerin mRNA expression might contribute to the distinctive roles of subcutaneous vs. visceral adipose tissue in human obesity.

  11. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Fat Loss

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    Stephen H. Boutcher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of regular aerobic exercise on body fat is negligible; however, other forms of exercise may have a greater impact on body composition. For example, emerging research examining high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE indicates that it may be more effective at reducing subcutaneous and abdominal body fat than other types of exercise. The mechanisms underlying the fat reduction induced by HIIE, however, are undetermined. Regular HIIE has been shown to significantly increase both aerobic and anaerobic fitness. HIIE also significantly lowers insulin resistance and results in a number of skeletal muscle adaptations that result in enhanced skeletal muscle fat oxidation and improved glucose tolerance. This review summarizes the results of HIIE studies on fat loss, fitness, insulin resistance, and skeletal muscle. Possible mechanisms underlying HIIE-induced fat loss and implications for the use of HIIE in the treatment and prevention of obesity are also discussed.

  12. Artificial intelligence technology assessment for the US Army Depot System Command

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennock, K A

    1991-07-01

    This assessment of artificial intelligence (AI) has been prepared for the US Army's Depot System Command (DESCOM) by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The report describes several of the more promising AI technologies, focusing primarily on knowledge-based systems because they have been more successful in commercial applications than any other AI technique. The report also identifies potential Depot applications in the areas of procedural support, scheduling and planning, automated inspection, training, diagnostics, and robotic systems. One of the principal objectives of the report is to help decisionmakers within DESCOM to evaluate AI as a possible tool for solving individual depot problems. The report identifies a number of factors that should be considered in such evaluations. 22 refs.

  13. Factors Associated with Abdominal Obesity in the Productive Age in Surabaya

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    Fani Kusteviani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity has become a public health and nutrition issues the world both developed countries and developing countries, including Indonesia. Abdominal obesity is one type of obesity where there is abdominal fat deposits as measured by waist circumference. Abdominal obesity is more at risk of health problems such as diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension and cardiovascular disease than general obesity. Behavioral and environmental factors as well as genetic plays a role in the onset of abdominal obesity. The purpose of the study was to analyze factors associated with abdominal obesity in the productive age (15–64 years in Surabaya. The independent variables used were age, sex, marital status, family size, education, occupation, smoking, physical activity, consumption of vegetables and or fruit, food or sugary drinks, fatty foods and mental health. This research was analytical study use cross sectional design. The study used secondary data from Basic Health Research Surabaya 2007 amounted to 2191 respondents by simple random sampling. Data were analyzed with Chi-square test and logistic regression. Result of analysis showed that risk factors of abdominal obesity were age 35–64 years, female gender and married or divorced status, level of education ≤ SMA and consume fatty food regularly. The most influential risk factors are female. Increasing knowledge, physical activity, and reducing fat intake can prevent the risk of abdominal obesity. Keyword: abdominal obesity, productive age, lifestyle, female

  14. ABDOMINAL TRAUMA- CLINICAL STUDY

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    Vanaja Ratnakumari Billa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND In the recent times there has been increased incidence of abdominal trauma cases due to several causes. Quick and prompt intervention is needed to decrease the mortality of the patients. So we conducted a study to assess the cause and the management of abdominal trauma cases in our institution. The aim of this study was to know the incidence of blunt and penetrating injuries and their causes, age and sex incidence, importance of various investigations, mode of treatment offered and post-operative complications. To study the cause of death and evolve better management. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study comprises of patients admitted to and operated in various surgical units in the Department of Surgery at Government General Hospital, attached to Guntur Medical College Guntur, from August 2014 to October 2016. RESULTS Increase incidence seen in age group 20-29 years (30%. Male predominance 77.5%. Mechanism of injury–road traffic accidents 65%. Isolated organ injury–colon and rectum 40%. Other associated injuries–chest injuries with rib fractures 7.5%. Complications–wound infection 17.5%. Duration of hospital stay 8–14 days. Bowel injury management–closure of perforation 84.6%. Resection anastomosis 15.38%. CONCLUSION Thorough clinical examination, diagnostic paracentesis, plain X-ray erect abdomen and ultrasound proved to be very helpful in the diagnosis of intra-abdominal injuries. Spleen is the commonest organ involved in blunt trauma and colon is the commonly injured organ in penetrating abdominal trauma, many patients have associated extremity and axial skeleton injuries. With advances in diagnosis and intensive care technologies, most patients of solid visceral injuries with hemodynamic stability can be managed conservatively. Surgical site infection is the most common complication following surgery. The mortality is high; reason might be patient reaching the hospital late, high incidence of postoperative septic

  15. Endometrioma de parede abdominal

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    Italo Accetta

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Relatar a experiência dos autores com as manifestações clínicas e o tratamento cirúrgico em pacientes com endometrioma de parede abdominal. MÉTODOS: Análise retrospectiva das pacientes operadas por endometrioma de parede abdominal, dando ênfase aos dados relativos à idade, sintomas, cesariana prévia, relação dos sintomas com o ciclo menstrual, exames físicos e complementares, tratamento cirúrgico, evolução pós-operatória e resultado histopatológico dos espécimes. RESULTADOS: Foram operadas 14 pacientes no período estudado, com idade entre 28 e 40 anos. A presença de massa e dor local que piorava durante a menstruação foram as queixas principais. Ultrassonografia e tomografia computadorizada foram exames importantes em localizar precisamente a doença. O tratamento cirúrgico foi exérese ampla da tumoração e dos tecidos comprometidos. As pacientes evoluíram satisfatoriamente e o histopatológico confirmou a suspeita de endometrioma de parede abdominal em todos os casos. CONCLUSÃO: Foi nítida a relação entre cesariana prévia e endometrioma de parede abdominal e estudos ultrassonográficos e tomográficos auxiliaram a planejar a abordagem cirúrgica permitindo a exérese da tumoração e de todos os tecidos adjacentes comprometidos.

  16. Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, William S.; Carter, Kristine M.; Fuhrman, George M.; Bolton, John S.; Bowen, John C.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, laparoscopy has been the most innovative surgical movement in general surgery. Minimally invasive surgery performed through a few small incisions, laparoscopy is the standard of care for the treatment of gallbladder disease and the gold standard for the treatment of reflux disease. The indications for a laparoscopic approach to abdominal disease continue to increase, and many diseases may be treated with laparoscopic techniques. At Ochsner, laparoscopic techniques have dem...

  17. [Abdominal catastrophe--surgeon's view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnánek, F

    2010-07-01

    Abdominal catastrophe is a serious clinical condition, usually being a complication arising during treatment of intraabdominal nontraumatic disorders or abdominal injuries. Most commonly, inflamation- secondary peritonitis, is concerned. Abdominal catastrophe also includes secondary signs of sepsis, abdominal compartment syndrome and enterocutaneous fistules. Most septic abdominal disorders which show signs of abdominal catastrophy, require surgical intervention and reinterventions--planned or "on demand" laparotomies. During the postoperative period, the patient requires intensive care management, including steps taken to stabilize his/hers condition, management of sepsis and metabolic and nutritional support measures, as well as adequate indication for reoperations. New technologies aimed at prevention of complications in laparostomies and to improve conditions for final laparotomy closure are used in phase procedures for surgical management of intraabdominal infections. Despite the new technologies, abdominal catastrophe has higher morbidity and lethality risk rates.

  18. Obesity-Associated Abdominal Elephantiasis

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    Ritesh Kohli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal elephantiasis is a rare entity. Abdominal elephantiasis is an uncommon, but deformative and progressive cutaneous disease caused by chronic lymphedema and recurrent streptococcal or Staphylococcus infections of the abdominal wall. We present 3 cases of patients with morbid obesity who presented to our hospital with abdominal wall swelling, thickening, erythema, and pain. The abdominal wall and legs were edematous, with cobblestone-like, thickened, hyperpigmented, and fissured plaques on the abdomen. Two patients had localised areas of skin erythema, tenderness, and increased warmth. There was purulent drainage from the abdominal wall in one patient. They were managed with antibiotics with some initial improvement. Meticulous skin care and local keratolytic treatment for the lesions were initiated with limited success due to their late presentation. All three patients refused surgical therapy. Conclusion. Early diagnosis is important for the treatment of abdominal elephantiasis and prevention of complications.

  19. The contribution of fat component to gestational weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V N Pokusaeva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to estimate the role of adipose tissue in gestational weight gain (GWG and preferential fat deposition among normal-weight women. Subjects and methods: prospective cohort study of 84 pregnancies: maternal body mass index 18,5–24,9 kg/m2, singleton term pregnancy, nondiabetic women, somatically well. GWG and skinfold thickness were evaluated in the 1st, 2nd, 3d trimesters, on the 3d day after delivery. Results: fat mass gain in low GWG was similar to recommended GWG and in the high-GWG group was greater one. Women with recommended and low GWG returned to their initial fat level on the 3d day after delivery, in excessive weight gain fat significantly increased (р=0,025. Compared to initial recommended GWG resulted in triceps skinfold thicknesses loss (р=0,001, in abdominal skinfold gained nothing and in thighs skinfold thicknesses increasing (р=0,021. Inadequate GWG leads to fat loss in arms (р=0,017, fat of abdominal area and thighs return to initial level. In excessive GWG fat in the upper trunk and arms not changed, in the lower area (thighs significantly increased compared to initial level (р=0,001 or other groups (р=0,001. Conclusion: excessive GWG was associated with greater adipose tissue cumulation and its deposition preferentially over the thighs. Inadequate GWG was clearly linked to low fat-free mass gain.

  20. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 is required for normal fat storage in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Diego A; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Nguyen, Long N; Cheng, Wang; Tan, Bryan C; Goh, Vera J; Tan, Jolene S Y; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Kn, Bhanu Prakash; Velan, S Sendhil; Wang, Hongyan; Silver, David L

    2014-04-04

    Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. Fat storage-inducing transmembrane protein 2 (FITM2/FIT2) is highly expressed in adipocytes, and data indicate that FIT2 has an important role in the formation of LDs in cells, but whether FIT2 has a physiological role in triglyceride storage in adipose tissue remains unproven. Here we show that adipose-specific deficiency of FIT2 (AF2KO) in mice results in progressive lipodystrophy of white adipose depots and metabolic dysfunction. In contrast, interscapular brown adipose tissue of AF2KO mice accumulated few but large LDs without changes in cellular triglyceride levels. High fat feeding of AF2KO mice or AF2KO mice on the genetically obese ob/ob background accelerated the onset of lipodystrophy. At the cellular level, primary adipocyte precursors of white and brown adipose tissue differentiated in vitro produced fewer but larger LDs without changes in total cellular triglyceride or triglyceride biosynthesis. These data support the conclusion that FIT2 plays an essential, physiological role in fat storage in vivo.

  1. Abdominal aspergillosis: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeom, Suk Keu, E-mail: pagoda20@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Jin, E-mail: kimhyejin@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho, E-mail: jhbyun@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ah Young, E-mail: aykim@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Moon-Gyu, E-mail: mglee@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Hyun Kwon, E-mail: hkha@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, 388-1, Poongnap2-dong, Songpa-gu, Seoul, 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Objective: In order to retrospectively evaluate the CT findings of abdominal aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. Materials and methods: CT scans were reviewed with regard to the sites, number, morphologic appearance, attenuation, and the contrast enhancement patterns of the lesions in six patients (5 women, 1 man; mean age, 43.4 years; range, 23-59 years) with pathologically proved abdominal aspergillosis by two gastrointestinal radiologists in consensus. Medical records were also reviewed to determine each patient's clinical status and outcome. Results: All patients were immunocompromised state: 4 patients received immunosuppressive therapy for solid organ transplantation and 2 patients received chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Aspergillosis involved blood vessels (n = 3), liver (n = 2), spleen (n = 2), gastrointestinal tract (n = 2), native kidney (n = 1), transplanted kidney (n = 1), peritoneum (n = 1), and retroperitoneum (n = 1). CT demonstrated solid organ or bowel infarction or perforation secondary to vascular thrombosis or pseudoaneurysm, multiple low-attenuating lesions of solid organs presenting as abscesses, concentric bowel wall thickening mimicking typhlitis, or diffuse or nodular infiltration of the peritoneum and retroperitoneum. Conclusion: Familiarity with findings commonly presenting as angioinvasive features or abscesses on CT, may facilitate the diagnosis of rare and fatal abdominal aspergillosis.

  2. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Fetal abdominal wall defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prefumo, Federico; Izzi, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    The most common fetal abdominal wall defects are gastroschisis and omphalocele, both with a prevalence of about three in 10,000 births. Prenatal ultrasound has a high sensitivity for these abnormalities already at the time of the first-trimester nuchal scan. Major unrelated defects are associated with gastroschisis in about 10% of cases, whereas omphalocele is associated with chromosomal or genetic abnormalities in a much higher proportion of cases. Challenges in management of gastroschisis are related to the prevention of late intrauterine death, and the prediction and treatment of complex forms. With omphalocele, the main difficulty is the exclusion of associated conditions, not all diagnosed prenatally. An outline of the postnatal treatment of abdominal wall defects is given. Other rarer forms of abdominal wall defects are pentalogy of