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Sample records for abdominal fat body

  1. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to cardiovascular risk factors in prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    Aim:  We analysed whether total body fat (TBF), abdominal fat and body fat distribution are associated with higher composite risk factor scores for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in young children. Methods:  Cross-sectional study of 238 children aged 8-11 years. TBF and abdominal fat mass (AFM) were...... measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. TBF was expressed as a percentage of body weight (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK) ), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), and resting heart rate (RHR) were measured. Mean arterial pressure...... (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP) were calculated. Left atrial diameter (LA) was measured, and left ventricular mass (LVM) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Z-scores were calculated. Sum of z-scores for SBP, DBP, MAP, PP, RHR, LVM, LA, RWT and -VO(2PEAK) was calculated in boys and girls...

  2. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ACL Safalaoh. Abstract. A study was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of a microbial preparation, Effective Micro organisms (EM), on body weight gain, dressing percentage, ...

  3. Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body weight gain, dressing percentage, abdominal fat and serum cholesterol of broilers supplemented with a microbial preparation. ... Alternatively, you can download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link above.

  4. Body fat, abdominal fat and body fat distribution related to VO(2PEAK) in young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Wollmer, Per; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Aerobic fitness, defined as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2PEAK)), and body fat measurements represent two known risk factors for disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VO(2PEAK) and body fat measurements in young children at a population-ba...

  5. Body Fat, Abdominal Fat, and Body Fat Distribution Is Related to Left Atrial Diameter in Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2012-01-01

    such as lean body mass, blood pressure, gender, age, and Tanner stage revealed that TBF, AFM, and AFM/TBF were all independently related to LA diameter. Differences in the different body fat measurements explained 6-9% of the variance in LA size. These results demonstrated that both total body fat, AFM......In adults, the size of the left atria (LA) has important prognostic information. In obese adults, adolescents and children enlargement of LA have been observed. This has not been investigated on a population-based level in young children. We therefore assessed if total body fat mass (TBF...

  6. Waist circumference adjusted for body mass index and intra-abdominal fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Ängquist, Lars; Kotronen, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The association between waist circumference (WC) and mortality is particularly strong and direct when adjusted for body mass index (BMI). One conceivable explanation for this association is that WC adjusted for BMI is a better predictor of the presumably most harmful intra-abdominal fat mass (IAFM...

  7. Abdominal Obesity and their association with Total Body: Fat Distribution and Composition. Case of Algerian Teenager Male high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Our aim attempted to esteem the impact of abdominal fat on body fat distribution or composition related to total body fat as recommended weight loss among High School Students. Material: For the proposed, 100 male students from the Algerian high school Education Sector's mandate Sidi Bel Abbes, participate in the present study. Their average age 16±1.52 years, distributed into homogeneous groups, according to their body fat percent categories. Examined by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP - Abdominal circumference (WC - Body mass index (BMI. Results: Based on the test data and the analysis statistics applied, we confirm: a Abdominal obesity is excess body gain correlate with total fat BMI. It highly affected body composition reported as additional fat for overweight in compare with acceptable according to Ideal BFP categories. b Abdominal obesity is an amount deep fat correlates to total BFP. It higher influenced the distribution of total body fat reported as additional excess fat among overweight category compared to the acceptable group. c Waist circumference (WC is the leading marker of abdominal fat deposits located in the central region of the body. While the combination of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC, reflects the combined effects of body build (fat or fatness in individuals at higher risk of excessive body fat. Conclusions: founded on the differences acquired by the research team. We highlight that abdominal obesity is strongly connected to larger WC relate to total body gain located as excess inordinate fatness BMI or fat distribution BFP among our overall sample. Evidence, which guides us to recommend our adolescent students to intensification their hours of sports practice, in order to avoid the consequences of abdominal obesity gain. Announced in the present study as excess abdominal adiposity more metabolically active. Requiring the control of body weight loss (BFP or BMI strongly correlates to

  8. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-08-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by using a body composition testing machine. We then analyzed the t-test results by using the IBM SPSS ver. 18.0 program. Through this research, we found that there was a significant difference among those in the group of students whose academic performance was at the top 20% in terms of body fat mass and body fat rates, which means that academic performance has relatively little effect on body composition and abdominal fat rates.

  9. The effects of the academic performance of college students whose major is sports on body composition and abdominal fat rates

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hyeon-Ok; Lee, Bo-Ae

    2016-01-01

    The subjects of this research are 30 students of Dong-Eui Institute of Technology in Busan city, who were grouped into two categories after applying the curriculum of the second semester of the freshman year to their classes: those whose academic performance was at the top 20% (15 students) and those whose academic performance was at the bottom 20% (15 students). For the measurement items, we measured their weight, body fat mass, body fat rates, body mass index, and abdominal fat rates by usi...

  10. Relationship between bread consumption, body weight, and abdominal fat distribution: evidence from epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2012-04-01

    A long-standing belief held by the general public is that bread fattens. This encourages many people to restrict, or even eliminate, bread from their diet. The present review was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with overall obesity or excess abdominal adiposity, whether in the general population or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The literature search included articles published over the past 30 years that focused on dietary patterns that included bread (refined or whole-grain) and their association with ponderal status and abdominal fat distribution. A total of 38 epidemiological studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (22 cross-sectional, 11 prospective cohort, and five intervention). The results indicate that dietary patterns that include whole-grain bread do not positively influence weight gain and may be beneficial to ponderal status. With respect to dietary patterns that include refined bread, the majority of cross-sectional studies indicate beneficial effects, while most of the well-designed cohort studies demonstrate a possible relationship with excess abdominal fat. Because differences in the study designs make it difficult to form definitive conclusions, more studies are needed that focus specifically on bread consumption, within different dietary patterns, and its influence on ponderal status. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  11. Effect of body mass index and intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography on the risk of bowel symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoyoshi Nagata

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT and bowel symptoms.A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05 different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01, low VAT area (p = 0.01, and low SAT area (p<0.01. Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01 and low SAT area (p<0.01. The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672.Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months.

  12. Effect of Body Mass Index and Intra-Abdominal Fat Measured by Computed Tomography on the Risk of Bowel Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sakamoto, Kayo; Arai, Tomohiro; Niikura, Ryota; Shimbo, Takuro; Shinozaki, Masafumi; Ihana, Noriko; Sekine, Katsunori; Okubo, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Sakurai, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Chizu; Yanase, Mikio; Akiyama, Junichi; Uemura, Naomi; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the association between body mass index (BMI) or intra-abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) and bowel symptoms. Method A cohort of 958 Japanese adults who underwent colonoscopy and CT and completed questionnaires after excluding colorectal diseases was analyzed. Six symptoms (constipation, diarrhea, loose stools, hard stools, fecal urgency, and incomplete evacuation) using a 7-point Likert scale were evaluated between baseline and second questionnaire for test-retest reliability. Associations between BMI, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and symptom score were analyzed by a rank-ordered logistic model, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. Results Some bowel symptom scores were significantly (p<0.05) different between the age groups, sexes, smoking, and alcohol consumption. In multivariate analysis, constipation was associated with low BMI (p<0.01), low VAT area (p = 0.01), and low SAT area (p<0.01). Moreover, hard stools was associated with low BMI (p<0.01) and low SAT area (p<0.01). The remaining symptoms were not significantly associated with BMI or intra-abdominal fat. Test-retest reliability of bowel symptom scores with a mean duration of 7.5 months was good (mean kappa, 0.672). Conclusions Both low BMI and low abdominal fat accumulation appears to be useful indicators of increased risk for constipation and hard stools. The long-term test-retest reliability of symptom score suggests that bowel symptoms relevant to BMI or visceral fat remain consistent over several months. PMID:25906052

  13. Effects of testosterone supplementation on whole body and regional fat mass and distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, Shalender; Parker, Robert A; Sattler, Fred; Haubrich, Richard; Alston, Beverly; Umbleja, Triin; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2007-03-01

    Whole body and abdominal obesity are associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus and heart disease. The effects of testosterone therapy on whole body and visceral fat mass in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity are unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone therapy on intraabdominal fat mass and whole body fat distribution in HIV-infected men with abdominal obesity. IN this multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, 88 HIV-positive men with abdominal obesity (waist-to-hip ratio > 0.95 or mid-waist circumference > 100 cm) and total testosterone 125-400 ng/dl, or bioavailable testosterone less than 115 ng/dl, or free testosterone less than 50 pg/ml on stable antiretroviral regimen, and HIV RNA less than 10,000 copies per milliliter were randomized to receive 10 g testosterone gel or placebo daily for 24 wk. Fat mass and distribution were determined by abdominal computerized tomography and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry during wk 0, 12, and 24. We used an intention-to-treat approach and nonparametric statistical methods. Baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. In 75 subjects evaluated, median percent change from baseline to wk 24 in visceral fat did not differ significantly between groups (testosterone 0.3%, placebo 3.1%, P = 0.75). Total (testosterone -1.5%, placebo 4.3%, P = 0.04) and sc (testosterone-7.2%, placebo 8.1%, P fat mass decreased in testosterone-treated men, but increased in placebo group. Testosterone therapy was associated with significant decrease in whole body, trunk, and appendicular fat mass by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (all P fat increased significantly in the placebo group. The percent of individuals reporting a decrease in abdomen (P = 0.01), neck (P = 0.08), and breast size (P = 0.01) at wk 24 was significantly greater in testosterone-treated than placebo-treated men. Testosterone-treated men had greater increase in lean body mass than placebo

  14. Body composition analysis and adipocytokine concentrations in haemodialysis patients: Abdominal fat gain as an added cardiovascular risk factor. Abdominal fat gain and cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena González

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: HD patients exhibit a gain in fat mass over time, especially in the abdomen, evidenced by an increased A/G ratio. These findings might explain the increased cardiovascular risk in these patients.

  15. Nutritional Factors Affecting Abdominal Fat Deposition in Poultry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The major goals of the poultry industry are to increase the carcass yield and to reduce carcass fatness, mainly the abdominal fat pad. The increase in poultry meat consumption has guided the selection process toward fast-growing broilers with a reduced feed conversion ratio. Intensive selection has led to great improvements in economic traits such as body weight gain, feed efficiency, and breast yield to meet the demands of consumers, but modern commercial chickens exhibit excessive fat accumulation in the abdomen area. However, dietary composition and feeding strategies may offer practical and efficient solutions for reducing body fat deposition in modern poultry strains. Thus, the regulation of lipid metabolism to reduce the abdominal fat content based on dietary composition and feeding strategy, as well as elucidating their effects on the key enzymes associated with lipid metabolism, could facilitate the production of lean meat and help to understand the fat-lowering effects of diet and different feeding strategies.

  16. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya [Nagaoka Red Cross Hospital, Niigata (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28{+-}0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.).

  17. Children with moderate-high infection with Entamoeba coli have higher percentage of body and abdominal fat than non-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G A; García, O P; Campos-Ponce, M; Ronquillo, D; Caamaño, M C; Doak, C M; Rosado, J L

    2016-12-01

    Intestinal parasites, virus and bacterial infections are positively associated with obesity and adiposity in vitro and in animal models, but conclusive evidence of this relationship in humans is lacking. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine differences in adiposity between infected and non-infected children, with a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and obesity. A total of 296 school-aged children (8.0 ± 1.5 years) from a rural area in Querétaro, Mexico, participated in this study. Anthropometry (weight, height and waist circumference) and body fat (DXA) were measured in all children. A fresh stool sample was collected from each child and analysed for parasites. Questionnaires related to socioeconomic status and clinical history were completed by caretakers. Approximately 11% of the children were obese, and 19% were overweight. The overall prevalence of infection was 61%. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most prevalent soil transmitted helminth (16%) followed by hookworm. Entamoeba coli was the predominant protozoa (20%) followed by Endolimax nana, Balantidium coli, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Iodamoeba bütschlii and Giardia lamblia. Children with moderate-heavy infection of E. coli had significantly higher waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, body and abdominal fat than children not infected or with light-intensity infection (p < 0.05). These findings raise the possibility that a moderate or heavy infection with E. coli may contribute to fat deposition and thereby have long-term consequences on human health. Further studies are needed to better understand if E. coli contributes directly to fat deposition and possible mechanisms. © 2015 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Use of prediction equations to determine the accuracy of whole-body fat and fat-free mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass measurements from a single abdominal image using computed tomography in advanced cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgour, Robert D; Cardiff, Katrina; Rosenthall, Leonard; Lucar, Enriqueta; Trutschnigg, Barbara; Vigano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and single abdominal images from computed tomography (CT) in advanced cancer patients (ACP) have important diagnostic and prognostic value. The question arises as to whether CT scans can serve as surrogates for DXA in terms of whole-body fat-free mass (FFM), whole-body fat mass (FM), and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) mass. Predictive equations to estimate body composition for ACP from CT images have been proposed (Mourtzakis et al. 2008; Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metabol. 33(5): 997-1006); however, these equations have yet to be validated in an independent cohort of ACP. Thus, this study evaluated the accuracy of these equations in estimating FFM, FM, and ASM mass using CT images at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae and compared these values with DXA measurements. FFM, FM, and ASM mass were estimated from the prediction equations proposed by Mourtzakis and colleagues (2008) using single abdominal CT images from 43 ACP and were compared with whole-body DXA scans using Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman analyses. Despite a moderate to high correlation between the actual (DXA) and predicted (CT) values for FM (rho = 0.93; p ≤ 0.001), FFM (rho = 0.78; p ≤ 0.001), and ASM mass (rho = 0.70; p ≤ 0.001), Bland-Altman analyses revealed large range-of-agreement differences between the 2 methods (29.39 kg for FFM, 15.47 kg for FM, and 3.99 kg for ASM mass). Based on the magnitude of these differences, we concluded that prediction equations using single abdominal CT images have poor accuracy, cannot be considered as surrogates for DXA, and may have limited clinical utility.

  19. Relationships between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computer tomography, body composition, serum lipids, plasma glucose and cardiorespiratory functions in obese children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torigoe, Katsumi; Numata, Osamu; Sudo, Shouji; Matsunaga, Masamichi; Kyo, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Onozuka, Yutaka; Imai, Chihaya

    1995-01-01

    Visceral abdominal fat to subcutaneous abdominal fat ratio (V/S ratio) is a predictor for cardiac disease, metabolic disease, and hypertension in obese adults. This study determined the histopathological value of V/S ratio in obese children using computed tomography (CT). The subjects were 37 boys and 26 girls with overweight by more than 20%, whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 years. Although the percentage of standard body weight (SBW), percentage of body fat (BF), and body mass index (BMI) were correlated with each other, there was no correlation between the V/S ratio and the three predictors. Thus, the V/S ratio is completely different from the other obesity predictors in children. The V/S ratio in children of 20% or more overweight of SBW was 0.28±0.11. The V/S ratio of 0.4, used as an obesity predictor in adults, was not considered suitable in the case of children. Liver function, serum lipid levels, and serum glucose correlated with the percentage of SBW, BMI, and the percentage of BF, but not correlated with the V/S ratio. According to the V/S ratio, the patients were divided into the group of V/S ratio of less than 0.28 (group I, n=34) and the group of V/S ratio of 0.28 or more (group II, n=27). There was no significant difference in age, percentage of SBW, BMI, and percentage of BF. Triglyceride was significantly higher in group II than group I, but there was no significant difference in plasma glucose and other lipids, body composition, blood pressure or respiratory function. Of note, the V/S ratio of 0.4 or more was seen in only 9 of the 61 children (14.7%). These findings suggest that the V/S ratio for children is a predictor different from that in the case of adults. (N.K.)

  20. Abdominal wall fat pad biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more difficult procedure. Normal Results The fat pad tissues are normal. What Abnormal Results Mean In the case of amyloidosis, abnormal results mean there is amyloid. This is a protein that collects in tissues and impairs organ and tissue function. Risks There ...

  1. Abdominal fat and metabolic risk in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revenga-Frauca, J; González-Gil, E M; Bueno-Lozano, G; De Miguel-Etayo, P; Velasco-Martínez, P; Rey-López, J P; Bueno-Lozano, O; Moreno, L A

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate fat distribution, mainly abdominal fat, and its relationship with metabolic risk variables in a group of 126 children and adolescents (60 males and 66 females) aged 5.0 to 14.9. According to IOTF criteria, 46 were classified as normal weight, 28 overweight and 52 obese. Weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumferences were measured. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Total body fat, trunkal and abdominal fat were also assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Glucose, insulin, HDL-Cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), ferritine, homocystein and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Obesity status was related with insulin concentrations, CRP, TG and HDL. Obese patients had higher abdominal fat and higher CRP values than overweight and normal subjects. All markers of central body adiposity were related with insulin and lipid metabolism; however, they were not related with homocystein or ferritin. A simple anthropometric measurement, like waist circumference, seems to be a good predictor of the majority of the obesity related metabolic risk variables.

  2. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  3. The Subcutaneous Abdominal Fat and Not the Intraabdominal Fat Compartment Is Associated with Anovulation in Women with Obesity and Infertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; Zijlstra, T.M.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    Context: Abdominal fat contributes to anovulation. Objective: We compared body fat distribution measurements and their contribution to anovulation in obese ovulatory and anovulatory infertile women. Design: Seventeen ovulatory and 40 anovulatory women (age, 30 +/- 4 yr; body mass index, 37.7 +/- 6.1

  4. Using Abdominal CT Data for Visceral Fat Evaluation

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    M Pop

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Quantitative assessment of body fat is important for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases related to obesity, Computed tomography (CT becoming the standard procedure for measuring the abdominal fat distribution. Material and method: The retrospective study included 111 inpatients, who underwent routine abdominal CT exams in the Radiology Laboratory of SCJU Tg.Mures (2013. MPR MDCT (SOMATOM AS 64 data was processed using a custom written MATLAB R2009b software, ImageJ being used for tracing of the visceral fat area (VFA. Patient data (including blood glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides were analyzed using MO Excel and GraphPad Inprism5. Results: Visceral Fat percentage varied in population from 14.59-68.69 (SD = 11.83 with significant difference between sexes (male vs. female, 46.98 vs. 31.62, p 220 mg% and triglycerides >150 mg% are significantly associated with the VF percent (p <0.05. Overall there is a weak correlation between the lab variables and the measured fat, the strongest one being between triglycerides and the VFA (r = +0.23 and between age and VFA percentage (certain samples. Conclusions: The technique used should decreases the human error in marking of the fat areas providing a better estimation of the VF/VF percentage. CT measured VF relates with certain lab tests. Further analysis, is required for a better use of CT in obesity related pathology diagnosis and treatment

  5. Unsupervised quantification of abdominal fat from CT images using Greedy Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Chirag; Dallal, Ahmed H.; Arbabshirani, Mohammad R.; Patel, Aalpen; Moore, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    Adipose tissue has been associated with adverse consequences of obesity. Total adipose tissue (TAT) is divided into subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Intra-abdominal fat (VAT), located inside the abdominal cavity, is a major factor for the classic obesity related pathologies. Since direct measurement of visceral and subcutaneous fat is not trivial, substitute metrics like waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) are used in clinical settings to quantify obesity. Abdominal fat can be assessed effectively using CT or MRI, but manual fat segmentation is rather subjective and time-consuming. Hence, an automatic and accurate quantification tool for abdominal fat is needed. The goal of this study is to extract TAT, VAT and SAT fat from abdominal CT in a fully automated unsupervised fashion using energy minimization techniques. We applied a four step framework consisting of 1) initial body contour estimation, 2) approximation of the body contour, 3) estimation of inner abdominal contour using Greedy Snakes algorithm, and 4) voting, to segment the subcutaneous and visceral fat. We validated our algorithm on 952 clinical abdominal CT images (from 476 patients with a very wide BMI range) collected from various radiology departments of Geisinger Health System. To our knowledge, this is the first study of its kind on such a large and diverse clinical dataset. Our algorithm obtained a 3.4% error for VAT segmentation compared to manual segmentation. These personalized and accurate measurements of fat can complement traditional population health driven obesity metrics such as BMI and WC.

  6. Possible regulatory factors for intra-abdominal fat mass in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranuki, Sachi; Arai, Chie; Terada, Shin; Aoyama, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Teiji

    2011-02-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) lose body weight primarily due to decreased body fat mass. The purpose of this study was to elucidate possible factors related to reduction in the intra-abdominal fat mass of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated rats, which are frequently used as an animal model for PD. Sham-operated (NPD: n = 4) and unilaterally 6-OHDA-injected (PD: n = 4) 14-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a relatively high-fat diet for 2 wk, during which food intake and body weight were measured. After the 2-wk feeding period, intra-abdominal fat was dissected out and weighed. Carbohydrate and fat absorption-related gene expressions in the jejunum and serum insulin and glucose concentrations were analyzed. Although final body weights did not differ, total intra-abdominal fat weight, expressed relative to body weight, was significantly lower in the PD group than in the NPD group (P NPD rats (P < 0.05). PD model rats displayed loss of intra-abdominal fat, similar to the progressive loss of fat in PD patients. Our results provide preliminary evidence that reduced lipogenesis due to lower insulin levels, rather than impaired digestion/absorption, might have been involved in this decrease in intra-abdominal fat mass. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. FTO gene associated fatness in relation to body fat distribution and metabolic traits throughout a broad range of fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I I; Holst, Claus; Zimmermann, Esther

    2008-01-01

    A common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of FTO (rs9939609, T/A) is associated with total body fatness. We investigated the association of this SNP with abdominal and peripheral fatness and obesity-related metabolic traits in middle-aged men through a broad range of fatness present already...

  8. [Abdomen specific bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods for evaluation of abdominal fat distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Midori; Hirata, Masakazu; Hosoda, Kiminori; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2013-02-01

    Two novel bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) methods have been developed recently for evaluation of intra-abdominal fat accumulation. Both methods use electrodes that are placed on abdominal wall and allow evaluation of intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) easily without radiation exposure. Of these, "abdominal BIA" method measures impedance distribution along abdominal anterior-posterior axis, and IAFA by BIA method(BIA-IAFA) is calculated from waist circumference and the voltage occurring at the flank. Dual BIA method measures impedance of trunk and body surface at the abdominal level and calculates BIA-IAFA from transverse and antero-posterior diameters of the abdomen and the impedance of trunk and abdominal surface. BIA-IAFA by these two BIA methods correlated well with IAFA measured by abdominal CT (CT-IAFA) with correlatipn coefficient of 0.88 (n = 91, p obesity.

  9. Comparison between two methods of bioelectrical impedance analyses for accuracy in measuring abdominal visceral fat area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyeong Seon; Lee, Dong-Hwa; Lee, JieEun; Kim, Yoon Ji; Jung, Kyong Yeun; Kim, Kyoung Min; Kwak, Soo Heon; Choi, Sung Hee; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-03-01

    To compare the accuracy of abdominal visceral fat area (VFA) measurements between abdominal dual bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and whole-body BIA referenced to computed tomography (CT) measures. Abdominal VFAs were measured in 102 individuals: 59 men and 43 women with a mean age of 44.2 ± 16.3 years (range 21 - 76), body mass index 23.9 ± 7.8 kg/m(2) (range 18 - 35) using a DUALSCAN HDS-2000 machine (dual abdominal BIA) and an InBody720 machine (whole-body BIA). The VFA values from each machine were compared with those from CT under various conditions. Mean abdominal VFAs were 116 ± 69 cm(2) by CT, 89 ± 47 cm(2) by dual abdominal BIA, and 84 ± 33 cm(2) by whole-body BIA. The former measure showed a higher correlation with the CT measure than the latter (r=0.89 vs. r=0.64, P<0.001). Both BIA methods tended to underestimate abdominal VFAs compared with CT scans when CT VFA was not small. The dual abdominal BIA had less bias than the whole-body BIA in the assessment of VFAs. The whole-body BIA was affected by subcutaneous fat area. Dual BIA was more accurate in assessing abdominal VFA than whole-body BIA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal fat quantity and distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and extent of its relation to insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmina, Enrico; Bucchieri, Salvo; Esposito, Antonella; Del Puente, Antonio; Mansueto, Pasquale; Orio, Francesco; Di Fede, Gaetana; Rini, Giovambattista

    2007-07-01

    Increased abdominal fat has been linked to insulin resistance and increased cardiovascular risk. Because many patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) present abdominal obesity, it may be the cause of insulin resistance in this disorder. Fat quantity and distribution were evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry at the Departments of Clinical Medicine at the University of Palermo and the University of Naples, Italy. A total of 110 patients with PCOS and 112 weight-matched controls were studied. Anthropometric data, blood glucose, serum insulin, and testosterone were evaluated. Total, trunk, and central abdominal fat quantity were measured by total-body dual x-ray absorptiometry. Compared with weight-matched controls, patients with PCOS had similar quantity of total and trunk fat but higher quantity of central abdominal fat. This difference was not observed when comparing obese PCOS and obese controls but depended on differences between overweight and normoweight patients and controls. All obese subjects, independently of having PCOS or not, had increased central abdominal fat. The same parameter was increased in 71% of overweight PCOS, 50% of overweight controls, and 30% of normoweight PCOS patients. PCOS patients with increased central abdominal fat had significantly higher (P fat. Overweight PCOS patients with normal abdominal fat had significantly higher (P fat. Most obese subjects, independent of being affected by PCOS, have an abdominal form of obesity. However, abdominal fat excess may not be the only determinant of insulin resistance in PCOS.

  11. Use of iDXA spine scans to evaluate total and visceral abdominal fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, J W; Hsu, C-H; Blew, R M; Irving, A P; Caan, B J; Kwan, M L; Abraham, I; Going, S B

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal fat may be a better predictor than body mass index (BMI) for risk of metabolically-related diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. We sought to validate the percent fat reported on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) regional spine scans (spine fat fraction, SFF) against abdominal fat obtained from total body scans using the iDXA machine (General Electric, Madison, WI), as previously done on the Prodigy model. Total body scans and regional spine scans were completed on the same day (N = 50). In alignment with the Prodigy-based study, the following regions of interest (ROI) were assessed from total body scans and compared to the SFF from regional spine scans: total abdominal fat at (1) lumbar vertebrae L2-L4 and (2) L2-Iliac Crest (L2-IC); (3) total trunk fat; and (4) visceral fat in the android region. Separate linear regression models were used to predict each total body scan ROI from SFF; models were validated by bootstrapping. The sample was 84% female, a mean age of 38.5 ± 17.4 years, and mean BMI of 23.0 ± 3.8 kg/m 2 . The SFF, adjusted for BMI, predicted L2-L4 and L2-IC total abdominal fat (%; Adj. R 2 : 0.90) and total trunk fat (%; Adj. R 2 : 0.88) well; visceral fat (%) adjusted R 2 was 0.83. Linear regression models adjusted for additional participant characteristics resulted in similar adjusted R 2 values. This replication of the strong correlation between SFF and abdominal fat measures on the iDXA in a new population confirms the previous Prodigy model findings and improves generalizability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauad, Fernando Marum; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaete; Benedeti, Augusto Cesar Garcia Saab; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Carneiro, Antonio Adilton Oliveira; Muller, Enrico Mattana; Elias Junior, Jorge, E-mail: fernando@fatesa.edu.br [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Saude (FATESA), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Universidade de Fortaleza (UNIFOR), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departmento de Radiologia; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departmento de Medicina Clinica; Universidade de Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Hospital Mae de Deus, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6%) were men and 62 (61.4%) were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years). The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest). We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility. (author)

  13. Reproducibility of abdominal fat assessment by ultrasound and computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marum Mauad

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To test the accuracy and reproducibility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT for the quantification of abdominal fat in correlation with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods: Using ultrasound and CT, we determined the thickness of subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat in 101 subjects-of whom 39 (38.6% were men and 62 (61.4% were women-with a mean age of 66.3 years (60-80 years. The ultrasound data were correlated with the anthropometric, clinical, and biochemical parameters, as well as with the areas measured by abdominal CT. Results: Intra-abdominal thickness was the variable for which the correlation with the areas of abdominal fat was strongest (i.e., the correlation coefficient was highest. We also tested the reproducibility of ultrasound and CT for the assessment of abdominal fat and found that CT measurements of abdominal fat showed greater reproducibility, having higher intraobserver and interobserver reliability than had the ultrasound measurements. There was a significant correlation between ultrasound and CT, with a correlation coefficient of 0.71. Conclusion: In the assessment of abdominal fat, the intraobserver and interobserver reliability were greater for CT than for ultrasound, although both methods showed high accuracy and good reproducibility.

  14. Body Mass Index, Abdominal Fatness, and Heart Failure Incidence and Mortality: A Systematic Review and Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, Dagfinn; Sen, Abhijit; Norat, Teresa; Janszky, Imre; Romundstad, Pål; Tonstad, Serena; Vatten, Lars J

    2016-02-16

    Obesity has been associated with increased risk of heart failure, but whether overweight also increases risk is unclear. It is also unclear whether abdominal adiposity is more strongly associated with heart failure risk than general adiposity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify the strength and shape of the dose-response relationship between general and abdominal adiposity and the risk of heart failure. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to October 10, 2014. Summary relative risks were calculated using random-effects models. A total of 28 studies (27 publications) were included. Twenty-three prospective studies with >15 905 incident cases among 647 388 participants were included in the analysis of body mass index and heart failure incidence, and 4 studies were included for heart failure mortality. The summary relative risk for a 5-unit increment in body mass index was 1.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.47; I(2)=83%) for heart failure incidence and 1.26 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.87; I(2)=95%) heart failure mortality. Although the test for nonlinearity was significant (Pfailure. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Physical Activity and Abdominal Fat Distribution in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Petersen, Inger Katrine; Brage, Søren; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part of a countr......PURPOSE: We examined how total volume of physical activity and reallocation of time spent at various objectively measured intensities of physical activity (PA) were associated with overall and abdominal fat distribution in adult Inuit in Greenland. METHODS: Data were collected as part...... substitution modeling was used to analyze the association between substitution of 1 h of sedentary time to light- or moderate-intensity PA and 1 h light-intensity PA to moderate- or vigorous-intensity PA in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), SAT, and VAT. RESULTS: A negative linear...... association was found for total PAEE and BMI, WC, VAT, and SAT. Exchanging 1 h of sedentary time with light-intensity PA was associated with lower WC (-0.6 cm, P = 0.01), SAT (-0.08 cm, P vigorous-intensity PA resulted in -6.1-cm...

  16. Effects of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children: a magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Peng, Yun; Liu, ZuXiang; Li, Shilian; Lv, Zhongli; Tian, LiFang; Zhu, Jie; Zhao, XuNa; Chen, Min

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to study the influence of acupuncture therapy on abdominal fat and hepatic fat content in obese children. The design was a longitudinal, clinical intervention study of acupuncture therapy. SUBJECTS were 10 healthy, obese children (age: 11.4 ± 1.65 years, body-mass index [BMI]: 29.03 ± 4.81 kg/m(2)). Measurements included various anthropometric parameters, abdominal fat (assessed by MRI) and hepatic fat content (assessed by (1)H-MRS) at baseline and after 1 month of acupuncture therapy. One (1) month of acupuncture therapy significantly reduced the subjects' BMI by 3.5% (p = 0.005), abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume by 16.04% (p  0.05). There was a significant correlation between the level of abdominal fat (SAT, VAT) and anthropometric parameters (weight, BMI, waist circumferences, hip circumferences). There was no statistically significant correlation between IHTG and anthropometric parameters or abdominal fat content. The first direct experimental evidence is provided demonstrating that acupuncture therapy significantly reduces BMI and abdominal adipose tissue by reducing abdominal VAT content without significant changes in body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR, abdominal SAT, or IHTG content. Thus, the use of acupuncture therapy to selectively target a reduction in abdominal VAT content should become more important and more popular in the future.

  17. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. METHODS: In a ...

  18. Effect of trans fatty acid intake on abdominal and liver fat deposition and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Chabanova, E.; Thomsen, Henrik S.

    2011-01-01

    abdominal and liver fat deposition.Objective:We examined the effect of a high intake of TFA as part of an isocaloric diet on whole-body, abdominal and hepatic fat deposition, and blood lipids in postmenopausal women.Methods:In a 16-week double-blind parallel intervention study, 52 healthy overweight...... postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil providing 15.7 g day(-1) of TFA or a control oil with mainly oleic and palmitic acid. Before and after the intervention, body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, abdominal fat by magnetic resonance...

  19. Scarless abdominal fat graft harvest for neurosurgical procedures: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Victoria T; Duckworth, Edward A M

    2015-02-01

    Background Abdominal fat grafts are often harvested for use in skull base reconstruction and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak repairs, and for operations traversing the nasal sinuses or mastoid bone. Although the endoscopic transnasal surgery has gained significant popularity, in part because it is considered "scarless," a common adjunct, the abdominal fat graft, can result in a disfiguring scar across the abdomen. Objective This is the first report of a scarless abdominal fat graft technique for skull base reconstruction. Methods Ten patients with a median age of 56.5 years (range: 45-73 years) underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection with intraumbilical fat graft harvest. Careful circumferential fat dissection at the umbilicus, with progressive retraction of the graft, was crucial to ensure maximal visualization and to prevent injury to the subcutaneous vessels and rectus fascia. Results Following reconstruction of the sellar skull base, all patients did well postoperatively with no evidence of CSF leak. At 12-week follow-up for all patients, there was no evidence of scar, intracavity hematoma, or wound infection. Conclusions Fat graft harvest through an intraumbilical incision results in a scar-free abdominal harvest, and is a useful procedural adjunct to complement "scarless" brain surgery.

  20. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, C.S.; Liu, Y.; White, C.C.; Feitosa, M.; Smith, A.V.; Heard-Costa, N.; Lohman, K.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Johnson, A.D.; Foster, M.C.; Greenawalt, D.M.; Griffin, P.; Ding, J.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, F.; Miljkovic, I.; Kritchevsky, S.B.; Launer, L.; Garcia, M.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Posthuma, D.; Carr, J.J.; Gudnason, V.; Harris, T.B.; Cupples, L.A.; Borecki, I.B.

    2012-01-01

    Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants

  1. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  2. Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed tomography fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioimpedance spectroscopy may offer a method of assessment without any risks to the patients. A comparison is made of these two methods. Methods: This was a preliminary study of the utility of multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy of the mid abdomen as a measure of intraabdominal fat, by comparison with fat ...

  3. Abdominal regional fat distribution on MRI correlates with cholecystolithiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    Full Text Available AIMS: To determine whether abdominal regional fat distribution pattern on MRI is correlated with cholecystolithiasis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of 163 patients with cholecystolithiasis and 163 non-cholecystolithiasis control subjects admitted to our institution between March 2011 and September 2013 were included in this cross-sectional evaluation. There were 98 women and 65 men in cholecystolithiasis group with an average age of 57±16 years (range 25-86 years. There were 87 women and 76 men in the control group with an average age of 41±16 years (range 14-77 years. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT and total abdominal adipose tissue (TAT of all the subjects at navel level were measured on abdominal MRI. According to the visceral adipose area (cut-off point VAT = 100 cm2, study subjects were divided into 1 increased accumulation of intra-abdominal fat and 2 normal distribution of intra-abdominal fat. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of fat with the presence of cholecystolithiasis, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: The incidence of increased intra-abdominal fat accumulation in the cholecystolithiasis group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P = 0.000. After adjusting for age and sex, cholecystolithiasis was associated with a one standard deviation increment in the waist circumference (WC (OR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.01,1.93; p = 0.00, VAT (OR = 4.26; 95%CI: 1.85,5.29; p = 0.00, VAT/SAT (OR = 8.66; 95%CI: 1.60,12.63; p = 0.00, and VAT/TAT (OR = 6.73; 95%CI: 4.24,12.18; p = 0.00, but not with fat content in the abdominal subcutaneous fat (p = 0.19. CONCLUSIONS: The visceral adipose tissue and distribution proportion of abdominal adipose tissue are correlates of cholecystolithiasis.

  4. Practical human abdominal fat imaging utilizing electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T; Katashima, M; Maki, K

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental cause of metabolic syndrome is thought to be abdominal obesity. Accurate diagnosis of abdominal obesity can be done by an x-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. But CT is expensive, bulky and entails the risks involved with radiation. To overcome such disadvantages, we attempted to develop a measuring device that could apply electrical impedance tomography to abdominal fat imaging. The device has 32 electrodes that can be attached to a subject's abdomen by a pneumatic mechanism. That way, electrode position data can be acquired simultaneously. An applied alternating current of 1.0 mArms was used at a frequency of 500 kHz. Sensed voltage data were carefully filtered to remove noise and processed to satisfy the reciprocal theorem. The image reconstruction software was developed concurrently, applying standard finite element methods and the Marquardt method to solve the mathematical inverse problem. The results of preliminary experiments showed that abdominal subcutaneous fat and the muscle surrounding the viscera could be imaged in humans. While our imaging of visceral fat was not of sufficient quality, it was suggested that we will be able to develop a safe and practical abdominal fat scanner through future improvements

  5. Relationship between abdominal fat area measured by screening abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome in asymptomatic Korean individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Dae Woong; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Ji Yeon; Kim, Seon Jeong [Dept. of Radiology, MyoungJi Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal fat as assessed by abdominal fat CT and metabolic syndrome (MS), especially in asymptomatic Korean individuals. Retrospectively, a medical record analysis was performed in a total of 111 patients with screening abdominal fat CT. The data such as visceral fat (VF), subcutaneous fat (SF) and VF/SF were elicited by abdominal fat CT, and we analyzed the relationship of VF, SF, and VF/SF with MS and cardiovascular risk factors. In males, VF and SF had a positive correlation with many cardiovascular risk factors and MS, but VF was superior to SF. In females, VF, but not SF, had a positive correlation with some cardiovascular risk factors and MS. The cut-off values of VF and SF to predict MS, which were calculated by drawing receiver operating characteristic curves, were as follows: the cut-off value of VF in men: 136.50 cm{sup 2}, the cut-off value of SF in men: 159.50 cm{sup 2}, and the cut-off value of VF in women: 134.50 cm{sup 2}. In conclusion, VF accumulation was the best predictor of MS and it had a positive correlation with cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. SF also had a significant association with MS, especially in men, although it was not superior to VF.

  6. Arnebia euchroma ointment can reduce abdominal fat thickness and abdominal circumference of overweight women: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Siavash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is a worldwide health problem which is associated with a lot of complications. One of these comorbidities is the metabolic syndrome that is in correlation with abdominal fat thickness and waist circumference. Various methods were used to reduce abdominal fat thickness such as liposuction. A noninvasive method is the topical agent. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Arnebia euchroma (AE ointment on the abdominal fat thickness. Materials and Methods: This study was a double-blind clinical trial which was done at the endocrinology clinic in Khorshid Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After explaining the procedure and obtaining informed consent, the candidates were randomly divided into the case and control groups. The participants of the case and control groups applied AE ointment or placebo for 6 weeks on their abdominal area. Body mass index, waist and buttock circumference, and abdominal fat thickness were measured in both case and control groups at their first visit and then at the next 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We used t-test for comparing parametric variables between groups, paired t-test for changes from baseline to final, and repeated measure ANOVA for changes at different steps. Results: Sixty female candidates participated in this study (thirty in each group. Ten patients left the study and fifty participants finished the trial. At the end of the study, participants had a significant weight loss (2.96 ± 1.6 kg, P < 0.001 that was slightly more in the case group (3.15 ± 1.5 kg vs. 2.75 ± 1.7, P = 0.375. Abdominal circumference also decreased significantly in the participants (11.3 ± 6.7 cm, P < 0.001, but the changes were more significant in the case group (13.9 vs. 6.5 cm, P = 0.004. Similarly, abdominal fat thickness decreased significantly in the participants (2.3 ± 1.1 cm, P < 0.001, although changes were not significantly different between two groups (2.53 vs. 2.04 cm, P = 0.139. Conclusion: Topical

  7. Relationship between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, abdominal fat and immunometabolic markers in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, T A; Fortaleza, A C S; Buonani, C; Rossi, F E; Neves, L M; Lira, F S; Freitas-Junior, I F

    2015-11-01

    To assess the burden of levels of physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), triacylglycerol and abdominal fat on the immunometabolic profile of postmenopausal women. Forty-nine postmenopausal women [mean age 59.43 (standard deviation 5.61) years] who did not undertake regular physical exercise participated in this study. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and levels of NEFA, tumour necrosis factor-α, adiponectin, insulin and triacylglycerol were assessed using fasting blood samples. The level of physical activity was assessed using an accelerometer (Actigraph GTX3x), and reported as counts/min, time spent undertaking sedentary activities and time spent undertaking moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The following conditions were considered to be risk factors: (i) sedentary lifestyle (active women, sedentary women had higher levels of body fat (%) (p=0.041) and NEFA (p=0.064). Women with higher levels of abdominal fat had impaired insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p=0.016) and spent more time undertaking sedentary activities (p=0.043). Moreover, the women with two risk factors or more had high levels of NEFA and HOMA-IR (pphysical activity, abdominal fat, tumour necrosis factor-α and adiponectin (p>0.05). Postmenopausal women with a combination of hypertriacylglycerolaemia, a high level of abdominal fat and a sedentary lifestyle are more likely to have metabolic disturbances. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk factors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The link between abdominal fat distribution and insulin related cardiovascular risk factors in black and white female hypertensives who were on drug treatment for hypertension was investigated with computed tomography scan, sonar, anthropometric measurements and blood testing. Fasting blood samples were tested for: ...

  9. Clinical Studies of Sweet Bee Venom to The Effect of Abdominal Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim, Chung-San

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom to the abdominal fat accumulation clinically. Methods The 20 healthy women volunteers who showed the notice of this study by the home page of Sangji University were treated with Sweet Bee Venom(SBV during twenty times. To investigate the effects of Sweet Bee Venom of the abdominal fat accumulation, abdominal CT, LFT, Thermography, BMI, Inbody 3.0 etc. were performed during clinical trials. And statistical analysis was carried out the data of 10 volunteers who performed all the schedule of this study. Results Following results were obtained from the clinical studies Sweet Bee Venom showed the effect of decreased the body weight, thickness of abdominal skin and fat layer, BMI, and increased abdominal heat, but they are not showed statistical significant. Conclusions These results suggest that treatment Sweet Bee Venom on the abdomen was effective to decrease fat tissue but for the treatment of obesity was performed with right diet program and exercise.

  10. Automatic Segmentation of Abdominal Fat in MRI-Scans, Using Graph-Cuts and Image Derived Energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Larsen, Christian Thode; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2017-01-01

    For many clinical studies changes in the abdominal distribution of fat is an important measure. However, the segmentation of abdominal fat in MRI scans is both difficult and time consuming using manual methods. We present here an automatic and flexible software package, that performs both bias fi...... by tuning the image-derived energies used for the segmentation, allowing the method to be applied to other body parts, such as the thighs....

  11. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchenbecker, W.K.H.; Groen, H.; van Asselt, S.J.; Bolster, J.H.T.; Zwerver, J.; Slart, R.H.J.; van der Jagt, E.J.; Kobold, A.C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Land, J.A.; Hoek, A.

    BACKGROUND: It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and

  12. Body fat distribution and its associated factors in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chan Hee; Yuk, Jin Sung; Choi, Kyung Mook; Yi, Kyung Wook; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun Young; Shin, Jung-Ho

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the body fat distribution in Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the association of those distribution with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles. A total 90 patients with PCOS and 97 women without PCOS (control group) were included in this study. Total body fat, abdominal visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat were determined on abdominal fat computed tomography. Lipid profiles and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), and cortisol were measured in PCOS group. Total body fat and body fat distribution in the PCOS group were not significantly different from the control group in Korean women (P = 0.054, P = 0.761, P = 0.104), but abdominal visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio was larger in the PCOS group than the control group (P = 0.047). Not only total body fat and visceral fat, but also subcutaneous fat in the PCOS group had a positive correlation with homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, fasting blood sugar, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, free testosterone, FAI, body mass index, but negative correlation with SHBG and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Korean PCOS women had the same body fat distribution as the control group. Subcutaneous fat was also correlated with metabolic parameters and hormone profiles in the Korean PCOS group. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazare, Julie-Anne; Smith, Jessica D; Borel, Anne-Laure; Haffner, Steven M; Balkau, Beverley; Ross, Robert; Massien, Christine; Alméras, Natalie; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Ethnic differences in cardiometabolic risk (CMR) may be related to patterns of ethnic-specific body fat distribution. We aimed to identify differences across ethnic groups in interrelations between BMI, abdominal adiposity, liver fat, and CMR profile. In the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity, 297 physicians recruited 4504 patients (from 29 countries). In the current cross-sectional analyses, 2011 whites, 166 African Caribbean blacks, 381 Hispanics, 1192 East Asians, and 347 Southeast Asians were included. Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal fat distribution and to estimate liver fat content. Anthropometric variables and CMR profile were measured. Higher ranges of BMI were associated with higher levels of visceral [visceral adipose tissue (VAT)] and deep subcutaneous [deep subcutaneous adipose tissue (DSAT)] adiposity, with significant ethnic differences regarding the slope of these relations. Despite lower absolute BMI values, East Asians presented the largest accumulation of VAT but the lowest accumulation of DSAT with increasing adiposity. The association of BMI with liver fat did not differ between ethnic groups. Liver fat and DSAT were positively correlated with VAT with no ethnic variation. All ethnic groups had a similar association between a 1-SD increase in VAT, DSAT, or liver fat with hypertension, type 2 diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-cholesterol concentration, or high C-reactive protein concentration. Ethnicity significantly affects abdominal adiposity and liver fat partitioning, and East Asians have the most deleterious abdominal fat distribution. Irrespective of ethnicity, abdominal and hepatic fat depots are strongly interrelated and increased with obesity. Higher amounts of VAT or liver fat are associated with a more deteriorated CMR profile in all ethnic groups.

  14. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Is dietary fat a major determinant of body fat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, W C

    1998-03-01

    The percentage of energy from dietary fat is widely believed to be an important determinant of body fat, and several mechanisms have been proposed to account for such a relation. Comparisons of both diets and the prevalence of obesity between affluent and poor countries have been used to support a causal association, but these contrasts are seriously confounded by differences in physical activity and food availability. Within areas of similar economic development, regional intake of fat and prevalence of obesity have not been positively correlated. Randomized trials are the preferable method to evaluate the effect of dietary fat on adiposity, and are feasible because the number of subjects needed is not large. In short-term trials, a modest reduction in body weight is typically seen in individuals randomly assigned to diets with a lower percentage of energy from fat. However, compensatory mechanisms appear to operate because in trials lasting > or = 1 y, fat consumption within the range of 18-40% of energy appears to have little if any effect on body fatness. Moreover, within the United States, a substantial decline in the percentage of energy from fat consumed during the past two decades has corresponded with a massive increase in obesity. Diets high in fat do not appear to be the primary cause of the high prevalence of excess body fat in our society, and reductions in fat will not be a solution.

  16. Pesticide content of human abdominal fat of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Bautista, E.Rb.; Detera, S.I.

    1980-01-01

    A total of 161 abdominal fat samples of Filipinos were analyzed for DDT and its major metabolite, DDE by gas chromatography. The mean value obtained was 2.82 +- 2.18 ppm and the sample range was 0.15 - 11.53 ppm. There was no correlation between the levels of DDT and the age as well as the sex of the individuals. (author)

  17. Pesticide content of human abdominal fat of Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Bautista, E.R.B.; Detera, S.D.

    1980-03-01

    A total of 161 abdominal fat samples of Filipinos were analyzed for DDT and its major metabolite, DDE by gas chromatography. The mean value obtained was 2.82 +- 2.18 ppm and the sample range was 0.15 - 11.53 ppm. There was no correlation between the level of DDT and the age as well as the sex of the individuals. (author)

  18. Predictive capacity of anthropometric indicators for abdominal fat in the oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Santos

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are a growing public health problem that affects most people over the age of 65 years and abdominal obesity is one of the risk factors for the development of these diseases. There are several methods that can be used to measure body fat, but their accuracy needs to be evaluated, especially in specific populations such as the elderly. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of anthropometric indicators to estimate the percentage of abdominal fat in subjects aged 80 years or older. A total of 125 subjects ranging in age from 80 to 95 years (83.5 ± 3, including 79 women (82.4 ± 3years and 46 men (83.6 ± 3 years, were studied. The following anthropometric indicators were used: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-hip ratio (WHR, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. The percentage of abdominal fat was measured by DEXA. Sensitivity and specificity were analyzed using an ROC curve. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC were 0. 578, 0. 934 and 0. 756 for BMI, respectively; 0.703, 0.820 and 0.761 for WC; 0.938, 0.213 and 0.575 for WHR, and 0.984, 0.344 and 0.664 for WHtR. BMI and WC were the anthropometric indicators with the largest area under the curve and were therefore more adequate to identify the presence or absence of abdominal obesity.

  19. Oral anabolic steroid treatment, but not parenteral androgen treatment, decreases abdominal fat in obese, older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovejoy, J C; Bray, G A; Greeson, C S; Klemperer, M; Morris, J; Partington, C; Tulley, R

    1995-09-01

    To compare the effects of testosterone enanthate (TE), anabolic steroid (AS) or placebo (PL) on regional fat distribution and health risk factors in obese middle-aged men undergoing weight loss by dietary means. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, carried out for 9 months with primary assessments at 3 month intervals. Due to adverse blood lipid changes, the AS group was switched from oral oxandrolone (ASOX) to parenteral nandrolone decaoate (ASND) after the 3 month assessment point. Thirty healthy, obese men, aged 40-60 years, with serum testosterone (T) levels in the low-normal range (2-5 ng/mL). Abdominal fat distribution and thigh muscle volume by CT scan, body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), insulin sensitivity by the Minimal Model method, blood lipids, blood chemistry, blood pressure, thyroid hormones and urological parameters. After 3 months, there was a significantly greater decrease in subcutaneous (SQ) abdominal fat in the ASOX group compared to the TE and PL groups although body weight changes did not differ by treatment group. There was also a tendency for the ASOX group to exhibit greater losses in visceral fat, and the absolute level of visceral fat in this group was significantly lower at 3 months than in the TE and PL groups. There were significant main effects of treatment at 3 months on serum T and free T (increased in the TE group and decreased in the ASOX group) and on thyroid hormone parameters (T4 and T3 resin uptake significantly decreased in the ASOX group compared with the other two groups). There was a significant decrease in HDL-C, and increase in LDL-C in the ASOX group, which led to their being switched to the parenteral nandrolone decanoate (ASND) after 3 months. ASND had opposite effects on visceral fat from ASOX, producing a significant increase from 3 to 9 months while continuing to decrease SQ abdominal fat. ASND treatment also decreased thigh muscle area, while ASOX treatment

  20. Effect of long-term treatment with metformin added to hypocaloric diet on body composition, fat distribution, and androgen and insulin levels in abdominally obese women with and without the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquali, R; Gambineri, A; Biscotti, D; Vicennati, V; Gagliardi, L; Colitta, D; Fiorini, S; Cognigni, G E; Filicori, M; Morselli-Labate, A M

    2000-08-01

    Abdominal obesity and hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the development of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Dietary-induced weight loss and the administration of insulin-lowering drugs, such as metformin, are usually followed by improved hyperandrogenism and related clinical abnormalities. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of combined hypocaloric diet and metformin on body weight, fat distribution, the glucose-insulin system, and hormones in a group of 20 obese PCOS women [body mass index (BMI) > 28 kg/m2] with the abdominal phenotype (waist to hip ratio >0.80), and an appropriate control group of 20 obese women who were comparable for age and pattern of body fat distribution but without PCOS. At baseline, we measured sex hormone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and leptin blood concentrations and performed an oral glucose tolerance test and computerized tomography (CT) at the L4-L5 level, to measure sc adipose tissue area (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue area. All women were then given a low-calorie diet (1,200-1,400 kcal/day) alone for one month, after which anthropometric parameters and CT scan were newly measured. While continuing dietary treatment, PCOS women and obese controls were subsequently placed, in a random order, on metformin (850 mg/os, twice daily) (12 and 8, respectively) or placebo (8 and 12, respectively), according to a double-blind design, for the following 6 months. Blood tests and the CT scan were performed in each woman at the end of the study while they were still on treatment. During the treatment period, 3 women of the control group (all treated with placebo) were excluded because of noncompliance; and 2 PCOS women, both treated with metformin, were also excluded because they became pregnant. Therefore, the women cohort available for final statistical analysis included 18 PCOS (10 treated with metformin and 8 with placebo) and 17 control women (8 treated with metformin and 9 with placebo). The treatment was

  1. Waist Circumference as Measure of Abdominal Fat Compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Grundy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines intercorrelations among waist circumference (WC, intraperitoneal fat (IPF, and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF in ethnically diverse Dallas Heart Study consisting of 1538 women and 1212 men (50% Black. Correlations between fat depots and triglyceride or HOMA2-IR, biomarkers of metabolic syndrome, are also reported. Total abdominal fat (TAF, ASF, and IPF masses were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. The highest correlations with WC according to ethnicity and gender were noted for TAF (R2=0.81-0.88 with progressively lower correlations with ASF (0.65–0.82 and IPF (0.29–0.85. The percentage of IPF relative to TAF was not significantly correlated with WC. For all WC categories, higher IPF/ASF ratios were associated with higher triglyceride levels. In contrast, differences in ratios had little or no association with HOMA2-IR. However, when all data were pooled, IPF was positively correlated with both triglyceride (r=0.358 (men and 0.363 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.480 (men and 0.517 (women; after adjustment for ASF, IPF was still correlated with triglyceride (r=0.353 (men and 0.348 (women and HOMA2-IR (r=0.290 (men and 0.221 (women. WC measures TAF reliably, but its association with IPF depends on IPF/ASF ratios that vary by gender and ethnicity.

  2. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Toshiharu; Kano, Hiroko; Shin, Kouichi; Konjiki, Ou; Ohsawa, Yoko; Takasaki, Masaru (Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author).

  3. Relationship between abdominal fat distribution assessed by computed tomography and serum lipids in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Toshiharu; Kano, Hiroko; Shin, Kouichi; Konjiki, Ou; Ohsawa, Yoko; Takasaki, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    A nutritional assessment is necessary to evaluate the pathophysiological state of patients, and serum lipids are one of the factors which must be evaluated. Body fat distribution is considered to be associated with cardiac diseases, metabolic diseases and hypertension. In this study, we performed quantitative measurements of fat distribution by X-ray computed tomography (CT) in 31 elderly outpatients. Thirteen men (mean age 74.8 years) and 18 women (mean age 75.4 years) were examined by abdominal CT. All subjects had body mass indices within the normal range and did not have malignant disease, hyperlipidemia, liver dysfunction or diabetes mellitus. CT scans were carried out at the level of the middle abdomen, these scan slices included intraabdominal fat which consisted of omental retroperitoneal and perirenal adipose tissues. Subcutaneous fat areas and intraabdoinal fat areas were measured from six 10-mm-thick slice films using a 2-dimensional computerized calculator. The relationship between serum lipids and fat distribution was also examined. The ratio of intraabdominal adipose tissue area to subcutaneous adipose tissue area (V/S) was higher in men than women. V/S correlated positively with serum triacylgycerol and correlated negatively with serum HDL-Ch. These results suggest that the measurement of body fat distribution is important to evaluate lipid metabolism and nutritional states in the elderly. (author)

  4. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  5. Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Carlos Alberto Soares da [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Program of Post-graduation in Clinical and Experimental Physiopathology; Alves, Erika Gomes; Gonzalez, Gabriele Paula; Barbosa, Thais Barcellos Cortez; Lima, Veronica Demarco; Nascimento, Renata; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Saba, Celly Cristina Alves do Nascimento [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. of Physiological Sciences]. E-mail: cellysaba@terra.com.br; Monteiro, Alexandra Maria Vieira [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2007-09-15

    Objective: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. Materials and methods: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR) compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C). After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy) or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola). Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy) until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean {+-} mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. Results: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results significantly lower in relation to the control group (7% C-soy). However, computed tomography has found significant differences in abdominal fat distribution for the groups 19% FR-soy and 19% FR-canola. Conclusion: Computed tomography has demonstrated that the abdominal fat distribution may be dependent on the type of vegetable oil included in the diet. (author)

  6. Metabolic implications of body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björntorp, P

    1991-12-01

    Insulin resistance is the cornerstone for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Free fatty acids (FFAs) cause insulin resistance in muscle and liver and increase hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipoprotein production and perhaps decrease hepatic clearance of insulin. It is suggested that the depressing effect of insulin on circulating FFA concentration is dependent on the fraction derived from visceral adipocytes, which have a low responsiveness to the antilipolytic effect of insulin. Elevated secretion of cortisol and/or testosterone induces insulin resistance in muscle. This also seems to be the case for low testosterone concentrations in men. In addition, cortisol increases hepatic gluconeogenesis. Cortisol and testosterone have "permissive" effect on adipose lipolysis and therefore amplify lipolytic stimulation; FFA, cortisol, and testosterone thus have powerful combined effects, resulting in insulin resistance and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these factors promoting insulin resistance are active in abdominal visceral obesity, which is closely associated with insulin resistance, NIDDM, and the "metabolic syndrome." In addition, the endocrine aberrations may provide a cause for visceral fat accumulation, probably due to regional differences in steroid-hormone-receptor density. In addition to the increased activity along the adrenocorticosteroid axis, there also seem to be signs of increased activity from the central sympathetic nervous system. These are the established endocrine consequences of hypothalamic arousal in the defeat and defense reactions. There is some evidence that suggests an increased prevalence of psychosocial stress factors is associated with visceral distribution of body fat. Therefore, it is hypothesized that such factors might provide a background not only to a defense reaction and primary hypertension, suggested previously, but also to a defeat reaction, which contributes to an endocrine aberration

  7. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Caroline S; Liu, Yongmei; White, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    , our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09), previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08). Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex......Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT) to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants...

  8. Characteristics of Body Fat, Body Fat Percentage and Other Body Composition for Koreans from KNHANES IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sangmo; Oh, Han Jin; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jung Gu; Lim, Sung Kil; Kim, Eun Kyung; Pyo, Eun Young; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Young Taek; Wilson, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Accurate measurement of fat mass has become increasingly important with the increasing incidence of obesity. We assessed fat and muscle mass of Koreans with the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES IV). We studied 10,456 subjects (aged 20 to 85 yr; 4,476 men, 5,980 women). Fat and muscle mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Reference values of body compositions were obtained using the LMS method. The fat mass index (FMI, body fat mass/height2; kg/m2) of Korean men did not correlate with age (P = 0.452), but those of Korean women (P 9 kg/m2) in men and 2.7% (FMI > 13 kg/m2) in women. It is concluded that the muscle mass decreases and obesity increases with aging in Korean men, whereas both fat mass and obesity increase with aging in Korean women. PMID:22147997

  9. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    The intra-abdominal visceral deposition of adipose tissue, which characterises upper body obesity, is a major contributor to the development of hypertension, glucose intolerance and hyperlipidaemia. Conversely, individuals with lower body obesity may have comparable amounts of adipose tissue but remain relatively free from the metabolic consequences of obesity. This raises an obvious question-are there particular weight reducing treatments which specifically target intra-abdominal fat? In theory, surgical removal of upper body fat should be effective. In reality, neither liposuction nor apronectomy ('tummy tuck') have any beneficial metabolic effects, they simply remove subcutaneous adipose tissue which is often rapidly replaced. Vertical banded gastroplasty and gastric bypass operations may be dramatically effective in improving blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. However, these benefits result from a parallel reduction in visceral and total body fat. Studies of body fat distribution in postmenopausal women confirm that the marked decrease in adiposity, following a programme of very low calorie diet and exercise, reflects a comparable reduction in visceral and thigh fat. The reduction in waist circumference after a low fat/exercise programme suggests a similar situation in men. Exercise has an important role in treatment but, once again, the fat loss is generalised. Nevertheless, the improved metabolic parameters seen in exercising obese subjects, independent of weight loss, suggest other beneficial actions. Growth hormone (GH) has a marked lipolytic action. GH replacement treatment for GH deficient adults with pronounced abdominal fat deposition, has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat by 47% compared to 27% decrease in abdominal subcutaneous fat. Similar beneficial actions on abdominal fat have been reported following treatment with testosterone in obese men. The potential hazards of such treatments make them unsuitable therapy for

  10. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korealife Daejeon Healthcare Center, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Man Seok [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  11. The Usefulness of Visceral Fat Thickness Measured by Ultrasonography as an Abdominal Obesity Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Han, Man Seok

    2008-01-01

    Abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation have been known to be intimately associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. Therefore, it is important to estimate the precise amount of visceral fat. Ultrasonography has been reported that it is a simple and noninvasive method for visceral fat evaluation. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of ultrasonographic visceral fat thickness, anthropometric indexes, and risk factor of metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the cut-off value of abdominal visceral fat thickness leading to increased risk of metabolic syndrome. The subject included 200 men and 200 women who visited D healthcare center in Daejeon from January to April 2008. The subcutaneous fat thickness and visceral fat thickness were measured by ultrasonograph. As anthropometric index, we measured body mass index, waist circumference and waist/height ratio. As for the risk factor of metabolic syndrome, we measured blood pressure, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and fasting serum glucose. VFT was significantly correlated with waist circumference, (r=0.683/M, r=0.604/F), waist to height ratio (r=0.633/M, r=0.593/F) and BMI (r=0.621/M, r=0.534/F) in both men and women. In addition it was significantly correlated with Systolic blood pressure (r=0.229/M, r=0.232/F), Diastolic blood pressure ((r=0.285/M, r=0.254/F), high density cholesterol (r=-0.254/M, r=-0.254/F), Triglyceride (r=0.475/M, r=0.411/F), and Fasting blood sugar (r=0.158/M, r=0.234/F) in both men and women. The cut-off value of visceral fat thickness leading to the increased risk of metabolic syndrome was 4.58 cm (sensitivity 89.2%, specificity 71.2%) in men and 3.50 cm (sensitivity 61.2% specificity 80.8%) in women respectively. The odds ratio of the risk of metabolic syndrome was dramatically increased with the abdominal visceral fat thickness level over 6 cm in men and 5 cm in women. The visceral fat thickness using ultrasonography was significantly

  12. SU-F-I-33: Estimating Radiation Dose in Abdominal Fat Quantitative CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X; Yang, K; Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) in abdominal fat quantitative CT with another dose estimate D{sub size,L} that also takes into account scan length. Methods: This study complied with the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act. At our institution, abdominal fat CT is performed with scan length = 1 cm and CTDI{sub vol} = 4.66 mGy (referenced to body CTDI phantom). A previously developed CT simulation program was used to simulate single rotation axial scans of 6–55 cm diameter water cylinders, and dose integral of the longitudinal dose profile over the central 1 cm length was used to predict the dose at the center of one-cm scan range. SSDE and D{sub size,L} were assessed for 182 consecutive abdominal fat CT examinations with mean water-equivalent diameter (WED) of 27.8 cm ± 6.0 (range, 17.9 - 42.2 cm). Patient age ranged from 18 to 75 years, and weight ranged from 39 to 163 kg. Results: Mean SSDE was 6.37 mGy ± 1.33 (range, 3.67–8.95 mGy); mean D{sub size,L} was 2.99 mGy ± 0.85 (range, 1.48 - 4.88 mGy); and mean D{sub size,L}/SSDE ratio was 0.46 ± 0.04 (range, 0.40 - 0.55). Conclusion: The conversion factors for size-specific dose estimate in AAPM Report No. 204 were generated using 15 - 30 cm scan lengths. One needs to be cautious in applying SSDE to small length CT scans. For abdominal fat CT, SSDE was 80–150% higher than the dose of 1 cm scan length.

  13. Validity of a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance device to measure abdominal and visceral fat: comparison with MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Lucy M; Mugridge, Owen; Chatfield, Mark D; Dixon, Adrian K; Aitken, Sri W; Joubert, Ilse; Prentice, Andrew M; Jebb, Susan A

    2010-12-01

    Abdominal fat, and in particular, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), is the critical fat depot associated with metabolic aberrations. At present, VAT can only be accurately measured by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study was designed to compare a new abdominal bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device against total abdominal adipose tissue (TAAT) and VAT area measurements made from an abdominal MRI scan, and to assess its reliability and accuracy. One-hundred twenty participants were recruited, stratified by gender and BMI. Participants had triplicate measures of abdominal fat and waist circumference (WC) with the AB-140 (Tanita, Tokyo, Japan) and WC measurements using a manual tape measure. A single abdominal MRI scan was performed as the reference method. Triplicate measures with the AB-140 showed excellent precision for "visceral fat level," trunk fat %, and WC. AB-140 "visceral fat level" showed significantly stronger correlations with MRI TAAT area than with MRI VAT area (r = 0.94 vs. 0.65 in men and 0.92 vs. 0.64 in women). AB-140 WC showed good correlation with manual WC measurements (r = 0.95 in men and 0.90 in women). AB-140 and manual WCs showed comparable correlations with MRI TAAT area (r = 0.92 and 0.96 in men and 0.88 and 0.88 in women). AB-140 is a simple, quick, and precise technique to measure abdominal fat and WC in healthy adults. It provides a useful proxy for TAAT measured by MRI, comparable to the correlation obtained with manual WC measurements. Neither the AB-140 abdominal fat measures nor WC measurement appear to provide a useful proxy measure of VAT.

  14. Parental smoking during pregnancy and total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Durmus (Busra); D.H.M. Heppe (Denise); H.R. Taal (Rob); R. Manniesing (Rashindra); H. Raat (Hein); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Fetal smoke exposure may influence growth and body composition later in life. We examined the associations of maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children. Methods: We performed a population-based prospective

  15. Factors that Alter Body Fat, Body Mass, and Fat-Free Mass in Pediatric Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMura, Linda M.; Maziekas, Michael T.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of exercise programs on changes in body mass, fat-free mass, and body fat in obese children and adolescents. Research review indicated that exercise effectively helped reduce children's and adolescents' body composition variables. The most favorable body alterations occurred with low- intensity, long-duration exercise;…

  16. Body fat and risk of cardiovascular diseases among the Tamil school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings indicated that most of the Tamil school teachers in Kuala Selangor District having high risk of cardiovascular diseases. They should do regular physical activity and consume balanced diet to reduce the risk of body fat and obesity which cause the cardiovascular diseases. Keywords: Obesity, abdominal fat, total ...

  17. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de; De Lucia Rolfe, Emanuella; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Yudkin, John S; Ong, Ken K; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women), genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3), African (6.6), and Native American (6.3) ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; pancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001), and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009). Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all pancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  18. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women, genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3, African (6.6, and Native American (6.3 ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; p<0.001. Independent of education level, African ancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001, and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009. Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all p<0.001. Our findings, from an admixed population, indicate that both genomic ancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  19. Visceral adiposity, not abdominal subcutaneous fat area, is associated with high blood pressure in Japanese men. The Ohtori study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Hideo; Hayashi, Tomoshige; Kogawa Sato, Kyoko

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is considered to have a key role in cardiometabolic diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate cross-sectionally the association between intra-abdominal fat area (IAFA) measured by computed tomography (CT) and high blood pressure independent of abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA) and insulin resistance. Study participants included 624 Japanese men not taking oral hypoglycemic medications or insulin. Abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat areas were measured by CT. Total fat area (TFA) was calculated as the sum of abdominal, thoracic and thigh fat area. Total subcutaneous fat area (TSFA) was defined as TFA minus IAFA. Hypertension and high normal blood pressure were defined using the 1999 criteria of the World Health Organization. Multiple-adjusted odds ratios of hypertension for tertiles of IAFA were 2.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.35-5.16) for tertile 2, and 5.08 (2.48-10.39) for tertile 3, compared with tertile 1 after adjusting for age, fasting immunoreactive insulin, diabetes status, ASFA, alcohol consumption, regular physical exercise and smoking habit. IAFA remained significantly associated with hypertension even after adjustment for ASFA, TSFA, TFA, body mass index or waist circumference, and no other measure of regional or total adiposity was associated with the odds of hypertension in models, which included IAFA. Similar results were obtained for the association between IAFA and the prevalence of high normal blood pressure or hypertension. In conclusion, greater visceral adiposity was associated with a higher odds of high blood pressure in Japanese men. (author)

  20. Increased abdominal fat levels measured by bioelectrical impedance are associated with histological lesions of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margariti, Aikaterini; Kontogianni, Meropi D; Tileli, Nafsika; Georgoulis, Michael; Deutsch, Melanie; Zafeiropoulou, Rodessa; Tiniakos, Dina; Manios, Yannis; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Papatheodoridis, George V

    2015-08-01

    Abdominal fat is considered to play an important role in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), although it is not adequately studied because abdominal fat levels cannot be estimated easily. In this study, associations between abdominal obesity, as assessed by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and the characteristics of patients with NAFLD were explored. Seventy-four consecutive NAFLD patients who underwent measurement of abdominal fat levels by BIA were included. Levels of abdominal fat 12.5 or less and more than 12.5 were considered to be average and increased, respectively. The mean±SD BMI was 30±4 kg/m and the mean abdominal fat levels were 16±5, whereas 26% of patients had average abdominal fat levels. Patients with average compared with those with increased abdominal fat levels were more frequently women (50 vs. 12%, P=0.001), had lower BMI (27±3 vs. 31±4 kg/m, Pobesity seem to represent strong risk factors for histological steatohepatitis.

  1. Relationship between physical activity, body fatness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness and inactivity are strong health predictors associated with excessive fatness. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness and body fatness in South African adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed with a ...

  2. Mapping quantitative trait loci affecting fatness and breast muscle weight in meat-type chicken lines divergently selected on abdominal fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neau André

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative trait loci (QTL for abdominal fatness and breast muscle weight were investigated in a three-generation design performed by inter-crossing two experimental meat-type chicken lines that were divergently selected on abdominal fatness. A total of 585 F2 male offspring from 5 F1 sires and 38 F1 dams were recorded at 8 weeks of age for live body, abdominal fat and breast muscle weights. One hundred-twenty nine microsatellite markers, evenly located throughout the genome and heterozygous for most of the F1 sires, were used for genotyping the F2 birds. In each sire family, those offspring exhibiting the most extreme values for each trait were genotyped. Multipoint QTL analyses using maximum likelihood methods were performed for abdominal fat and breast muscle weights, which were corrected for the effects of 8-week body weight, dam and hatching group. Isolated markers were assessed by analyses of variance. Two significant QTL were identified on chromosomes 1 and 5 with effects of about one within-family residual standard deviation. One breast muscle QTL was identified on GGA1 with an effect of 2.0 within-family residual standard deviation.

  3. Ribonuclease-mediated control of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habacher, Cornelia; Guo, Yanwu; Venz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    . Using exon-intron split analysis, we find that REGE-1 promotes fat by degrading the mRNA encoding ETS-4, a fat-loss-promoting transcription factor. Because ETS-4, in turn, induces rege-1 transcription, REGE-1 and ETS-4 appear to form an auto-regulatory module. We propose that this type of fat regulation......Obesity is a global health issue, arousing interest in molecular mechanisms controlling fat. Transcriptional regulation of fat has received much attention, and key transcription factors involved in lipid metabolism, such as SBP-1/SREBP, LPD-2/C/EBP, and MDT-15, are conserved from nematodes...... to mammals. However, there is a growing awareness that lipid metabolism can also be controlled by post-transcriptional mechanisms. Here, we show that the Caenorhabditis elegans RNase, REGE-1, related to MCPIP1/Zc3h12a/Regnase-1, a key regulator of mammalian innate immunity, promotes accumulation of body fat...

  4. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Lin, Hung-Yu [Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); E-Da Hospital/ I-Shou University, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Yang, Yi-Hsin [Kaohsiung Medical University, Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Kaohsiung (China); Shih, Paul Ming-Chen [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Radiology, Kaohsiung (China); Chuang, Shu-Mien [Yuh-Ing Junior College of Health Care and Management, Kaohsiung (China); Shen, Jung-Tsung [Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Juan, Yung-Shun [Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Department of Urology, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Graduate Institute of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China); Kaohsiung Medical University, Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Kaohsiung (China)

    2012-08-15

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  5. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Chou, Yii-Her; Lin, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. (orig.)

  6. Abdominal fat distribution on computed tomography predicts ureteric calculus fragmentation by shock wave lithotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chou, Yii-Her; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Shih, Paul Ming-Chen; Chuang, Shu-Mien; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effects of abdominal fat on shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). We used pre-SWL unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the impact of abdominal fat distribution and calculus characteristics on the outcome of SWL. One hundred and eighty-five patients with a solitary ureteric calculus treated with SWL were retrospectively reviewed. Each patient underwent unenhanced CT within 1 month before SWL treatment. Treatment outcomes were evaluated 1 month later. Unenhanced CT parameters, including calculus surface area, Hounsfield unit (HU) density, abdominal fat area and skin to calculus distance (SSD) were analysed. One hundred and twenty-eight of the 185 patients were found to be calculus-free following treatment. HU density, total fat area, visceral fat area and SSD were identified as significant variables on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The receiver-operating characteristic analyses showed that total fat area, para/perirenal fat area and visceral fat area were sensitive predictors of SWL outcomes. This study revealed that higher quantities of abdominal fat, especially visceral fat, are associated with a lower calculus-free rate following SWL treatment. Unenhanced CT is a convenient technique for diagnosing the presence of a calculus, assessing the intra-abdominal fat distribution and thereby helping to predict the outcome of SWL. • Unenhanced CT is now widely used to assess ureteric calculi. • The same CT protocol can provide measurements of abdominal fat distribution. • Ureteric calculi are usually treated by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). • Greater intra-abdominal fat stores are generally associated with poorer SWL results.

  7. Increased protein intake and meal frequency reduces abdominal fat during energy balance and energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J; Gentile, Christopher L; Nindl, Bradley C; Brestoff, Jonathan R; Ruby, Maxwell

    2013-07-01

    Unrefined, complex carbohydrates and lean protein diets are used to combat obesity, although it's unknown whether more frequent meals may improve this response. The effects of consuming traditional (~15%) versus higher (~35%) protein intakes as three or six meals/day on abdominal fat, postprandial thermogenesis (TEM), and cardiometabolic biomarkers in overweight individuals during 28 days of energy balance (BAL) and deficit (NEG), respectively were compared. Overweight individuals (n = 30) were randomized into three groups: two high-protein groups (35% of energy) consumed as three (HP3) or six (HP6) meals/day and one group consumed three meals/day of a traditional intake (TD3). Following a 5-day baseline control (CON), subjects consumed their respective diets throughout a 56-day intervention consisting of two, 28 day phases: a BAL followed by a NEG phase (75% of energy needs). Total body fat (BF) and abdominal BF (ABF), body weight (BW), TEM, and fasting biomarkers were assessed at the end of CON, BAL, and NEG phases. BW remained stable throughout CON and BAL in all groups, whereas BF (P meals/day in overweight individuals during both BAL and NEG. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  8. Postmenopausal sex hormones in relation to body fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Stefanie; Schmidt, Martina E; Vrieling, Alina; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Becker, Susen; Kaaks, Rudolf; Zaineddin, Aida K; Buck, Katharina; Benner, Axel; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Steindorf, Karen

    2012-05-01

    Being overweight or obese increases the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. A potential reason may be the frequently observed positive association of BMI with endogenous sex hormones and its negative association with sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a woman's body fat distribution shows a BMI-independent association with these breast cancer-related biomarkers. Performing cross-sectional analyses among 1,180 postmenopausal women, we assessed whether associations of surrogates for an abdominal (waist circumference; waist-to-hip ratio, WHR) and gluteofemoral (hip circumference) fat distribution with estrone, total and free estradiol, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, and SHBG changed after adjustment for, or stratification by, BMI. All anthropometric measures were positively associated with estrogens and free testosterone, and negatively with SHBG. After adjustment for BMI, associations of free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG with both waist circumference and WHR remained significant, but all initially significant associations with hip circumference were abolished. In stratified analyses, waist circumference and WHR correlated with free estradiol, free testosterone, and SHBG in women with a BMI fat on these biomarkers may be masked by the already large amount of overall body fat. On the whole, our results indicate that waist circumference and WHR, but not hip circumference, are associated with SHBG and SHBG-related sex hormones (free estradiol and free testosterone) independently of BMI.

  9. Daily physical activity related to aerobic fitness and body fat in an urban sample of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, M; Thorsson, O; Karlsson, M K

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates associations between objectively measured daily physical activity vs aerobic fitness and body fat in children aged 8-11 years. A cross-sectional study of 225 children aged 7.9-11.1 years was performed. Abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF) were quantified by dual......-energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBF was calculated as percentage of total body mass (BF%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Aerobic fitness was measured by indirect calorimetry during a maximal cycle ergometer exercise test. Daily physical activity was assessed by accelerometers for 4 days....... In this population, low daily accumulation of vigorous activity was, already in children aged 8-11 years, associated with more body fat and lower aerobic fitness. A similar relation was not found for daily accumulation of moderate-to-vigorous activity....

  10. Body fat related to daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K

    2007-01-01

    was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...

  11. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus – a bioelectrical impedance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-01-01

    Background Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. Methods In 2007-9, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Conclusions Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. PMID:24726825

  12. Total body fat and the risk of Barrett's oesophagus - a bioelectrical impedance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Bradley J; Macdonald, Graeme A; Prins, Johannes B; O'Brien, Suzanne; Whiteman, David C

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index is associated with the risk of Barrett's oesophagus (BO). It is uncertain whether this is related to total body fat or other factors that correlate with body mass index. We aimed to quantify the association between total body fat (measured by bioelectrical impedance) and risk of BO and examine if this association was modified by gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) and abdominal obesity. In 2007-2009, we surveyed 235 cases (69% Males, Mean age 62.1 years) and 244 age and sex matched population controls from a population based case-control study of BO. We conducted structured interviews, standard anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis of total body fat. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of total body fat weight (OR 2.01; 95%CI 1.26-3.21) and total body fat percentage (OR 1.86; 95%CI 1.10-3.15). These risks were largely attenuated after adjustment for GOR and waist circumference. There was a significantly increased risk of BO among those in the highest tertile of waist circumference (OR 2.21; 95%CI 1.39-3.51) and this was minimally attenuated after adjustment for total body fat and moderately attenuated after adjustment for GOR. Total body fat is associated with an increased risk of BO but this appears to be mediated via both abdominal obesity and GOR. These findings provide evidence that abdominal obesity is more important than total body fat in the development of BO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impact of Abdominal Fat Levels on All-Cause Mortality Risk in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Yajima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although an increased body mass index is associated with lower mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD, known as the “obesity paradox,” the relationship of abdominal fat levels with all-cause mortality has rarely been studied. We investigated the impact of computed-tomography-measured abdominal fat levels (visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA on all-cause mortality in this population. A total of 201 patients undergoing HD were enrolled and cross-classified by VFA and SFA levels according to each cutoff point, VFA of 78.7 cm2 and SFA of 93.2 cm2, based on the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve as following; group 1 (G1: lower VFA and lower SFA, G2: higher VFA and lower SFA, G3: lower VFA and higher SFA, G4: higher VFA and higher SFA. During a median follow-up of 4.3 years, 67 patients died. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed 10-year survival rates of 29.0%, 50.0%, 62.6%, and 72.4% in G1, G2, G3, and G4 (p < 0.0001, respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05–1.09, p = 0.070 for G2 vs. G1, 0.37 (95% CI 0.18–0.76, p = 0.0065 for G3 vs. G1, and 0.21 (95% CI 0.07–0.62, p = 0.0035 for G4 vs. G1, respectively. In conclusion, combined SFA and VFA levels were negatively associated with risks for all-cause mortality in patients undergoing HD. These results are a manifestation of the “obesity paradox.”

  14. Androgens, body fat Distribution and Adipogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerradi, Mouna; Dereumetz, Julie; Boulet, Marie-Michèle; Tchernof, André

    2014-12-01

    Androgens are regulators of important adipocyte functions such as adipogenesis, lipid storage, and lipolysis. Through depot-specific impact on the cells of each fat compartment, androgens could modulate body fat distribution patterns in humans. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone have been shown to inhibit the differentiation of preadipocytes to lipid-storing adipocytes in several models including primary cultures of human adipocytes from both men and women. Androgen effects have also been observed on some markers of lipid metabolism such as LPL activity, fatty acid uptake, and lipolysis. Possible depot-specific and sex-specific effects have been observed in some but not all models. Transformation of androgen precursors to active androgens or their inactivation by enzymes that are expressed and functional in adipose tissue may contribute to modulate the local availability of active hormones. These phenomena, along with putative depot-specific interactions with glucocorticoids may contribute to human body fat distribution patterns.

  15. Body fat estimation using bioelectrical impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, M G; Crabtree, N J; Shaw, N J; Kirk, J M W

    2007-01-01

    Although childhood obesity is a major problem, routine assessment methods do not reflect fat mass. Body mass index, which is most commonly used, gives an indication of weight for height and not a degree of adiposity. Bioelectrical impedance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were used in a group of obese children to assess body fat. Comparison between DEXA and commercial bioelectrical impedance scales in 46 children showed a highly significant correlation (R = 0.944, p bioelectrical impedance was 2.4 kg lower compared to measurement using DEXA. These bioelectrical scales may prove useful in the management of childhood obesity as they are able to provide important clinical information regarding fat mass and adiposity. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Daubenmier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI =31.2 were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR, and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  17. Mindfulness Intervention for Stress Eating to Reduce Cortisol and Abdominal Fat among Overweight and Obese Women: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daubenmier, Jennifer; Kristeller, Jean; Hecht, Frederick M; Maninger, Nicole; Kuwata, Margaret; Jhaveri, Kinnari; Lustig, Robert H; Kemeny, Margaret; Karan, Lori; Epel, Elissa

    2011-01-01

    Psychological distress and elevated cortisol secretion promote abdominal fat, a feature of the Metabolic Syndrome. Effects of stress reduction interventions on abdominal fat are unknown. Forty-seven overweight/obese women (mean BMI = 31.2) were randomly assigned to a 4-month intervention or waitlist group to explore effects of a mindfulness program for stress eating. We assessed mindfulness, psychological distress, eating behavior, weight, cortisol awakening response (CAR), and abdominal fat (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) pre- and posttreatment. Treatment participants improved in mindfulness, anxiety, and external-based eating compared to control participants. Groups did not differ on average CAR, weight, or abdominal fat over time. However, obese treatment participants showed significant reductions in CAR and maintained body weight, while obese control participants had stable CAR and gained weight. Improvements in mindfulness, chronic stress, and CAR were associated with reductions in abdominal fat. This proof of concept study suggests that mindfulness training shows promise for improving eating patterns and the CAR, which may reduce abdominal fat over time.

  18. Single injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, into newly hatched chicks alters abdominal fat pad mass in growing birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ijiri, Daichi; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishitani, Kanae; Nojima, Tsutomu; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2015-01-15

    Excessive energy is stored in white adipose tissue as triacylglycerols in birds as well as in mammals. Although β2-adrenergic receptor agonists reduce adipose tissue mass in birds, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of a single intraperitoneal injection of the β2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clenbuterol, on the abdominal fat pad tissue development. Thirty-three chicks at 1-day-old were given a single intraperitoneal injection of clenbuterol (0.1mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline. At 2 weeks post-dose, the weight of the abdominal fat tissue was decreased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, and small adipocyte-like cells were observed in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Then, the expression of mRNAs encoding genes related to avian adipogenesis was examined in the abdominal fat pat tissue. The expression of mRNAs encoding Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factor 5 (KLF-5), KLF-15, and zinc finger protein 423 in the abdominal fat pad tissue of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was significantly lower (Pclenbuterol-injected chicks, while clenbuterol injection did not affect FAS activity in liver. These results suggested that a single injection with clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks reduces their abdominal fat pad mass possibly via disrupting adipocyte development during later growth stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Body fat, menarche, fitness and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, R E

    1987-08-01

    Many well-trained athletes, ballet dancers and women who diet excessively have secondary or primary amenorrhoea. Less extensive training or weight loss may result in anovulatory menstrual cycles, or a shortened luteal phase. These disruptions of reproductive ability are due to hypothalamic dysfunction, which is correlated with weight loss or excessive leanness. It is proposed that these associations are causal and that the high percentage of body fat (26-28%) in the mature human female may influence reproduction directly. Four mechanisms are known: (i) adipose tissue converts androgens to oestrogen by aromatization. Body fat is thus a significant extragonadal source of oestrogen; (ii) body weight, hence fatness, influences the direction of oestrogen metabolism to more potent or less potent forms; leaner women make more catechol oestrogens, the less potent form; (iii) obese women and young, fat girls have a diminished capacity for oestrogen to bind sex-hormone-binding-globulin; (iv) adipose tissue can store steroid hormones. An indirect mechanism may be signals of abnormal control of temperature and changes in energy metabolism, which accompany excessive leanness. The hypothalamic reproductive dysfunction results in abnormal gonadotrophin secretion: there is an age inappropriate secretory pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), resembling that of prepubertal children. The secretion of LH and the responses to LHRH are reduced in direct correlation with the amount of weight loss. Other evidence from non-athletic and athletic women and mammals is presented in support of the hypothesis that a particular, minimum ratio of fat to lean mass is normally necessary for menarche (approximately 17% fat/body wt) and the maintenance of female reproductive ability (approximately 22% fat/body wt). Nomograms are given for the prediction of these critical weights for height from a fatness index; these weights are useful clinically in the evaluation

  20. Dietary egg-white protein increases body protein mass and reduces body fat mass through an acceleration of hepatic β-oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryosuke; Shirouchi, Bungo; Umegatani, Minami; Fukuda, Meguri; Muto, Ayano; Masuda, Yasunobu; Kunou, Masaaki; Sato, Masao

    2017-09-01

    Egg-white protein (EWP) is known to reduce lymphatic TAG transport in rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary EWP on body fat mass. Male rats, 4 weeks old, were fed diets containing either 20 % EWP or casein for 28 d. Carcass protein levels and gastrocnemius leg muscle weights in the EWP group were significantly higher than those in the casein group. In addition, carcass TAG levels and abdominal fat weights in the EWP group were significantly lower than those in the casein group; adipocyte size in abdominal fat in the EWP group was smaller than that in the casein group. To identify the involvement of dietary fat levels in the rats, one of two fat levels (5 or 10 %) was added to their diet along with the different protein sources (EWP and casein). Abdominal fat weight and serum and hepatic TAG levels were significantly lower in the EWP group than in the casein group. Moreover, significantly higher values of enzymatic activity related to β-oxidation in the liver were observed in the EWP group compared with the casein group. Finally, abdominal fat weight reduction in the EWP group with the 10 % fat diet was lower than that in the EWP group with the 5 % fat diet. In conclusion, our results indicate that, in addition to the inhibition of dietary TAG absorption reported previously, dietary EWP reduces body fat mass in rats through an increase of body protein mass and the acceleration of β-oxidation in the liver.

  1. Lower core body temperature and greater body fat are components of a human thrifty phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, M; Schlögl, M; Bonfiglio, S; Votruba, S B; Krakoff, J; Thearle, M S

    2016-05-01

    In small studies, a thrifty human phenotype, defined by a greater 24-hour energy expenditure (EE) decrease with fasting, is associated with less weight loss during caloric restriction. In rodents, models of diet-induced obesity often have a phenotype including a reduced EE and decreased core body temperature. We assessed whether a thrifty human phenotype associates with differences in core body temperature or body composition. Data for this cross-sectional analysis were obtained from 77 individuals participating in one of two normal physiology studies while housed on our clinical research unit. Twenty-four-hour EE using a whole-room indirect calorimeter and 24-h core body temperature were measured during 24 h each of fasting and 200% overfeeding with a diet consisting of 50% carbohydrates, 20% protein and 30% fat. Body composition was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. To account for the effects of body size on EE, changes in EE were expressed as a percentage change from 24-hour EE (%EE) during energy balance. A greater %EE decrease with fasting correlated with a smaller %EE increase with overfeeding (r=0.27, P=0.02). The %EE decrease with fasting was associated with both fat mass and abdominal fat mass, even after accounting for covariates (β=-0.16 (95% CI: -0.26, -0.06) %EE per kg fat mass, P=0.003; β=-0.0004 (-0.0007, -0.00004) %EE kg(-1) abdominal fat mass, P=0.03). In men, a greater %EE decrease in response to fasting was associated with a lower 24- h core body temperature, even after adjusting for covariates (β=1.43 (0.72, 2.15) %EE per 0.1 °C, P=0.0003). Thrifty individuals, as defined by a larger EE decrease with fasting, were more likely to have greater overall and abdominal adiposity as well as lower core body temperature consistent with a more efficient metabolism.

  2. Vitamin D3 increases in abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue after supplementation with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didriksen, Allan; Burild, Anders; Jakobsen, Jette

    2015-01-01

    stored in all adipose tissue in the body, the median body store was 6.6 mg vitamin D-3 and 0.12 mg 25(OH)D-3 in those given vitamin D-3. Conclusions: Subcutaneous adipose tissue may store large amounts of vitamin D-3. The clinical importance of this storage needs to be determined.......Objective: The objective was to assess the amount of vitamin D-3 stored in adipose tissue after long-term supplementation with high dose vitamin D-3. Design: A cross-sectional study on 29 subjects with impaired glucose tolerance who had participated in a randomized controlled trial with vitamin D-3...... 20 000 IU (500 mu g) per week vs placebo for 3-5 years. Methods: Abdominal subcutaneous fat tissue was obtained by needle biopsy for the measurements of vitamin D-3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 (25(OH)D-3). Body fat was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and serum 25(OH)D-3 level...

  3. Breastfeeding, early nutrition, and adult body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Rolland-Cachera, Marie-Françoise

    2014-06-01

    To examine the association between breastfeeding and adult body fatness, adjusting for nutritional intake in early childhood. Nutritional intakes of 73 healthy infants born in 1984 who participated in the 2-decade-long Longitudinal Study of Nutrition and Growth in Children (Etude Longitudinale Alimentation Nutrition Croissance des Enfants [ELANCE]) were estimated at age 10 months and again at age 2 years. Breastfeeding was defined as any breastfeeding, including partial breastfeeding, regardless of duration. At age 20 years, weight, height, subscapular skinfold thickness (SF), and fat mass (assessed via bioelectrical impedance analysis) were measured. In this sample, 64% of the children had been breastfed. In linear regression models adjusted for mother's body mass index and father's profession, breastfeeding was not associated with any of the body fat measurements at 20 years (all P > .05). After adding nutritional intake variables (total energy and % energy from nutrients) to the models, breastfeeding became significantly associated with lower SF at 20 years. In particular, breastfed subjects had significantly lower % SF at 20 years after adjustment for energy and % fat intakes at 2 years of age, (β = -28.25% SF; 95% CI, -50.28% to -6.21%; P = .013) or when adjusting for energy and % carbohydrates at 2 years of age (β = -28.27% SF; 95% CI, -50.64% to -5.90%; P = .014). Breastfeeding was not associated with adult body fatness taking into account the usual confounding factors. However, after also adjusting for nutritional intake covariates, a protective effect of breastfeeding emerged. Early nutrition needs to be taken into account when examining the long-term health effects of breastfeeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of abdominal fat distribution parameters on severity of acute pancreatitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Increased visceral fat has been shown to exacerbate the pro-inflammatory milieu experienced by patients. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the severity of acute pancreatitis and abdominal fat distribution parameters measured on computed tomography (CT) scan.

  5. Assessment of abdominal fat compartments using DXA in premenopausal women from anorexia nervosa to morbid obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Gill, Corey M.; Keating, Leigh K.; Torriani, Martin; Anderson, Ellen J.; Punyanitya, Mark; Wilson, Kevin E.; Kelly, Thomas L.; Miller, Karen K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test a newly developed DXA method for abdominal fat depot quantification in subjects with AN, normal weight, and obesity using CT as a gold standard. Design and Methods 135 premenopausal women (overweight/obese: n=89, normal-weight: n=27, AN: n=19); abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and total adipose tissue (TAT) areas determined on CT and DXA. Results There were strong correlations between DXA and CT measurements of abdominal fat compartments in all groups with the strongest correlation coefficients in the normal-weight and overweight/obese groups. Correlations of DXA and CT VAT measurements were strongest in the obese group and weakest in the AN group. DXA abdominal fat depots were higher in all groups compared to CT, with the largest % mean difference in the AN group and smallest in the obese group. Conclusions A new DXA technique is able to assess abdominal fat compartments including VAT in premenopausal women across a large weight spectrum However, DXA measurements of abdominal fat were higher than CT, and this percent bias was most pronounced in the AN subjects and decreased with increasing weight, suggesting that this technique may be more useful in obese individuals. PMID:23512706

  6. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuankui Cao

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105 and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107. Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI 0.05.The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all P<0.05.Serum T levels do not correlate directly with body fat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  7. Single injection of clenbuterol into newly hatched chicks decreases abdominal fat pad weight in growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijiri, Daichi; Ishitani, Kanae; El-Deep, Mahmoud Mohamed Hamza; Kawaguchi, Mana; Shimamoto, Saki; Ishimaru, Yoshitaka; Ohtsuka, Akira

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of clenbuterol injection into newly hatched chicks on both the abdominal fat pad tissue weight and the skeletal muscle weight during subsequent growth. Twenty-seven 1-day-old chicks were divided into two groups, receiving either a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of clenbuterol (0.1 mg/kg body weight) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were not affected by clenbuterol injection during the 5-week experimental period, while the abdominal fat pad tissue weight of the clenbuterol-injected chicks was lower than that of the control chicks at 5 weeks post-injection. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were significantly increased in the clenbuterol-injected chicks, while plasma triacylglycerol concentrations did not differ. Additionally, the enzymatic activity of fatty acid synthase was lower in the liver of the clenbuterol-injected chicks. Conversely, the skeletal muscle weights were not affected by clenbuterol injection. These results suggest that a single clenbuterol injection into 1-day-old chicks decreases the abdominal fat pad tissue weight, but may not affect skeletal muscle weights during growth. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescentes with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Célia Regina Moutinho de Miranda; Cunha, Ana Lúcia Pereira da; Costa, Ana Carolina da; Costa, Roseli de Souza Santos da; Lacerda, Speranza Vieira

    2015-11-01

    assessing the nutritional status and body fat distribution in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Fifty-six (56) 8-18 year old patients were assessed for fat distribution by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, for nutritional status by height/age, and for body mass index to age and dietary intake by 24-hour dietary recall. Approximately 50% of the sample showed adequate nutritional status. Most of it showed inadequate caloric and lipid intake. BMI/age was the nutritional indicator that best showed the increased percentage of trunk fat, android/gynecoidratio and trunk fat/total fat ratio. Patients with Pancreatic Insufficiency and eutrophic individuals showed higher median android/gynecoidratio. Increased abdominal adiposity was evidenced by DXA. The BMI did not identify decreased lean body mass. However, when body mass was high, it was significant for abdominal adiposity. The anthropometric assessment of patients with cystic fibrosis should be associated with body composition and body fat distribution to obtain an earlier malnutrition and cardiometabolic risk factor diagnosis.

  9. In women with polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity, loss of intra-abdominal fat is associated with resumption of ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; Groen, Henk; van Asselt, Sophie J; Bolster, Johanna H T; Zwerver, J; Slart, Riemer H J; Vd Jagt, Erik J; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Land, Jolande A; Hoek, Annemieke

    2011-09-01

    It is not clear why some anovulatory women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and obesity resume ovulation and others remain anovulatory after weight loss. The objective of this study was to compare the changes in body fat distribution and specifically intra-abdominal fat (IAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) between a group of anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity who resume ovulation (RO+) to those who remain anovulatory (RO-) during a lifestyle program. In a prospective pilot cohort study, anovulatory women with PCOS underwent a 6 month lifestyle program in a tertiary fertility clinic. Body fat distribution was assessed by anthropometrics, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and single slice abdominal CT scan at intake, after 3 months and after 6 months. Baseline-corrected changes over time were analysed using generalized estimating equations longitudinal regression analysis. In 32 anovulatory women with PCOS (age, 28 ± 4 years; BMI, 37.5 ± 5.0 kg/m²), there were no significant baseline differences in anthropometrics and biochemical assessment between 14 RO+ participants and 18 RO- participants. RO+ women lost more weight (6.3 versus 3.0%) and abdominal fat on DEXA (15.0 versus 4.3%) compared with RO- women. Resumption of ovulation was associated with early and consistent loss of IAF (12.4 versus 5.0% at 3 months and 18.5 versus 8.6% at 6 months). Loss of SAF between the RO+ women and the RO- women was similar at 3 months (6.2 versus 6.1%) but did not change any further in RO- women (6.1%) as it did in RO+ women (11.4%) at 6 months. In anovulatory women with PCOS and obesity undergoing a lifestyle program, RO+ women lose more body weight and abdominal fat on DEXA than RO- women. In addition, this study shows that early and consistent loss of IAF is associated with resumption of ovulation. Future studies should address the mechanisms behind these changes and should assess interventions aimed at loss of IAF to facilitate resumption of ovulation.

  10. Abdominal fat distribution measured using computed tomography is associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Il-Kook; Kim, Beom Jin; Kim, Bomin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Kim, Jeong Wook; Kim, Jae Gyu; Chang, Se Kyung; Kang, Hyun

    2017-09-01

    A few studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the association between the visceral fat proportion and colorectal adenomas. We aimed to investigate the association between abdominal fat distribution measured by computed tomography (CT) and colon adenoma.A total of 336 participants underwent physical examination, blood tests, colonoscopy, and abdominal computed tomography at Chung-Ang University Hospital. The associations between the obesity indicies (body mass index, visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), VFA-to-SFA ratio (VFA/SFA), and colorectal adenomas were evaluated.Of 309 subjects, 119 patients (38.5%) had colorectal adenoma. Mean age and fasting plasma glucose were higher in the patients with colorectal adenoma (P SFA (1.07 vs 0.92, P SFA (P SFA, and VFA/SFA were not associated with the location, size, number, and advancement of colorectal adenoma. In multivariate analysis, colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with VFA rather than VFA/SFA. In addition, colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with VFA rather than VFA/SFA in the men. The VFA, SFA, and VFA/SFA were not associated with colorectal adenoma in the women.The VFA measured by using a CT scan was positively associated with the presence of colorectal adenoma, especially in men. Furthermore, average risk men with large visceral fat volume should be examined carefully in screening colonoscopy.

  11. Obesity, body fat distribution and sex hormones in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, S M; Valdez, R A; Stern, M P; Katz, M S

    1993-11-01

    An unfavourable body fat distribution may cause metabolic abnormalities including diabetes and dyslipidemia. These effects may be mediated by alterations in sex hormones. In women the available data suggest that upper body adiposity is related to increased androgenicity (especially as indicated by low concentrations of sex hormone binding globulin). Few data, however, are available on these relationships in men. We therefore examined the association of total testosterone, free testosterone, oestradiol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and conicity index in 178 men from the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The conicity index is equal to the abdominal circumference divided by 0.109 x the square root of (weight/height). The conicity index and WHR were significantly inversely related to DHEA-SO4 and free testosterone. SHBG was only weakly associated with body mass index (r = -0.18, P testosterone remained inversely associated with conicity index (r = -0.21, P fat distribution and increased androgenicity is inverse in contrast to the situation in women.

  12. Neuropeptide Y genotype, central obesity, and abdominal fat distribution: the POUNDS LOST trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Qi, Qibin; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Bray, George A; Sacks, Frank M; Liang, Liming; Qi, Lu

    2015-08-01

    Neuropeptide Y is a key peptide affecting adiposity and has been related to obesity risk. However, little is known about the role of NPY variations in diet-induced change in adiposity. The objective was to examine the effects of NPY variant rs16147 on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution in response to dietary interventions. We genotyped a functional NPY variant rs16147 among 723 participants in the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies trial. Changes in waist circumference (WC), total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) from baseline to 6 and 24 mo were evaluated with respect to the rs16147 genotypes. Genotype-dietary fat interaction was also examined. The rs16147 C allele was associated with a greater reduction in WC at 6 mo (P < 0.001). In addition, the genotypes showed a statistically significant interaction with dietary fat in relation to WC and SAT (P-interaction = 0.01 and 0.04): the association was stronger in individuals with high-fat intake than in those with low-fat intake. At 24 mo, the association remained statistically significant for WC in the high-fat diet group (P = 0.02), although the gene-dietary fat interaction became nonsignificant (P = 0.30). In addition, we found statistically significant genotype-dietary fat interaction on the change in total abdominal adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue, and SAT at 24 mo (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.04): the rs16147 T allele appeared to associate with more adverse change in the abdominal fat deposition in the high-fat diet group than in the low-fat diet group. Our data indicate that the NPY rs16147 genotypes affect the change in abdominal adiposity in response to dietary interventions, and the effects of the rs16147 single-nucleotide polymorphism on central obesity and abdominal fat distribution were modified by dietary fat. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Late Presentation of Intra-abdominal Foreign Body following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case of delayed wound healing following a caesarean delivery conducted in a peripheral hospital two years ago. Diagnosis of foreign body was also delayed until the foreign body self extrude through a discharging sinus. Abdominal exploration revealed gauze of about 50 cm long encapsulated within the ...

  14. Interrelationships between changes in anthropometric variables and computed tomography indices of abdominal fat distribution in response to a 1-year physical activity-healthy eating lifestyle modification program in abdominally obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeneuve, Nicole; Pelletier-Beaumont, Emilie; Nazare, Julie-Anne; Lemieux, Isabelle; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul; Després, Jean-Pierre

    2014-04-01

    The objectives were to (i) measure the effects of a 1-year lifestyle modification program on body fat distribution/anthropometric variables; (ii) determine the interrelationships between changes in all these variables; and (iii) investigate whether there is a selective reduction in deep (DSAT) vs. superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SSAT) at the abdominal level following a 1-year lifestyle modification program. Anthropometric variables, body composition and abdominal and midthigh fat distribution were assessed at baseline and after 1 year in 109 sedentary, dyslipidemic and abdominally obese men. Reductions in anthropometric variables, skinfold thicknesses (except the trunk/extremity ratio) and fat mass as well as an increase in fat-free mass were observed after 1 year (p abdominal adipose tissue volumes were also noted (-23%, -26%, -18%, -19%, -17%, p muscle area and an increase (+1%, p muscle area were also observed. There was a positive relationship between changes in visceral adipose tissue and changes in DSAT (r = 0.65, p muscle quality in abdominally obese men.

  15. Effect of body fat and gender on body temperature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that body composition can influence peripheral heat loss and skin temperature. That the distribution of body fat is affected by gender is well known; however, there is little information on how body composition and gender influences the measure of skin temperature. This study evaluated skin temperature distribution according to body fat percentage (BF%) and gender. A sample of 94 apparently healthy volunteers (47 women and 47 men) was assessed with Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) and infrared thermography (mean, maximum and minimum temperatures - T Mean , T Max and T Min ). The sample was divided into groups, according to health risk classification, based on BF%, as proposed by the American College of Sports Medicine: Average (n = 58), Elevated (n = 16) or High (n = 20). Women had lower T Mean in most regions of interest (ROI). In both genders, group High had lower temperature values than Average and Elevated in the trunk, upper and lower limbs. In men, palms and posterior hands had a tendency (p temperature along with increased BF%. T Mean , T Max and T Min of trunk, upper and lower limbs were negatively correlated with BF% and the fat percentage of each segment (upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk). The highest correlations found in women were between posterior trunk and BF% (rho = -0.564, p temperature than men, which was related with higher BF%. Facial temperature seems not to be influenced by body fat. With the future collection of data on the relationship between BF% and skin temperature while taking into account factors such as body morphology, gender, and ethnicity, we conclude that measurement of BF may be reliably estimated with the use of thermal imaging technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between body mass index, waist circumference, fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of obesity based on the Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference, and fat mass and fat percentage and to examine the relationship between BMI, waist circumference, fat mass and fat percentage as the measurement of obesity among university students.

  17. Body fat distribution in pre-and post-menopausal women: metabolic and anthropometric variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Pérez-Llamas, F; Baraza, J C; Garcia-Prieto, M D; Fardy, P S; Tébar, F J; Zamora, S

    2002-01-01

    Abdominal obesity is associated with coronary risk although the causality is not well established. To compare body fat distribution and metabolic variables in obese pre- and post- menopausal women. The study was conducted in 55 obese female subjects (22 pre- and 33 post- menopausal) with body mass indices (BMI) from 27 to 35 Kg/m2. Body fat distribution was measured using waist and hip circumference and computerized tomography. Hormones such as estradiol, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, as well as plasma lipids such as triglycerides, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein, apoproteins A and B, were also determined. No significant differences were found between the two groups in BMI, percentage of body fat, waist circumference, triceps, biceps, suprailiac and abdominal skinfolds. Hip circumference, subscapular skinfold and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue area were significantly lower, and waist-hip ratio, visceral area and visceral to subcutaneous area ratios significantly higher in post- menopausal women (P low density lipoprotein, values were significantly higher in the post-menopausal group (P fat distribution changes according to menopausal status, with central obesity more pronounced in post- menopausal women. Metabolic abnormalities are related more to visceral adipose tissue and estrogen plasma levels than to BMI.

  18. The relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (≤ 5 years since menopause, n = 105) and a late group (≥ 10 years since menopause, n = 107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI testosterone (T), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured. Body fat distribution was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Late postmenopausal women had a higher proportion of body fat than early postmenopausal women. The body fat of the overweight and obese women had a greater tendency to accumulate in the abdomen compared with the normal weight women both in early and late postmenopausal groups. The overweight and obese women had a higher free testosterone (FT) than the normal weight women in early postmenopausal women (Pfat distribution both in early and late postmenopausal groups (P>0.05).The FT in early postmenopausal women and the DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlated positively with the trunk/leg fat ratio (T/L) and the proportion of android fat whereas correlated negatively with the proportion of gynoid fat in the partial correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (all Pfat distribution, the FT in early postmenopausal women and DHEA-S levels in late postmenopausal women correlate positively with abdominal fat accumulation.

  19. A phenome database (NEAUHLFPD) designed and constructed for broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Dong, Xiang-yu; Liang, Hao; Leng, Li; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Shou-zhi; Li, Hui; Du, Zhi-Qiang

    2017-05-20

    Effective management and analysis of precisely recorded phenotypic traits are important components of the selection and breeding of superior livestocks. Over two decades, we divergently selected chicken lines for abdominal fat content at Northeast Agricultural University (Northeast Agricultural University High and Low Fat, NEAUHLF), and collected large volume of phenotypic data related to the investigation on molecular genetic basis of adipose tissue deposition in broilers. To effectively and systematically store, manage and analyze phenotypic data, we built the NEAUHLF Phenome Database (NEAUHLFPD). NEAUHLFPD included the following phenotypic records: pedigree (generations 1-19) and 29 phenotypes, such as body sizes and weights, carcass traits and their corresponding rates. The design and construction strategy of NEAUHLFPD were executed as follows: (1) Framework design. We used Apache as our web server, MySQL and Navicat as database management tools, and PHP as the HTML-embedded language to create dynamic interactive website. (2) Structural components. On the main interface, detailed introduction on the composition, function, and the index buttons of the basic structure of the database could be found. The functional modules of NEAUHLFPD had two main components: the first module referred to the physical storage space for phenotypic data, in which functional manipulation on data can be realized, such as data indexing, filtering, range-setting, searching, etc.; the second module related to the calculation of basic descriptive statistics, where data filtered from the database can be used for the computation of basic statistical parameters and the simultaneous conditional sorting. NEAUHLFPD could be used to effectively store and manage not only phenotypic, but also genotypic and genomics data, which can facilitate further investigation on the molecular genetic basis of chicken adipose tissue growth and development, and expedite the selection and breeding of broilers

  20. Relationship between vaspin gene expression and abdominal fat distribution of Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-A; Park, Hye-Soon; Song, Young-Sook; Jang, Yeon-Jin; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Lee, Yeon-Ji; Heo, Yoon-Suk

    2011-01-01

    Visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin) is a novel adipokine that is thought to have insulin-sensitizing effects. We investigated vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue and examined how gene expression related to abdominal fat distribution and metabolic parameters in Korean women. We measured anthropometric variables, metabolic parameters, serum vaspin concentration, and vaspin mRNA expression in abdominal adipose tissue obtained from women who underwent abdominal gynecological surgery and were aged 18-67 years (n=85). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) area were measured in 40 subjects using computed tomography (CT). Vaspin expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative radiotherapy-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) according to abdominal fat distribution. Vaspin mRNA expression was greater in adipocytes than in stroma/vascular cells. In the total subjects, vaspin expression was significantly higher in SAT than in VAT. Vaspin expression in SAT in subcutaneous fat type (VSR ≤0.3) was significantly higher than in visceral fat type (VSR >0.3), although vaspin expression in VAT was similar between subcutaneous and visceral fat type. There was a significant negative correlation between vaspin expression in SAT and VAT area (r=-0.55, p=0.001). Serum vaspin concentration was significantly correlated with fasting insulin (r=0.30, p=0.02), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (r=0.29, p=0.02), and the ratio of vaspin expression in VAT to vaspin expression in SAT (r=0.41, p=0.04). Vaspin expression in abdominal adipose tissue was adipocyte-specific and vaspin expression in SAT decreased as VAT area increased. (author)

  1. Impact of testosterone on body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maddalena, Chiara; Vodo, Stella; Petroni, Anna; Aloisi, Anna Maria

    2012-12-01

    An excessive food supply has resulted in an increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity, conditions accompanied by serious health problems. Several studies have confirmed the significant inverse correlation between testosterone and obesity. Indeed after decades of intense controversy, a consensus has emerged that androgens are important regulators of fat mass and distribution in mammals and that androgen status affects cellularity in vivo. The high correlation of testosterone levels with body composition and its contribution to the balance of lipid metabolism are also suggested by the fact that testosterone lowering is associated with important clinical disorders such as dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In contrast, testosterone supplementation therapy in hypogonadic men has been shown to improve the lipid profile by lowering cholesterol, blood sugar and insulin resistance. Leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin are some of the substances related to feeding as well as androgen regulation. Thus, complex and delicate mechanisms appear to link androgens with various tissues (liver, adipose tissue, muscles, coronary arteries and heart) and the subtle alteration of some of these interactions might be the cause of correlated diseases. This review underlines some aspects regarding the high correlations between testosterone physiology and body fat composition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Abdominal fat indicators: anthropometry vs dual energy x-ray absortometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fátima Glaner

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Excessive abdominal fat contributes to the development of chronic nontransmissible diseases. Dual emission X Ray absorptiometry (DXA is a simple to administer technique that allows abdominal fat percentage (%abdominalFDXA to be determined. Anthropometric measurements, which have been validated and are of low cost, such as the abdominal circumferences 2.5cm above the umbilical scar (ABC2,5 and level with the umbilical scar (ABCum, are used as indicators of abdominal fat. Skin folds (SF are little used for this purpose. The objective of this study was to verify which of these anthropometric indicators best correlates with and best explains abdominalFDXA. The sample was made up of 22 women (43.9±11.6 years; 34.7±8.3 %G totalDXA and 18 men (31.9±11.6 years; 19.0±8.0 %G totalDXA who were measured for ABC2.5, ABCum, suprailiac SF (SI, midaxillary SF (AM and abdominal SF (AB, while abdominalF (L1-L4 was measured by DXA. Pearson’s correlation and multivariate linear regression (“enter” method were employed to verify the anthropometric measurements’ correlations and percentage of explanation with relation to abdominalFDXA. Strong correlations and significant levels of explanation (pResumoO excesso de gordura abdominal contribui no desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis. A absortometria de raio-X de dupla energia (AXDE é uma técnica de simples aplicação, que permite a mensuração do percentual de gordura abdominal (%G abdominalAXDE. As medidas antropométricas, validadas e de baixo custo, como os perímetros abdominal 2,5cm acima da cicatriz umbilical (PAB2,5 e ao nível da cicatriz umbilical (PABum, são empregadas como indicadores de gordura abdominal. As dobras cutâneas (DC são pouco estudadas nesse sentido. Assim, o objetivo desse estudo foi verificar quais destes indicadores antropométricos mais se correlacionam e explicam o %G abdominalAXDE. A amostra foi composta por 22 mulheres (43,9±11,6 anos; 34,7±8,3 %G

  3. Dietary L-arginine supplementation beneficially regulates body fat deposition of meat-type ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, L Y; Fang, Y J; Guo, X Y

    2011-04-01

    1. Unlike mammals, uricotelic species, such as the duck, cannot synthesise endogenous arginine (Arg). This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary L-Arg supplementation might regulate body fat deposition in ducks without affecting their fast growth rate. 2. A total of 160 21-d-old male and female White Pekin ducks were assigned randomly to two treatments: a non-supplemented control and supplementation at 10 g/kg L-Arg of a maize and soybean meal-based diet. 3. The 3-week feeding trial showed that the addition of L-Arg had no significant effect on feed intake, but significantly increased body weight gain by 5·2 %, breast muscle weight relative to live body weight by 9·9%, carcase crude protein content by 9·2%, ether extract content in breast muscle by 11·9%. Arg supplementation significantly decreased skin with fat and abdominal fat pad contents by 7·6% and 4·9% respectively and the ether extract content of carcase by 7·2%. 4. The results of this study indicate that a diet with 10 g/kg supplemental L-Arg could reduce the fat deposition of carcase and abdominal adipose cell size (diameter and volume), enhance intramuscular fat in breast muscles, as well as increase muscle and protein gain. The decreased fat depot in the carcase may be attributed to a reduction of hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity.

  4. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  5. Original Research Intra-abdominal fat: Comparison of computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the subcutaneous fat. A preliminary segmentation was carried out into 10 classes using a K-means clustering and. Markov random field algorithm taking spatial coherence into account. This enabled counting of the voxels included within the region of interest (by excluding voxels allocated to −2048 = outside the ROI).

  6. Common variants near MC4R in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits and energy expenditure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Holst, C; Toubro, Søren

    2010-01-01

    Common variants near melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) have been related to fatness and type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of rs17782313 and rs17700633 in relation to body fat, body fat distribution, metabolic traits, weight development and energy expenditure....

  7. Predicting intra-abdominal fatness from anthropometric measures : the influence of stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; McNeill, G; Seidell, J C; Lean, M.E.J.

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of height on the relationships between the intra-abdominal fat and anthropometric measures. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy female volunteers aged 20-51 y from Aberdeen, and 71 men and 34 women aged 19-85 y from Nijmegen, The Netherlands. OUTCOME MEASURES:

  8. Validation of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measures of abdominal fat by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging in an Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E Taylor

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Abdominal adiposity is an important risk factor for diabetes and cardiovascular disease in Indians. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA can be used to determine abdominal fat depots, being more accessible and less costly than gold standard measures such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. DXA has not been fully validated for use in South Asians. Here, we determined the accuracy of DXA for measurement of abdominal fat in an Indian population by comparison with MRI. DESIGN: 146 males and females (age range 18-74, BMI range 15-46 kg/m(2 from Hyderabad, India underwent whole body DXA scans on a Hologic Discovery A scanner, from which fat mass in two abdominal regions was calculated, from the L1 to L4 vertebrae (L1L4 and from the L2 to L4 vertebrae (L2L4. Abdominal MRI scans (axial T1-weighted spin echo images were taken, from which adipose tissue volumes were calculated for the same regions. RESULTS: Intra-class correlation coefficients between DXA and MRI measures of abdominal fat were high (0.98 for both regions. Although at the level of the individual, differences between DXA and MRI could be large (95% of DXA measures were between 0.8 and 1.4 times MRI measures, at the sample level, DXA only slightly overestimated MRI measures of abdominal fat mass (mean difference in L1L4 region: 2% (95% CI:0%, 5%, mean difference in L2L4 region:4% (95% CI: 1%, 7%. There was evidence of a proportional bias in the association between DXA and MRI (correlation between difference and mean -0.3, with overestimation by DXA greater in individuals with less abdominal fat (mean bias in leaner half of sample was 6% for L1L4 (95%CI: 2, 11% and 7% for L2L4 (95% CI:3,12%. CONCLUSIONS: DXA measures of abdominal fat are suitable for use in Indian populations and provide a good indication of abdominal adiposity at the population level.

  9. Measurement of body fat and hydration of the fat-free body in health and disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streat, S.J.; Beddoe, A.H.; Hill, G.L.

    1985-06-01

    Body fat mass, fat-free body mass and body water are basic components of body composition which are used in nutritional and metabolic studies and in patient care. A method of measuring total body fat (TBF), fat-free mass (FFM) and its hydration (TBW/FFM) involving prompt gamma in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) and tritium dilution has been compared with the more traditional methods of densitometry and skinfold anthropometry in 36 normal volunteers, and with skinfold anthropometry in 56 patients presenting for nutritional support. While the mean values of TBF were in reasonable agreement for the three methods in normals it was founds that skinfold anthropometry underestimated TBF relative to the IVNAA/tritium method by, on average, 3.0 kg (19%) in patients. Furthermore, the ranges of values in normals of the ratio TBW/FFM for the anthropometric (0.62 to 0.80) and densitometric (0.65 to 0.80) methods were much wider than the range for the IVNAA/tritium method (0.69 to 0.76), in which TBW was measured by tritium dilution in all cases. In the patients, the ranges of this ratio were 0.52 to 0.90 for the anthropometric method and 0.67 to 0.82 for the IVNAA/tritium method; clearly anthropometry yields values of TBW/FFM which are outside accepted biological limits. On the basis of these findings, ranges of TBW/FFM are suggested for both normal adults (0.69 to 0.75) and patients requiring nutritional support (0.67 to 0.83). Finally it is concluded that the IVNAA/tritium method is a suitable method for measuring TBF and FFM and particularly so when body composition is abnormal.

  10. Topographical body fat distribution links to amino acid and lipid metabolism in healthy obese women [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois-Pierre J Martin

    Full Text Available Visceral adiposity is increasingly recognized as a key condition for the development of obesity related disorders, with the ratio between visceral adipose tissue (VAT and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT reported as the best correlate of cardiometabolic risk. In this study, using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 y, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2 under healthy clinical conditions and monitored over a 2 weeks period we examined the relationships between different body composition parameters, estimates of visceral adiposity and blood/urine metabolic profiles. Metabonomics and lipidomics analysis of blood plasma and urine were employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of body composition and abdominal fat distribution using iDXA and computerized tomography. Of the various visceral fat estimates, VAT/SAT and VAT/total abdominal fat ratios exhibited significant associations with regio-specific body lean and fat composition. The integration of these visceral fat estimates with metabolic profiles of blood and urine described a distinct amino acid, diacyl and ether phospholipid phenotype in women with higher visceral fat. Metabolites important in predicting visceral fat adiposity as assessed by Random forest analysis highlighted 7 most robust markers, including tyrosine, glutamine, PC-O 44∶6, PC-O 44∶4, PC-O 42∶4, PC-O 40∶4, and PC-O 40∶3 lipid species. Unexpectedly, the visceral fat associated inflammatory profiles were shown to be highly influenced by inter-days and between-subject variations. Nevertheless, the visceral fat associated amino acid and lipid signature is proposed to be further validated for future patient stratification and cardiometabolic health diagnostics.

  11. Body fat content, distribution and blood glucose concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    About 50% of subject who had greater body fat content and waist hip ratio had impaired fasting blood glucose and impaired glucose tolerant. Body fat content within the body has significance effects on blood glucose concentration. Consequently, there is a need of increasing awareness about healthy food consumption ...

  12. A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Goss, Amy M

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, particularly visceral and ectopic adiposity, increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine if restriction of dietary carbohydrate is beneficial for body composition and metabolic health. Two studies were conducted. In the first, 69 overweight/obese men and women, 53% of whom were European American (EA) and 47% of whom were African American (AA), were provided with 1 of 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 43%, 18%, and 39%, respectively) for 8 wk at a eucaloric level and 8 wk at a hypocaloric level. In the second study, 30 women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) were provided with 2 diets (lower-fat diet: 55%, 18%, and 27% of energy from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, respectively; lower-carbohydrate diet: 41%, 19%, and 40%, respectively) at a eucaloric level for 8 wk in a random-order crossover design. As previously reported, among overweight/obese adults, after the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the lower-carbohydrate vs. the lower-fat diet lost more intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT) (11 ± 3% vs. 1 ± 3%; P diet had 4.4% less total fat mass. Original to this report, across the entire 16-wk study, AAs lost more fat mass with a lower-carbohydrate diet (6.2 vs. 2.9 kg; P diets. As previously reported, among women with PCOS, the lower-carbohydrate arm showed decreased fasting insulin (-2.8 μIU/mL; P < 0.001) and fasting glucose (-4.7 mg/dL; P < 0.01) and increased insulin sensitivity (1.06 arbitrary units; P < 0.05) and "dynamic" β-cell response (96.1 · 10(9); P < 0.001). In the lower-carbohydrate arm, women lost both IAAT (-4.8 cm(2); P < 0.01) and intermuscular fat (-1.2 cm(2); P < 0.01). In the lower-fat arm, women lost lean mass (-0.6 kg; P < 0.05). Original to this report, after the lower-carbohydrate arm, the change in IAAT was positively associated with the change in tumor necrosis factor α (P < 0.05). A

  13. Genome-wide association for abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose reveals a novel locus for visceral fat in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S Fox

    Full Text Available Body fat distribution, particularly centralized obesity, is associated with metabolic risk above and beyond total adiposity. We performed genome-wide association of abdominal adipose depots quantified using computed tomography (CT to uncover novel loci for body fat distribution among participants of European ancestry. Subcutaneous and visceral fat were quantified in 5,560 women and 4,997 men from 4 population-based studies. Genome-wide genotyping was performed using standard arrays and imputed to ~2.5 million Hapmap SNPs. Each study performed a genome-wide association analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, VAT adjusted for body mass index, and VAT/SAT ratio (a metric of the propensity to store fat viscerally as compared to subcutaneously in the overall sample and in women and men separately. A weighted z-score meta-analysis was conducted. For the VAT/SAT ratio, our most significant p-value was rs11118316 at LYPLAL1 gene (p = 3.1 × 10E-09, previously identified in association with waist-hip ratio. For SAT, the most significant SNP was in the FTO gene (p = 5.9 × 10E-08. Given the known gender differences in body fat distribution, we performed sex-specific analyses. Our most significant finding was for VAT in women, rs1659258 near THNSL2 (p = 1.6 × 10-08, but not men (p = 0.75. Validation of this SNP in the GIANT consortium data demonstrated a similar sex-specific pattern, with observed significance in women (p = 0.006 but not men (p = 0.24 for BMI and waist circumference (p = 0.04 [women], p = 0.49 [men]. Finally, we interrogated our data for the 14 recently published loci for body fat distribution (measured by waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI; associations were observed at 7 of these loci. In contrast, we observed associations at only 7/32 loci previously identified in association with BMI; the majority of overlap was observed with SAT. Genome-wide association for visceral and subcutaneous fat revealed a

  14. A Novel Polymorphism of VLDLR Signal Peptide Coding Region and Its Association with Growth and Abdominal Fat Traits of Gaoyou Domestic Ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ming-liang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The VLDLR gene plays important roles in the growth and adiposity in humans and mice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between VLDLR gene genetic polymorphisms and growth and abdominal fat traits of the Gaoyou domestic duck. A total of 267 Gaoyou ducks were employed for testing. A 18bp deletion was identified in VLDLR signal peptide coding region. The results of c2 test suggested that the genotype frequencies of VLDLR signal peptide coding region were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Least squares analysis showed that body weight (BW of -18bp/-18bp genotype ducks was significantly higher than those of other genotypes from six (BW6 (p0.05 and body weight for AFP and different genotypes had a significant effect on AFP (p<0.05. The results of Bonferroni t-test revealed that the abdominal fat percentage (AFP of -18bp/-18bp genotype was significantly lower than those of +18bp/-18bp (p<0.05. Preliminary studies have shown that VLDLR may be a candidate gene for the selection for growth and abdominal fat, and the results of the present study indicate that VLDLR strongly influences carcass abdominal fat content of Gaoyou ducks.

  15. Gallstone disease and obesity: a population-based study on abdominal fat distribution and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmard, Amir Reza; Merat, Shahin; Kooraki, Soheil; Ashraf, Mahya; Keshtkar, Abbas; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Jafari, Elham; Malekzadeh, Reza; Poustchi, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence suggests the visceral fat is more metabolically active than subcutaneous fat. We aimed to investigate the value of subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue thickness (VAT) for prediction of gallstone disease (GSD) in general population by focus on gender differences and comparison with body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). In this cross-sectional survey, 1,494 subjects (51.4 % men), aged above 50, randomly selected from Golestan Cohort Study residing in Gonbad City, Iran, underwent anthropometric measurements and abdominal ultrasonography. Prevalence of GSD was 17.8% (95% CI 15.9-19.8). Following adjustment for age and then other potential risk factors, all obesity indices, except for SAT, were associated with GSD in women with the highest odds ratio observed in WHtR (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.22-1.89). In contrast, WHR was the only associated index in men (OR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08-2.06). The trend of increasing obesity measures across the quartiles with the risk of GSD was significant in subgroups of WHtR and BMI in women and WHR in men. No significant association was found between SAT and GSD in men or women. The best anthropometric indicators of the risk of GSD may differ by gender. In men, WHR might be the only preferred index to estimate risk of GSD. WHtR, WHR, VAT and BMI are associated with GSD risk in women, although WHtR might better explain this risk. SAT is the poor indicator for identifying subjects with GSD in both genders.

  16. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raschpichler, M.C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center (Germany). IFB Adiposity Diseases; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Paediatric Radiology; Mende, M. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Clinical Trial Centre Leipzig; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). University Hospital for Children and Adolescents; Kruber, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Oral, Craniomaxillofacial and Facial Plastic Surgery; Schick, F. [Univ. Hospital Tuebingen (Germany). Section on Experimental Radiology

    2012-04-15

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized {sup 1}H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m{sup 2}). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 {+-} 0.2 % (0.32 {+-} 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p < 0.01). The lipid content obtained by {sup 1}H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 {+-} 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  17. Evaluating childhood obesity. Magnetic resonance-based quantification of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raschpichler, M.C.; Leipzig Univ. Medical Center; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, W.; Mende, M.; Sergeyev, E.; Koerner, A.; Kruber, D.; Schick, F.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to establish and validate a magnetic resonance (MR)-based fat quantification package that provides an accurate assessment of abdominal adipose tissue and liver fat in children. Ex vivo trials with a torso model and water-oil mixtures are conducted. Abdominal adipose tissue (AAT) is covered by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a fat-selective sequence and is analyzed by a plug-in based on the open source software Image. Liver fat (LF) is measured with localized 1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) and the jMRUI (java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface) software package. Evaluation of the clinical methodology involved a study of 10 children in this feasibility study (mean age and body mass index: 13.3 yr; 33.3 kg/m 2 ). To evaluate the method's validity, reference measurements were performed. Ex vivo trials with the torso model showed that adipose tissue was measured appropriately with a systematic underestimation by 9.3 ± 0.2 % (0.32 ± 0.064 kg). Coefficients of variation for both intra- and inter-observer measurements ranged between 0 - 2.7 % and repeated analyses showed significant equivalent results (p 1 H MRS ex vivo revealed significant equivalence with the predefined fat content in water-oil mixtures (p < 0.01). In vivo, the homemade plug-in significantly overestimated the AAT, with the visceral adipose tissue being most affected (+ 15.7 ± 8.4 %). Although an overestimation of the AAT by the presented plug-in should be taken into consideration, this children-friendly package enables the quantification of both LF and AAT within 30 min on a freeware-based platform. (orig.)

  18. Intra-abdominal fat. Part I. The images of the adipose tissue localized beyond organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unaltered fat is a permanent component of the abdominal cavity, even in slim individuals. Visceral adiposity is one of the important factors contributing to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and certain neoplasms. Moreover, the adipose tissue is an important endocrine and immune organ of complex function both when normal and pathological. Its role in plastic surgery, reconstruction and transplantology is a separate issue. The adipose tissue has recently drawn the attention of research institutes owing to being a rich source of stem cells. This review, however, does not include these issues. The identifi cation of fat is relatively easy using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. It can be more diffi cult in an ultrasound examination for several reasons. The aim of this paper is to present various problems associated with US imaging of unaltered intra-abdominal fat located beyond organs. Based on the literature and experience, it has been demonstrated that the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity has variable echogenicity, which primarily depends on the amount of extracellular fl uid and the number of connective tissue septa, i.e. elements that potentiate the number of areas that refl ect and scatter ultrasonic waves. The normal adipose tissue presents itself on a broad gray scale: from a hyperechoic area, through numerous structures of lower refl ection intensity, to nearly anechoic regions mimicking the presence of pathological fl uid collections. The features that facilitate proper identifi cation of this tissue are: sharp margins, homogeneous structure, high compressibility under transducer pressure, no signs of infi ltration of the surrounding structures and no signs of vascularization when examined with the color and power Doppler. The accumulation of fat tissue in the abdominal cavity can be generalized, regional or focal. The identifi cation of the adipose tissue in the abdominal cavity using ultrasonography is not always

  19. The relationship of female physical attractiveness to body fatness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlin Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of the female body may be attractive because they signal evolutionary fitness. Greater body fatness might reflect greater potential to survive famines, but individuals carrying larger fat stores may have poor health and lower fertility in non-famine conditions. A mathematical statistical model using epidemiological data linking fatness to fitness traits, predicted a peaked relationship between fatness and attractiveness (maximum at body mass index (BMI = 22.8 to 24.8 depending on ethnicity and assumptions. Participants from three Caucasian populations (Austria, Lithuania and the UK, three Asian populations (China, Iran and Mauritius and four African populations (Kenya, Morocco, Nigeria and Senegal rated attractiveness of a series of female images varying in fatness (BMI and waist to hip ratio (WHR. There was an inverse linear relationship between physical attractiveness and body fatness or BMI in all populations. Lower body fat was more attractive, down to at least BMI = 19. There was no peak in the relationship over the range we studied in any population. WHR was a significant independent but less important factor, which was more important (greater r2 in African populations. Predictions based on the fitness model were not supported. Raters appeared to use body fat percentage (BF% and BMI as markers of age. The covariance of BF% and BMI with age indicates that the role of body fatness alone, as a marker of attractiveness, has been overestimated.

  20. The effect of body fat percentage and body fat distribution on skin surface temperature with infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamunes, Ana Carla Chierighini; Stadnik, Adriana Maria Wan; Neves, Eduardo Borba

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to search for relations between body fat percentage and skin temperature and to describe possible effects on skin temperature as a result of fat percentage in each anatomical site. Women (26.11±4.41 years old) (n =123) were tested for: body circumferences; skin temperatures (thermal camera); fat percentage and lean mass from trunk, upper and lower limbs; and body fat percentage (Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry). Values of minimum (T Mi ), maximum (T Ma ), and mean temperatures (T Me ) were acquired in 30 regions of interest. Pearson's correlation was estimated for body circumferences and skin temperature variables with body fat percentage. Participants were divided into groups of high and low fat percentage of each body segment, of which T Me values were compared with Student's t-test. Linear regression models for predicting body fat percentage were tested. Body fat percentage was positively correlated with body circumferences and palm temperatures, while it was negatively correlated with most temperatures, such as T Ma and T Me of posterior thighs (r =-0.495 and -0.432), T Me of posterior lower limbs (r =-0.488), T Ma of anterior thighs (r =-0.406) and T Mi and T Me of posterior arms (r =-0.447 and -0.430). Higher fat percentages in the specific anatomical sites tended to decrease T Me , especially in posterior thighs, shanks and arms. Skin temperatures and body circumferences predicted body fat percentage with 58.3% accuracy (R =0.764 and R 2 =0.583). This study clarifies that skin temperature distribution is influenced by the fat percentage of each body segment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body trunk fat and insulin resistance in post-pubertal obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Caroline dos Santos

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance is a metabolic disorder commonly associated with excess body fat accumulation that may increase chronic disease risk. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the relationship between body composition and insulin resistance among obese adolescents. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study, at the Adolescence Center, Pediatric Department, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was evaluated using a three-day dietary record. The biochemical evaluation comprised glucose, insulin, serum lipid, leptin and ghrelin measurements. Insulin resistance was calculated by means of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. RESULTS: Forty-nine post-pubertal obese adolescents participated in the study: 12 boys and 37 girls of mean age 16.6 (1.4 years and mean body mass index (BMI of 35.0 (3.9 kg/m². The mean glucose, insulin and HOMA values were 90.3 (6.4 mg/dl, 16.6 (8.1 µIU/ml and 3.7 (1.9, respectively. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance were observed in 40.2% and 57.1% of the subjects, respectively. Adolescents with insulin resistance had higher BMI and body trunk fat. There was a trend towards higher leptin concentration in obese individuals with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was positively correlated with body trunk fat, BMI, body fat mass (kg, leptin and body fat percentage. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between HOMA-IR and lean body mass. The body composition predicted 30% of the HOMA-IR levels, according to linear regression models. CONCLUSION: Body trunk fat was significantly associated with insulin resistance, demonstrating the clinical importance of abdominal obesity during adolescence.

  2. Androgen effect on body composition and fat metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M D

    2000-01-01

    Recognizing the adverse metabolic effects of predominantly visceral body fat distribution associated with low testosterone levels, researchers have investigated the effects of androgen treatment on body fat distribution in men. This presentation reviews the results of research on acute and longer-term effects of treatment with testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. Methods for investigating these results, including measurement of lipoprotein lipase activity and of radiolabeled fat uptake and turnover, are described and discussed.

  3. Determination of abdominal fat thickness using dual electrode separation in the focused impedance method (FIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surovy, Nusrat Jahan; Billah, Md Masum; Haowlader, Salahuddin; Al-Quaderi, Golam Dastegir; Rabbani, K Siddique-e

    2012-01-01

    Subcutaneous fat layer thickness in the abdomen is a risk indicator of several diseases and disorders like diabetes and heart problems and could be used as a measure of fitness. Skinfold measurement using mechanical calipers is simple but prone to error. Ultrasound scanning techniques are yet to be established as accurate methods for this purpose. magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans can provide the answer but are expensive and not available widely. Some initiatives were made earlier to use electrical impedance to this end, but had inadequacies. In the first part of this paper, a 4-electrode focused impedance method (FIM) with different electrode separations has been studied for its possible use in the determination of abdominal fat thickness in a localized region. For this, a saline phantom was designed to provide different electrode separations and different layers of resistive materials adjacent to the electrodes. The background saline simulated the internal organs having low impedance while the resistive layers simulated the subcutaneous fat. The plot of the measured impedance with electrode separation had different ‘slopes’ for different thicknesses of resistive layers, which offered a method to obtain an unknown thickness of subcutaneous fat layer. In the second part, measurements were performed on seven human subjects using two electrode separations. Fat layer thickness was measured using mechanical calipers. A plot of the above ‘slope’ against fat thickness could be fitted using a straight line with an R 2 of 0.93. Then this could be used as a calibration curve for the determination of unknown fat thickness. Further work using more accurate CT and MRI measurements would give a better calibration curve for practical use of this non-invasive and low-cost technique in abdominal fat thickness measurement. (paper)

  4. EFFECTS OF FOOD AND DRINK INGESTION ON BODY COMPOSITION VARIABLES OF ABDOMINAL BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Vázquez, Rosalía; Martínez Blanco, Javier; García Vega, María del Mar; Barbancho, Miguel Ángel; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón

    2015-11-01

    to know the changes in trunk fat and visceral fat level determined by abdominal bioelectrical impedance (BIA) as well as other anthropometric measures related to the central or abdominal fat after the ingestion of a lunch. the experimental study was conducted to assess a longitudinal intervention descriptive study. 21 subjects (10 male and 11 female), volunteers who have access to a medical assessment, with an age of 74 ± 13.43 years. Maximal waist circumference in standing position, waist circumference at navel level in supine position and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD). In the same position trunk fat and visceral fat level by abdominal bioelectrical impedance analysis with Tanita AB-140 (ViScan) were obtained before and after meal. anthropometric measures as waist circumference in supine position and SAD did not show significant differences (P > 0.05), after food ingestion, except for a significant increase of the maximal waist circumference in standing position (P 0.05). The percentage changes of the measures were less than 2% for waist circumference in standing position, waist circumference by Viscan, sagittal abdominal diameter and trunk fat and 5.9% for visceral fat ratio. the effects on trunk fat and visceral fat ratio by abdominal bioelectrical impedance are minimal after the ingestion of a portion of food and drink, although it is always recommended to do it in fasting conditions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationships between percent body fat and other ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationships between percent body fat and other anthropometric nutritional predictors among male and female children in Nigeria. ... A weak significant positive correlation was observed between the percent body fat and height – armspan ratio ... There was evidence of overweight and obesity in both children. The mid ...

  6. Doppler Bubble Grades After Diving and Relevance of Body Fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellart, Nico A. M.; Vellinga, Tjeerd P. van Rees; Van Dijk, Frank J.; Sterk, Wouter

    2012-01-01

    SCHELLART NAM, VAN REES VELLINGA TP, VAN DIJK FJ, STERK W. Doppler bubble grades after diving and relevance of body fat. Aviat Space Environ Med 2012; 83:951-7. Background: From the literature on venous gas embolism (VGE) and decompression sickness (DCS), it remains unclear whether body fat is a

  7. [Effect of different dietary fat intake on blood lipids, body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yantong; Zhuo, Qin; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Chun; Yang, Xiaoguang; Piao, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different dietary fat intake on body fat, adiponectin and leptin on energy balance status in rats. Forty male SD rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Rats in low fat, normal fat, medium fat and high fat group were fed equal energy diets of low fat diet (5% energy from fat), normal diet (15% energy from fat), medium fat diet (25% energy from fat) and high fat diet (40% energy from fat) respectively. Blood glucose and lipids were analyzed at 0, 5 and 10 weeks. The level of serum adiponectin and leptin was tested at 0 and 10 weeks. At the end of 10 weeks, the rats were sacrificed, the perirenal and periepididymis fat were separated and weighed. The mRNA of adiponectin and leptin in fat tissues were determined by realtime PCR. After the 5 and 10 weeks, the levels of serum triglyceride of rats in medium fat group and high fat group were lower than those in low fat group and normal fat group. At the end of 10 weeks, the expression of adiponectin mRNA in fat tissues in medium fat group was lower than those in low fat group. There were no significant differences among four groups in body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin, and the expression of leptin mRNA in fat tissues. In energy balance status, different dietary fat intake had no effects on body fat, blood glucose, blood cholesterol, serum adiponectin and leptin in rats.

  8. Associations of adult genetic risk scores for adiposity with childhood abdominal, liver and pericardial fat assessed by magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnereau, C; Santos, S; van der Lugt, A; Jaddoe, V W V; Felix, J F

    2017-12-07

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in adult fat distribution. Whether these SNPs also affect abdominal and organ-specific fat accumulation in children is unknown. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 1995 children (median age: 9.8 years, 95% range 9.4-10.8), we tested the associations of six genetic risk scores based on previously identified SNPs for childhood body mass index (BMI), adult BMI, liver fat, waist-hip ratio, pericardial fat mass, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio) and four individual SAT- and VAT-associated SNPs for association with SAT (N=1746), VAT (N=1742), VAT/SAT ratio (N=1738), liver fat fraction (N=1950) and pericardial fat mass (N=1803) measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Per additional risk allele in the childhood BMI genetic risk score, SAT increased 0.020 s.d. scores (SDS) (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.009 to 0.031, P-value: 3.28 × 10 -4 ) and VAT increased 0.021 SDS (95% CI: 0.009 to 0.032, P-value: 4.68 × 10 -4 ). The adult BMI risk score was positively associated with SAT (0.022 SDS increase, CI: 0.015 to 0.029, P-value: 1.33 × 10 -9 ) and VAT (0.017 SDS increase, CI: 0.010 to 0.025, P-value: 7.00 × 10 -6 ) and negatively with VAT/SAT ratio (-0.012 SDS decrease, CI: -0.019 to -0.006, P-value: 2.88 × 10 -4 ). The liver fat risk score was associated with liver fat fraction (0.121 SDS, CI: 0.086 to 0.157, P-value: 2.65 × 10 -11 ). Rs7185735 (SAT) was associated with SAT (0.151 SDS, CI: 0.087 to 0.214, P-value: 3.00 × 10 -6 ) and VAT/SAT ratio (-0.126 SDS, CI: -0.186 to -0.065, P-value: 4.70 × 10 -5 ). After stratification by sex the associations of the adult BMI risk score with SAT and VAT and of the liver fat risk score with liver fat fraction remained in both sexes. Associations of the childhood BMI risk score with SAT, and the adult BMI risk score with VAT/SAT ratio, were present among boys only, whereas the

  9. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the association between BMI and all-cause mortality could be disentangled into opposite effects of body fat and fat-free mass (FFM). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: All-cause mortality was studied in the Danish follow-up study "Diet, Cancer and Health" with 27......,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...... fat mass divided by height squared), FFM index (FFM divided by height squared), and mortality. All analyses were adjusted for smoking habits. RESULTS: Men and women showed similar associations. J-shaped associations were found between body fat mass index and mortality adjusted for FFM and smoking...

  10. Individual contributions of visceral fat and total body fat to subclinical atherosclerosis: The NEO study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Karin B; den Heijer, Martin; Smit, Johannes W A; Widya, Ralph L; Lamb, Hildo J; de Roos, Albert; Jukema, J Wouter; Rosendaal, Frits R; de Mutsert, Renée

    2015-08-01

    Both overall and abdominal adiposity are established risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat (TBF) are strongly correlated and previous studies did not make this distinction. We aimed to distinguish individual contributions of TBF, VAT, and the ratio of VAT to abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT) to subclinical atherosclerosis in men and women. In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study, we assessed VAT and SAT with magnetic resonance imaging, TBF with bio-electrical impendence analysis, and carotid Intima-Media Thickness (cIMT) with ultrasound. We performed linear regression analyses of standardized values of TBF, VAT, VAT/SAT with cIMT. We adjusted the models for confounding factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol, physical activity), and either for VAT or TBF. This analysis included 2451 participants, 53% men with mean (SD) cIMT of 615 (91)μm. After adjustment for confounding factors, the difference in cIMT (95% CI) per SD in VAT was 14 (8,21)μm in men and 18 (13,24)μm in women. After adjustment for TBF, this attenuated to 5 (-3,13)μm in men and 13 (5,20)μm in women. In the full model, differences in cIMT (95% CI) per SD of TBF were 14 (6,22)μm in men and 8 (0,16)μm in women, and per SD of VAT/SAT were 7 (-1,15)μm and 9 (3,16)μm respectively. In this population-based study, VAT contributed beyond overall adiposity to subclinical atherosclerosis, particularly in women. This implies a specific role of VAT in the early development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increase in visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E J; Gianatti, E; Strauss, B J; Wentworth, J; Lim-Joon, D; Bolton, D; Zajac, J D; Grossmann, M

    2011-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer is associated with increases in fat mass and risk of type 2 diabetes; however, the relationship between sex steroid deficiency and abdominal fat distribution remains controversial. We conducted a 12-month prospective observational study at a tertiary referral centre. We investigated changes in abdominal fat distribution and insulin resistance in 26 men (70.6±6.8 years) with nonmetastatic prostate cancer during the first year of ADT. Twelve months of ADT increased visceral abdominal fat area by 22% (from 160.8±61.7 to 195.9±69.7 cm(2) ; Pfat area by 13% (from 240.7±107.5 to 271.3±92.8 cm(2) ; PFat mass increased by 14% (+3.4 kg; Ptestosterone (TT) was inversely associated with visceral fat area independent of oestradiol (E2), but E2 was not associated with visceral fat area independent of TT. Visceral fat area, not TT or E2, was independently associated with insulin resistance. ADT for prostate cancer results in accumulation of both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat. Increased visceral fat area appears more closely linked to testosterone than oestradiol deficiency. Increased insulin resistance may arise secondary to visceral fat accumulation, rather than as a direct result of sex steroid deficiency. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Abdominal fat volume estimation by stereology on CT: a comparison with manual planimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manios, G.E.; Mazonakis, M.; Damilakis, J. [University of Crete, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Voulgaris, C.; Karantanas, A. [University of Crete, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2016-03-15

    To deploy and evaluate a stereological point-counting technique on abdominal CT for the estimation of visceral (VAF) and subcutaneous abdominal fat (SAF) volumes. Stereological volume estimations based on point counting and systematic sampling were performed on images from 14 consecutive patients who had undergone abdominal CT. For the optimization of the method, five sampling intensities in combination with 100 and 200 points were tested. The optimum stereological measurements were compared with VAF and SAF volumes derived by the standard technique of manual planimetry on the same scans. Optimization analysis showed that the selection of 200 points along with the sampling intensity 1/8 provided efficient volume estimations in less than 4 min for VAF and SAF together. The optimized stereology showed strong correlation with planimetry (VAF: r = 0.98; SAF: r = 0.98). No statistical differences were found between the two methods (VAF: P = 0.81; SAF: P = 0.83). The 95 % limits of agreement were also acceptable (VAF: -16.5 %, 16.1 %; SAF: -10.8 %, 10.7 %) and the repeatability of stereology was good (VAF: CV = 4.5 %, SAF: CV = 3.2 %). Stereology may be successfully applied to CT images for the efficient estimation of abdominal fat volume and may constitute a good alternative to the conventional planimetric technique. (orig.)

  13. Effects of 8 weeks jogging programme on body fat in untrained Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdominal fat and total fat mass (TFM) were estimated before and after the training programme. Results indicated no significant (p > 0.05) training effect on abdominal fat but a significant (p < 0.05) reduction in TFM was observed. It was concluded that exercise training of 8-week duration may have significant impact on ...

  14. Overfat Adults and Children in Developed Countries: The Public Health Importance of Identifying Excess Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip B. Maffetone

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The global overfat pandemic is a serious public health crisis that places a substantial burden on economic resources in developed countries. The term overfat refers to the presence of excess body fat that can impair health, even for normal weight non-obese individuals. Excess body fat is associated with cardiometabolic dysfunction, a clinical situation that can progressively worsen, potentially leading to various common disease risk factors, chronic diseases, increased morbidity and mortality, and reduced quality of life. The prevalence of overfat populations in 30 of the world’s most developed countries is substantially higher than recent global estimations, with the largest growth due to a relatively recent increased number of people with excess abdominal fat. Abdominal overfat is the most unhealthful form of this condition, so it is concerning that average waist circumference measures, generally indicative of abdominal overfat, have increased. Despite a leveling off appearance of being overweight and/or obese in some developed countries, the overfat pandemic continues to grow.

  15. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  16. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  17. Conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance and abdominal and trunk fat loss induced by aerobic training in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Cheche PINA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the effect of eight weeks of conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on physical performance, and trunk and abdominal fat in overweight women submitted to an aerobic training program. Methods: Twenty-eight overweight women (body mass index ³25 kg/m2 were divided randomly and double-blindly to receive conjugated linoleic acid or placebo, both associated with an aerobic exercise program (frequency = three times a week, duration=30 min/session, intensity=80% of maximum heart rate. Conjugated linoleic acid (3.2 g and placebo (4.0 g supplements were consumed daily (four capsules for eight weeks. Maximum speed and time to exhaustion were determined in incremental treadmill test. Trunk fat was estimated by dual-energy X-Ray absorptiometry. Waist circumference was used as indicator of abdominal fat. Results: Main effect of time (p0.05. Similarly, significant reductions (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that conjugated linoleic acid supplementation does not maximize motor performance, and loss of body and abdominal fat induced by aerobic training in overweight women.

  18. Non-contact radiofrequency-induced reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat correlates with initial cardiovascular autonomic balance and fat tissue hormones: safety analysis [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4pj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Pumprla

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: The non-invasive reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat became popular in the last decade. Radiofrequency (RF, non-contact, selective-field device Vanquish® has been developed to selectively induce deep fat tissue heating to reduce waist circumference. Our analysis evaluates immediate and sustained effects of this treatment on cardiovascular autonomic function and on selected metabolic parameters. Study design/patients and methods: A retrospective proof-of-concept analysis of RF treatment effects was conducted in 20 individuals with metabolic syndrome, to reduce the subcutaneous abdominal fat. Four 30-minutes treatment sessions (manufacturer´s standard protocol were performed in 1-week intervals. Vital signs, ECG, lab screening, body composition, subcutaneous fat thickness and spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV have been examined before, after the 1st and 4th treatment, and at follow-up visits 1 month and 3 months after the treatment. Results: The RF treatment led to a significant reduction of abdominal circumference after the 4th session (p0.59, p<0.04. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that the selective-field RF treatment is safe and efficient for reduction of subcutaneous abdominal fat. While the treatment increases the immediate sympathetic response of the body to deep tissue heating, no sustained change in autonomic function could be recorded at 1 month follow-up. The observed correlation between initial VLF spectral power and waist circumference reduction at follow-up, as well as the association of initial adiponectin values and immediate autonomic response to the treatment might be instrumental for decisions on body contouring strategies.

  19. Fat body, fat pad and adipose tissues in invertebrates and vertebrates: the nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The fat body in invertebrates was shown to participate in energy storage and homeostasis, apart from its other roles in immune mediation and protein synthesis to mention a few. Thus, sharing similar characteristics with the liver and adipose tissues in vertebrates. However, vertebrate adipose tissue or fat has been incriminated in the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders due to its role in production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This has not been reported in the insect fat body. The link between the fat body and adipose tissue was examined in this review with the aim of determining the principal factors responsible for resistance to inflammation in the insect fat body. This could be the missing link in the prevention of metabolic disorders in vertebrates, occasioned by obesity. PMID:24758278

  20. Connecting theory to fat talk: body dissatisfaction mediates the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance, and fat talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Analisa

    2014-06-01

    The fat talk literature is meager in terms of offering theoretical explanations for women's self-disparaging communication. The research presented here sought to establish a relationship between three prominent body image theories - self-discrepancy theory, social comparison theory, and objectification theory - and fat talk by proposing body dissatisfaction as a potential mediating mechanism. Young adult women (N=201) completed an online questionnaire. As predicted, results revealed that body dissatisfaction significantly mediated the relationships between weight discrepancy, upward comparison, body surveillance and fat talk. Effect size estimates indicated that the size of each indirect effect was medium in magnitude. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Body composition and body fat distribution in relation to later risk of acute myocardial infarction: a Danish follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegger, Jakob; Schmidt, E B; Obel, Tina

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate LBM may lead to misclassification of MI risk in both lean and obese persons. We investigated the associations between incident MI and bioelectrical impedance analyses (BIA) derived measures of body composition in combination with body mass index (BMI) and anthropometric measures of body fat......Introduction:Obesity is a modifiable risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (MI), but lean body mass (LBM) may also be an important factor. Low LBM may increase the risk of MI and LBM may modify the effect of obesity on MI. Thus, the inability of the classical anthropometric measures...... circumference and BIA of body composition including body fat mass (BFM), body fat percentage and LBM were measured at baseline. We used Cox proportional hazard models with age as time axis and performed extensive control for confounding. Weight, BMI, classical estimates of abdominal obesity and BIA estimates...

  2. Changes in abdominal fat following antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-infected individuals correlate with waist circumference and self-reported changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagwat, Priya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; McComsey, Grace A; Brown, Todd T; Moser, Carlee; Sugar, Catherine A; Currier, Judith S

    2017-01-01

    We examined whether waist circumference (WC) and self-reported abdominal size changes can estimate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) changes for those initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Prospectively collected data from ACTG A5257 and its metabolic substudy, A5260s, were used for this analysis. ART-naive HIV-infected participants were randomized to one of three contemporary ART regimens. Changes in abdominal CT-measured VAT and total adipose tissue (TAT) and DXA-measured trunk fat were tested for association with WC changes (by Pearson correlation) and categories of self-reported abdominal size changes (by ANOVA) between entry and week 96. Linear models compared WC and self-reported changes. The study population (n=328) was predominantly male (90%) and White non-Hispanic (44%) with a baseline median age of 36 years and body mass index of 25 kg/m 2 . At week 96, median WC change was +2.8 cm. Of those reporting at week 96, 53% indicated 'no change/lost', 39% 'gained some/somewhat larger' and 8% 'gained a lot/much larger' as their self-reported changes. Trunk fat, VAT and TAT changes differed across self-reported groups (ANOVA P<0.0001 for all), and the group ordering was as expected. WC changes were strongly correlated with CT and DXA changes (trunk fat: ρ=0.72, p<0.0001; VAT: ρ=0.52, p<0.0001; TAT: ρ=0.62, p<0.0001). While WC changes explained a greater proportion of VAT, TAT and trunk fat variation, self-reported changes remained a significant predictor after controlling for WC (p<0.05). WC and self-reported abdominal changes each correlated directly with imaging-derived abdominal fat measures, and can be used as reliable, affordable tools for central adiposity assessment.

  3. Comparison of the relative contributions of intra-abdominal and liver fat to components of the metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotronen, Anna; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Sevastianova, Ksenia

    2011-01-01

    Abdominally obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome often have excess fat deposition both intra-abdominally (IA) and in the liver, but the relative contribution of these two deposits to variation in components of the metabolic syndrome remains unclear. We determined the mutually independent...... were correlated (r = 0.65, P density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, plasma glucose, insulin and liver enzyme concentrations, and hepatic...

  4. Effect of Body Composition Methodology on Heritability Estimation of Body Fatness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Sonya J.; Roberts, Susan B.; McCrory, Megan A.; Das, Sai Krupa; Fuss, Paul J.; Pittas, Anastassios G.; Greenberg, Andrew S.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Bouchard, Thomas J.; Saltzman, Edward; Neale, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Heritability estimates of human body fatness vary widely and the contribution of body composition methodology to this variability is unknown. The effect of body composition methodology on estimations of genetic and environmental contributions to body fatness variation was examined in 78 adult male and female monozygotic twin pairs reared apart or together. Body composition was assessed by six methods – body mass index (BMI), dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), underwater weighing (UWW), total body water (TBW), bioelectric impedance (BIA), and skinfold thickness. Body fatness was expressed as percent body fat, fat mass, and fat mass/height2 to assess the effect of body fatness expression on heritability estimates. Model-fitting multivariate analyses were used to assess the genetic and environmental components of variance. Mean BMI was 24.5 kg/m2 (range of 17.8–43.4 kg/m2). There was a significant effect of body composition methodology (pbody fatness as percent body fat resulted in significantly higher heritability estimates (on average 10.3% higher) compared to expression as fat mass/height2 (p=0.015). DXA and TBW methods expressing body fatness as fat mass/height2 gave the least biased heritability assessments, based on the small contribution of specific genetic factors to their genetic variance. A model combining DXA and TBW methods resulted in a relatively low FM/ht2 heritability estimate of 60%, and significant contributions of common and unique environmental factors (22% and 18%, respectively). The body fatness heritability estimate of 60% indicates a smaller contribution of genetic variance to total variance than many previous studies using less powerful research designs have indicated. The results also highlight the importance of environmental factors and possibly genotype by environmental interactions in the etiology of weight gain and the obesity epidemic. PMID:25067962

  5. The effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented and non-fermented Ginkgo biloba on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality of Peking duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Guanjun; Zhou, Jinglong; Yao, Xuan; Fang, Binghu

    2017-07-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of Bacillus coagulans-fermented Ginkgo biloba (FG) and non-fermented G. biloba (NFG) on abdominal fat deposition and meat quality, 270 female Peking ducks were randomly assigned to the following experimental groups: a control group (fed a basal diet), an NFG group (fed a basal diet + 0.3% NFG), and an FG group (fed a basal diet + 0.3% FG). Body weight and feed intake were recorded weekly, and feed conversion ratio was calculated to assess growth performance. After 6 wk, 18 ducks from each group were killed. Abdominal fat ratio and pH (at 45 min and 24 h postmortem), color parameters (lightness, redness, and yellowness), water-holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force, and intramuscular fat and fatty acid contents were measured. Six more ducks were killed to isolate RNA from their abdominal fat tissue for measurements of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), obese (leptin), and adiponectin (ADP) expression using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The results revealed that body weight gain was higher in the FG group than in the control and NFG groups, whereas feed conversion ratio was lower (P < 0.05). The abdominal fat contents were lower in the NFG and FG groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). The NFG and FG groups had lower levels of saturated fatty acids (mainly palmitic acid) and higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid and arachidonic acid) than the control group. The mRNA expressions of PPARγ, leptin, and ADP in abdominal fat tissue were significantly increased in the NFG and FG groups, and the mRNA expression of PPARγ was higher in the FG group than in the NFG group (P < 0.05). These results suggest that fermenting G. biloba reduces the deposition of abdominal fat and improves the fatty acid profile of Peking duck meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Younger, premenopausal women with major depressive disorder have more abdominal fat and increased serum levels of prothrombotic factors: implications for greater cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Farideh; Mistry, Sejal; Martinez, Pedro E; Torvik, Sara; Kotila, Christine; Sebring, Nancy; Drinkard, Bart E; Levy, Catherine; Reynolds, James C; Csako, Gyorgy; Gold, Philip W; Horne, McDonald; Cizza, Giovanni

    2005-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric illnesses in the adult population. It is often associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We measured body fat distribution as well as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration and factor VIII (fVIII) activity at 8:00 am and 8:00 pm in 45 premenopausal women with MDD vs 28 healthy controls (age, 37 +/- 6.8 vs 35 +/- 6.5; weight [kg], 75.3 +/- 17.2 vs 67.9 +/- 10.2; mean +/- SD] participating in a prospective study of bone turnover, the POWER Study. At the time of evaluation, women with MDD were mildly depressed and mostly in clinical remission on antidepressants. After adjusting for body weight, women with MDD had greater waist circumference and abdominal fat as well as significantly higher evening (8:00 pm) PAI-1 and fVIII levels than controls. Even when age-, race-, and body mass index-matched subsets were compared, the MDD group continued to exhibit statistically higher PAI-1 and fVIII levels. The observed alterations in body fat distribution (increased abdominal fat) and prothrombotic factors (increased PAI-1 and fVIII) may be in part responsible for the increased risk of cardiovascular disease reported in association with major depression.

  7. Relationship between body fat mass and free fatty acid kinetics in men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorfer, Bettina; Magkos, Faidon; Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Klein, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    An increased release of free fatty acids (FFA) into plasma likely contributes to the metabolic complications associated with obesity. However, the relationship between body fat and FFA metabolism is unclear because of conflicting results from different studies. The goal of our study was to determine the interrelationships between body fat, sex and plasma FFA kinetics. We determined FFA rate of appearance (Ra) in plasma, by using stable isotopically labeled tracer techniques, during basal conditions in 106 lean, overweight, and obese, non-diabetic subjects (43 men and 63 women who had 7.0–56.0 % body fat). Correlation analyses demonstrated: 1) no differences between men and women in the relationship between fat mass and total FFA Ra (µmol·min−1); 2) total FFA Ra increased linearly with increasing FM (r=0.652, Pfashion with increasing FM (r=−0.806; P<0.001); 4) FFA Ra in relationship to fat-free mass was greater in obese than lean subjects and greater in women than in men; 5) abdominal fat itself was not an important determinant of total FFA Ra. We conclude that total body fat, not regional fat distribution or sex, is an important modulator of the rate of FFA release into plasma. Although increased adiposity is associated with a decrease in fatty acid release in relationship to FM, this downregulation is unable to completely compensate for the increase in FM, so total FFA Ra and FFA Ra with respect to FFM are greater in women than in men and in obese than in lean subjects. PMID:19629053

  8. Body Fat Distribution Ratios and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Severity in Youth With Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksman, Amy; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Barrowman, Nicholas; Walker, Scott; Hoey, Lynda; Katz, Sherri Lynne

    2017-04-15

    Obesity and regional fat distribution, measured by neck fat mass percentage using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), correlate with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in adults. In obese children, neck-to-waist-circumference ratio predicts OSA. This study examined associations between body fat percentage and distribution and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) severity in obese youth, measured with DXA. Cross-sectional retrospective study conducted at a tertiary children's hospital. Participants were aged 6 to 18 years with obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 99th percentile [BMI z-score 2.35] or > 95th percentile with comorbidity). They underwent polysomnography and DXA to quantify body fat percentage and distribution ratios (neck-to-abdominal fat percentage [NAF % ratio]). SDB was defined as apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 and OSA as obstructive AHI (OAHI) > 1 event/h. Relationships of BMI z-score and NAF % ratio to log AHI and log OAHI were evaluated. Thirty individuals participated; 18 male; median age 14.1 years. Twenty-four individuals had BMI z-scores > 2.35. Ten had AHI > 5 events/h. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log AHI in males and with log OAHI in all, whereas total fat mass percent was not. The association between log OAHI and NAF % ratio was significant in males, but not females. NAF % ratio was significantly associated with log OAHI in those with BMI z-score above 2.35. NAF % ratio was associated with OSA severity in males and youth with BMI > 99th percentile; however, total fat mass percentage was not, suggesting that body fat distribution is associated with OSA risk in youth. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  9. Body fat, sweetness sensitivity, and preference: determining the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Laurel; Duizer, Lisa; Caldwell, Tristaca

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate whether body fat is a better measure than body mass index (BMI) for determining the relationship between body size and sweetness perception and preference. Seventy-two women were recruited and separated into two groups. First, BMI was determined and used to classify each woman as either normal weight (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m²) or overweight (>25.0 kg/m²). Body fat was determined from skinfold sites and used to categorize women into normal (sweetness were evaluated to determine the women's liking for sweetness, and the perceived sweetness of the sample. Women in the overweight BMI and body fat groups had higher sucrose threshold values than did women in the normal groups. When presented with custards of varying sucrose levels, the overweight BMI and body fat groups had a significantly increased liking for sweetness as sucrose concentration increased. Body fat measures were as effective as BMI measures in determining sweetness preference. Future research should be conducted to determine whether body fat and measures, such as waist circumference, can be predictive tools for sweetness preference.

  10. Subcutaneous Infiltration of Carbon Dioxide (Carboxytherapy) for Abdominal Fat Reduction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Murad; Sadhwani, Divya; Geisler, Amelia; Aslam, Imran; Makin, Inder Raj S; Schlessinger, Daniel I; Disphanurat, Wareeporn; Pongprutthipan, Marisa; Voravutinon, Nataya; Weil, Alexandra; Chen, Brian R; West, Dennis P; Veledar, Emir; Poon, Emily

    2018-04-23

    Non-invasive fat removal is preferred because of decreased downtime and lower perceived risk. It is important to seek new non-invasive fat removal treatments that are both safe and efficacious. To assess the extent to which carboxytherapy, the insufflation of carbon dioxide gas into subcutaneous fat, results in reduction of fat volume. Randomized, sham-controlled, split-body study. Adults (BMI 22-29) were randomized to receive five weekly infusions of 1000 cc CO 2 to one side of the abdomen, and five sham treatments to the contralateral side. Primary outcome measures were ultrasound measurement of fat layer thickness, as well as total circumference before and after treatment. Sixteen participants completed the study. Ultrasound measurement indicated less fat volume on the sides treated with carboxytherapy one week after the last treatment, (p=0.011), but was not maintained at 28 weeks. Total circumference decreased nominally but not significantly at Week 5 compared to baseline (p=0.0697). Participant body weights did not change over the entire course of the study (p=1.00) LIMITATIONS: Limitations included modest sample size and some sources of error in circumference and fat layer measurements. Carboxytherapy provides a transient decrease in subcutaneous fat that may not persist. Treatment is well-tolerated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Does Impedance Measure a Functional State of the Body Fat?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Větrovská, R.; Vilikus, Z.; Klaschka, Jan; Stránská, Z.; Svačina, Š.; Svobodová, Š.; Matoulek, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 63, Suppl. 2 (2014), S309-S320 ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : body composition * DEXA * fat mass * obesity * anthropometric methods * fat tissue functional properties Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  12. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat in Genetically Fat and Lean Chickens Highlights a Divergence in Expression of Genes Controlling Adiposity, Hemostasis, and Lipid Metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Resnyk

    Full Text Available Genetic selection for enhanced growth rate in meat-type chickens (Gallus domesticus is usually accompanied by excessive adiposity, which has negative impacts on both feed efficiency and carcass quality. Enhanced visceral fatness and several unique features of avian metabolism (i.e., fasting hyperglycemia and insulin insensitivity mimic overt symptoms of obesity and related metabolic disorders in humans. Elucidation of the genetic and endocrine factors that contribute to excessive visceral fatness in chickens could also advance our understanding of human metabolic diseases. Here, RNA sequencing was used to examine differential gene expression in abdominal fat of genetically fat and lean chickens, which exhibit a 2.8-fold divergence in visceral fatness at 7 wk. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that many of 1687 differentially expressed genes are associated with hemostasis, endocrine function and metabolic syndrome in mammals. Among the highest expressed genes in abdominal fat, across both genotypes, were 25 differentially expressed genes associated with de novo synthesis and metabolism of lipids. Over-expression of numerous adipogenic and lipogenic genes in the FL chickens suggests that in situ lipogenesis in chickens could make a more substantial contribution to expansion of visceral fat mass than previously recognized. Distinguishing features of the abdominal fat transcriptome in lean chickens were high abundance of multiple hemostatic and vasoactive factors, transporters, and ectopic expression of several hormones/receptors, which could control local vasomotor tone and proteolytic processing of adipokines, hemostatic factors and novel endocrine factors. Over-expression of several thrombogenic genes in abdominal fat of lean chickens is quite opposite to the pro-thrombotic state found in obese humans. Clearly, divergent genetic selection for an extreme (2.5-2.8-fold difference in visceral fatness provokes a number of novel regulatory responses

  13. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and anthropometry for the determination of body composition in rats: effects of high-fat and high-sucrose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rodrigues Neto Angéloco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the impedance of Wistar rats treated with high-fat and high-sucrose diets and correlate their biochemical and anthropometric parameters with chemical analysis of the carcass. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed a standard (AIN-93, high-fat (50% fat or high-sucrose (59% of sucrose diet for 4 weeks. Abdominal and thoracic circumference and body length were measured. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to determine resistance and reactance. Final body composition was determined by chemical analysis. RESULTS: Higher fat intake led to a high percentage of liver fat and cholesterol and low total body water in the High-Fat group, but these changes in the biochemical profile were not reflected by the anthropometric measurements or bioelectrical impedance analysis variables. Anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance analysis changes were not observed in the High-Sucrose group. However, a positive association was found between body fat and three anthropometric variables: body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference. CONCLUSION: Bioelectrical impedance analysis did not prove to be sensitive for detecting changes in body composition, but body mass index, Lee index and abdominal circumference can be used for estimating the body composition of rats.

  14. [Measurements of location of body fat distribution: an assessment of colinearity with body mass, adiposity and stature in female adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Patrícia Feliciano; Serrano, Hiara Miguel Stanciola; Carvalho, Gisele Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Priore, Silvia Eloiza

    2015-01-01

    To verify the correlation between body fat location measurements with the body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (%BF) and stature, according to the nutritional status in female adolescents. A controlled cross sectional study was carried out with 113 adolescents (G1: 38 eutrophic, but with high body fat level, G2: 40 eutrophic and G3: 35 overweight) from public schools in Viçosa-MG, Brazil. The following measures have been assessed: weight, stature, waist circumference (WC), umbilical circumference (UC), hip circumference (HC), thigh circumference, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), waist-to-thigh ratio (WTR), conicity index (CI), sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), coronal diameter (CD), central skinfolds (CS) and peripheral (PS). The %BF was assessed by tetrapolar electric bioimpedance. The increase of central fat, represented by WC, UC, WSR, SAD, CD and CS, and the increase of peripheral fat indicated by HC and thigh were proportional to the increase of BMI and %BF. WC and especially the UC showed the strongest correlations with adiposity. Weak correlation between WHR, WTR, CI and CS/PS with adiposity were observed. The stature showed correlation with almost all the fat location measures, being regular or weak with waist. The results indicate colinearity between body mass and total adiposity with central and peripheral adipose tissue. We recommend the use of UC for assessing nutritional status of adolescents, because it showed the highest ability to predict adiposity in each group, and also presented regular or weak correlation with stature. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an automated 3D segmentation program for volume quantification of body fat distribution using CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohshima, Shunsuke; Yamamoto, Shuji; Yamaji, Taiki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a computing tool for full-automatic segmentation of body fat distributions on volumetric CT images. We developed an algorithm to automatically identify the body perimeter and the inner contour that separates visceral fat from subcutaneous fat. Diaphragmatic surfaces can be extracted by model-based segmentation to match the bottom surface of the lung in CT images for determination of the upper limitation of the abdomen. The functions for quantitative evaluation of abdominal obesity or obesity-related metabolic syndrome were implemented with a prototype three-dimensional (3D) image processing workstation. The volumetric ratios of visceral fat to total fat and visceral fat to subcutaneous fat for each subject can be calculated. Additionally, color intensity mapping of subcutaneous areas and the visceral fat layer is quite obvious in understanding the risk of abdominal obesity with the 3D surface display. Preliminary results obtained have been useful in medical checkups and have contributed to improved efficiency in checking obesity throughout the whole range of the abdomen with 3D visualization and analysis. (author)

  16. Mathematical description of human body constitution and fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh-Zade, Yu R; Galenko-Yaroshevskii, P A; Cherednik, I L

    2014-02-01

    Using mathematical modeling of human body, we demonstrated logical drawbacks of body mass index (BMI1 = M/H(2); A. Quetelet, 1832) and proposed more precise body mass index (BMI2 = M/H(3)) as well as body constitution index (BCI = (M/H(3))(1/2)) and fatness index (FI = M/HC(2)), where M, H, and C are body weight, height, and wrist circumference of the individual.

  17. Indices of body fat distribution for assessment of lipodysthrophy in people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segatto Aline Francielle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic and morphological changes associated with excessive abdominal fat, after the introduction of Antiretroviral Therapy, increase the risk of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHA. Accurate methods for body composition analysis are expensive and the use of anthropometric indices is an alternative. However the investigations about this subject in PLWHA are rare, making this research very important for clinical purpose and to advance scientific knowledge. The aim of this study is to correlate results of anthropometric indices of evaluation of body fat distribution with the results obtained by Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry(DEXA, in people living with HIV/AIDS. Methods The sample was of 67 PLWHA(39 male and 28 female, aged 43.6+7.9 years. Body mass index, conicity index, waist/hip ratio, waist/height ratio and waist/thigh were calculated. Separated by sex, each index/ratio was plotted in a scatter chart with linear regression fit and their respective Pearson correlation coefficients. Analyses were performed using Prism statistical program and significance was set at 5%. Results The waist/height ratio presented the highest correlation coefficient, for both male (r=0.80, p Conclusion Anthropometric indices, especially waist/height ratio may be a good alternative way to be used for evaluating the distribution of fat in the abdominal region of adults living with HIV/ADIS.

  18. The effect of lipoaspirates vs. dissected abdominal fat on breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarzouqi, Faris; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Stromps, Jan-Philipp; Alharbi, Ziyad; Pallua, Norbert

    2017-03-21

    Cancer cells are typically surrounded by stromal cells and embedded in extracellular matrix (ECM). The stromal compartment interacts with cancer cells to promote growth and metastasis. For decades, autologous fasciocutaneous flaps have been safely applied for breast reconstruction after mastectomy. In contrast, the safety of fat grafting (lipofilling) procedure has been under debate regarding the risk of cancer recurrence. Harvested fat tissue (lipoaspirates) and dissected abdominal fat (DAF) were co-cultured with MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The vitality of MCF-7 cells was measured using AlamarBlue ® consecutively for 5 days. ECM degradation was determined by detection of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in MCF-7 cells. Integrin α2 was measured by Western blot to assess the degree of adhesion and motility of MFC-7 cells. The MCF-7 proliferation increased substantially when co-cultured with fat tissue. However, there was no significant difference between the proliferation stimulating effects of lipoaspirates and DAF. Similarly, MMP-1 protein expression was equally elevated in MCF-7 cells by both lipoaspirates and DAF. Importantly, MCF-7 cells showed an increased level of integrin α2 once co-cultured with either lipoaspirates or DAF. Fat tissue increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. Our data suggest that lipoaspirates as well as DAF might possess a considerable potency to promote tumorigenic growth of breast cancer cells. Thus, clinical trials are needed to address the safety of lipofilling by breast reconstruction surgery after mastectomy.

  19. Hyperemesis gravidarum and its relation with maternal body fat composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosus, Aydin; Eser, Ayla; Kosus, Nermin; Usluogullari, Betul; Hizli, Deniz

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if maternal body fat composition and body mass index were associated with hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Healthy pregnant women (n = 30) without nausea and vomiting (control group) and women with HG (n = 54; study group), all with singleton pregnancy at 6-14 weeks gestational age, were included. Body mass index was measured before and during pregnancy. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous fat thickness were measured during pregnancy. Comparison of the groups revealed that VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index but not subcutaneous fat thickness were significantly higher in the HG group versus controls. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index predicted 83.8% and 67.1% of HG cases, respectively. VAT and pre-pregnancy body mass index were correlated with the development of hyperemesis gravidrum and hence could be considered as predictive markers for HG.

  20. Body fat and fat-free mass and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigaard, Janne; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-01-01

    ,178 men and 29,875 women 50 to 64 years old recruited from 1993 to 1997. By the end of year 2001, the median follow-up was 5.8 years, and 1851 had died. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Cox regression models were used to estimate the relationships among body fat mass index (body...

  1. Consumo de bebida alcoólica e adiposidade abdominal em doadores de sangue Consumo de bebida alcohólica y adiposidad abdominal en donadores de sangre Alcohol consumption and abdominal fat in blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gonçalves Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    ón lineal múltiple, con los modelos ajustados para la edad, actividad física, tabaquismo y adiposidad total. RESULTADOS: Posterior al ajuste, la circunferencia de la cintura y la relación cintura/cuadril se mantuvieron asociados positivamente al consumo de cerveza (p=0,02 y al total de alcohol consumido (p=0,01 y 0,03, respectivamente. El consumo de aguardiente mostró asociación solamente con la circunferencia de la cintura (p=0,04. CONCLUSIONES: El consumo de alcohol, particularmente de cerveza, se asoció con la localización abdominal de gordura.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out in a sample of male blood donors (n=1,235, aged 20-59 years, in the city of Cuiabá, Central-West Brazil, between August 1999 and January 2000. Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were indicators of abdominal fat, adjusted for total adiposity. Weight, height, waist and hip circumferences were measured. Alcohol consumption was evaluated using a questionnaire collecting information on type, frequency, and amount of consumption. The association between alcohol consumption and abdominal fat was assessed through multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, physical activity, smoking, and percent of body fat. RESULTS: After adjustment, waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio were positively associated with beer (p = 0.02 and total alcohol consumption (p=0.01; p=0.03, respectively. Waist circumference was positively associated with spirit consumption (p=0.04. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol intake, particularly beer, was positively associated to abdominal fat.

  2. Visual adaptation to thin and fat bodies transfers across identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Hummel

    Full Text Available Visual perception is highly variable and can be influenced by the surrounding world. Previous research has revealed that body perception can be biased due to adaptation to thin or fat body shapes. The aim of the present study was to show that adaptation to certain body shapes and the resulting perceptual biases transfer across different identities of adaptation and test stimuli. We designed two similar adaptation experiments in which healthy female participants adapted to pictures of either thin or fat bodies and subsequently compared more or less distorted pictures of their own body to their actual body shape. In the first experiment (n = 16 the same identity was used as adaptation and test stimuli (i.e. pictures of the participant's own body while in the second experiment (n = 16 we used pictures of unfamiliar thin or fat bodies as adaptation stimuli. We found comparable adaptation effects in both experiments: After adaptation to a thin body, participants rated a thinner than actual body picture to be the most realistic and vice versa. We therefore assume that adaptation to certain body shapes transfers across different identities. These results raise the questions of whether some type of natural adaptation occurs in everyday life. Natural and predominant exposure to certain bodily features like body shape--especially the thin ideal in Western societies--could bias perception for these features. In this regard, further research might shed light on aspects of body dissatisfaction and the development of body image disturbances in terms of eating disorders.

  3. Excesso de peso e adiposidade central em adultos de Teresina-PI Overweight and abdominal fat in adult population of Teresina, PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Guimarães Martins Holanda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de excesso de peso e adiposidade abdominal em adultos residentes na zona urbana da cidade de Teresina-PI. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra probabilística por conglomerados. Foram avaliados 464 adultos, entre 20 e 59 anos, residentes na zona urbana do município de Teresina-PI. O estado nutricional foi classificado com base no Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC, e o acúmulo de gordura abdominal foi estimado pela medida da circunferência da cintura. O nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (pOBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of overweight and abdominal fat in adult population in the urban area of Teresina-PI. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with probabilistic sample by conglomerates. The study evaluated 464 adults, 20 to 59 years of age living in the urban area of Teresina-PI. Nutritional status was classified by the body mass index (BMI and abdominal fat accumulation was estimated according to waist circumference. The significance level was set at 5% (p<0.05. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity according to nutritional status based on BMI was, respectively, 30.0% and 7.7%. There was an increase in the proportion of overweight and obesity among men with progressively higher family income. Highest rates of obesity were found among individuals 50 to 59 years of age with stable marriages and nonsmokers. No association was found between individual or family income and presence of abdominal fat in the population. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of overweight in the study population follows the Brazilian trend. Proportions of overweight and obesity were higher among men and increased with age. Women and married persons showed a greater tendency for abdominal obesity.

  4. Abdominal circumference measurement by ultrasound does not enhance estimating the association of visceral fat with cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Helena; Pereira, Aline Maria L; Ajzen, Sergio A; Nogueira, Paulo C Koch

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the association between visceral fat and cardiovascular risk factors and to compare the ultrasonographic measurements of abdominal visceral fat with abdominal circumference (AC). This observational cross-sectional study categorized pubertal and postpubertal adolescents into a control group (n = 49) and an obese group (n = 46). Weight, height, AC, blood pressure, biochemical tests (lipid profile, triacylglycerols, fasting glucose for insulinemia, and serum uric acid), and ultrasound to measure visceral fat were assessed. We found significant differences in the vascular risk variables between the groups, except for total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose level. We also observed that 31 subjects in the control group presented abnormalities in cardiovascular risk factors. The correlations between abdominal visceral fat (measured by ultrasound or the AC) and cardiovascular risk factors were significant. In the entire sample, AC presented better sensitivity and specificity than the ultrasound-measured abdominal visceral fat for identifying the presence of a cluster of at least three cardiovascular risk factors (areas under the receiver operating characteristics curve 0.87 and 0.73, respectively). Ultrasonographic measurements of visceral fat were correlated with cardiovascular risk factors, but this association was also demonstrable with AC measurements. Our results suggest that the measurement of visceral fat by ultrasound is unnecessary for the diagnosis of cardiovascular risk in well-nourished or obese adolescents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood College Preparatory School.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerf Mohammed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The play has been shown to help children adjust to the school setting and to enhance children's learning [1]. Since this theory, the current study was designed to examine the significance of mechanical effects of intra-abdominal on posture/balance control among the Algerian Childhood Primary Schools. Since our teachers emphasise the good classroom settings as a discipline pedagogical aspect of success learning. While High-quality educational programs for children in preschool and kindergarten have play at the centre of the curriculum [2]. Our interventions in this study aimed to examine Impact of Prolonged Periods Classroom Settings in Intra-abdominal fat area and its Consequence on Posture/Balance Control among Algerian Childhood Preparatory Schools. for the purpose, a total of 61 schoolboys of Slimane provinces Naama, Municipality Mecheria, Algeria male gender their average age 5±1.52 years distributed into two homogeneous groups, according to them, school attendance (kindergarten School (29 boys - preschool (32 boys. Tested by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage-Abdominal circumference - Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance and standing balance. Based on the analysis statistics, we confirm: • Prolonged periods classroom settings increase Intra-Abdominal Fat which represents big risk posture/balance control. • Primary schools posture needs an interactive play method Learning classroom to improve body imbalance as health benefits physical activities. Based on the differences acquired by the research team, we emphasise that prolonged periods classroom settings Primary Schools increase the intra-abdominal which owing to the weakness of skeletal muscle fatigue and abnormal pathological alignment. While as a recommendation pedagogy practised, we suggested to our teachers, who work with these children to know that the balanced posture requires more energy in the class, Considering that our student seat more than 6 hours a day, 30 per week, and

  6. Increased intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the fractional catabolic rate of Lp A-I in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, Zoltan; Terry, James G; Brinton, Eliot A

    2002-02-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles without apolipoprotein A-II (Lp A-I) may be more anti-atherogenic than HDL with apo A-II (Lp A-I/AII) and Lp A-I is reported selectively to be reduced in cases of intra-abdominal obesity. We explored the mechanisms of this reduction by studying the turnover of Lp A-I and Lp A-I/A-II in postmenopausal women well characterized for total body, regional and sub-regional adiposity by body mass index (BMI), truncal girth ratio, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively. We tested for possible cause-effect relationships by measuring inter-correlations among these variables. Intra-abdominal fat area correlated strongly and positively with the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of Lp A-I (r=0.98, P=0.003). Intra-abdominal fat only showed a non-significant trend toward correlation with the FCR of Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.84, P=0.07), and had no correlation with the production or transport rate (TR) of either Lp A-I or Lp A-I/A-II (r=0.48 and 0.02, respectively, P>0.1). Subjects were studied both with and without estrogen replacement, allowing exploration of a possible interaction of adiposity with estrogen effects on HDL turnover. Response of HDL turnover to estrogen did not correlate with adiposity, except for a parameter of waist to hip ratio (WHR), which predicted the increase in LP A-I TR with estrogen (r=0.84, P=0.04). We conclude that intra-abdominal fat may lower HDL levels by increasing the FCR of Lp A-I, suggesting a mechanism by which central adiposity may be proatherogenic.

  7. Interrelationships of spontaneous growth hormone axis activity, body fat, and serum lipids in healthy elderly women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, K G; Harman, S M; Stevens, T E; Jayme, J J; Bellantoni, M F; Busby-Whitehead, M J; Christmas, C; Münzer, T; Tobin, J D; Roy, T A; Cottrell, E; St Clair, C; Pabst, K M; Blackman, M R

    1999-11-01

    Aging is associated with decreased growth hormone (GH) secretion and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels, increased total and abdominal fat, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides, and reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Similar changes in lipids and body composition occur in nonelderly GH-deficient adults and are reversed with GH administration. To examine whether GH/IGF-I axis function in the elderly is related to the lipid profile independently of body fat, we evaluated GH secretion, serum IGF-I and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, adiposity via the body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and circulating lipids in 101 healthy subjects older than 65 years. Integrated nocturnal GH secretion (log IAUPGH) was inversely related (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL cholesterol was inversely related to the WHR (P body fat, to be an independent determinant of total (P HDL cholesterol (P HDL in women (P body fat or lipid measures, except for a positive correlation of IGF-I with triglycerides in men. Thus, endogenous nocturnal GH secretion predicts total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol levels independently of total or abdominal fat, suggesting that it is an independent cardiometabolic risk factor in healthy elderly people.

  8. Evaluation of stored body fat in nuisance-killed Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Atsushi; Asano, Makoto; Suzuki, Masatsugu; Mizoguchi, Toshio; Oi, Toru; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio

    2011-02-01

    We evaluated the stored body fat of Japanese black bears (Ursus thibetanus japonicus) killed as nuisances in Gifu and Fukushima prefectures, Japan, during 2005-2007. We employed femur marrow fat (FMF), modified kidney fat index (mKFI), and abdominal subcutaneous fat (ASF) as indices for quantitative evaluation. We examined the basic characteristics of these indices, such as seasonality, age and sex dependency, and the quantitative relationship among them. mKFI and ASF increased towards the beginning of the denning period (December), while FMF was relatively stable throughout the sampling period (July-December). In cubs, all indices showed significantly lower values than in the older age classes. There seemed to be a catabolizing order between FMF and mKFI, but not between mKFI and ASF. We also evaluated the yearly change in the indices, and discussed its relevance to the incidence of bear intrusion into human residential areas. Bears nuisance-killed in summer (July-September) 2006 had a significantly larger amount of stored body fat than those killed in summer 2007, although the number of nuisance kills was larger in 2006 than in 2007. This suggests that poor nutritional condition is not a direct cause of bear intrusion.

  9. Sex effect on productive parameters, carcass and body fat composition of two commercial broilers lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rondelli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate sex effect on behavior of two commercial broilers lines. Productive parameters, carcass composition and yield, amount and quality of fat deposited in the meat and skin and total body fat were studied. A completely randomized design with four treatments (MR-Male Ross, HR-Female Ross, MAF-Male Avian Farm and HAF-Female Avian Farm and eight repetitions of 40 chickens was used. Animals received water and food ad libitum. After 50 days, two birds (a male and a female per repetition were chosen at random and slaughtered for carcass evaluation. Samples of breast, leg, skin and abdominal fats were analyzed to determine the percentage of intramuscular fat, total cholesterol and fatty acid composition. The Ross line showed higher final weight and weight gain, better intake and feed conversion rate. Also, it was observed that females of both lines had similar results in relation to these parameters. Better yield of breast with bone was found in Ross males and females. In relation to legs and thigh, Ross males showed better results and no differences were observed among females of both lines. Males deposited less fat than females. Finally, differences in percentage of intramuscular fat, content of cholesterol in breast with skin, leg with skin and skin, percentage of saturated, mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids were observed between sex and lines.

  10. Construction of multiple linear regression models using blood biomarkers for selecting against abdominal fat traits in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J Q; Zhang, X Y; Wang, S Z; Jiang, X F; Zhang, K; Ma, G W; Wu, M Q; Li, H; Zhang, H

    2018-01-01

    Plasma very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) can be used to select for low body fat or abdominal fat (AF) in broilers, but its correlation with AF is limited. We investigated whether any other biochemical indicator can be used in combination with VLDL for a better selective effect. Nineteen plasma biochemical indicators were measured in male chickens from the Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for AF content (NEAUHLF) in the fed state at 46 and 48 d of age. The average concentration of every parameter for the 2 d was used for statistical analysis. Levels of these 19 plasma biochemical parameters were compared between the lean and fat lines. The phenotypic correlations between these plasma biochemical indicators and AF traits were analyzed. Then, multiple linear regression models were constructed to select the best model used for selecting against AF content. and the heritabilities of plasma indicators contained in the best models were estimated. The results showed that 11 plasma biochemical indicators (triglycerides, total bile acid, total protein, globulin, albumin/globulin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid, creatinine, and VLDL) differed significantly between the lean and fat lines (P linear regression models based on albumin/globulin, VLDL, triglycerides, globulin, total bile acid, and uric acid, had higher R2 (0.73) than the model based only on VLDL (0.21). The plasma parameters included in the best models had moderate heritability estimates (0.21 ≤ h2 ≤ 0.43). These results indicate that these multiple linear regression models can be used to select for lean broiler chickens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Relationship between some indicators of reproductive history, body fatness and the menopausal transition in Hungarian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsakai, Annamaria; Mascie-Taylor, Nicholas; Bodzsar, Eva B

    2015-10-22

    This paper analyzed the relationship between some indicators of reproductive history and body fatness in relation to the timing of the menopause transition in Hungarian women using survival analysis after controlling for birth cohort. Data on menstruation and reproductive history were collected during the personal interviews in a sample of 1932 women (aged 35+ years). Menarcheal age, the length of menstrual cycles and menstrual bleedings, regularity of menstrual cycles, number of gestations, lactation, the ever use of contraceptives, menopausal status and age at menopause were used as indicators of reproductive history. The body fat fraction was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Body fatness was also estimated by dividing women into obese and non-obese categories (considering body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio). Survival analyses were used to analyze the relationship between the indicators of reproductive history and body fatness during the menopausal transition. Only the menarcheal age among the investigated reproductive life characteristics showed secular changes in the studied decades in Hungary; the mean age at menarche decreased by approximately 2.5 months per decade from the 1920s until the 1970s. Ever use of hormonal contraceptives, a relatively long cycle length in the perimenopausal transition and higher parity were all related with lower risk of early menopause. Later menarcheal age, normal length of menstrual cycle or bleeding in the climacterium, irregular bleeding pattern and postmenopausal status were associated with a higher amount of body fatness, while never use of contraceptives, regular menstruation, postmenopausal status and relatively early menopause were associated with a higher risk of abdominal obesity. This report confirms that age of menarche is not significantly predictive of age at menopause but prior use of oral contraceptives, longer mean cycle length and smaller number of gestations all are. In addition, age of

  12. Quantification of abdominal fat depots in rats and mice during obesity and weight loss interventions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Prakash Kn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity is a leading healthcare issue contributing to metabolic diseases. There is a great interest in non-invasive approaches for quantitating abdominal fat in obese animals and humans. In this work, we propose an automated method to distinguish and quantify subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues (SAT and VAT in rodents during obesity and weight loss interventions. We have also investigated the influence of different magnetic resonance sequences and sources of variability in quantification of fat depots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: High-fat diet fed rodents were utilized for investigating the changes during obesity, exercise, and calorie restriction interventions (N = 7/cohort. Imaging was performed on a 7T Bruker ClinScan scanner using fast spin echo (FSE and Dixon imaging methods to estimate the fat depots. Finally, we quantified the SAT and VAT volumes between the L1-L5 lumbar vertebrae using the proposed automatic hybrid geodesic region-based curve evolution algorithm. RESULTS: Significant changes in SAT and VAT volumes (p<0.01 were observed between the pre- and post-intervention measurements. The SAT and VAT were 44.22±9%, 21.06±1.35% for control, -17.33±3.07%, -15.09±1.11% for exercise, and 18.56±2.05%, -3.9±0.96% for calorie restriction cohorts, respectively. The fat quantification correlation between FSE (with and without water suppression sequences and Dixon for SAT and VAT were 0.9709, 0.9803 and 0.9955, 0.9840 respectively. The algorithm significantly reduced the computation time from 100 sec/slice to 25 sec/slice. The pre-processing, data-derived contour placement and avoidance of strong background-image boundary improved the convergence accuracy of the proposed algorithm. CONCLUSIONS: We developed a fully automatic segmentation algorithm to quantitate SAT and VAT from abdominal images of rodents, which can support large cohort studies. We additionally identified the influence of non-algorithmic variables

  13. Eating Regulation Styles, Appearance Schemas, and Body Satisfaction Predict Changes in Body Fat for Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Ali Zaremba; Keiley, Margaret K.; Ryan, Aubrey E.; Radomski, Juliana Groves; Gropper, Sareen S.; Connell, Lenda Jo; Simmons, Karla P.; Ulrich, Pamela V.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and high body fat percentages are a major public health issue. The percentage of obese and overweight Americans has increased over the past 30 years. On average, overweight individuals with higher percent body fat than normal weight individuals are at increased risk for numerous negative outcomes both physically and mentally. A prime time…

  14. Plasma steroids, body composition, and fat distribution: effects of age, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zihong; Rankinen, Tuomo; Leon, Arthur S; Skinner, James S; Tchernof, André; Bouchard, Claude

    2018-03-05

    Plasma steroid hormone levels vary between men and women, but their associations with BMI and adiposity are controversial. Furthermore, little is known about the role of exercise programs on the relationship between steroid hormones and adiposity. This report evaluates these relationships for plasma levels of adrenal, gonadal, and conjugated steroids with body composition and fat distribution in sedentary men and women, aged 17-65 years, and their responses to an exercise program. In the sedentary state, 270 men (29% Blacks) and 304 women (34% Blacks) from the HERITAGE Family Study were available. Among them, 242 men and 238 women completed a 20-week fully standardized exercise program. Fourteen steroid hormones and SHBG concentrations were assayed in a fasted state and were compared for their associations with adiposity in men and women and in response to the exercise program. Covariates adjusted for in partial correlation analysis were age, ancestry, menopause status (women), and oral contraceptives/hormone replacement treatment status (women) at baseline, as well as baseline value of the trait for the training response. Differences among normal weight, overweight, and obese subjects were also considered. Statistical significance was set at P testosterone (TESTO) were negatively associated with fat mass and abdominal fat (P fat-free mass in men or women, but was significantly associated with % fat-free mass in men. No association was detected between baseline steroid hormone levels and changes in adiposity traits in response to 20 weeks of exercise. In men, low DHT, OHPROG, SHBG, and TESTO were associated with higher adiposity and abdominal and visceral fat. A similar adiposity profile was observed in women with low SHBG.

  15. Classification of Body Fatness by Body Mass Index–for-Age Categories Among Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Wang, Jack; Thornton, John C.; Mei, Zuguo; Sopher, Aviva B.; Pierson, Richard N.; Dietz, William H.; Horlick, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the ability of various body mass index (BMI)–for-age categories, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 85th to 94th percentiles, to correctly classify the body fatness of children and adolescents. Design Cross-sectional. Setting The New York Obesity Research Center at St Luke’s–Roosevelt Hospital from 1995 to 2000. Participants Healthy 5- to 18-year-old children and adolescents (N=1196) were recruited in the New York City area through newspaper notices, announcements at schools and activity centers, and word of mouth. Main Outcome Measures Percent body fat as determined by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Body fatness cutoffs were chosen so that the number of children in each category (normal, moderate, and elevated fatness) would equal the number of children in the corresponding BMI-for-age category (<85th percentile, 85th–94th percentile, and ≥95th percentile, respectively). Results About 77% of the children who had a BMI for age at or above the 95th percentile had an elevated body fatness, but levels of body fatness among children who had a BMI for age between the 85th and 94th percentiles (n=200) were more variable; about one-half of these children had a moderate level of body fatness, but 30% had a normal body fatness and 20% had an elevated body fatness. The prevalence of normal levels of body fatness among these 200 children was highest among black children (50%) and among those within the 85th to 89th percentiles of BMI for age (40%). Conclusion Body mass index is an appropriate screening test to identify children who should have further evaluation and follow-up, but it is not diagnostic of level of adiposity. PMID:19736333

  16. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  17. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function in different ethnic groups in Kenya: the role of abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution....... to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1–7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5–14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative...

  18. Green tea reduces body fat via upregulation of neprilysin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenzner, M; Tappenbeck, N; Gembardt, F; Rülke, R; Furkert, J; Melzig, M F; Siems, W-E; Brockmann, G A; Walther, T

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of green tea has become increasingly popular, particularly because of claimed reduction in body weight. We recently reported that animals with pharmacological inhibition (by candoxatril) or genetic absence of the endopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) develop an obese phenotype. We now investigated the effect of green tea extract (in drinking water) on body weight and body composition and the mediating role of NEP. To elucidate the role of NEP in mediating the beneficial effects of green tea extract, 'Berlin fat mice' or NEP-deficient mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type controls received the extract in two different doses (300 or 600 mg kg -1 body weight per day) in the drinking water. In 'Berlin fat mice', 51 days of green tea treatment did not only prevent fat accumulation (control: day 0: 30.5% fat, day 51: 33.1%; NS) but also reduced significant body fat (green tea: day 0: 27.8%, day 51: 20.9%, PGreen tea reduced food intake. This was paralleled by a selective increase in peripheral (in kidney 17%, in intestine 92%), but not central NEP expression and activity, leading to downregulation of orexigens (like galanin and neuropeptide Y (NPY)) known to be physiological substrates of NEP. Consequently, in NEP-knockout mice, green tea extract failed to reduce body fat/weight. Our data generate experimental proof for the assumed effects of green tea on body weight and the key role for NEP in such process, and thus open a new avenue for the treatment of obesity.

  19. Lifestyle factors and 5-year abdominal fat accumulation in a minority cohort: the IRAS Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairston, Kristen G; Vitolins, Mara Z; Norris, Jill M; Anderson, Andrea M; Hanley, Anthony J; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether lifestyle factors were associated with 5-year change in abdominal fat measured by computed tomography (CT) in the Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis (IRAS) Family Study. We obtained abdominal CT scans at baseline and at 5 years, from African Americans (AA) (N = 339) and Hispanic Americans (N = 775), aged 18-81 years. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue was measured at the L4/L5 vertebral level. Physical activity was documented by self-report of vigorous activity and a 1-year recall instrument. Dietary intake was assessed at follow-up using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire referencing the previous year. Generalized linear models, accounting for family structure, were used to assess the associations between percent change in fat accumulation and smoking, physical activity, total calories, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, protein, and saturated fat intake, percent of calories from sweets, and soluble and insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber intake and participation in vigorous activity were inversely related to change in VAT, independent of change in BMI. For each 10 g increase in soluble fiber, rate of VAT accumulation decreased by 3.7% (P = 0.01). Soluble fiber was not associated with change in SAT (0.2%, P = 0.82). Moderately active participants had a 7.4% decrease in rate of VAT accumulation and a 3.6% decrease in rate of SAT accumulation versus less active participants (P = 0.003 and P = 0.01, respectively). Total energy expenditure was also inversely associated with accumulation of VAT. Soluble fiber intake and increased physical activity were related to decreased VAT accumulation over 5 years.

  20. Measurement of body fat using leg to leg bioimpedance

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, R; Lau, P; Yu, C; Lam, P; Nelson, E

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—(1) To validate a leg to leg bioimpedance analysis (BIA) device in the measurement of body composition in children by assessment of its agreement with dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and its repeatability. (2) To establish a reference range of percentage body fat in Hong Kong Chinese children.
METHODS—Sequential BIA and DXA methods were used to determine body composition in 49 children aged 7-18 years; agreement between the two methods was calculated. Repea...

  1. Central body fat changes in men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism undergoing testosterone replacement therapy are modulated by androgen receptor CAG polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, G; delli Muti, N; Buldreghini, E; Lenzi, A; Balercia, G

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about the effect of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism in conditioning body composition changes after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). In this study, we aimed to clarify this aspect by focussing our attention on male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition often associated with partial or total hypopituitarism. Fourteen men affected by post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and undergoing several replacement hormone therapies were evaluated before and after TRT. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-derived body composition measurements, pituitary-dependent hormones and AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism were considered. While testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels increased after TRT, cortisol concentration decreased. No anthropometric or body composition parameters varied significantly, except for abdominal fat decrease. The number of CAG triplets was positively and significantly correlated with this abdominal fat decrease, while the opposite occurred between the latter and Δ-testosterone. No correlation of IGF-1 or cortisol variation (Δ-) with Δ-abdominal fat was found. At multiple linear regression, after correction for Δ-testosterone, the positive association between CAG triplet number and abdominal fat change was confirmed. In male post-surgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, shorter length of AR CAG repeat tract is independently associated with a more marked decrease of abdominal fat after TRT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Suprailiac or abdominal skinfold thickness measured with a skinfold caliper as a predictor of body density in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demura, Shin-ichi; Sato, Susumu

    2007-09-01

    Measurement of subcutaneous fat thickness with a skinfold caliper is a simple and inexpensive technique for assessment of body composition, but is influenced by the skin site or the obesity level. The resulting measurement errors may influence the prediction accuracy of body density. We therefore aimed to clarify the characteristics of measurement errors with a skinfold caliper and to determine useful measurement sites for the prediction of body density in Japanese adults of wide-ranging age and obesity levels. The present study included 126 Japanese male and 77 female subjects ranging from 21 to 81 years old. They were divided into a "non-obese group" and an "obese group", based on the Japanese criteria of obesity (BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2)). Subcutaneous fat thickness was measured at 14 sites with a skinfold caliper and ultrasound. Percent body fat was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and body density was calculated using Brozek's formula. Sex and obesity level differences in the measurement error of skinfolds (ultrasound minus skinfold caliper measurements) were examined by 2 x 2 ANOVA (sex and obesity groups) for each site. The relationship between body density and the systematic error was examined. We developed an accurate prediction equation for body density with smaller measurement and systematic errors. Although measurement errors in skinfold thickness tended to increase with increasing obesity levels, the influence was smaller for the abdominal and suprailiac skinfolds compared with other sites. Measurement of suprailiac or abdominal skinfold thickness is useful to accurately estimate body density in Japanese adults.

  3. Mathematical model for body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Borba Neves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to develop a specific mathematical model to estimate the body fat percentage (BF% of children with cerebral palsy, based on a Brazilian population of patients with this condition. Method This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study included 63 Caucasian children with cerebral palsy, both males and females, aged between three and ten-years-old. Participants were assessed for functional motor impairment using the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA and skinfold thickness. Total body mass (TBM and skinfolds thickness from: triceps (Tr, biceps (Bi, Suprailiac (Si, medium thigh (Th, abdominal (Ab, medial calf (Ca and subscapular (Se were collected. Fat mass (FM was estimated by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (gold standard. Results The model was built from multivariate linear regression; FM was set as a dependent variable and other anthropometric variables, age and sex, were set as independent variables. The final model was established as F%=((0.433xTBM + 0.063xTh + 0.167xSi - 6.768 ÷ TBM × 100, the R2 value was 0.950, R2adjusted=0.948 and the standard error of estimate was 1.039 kg. Conclusion This method was shown to be valid to estimate body fat percentage of children with cerebral palsy. Also, the measurement of skinfolds on both sides of the body showed good results in this modelling.

  4. Comparison between body fat measurements obtained by portable ultrasound and caliper in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, L; Neves, E B; Ripka, W L; Romaneli, E F R

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare and correlate the Portable Ultra Sound (US) measuring technique to the skinfold measuring technique (SF) to estimate body fat percentage (%F) in young adults. Sixty military were evaluated, all males, divided in two groups: Group 1 (normal) composed by 30 military with Body Mass Index (BMI) until 24.99 kg/m(2) and Group 2 (overweight) composed by 30 military with BMI > 25 kg/m(2). Weight, height, skinfolds and ultrasound were measured in 9 points (triceps, subscapular, biceps, chest, medium axillary, abdominal, suprailiac, thigh and calf). Body fat average values obtained by skinfold thickness and ultrasound measurements were 13.25 ± 6.32 % and 12.73 ± 5.95 % respectively. Despite significant differences in measurements of each anatomical site, it was possible to verify that the total final body fat percentage calculated by both techniques did not present significant differences and that overweight group presented greater similarity between the values obtained using caliper and ultrasound equipment.

  5. Prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil Prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students of a city in the mountains of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahna dos Reis Roth

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é considerada a mais importante desordem nutricional devido ao aumento acelerado de suas prevalências nos últimos anos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a prevalência de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura em escolares de 11 a 14 anos (meninos e meninas de uma cidade serrana no sul do Brasil, e verificar as possíveis associações com classificação econômica, sexo, idade, hábitos alimentares, hábitos de vida (atividades físicas e atividades sedentárias e insatisfação com a imagem corporal. Foram avaliados 1230 escolares através de um estudo transversal. As variáveis antropométricas estudadas foram circunferência da cintura e as dobras cutâneas do tríceps e da panturrilha. Foi realizada uma análise descritiva e uma bivariada entre as variáveis independentes e o desfecho. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal foram 28,7% e 40,1%, respectivamente. Houve associação estatítisca significante com maior número de refeições e insatisfação com a imagem corporal para obesidade abdominal, que também esteve associada com os avaliados do sexo feminino, e para excesso de gordura corporal e. As prevalências de obesidade abdominal e excesso de gordura corporal estão elevadas e justificam a implementação de ações de saúde nas escolas.Obesity is considered the most important nutritional disorder due to a rapid increase in its prevalence in recent years. The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of abdominal obesity and excess fat in students aged 11 to 14 (boys and girls from a town in the mountains of southern Brazil, and to verify the possible associations with economic classification, gender, age, eating habits, lifestyle habits (physical activity and sedentary activities and dissatisfaction with body image. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1230 students. The anthropometric variables studied were the waist circumference and the skin folds of

  6. Impact of body fat distribution on neoadjuvant chemotherapy outcomes in advanced breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Toshiaki; Sangai, Takafumi; Nagashima, Takeshi; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Sakakibara, Junta; Hayama, Shouko; Ishigami, Emi; Masuda, Takahito; Miyazaki, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is known to decrease the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) against breast cancer; however, the relationship between actual body composition and NAC outcomes remains unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of body composition on NAC outcomes. A total of 172 advanced breast cancer patients who underwent surgery after NAC were retrospectively analyzed. Body composition parameters including abdominal circumference (AC), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), visceral fat area (VFA), and skeletal muscle area (SMA) were calculated using computed tomography volume-analyzing software. VFA/SFA ratio was used to evaluate visceral obesity. The associations of body composition parameters with pathological complete remission (pCR) and survival were analyzed. AC, SFA, and VFA were significantly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (all P < 0.05; r = 0.82, r = 0.71, and r = 0.78, respectively). AC, SFA, and VFA increased significantly and SMA decreased significantly after menopause (all P < 0.05). VFA/SFA ratio increased significantly after menopause, even though BMI remained unchanged. Body composition parameters were not associated with pCR. Distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was significantly worse in the high VFA group than in the low VFA group (P < 0.05). Furthermore, in the high VFA group, postmenopausal patients had significantly shorter DDFS than premenopausal patients (P < 0.05). VFA was independently associated with DDFS in the multivariate analysis (P < 0.05). High visceral fat is associated with worse NAC outcomes in breast cancer patients, especially postmenopausal patients. Interventions targeting visceral fat accumulation will likely improve NAC outcomes

  7. Association of bioavailable, free, and total testosterone with insulin resistance: influence of sex hormone-binding globulin and body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Elaine C; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Fujimoto, Wilfred Y; Boyko, Edward J

    2004-04-01

    Previous reports of an association between low testosterone levels and diabetes risk were often confounded by covariation of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone measurements. Measurements of bioavailable and free testosterone, more reliable indexes of biologically active testosterone, were examined for their associations with markers of insulin resistance and body fat measures in 221 middle-aged nondiabetic men. Bioavailable and free testosterone were calculated from the concentrations of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin, and they were not significantly correlated with SHBG (r = 0.07-0.1). In contrast, total testosterone correlated significantly with SHBG (r = 0.63). We evaluated the relationship between these measures of circulating testosterone and markers for insulin resistance (i.e., fasting insulin, C-peptide, and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) as well as total body fat (assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry [DEXA]) and abdominal fat distribution (assessed by single-slice computed tomography [CT]). Bioavailable, free, and total testosterone and SHBG all correlated significantly with fasting insulin (age-adjusted r = -0.15 [P = 0.03], -0.14 [P = 0.03], -0.32 [P fat measures (r = -0.17 [P = 0.008] to -0.44 [P testosterone were significantly associated with fasting glucose (r = -0.20 [P = 0.003] to -0.21 [P = 0.002]). In multivariate analysis, bioavailable or free testosterone was significantly and inversely associated with insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR, but this was not independent of total body or abdominal fat. SHBG was a significant determinant of insulin, C-peptide, and HOMA-IR, independent of body fat. The associations between total testosterone and insulin resistance were confounded by SHBG. The inverse association between testosterone and insulin resistance, independent of SHBG, was mediated through body fat.

  8. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia Maria; Gjesing, Anette Marianne Prior; Sandholt, Camilla Helene

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF....

  9. Age-specific association between percent body fat and pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between percent body fat and pulmonary function among apparently normal twenty male children tidal volume aged 4 years and twenty male children aged 10 years in Ogbomoso. The mean functional residual capacity of the lung in male children aged 10 years was significantly higher ...

  10. Physics for Medicine and Biology: Determining Body Fat Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Ronald; Altman, Albert

    2011-04-01

    Hydrostatic weighing is a technique for determining body fat content that is based on Archimedes principle and varied applications of the ideal gas law. We use this procedure as an example of the types of physics material which should be presented in an introductory course for students that are interested in careers in biology and medicine.

  11. Fat Talk and Body Dissatisfaction among College Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartawidjaja, Jenae E.; Cordero, Elizabeth D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate "fat talk" conversations about weight and body dissatisfaction within college dancers. Participants were 116 female undergraduates who were dancers/dance majors ("n"?=?20), dancers/nondance majors ("n"?=?32), and nondancers ("n"?=?63). Participants responded to…

  12. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, body fat and inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne-Sofie Quist; Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Gamborg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    -related inflammatory markers. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1,212 healthy individuals with information on habitual food intake from food frequency questionnaires, six different measures of body fat, and levels of six circulating inflammatory markers. Multiple linear regression analysis of intakes of PUFAs...

  13. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-10-05

    Oct 5, 2017 ... Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the ... intensity were the predictors of high BF%. Author Correspondence, e-mail: ... maintenance of weight loss among overweight and obese women [18]. 2. METHODOLOGY.

  14. Anthropometric predictive equations for percentage body fat in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictive regression equations (with r2 = 0.931 and 0.945 respectively) that worked better for Nigerian women compared to other existing equations such as Durnin and Wormersley, Siri, Vogel el al, (1984) for the estimation of body fat were obtained. These equations·could be validly used for mass screening exercise in ...

  15. Body Fat Content, Distribution and Blood Glucose Concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    loss of opportunities for investment and hence lower levels of economic development (WHO,. 2006a). It has been ... Measurements. Measurements of weight, height and body fat content were done on each subject. Height and ... 3 days before the test as starvation or diet low in carbohydrate can lead to incorrect test result.

  16. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factor for osteoporosis. Renee Blaauw, Eisa C. Albertse, Stephen Hough. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the body fat distribution of patients with osteoporosis (GP) with that of an appropriately matched non-GP control group. Design. Case control study. Setting. Department of Endocrinology and ...

  17. The Relationship between Lutein and Zeaxanthin Status and Body Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this project was to investigate the relationships between total and regional distribution of body fat and tissue lutein (L and zeaxanthin (Z status. Healthy men and women (N = 100; average age: 22.5 year, average BMI: 23.4 kg/m2 were evaluated. Total body and regional fat mass were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Delphi A. Serum LZ was measured using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and retinal LZ (referred to as macular pigment optical density; MPOD was measured using heterochromatic flicker photometry. Body fat percentage (total and regional was inversely related to MPOD (p < 0.01 but no significant relationship was found for serum LZ. Higher body fat percentage, even within relatively healthy limits, is associated with lower tissue LZ status. The results indicate that adiposity may affect the nutritional state of the retina. Such links may be one of the reasons that obesity promotes age-related degenerative conditions of the retina.

  18. Comparison of body fat percentage and physical performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body fat percentage and physical performance of male national senior and junior karate athletes. Sixteen male karate kumite competitors of the national karate team (senior n = 8; junior n = 8) participated in this study. The tests included both assessment of selected ...

  19. Body Fat and Muscle Mass as Functions of Body Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R. A.; Miller, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Hydrostatic weighing and chemical dilution are well accepted methods for measuring body composition. Recently, Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) has become the preferred method. The two compartment algorithms used by these methods assume a fixed constant for lean body tissue. This constant has long been suspect of variations due to many…

  20. Reported food intake and distribution of body fat: a repeated cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body mass, as well as distribution of body fat, are predictors of both diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In Northern Sweden, despite a marked increase in average body mass, prevalence of diabetes was stagnant and myocardial infarctions decreased. A more favourable distribution of body fat is a possible contributing factor. This study investigates the relative importance of individual food items for time trends in waist circumference (WC and hip circumference (HC on a population level. Methods Independent cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1986, 1990, 1994 and 1999 in the two northernmost counties of Sweden with a common population of 250000. Randomly selected age stratified samples, altogether 2982 men and 3087 women aged 25–64 years. Questionnaires were completed and anthropometric measurements taken. For each food item, associations between frequency of consumption and waist and hip circumferences were estimated. Partial regression coefficients for every level of reported intake were multiplied with differences in proportion of the population reporting the corresponding levels of intake in 1986 and 1999. The sum of these product terms for every food item was the respective estimated impact on mean circumference. Results Time trends in reported food consumption associated with the more favourable gynoid distribution of adipose tissue were increased use of vegetable oil, pasta and 1.5% fat milk. Trends associated with abdominal obesity were increased consumption of beer in men and higher intake of hamburgers and French fried potatoes in women. Conclusion Food trends as markers of time trends in body fat distribution have been identified. The method is a complement to conventional approaches to establish associations between food intake and disease risk on a population level.

  1. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Sciences, Catholic University of Pusan, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hee [Dept. of Radiology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM.

  2. Evaluation of gestational diabetes mellitus risk factors using abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness for early pregnancy in the US imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Yang, Sung Hee

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal subcutaneous fat thickness(ASFT) and maternal gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM) measured by ultrasound at period of pregnancy. We compared maternal age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, and weight gain during pregnancy in 286 pregnant women who were diagnosed with early pregnancy ASFT and high GDM screening test(50 g OGTT) of more than 140 mg/dL. ROC curve analysis was used to determine the cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction. Maternal age and weight gain during pregnancy were not related to GDM in the mid-trimester and pre-pregnancy body mass index and early pregnancy ASFT were significantly different between normal and GDM high risk groups. The cut-off value of ASFT for GDM prediction was 2.23 cm(AUC 0.913. Sensitivity 76.19%, Specificity 93.72%). ASFT measured by ultrasound in early pregnancy was useful as an important index for predicting mid-trimester GDM prediction. Therefore, ASFT can be used as an auxiliary diagnostic index for early recognition of GDM

  3. Fetal and infant growth patterns associated with total and abdominal fat distribution in school-age children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gishti, O.; Gaillard, R.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Heppe, D.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Durmus, B.u.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Higher infant growth rates are associated with an increased risk of obesity in later life. Objective: We examined the associations of longitudinally measured fetal and infant growth patterns with total and abdominal fat distribution in childhood. Design, Settings and participants:We

  4. Fat and female fecundity : prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J C; van Noord, P.A.H.; te Velde, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. SETTING: One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS: Of 542

  5. Fat and female fecundity : Prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J. C.; Van Noord, Paul A H; te Velde, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-01-01

    Objectives - To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. Design - Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. Setting - One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. Subjects - Of 542

  6. Collapsed fat navigators for brain 3D rigid body motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Mathias; Mårtensson, Magnus; Avventi, Enrico; Norbeck, Ola; Skare, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    To acquire high-resolution 3D multi-slab echo planar imaging data without motion artifacts, using collapsed fat navigators. A fat navigator module (collapsed FatNav) was added to a diffusion-weighted 3D multi-slab echo planar imaging (DW 3D-MS EPI) sequence, comprising three orthogonal echo planar imaging readouts to track rigid body head motion in the image domain and performing prospective motion correction. The stability, resolution and accuracy of the navigator were investigated on phantoms and healthy volunteers. The experiments on phantoms and volunteers show that the navigator, depicting projections of the subcutaneous fat in of the head, is capable of correcting for head motion with insignificant bias compared to motion estimates derived from the water-signaling DWI images. Despite that this projection technique implies a non-sparse image appearance, collapsed FatNav data could be highly accelerated with parallel imaging, allowing three orthogonal 2D EPI readouts in about 6ms. By utilizing signal from the leading fat saturation RF pulse of the diffusion sequence, only the readout portion of the navigator needs to be added, resulting in a scan time penalty of only about 5%. Motion can be detected and corrected for with a 5-10Hz update frequency when combined with a sequence like the DW 3D-MS EPI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Effects of a eucaloric reduced-carbohydrate diet on body composition and fat distribution in women with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Ovalle, Fernando; Goree, Laura Lee; Azziz, Ricardo; Desmond, Renee A; Wright Bates, G; Gower, Barbara A

    2014-10-01

    To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40% energy from CHO:protein:fat) for 8 weeks and a standard diet (55:18:27) for 8 weeks. Body composition by DXA and fat distribution by CT were assessed at baseline and following each diet phase. Insulin AUC was obtained from a solid meal test (SMT) during each diet phase. Participants lost 3.7% and 2.2% total fat following the reduced-CHO diet and STD diet, resp. (pdiets). The reduced-CHO diet induced a decrease in subcutaneous-abdominal, intra-abdominal, and thigh-intermuscular adipose tissue (-7.1%, -4.6%, and -11.5%, resp.), and the STD diet induced a decrease in total lean mass. Loss of fat mass following the reduced CHO diet arm was associated with lower insulin AUC (pPCOS, consumption of a diet lower in CHO resulted in preferential loss of fat mass from metabolically harmful adipose depots, whereas a diet high in CHO appeared to promote repartitioning of lean mass to fat mass. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Utility of abdominal skin plus subcutaneous fat and rectal mucosal biopsy in the diagnosis of AL amyloidosis with renal involvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Li

    Full Text Available Skin fat biopsy of the abdominal wall is a simple and safe method for detecting amyloidosis, and rectal mucosal biopsy is also frequently used for screening for the disease; however, the sensitivity of these approaches has not been fully studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of skin fat biopsy combined with rectal mucosal biopsy as a screening procedure for the diagnosis of systemic immunoglobulin light-chain (AL amyloidosis.We retrospectively analyzed 224 AL amyloidosis patients confirmed by renal biopsy, including a test group of 165 patients and validation group of 59 patients. Surgical skin fat biopsy from the abdominal wall and rectal mucosal biopsy under endoscopy was performed to obtain specimens. Congo red staining and immunofluorescence staining with antibodies against light chains were performed to type the disease. Pathology reports were reviewed to assess the diagnostic sensitivity of skin fat biopsy and rectal mucosal biopsy. Diagnostic specificity was not examined in the present study, because no healthy volunteers and only few patients with other diseases had performed immunofluorescence staining on skin fat and rectal specimens.Of the 165 patients in the test group, Congo red staining of skin fat and rectal mucosal specimens was associated with a sensitivity of 89.3% and 94.8%, respectively. The sensitivity increased to 98.9% by combining both biopsy methods. Immunofluorescence stains were positive in 81.1% of patients undergoing skin fat biopsy and 84.7% of patients undergoing rectal mucosal biopsy. Immunofluorescence stains yielded positive results in 86.7% of cases combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy. The diagnostic results also performed well in the validation group.Surgical skin biopsy including the subcutaneous fat pad can be performed safely at the bedside and is useful for diagnosing AL amyloidosis. Combining skin fat biopsy with rectal mucosal biopsy may identify amyloid deposits in

  10. Dietary taurine and nutrients intake and anthropometric and body composition data by abdominal obesity in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Min Jung; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between abdominal obesity and dietary taurine intake, nutrient intake, anthropometric data and body composition in Korean male college students. One hundred seventy four subjects were divided into 2 groups based on abdominal obesity as estimated by waist circumference (cm) (Lee et al. 2006): normal group (waist circumference (cm): obese group (waist circumference (cm): > or = 90 cm, n = 33). A three day-recall method was used to assess diet (2 weekdays and 1 weekend). Anthropometric data and body composition were measured with Inbody 3.0 (Bioelectrical Impedance Fatness Analyzer). Average dietary intake of taurine in the normal and obese groups was 123.1 +/- 78.8 mg/day and 128.4 +/- 79.6 mg/day, respectively. There was no significant difference in dietary taurine and nutrient intake between the normal and obese groups. However, data of anthropometric measurements and body composition in the obese group were significantly elevated compared to those of the normal group. In the normal group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with nutrient intake (p obese group, dietary taurine intake was positively correlated with the intake of energy foods and of animal lipid (p obese group. Therefore, the data suggest that further study is warranted to examine the relationship between dietary taurine intake and abdominal obesity.

  11. Intraperitoneal granulomatous foreign body reaction after accidental perforation of the abdominal wall. Case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanng, C; Winther-Nielsen, H; Hougen, H P

    2013-01-01

    After an accidental perforation by a wooden stake of the abdominal wall and distal ileum a 28-year-old man developed an aggressive granulomatous foreign body reaction of the greater omentum with high fever and abdominal pain. The patient was cured by omental resection and prednisone treatment....

  12. Do obese but metabolically normal women differ in intra-abdominal fat and physical activity levels from those with the expected metabolic abnormalities? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Mark

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity remains a major public health problem, associated with a cluster of metabolic abnormalities. However, individuals exist who are very obese but have normal metabolic parameters. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent differences in metabolic health in very obese women are explained by differences in body fat distribution, insulin resistance and level of physical activity. Methods This was a cross-sectional pilot study of 39 obese women (age: 28-64 yrs, BMI: 31-67 kg/m2 recruited from community settings. Women were defined as 'metabolically normal' on the basis of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine body fat distribution. Detailed lifestyle and metabolic profiles of participants were obtained. Results Women with a healthy metabolic profile had lower intra-abdominal fat volume (geometric mean 4.78 l [95% CIs 3.99-5.73] vs 6.96 l [5.82-8.32] and less insulin resistance (HOMA 3.41 [2.62-4.44] vs 6.67 [5.02-8.86] than those with an abnormality. The groups did not differ in abdominal subcutaneous fat volume (19.6 l [16.9-22.7] vs 20.6 [17.6-23.9]. A higher proportion of those with a healthy compared to a less healthy metabolic profile met current physical activity guidelines (70% [95% CIs 55.8-84.2] vs 25% [11.6-38.4]. Intra-abdominal fat, insulin resistance and physical activity make independent contributions to metabolic status in very obese women, but explain only around a third of the variance. Conclusion A sub-group of women exists who are metabolically normal despite being very obese. Differences in fat distribution, insulin resistance, and physical activity level are associated with metabolic differences in these women, but account only partially for these differences. Future work should focus on strategies to identify those obese individuals most at risk of the negative metabolic consequences of obesity and on identifying other factors that

  13. Body Fat Percentage Prediction Using Intelligent Hybrid Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehjen E. Shao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excess of body fat often leads to obesity. Obesity is typically associated with serious medical diseases, such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes. Accordingly, knowing the body fat is an extremely important issue since it affects everyone’s health. Although there are several ways to measure the body fat percentage (BFP, the accurate methods are often associated with hassle and/or high costs. Traditional single-stage approaches may use certain body measurements or explanatory variables to predict the BFP. Diverging from existing approaches, this study proposes new intelligent hybrid approaches to obtain fewer explanatory variables, and the proposed forecasting models are able to effectively predict the BFP. The proposed hybrid models consist of multiple regression (MR, artificial neural network (ANN, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, and support vector regression (SVR techniques. The first stage of the modeling includes the use of MR and MARS to obtain fewer but more important sets of explanatory variables. In the second stage, the remaining important variables are served as inputs for the other forecasting methods. A real dataset was used to demonstrate the development of the proposed hybrid models. The prediction results revealed that the proposed hybrid schemes outperformed the typical, single-stage forecasting models.

  14. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Mehmet M; Nayer, Behzad; Walford, Eric C; Johnson, Kevin B; Gaidosh, Gabriel; Reiser, Jochen; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Ortega, Luis M; Nayer, Ali

    2012-02-07

    Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver) and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus) organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was noted between ob/ob and control mice. This study

  15. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity affects the density of mast cells in abdominal fat depots and lymph nodes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altintas Mehmet M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we explored the effects of leptin deficiency-induced obesity on the density of mast cells in metabolic (abdominal fat depots, skeletal muscle, and liver and lymphatic (abdominal lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus organs. Fourteen-week-old male leptin-deficient ob/ob mice and their controls fed a standard chow were studied. Tissue sections were stained with toluidine blue to determine the density of mast cells. CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis was also carried out. Furthermore, mast cells containing immunoreactive tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, a proinflammatory cytokine involved in obesity-linked insulin resistance, were identified by immunostaining. Results ob/ob mice demonstrated adiposity and insulin resistance. In abdominal fat depots, mast cells were distributed differentially. While most prevalent in subcutaneous fat in controls, mast cells were most abundant in epididymal fat in ob/ob mice. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by a 20-fold increase in the density of mast cells in epididymal fat, but a 13-fold decrease in subcutaneous fat. This finding was confirmed by CD117/c-kit protein expression analysis. Furthermore, we found that a subset of mast cells in epididymal and subcutaneous fat were immunoreactive for TNF-α. The proportion of mast cells immunoreactive for TNF-α was higher in epididymal than in subcutaneous fat in both ob/ob and control mice. Mast cells were also distributed differentially in retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and inguinal lymph nodes. In both ob/ob mice and lean controls, mast cells were more prevalent in retroperitoneal than in mesenteric and inguinal lymph nodes. Leptin deficiency-induced obesity was accompanied by increased mast cell density in all lymph node stations examined. No significant difference in the density of mast cells in skeletal muscle, liver, spleen, and thymus was

  16. Fat and female fecundity: prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaadstra, B M; Seidell, J C; Van Noord, P A; te Velde, E R; Habbema, J D; Vrieswijk, B; Karbaat, J

    1993-02-20

    To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. Of 542 women attending the clinic for artificial insemination for the first time, 500 women were eligible for study. Probability of conception per cycle and number of insemination cycles before pregnancy or stopping treatment. A 0.1 unit increase in waist-hip ratio led to a 30% decrease in probability of conception per cycle (hazard ratio 0.706; 95% confidence interval 0.562 to 0.887) after adjustment for age, fatness, reasons for artificial insemination, cycle length and regularity, smoking, and parity. Increasing age was significantly related to lower fecundity (p fat distribution in women of reproductive age seems to have more impact on fertility than age or obesity.

  17. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloush, Ruba A; Lavrovskaya, Elena; Mody, Dina R; Lager, Donna; Truong, Luan

    2010-01-15

    Systemic amyloidosis (SA) has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA) has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years) during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR). A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain) was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%), suspicious in 1/39 (3%), negative in 28/39 (72%), and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13%) of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  18. Diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis: The role of abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halloush Ruba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic amyloidosis (SA has a broad nonspecific clinical presentation. Its diagnosis depends on identifying amyloid in tissues. Abdominal fat pad fine needle aspiration (FPFNA has been suggested as a sensitive and specific test for diagnosing SA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine FPFNA from 38 patients (16 women and 20 men, age range 40-88 years during a 15-year period were reviewed. Smears and cell blocks were stained with Congo red (CR. A panel of antibodies (serum amyloid protein, serum amyloid A, albumin, transthyretin, kappa light chain and lambda light chain was used on six cell blocks from five patients. The FNA findings were correlated with clinical and histological follow-up. Results: FPFNAs were positive, confirmed by CR in 5/39 (13%, suspicious in 1/39 (3%, negative in 28/39 (72%, and insufficient for diagnosis in 5/39 (13% of cases. In all the positive cases, SA was confirmed within 2-16 weeks. Among the 28 negative cases, SA was diagnosed in 21, the rest were lost to follow-up. Among the insufficient cases, SA was diagnosed in four and one was lost to follow-up. Specificity was 100%, whereas sensitivity was 19%. SA typing using cell block sections was successful in three, un-interpretable in one, and negative in two cases. Conclusion: FPFNA for SA is not as good as previously reported. This may be due to different practice setting, level of experience, diagnostic technique, or absence of abdominal soft tissue involvement. A negative result of FPFNA does not exclude SA. Immune phenotyping of amyloid is possible on cell block.

  19. PLTP activity in premenopausal women. Relationship with lipoprotein lipase, HDL, LDL, body fat, and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, S J; Carr, M C; Hokanson, J E; Brunzell, J D; Albers, J J

    2000-02-01

    Plasma phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is thought to play a major role in the facilitated transfer of phospholipids between lipoproteins and in the modulation of high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle size and composition. However, little has been reported concerning the relationships of PLTP with plasma lipoprotein parameters, lipolytic enzymes, body fat distribution, insulin, and glucose in normolipidemic individuals, particularly females. In the present study, 50 normolipidemic healthy premenopausal females were investigated. The relationships between the plasma PLTP activity and selected variables were assessed. PLTP activity was significantly and positively correlated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.53), apoB (r(s) = 0.44), glucose (r(s) = 0.40), HDL cholesterol (r(s) = 0.38), HDL(3) cholesterol (r(s) = 0.37), lipoprotein lipase activity (r(s) = 0.36), insulin (r(s) = 0.33), subcutaneous abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.36), intra-abdominal fat (r(s) = 0.29), and body mass index (r(s) = 0.29). HDL(2) cholesterol, triglyceride, and hepatic lipase were not significantly related to PLTP activity. As HDL(2) can be decreased by hepatic lipase and hepatic lipase is increased in obesity with increasing intra-abdominal fat, the participants were divided into sub-groups of non-obese (n = 35) and obese (n = 15) individuals and the correlation of PLTP with HDL(2) cholesterol was re-examined. In the non-obese subjects, HDL(2) cholesterol was found to be significantly and positively related to PLTP activity (r(s) = 0.44). Adjustment of the HDL(2) values for the effect of hepatic lipase activity resulted in a significant positive correlation between PLTP and HDL(2) (r(s) = 0.41), indicating that the strength of the relationship between PLTP activity and HDL(2) can be reduced by the opposing effect of hepatic lipase on HDL(2) concentrations. We conclude that PLTP-facilitated lipid transfer activity is related to HDL and LDL metabolism, as well as

  20. Whole-body MSCT of patients after polytrauma: abdominal injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roehrl, B.; Sadick, M.; Diehl, S.; Dueber, C.; Obertacke, U.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this retrospective study was to evaluate the spectrum of abdominal injuries and the reliability of computed tomography-based diagnosis in patients after polytrauma. Material and methods: CT findings and clinical reports for 177 patients after polytrauma were evaluated with regard to abdominal injuries. Clinical patient reports at the time of discharge from the hospital were utilized as the standard of reference. Abdominal injuries resulting from an accident, frequent additional traumas and following therapeutic procedures were recorded. In the case of discrepancies in the reports, the CT scans were viewed retrospectively. Results: In 30 out of 177 patients, 42 abdominal injuries were detected. 69% of the injuries were caused by traffic accidents while 31% resulted from falls. Liver and spleen injuries were the most common. 50% of the cases were treated surgically, and the other half of the cases underwent non-surgical conservative therapy. Massive chest traumas, pelvic injuries, cerebral traumas and injuries to extremities were commonly associated with abdominal injuries. Evaluation of the discrepancies in the clinical reports showed that injury to the pancreas and the small intestine were not successfully detected on CT, thus resulting in a false negative diagnosis. Early stages of organ parenchyma laceration were also initially misdiagnosed on CT. (orig.)

  1. Fat and female fecundity prospective study of effect of body fat distribution on conception rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaadstra, B.M.; Seidell, J.C.; Noord, van, P.A.H.; Velde, te, E.R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Vrieswijk, B.; Karbaat, J.

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the effect of body fat distribution in women of reproductive age on fecundity. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study of all women who had entered a donor insemination programme. SETTING--One fertility clinic serving a large part of the midwest of the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--Of 542 women attending the clinic for artificial insemination for the first time, 500 women were eligible for study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Probability of conception per cycle and number of insemination cycl...

  2. Ramadan Fasting Decreases Body Fat but Not Protein Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrial Syam, Ari; Suryani Sobur, Cecep; Abdullah, Murdani; Makmun, Dadang

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown various results regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on weight and body composition in healthy individuals. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy Indonesian medical staff. In this study, we examined the influence of Ramadan fasting on body composition in healthy medical staff. The longitudinal study was performed during and after Ramadan fasting in 2013 (August to October). Fourty-three medical staff members (physicians, nurses and nutritionists) at the Internal Medicine Ward of the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital were measured to compare their calorie intake, weight, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body composition, including body fat, protein, minerals and water, on the first and 28(th) days of Ramadan and also 4-5 weeks after Ramadan fasting. Measurements were obtained for all 43 subjects on the 28(th) day of Ramadan, but they were obtained for only 25 subjects 4 - 5 weeks after Ramadan. By the 28(th) day of Ramadan, it was found that the body weight, BMI, body fat, water and mineral measures had decreased significantly (-0.874 ± 0.859 kg, P Ramadan, body weight and composition had returned to the same levels as on the first day of Ramadan. Ramadan fasting resulted in weight loss even it was only a temporary effect, as the weight was quickly regained within one month after fasting. The catabolism catabolic state, which is related to protein loss, was not triggered during Ramadan fasting. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of weight loss during Ramadan fasting in healthy individuals.

  3. Body fat accumulation in zebrafish is induced by a diet rich in fat and reduced by supplementation with green tea extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Meguro

    Full Text Available Fat-rich diets not only induce obesity in humans but also make animals obese. Therefore, animals that accumulate body fat in response to a high-fat diet (especially rodents are commonly used in obesity research. The effect of dietary fat on body fat accumulation is not fully understood in zebrafish, an excellent model of vertebrate lipid metabolism. Here, we explored the effects of dietary fat and green tea extract, which has anti-obesity properties, on body fat accumulation in zebrafish. Adult zebrafish were allocated to four diet groups and over 6 weeks were fed a high-fat diet containing basal diet plus two types of fat or a low-fat diet containing basal diet plus carbohydrate or protein. Another group of adult zebrafish was fed a high-fat diet with or without 5% green tea extract supplementation. Zebrafish fed the high-fat diets had nearly twice the body fat (visceral, subcutaneous, and total fat volume and body fat volume ratio (body fat volume/body weight of those fed low-fat diets. There were no differences in body fat accumulation between the two high-fat groups, nor were there any differences between the two low-fat groups. Adding green tea extract to the high-fat diet significantly suppressed body weight, body fat volume, and body fat volume ratio compared with the same diet lacking green tea extract. 3-Hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase and citrate synthase activity in the liver and skeletal muscle were significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with green tea extract than in those fed the unsupplemented diet. Our results suggest that a diet rich in fat, instead of protein or carbohydrate, induced body fat accumulation in zebrafish with mechanisms that might be similar to those in mammals. Consequently, zebrafish might serve as a good animal model for research into obesity induced by high-fat diets.

  4. Effects of liraglutide, a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, on body weight, body fat area and body fat-related markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Daisuke; Toyoda, Masao; Kimura, Moritugu; Miyauchi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Sato, Hiroki; Tanaka, Eitaro; Kuriyama, Yusuke; Miyatake, Han; Abe, Makiko; Umezono, Tomoya; Fukagawa, Masafumi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of six-month liraglutide treatment on body weight, visceral and subcutaneous fat and related markers in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 59 patients with type 2 diabetes were treated with liraglutide (0.3 mg/day for ≥1 week and then 0.6 mg/day for ≥1 week, gradually increasing the dose to 0.9 mg/day) for six months. Changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), HbA1c, the fasting blood glucose level, visceral and subcutaneous fat areas, hepatic and renal CT values and the associated markers proinsulin, adiponectin and pentraxin (PTX) 3 were measured. The study included one treatment-naïve patient, 10 patients who were switched from oral antidiabetic drugs and 35 patients who were switched from insulin therapy. At six months after treatment, the preprandial blood glucose levels were higher (148.8±40.5 mg/dL) than the baseline values (130.8±36.7, pbody weight, BMI and abdominal circumference were lower, and the liver/kidney CT ratio improved significantly from 1.64±0.44 at baseline to 1.78±0.42. An analysis of the patients who were not pretreated with insulin resistance ameliorators showed that six months of liraglutide treatment significantly decreased the subcutaneous but not visceral fat areas, significantly decreased the serum adiponectin levels and significantly increased the serum PTX3 levels. In addition to its glucose-lowering effects, liraglutide exhibits weight loss promotion actions, reducing subcutaneous fat areas in particular. The weight and total fat area reduction properties of liraglutide are likely to be beneficial when this medication is used in combination with other oral antidiabetic drugs and insulin.

  5. Prolonged adaptation to fat-rich diet and training; effects on body fat stores and insulin resistance in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance.......To investigate the effect of prolonged adaptation to training and fat- or carbohydrate-rich diet on body composition and insulin resistance....

  6. Quantification of human body fat tissue percentage by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Raudies, Florian; Unrath, Alexander; Neumann, Heiko; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The MRI-based evaluation of the quantity and regional distribution of adipose tissue is one objective measure in the investigation of obesity. The aim of this article was to report a comprehensive and automatic analytical method for the determination of the volumes of subcutaneous fat tissue (SFT) and visceral fat tissue (VFT) in either the whole human body or selected slices or regions of interest. Using an MRI protocol in an examination position that was convenient for volunteers and patients with severe diseases, 22 healthy subjects were examined. The software platform was able to merge MRI scans of several body regions acquired in separate acquisitions. Through a cascade of image processing steps, SFT and VFT volumes were calculated. Whole-body SFT and VFT distributions, as well as fat distributions of defined body slices, were analysed in detail. Complete three-dimensional datasets were analysed in a reproducible manner with as few operator-dependent interventions as possible. In order to determine the SFT volume, the ARTIS (Adapted Rendering for Tissue Intensity Segmentation) algorithm was introduced. The advantage of the ARTIS algorithm was the delineation of SFT volumes in regions in which standard region grow techniques fail. Using the ARTIS algorithm, an automatic SFT volume detection was feasible. MRI data analysis was able to determine SFT and VFT volume percentages using new analytical strategies. With the techniques described, it was possible to detect changes in SFT and VFT percentages of the whole body and selected regions. The techniques presented in this study are likely to be of use in obesity-related investigations, as well as in the examination of longitudinal changes in weight during various medical conditions. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Challenging fat talk: An experimental investigation of reactions to body disparaging conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambwani, Suman; Baumgardner, Megan; Guo, Cai; Simms, Lea; Abromowitz, Emily

    2017-12-01

    Although "fat talk" is associated with increased eating disorder risk, the predictors of fat talk engagement and viable alternatives to these pervasive conversations remain unclear. The current experiment examined responses to fat talk versus feminist-oriented challenging fat talk scenarios. Undergraduate women (N=283) completed baseline questionnaires assessing body dissatisfaction, fat talk engagement, and positive impression management. One week later, they were randomized to view one of the two scenarios, followed by assessment of mood, fat talk engagement, social acceptability, and social likeability. Results indicated that the challenging fat talk vignette (versus the fat talk vignette) yielded less negative affect and fat talk and was perceived as more socially attractive with a more likeable target character. Baseline body dissatisfaction, baseline fat talk tendencies, and momentary negative affect predicted post-exposure fat talk engagement. Current findings highlight possibilities for implementing feminist language and psychoeducation in fat talk prevention efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity of anthropometric procedures to estimate body density and body fat percent in military men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Romélio Rodriguez-Añez

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the validity of the Katch e McArdle’s equation (1973,which uses the circumferences of the arm, forearm and abdominal to estimate the body density and the procedure of Cohen (1986 which uses the circumferences of the neck and abdominal to estimate the body fat percent (%F in military men. Therefore data from 50 military men, with mean age of 20.26 ± 2.04 years serving in Santa Maria, RS, was collected. The circumferences were measured according with Katch e McArdle (1973 and Cohen (1986 procedures. The body density measured (Dm obtained under water weighting was used as criteria and its mean value was 1.0706 ± 0.0100 g/ml. The residual lung volume was estimated using the Goldman’s e Becklake’s equation (1959. The %F was obtained with the Siri’s equation (1961 and its mean value was 12.70 ± 4.71%. The validation criterion suggested by Lohman (1992 was followed. The analysis of the results indicated that the procedure developed by Cohen (1986 has concurrent validity to estimate %F in military men or in other samples with similar characteristics with standard error of estimate of 3.45%. . RESUMO Através deste estudo objetivou-se verificar a validade: da equação de Katch e McArdle (1973 que envolve os perímetros do braço, antebraço e abdômen, para estimar a densidade corporal; e, o procedimento de Cohen (1986 que envolve os perímetros do pescoço e abdômen, para estimar o % de gordura (%G; para militares. Para tanto, coletou-se os dados de 50 militares masculinos, com idade média de 20,26 ± 2,04 anos, lotados na cidade de Santa Maria, RS. Mensurou-se os perímetros conforme procedimentos de Katch e McArdle (1973 e Cohen (1986. Utilizou-se a densidade corporal mensurada (Dm através da pesagem hidrostática como critério de validação, cujo valor médio foi de 1,0706 ± 0,0100 g/ml. Estimou-se o volume residual pela equação de Goldman e Becklake (1959. O %G derivado da Dm estimou

  9. LRP5 regulates human body fat distribution by modulating adipose progenitor biology in a dose- and depot-specific fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Nellie Y; Neville, Matt J; Marinou, Kyriakoula; Hardcastle, Sarah A; Fielding, Barbara A; Duncan, Emma L; McCarthy, Mark I; Tobias, Jonathan H; Gregson, Celia L; Karpe, Fredrik; Christodoulides, Constantinos

    2015-02-03

    Common variants in WNT pathway genes have been associated with bone mass and fat distribution, the latter predicting diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Rare mutations in the WNT co-receptors LRP5 and LRP6 are similarly associated with bone and cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the role of LRP5 in human adipose tissue. Subjects with gain-of-function LRP5 mutations and high bone mass had enhanced lower-body fat accumulation. Reciprocally, a low bone mineral density-associated common LRP5 allele correlated with increased abdominal adiposity. Ex vivo LRP5 expression was higher in abdominal versus gluteal adipocyte progenitors. Equivalent knockdown of LRP5 in both progenitor types dose-dependently impaired β-catenin signaling and led to distinct biological outcomes: diminished gluteal and enhanced abdominal adipogenesis. These data highlight how depot differences in WNT/β-catenin pathway activity modulate human fat distribution via effects on adipocyte progenitor biology. They also identify LRP5 as a potential pharmacologic target for the treatment of cardiometabolic disorders. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abdominal fat is associated with a greater brain reward response to high-calorie food cues in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shan; Romero, Ana; Adam, Tanja C; Hu, Houchun H; Monterosso, John; Page, Kathleen A

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to high-calorie foods may promote overeating by stimulating brain reward pathways and appetite. Abdominal fat has particularly adverse metabolic consequences and may alter brain pathways that regulate feeding behavior. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to test the hypothesis that high-calorie food cues activate brain reward regions and increase appetite, and to examine the relationship between abdominal fat and brain reward responsiveness in Hispanic women. fMRI was performed while 13 volunteers viewed 12 blocks of pictures of food and non-food items. Participants rated hunger and food desire after each block of pictures. Brain activation to high-calorie foods was determined by calculating a contrast of high-calorie food minus non-food images. Pearson's correlations were used to test the relationship between brain reward activation and waist circumference. High-calorie food images activated brain reward regions (Z > 2.3, P calorie foods positively correlated with waist circumference, independent of BMI (r = 0.621, P = 0.031). Exposure to high-calorie food images activates brain reward pathways and increases appetitive drive in Hispanic females. Abdominal fat, independent of BMI, parallels striatal responsiveness to high-calorie food images. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  11. The Body Fat-Cognition Relationship in Healthy Older Individuals: Does Gynoid vs Android Distribution Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, R; Pesce, C; De Vito, G; Boreham, C A G

    2017-01-01

    To examine the relationship between regional and whole body fat accumulation and core cognitive executive functions. Cross-sectional study. 78 healthy men and women aged between 65 and 75 years recruited through consumer's database. DXA measured percentage total body fat, android, gynoid distribution and android/gynoid ratio; inhibition and working memory updating through Random Number Generation test and cognitive flexibility by Trail Making test. First-order partial correlations between regional body fat and cognitive executive function were computed partialling out the effects of whole body fat. Moderation analysis was performed to verify the effect of gender on the body fat-cognition relationship. Results showed a differentiated pattern of fat-cognition relationship depending on fat localization and type of cognitive function. Statistically significant relationships were observed between working memory updating and: android fat (r = -0.232; p = 0.042), gynoid fat (r = 0.333; p = 0.003) and android/gynoid ratio (r = -0.272; p = 0.017). Separating genders, the only significant relationship was observed in females between working memory updating and gynoid fat (r = 0.280; p = 0.045). In spite of gender differences in both working memory updating and gynoid body fat levels, moderation analysis did not show an effect of gender on the relationship between gynoid fat and working memory updating. Results suggest a protective effect of gynoid body fat and a deleterious effect of android body fat. Although excessive body fat increases the risk of developing CDV, metabolic and cognitive problems, maintaining a certain proportion of gynoid fat may help prevent cognitive decline, particularly in older women. Guidelines for optimal body composition maintenance for the elderly should not target indiscriminate weight loss, but weight maintenance through body fat/lean mass control based on non-pharmacological tools such as physical exercise, known to have protective effects

  12. Acoustic wave therapy for cellulite, body shaping and fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Camozzato, Fernanda Oliveira; Silva, Aline Flor; Siega, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Cellulite is a common aesthetic condition that affects almost every woman. To evaluate the efficacy of acoustic wave therapy (AWT) for cellulite and body shaping. In this open-label, single-centre trial, 30 women presenting moderate or severe cellulite underwent 12 sessions of AWT on the gluteus and back of the thighs, over six weeks. The following assessments were performed at baseline, and up to 12 weeks after treatment: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), body circumference measurements, subcutaneous fat thickness by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), quality of life related by Celluqol ® and a satisfaction questionnaire. The treatment reduced cellulite severity from baseline up to 12 weeks after the last treatment session (subjects presenting severe cellulite: 60% to 38%). The mean CSS shifted from 11.1 to 9.5 (p cellulite appearance and reduce body circumferences.

  13. Sonographically Assessed Intra-Abdominal Fat And Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Adolescents with Extreme Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Moss

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The metabolic and cardiovascular risk of obesity is predominantly defined through the amount of intra-abdominal fat (IAF. Regarding this risk and the benefits of weight reduction gender-specific differences have been described. The aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific relationship between IAF assessed via ultrasound and the cardiometabolic risk profile in extremely obese adolescents before and after weight loss. Methods: In 107 consecutively admitted adolescents (n = 59 girls, mean age 15.4 ± 2.6 years boys and 15.1 ± 2.1 years girls, mean BMI z-score 3.2 ± 0.6 boys and 3.5 ± 0.6 girls anthropometric and fasting laboratory chemical parameters were measured before and after an in-patient long-term therapy (mean durance 5.6 ± 2.3 months. IAF was determined by measuring the intra-abdominal depth (IAD via ultrasound. Results: IAD was higher in boys as compared to girls (58.0 ± 22.4 mm vs. 51.3 ± 16.0 mm. IAD values were positively associated with BMI-z scores, waist circumferences, HOMA-IR and serum levels of γGT, hs-CRP and IL-6 in both genders. In boys, but not in girls, IAD was significantly correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, serum levels of triglycerides, ALT as well as adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol. After a marked mean weight loss of -27.1 ± 16.2 kg (-20.1 ± 7.9% in boys and of -20.5 ± 11.5 kg (-17.3 ± 7.1% in girls, IAD decreased by -20.7 ± 16.2 mm (--32.4 ± 16.9% in boys and by -18.4 ± 12,7 mm (-34.3 ± 18.4% in girls, resulting in more pronounced ameliorations of cardiovascular risk factors in boys than in girls. Conclusions: The present study indicates that IAF assessed by ultrasound is a good indicator for the cardiometabolic risk factor profile in extremely obese adolescents. Associations between IAF and risk factors are more pronounced in boys than in girls.

  14. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul-Fadhilah, Abdullah; Teo, Pey Sze; Huybrechts, Inge; Foo, Leng Huat

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2%) fell in the normal body mass index (BMI) ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50%) were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA) showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF) compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  15. Infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity in Malaysian school-aged adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Nurul-Fadhilah

    Full Text Available Unhealthy dietary pattern increases the risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in growing children and adolescents. However, the way the habitual pattern of breakfast consumption influences body composition and risk of obesity in adolescents is not well defined. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess any associations between breakfast consumption practices and body composition profiles in 236 apparently healthy adolescents aged 12 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary behaviour and lifestyle practices and a dietary food frequency questionnaire were used. Body composition and adiposity indices were determined using standard anthropometric measurement protocols and dual energy χ-ray absorptiometry (DXA. Mean age of the participants was 15.3±1.9 years. The majority of participants (71.2% fell in the normal body mass index (BMI ranges. Breakfast consumption patterns showed that only half of the participants (50% were consuming breakfast daily. Gender-specific multivariate analyses (ANCOVA showed that in both boys and girls, those eating breakfast at least 5 times a week had significantly lower body weight, body mass index (BMI, BMI z-scores, waist circumference, body fat mass and percent body fat (%BF compared to infrequent breakfast eaters, after adjustment for age, household income, pubertal status, eating-out and snacking practices, daily energy intakes, and daily physical activity levels. The present findings indicate that infrequent breakfast consumption is associated with higher body adiposity and abdominal obesity. Therefore, daily breakfast consumption with healthy food choices should be encouraged in growing children and adolescents to prevent adiposity during these critical years of growth.

  16. Tomografia computadorizada na avaliação da distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal de ratos alimentados com rações hiperlipídicas após desnutrição neonatal Computed tomography in the evaluation of abdominal fat distribution associated with a hyperlipidic diet in previously undernourished rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Soares da Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever repercussões da ração suplementada com óleo de soja ou óleo de canola, por meio da tomografia computadorizada, na distribuição do tecido adiposo abdominal, após desmame de ratos desnutridos durante a lactação. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Ratas lactantes submetidas a restrição alimentar (RA em 50%, de acordo com o consumo das lactantes controles (C. Após o desmame, filhotes desnutridos receberam ração contendo 19% de óleo de soja (RA-soja 19% ou óleo de canola (RA-canola 19%. Os filhotes do grupo controle receberam ração contendo 7% de óleo de soja (C-soja 7%. Aos 60 dias de idade, foram realizadas medidas corporais e das áreas de tecido adiposo abdominal por meio de tomografia computadorizada. Após sacrifício, tecido adiposo abdominal foi excisado e pesado. Os dados foram expressos como média ± erro-padrão da média, considerando o nível de significância de p OBJECTIVE: To study, by means of computed tomography, the repercussion of post-weaning dietary supplementation with soy oil or canola oil on the abdominal fat distribution in previously undernourished rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dams submitted to 50% food restriction (FR compared with dams receiving a standard diet (C. After weaning, undernourished rats received a diet supplemented with 19% soy oil (19% FR-soy or 19% canola oil (19% FR-canola. Rats in the control group received a diet with 7% soy oil (7% C-soy until the end of the experimental period. At the age of 60 days old, the rats were submitted to computed tomography for evaluation of total abdominal and visceral fat area. The rats' length and body mass were evaluated and, after their sacrifice, the abdominal fat depots were excised weighted. The data are reported as mean ± mean standard error, with p < 0.05 considered as significance level. RESULTS: Rats in the group 19% FR presented similar length, body weight and visceral fat mass. As a whole, the evaluations have shower results

  17. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy for the diagnosis and typing of systemic amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Yessica; Collins, A Bernard; Stone, James R

    2018-02-01

    In the past, the diagnosis and typing of amyloidosis often required an invasive biopsy of an internal organ, such as the heart or kidneys. Abdominal fat pad excisional biopsy (FPEB) offers a less invasive approach, but the sensitivity of this technique has been unclear. To determine the sensitivity of FPEB for immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis, we performed a retrospective clinicopathologic analysis of 97 patients who had undergone FPEB, of which 16 were positive for amyloid. The most significant pretest feature predicting a positive FPEB was a serum free light chain κ/λ ratio less than .5, and in this group of patients the probability of a positive biopsy was dependent on the size of the biopsy (P=.004). In FPEBs, the amyloid was present in multiple distinct patterns: pericellular, septal, medium-sized vessel, small vessel, and nodular. For patients with AL amyloidosis for which direct typing was attempted using the FPEB tissue, the amyloid was successfully typed in the FPEB in 90% of cases. The overall sensitivity of FPEB was 79% for AL amyloidosis and 12% for ATTR amyloidosis (P=.0003). In patients with AL amyloidosis, the sensitivity of FPEB was dependent on biopsy size, with small biopsies (≤700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~50%, and large biopsies (>700 mm 3 ) having a sensitivity of ~100%. This study demonstrates that FPEB has high sensitivity for AL amyloidosis, and can be routinely used to type the amyloid. However, FPEB has low sensitivity for ATTR amyloidosis in our patient population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  19. Radiation dose in abdominal examinations with whole body computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moedder, U.

    1979-01-01

    The somatic and genetic radiation exposure in abdominal CT examinations with Delta 50 and Delta 50 fast was measured via thermoluminescent dosimeters and compared with the exposure in conventional methods of X-ray diagnosis. With Delta 50 fast, the dose surface product for one examination of the pancreas is about 2 900 Rcm 2 , and for an examination of the kidneys about 3 400 Rcm 2 . It is thus comparable with a gastrointestinal examination or a urogram. The gonadal doses determined for CT are lower than those received from standard X-ray examinations. (orig.) [de

  20. Current and adolescent body fatness and body fat distribution are related to carotid atherosclerosis and large artery stiffness at age 36.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferreira, I.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Kemper, H.C.G.; Seidell, J.C.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Body fat and its distribution are determinants of cardiovascular disease but the underlying mechanisms of these adverse effects are poorly understood. We therefore investigated (1) the cross-sectional relationship between estimates of body fatness and its distribution on the one hand and

  1. Body image, nutritional status, abdominal strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents practicing sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Alexandre; Januário, Renata Selvatici B; Casonatto, Juliano; Sonoo, Christi Noriko

    2013-01-01

    To verify the association between nutritional status, physical fitness, and body image in children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 401 students (236 boys and 165 girls) aged between 8 and 16 years that were regularly enrolled in sports in the local clubs. The nutritional status was evaluated by the body mass index. Students were assessed for satisfaction with body image, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness. The variables were assessed on the same day following a standardized order. In order to verify relationships between variables, the chi-square test was used. Afterwards, the binary logistic regression was applied to identify the magnitude of the associations, considering p<0.05 as significant. Association was found between body image and body mass index (p=0.001), abdominal strength resistance (p=0.005) and cardiorespiratory fitness (p=0.001). The Odds Ratio for presenting the body image insatisfaction for those who have not achieved the expected values for the health criteria in abdominal strength resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness were 2.14 and 2.42 times respectively, and for those with overweight and obesity, 2.87 times. Insatisfaction with body image is associated with body mass index and also with physical fitness, abdominal strength resistance, and cardiorespiratory fitness variables.

  2. Eating disorder risk and body dissatisfaction based on muscularity and body fat in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Carrie; George, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between risk of eating disorders, body dissatisfaction, and perceptual attractiveness in male university students. Research was conducted January-April 2012 and involved 339 male and 441 female students. Eating disorder risk was assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT) and body dissatisfaction and perceptual attractiveness determined with the Bodybuilder Image Grid (BIG). There was a positive correlation (r=.16, pEAT and fat dissatisfaction and a negative correlation (r=-.14, pEAT score indicating that they were at risk for an eating disorder. Males chose a significantly more muscular and leaner body type than what females chose to be attractive. College-aged males may be at risk for eating disorders based on distortions in their perceived ideal body image, both for fat and muscle.

  3. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  4. Thyme (Thymus vulgaris extract consumption darkens liver, lowers blood cholesterol, proportional liver and abdominal fat weights in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Abdulkarimi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A study with 160-day-old broiler chickens was conducted to investigate the effects of Thymus vulgaris (Thyme extract in drinking water on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL-c, low density lipoprotein (LDL-c and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-c, proportional abdominal fat, liver weights and liver color index. The chickens were divided into four groups and received 0 (ZT, 0.2 (LT, 0.4 (MT or 0.6% (HT thyme extract from day one to day 42 of age. All the birds receiving the Thyme extract had lower plasma total cholesterol, LDL-c concentrations and proportional liver weights compared with the control birds (P<0.05. Liver absolute weight of MT birds and proportional fat weight of HT birds were lower than those of ZT birds (P<0.05. Liver color index of HT and MT birds was higher than that of ZT birds. In orthogonal comparisons, thyme extract supplementation diminished (P<0.05 the plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-c and VLDL-c, decreased the proportional and absolute liver weight and proportional abdominal fat weight and increased the (P<0.05 liver colour index as compared to control. Significant negative correlation (P<0.01 was found between the thyme extract supplementation and plasma cholesterol, proportional abdominal fat weight and liver proportional weight, and a positive correlation (P<0.01 between the thyme extract supplementation and liver colour index. In conclusion, Thyme consumption in broiler chickens could improve the carcass quality to the consumers and net returns of the producers.

  5. Comparison of metabolic profile and abdominal fat distribution between karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency and age matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Seda; Yesil, Gozde; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Yildiz, Seyma

    2014-11-01

    We designed a prospective case-control study in order to investigate the lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity, presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the abdominal fat distribution in karyotypically normal women with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Anthropometric measurements, FSH, estradiol, total testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), free androgen index (FAI), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, the prevalence of MetS and ultrasonographic abdominal fat measurements were assessed in 56 women with POI and 59 healthy controls at the same age range. Serum levels of T, SHBG and FAI were not significantly different between both groups. Total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were higher in women with POI. There were no differences in glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglyceride levels between the two groups. A significant positive correlation was identified between T and TG and also between FAI and LDL-C; SHBG levels were correlated inversely with FSH, and positively with HDL-C in women with POI. The presence of MetS was significantly higher in women with POI. The subcutaneous, preperitoneal and visceral fat thicknesses were not significantly different between the groups. Early cessation of ovulatory function may associated with higher levels of serum TC and HDL-C, but does not seem to cause differences in abdominal fat distribution in women with POI. POI is associated with higher risk of MetS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out.

  7. Assessment of body fatness in childhood obesity: evaluation of laboratory and anthropometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandini, L.G.; Dietz, W.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The identification of obesity as a pathological diagnosis depends on an accurate assessment of body fatness and a correlation of fatness with pathological consequences. Because total body fat varies with body weight, the proportion of body weight that is fat is probably a more reliable indicator of risk. Among obese children and adolescents, several problems have hindered the development of accurate clinical measures of percent body fat and total body fat. First, the use of direct methods to measure body composition is limited by expense and labor. Second, the relationship between anthropometric indexes and body composition in obese children and adolescents has not been intensively studied. Third, sample sizes of normal weight children have been too small to permit the development of diagnostic criteria. Fourth, the triceps skinfold is less reproducible in overweight subjects. Increases in lean body mass in obese adolescents may confound the use of the body mass index as a measure of adiposity. Current laboratory methods for the measurement of body composition include: (1) underwater weighing, (2) 40K counting, (3) isotopic dilution measures, (4) neutron activation, and (5) electrical impedance. This article examines relationships between those methods and anthropometry in the measurement of fatness in children and adolescents, as well as the difficulties in measuring body fatness and the importance of body fat distribution and its relationship to morbidity in children. Current evidence suggests an association of morbidity and upper segment obesity in adults. Corresponding studies in children and adolescents are yet to be carried out

  8. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, body fat distribution and insulin in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, L; Megia, A; Grande, C; González-Gancedo, P; Pallardo, F

    1995-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones may be involved in determining body fat distribution in men. Recent evidence suggests that insulin may be an important regulator of sex hormones metabolism in men. Few data, however, are available on the relationship of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-SO4), a major secretory product of the adrenal gland, to regional distribution of body fat or to insulin levels in men. We therefore examined the association of DHEA-SO4, total testosterone and free testosterone to waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and to subscapular-to-triceps ratio (STR) in 34 obese, otherwise healthy men. In addition, we examined the relation between these sex steroid hormones and insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test. DHEA-SO4 was significantly positively related to STR and significantly negatively related to insulin area. These associations remained significant after adjustment for age and obesity. Using multiple linear regression, DHEA-SO4 was independently related to both STR and insulin area. Without claiming any causality in the observed associations, we conclude that, in obese men, high DHEA-SO4 levels are related to centralized adiposity, while low DHEA-SO4 levels are related to hyperinsulinemia.

  9. Functional training reduces body fat and improves functional fitness and cholesterol levels in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Lucas M; Fortaleza, Ana C; Rossi, Fabrício E; Diniz, Tiego A; Codogno, Jamile S; Gobbo, Luis A; Gobbi, Sebastião; Freitas, Ismael F

    2017-04-01

    This randomized clinical trial with concealed allocations, and blinding of the assessors and the data analyst, was aimed at determining the effects of 16 weeks of functional training on the body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles in postmenopausal women. The study began with 64 subjects (N.=32 functional training and N.=32 control group) and ended with 50 subjects (N.=28 functional training and N.=22 control group). The exercise was conducted in circuit training format with 8 stations related to the development of muscular strength (using elastic bands for resistance) plus 3 stations focused on balance, coordination, and agility. The training session also incorporated an 18 to 30 minute walk. The control group did not participate in the exercise programs during the period of study. The participants were evaluated before and after the training period as regards their body composition (fat and lean mass), functional fitness, abdominal strength and blood chemistry variables. Significant reductions were observed in all body composition variables related to fat (FM= -3.4 and Android FM= -7.7%) (Pfunctional fitness components had significant improvements in coordination (-33.3%), strength (66.5%), agility (-19.5%) and aerobic capacity (-7%), and significant improvement in abdominal strength (188.2%). We observed significant improvements in total cholesterol (-4.4%) and HDL (-9.9%). The observed data lead us to conclude that functional training utilizing with elastic bands and unstable bases causes significantly improved in body composition, functional fitness and lipid profiles.

  10. Body composition versus body fat percentage as predictors of posture/balance control mobility and stability among football players under 21 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Zerf

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Overhead athletes require a delicate balance of shoulder mobility and stability in order to meet the functional demands of their respective sport. While musculoskeletal symptoms (LBP [1] is one of warning against the consequences recorded in abnormal posture, bending, twisting, gardening and exercise levels among the sportsmen. Based on this theorem, the current study aims to determine the strong factor which affects mobility and stability among soccer players under 21 years. Material: 163 male players qualified from the Algerian football championship, engaged in the present study, selected by the intentional manner their average age 19,56±1.22 years. They were tested by saving tests (Body Fat Percentage (BFP -Abdominal test (Abdo - Modified Bass Test of Dynamic Balance (DB and standing balance (SB. As a statistical model, we chose regression analysis to predict the superiority of the variables chosen in the current study. Results: Based on the analysis statistics, we confirm: a The high percentage of BFP is a great risk on the levels strengthens abdominal. b The maintenance of stability (SB depends on the additional BFP associated with the BMI ratio as being higher factors predicting the total amount of body weight related to the risks of instability. c Maintaining dynamic mobility (DB with respect to the displacement of the centre of gravity and its base support in the motion chain is based on excess body fat (BFP in relation to body mass index (BMI and Abdominal muscle strengthening levels (ABDO, as higher factors predicting the amount of weight gain. Conclusions: Founded on the variances acquired by the search, we highlight the relationship between body mass index (BMI and body fat percent (BFP as betters index predicting the influence of total amount body weight on mobility and stability among soccer players up to 21 years age. Evidence guide us to recommend, the evaluation of body composition as a part of body management and

  11. Two-year changes in circulating adiponectin, ectopic fat distribution and body composition in response to weight-loss diets: the POUNDS Lost Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Huang, T; Wang, M; Zheng, Y; Wang, T; Heianza, Y; Sun, D; Smith, S R; Bray, G A; Sacks, F M; Qi, L

    2016-11-01

    Adiponectin has a pivotal role in linking fat distribution with cardiometabolic disorders. We investigated the associations of long-term changes in circulating adiponectin with body composition and fat distribution at different abdominal depots in response to weight-loss dietary interventions, as well as the modification effect of sex. In the 2-year Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) Trial, 811 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to one of four diets varying in macronutrient intakes. Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were repeatedly measured at baseline, 6 months and 2 years. Body composition and fat distribution were repeatedly measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (n=424) and computed tomography (n=195). Over the 2-year intervention, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, follow-up time, diet group, baseline body mass index and baseline level of respective outcome trait, increase of adiponectin was significantly associated with reduction of total fat mass (FM), total fat-free mass (FFM), whole body total percentage of fat mass (FM%), percentage of trunk fat (TF%), total adipose tissue (TAT), and adipose tissue mass at different depots including visceral (VAT), deep subcutaneous (DSAT) and superficial subcutaneous (SSAT; P<0.03 for each). The relations with FM, FM%, TF%, VAT and DSAT were significantly modified by sex (P for interaction=0.02, 0.005 and <0.001, 0.002, 0.03, respectively) with greater reductions associated with increase of adiponectin in men than in women. Long-term changes in circulating adiponectin were differentially associated with improvement of body composition and abdominal fat distribution in men and women.

  12. Effects of growth hormone administration on the body composition and hormone levels of genetically fat sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, S.M.; Jopson, N.B.; Littlejohn, R.P.; Stuart, S.K.; Veenvliet, B.A.; Young, M.J.; Suttie, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Coopworth sheep selected for low (lean) or high (fat) backfat have large differences in plasma GH profiles. Fat genotype ram lambs (5 months old) were treated with growth hormone (GH) to simulate the plasma GH profiles of lean sheep and investigate whether exogenous GH could modify carcass fatness. For 77 days, bovine GH was administered at 25mug/kg live weight per day either as a single, daily subcutaneous bolus (fat bolus) or via portable pulsatile infusion pumps (fat pump) which delivered GH solution at 90-min intervals into a jugular catheter. Measurements of body composition were made by computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonic scanning during the trial, with linear carcass measurements and proximate analysis undertaken at the end of the experiment. Before treatments began, mean plasma GH levels were lower (P < 0.01) in fat control (0.34 mug/l) than in lean lambs (1.1 mug/l). Several weeks after the start of the trial, mean plasma GH had increased in both fat bolus (1.2mug/l) and fat pump (0.45mug/l) treatment lambs with major changes in the pulsatility relative to the fat control lambs. Although these changes were maintained in the fat bolus lambs, by the end of the trial there was no significant difference in mean plasma GH between fat pump and fat control sheep. Throughout the trial, plasma IGF-1 levels were higher in fat bolus, fat pump and lean lambs than in fat control lambs. Analysis of body composition data over the GH treatment period revealed that the slope of the allometric equation for total fat relative to empty body weight was lower in the fat bolus lambs (1.07) than in the lean lambs (1.50) with fat control and fat pump treatment lambs intermediate (1.30 and 1.36, respectively). Subcutaneous fat was later maturing in lean lambs than in fat control and bolus treatment lambs when regressed against total fat, with the fat pump treatment lambs being intermediate. Linear carcass measurements revealed changes due to GH administration in the

  13. [Predictive accuracy of body mass index in estimating body fatness measured by bioelectrical impedance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Fernando; Reyes, Eliana; Rimler, Olga; Rios, Francisca

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the performance of body mass index (BMI) for the diagnosis of obesity and as a predictor of body fatness in adult Chilean subjects. We conducted a study in 433 women (18-73 years old; BMI: 19.7 to 69.7 kg/m2) and 264 men (18-83 y.; BMI: 19.1 to 54.8 kg/m2). Bioelectrical resistance was measured by impedance method and fat mass percent (FM%) was calculated by fatness-specific equations developed by Segal et al. Obesity was defined as a BMI of at least 30 kg/m2. Increased fatness was defined by the FM% cut-off points of at least 25% for men and at least 30% for women. Sixty-four percent of women and 23.6% of men with BMI below 30 kg/m2 had FM% higher than 30% and 25%, respectively. A value of BMI of 26 kg/m2 in women and 30 kg/m2 in men had the best agreement to the cut-off points of fatness according to sensitivity vs. specificity analysis The following equations were developed to predict individual fatness: women FM% = 0.96 x BMI + 0.154 x age + 1.44 (r2 = 0.75; standard error 3.8%); men FM% = 0.99 x BMI + 0.141 x age - 9.914 (r2 = 0.66; standard error 4.4%). Differences between measured and predicted FM% presented a wide variation, with a range of +/- 2 sd of 7.5% in women and 8.8% in men. The commonly used value of BMI 330 kg/m2 as a cut-off point for obesity does not have adequate sensitivity and specificity for the screening of increased fatness subjects, specially in women. In this study BMI shows a low reliability as a predictor of individual body fatness, particularly in men and in subjects with a BMI below 30 kg/m2.

  14. Body Fat Measurements in Singaporean Adults Using Four Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyan Bi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have been conducted to measure body composition in Asian populations. In this study, we determined the percent body fat (PBF by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, air-displacement plethysmography (ADP or BOD POD, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and skinfold (SKF in 445 healthy Singaporean adults. We observed that the BOD POD, BIA and SKF estimates of PBF were highly correlated with that from DEXA (as a reference method among Singaporean adults. However, they all underestimated PBF (differences of 3.9% for BOD POD, 5.6% for BIA and 12.5% for SKF. Our results filled a gap in the literature by testing the relationships between DEXA and BOD POD, BIA and SKF in a large sample with a wide range of body mass index (BMI from 16.1 to 37.5 kg/m2 and age from 21 to 69.2 years. The differences of PBF measured by different methods were dependent on age, gender and ethnicity. No significant difference was observed between DEXA and BOD POD in men aged > 40 or in BMI tertile 3. However, the mean difference between DEXA and BOD POD was significant in women. Different measuring methods of estimating PBF therefore must be cautiously interpreted.

  15. Low subcutaneous thigh fat is a risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, independently of high abdominal fat. The Health ABC Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, M B; Visser, M; Dekker, J M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; de Rekeneire, N.; Kanaya, A.M.; Newman, A.B.; Tylavsky, Frances A; Seidell, J C

    AIMS: We investigated whether low subcutaneous thigh fat is an independent risk factor for unfavourable glucose and lipid levels, and whether these associations differ between sexes, and between white and black adults. Our secondary aim was to investigate which body composition characteristics (lean

  16. Effects of a moderate low-carbohydrate diet on preferential abdominal fat loss and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasakabe T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Tae Sasakabe1, Hajime Haimoto2, Hiroyuki Umegaki3, Kenji Wakai41Department of Clinical Nutrition, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Haimoto Clinic, Yayoi, Kasugai, Aichi, Japan; 3Department of Geriatrics, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan; 4Department of Preventive Medicine, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsurumai, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi, JapanBackground: Reports have shown that visceral adipose tissue (VAT is more closely linked to cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs than subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT. We aimed to elucidate preferential abdominal fat loss and the correlations between abdominal fat reductions and changes in CRFs achieved with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet (LCD in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM.Patients and methods: Fifty-two outpatients (28 men and 24 women, mean age ± SD: 60.0 ± 10.5 years with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels ≥ 6.5% were on an LCD for 6 months. Over a 6-month period, we measured their abdominal fat distribution (using CT and assessed CRFs, including body mass index (BMI, HbA1c, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum insulin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglyceride levels.Results: The patients showed good compliance with the LCD (1812 ± 375 kcal/day, % carbo-hydrate:fat:protein = 35:40:19 for men; 1706 ± 323 kcal/day, % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 41:36:21 for women. Significant decreases (P = 0.05 in BMI and HbA1c levels were observed, along with an increase in HDL-C (P = 0.021 in men and a decrease in LDL-C (P = 0.001 in women. VAT (–21.6 cm², P < 0.001 in men; –19.6 cm², P < 0.001 in women and SAT (–13.5 cm², P = 0.004 in men; –19.1 cm², P = 0.003 in women significantly decreased. The loss of VAT (%ΔVAT was greater than that of SAT (%ΔSAT in women (P = 0.022. A similar but not significant predominance of VAT loss

  17. Association of body fat and vitamin D status and the effect of body fat on the response to vitamin D supplementation in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Ida Marie; Lundby, M.; Mølgaard, C.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and obesity are both prevalent conditions in the northern countries, especially among immigrants. The aims were to assess the possible relationship between body fat and vitamin D status, and to investigate the effect of body fat on the response to oral vitamin D supplementation...... in Pakistani immigrants in Denmark. Data were obtained from a 1-year double-blind randomised controlled trial with oral vitamin D supplementation. A total of 122 women and men received either vitamin D3 supplementation (10 or 20 μg/day) or placebo. No association was found between body fat percentage...... no effect on the response to vitamin D supplementation....

  18. Influence of Regular Exercise on Body Fat and Eating Patterns of Patients with Intermittent Claudication

    OpenAIRE

    Leicht, Anthony; Crowther, Robert; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the impact of regular supervised exercise on body fat, assessed via anthropometry, and eating patterns of peripheral arterial disease patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Body fat, eating patterns and walking ability were assessed in 11 healthy adults (Control) and age- and mass-matched IC patients undertaking usual care (n = 10; IC-Con) or supervised exercise (12-months; n = 10; IC-Ex). At entry, all groups exhibited similar body fat and eating patterns. Maximal ...

  19. Motor competence and cardiorespiratory fitness have greater influence on body fatness than physical activity across time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, R A; Pfeiffer, K A; Bugge, A

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the longitudinal associations among physical activity (PA), motor competence (MC), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak ), and body fatness across 7 years, and also analyzed the possible mediation effects of PA, MC, and VO2peak on the relationships with body fatness. This was a seven...... battery. VO2peak was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Body fatness was determined by the sum of four skinfolds. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations among PA, MC, VO2peak, and body fatness and the potential mediation effects...

  20. Effects of GH and/or sex steroid administration on abdominal subcutaneous and visceral fat in healthy aged women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, T; Harman, S M; Hees, P; Shapiro, E; Christmas, C; Bellantoni, M F; Stevens, T E; O'Connor, K G; Pabst, K M; St Clair, C; Sorkin, J D; Blackman, M R

    2001-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced GH, IGF-I, and sex steroid axis activity and with increased abdominal fat. We employed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, noncross-over design to study the effects of 6 months of administration of GH alone (20 microg/kg BW), sex hormone alone (hormone replacement therapy in women, testosterone enanthate in men), or GH + sex hormone on total abdominal area, abdominal sc fat, and visceral fat in 110 healthy women (n = 46) and men (n = 64), 65-88 yr old (mean, 72 yr). GH administration increased IGF-I levels in women (P = 0.05) and men (P = 0.0001), with the increment in IGF-I levels being higher in men (P = 0.05). Sex steroid administration increased levels of estrogen and testosterone in women and men, respectively (P = 0.05). In women, neither GH, hormone replacement therapy, nor GH + hormone replacement therapy altered total abdominal area, sc fat, or visceral fat significantly. In contrast, in men, administration of GH and GH + testosterone enanthate decreased total abdominal area by 3.9% and 3.8%, respectively, within group and vs. placebo (P = 0.05). Within-group comparisons revealed that sc fat decreased by 10% (P = 0.01) after GH, and by 14% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, sc fat decreased by 14% (P = 0.05) after GH, by 7% (P = 0.05) after testosterone enanthate, and by 16% (P = 0.0005) after GH + testosterone enanthate. Compared with placebo, visceral fat did not decrease significantly after administration of GH, testosterone enanthate, or GH + testosterone enanthate. These data suggest that in healthy older individuals, GH and/or sex hormone administration elicits a sexually dimorphic response on sc abdominal fat. The generally proportionate reductions we observed in sc and visceral fat, after 6 months of GH administration in healthy aged men, contrast with the disproportionate reduction of visceral fat reported after a similar period of GH treatment of nonelderly GH

  1. Effects of diet macronutrient composition on body composition and fat distribution during weight maintenance and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Amy M; Goree, Laura Lee; Ellis, Amy C; Chandler-Laney, Paula C; Casazza, Krista; Lockhart, Mark E; Gower, Barbara A

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative aspects of diet may affect body composition and propensity for weight gain or loss. We tested the hypothesis that consumption of a relatively low glycemic load (GL) diet would reduce total and visceral adipose tissue under both eucaloric and hypocaloric conditions. Participants were 69 healthy overweight men and women. Body composition was assessed by DXA and fat distribution by CT scan at baseline, after 8 weeks of a eucaloric diet intervention, and after 8 weeks of a hypocaloric (1000 kcal/day deficit) diet intervention. Participants were provided all food for both phases, and randomized to either a low GL diet (40) or high GL diet (>75 points per 1000 kcal, n = 29). After the eucaloric phase, participants who consumed the low GL diet had 11% less intra-abdominal fat (IAAT) than those who consumed the high GL diet (P GL diet had 4.4% less total fat mass than those who consumed the high GL diet (P GL diet may affect energy partitioning, both inducing reduction in IAAT independent of weight change, and enhancing loss of fat relative to lean mass during weight loss. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  2. Aging human body: changes in bone, muscle and body fat with consequent changes in nutrient intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JafariNasabian, Pegah; Inglis, Julia E; Reilly, Wendimere; Kelly, Owen J; Ilich, Jasminka Z

    2017-07-01

    Aging affects almost all physiological processes, but changes in body composition and body phenotype are most observable. In this review, we focus on these changes, including loss of bone and muscle and increase in body fat or redistribution of the latter, possibly leading to osteosarcopenic obesity syndrome. We also address low-grade chronic inflammation, prevalent in aging adults and a cause of many disorders including those associated with body composition. Changes in dietary intake and nutritional requirements of older individuals, that all may lead to some disturbances on tissue and organ levels, are discussed as well. Finally, we discuss the hormonal changes in the aging body, considering each of the tissues, bone, muscle and fat as separate endocrine organs, but yet in the continuous interface and communication with each other. Although there are still many unanswered questions in this field, this review will enable the readers to better understand the aging human body and measures needing to be implemented toward reducing impaired health and disability in older individuals. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Independent Aftereffects of Fat and Muscle: Implications for neural encoding, body space representation, and body image disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Daniel; Stephen, Ian D; Mond, Jonathan; Stevenson, Richard J; Brooks, Kevin R

    2017-01-10

    Although research addressing body size misperception has focused on socio-cognitive processes, such as internalization of the "ideal" images of bodies in the media, the perceptual basis of this phenomenon remains largely unknown. Further, most studies focus on body size per se even though this depends on both fat and muscle mass - variables that have very different relationships with health. We tested visual adaptation as a mechanism for inducing body fat and muscle mass misperception, and assessed whether these two dimensions of body space are processed independently. Observers manipulated the apparent fat and muscle mass of bodies to make them appear "normal" before and after inspecting images from one of four adaptation conditions (increased fat/decreased fat/increased muscle/decreased muscle). Exposure resulted in a shift in the point of subjective normality in the direction of the adapting images along the relevant (fat or muscle) axis, suggesting that the neural mechanisms involved in body fat and muscle perception are independent. This supports the viability of adaptation as a model of real-world body size misperception, and extends its applicability to clinical manifestations of body image disturbance that entail not only preoccupation with thinness (e.g., anorexia nervosa) but also with muscularity (e.g., muscle dysmorphia).

  4. Interfraction variation in lung tumor position with abdominal compression during stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mampuya, Wambaka Ange; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Ueki, Nami; Iizuka, Yusuke; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro [Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-applied Therapy, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Fujimoto, Takahiro; Yano, Shinsuke [Division of Clinical Radiology Service, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To assess the effect of abdominal compression on the interfraction variation in tumor position in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a larger series of patients with large tumor motion amplitude.Methods: Thirty patients with lung tumor motion exceeding 8 mm who underwent SBRT were included in this study. After translational and rotational initial setup error was corrected based on bone anatomy, CBCT images were acquired for each fraction. The residual interfraction variation was defined as the difference between the centroid position of the visualized target in three dimensions derived from CBCT scans and those derived from averaged intensity projection images. The authors compared the magnitude of the interfraction variation in tumor position between patients treated with [n= 16 (76 fractions)] and without [n= 14 (76 fractions)] abdominal compression.Results: The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the motion amplitude in the longitudinal direction before abdominal compression was 19.9 ± 7.3 (range, 10–40) mm and was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 12.4 ± 5.8 (range, 5–30) mm with compression. The greatest variance of the interfraction variation with abdominal compression was observed in the longitudinal direction, with a mean ± SD of 0.79 ± 3.05 mm, compared to −0.60 ± 2.10 mm without abdominal compression. The absolute values of the 95th percentile of the interfraction variation for one side in each direction were 3.97/6.21 mm (posterior/anterior), 4.16/3.76 mm (caudal/cranial), and 2.90/2.32 mm (right/left) without abdominal compression, and 2.14/5.03 mm (posterior/anterior), 3.93/9.23 mm (caudal/cranial), and 2.37/5.45 mm (right/left) with abdominal compression. An absolute interfraction variation greater than 5 mm was observed in six (9.2%) fractions without and 13 (17.1%) fractions with abdominal compression.Conclusions: Abdominal compression was effective for reducing the amplitude

  5. Curtain color and lighting program in broiler production: II. carcass and parts yield and abdominal fat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Nascimento Abreu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate carcass and parts' yield, abdominal fat deposition and breast and foot pad blisters of broilers reared under two lighting programs (nearly continuous or intermittent in broilers houses with yellow and blue curtains. The experiment was conducted between June, 2004 and May, 2005. Six flocks were sequentially housed in four 12 × 10 m broiler houses divided into 4 pens with 200 birds each. The litter was reused six times or until flock 6. A completely randomized design in a 6 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (flocks, lighting programs, curtains with four replicates per treatment was applied. A total of 288 birds were evaluated for carcass yield. Curtain color did not affect carcass or parts' yield. The effect of lighting program and curtain color on carcass yield may depend on other factors related to flock. Intermittent lighting program promoted the highest drumstick and thigh yields. Lighting programs and curtain colors did not affect abdominal fat deposition or the presence of breast and foot pad blisters.

  6. Body fat assessment by bioelectrical impedance and its correlation with anthropometric indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz Araújo, Ma L; Coelho Cabral, P; Kruze Grande de Arruda, I; Siqueira Tavares Falcão, A P; Silva Diniz, A

    2012-01-01

    Since the excess of body fat is associated with higher morbid-mortality rates (mainly in adults), precise, reliable, cost-effective, and broadly applicable methods are necessary for its assessment in population-based studies and in clinical practice. To evaluate the correlation between body fat estimated either by bioelectrical impedance or by the sum of skinfold thicknesses and anthropometric indicators of fat distribution. A cross-sectional study was conducted enrolled 348 undergraduate students (median 21 years), from the Federal University of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. 262 of the subjects were women. Mean body fat assessed by bioelectrical impedance was 22.3 ± 6.2% in women and 15.2 ± 4.2% in men. Body fat obtained by the sum of skinfold thicknesses was similar to that assessed by bioelectrical impedance only in men. A strong correlation was observed between body fat assessed by bioelectrical impedance and that assessed by the sum of the skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio. Regarding the conicity index, there was a moderate correlation for men and a weak correlation for women. The sum of skinfold thicknesses surrogate of body fat percentage and can be used to assess body fat when BIA is not available in the field. Additional information about central fat distribution can be supply by measuring the waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio.

  7. Muscle fat content and abdominal adipose tissue distribution investigated by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in obese children and youths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonvig, Cilius E; Bille, Dorthe S; Chabanova, Elizaveta

    2012-01-01

    The degree of fat deposition in muscle and its implications for obesity-related complications in children and youths are not well understood. One hundred and fifty-nine patients (mean age: 13.3 years; range: 6-20) with a body mass index (BMI) >90(th) percentile for age and sex were included. Muscle...

  8. Genetic Correlation between Body Fat Percentage and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Suggests Common Genetic Etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnurr, Theresia M; Gjesing, Anette P; Sandholt, Camilla H

    2016-01-01

    reflect a common genetic origin. In this study we aimed to 1) examine genetic correlations between body fat% and CRF; 2) determine whether CRF can be attributed to a genetic risk score (GRS) based on known body fat% increasing loci; and 3) examine whether the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) locus...... findings suggest a shared genetic etiology between whole body fat% and CRF. © 2016 Schnurr et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original...... author and source are credited....

  9. Efficacy of low-calorie, partial meal replacement diet plans on weight and abdominal fat in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial of two diet plans - one high in protein and one nutritionally balanced.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Lee, J; Bae, W K; Choi, J K; Kim, H J; Cho, B

    2009-02-01

    Little is known about the relative efficacy of high-protein vs. conventional diet plans that include partial meal replacements on body fat loss in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of two low-calorie diets with partial meal replacement plans-a high-protein plan (HP) and a nutritionally balanced conventional (C) plan-on reducing obesity in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome. In a 12-week, double-blind study, we randomised 75 participants to either the HP- or the C-plan group. We recorded key metrics at 0 and 12 weeks. The overall mean weight loss was 5 kg in the HP-plan group and 4.9 kg in the C-plan group (p = 0.72). Truncal fat mass decreased 1.6 kg in the HP-plan group (p or = 70% dietary compliance, however, truncal and whole body fat mass decreased more in the HP-plan group (Delta 2.2 kg and Delta 3.5 kg respectively) than in the C-plan group (Delta 1.3 kg and Delta 2.3 [corrected] kg respectively) (p < 0.05). The HP- and C-plans had a similar effect on weight and abdominal fat reduction, but the HP-plan was more effective in reducing body fat among compliant subjects.

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  11. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  12. High body fat percentage among adult women in Malaysia: the role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body fat percentage is regarded as an important measurement for diagnosis of obesity. The aim of this study is to determine the association of high body fat percentage (BF%) and lifestyle among adult women. The study was conducted on 327 women, aged 40-59 years, recruited during a health screening program. Data on ...

  13. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W.; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Ferreira, Teresa; Locke, Adam E.; Mägi, Reedik; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Pers, Tune H.; Fischer, Krista; Justice, Anne E.; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Wu, Joseph M. W.; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Roman, Tamara S.; Drong, Alexander W.; Song, Ci; Gustafsson, Stefan; Day, Felix R.; Esko, Tonu; Fall, Tove; Kutalik, Zoltán; Luan, Jian'an; Randall, Joshua C.; Scherag, André; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wood, Andrew R.; Chen, Jin; Fehrmann, Rudolf; Karjalainen, Juha; Kahali, Bratati; Liu, Ching-Ti; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Absher, Devin; Amin, Najaf; Anderson, Denise; Beekman, Marian; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Buyske, Steven; Demirkan, Ayse; Ehret, Georg B.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Goel, Anuj; Jackson, Anne U.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Kristiansson, Kati; Mangino, Massimo; Mateo Leach, Irene; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Palmer, Cameron D.; Pasko, Dorota; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Peters, Marjolein J.; Prokopenko, Inga; Stančáková, Alena; Ju Sung, Yun; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teumer, Alexander; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Yengo, Loïc; Zhang, Weihua; Albrecht, Eva; Ärnlöv, Johan; Arscott, Gillian M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Barrett, Amy; Bellis, Claire; Bennett, Amanda J.; Berne, Christian; Blüher, Matthias; Böhringer, Stefan; Bonnet, Fabrice; Böttcher, Yvonne; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Carba, Delia B.; Caspersen, Ida H.; Clarke, Robert; Daw, E. Warwick; Deelen, Joris; Deelman, Ewa; Delgado, Graciela; Doney, Alex S. F.; Eklund, Niina; Erdos, Michael R.; Estrada, Karol; Eury, Elodie; Friedrich, Nele; Garcia, Melissa E.; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Gigante, Bruna; Go, Alan S.; Golay, Alain; Grallert, Harald; Grammer, Tanja B.; Gräßler, Jürgen; Grewal, Jagvir; Groves, Christopher J.; Haller, Toomas; Hallmans, Goran; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hassinen, Maija; Hayward, Caroline; Heikkilä, Kauko; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Helmer, Quinta; Hillege, Hans L.; Holmen, Oddgeir; Hunt, Steven C.; Isaacs, Aaron; Ittermann, Till; James, Alan L.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Juliusdottir, Thorhildur; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Kinnunen, Leena; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kooner, Ishminder K.; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Lamina, Claudia; Leander, Karin; Lee, Nanette R.; Lichtner, Peter; Lind, Lars; Lindström, Jaana; Lobbens, Stéphane; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mach, François; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mahajan, Anubha; McArdle, Wendy L.; Menni, Cristina; Merger, Sigrun; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Mills, Rebecca; Moayyeri, Alireza; Monda, Keri L.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Mulas, Antonella; Müller, Gabriele; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nalls, Michael A.; Narisu, Narisu; Glorioso, Nicola; Nolte, Ilja M.; Olden, Matthias; Rayner, Nigel W.; Renstrom, Frida; Ried, Janina S.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rose, Lynda M.; Sanna, Serena; Scharnagl, Hubert; Scholtens, Salome; Sennblad, Bengt; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sitlani, Colleen M.; Vernon Smith, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Stringham, Heather M.; Sundström, Johan; Swertz, Morris A.; Swift, Amy J.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Troffa, Chiara; van Oort, Floor V. A.; Verweij, Niek; Vonk, Judith M.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wennauer, Roman; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Wong, Andrew; Zhang, Qunyuan; Hua Zhao, Jing; Brennan, Eoin P.; Choi, Murim; Eriksson, Per; Folkersen, Lasse; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Gharavi, Ali G.; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hivert, Marie-France; Huang, Jinyan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karpe, Fredrik; Keildson, Sarah; Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Liang, Liming; Lifton, Richard P.; Ma, Baoshan; McKnight, Amy J.; McPherson, Ruth; Metspalu, Andres; Min, Josine L.; Moffatt, Miriam F.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Nicholson, George; Nyholt, Dale R.; Olsson, Christian; Perry, John R. B.; Reinmaa, Eva; Salem, Rany M.; Sandholm, Niina; Schadt, Eric E.; Scott, Robert A.; Stolk, Lisette; Vallejo, Edgar E.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zondervan, Krina T.; Amouyel, Philippe; Arveiler, Dominique; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Beilby, John; Bergman, Richard N.; Blangero, John; Brown, Morris J.; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chines, Peter S.; Claudi-Boehm, Simone; Collins, Francis S.; Crawford, Dana C.; Danesh, John; de Faire, Ulf; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Dörr, Marcus; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G.; Farrall, Martin; Ferrannini, Ele; Ferrières, Jean; Forouhi, Nita G.; Forrester, Terrence; Franco, Oscar H.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gieger, Christian; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Haiman, Christopher A.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Humphries, Steve E.; Hyppönen, Elina; Illig, Thomas; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johansen, Berit; Jousilahti, Pekka; Jula, Antti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kee, Frank; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kovacs, Peter; Kraja, Aldi T.; Kumari, Meena; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lakka, Timo A.; Langenberg, Claudia; Le Marchand, Loic; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Männistö, Satu; Marette, André; Matise, Tara C.; McKenzie, Colin A.; McKnight, Barbara; Musk, Arthur W.; Möhlenkamp, Stefan; Morris, Andrew D.; Nelis, Mari; Ohlsson, Claes; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ong, Ken K.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Peters, Annette; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Ridker, Paul M.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Samani, Nilesh J.; Saramies, Jouko; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Staessen, Jan A.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stolk, Ronald P.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tönjes, Anke; Tremblay, Angelo; Tremoli, Elena; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völker, Uwe; Vollenweider, Peter; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Adair, Linda S.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bouchard, Claude; Cauchi, Stéphane; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chambers, John C.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Cooper, Richard S.; Dedoussis, George; Ferrucci, Luigi; Froguel, Philippe; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Hamsten, Anders; Hui, Jennie; Hveem, Kristian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kivimaki, Mika; Kuh, Diana; Laakso, Markku; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Peters, Ulrike; Power, Chris; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Saaristo, Timo E.; Saleheen, Danish; Sinisalo, Juha; Slagboom, P. Eline; Snieder, Harold; Spector, Tim D.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stumvoll, Michael; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, André G.; Uusitupa, Matti; van der Harst, Pim; Veronesi, Giovanni; Walker, Mark; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Watkins, Hugh; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boehnke, Michael; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Deloukas, Panos; Franke, Lude; Frayling, Timothy M.; Groop, Leif C.; Hunter, David J.; Kaplan, Robert C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Qi, Lu; Schlessinger, David; Strachan, David P.; Stefansson, Kari; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Willer, Cristen J.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Zillikens, M. Carola; McCarthy, Mark I.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; North, Kari E.; Fox, Caroline S.; Barroso, Inês; Franks, Paul W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Heid, Iris M.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Morris, Andrew P.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Dastani, Zari; Timpson, Nicholas; Yuan, Xin; Henneman, Peter; Kizer, Jorge R.; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Fuchsberger, Christian; Small, Kerrin; Coassin, Stefan; Lohman, Kurt; Pankow, James S.; Uh, Hae-Won; Wu, Ying; Bidulescu, Aurelian; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Greenwood, Celia M. T.; Ladouceur, Martin; Grimsby, Jonna; Manning, Alisa K.; Kooner, Jaspal; Mooser, Vincent E.; Kapur, Karen A.; Chambers, John; Frants, Rune; Willemsvan-vanDijk, Ko; Willems, Sara M.; Winkler, Thomas; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Brody, Jennifer; Chen, Ida; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Evans, David M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Sattar, Naveed; Wood, Andy; Carlson, Olga D.; Egan, Josephine M.; van Heemst, Diana; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Loo, Britt-Marie; Harris, Tamara; Garcia, Melissa; Kanaya, Alka; Haun, Margot; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H. Erich; Katsareli, Efi; Couper, David J.; Duncan, Bruce B.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Borja, Judith B.; Wilson, James G.; Musani, Solomon; Guo, Xiuqing; Semple, Robert; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Allison, Matthew A.; Redline, Susan; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Dedoussis, George V.; Hu, Frank B.; Paulweber, Bernhard; Spector, Timothy D.; Jula, Antti; Raitakari, Olli; Florez, Jose C.; Smith, George Davey; Siscovick, David S.; Kronenberg, Florian; van Duijn, Cornelia; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Meigs, James B.; Dupuis, Josee; Richards, John Brent; Willenborg, Christina; Thompson, John R.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Goldstein, Benjamin A.; König, Inke R.; Cazier, Jean-Baptiste; Johansson, Åsa; Hall, Alistair S.; Lee, Jong-Young; Esko, Tõnu; Grundberg, Elin; Havulinna, Aki S.; Ho, Weang K.; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Eriksson, Niclas; Lundmark, Per; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Rafelt, Suzanne; Tikkanen, Emmi; van Zuydam, Natalie; Voight, Benjamin F.; Ziegler, Andreas; Altshuler, David; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Braund, Peter S.; Burgdorf, Christof; Cox, David; Dimitriou, Maria; Do, Ron; El Mokhtari, NourEddine; Fontanillas, Pierre; Groop, Leif; Hager, Jörg; Hallmans, Göran; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hunt, Sarah E.; Kang, Hyun M.; Kessler, Thorsten; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kolovou, Genovefa; Langford, Cordelia; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Lundmark, Anders; Meisinger, Christa; Melander, Olle; Maouche, Seraya; Nikus, Kjell; Peden, John F.; Rayner, N. William; Rasheed, Asif; Rosinger, Silke; Rubin, Diana; Rumpf, Moritz P.; Schäfer, Arne; Sivananthan, Mohan; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Wagner, Peter J.; Wells, George A.; Wild, Philipp S.; Yang, Tsun-Po; Basart, Hanneke; Boerwinkle, Eric; Brambilla, Paolo; Cambien, Francois; Cupples, Adrienne L.; Dehghan, Abbas; Diemert, Patrick; Epstein, Stephen E.; Evans, Alun; Ferrario, Marco M.; Gauguier, Dominique; Goodall, Alison H.; Gudnason, Villi; Hazen, Stanley L.; Holm, Hilma; Iribarren, Carlos; Jang, Yangsoo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Laaksonen, Reijo; Lee, Ji-Young; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Parish, Sarah; Park, Jeong E.; Rader, Daniel J.; Schadt, Eric; Shah, Svati H.; Stark, Klaus; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas; Zimmermann, Martina E.; Nieminen, Markku S.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Hovingh, G. 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Wouter; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Toniolo, Daniela; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Borecki, Ingrid; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Curhan, Gary C.; Gyllensten, Ulf; Franke, Andre; Rettig, Rainer; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Ridker, Paul; Parsa, Afshin; Goessling, Wolfram; Kao, W. H. Linda; de Boer, Ian H.; Glazer, Nicole L.; Peralta, Carmen A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Akylbekova, Ermeg; Kramer, Holly; Arking, Dan E.; Franceschini, Nora; Egan, Josephine; Hernandez, Dena; Reilly, Muredach; Townsend, Raymond R.; Lumley, Thomas; Kestenbaum, Bryan; Haritunians, Talin; Waeber, Gerard; Mooser, Vincent; Waterworth, Dawn; Lu, Xiaoning; Leak, Tennille S.; Aasarød, Knut; Skorpen, Frank; Baumert, Jens; Devuyst, Olivier; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Curhan, Gary; Hallan, Stein; Navis, Gerjan; Shlipak, Michael G.; Bull, Shelley B.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Kao, W. H. L.; Styrkarsdottir, Unnur; Evangelou, Evangelos; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Duncan, Emma L.; Ntzani, Evangelia E.; Oei, Ling; Albagha, Omar M. E.; Kemp, John P.; Koller, Daniel L.; Minster, Ryan L.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Willner, Dana; Xiao, Su-Mei; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Zheng, Hou-Feng; Alonso, Nerea; Eriksson, Joel; Kammerer, Candace M.; Kaptoge, Stephen K.; Leo, Paul J.; Wilson, Scott G.; Aalto, Ville; Alen, Markku; Aragaki, Aaron K.; Center, Jacqueline R.; Dailiana, Zoe; Duggan, David J.; Garcia-Giralt, Natàlia; Giroux, Sylvie; Hocking, Lynne J.; Husted, Lise Bjerre; Jameson, Karen A.; Khusainova, Rita; Kim, Ghi Su; Koromila, Theodora; Kruk, Marcin; Laaksonen, Marika; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Lee, Seung Hun; Leung, Ping C.; Lewis, Joshua R.; Masi, Laura; Mencej-Bedrac, Simona; Nguyen, Tuan V.; Nogues, Xavier; Patel, Millan S.; Prezelj, Janez; Scollen, Serena; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Svensson, Olle; Trummer, Olivia; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Woo, Jean; Zhu, Kun; Balcells, Susana; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Cheng, Sulin; Christiansen, Claus; Cooper, Cyrus; Frost, Morten; Goltzman, David; González-Macías, Jesús; Karlsson, Magnus; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Koh, Jung-Min; Kollia, Panagoula; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt; Leslie, William D.; Lips, Paul; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorenc, Roman S.; Marc, Janja; Mellström, Dan; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Olmos, José M.; Pettersson-Kymmer, Ulrika; Reid, David M.; Riancho, José A.; Rousseau, François; Tang, Nelson L. S.; Urreizti, Roser; van Hul, Wim; Zarrabeitia, María T.; Castano-Betancourt, Martha; Herrera, Lizbeth; Ingvarsson, Thorvaldur; Johannsdottir, Hrefna; Kwan, Tony; Li, Rui; Luben, Robert; Medina-Gómez, Carolina; Palsson, Stefan Th; Reppe, Sjur; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Verlaan, Dominique; Williams, Frances M. K.; Zhou, Yanhua; Gautvik, Kaare M.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Cauley, Jane A.; Clark, Graeme R.; Cummings, Steven R.; Danoy, Patrick; Dennison, Elaine M.; Eastell, Richard; Eisman, John A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Jones, Graeme; Khaw, Kay-Tee; McCloskey, Eugene; Nandakumar, Kannabiran; Nicholson, Geoffrey C.; Peacock, Munro; Pols, Huibert A. P.; Prince, Richard L.; Reid, Ian R.; Robbins, John; Sambrook, Philip N.; Sham, Pak Chung; Tylavsky, Frances A.; Wareham, Nick J.; Econs, Michael J.; Kung, Annie Wai Chee; Reeve, Jonathan; Streeten, Elizabeth A.; Karasik, David; Richards, J. Brent; Brown, Matthew A.; Ralston, Stuart H.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Kiel, Douglas P.; McKnight, Amy Jayne; Forsblom, Carol; Isakova, Tamara; McKay, Gareth J.; Williams, Winfred W.; Sadlier, Denise M.; Mäkinen, Ville-Petteri; Swan, Elizabeth J.; Palmer, Cameron; Boright, Andrew P.; Ahlqvist, Emma; Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Keller, Benjamin J.; Huang, Huateng; Ahola, Aila; Fagerholm, Emma; Gordin, Daniel; Harjutsalo, Valma; He, Bing; Heikkilä, Outi; Hietala, Kustaa; Kytö, Janne; Lahermo, Päivi; Lehto, Markku; Österholm, Anne-May; Parkkonen, Maija; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Rosengård-Bärlund, Milla; Saraheimo, Markku; Sarti, Cinzia; Söderlund, Jenny; Soro-Paavonen, Aino; Syreeni, Anna; Thorn, Lena M.; Tikkanen, Heikki; Tolonen, Nina; Tryggvason, Karl; Wadén, Johan; Gill, Geoffrey V.; Prior, Sarah; Guiducci, Candace; Mirel, Daniel B.; Taylor, Andrew; Hosseini, Mohsen; Parving, Hans-Henrik; Rossing, Peter; Tarnow, Lise; Ladenvall, Claes; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Lefebvre, Pierre; Rigalleau, Vincent; Roussel, Ronan; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Maestroni, Anna; Maestroni, Silvia; Falhammar, Henrik; Gu, Tianwei; Möllsten, Anna; Cimponeriu, Dan; Mihai, Ioana; Mota, Maria; Mota, Eugen; Serafinceanu, Cristian; Stavarachi, Monica; Hanson, Robert L.; Nelson, Robert G.; Kretzler, Matthias; Colhoun, Helen M.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea; Gu, Harvest F.; Brismar, Kerstin; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Lajer, Maria; Waggott, Daryl; Savage, David A.; Bain, Stephen C.; Martin, Finian; Godson, Catherine; Groop, Per-Henrik; Maxwell, Alexander P.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Peloso, Gina M.; Ganna, Andrea; Mora, Samia; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Li, Xiaohui; Montasser, May E.; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Sidore, Carlo; Surakka, Ida; van den Herik, Evita G.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Asiki, Gershim; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Elliott, Paul; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Gravito, Martha L.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hung, Yi-Jen; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J. P.; Kim, Eric; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lin, Shih-Yi; Müller, Gabrielle; Nieminen, Tuomo V. M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Tiret, Laurence; van Pelt, L. Joost; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Willemsen, Gonneke; Young, Elizabeth H.; Bennett, Franklyn; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bovet, Pascal; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Feranil, Alan B.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kesäniemi, Antero; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meneton, Pierre; Moilanen, Leena; Price, Jackie F.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sheu, Wayne H.-H.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Ordovas, Jose M.; Rich, Stephen S.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Caulfield, Mark; Chasman, Dan; Ehret, Georg; Johnson, Andrew; Johnson, Louise; Larson, Martin; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Reilly, Paul; Palmas, Walter; Psaty, Bruce; Rice, Kenneth; Smith, Albert; Snider, Harold; Tobin, Martin; Verwoert, Germaine; Rice, Kenneth M.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Pihur, Vasyl; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Launer, Lenore; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Arora, Pankaj; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Fox, Ervin R.; Go, Min Jin; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Shi, Gang; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Matullo, Giuseppe; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Najjar, Samer; Hadley, David; Connell, John M.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Ongen, Halit; Li, Yali; Young, J. H.; Bis, Joshua C.; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Chaturvedi, Nish; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Howard, Philip; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Weder, Alan B.; Sun, Yan V.; Scott, Laura J.; Peltonen, Leena; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Hilton, Gina; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Stanèáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Laitinen, Jaana; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. J. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Laan, Maris; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Vineis, Paolo; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Uda, Manuela; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Larson, Martin G.; Anderson, Carl A.; Gordon, Scott D.; Guo, Qun; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Lee, Sang Hong; Kraft, Peter; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Macgregor, Stuart; Missmer, Stacey A.; Painter, Jodie N.; Roseman, Fenella; Treloar, Susan A.; Wallace, Leanne; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Boezen, H. Marike; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Ormel, Johan; Postma, Dirkje S.; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.; Slaets, Joris P.; Lagou, Vasiliki; Welch, Ryan P.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Rehnberg, Emil; Lecoeur, Cecile; Johnson, Paul C. D.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Salo, Perttu; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Zhao, Wei; Horikoshi, Momoko; Navarro, Pau; Esko, Tönu; Chen, Han; Robertson, Neil; Rybin, Denis; Kang, Hyun Min; Song, Kijoung; An, Ping; Marullo, Letizia; Jansen, Hanneke; Edkins, Sarah; Varga, Tibor V.; Oksa, Heikki; Antonella, Mulas; Kong, Augustine; Herder, Christian; Antti, Jula; Miljkovic, Iva; Atalay, Mustafa; Kiess, Wieland; Smit, Johannes H.; Campbell, Susan; Fowkes, Gerard R.; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Maerz, Winfried; Province, Michael A.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Toenjes, Anke; Peyser, Patricia A.; Körner, Antje; Dupuis, Josée; Cucca, Francesco; Balkau, Beverley; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Ahmadi, Kourosh R.; Ainali, Chrysanthi; Bataille, Veronique; Bell, Jordana T.; Buil, Alfonso; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Dimas, Antigone S.; Durbin, Richard; Glass, Daniel; Hassanali, Neelam; Ingle, Catherine; Knowles, David; Krestyaninova, Maria; Lowe, Christopher E.; Meduri, Eshwar; di Meglio, Paola; Montgomery, Stephen B.; Nestle, Frank O.; Nica, Alexandra C.; Nisbet, James; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Parts, Leopold; Potter, Simon; Sekowska, Magdalena; Shin, So-Youn; Small, Kerrin S.; Surdulescu, Gabriela; Travers, Mary E.; Tsaprouni, Loukia; Tsoka, Sophia; Wilk, Alicja; Matise, Tara; Buyske, Steve; Higashio, Julia; Williams, Rasheeda; Nato, Andrew; Ambite, Jose Luis; Manolio, Teri; Hindorff, Lucia; Heiss, Gerardo; Taylor, Kira; Avery, Christy; Graff, Misa; Lin, Danyu; Quibrera, Miguel; Cochran, Barbara; Kao, Linda; Umans, Jason; Cole, Shelley; MacCluer, Jean; Person, Sharina; Pankow, James; Gross, Myron; Fornage, Myriam; Durda, Peter; Jenny, Nancy; Patsy, Bruce; Arnold, Alice; Buzkova, Petra; Crawford, Dana; Haines, Jonathan; Murdock, Deborah; Glenn, Kim; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia; Dumitrescu, Logan; Jeff, Janina; Bush, William S.; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Goodloe, Robert; Wilson, Sarah; Boston, Jonathan; Malinowski, Jennifer; Restrepo, Nicole; Oetjens, Matthew; Fowke, Jay; Zheng, Wei; Spencer, Kylee; Ritchie, Marylyn; Pendergrass, Sarah; Le Marchand, Loïc; Wilkens, Lynne; Park, Lani; Tiirikainen, Maarit; Kolonel, Laurence; Lim, Unhee; Cheng, Iona; Wang, Hansong; Shohet, Ralph; Haiman, Christopher; Stram, Daniel; Henderson, Brian; Monroe, Kristine; Schumacher, Fredrick; Anderson, Garnet; Carlson, Chris; Prentice, Ross; LaCroix, Andrea; Wu, Chunyuan; Carty, Cara; Gong, Jian; Rosse, Stephanie; Young, Alicia; Haessler, Jeff; Kocarnik, Jonathan; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Rebecca; Duggan, David; Kuller, Lew; He, Chunyan; Sulem, Patrick; Barbalic, Maja; Broer, Linda; Byrne, Enda M.; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; McArdle, Patick F.; Porcu, Eleonora; van Wingerden, Sophie; Zhuang, Wei V.; Lauc, Lovorka Barac; Broekmans, Frank J.; Burri, Andrea; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Constance; Corre, Tanguy; Coviello, Andrea D.; D'Adamo, Pio; Davies, Gail; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V. Z.; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Ebrahim, Shah; Fauser, Bart C. J. M.; Ferreli, Liana; Folsom, Aaron R.; Hall, Per; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hass, Merli; Heath, Andrew C.; Janssens, A. Cecile J. W.; Keyzer, Jules; Lahti, Jari; Lai, Sandra; Laisk, Triin; Laven, Joop S. E.; Liu, Jianjun; Lopez, Lorna M.; Louwers, Yvonne V.; Marongiu, Mara; Klaric, Irena Martinovic; Masciullo, Corrado; Medland, Sarah E.; Melzer, David; Newman, Anne B.; Paré, Guillaume; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Plump, Andrew S.; Pop, Victor J. M.; Räikkönen, Katri; Salumets, Andres; Smith, Jennifer A.; Stacey, Simon N.; Starr, John M.; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Tenesa, Albert; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Tsui, Kim; van Dam, Rob M.; van Gils, Carla H.; van Nierop, Peter; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Voorhuis, Marlies; Waeber, Gérard; Wallaschofski, Henri; Widen, Elisabeth; Wijnands-van Gent, Colette J. M.; Zgaga, Lina; Zygmunt, Marek; Arnold, Alice M.; Buring, Julie E.; Crisponi, Laura; Demerath, Ellen W.; Murray, Anna; Visser, Jenny A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Elks, Cathy E.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Lin, Peng; McArdle, Patrick F.; van Wingerden, Sophie W.; Smith, Erin N.; Ulivi, Shelia; Warrington, Nicole M.; Alavere, Helen; Barroso, Ines; Berenson, Gerald S.; Blackburn, Hannah; Busonero, Fabio; Chen, Wei; Couper, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Eriksson, Johan; Foroud, Tatiana; Geller, Frank; Hernandez, Dena G.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Li, Shengxu; Melbye, Mads; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Murray, Sarah S.; Ness, Andrew R.; Northstone, Kate; Pennell, Craig E.; Pharoah, Paul; Rafnar, Thorunn; Rice, John P.; Ring, Susan M.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Sovio, Ulla; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Tammesoo, Mar-Liis; Tyrer, Jonathon; van Meurs, Joyve B. J.; Weedon, Michael N.; Young, Lauren; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Bierut, Laura J.; Boyd, Heather A.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome-wide

  14. Validity of Three-Dimensional Photonic Scanning Technique for Estimating Percent Body Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T; Yanai, T; Kawakami, Y

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional photonic scanning (3DPS) was recently developed to measure dimensions of a human body surface. The purpose of this study was to explore the validity of body volume measured by 3DPS for estimating the percent body fat (%fat). Design, setting, participants, and measurement: The body volumes were determined by 3DPS in 52 women. The body volume was corrected for residual lung volume. The %fat was estimated from body density and compared with the corresponding reference value determined by the dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). No significant difference was found for the mean values of %fat obtained by 3DPS (22.2 ± 7.6%) and DXA (23.5 ± 4.9%). The root mean square error of %fat between 3DPS and reference technique was 6.0%. For each body segment, there was a significant positive correlation between 3DPS- and DXA-values, although the corresponding value for the head was slightly larger in 3DPS than in DXA. Residual lung volume was negatively correlated with the estimated error in %fat. The body volume determined with 3DPS is potentially useful for estimating %fat. A possible strategy for enhancing the measurement accuracy of %fat might be to refine the protocol for preparing the subject's hair prior to scanning and to improve the accuracy in the measurement of residual lung volume.

  15. Validation of the Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat percentage makes it possible for the body fat content of individuals and populations to be determined without the use of costly equipment. However, because the equations were derived using data from a young-adult (18-29 years old) Nigerian population, it is important ...

  16. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Shungin (Dmitry); T.W. Winkler (Thomas W.); D.C. Croteau-Chonka (Damien); T. Ferreira (Teresa); A. Locke (Adam); R. Mägi (Reedik); R.J. Strawbridge (Rona); T.H. Pers (Tune); K. Fischer (Krista); A.E. Justice (Anne); T. Workalemahu (Tsegaselassie); J.M.W. Wu (Joseph M. W.); M.L. Buchkovich (Martin); N.L. Heard-Costa (Nancy); T.S. Roman (Tamara S.); A. Drong (Alexander); C. Song (Ci); S. Gustafsson (Stefan); F.R. Day (Felix); T. Esko (Tõnu); M. Fall (Magnus); Z. Kutalik (Zolta'n); J. Luan; J.C. Randall (Joshua); A. Scherag (Andre); S. Vedantam (Sailaja); A.R. Wood (Andrew); J. Chen (Jin); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); J. Karjalainen (Juha); B. Kahali (Bratati); C.-T. Liu (Ching-Ti); E.M. Schmidt (Ellen); D. Absher (Devin); N. Amin (Najaf); M. Beekman (Marian); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); S. Buyske (Steven); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); G.B. Ehret (Georg); M.F. Feitosa (Mary Furlan); A. Goel (Anuj); A.U. Jackson (Anne); T. Johnson (Toby); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); K. Kristiansson (Kati); M. Mangino (Massimo); I.M. Leach (Irene Mateo); M.C. Medina-Gomez (Carolina); C. Palmer (Cameron); D. Pasko (Dorota); S. Pechlivanis (Sonali); M.J. Peters (Marjolein); I. Prokopenko (Inga); A. Stanca'kova' (Alena); Y.J. Sung (Yun Ju); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.V. van Vliet-Ostaptchouk (Jana); L. Yengo (Loic); W. Zhang (Weihua); E. Albrecht (Eva); J. Ärnlöv (Johan); G.M. Arscott (Gillian M.); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); A. Barrett (Angela); C. Bellis (Claire); A.J. Bennett (Amanda); C. Berne (Christian); M. Blüher (Matthias); S. Böhringer (Stefan); F. Bonnet (Fabrice); Y. Böttcher (Yvonne); M. Bruinenberg (M.); D.B. Carba (Delia B.); I.H. Caspersen (Ida H.); R. Clarke (Robert); E.W. Daw (E. Warwick); J. Deelen (Joris); E. Deelman (Ewa); G. Delgado; A.S.F. Doney (Alex); N. Eklund (Niina); M.R. Erdos (Michael); K. Estrada Gil (Karol); E. Eury (Elodie); N. Friedrich (Nele); M. Garcia (Melissa); V. Giedraitis (Vilmantas); B. Gigante (Bruna); A. Go (Attie); A. Golay (Alain); H. Grallert (Harald); T.B. Grammer (Tanja); J. Gräsler (Jürgen); J. Grewal (Jagvir); C.J. Groves (Christopher); T. Haller (Toomas); G. Hallmans (Göran); C.A. Hartman (Catharina); M. Hassinen (Maija); C. Hayward (Caroline); K. Heikkilä (Kauko); K.H. Herzig; Q. Helmer (Quinta); H.L. Hillege (Hans); O.L. Holmen (Oddgeir); S.C. Hunt (Steven); A. Isaacs (Aaron); T. Ittermann (Till); A.L. James (Alan); I. Johansson (Inger); T. Juliusdottir (Thorhildur); I.-P. Kalafati (Ioanna-Panagiota); L. Kinnunen (Leena); W. Koenig (Wolfgang); I.K. Kooner (Ishminder K.); W. Kratzer (Wolfgang); C. Lamina (Claudia); K. Leander (Karin); N.R. Lee (Nanette R.); P. Lichtner (Peter); L. Lind (Lars); J. Lindström (Jaana); S. Lobbens (Stéphane); M. Lorentzon (Mattias); F. MacH (François); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); A. Mahajan (Anubha); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); C. Menni (Cristina); S. Merger (Sigrun); E. Mihailov (Evelin); L. Milani (Lili); R. Mills (Rebecca); A. Moayyeri (Alireza); K.L. Monda (Keri); S.P. Mooijaart (Simon); T.W. Mühleisen (Thomas); A. Mulas (Antonella); G. Müller (Gabriele); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M.A. Nalls (Michael); N. Narisu (Narisu); N. Glorioso (Nicola); I.M. Nolte (Ilja M.); M. Olden (Matthias); N.W. Rayner (Nigel William); F. Renström (Frida); J.S. Ried (Janina); N.R. Robertson (Neil R.); L.M. Rose (Lynda); S. Sanna (Serena); H. Scharnagl (Hubert); S. Scholtens (Salome); B. Sennblad (Bengt); T. Seufferlein (Thomas); C.M. Sitlani (Colleen); G.D. Smith; K. Stirrups (Kathy); H.M. Stringham (Heather); J. Sundstrom (Johan); M. Swertz (Morris); A.J. Swift (Amy); A.C. Syvanen; B. Tayo (Bamidele); B. Thorand (Barbara); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); A. Tomaschitz (Andreas); C. Troffa (Chiara); F.V.A. van Oort (Floor); N. Verweij (Niek); J.M. Vonk (Judith); L. Waite (Lindsay); R. Wennauer (Roman); T. Wilsgaard (Tom); M.K. Wojczynski (Mary ); A. Wong (Andrew); Q. Zhang (Qunyuan); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); E.P. Brennan (Eoin P.); M. Choi (Murim); P. Eriksson (Per); L. Folkersen (Lasse); A. Franco-Cereceda (Anders); A.G. Gharavi (Ali G.); A.K. Hedman (Asa); M.-F. Hivert (Marie-France); J. Huang (Jinyan); S. Kanoni (Stavroula); F. Karpe (Fredrik); S. Keildson (Sarah); K. Kiryluk (Krzysztof); L. Liang (Liming); R.P. Lifton (Richard); B. Ma (Baoshan); A.J. McKnight (Amy J.); R. McPherson (Ruth); A. Metspalu (Andres); J.L. Min (Josine L.); M.F. Moffatt (Miriam); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); J. Murabito (Joanne); G. Nicholson (Ggeorge); A.S. Dimas (Antigone); C. Olsson (Christian); J.R.B. Perry (John); E. Reinmaa (Eva); R.M. Salem (Rany); N. Sandholm (Niina); E.E. Schadt (Eric); R.A. Scott (Robert); L. Stolk (Lisette); E.E. Vallejo (Edgar E.); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); K.T. Zondervan (Krina); P. Amouyel (Philippe); D. Arveiler (Dominique); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); J.P. Beilby (John); R.N. Bergman (Richard); J. Blangero (John); M.J. Brown (Morris); M. Burnier (Michel); H. Campbell (Harry); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P.S. Chines (Peter); S. Claudi-Boehm (Simone); F.S. Collins (Francis); D.C. Crawford (Dana); J. Danesh (John); U. de Faire (Ulf); E.J.C. de Geus (Eco); M. Dörr (Marcus); R. Erbel (Raimund); K. Hagen (Knut); M. Farrall (Martin); E. Ferrannini (Ele); J. Ferrieres (Jean); N.G. Forouhi (Nita); T. Forrester (Terrence); O.H. Franco (Oscar); R.T. Gansevoort (Ron); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); C.A. Haiman (Christopher); T.B. Harris (Tamara); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); M. Heliovaara (Markku); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A. Hingorani (Aroon); W. Hoffmann (Wolfgang); A. Hofman (Albert); G. Homuth (Georg); S.E. Humphries (Steve); E. Hypponen (Elina); T. Illig (Thomas); M.-R. Jarvelin (Marjo-Riitta); B. Johansen (Berit); P. Jousilahti (Pekka); A. Jula (Antti); J. Kaprio (Jaakko); F. Kee (F.); S. Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi (Sirkka); J.S. Kooner (Jaspal S.); C. Kooperberg (Charles); P. Kovacs (Peter); A. Kraja (Aldi); M. Kumari (Meena); K. Kuulasmaa (Kari); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); T.A. Lakka (Timo); C. Langenberg (Claudia); L. Le Marchand (Loic); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); V. Lyssenko (Valeriya); S. Männistö (Satu); A. Marette (Andre'); T.C. Matise (Tara C.); C.A. McKenzie (Colin A.); B. McKnight (Barbara); A.W. Musk (Arthur); S. Möhlenkamp (Stefan); A.D. Morris (Andrew); M. Nelis (Mari); C. Ohlsson (Claes); A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); K.K. Ong (Ken K.); C. Palmer (Cameron); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); A. Peters (Annette); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); O. Raitakari (Olli); T. Rankinen (Tuomo); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.K. Rice (Treva K.); P.M. Ridker (Paul); M.D. Ritchie (Marylyn D.); I. Rudan (Igor); V. Salomaa (Veikko); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); J. Saramies (Jouko); M.A. Sarzynski (Mark A.); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter E. H.); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); J.A. Staessen (Jan); V. Steinthorsdottir (Valgerdur); R.P. Stolk (Ronald); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Tönjes (Anke); A. Tremblay (Angelo); E. Tremoli (Elena); M.-C. Vohl (Marie-Claude); U. Völker (Uwe); P. Vollenweider (Peter); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); L.S. Adair (Linda); M. Bochud (Murielle); B.O. Boehm (Bernhard); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan R.); C. Bouchard (Claude); S. Cauchi (Ste'phane); M. Caulfield (Mark); J.C. Chambers (John C.); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); R.S. Cooper (Richard S.); G.V. Dedoussis (George); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); P. Froguel (Philippe); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); A. Hamsten (Anders); J. Hui (Jennie); K. Hveem (Kristian); K.-H. Jöckel (Karl-Heinz); M. Kivimaki (Mika); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laakso (Markku); Y. Liu (YongMei); W. März (Winfried); P. Munroe (Patricia); I. Njølstad (Inger); B.A. Oostra (Ben); C.N.A. Palmer (Colin); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy L.); M. Perola (Markus); L. Perusse (Louis); U. Peters (Ulrike); C. Power (Christopher); T. Quertermous (Thomas); R. Rauramaa (Rainer); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); T. Saaristo (Timo); D. Saleheen; J. Sinisalo (Juha); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); H. Snieder (Harold); T.D. Spector (Timothy); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); M. Stumvoll (Michael); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Uusitupa (Matti); P. van der Harst (Pim); G. Veronesi (Giovanni); M. Walker (Mark); N.J. Wareham (Nick); H. Watkins (Hugh); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T.L. Assimes (Themistocles); S.I. Berndt (Sonja); M. Boehnke (Michael); I.B. Borecki (Ingrid); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); L. Franke (Lude); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); L. Groop (Leif); D. Hunter (David); R.C. Kaplan (Robert); J.R. O´Connell; L. Qi (Lu); D. Schlessinger (David); D.P. Strachan (David); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); C.J. Willer (Cristen); P.M. Visscher (Peter); J. Yang (Joanna); J.N. Hirschhorn (Joel N.); M.C. Zillikens (Carola); M.I. McCarthy (Mark); E.K. Speliotes (Elizabeth); K.E. North (Kari); C.S. Fox (Caroline S.); I. Barroso (Inês); P.W. Franks (Paul); D. Anderson (Denise); E. Ingelsson (Erik); I.M. Heid (Iris); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); A.P. Morris (Andrew); C.M. Lindgren (Cecilia); K.L. Mohlke (Karen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBody fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct

  17. Field method to measure changes in percent body fat of young women: The TIGER Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Body mass index (BMI), waist (W) and hip (H) circumference (C) are commonly used to assess changes in body composition for field research. We developed a model to estimate changes in dual energy X-ray absorption (DXA) percent fat (% fat) from these variables with a diverse sample of young women fro...

  18. Eating habits and total and abdominal fat in Spanish adolescents: influence of physical activity. The AVENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Martínez-Gómez, David; Perez de Heredia, Fatima; Romeo, Javier; Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena; Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Castillo, Manuel; Rey-López, Juan-Pablo; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Moreno, Luis; Marcos, Ascensión

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the association between specific dietary habits and body fatness in Spanish adolescents, and to analyze the role of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in this association. In this cross-sectional study, 1,978 adolescents (1,017 girls) aged 13.0-18.5 years from the AVENA (Alimentación y Valoración del Estado Nutricional en Adolescentes) study were included. Particular dietary habits (breakfast, mid-morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and nighttime snack, as well as time spent eating, number of meals, consumption of soft drinks, and ready-to-eat foods) and LTPA were self-reported and analyzed as dichotomic variables (yes/no). The sum of six skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference (WC) values were the main body fatness variables. Skinfolds and WC values were lower in adolescents who reported consumption of mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, more than four meals per day, and an adequate speed of eating, independently of participation in LTPA. Moreover, a beneficial influence of breakfast consumption on skinfolds and WC values was observed in those adolescent boys who did not participate in LTPA (p for interactions = .044 and .040, respectively). In Spanish adolescents, certain healthy dietary habits (i.e., mid-morning snack, afternoon snack, > 4 meals per day, adequate eating speed) are associated with lower body fatness, independently of engaging in LTPA. In addition, among boys with non-LTPA, those who skipped breakfast showed the highest body fatness values, indicating a beneficial influence of daily breakfast on body fat in this particular group. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serotonin transporter deficiency increases abdominal fat in female, but not male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, Judith R.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  20. Serotonin Transporter Deficiency Increases Abdominal Fat in Female, but Not Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; la Fleur, S.E.; Cuppen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and abdominal obesity often co-occur, predominantly in women, and are associated with an increased risk for the development of glucose intolerance and subsequently type 2 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that female, but not male, depression-prone

  1. Selection of anthropometric indicators for classification of abdominal fatness--a critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molarius, A.; Seidell, J C

    In the literature, a variety of anthropometric indicators for abdominal obesity have been suggested. The criteria for their selection vary, and they have been justified mainly on the basis of being correlated with other risk factors, with morbidity and mortality, or to be predictors of the amount of

  2. Body weight as an indicator of fat-free mass in active elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonati, Jaqueline G; Modeneze, Dênis M; Vilarta, Roberto; Maciel, Erika S; Boccaletto, Estela M A

    2011-04-01

    Fat-free mass (FFM) reduction and the tendency for a reduction in surrounding fatty issue and increase in the middle are a natural consequence of growing old and should be studied in order to gain a better understanding of the aging process. This study set out to find the FFM differences between active elderly women in two age groups (60-69 and 70-80 years) and to determine which of the anthropometric measurements, body weight (BW), abdominal circumference (AC), or body mass index (BMI) are the best predictors of FFM variation within the group. Eighty-one (n=81) active elderly women of the Third Age willingly signed up to participate in the research during the activities at the University of the Third Age (UTA) in Brazil. The research was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences of the State University of Campinas (UNICAMP). Body weight (BW), height (H) and the BMI were measured according to the international standards. The AC was measured in centimetres at the H of the navel and body composition was ascertained using bioimpedance analysis. The SAS program was used to perform the statistical analysis of independent samples and parametric data. The results showed FFM values with significant differences between the two groups, with the lowest values occurring among the women who were over 70 years of age. In the analysis, the Pearson's Correlation Coefficient for each measured independent variable was ascertained, with the BW measurement showing the highest ratio (0.900). The BW measurement was regarded as reliable, low-cost and easy to use for monitoring FFM in elderly women who engage in physical activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  4. Clinical usefulness of a new equation for estimating body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Escalada, Javier; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-02-01

    To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from both sexes (67% female) representing a wide range of ages (18-80 years) and adiposity. Additionally, a validation study in a separate cohort (n = 1,149) and a further analysis of the clinical usefulness of this prediction equation regarding its association with cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 634) was carried out. The mean BF% in the cohort of 6,510 subjects determined by air displacement plethysmography was 39.9 ± 10.1%, and the mean BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE was 39.3 ± 8.9% (SE of the estimate, 4.66%). In this group, BF% calculated with the CUN-BAE showed the highest correlation with actual BF% (r = 0.89, P < 0.000001) compared with other anthropometric measures or BF% estimators. Similar agreement was found in the validation sample. Moreover, BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE exhibits, in general, better correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI as well as waist circumference in the subset of 634 subjects. CUN-BAE is an easy-to-apply predictive equation that may be used as a first screening tool in clinical practice. Furthermore, our equation may be a good tool for identifying patients at cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk.

  5. Calcium supplementation for 1 y does not reduce body weight or fat mass in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Astrup, Arne

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from observational studies indicates that a high calcium intake may reduce body weight and body fat. However, few randomized trials have been conducted. We examined whether calcium supplementation affects body weight and body fat in young girls and whether a relation exists between habitual calcium intake and body weight and body fat. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention study was conducted in 110 young girls. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive 500 mg Ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo for 1 y. Two groups of girls were selected according to habitual calcium intake from a large group; one group consumed 1000-1304 mg/d (40th-60th percentile; n = 60) and the other group consumed body weight, body fat, and calcium intake were measured at baseline and after 1 y. At baseline a significant negative correlation was observed between habitual dietary calcium intake and percentage of body fat (r = -0.242, P = 0.011). However, calcium supplementation had no effect on height, body weight, or percentage body fat. Habitual dietary calcium intake was inversely associated with body fat, but a low-dose calcium supplement had no effect on body weight, height, or body fat over 1 y in young girls. It is possible that the effect of calcium on body weight is only exerted if it is ingested as part of a meal, or the effect may be due to other ingredients in dairy products, and calcium may simply be a marker for a high dairy intake.

  6. Abdominal bracing during lifting alters trunk muscle activity and body kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, Pieter; Campbell, Amity; Kemp-Smith, Kevin; O'Sullivan, Peter; Straker, Leon

    2017-09-01

    We assessed whether participants are able to perform abdominal bracing during lifting, and described its effects on trunk muscle activity and body kinematics. Fourteen participants performed 10 lifts (symmetrical lifting of a 15 kg load from floor level), 5 with abdominal bracing and 5 without. Activity of the lumbar multifidus (LM) and internal oblique (IO) muscles, and trunk and lower body kinematics were obtained. During non-bracing lifting, IO activity did not increase beyond rested standing levels (with average muscle activity ranging between 8.2 and 9.1% maximum voluntary contraction; %MVC), while LM activity did (range: 8.5-21.0 %MVC). During bracing lifting, muscle activity was higher compared to non-bracing in IO and LM at the start of the lift (with average between condition differences up to 10.9 %MVC). Upper leg, pelvis and lumbar spine angles were smaller, but thorax flexion angles were larger while lifting with bracing compared to without (with average between condition differences ranging from 0.7° to 4.3°). Although participants do not typically brace their abdominal muscles while lifting, they can be trained to do so. There appears to be no clear advantage of abdominal bracing during lifting, leaving its value for low-back pain prevention unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Changes in body fat percentage during body weight stable conditions of increased daily protein intake vs. control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    The objective of this study was to examine if increased protein intake vs. control influences body fat percentage during stable body weight. Body composition was assessed before and after a 3-month isoenergetic dietary intervention of 2MJ/d supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual ad libitum energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group (n=12) and an isoenergetic combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group (n=12). Daily protein intake was calculated from a 24h urinary nitrogen. Body composition was measured by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), a method that allows for estimation of 4-body compartments (fat and lean; water, bone and rest). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their habitual physical activity. Daily protein intake increased in the protein group during the intervention compared to baseline with +11±14g (Pbody fat percentage showed a significant group×time interaction of decreased body fat percentage of -1.0±1.1% of the protein group vs. 0.1±0.6% of the control group (Pbody fat percentage decreased with unchanged physical activity during 3months of stable body weight. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variations in the efficacy of resistant maltodextrin on body fat reduction in rats fed different high-fat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Fang; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang; Tseng, Yu-Han; Wang, William Wei-Li; Chau, Chi-Fai

    2014-01-08

    Many studies have utilized a variety of methods to induce obesity in rodents, but they often received inconsistent results. The present study intended to use resistant maltodextrin (RMD) as a means to investigate the variations in its efficacy on body fat accumulation under the influence of four high-fat (HF) models of 23% or 40% total fat, comprising soybean oil, lard, and/or condensed milk. Results indicated that integrating condensed milk into the diets could help increase diet intake, boost energy intake, increase weight gain, and enhance fat formation. Supplementation of RMD (2.07 g/kg) notably reduced total body fat levels in three HF models, with the exception of a condensed-milk-added 40%-fat diet that may have misrepresented the functions of RMD. The uses of the 23% HF diets, with and without milk, and the milk-free 40% HF diet were therefore recommended as suitable models for antiobesity evaluations of RMD, or other fiber-rich products.

  9. Extended analysis of AL-amyloid protein from abdominal wall subcutaneous fat biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, K E; Sletten, K; Westermark, Per

    1998-01-01

    In AL-amyloidosis the cause of amyloid fibril formation in beta-pleated sheets from the precursor protein immunoglobulin light chain is not established, but studies of AL-proteins indicate that amino acid substitutions are important in the pathogenesis. Amyloid material was extracted from...... a subcutaneous fat tissue biopsy and submitted to extended protein separation, typing and amino acid sequence analyses. The AL-protein belonged to the rare immunoglobulin light chain kappa, subtype kappa IV and contained unique amino acid substitutions, mostly in the highly preserved framework regions. The study...... shows that subcutaneous fat biopsies are useful sources of amyloid material for biochemical studies....

  10. Gain in Body Fat Is Associated with Increased Striatal Response to Palatable Food Cues, whereas Body Fat Stability Is Associated with Decreased Striatal Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokum, Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional brain-imaging studies reveal that obese versus lean humans show greater responsivity of reward and attention regions to palatable food cues, but lower responsivity of reward regions to palatable food receipt. However, these individual differences in responsivity may result from a period of overeating. We conducted a repeated-measures fMRI study to test whether healthy weight adolescent humans who gained body fat over a 2 or 3 year follow-up period show an increase in responsivity of reward and attention regions to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt and a simultaneous decrease in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt versus adolescents who showed stability of or loss of body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat, who largely remained in a healthy weight range, showed increases in activation in the putamen, mid-insula, Rolandic operculum, and precuneus to a cue signaling impending milkshake receipt versus those who showed stability of or loss of body fat, though these effects were partially driven by reductions in responsivity among the latter groups. Adolescents who gained body fat reported significantly greater milkshake wanting and milkshake pleasantness ratings at follow-up compared to those who lost body fat. Adolescents who gained body fat did not show a reduction in responsivity of reward regions to milkshake receipt or changes in responsivity to receipt and anticipated receipt of monetary reward. Data suggest that initiating a prolonged period of overeating may increase striatal responsivity to food cues, and that maintaining a balance between caloric intake and expenditure may reduce striatal, insular, and Rolandic operculum responsivity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This novel, repeated-measures brain-imaging study suggests that adolescents who gained body fat over our follow-up period experienced an increase in striatal responsivity to cues for palatable foods compared to those who showed stability of or loss of body fat

  11. Regional distribution of muscle and fat mass in men--new insight into the risk of abdominal obesity using computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Björntorp, P; Sjöström, L.; Sannerstedt, R; Krotkiewski, M; Kvist, H

    1989-01-01

    We studied 24 healthy men (25-50 years old) covering a wide range of fatness (body mass index range: 21-34 kg/m2) and fat distribution (waist/hip range: 0.75-1.06). Computed tomography scans were taken at five levels (thigh, hip, waist, arm, and liver) from which fat, muscle and bone areas were

  12. Urinary bladder incarceration and infarction by an intra-abdominal fat pad in a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Voe, Ryan S; Spaulding, Kathy A; Rotstein, Jack; Rotstein, David S

    2004-01-01

    A 2.5-year-old, female opossum had acute stranguria. Based on radiography and ultrasonographic examination a cystic structure was identified in the caudal abdomen associated with bilateral hydroureter and hydronephrosis. This structure contained a neutrophilic fluid, determined to be urine. There was a neutrophilic leukocytosis. Serum chemistry values were within normal limits. The opossum was euthanized. An intra-abdominal fat pad incarceration of the urinary bladder above the trigone was present, resulting in complete obstruction of the urinary bladder and partial obstruction of the ureters. Vessels to the bladder were involved in the incarceration which resulted in vascular compromise and infarction of the bladder. Mild to moderate hydroureter and hydronephrosis were present.

  13. Body fat percentage of urban South African children: implications for health and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I

    2013-09-01

    To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.

  14. General and abdominal fat outcomes in school-age children associated with infant breastfeeding patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durmus, B.u.; Heppe, D.H.M.; Gishti, O.; Manniesing, R.; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, M.; Beek, E.M. van der; Hofman, A.; Duijts, L.; Gaillard, R.; Jaddoe, V.W.

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding may have a protective effect on the development of obesity in later life. Not much is known about the effects of infant feeding on more-specific fat measures.We examined associations of breastfeeding duration and exclusiveness and age at the introduction of solid foods with general and

  15. Mexican American Female Adolescent Self-Esteem: The Effect of Body Image, Exercise Behavior, and Body Fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Semper, Tom; Jorgensen, Layne

    1997-01-01

    A study of 254 Mexican American eighth-grade girls in south Texas found that girls' self-esteem was positively related to body image and exercise involvement and negatively related to body fatness. This population displayed somewhat distorted body image, which was the strongest predictor of self-esteem. Contains 43 references. (SV)

  16. Effects of growth hormone (GH) treatment on body fluid distribution in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jacob; Jensen, Martin Bach; Frandsen, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible beneficial effects of growth hormone (GH) in catabolic patients we examined the impact of GH on body fluid distribution in patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing elective abdominal surgery. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: Twenty-four patients (14 female, 10 male......) aged 19-47 years were in a double-blinded study randomly assigned to receive either placebo (n = 12) or GH (n = 12) 6 i.u. s.c. twice daily from 2 days before until 7 days after ileo-anal J pouch surgery. Extracellular and plasma volume (ECV, PV) were determined using 82Br and 125I albumin dilution...... at day -2 and at day 7, and body composition was estimated by dual X-ray absorptiometry and bioimpedance. Changes in body weight and fluid balance were recorded and hence intracellular volume was assessed. RESULTS: During placebo treatment body weight decreased 4.3 +/- 0.6 kg; during GH treatment body...

  17. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Lipid storage and breakdown is mainly controlled by lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. The aim of this work was to elucidate whether growth hormone mediated loss of adipose tissue involves a concerted action on tissue lipases, and to what degree such events are modulated by dietary...... regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...

  19. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung [Center for Occupational Health Research, Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute, KOSHA, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  20. A study on the relationship between adiponectin, BDNF and leptin with abdominal fat thickness in male workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Kyung Sun; Choi, Yoon Jung

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin (AdipoN), brain-derived nerotrophic factor (BDNF) and leptin (LeP) are mainly secreted from adipose tissue and are known to be involved in regulation of the development of obese. However, there are not many studies on the association between abdominal fat and neuropeptides such as AdipoN, BDNF and LeP. The aim of this study was undertaken to investigate the association between abdominal fat thickness, neuropeptides and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The participants in the study were 138 male employees without CVD. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute. Written informed consent for the participants in this study was obtained from all individuals. We obtained subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) and visceral fat thickness (VFT) by using ultrasonography and neuropeptides levels were measured with ELISA kit according to the method suggested by kit manufacturer. The mean SFT and VFT were 1.58±0.51 and 4.52±1.44 cm. The mean concentrations of AdipoN, BDNF and LeP were 3.14±3.52 ng/ml, 24.11+8.52 pg/ml and 4.27±2.38 ng/ml, respectively. VFT were positively correlated with total cholesterol (r=0.217, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=0.271, p<0.01), triglyceride (r=0.233, p<0.05) and insulin (r=0.338, p<0.01), but was inversely correlated with HDL- cholesterol (r=-420, p<0.01). AdipoN levels were positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.220, p<0.05) and were inversely correlated with total cholesterol (r=-0.196, p<0.05), LDL-cholesterol (r=-0.190, p<0.05), triglyceride (r=-0.199, p<0.05), SFT (r=-0.195, p<0.05) and VFT (r=-0.412, p<0.01). However, LeP levels showed a reverse trend to AdipoN. AdipoN level was significantly higher in non-obese participants (BMI<25 kg/m), but LeP concentration was significantly higher in obese participants (BMI>25 kg/m) than in non-obese. On multiple logistic regression analysis, obese were significantly associated with AdipoN (odds ratio=0

  1. The Effect of Utilization of Sweet Potato Flour as Energy Source of Broiler Feed at Finisher Period to Carcass Weight, Chest Weight, Thigh Weight and Abdominal Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonok Supartini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current research is was to know the effect of feeding sweet potato flour as a source of energy to carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, and abdominal fat.The material of the research were 80 finisher male broiler with initial weight of 963.37 ± 31.23 g. Completely Randomized Design (CRD used for research method which consisted of 4 treatment, namely feeding without sweet potato flour (P0, with concentration of sweet potato flour of 10% (P1, 20% (P2 and 30% (P3.The parameter of research were carcass weight, chest weight,thigh weight and abdominal fat. The results showed that the gift effect of sweet potato flour to carcass weight were P0 1199.4%; P1 1138.98%; P2 1076.6; P3 1038.2; chest weight of P0 358.08; P1 366.6; P2 337.8; and P3 323.4%; thigh weight of P0 479.8; P1 472.94; P2 468.4; and P3 442; and abdominal fat of P0 33.2; P1 35.6; P2 25.4; P3 27.8. It could be concluded that the concentration of 10% sweet potato flour from total feeding gave the best treatment.   Keywords : sweet potato flour, carcass weight, chest weight, thigh weight, abdominal fat

  2. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral......, glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose...

  3. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Lipid storage and breakdown is mainly controlled by lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. The aim of this work was to elucidate whether growth hormone mediated loss of adipose tissue involves a concerted action on tissue lipases, and to what degree such events are modulated by dietary...... regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...

  4. Cross-sectional study of possible association between rapid eating and high body fat rates among female Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi-Tanaka, Yuri; Kawagoshi, Yumiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Fukao, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of excessive body fat among young Japanese females with a normal BMI, which is referred to as normal weight obesity (NWO), has recently increased. Some studies have associated eating rates with BMI. However, an association between body fat rate and dietary habits has not been proven. We compared differences in dietary habits between 72 female Japanese junior college students with normal (Eating rapidly was significantly associated with body fat ratios. Our findings suggest that eating rapidly increases body fat ratios.

  5. Abdominal fat distribution and cardiovascular risk in men and women with different levels of glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Stine h.; Faerch, Kirstine; Philipsen, Annelotte

    2015-01-01

    . Results: Independent of SAT and overall obesity, VAT was associated with higher triglyceride andlower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in both men and women and additionallyassociated with higher total cholesterol in men. SAT was independently associated with highertotal cholesterol...... and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in both sexes, and SAT was additionallyassociated with higher triglyceride and lower HDL cholesterol levels in women andwith higher blood pressure in participants with diabetes. Conclusion: Both abdominal VAT and SAT are independent of overall obesity...

  6. Body composition in 13-year-old adolescents with abdominal obesity, depending on the BMI value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna S; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2017-09-01

    Excessive adipocyte growth during the pubertal transition predisposes to the development and persistence of obesity in adulthood. Visceral accumulation of body fat is particularly disadvantageous when it is correlated with insulin resistance, secondary hyperinsulinaemia, dysglicaemia, and atherogenic dyslipidemia. The aim of this study was to conduct a nutritional status assessment and body composition analysis in 13-year-old adolescents of both genders with visceral fat accumulation (WC ≥ 90th percentile) and different BMI values. The evaluation of state of nutrition of 1,738 Polish boys (n = 882) and girls (n = 856) aged 13 was done based on anthropometric measurements and calculated BMI (body mass index), WC (waist circumference) and WHtR indices (waist-to-height ratio). Taking into consideration the value of WC ≥ 90 pc, 353 people were designated (20.3 % of the total) with visceral obesity (but with various BMI), whose body composition was examined by the method of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). A total of 249 adolescents of both sexes (70.5% of the selected, 102 boys and 147 girls) and their parents agreed to the study. In adolescents with visceral obesity a significant change of body content was ascertained depending on the value of the BMI. Even in the people with a proper value of the BMI, a significantly higher than standard increase of the percentage of total body fat (TBF) and decrease of both the percentage of body lean (BL) and the content of total body water (TBW) in the body was observed. The values of the BMI, WC and WHtR in adolescents were significantly correlated with each other as well as with TBF, BL and TBW, and the strength of correlation was dependent on sex. The state of nutrition in adolescents with visceral obesity, even with a proper BMI, might contribute to the development of a metabolic syndrome.

  7. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  8. The effect of body fat on basal metabolic rate in adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarseth, J J; Nordøy, E S; Blix, A S

    1999-09-01

    Three adult harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) were fed different daily amounts of capelin (Mallotus villosus), and their body composition determined by use of the tritiated water method at different levels of fattening. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) was measured after 5 days of fasting by indirect calorimetry, and was on average 1.1 W.kg-1 when 45% of body mass (BM) was fat and 2.3 W.kg-1 when body fat was reduced to 13% of BM. This suggests that body fat contributes little to BMR in these animals. It follows, that predictions of BMR on the basis of BM is questionable in seals, in which body fat may change seasonally between 20 and 60% of BM.

  9. Fatores associados à obesidade global e à obesidade abdominal em mulheres na pós-menopausa Factors associated with body and abdominal obesity in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula França

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar a prevalência de obesidade global e obesidade abdominal, em mulheres pós-menopausa, segundo o grau de instrução, nível de atividade física, uso de terapia hormonal na menopausa (THM e paridade. MÉTODOS: foram entrevistadas 157 mulheres na pós-menopausa, atendidas em dois ambulatórios públicos da cidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brasil. A obesidade foi determinada segundo o índice de massa corporal (IMC > 30,0 e segundo o percentual de gordura corporal (%GC > 37%. A obesidade abdominal foi determinada pela relação cintura-quadril (RCQ > 0,85. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de obesidade global foi 34,4% (segundo o IMC e de 40,1% (segundo o %GC. A prevalência de obesidade abdominal foi de 73,8%. Grande parte das entrevistadas referiu até sete anos de instrução formal (47,8%, foi considerada sedentária ou insuficientemente ativa (52,3% e nunca tinha utilizado THM oral ou tinha utilizado por menos de 12 meses (72,0%. Foi constatada maior prevalência de obesidade global no grupo de mulheres sedentárias ou insuficientemente ativas e no grupo de não usuárias de THM (pOBJECTIVES: to evaluate the body and abdominal obesity in post-menopausal women, according to educational level, level of physical activity, use of hormone therapy (HT, and parity. METHODS: 157 post-menopausal women, attending two public out-patients clinics in the city of São Paulo, State of São Paulo, Brazil, were interviewed. The prevalence of body obesity was calculated using the body mass index (BMI >30.0 and the body fat percentage (%BF > 37%. Abdominal obesity was calculated using the waist hip ratio (WHR >0.85. RESULTS: the prevalence of body obesity was 34.4% (using the BMI and 40.1% (using %BF. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was 73.8%. Most of the women had up to seven years of formal schooling (47.8%, were considered sedentary or insufficiently active (52.3%, and had never used oral HT or had been using it for less than 12 months (72

  10. Development of fat tissue and body mass index from infancy to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, T

    1996-06-01

    This paper gives a short overview of our recent research on changes in the body mass index (BMI) or in body fat for children studied longitudinally from birth to adulthood. The BMI shows characteristic changes in childhood and adolescence which are different from those known for skeletal growth. A period of loss of BMI from 1 to 6 years is followed by a pubertal spurt which is larger in females than in males. Fat shows a dramatic increase in the 1st year, and velocity is higher for girls than for boys after 3 years of age. At puberty there is a pre-pubertal and a post-pubertal spurt in total body fat or in arm fat and a dip in between. Those heavy or fat as adults have a qualitatively similar pattern of developmental changes, but much more accentuated fluctuations. The analysis relies on new statistical techniques.

  11. Effects of Body Fat on Weight Concerns, Dating, and Sexual Activity: A Longitudinal Analysis of Black and White Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Udry, J. Richard; Suchindran, Chirayath; Campbell, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    Investigated implications of body-fat differences for dating and sexual activity and implications of heterosexual activity for dieting and weight concerns in adolescent girls. Found that among white girls, and blacks with college-educated mothers, more body fat was associated with lower dating probability, even among non-obese girls. Body fat was…

  12. A comparison of the effect of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on food intake, body weight, blood lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants levels and haemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststrate, J.A.; Hof, K.H. van het; Berg, H. van den; Velthuis-te-Wierik, E.J.M. te; Graaf, C. de; Zimmermanns, N.J.H.; Westerterp, K.R.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.; Verboeket-Venne, W.P.H.G. van de

    1998-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of free access to reduced fat products or their full fat equivalents on fat and energy intake, body weight, plasma lipids and fat-soluble antioxidants concentrations and haemostasis variables. Design: A multicentre open randomised controlled trial in which

  13. Impact of body mass index on injury in abdominal stab wounds: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Matthew B; Ley, Eric J; Liou, Douglas Z; Tran, Tri; Chung, Rex; Melo, Nicolas; Margulies, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    Although it is assumed that obese patients are naturally protected against anterior abdominal stab wounds, the relationship has never been formally studied. We sought to examine the impact of body mass index (BMI) on severity of sustained injury, need for operation, and patient outcomes. We conducted a review of all patients presenting with abdominal stab wounds at an urban level I trauma center from January 2000-December 2012. Patients were divided into groups based on their BMI (35). Data abstracted included baseline demographics, physiologic data, and characterization of whether the stab wound had violated the peritoneum, caused intra-abdominal injury, or required an operation that was therapeutic. The one-sided Cochran-Armitage trend test was used for significance testing of the protective effect. Of 281 patients with abdominal stab wounds, 249 had complete data for evaluation. Chest and abdomen abbreviated injury scale trends decreased with increasing BMI, as did overall injury severity score, the percent of patients severely injured (injury severity score ≥ 25), and length of intensive care unit stay. Rates of peritoneal violation (100%, 84%, 77%, and 74%; P = 0.077), visceral injury (83%, 56%, 50%, and 30%; P = 0.022), and injury requiring a therapeutic operation (67%, 45%, 40%, and 20%; P = 0.034) all decreased with increasing BMI. Patients in the thinnest group required an operation three times more often than those in the most obese. Increased BMI protects patients with abdominal stab wounds and is associated with lower incidence of severe injury and need for operation. Heavier patients may be more suitable to observation and serial examinations, whereas very thin patients are more likely to require an operation and be critically injured. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. ltnear carcass measurements as indicators of body fat content in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    duiders van totale liggaamsvet in die vark. SUMMARY: This study was undertaken to investigate the suitability of various carcass fat measurements as predictors of total body fat in the pig in order to minimize the time, labour and costs involved in carcas evaluation techniques. A total of 33 Landrace X L,arge White crossbred ...

  15. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : The Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J. C.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  16. Metabolism and Whole-Body Fat Oxidation Following Post-Exercise Carbohydrate or Protein Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ulrika Andersson; Pettersson, Stefan; Edin, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    : Protein supplementation immediately post-exercise did not affect the doubling in whole body fat oxidation seen during a subsequent exercise trial 2 hours later. Neither did it affect resting fat oxidation during the post-exercise period despite increased insulin levels and attenuated ketosis. Carbohydrate...

  17. A central body fat distribution is related to renal function impairment, even in lean subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinto-Sietsma, SJ; Navis, G; Janssen, WMT; de Zeeuw, D; Gans, ROB; de Jong, PE

    Background Overweight and obesity are believed to be associated with renal damage. Whether this depends on fat distribution is not known. We hypothesize that in addition to overweight, fat distribution may be associated with renal function abnormalities. Methods: We studied the relation between body

  18. Physical activity and dietary fiber determine population body fat levels : the Seven Countries Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.; Bloemberg, B; Seidell, J C; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.

    BACKGROUND: A global epidemic of obesity is developing. Current prevalence rates are about 20-25% in American adults and 15-20% in Europeans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between population levels of physical activity, dietary fat, dietary fiber and indicators of body fat. DESIGN:

  19. Associations among eating regulation and body mass index, weight, and body fat in college students: the moderating role of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, Sareen S; Arsiwalla, Dilbur D; Lord, Denali C; Huggins, Kevin W; Simmons, Karla P; Ulrich, Pamela V

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated associations between eating regulation behaviors and body mass index (BMI), weight, and percent body fat in male and female students over the first two years of college. Subjects included 328 college students (215 females and 113 males). Height and weight (via standard techniques), body composition (via bioelectrical impedance analysis), and eating regulation behaviors (using the Regulation of Eating Behavior Scale) were conducted two to three times during both the freshman and sophomore years. Significant associations between eating regulation and BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were shown mostly in females. In females, higher BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat at the end of the second year of college were found in those with low levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and high levels of amotivation, while lower BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat were associated with high levels of autonomous, intrinsic motivation, and identified regulation, and low levels of amotivation. The findings that specific eating behaviors in females during the first two years of college influence BMI, weight, and/or percent body fat may be useful for inclusion in university programs focused on college student health to help decrease the risk of obesity and disordered eating/eating disorders in female college students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence of pleiotropic loci for fasting insulin, total fat mass, and abdominal visceral fat in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Després, J P; Rice, T; Nadeau, A; Province, M A; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Bouchard, C; Rao, D C

    2000-03-01

    To examine whether there is a major gene effect on fasting insulin and pleiotropic loci for fasting insulin, total fat mass (FM), and abdominal visceral fat (AVF). A major gene hypothesis for fasting plasma insulin levels was assessed using segregation analyses of data on 495 members in 98 normolipidemic sedentary families of white descent who participated in the HERITAGE Family Study. Segregation analyses were performed on insulin adjusted for age, on insulin adjusted for age and FM, and on insulin adjusted for age and AVF. Before adjustment for AVF and FM, a major gene effect on fasting insulin levels was indicated. The putative locus accounted for 54% of the variance under a recessive inheritance pattern, affecting 11% of the sample (i.e., allele frequency = 0.33). However, after adjusting for the effects of AVF or FM, neither a major effect alone nor a multifactorial component alone could be rejected, and support for a major gene was equivocal, i.e., neither the hypothesis of Mendelian tau values or that of the equal tau(s) were rejected and the equal tau model fit the data better than the Mendelian tau model. This pattern (i.e., major gene evidence for insulin before but not after adjustment for AVF or FM) suggests that there is a putative locus with pleiotropic effects on both insulin and FM and another pleiotropic locus for both insulin and AVF. Although these data do not directly support an additional major gene for insulin independent of AVF and FM, such support cannot be ruled out because there is still a significant major effect on FM- or AVF-adjusted insulin (albeit the Mendelian nature of this effect is ambiguous).

  1. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m2. The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity. PMID:28932012

  2. The effects of abdominal interferential current therapy on waist circumference and visceral fat distance in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Han; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of interferential current therapy on the waist circumference and visceral fat length in obese women. [Subjects and Methods] In this study, we selected 30 patients whose body mass index was over 25 kg/m 2 . The subjects were randomly assigned to receive interferential current therapy three times a week for four weeks (n=15) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation three times a week for four weeks (n=15). Waist circumference was measured in cm using a tape measure with the participant in an upright posture, and the length of visceral fat was measured using a high-resolution, B-mode ultrasound machine. [Results] There was a statistically significant difference between the group of waist circumference and visceral fat length. The change of waist circumference and visceral fat length was larger the experimental group than the control group. [Conclusion] These results can be used as a basis for reducing the risk factors that increase mortality due to diseases and can prevent cardiovascular and other adult diseases caused by obesity.

  3. Body fat distribution and inflammation among obese older adults with and without metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, A.; Stenholm, S.; Alley, D.E.; Kim, L.J.; Simonsick, E.M.; Kanaya, A.M.; Visser, M.; Houston, D.K.; Nicklas, B.J.; Tylavsky, F.A.; Satterfield, S.; Goodpaster, B.H.; Ferrucci, L.; Harris, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    The protective mechanisms by which some obese individuals escape the detrimental metabolic consequences of obesity are not understood. This study examined differences in body fat distribution and adipocytokines in obese older persons with and without metabolic syndrome. Additionally, we examined

  4. Fat Body Cells Are Motile and Actively Migrate to Wounds to Drive Repair and Prevent Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Anna; Wood, Will; Martin, Paul

    2018-02-26

    Adipocytes have many functions in various tissues beyond energy storage, including regulating metabolism, growth, and immunity. However, little is known about their role in wound healing. Here we use live imaging of fat body cells, the equivalent of vertebrate adipocytes in Drosophila, to investigate their potential behaviors and functions following skin wounding. We find that pupal fat body cells are not immotile, as previously presumed, but actively migrate to wounds using an unusual adhesion-independent, actomyosin-driven, peristaltic mode of motility. Once at the wound, fat body cells collaborate with hemocytes, Drosophila macrophages, to clear the wound of cell debris; they also tightly seal the epithelial wound gap and locally release antimicrobial peptides to fight wound infection. Thus, fat body cells are motile cells, enabling them to migrate to wounds to undertake several local functions needed to drive wound repair and prevent infections. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Urban and migrant Indians are experiencing a rapidly escalating epidemic of diabetes and CHD. This may be related to high body fat percentage in Indians and its central distribution which have been shown to be detrimental for metabolism

  6. Self-reported body fat change in HIV-infected men is a marker of decline in physical health-related quality of life with aging, independent of co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlandson, Kristine M; Reynolds, Sandra M; Cox, Christopher; Palella, Frank J; Witt, Mallory D; Kingsley, Lawrence A; Brown, Todd T; Plankey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Self-perception of changes in body fat among HIV+ persons is associated with decreased health related quality of life in cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal impact of body fat changes on health related quality of life, while accounting for comorbidity and anatomic location or severity of body fat changes, is unknown. This was a longitudinal analysis of HIV+ and HIV- Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) participants who completed questionnaires assessing self-perceived body fat changes (baseline visit) and a health related quality of life (Short Form-36) at baseline and then ≥5 years later. Relationships between body fat changes and change in Short Form-36 Physical and Mental Component Summary scores were investigated using mixed-model regression. We studied 270 HIV+ and 247 HIV- men. At baseline, ≥50% of HIV+ men reported body fat changes; physical component but not mental component summary scores were lower among HIV+ men who reported moderate/severe leg or abdominal fat changes (pchanges compared to men without perceived fat changes (pchanges were seen in mental component scores by fat change location or severity. In the final model, body fat changes at any site or severity were significant predictors of a decline in physical component summary score (pchanges, but higher mental component summary score was associated with increasing age and time. Negative self-perceived body fat changes were associated with decline in physical health related quality of life, independent of comorbidities, and may be a marker of an increased risk for physical function decline with aging.

  7. The fat body transcriptomes of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, pre- and post- blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Price

    Full Text Available The fat body is the main organ of intermediary metabolism in insects and the principal source of hemolymph proteins. As part of our ongoing efforts to understand mosquito fat body physiology and to identify novel targets for insect control, we have conducted a transcriptome analysis of the fat body of Aedes aegypti before and in response to blood feeding.We created two fat body non-normalized EST libraries, one from mosquito fat bodies non-blood fed (NBF and another from mosquitoes 24 hrs post-blood meal (PBM. 454 pyrosequencing of the non-normalized libraries resulted in 204,578 useable reads from the NBF sample and 323,474 useable reads from the PBM sample. Alignment of reads to the existing reference Ae. aegypti transcript libraries for analysis of differential expression between NBF and PBM samples revealed 116,912 and 115,051 matches, respectively. De novo assembly of the reads from the NBF sample resulted in 15,456 contigs, and assembly of the reads from the PBM sample resulted in 15,010 contigs. Collectively, 123 novel transcripts were identified within these contigs. Prominently expressed transcripts in the NBF fat body library were represented by transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins. Thirty-five point four percent of all reads in the PBM library were represented by transcripts that encode yolk proteins. The most highly expressed were transcripts encoding members of the cathepsin b, vitellogenin, vitellogenic carboxypeptidase, and vitelline membrane protein families.The two fat body transcriptomes were considerably different from each other in terms of transcript expression in terms of abundances of transcripts and genes expressed. They reflect the physiological shift of the pre-feeding fat body from a resting state to vitellogenic gene expression after feeding.

  8. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons affects total body weight, body fat and lean body mass: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Twisk, J W R; den Heijer, M

    2017-06-01

    Weight gain and body fat increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons leads to changes in body weight and body composition, but it is unclear to what extent. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the changes in body weight, body fat and lean body mass during cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender persons. We searched the PubMed database for eligible studies until November 2015. Ten studies reporting changes in body weight, body fat or lean mass in hormone naive transgender persons were included, examining 171 male-to-female and 354 female-to-male transgender people. Pooled effect estimates in the male-to-female group were +1.8 kg (95% CI: 0.2;3.4) for body weight, +3.0 kg (2.0;3.9) for body fat and -2.4 kg (-2.8; -2.1) for lean body mass. In the female-to-male group, body weight changed with +1.7 kg (0.7;2.7), body fat with -2.6 kg (-3.9; -1.4) and lean body mass with +3.9 kg (3.2;4.5). Cross-sex hormone therapy increases body weight in both sexes. In the male-to-female group, a gain in body fat and a decline in lean body mass are observed, while the opposite effects are seen in the female-to-male group. Possibly, these changes increase the risk of cardiometabolic disease in the male-to-female group. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P Swimming exercise decreases body fat mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  10. [Association between dietary intake, physical activity, socioeconomic factors and body fat percentage among schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Avila, Gisele Liliam; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; de Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article was to assess the association between dietary intake, physical activity and socioeconomic factors associated with body fat percentage in 7 to 14-year-old schoolchildren. It is a cross-sectional study with a probability sample of 2,481 students from public and private schools in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Body fat percentage was investigated by measuring triceps and subscapular skin folds. Poisson regression was performed to test the association between excess body fat and independent variables, estimating prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of excess body fat was 23.9%, though there was no significant difference between sex (p = 0.359) and age (p = 0.202). Excess body fat was associated with different factors in 11 to 14-year-old schoolchildren, namely eating less than three meals a day (OR = 1.62, CI: 1.38 to 1.91) and consumption of high-risk food more than 3 times a day (OR = 0.61 CI: 0.47 to 0.79). No significant difference was observed with physical activity. The high prevalence of excess body fat detected reveals the need for fostering the adoption of healthier behavioral practices (in relation to nutrition and physical activity) by schoolchildren.

  11. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg, P.; Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Guricci, S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to study the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and body fat per cent (BF%) in different population groups of Asians. The study design was a literature overview with special attention to recent Asian data. Specific information is provided on Indonesians (Malays and Chinese

  12. The paradox of low body mass index and high body fat percentage among Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Schmidt, G.; Staveren, van W.A.; Deurenberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    To study the relationship between body fat percentage and body mass index (BMI) in three different ethnic groups in Singapore (Chinese, Malays and Indians) in order to evaluate the validity of the BMI cut-off points for obesity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and ninety-one

  13. Physical Activity And Dietary Fat As Determinants Of Body Mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of ...

  14. DISSECTED SAMPLE JOINTS AS INDICATORS OF BODY FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pigs fed diets I and 3 in the study by Rossouw. (1982) were used as experimental animals in this experi- ment. In addition to the analitical procedures described by Rossouw (1982) the stroulder, midback, loin and ham joints were each physically disected into subcutaneous fat plus rind, muscle and bone components.

  15. Diet and body fat in adolescence and early adulthood: a systematic review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Celestino Schneider

    Full Text Available Abstract Adipose tissue is a vital component of the human body, but in excess, it represents a risk to health. According to the World Health Organization, one of the main factors determining excessive body adiposity is the dietary habit. This systematic review investigated longitudinal studies that assessed the association between diet and body fat in adolescents and young adults. Twenty-one relevant papers published between 2001 and 2015 were selected. The most used method for estimating body fat was the body mass index (15 studies. Diet was most commonly assessed by estimating the consumption of food groups (cereals, milk and dairy products and specific foods (sugar-sweetened beverages, soft drinks, fast foods, milk, etc.. Ten studies found a direct association between diet and quantity of body fat. During adolescence, adhering to a dietary pattern characterized by high consumption of energy-dense food, fast foods, sugar-sweetened beverages and soft drinks, as well as low fiber intake, appears to contribute to an increase in body fat in early adulthood. The findings of the present study suggest that the frequent consumption of unhealthy foods and food groups (higher energy density and lower nutrient content in adolescence is associated with higher quantity of body fat in early adulthood.

  16. Effect of Electroacupuncture on Visceral and Hepatic Fat in Women with Abdominal Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Study Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Hong; Chen, Xiao; Liu, Shuyun; Chen, Zhenyan

    2017-04-01

    Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and hepatic fat deposition are the most important risk factors for women's health. Acupuncture, including electroacupuncture (EA), is used to treat obesity throughout the world. The effect of EA is evaluated mainly by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Few studies have assessed its effect in reducing VAT volume and hepatic fat fraction (HFF) based on an exact measurement method such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This study aimed to resolve this issue. Thirty subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group (n = 15) did not receive any intervention and maintained a normal diet and their usual exercise habits. The treatment group (n = 15) received EA three times a week for 3 months. BMI and WC were measured using different devices. VAT and HFF were measured by MRI and calculated by related software before and after the intervention. A marked difference was evident in group that received EA treatment in the following tests. The differences in BMI (U = 21.00, p treatment group were distinct and significant compared with those of the control group. Three months later, the treatment group showed a lower BMI (W = 91.00, p = 0.001), WC (t = 4.755, p treatment group showed a lower VAT volume (t = 60.00, p = 0.029) after 3 months of treatment. After 3 months, the control group showed higher mean HFF (t = -2.900, p = 0.012) and VAT volume (W = 11.50, p = 0.006) compared with their initial levels. Based on MRI evaluation, this randomized controlled study proved that EA treatment reduces BMI and WC as well as VAT volume and HFF in women with abdominal obesity.

  17. Relationship of body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with cardiovascular risk in Chinese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-gang Wang

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: BACKGROUNDS/OBJECTIVES: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and body fat play an important role in elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the combined effects of CRF and obesity on metabolic health in Chinese children are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the independent and combined associations between body fat, CRF, and CVD risk in Chinese schoolchildren. METHODS: The study subjects comprised 676 schoolchildren (392 boys and 284 girls, aged 9.6±0.7 yrs old in Wuhan, China. Their body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, CRF, blood pressure (BP, lipids, glucose, and pubertal status were assessed. Children were categorized into different groups based on their BMI, WC, and CRF using Chinese obesity cut-off points and CRF sex-specific median points. Metabolic Risk Score (MRS was computed based on the standardized scores of BP, lipids, and glucose. RESULTS: Multiple linear regression models showed that, in the separate models, body fat was positively associated with MRS while CRF was inversely associated with MRS (p<0.001. However, when assessed simultaneously, only body fat had a significant association with MRS (p<0.001. In general, low-fit children had a lower MRS compared to their counterparts, and a significant difference between the two extreme groups was observed (low CRF and high fat vs. high CRF and low fat, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both body fat and CRF should be considered when interpreting CVD risk in Chinese children, while body fat may be correlated with CVD risk more than CRF.

  18. Effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid, lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quails induced by purine-rich diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhijian; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Xiaoqing; Jin, Rui; Zhu, Wenjing

    2014-11-01

    Inulin, a group of dietary fibers, is reported to improve the metabolic disorders. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chicory inulin on serum metabolites of uric acid (UA), lipids, glucose, and abdominal fat deposition in quail model induced by a purine-rich diet. In this study, 60 male French quails were randomly allocated to five groups: CON (control group), MOD (model group), BEN (benzbromarone-treated group), CHI-H (high-dosage chicory inulin-treated group), and CHI-L (low-dosage chicory inulin-treated group). The serum UA level was significantly increased in the model group from days 7 to 28, as well as triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid (FFA) increased later in the experimental period. The abdominal fat ratio was increased on day 28. Benzbromarone can decrease UA levels on days 14 and 28. The high and low dosage of chicory inulin also decreased serum UA levels on days 7, 14, and 28. The abdominal fat ratio, activity, and protein of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) were decreased in chicory inulin-treated groups. The activities of xanthine oxidase (XOD) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were increased in the model group and decreased in the benzbromarone and chicory inulin groups. This study evaluated a quail model of induced hyperuricemia with other metabolic disorders caused by a high-purine diet. The results indicated that a purine-rich diet might contribute to the development of hyperuricemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and abdominal obesity. Chicory inulin decreased serum UA, TG, and abdominal fat deposition in a quail model of hyperuricemia by altering the ACC protein expression and FAS and XOD activities.

  19. Internalized racism, body fat distribution, and abnormal fasting glucose among African-Caribbean women in Dominica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Cleve; Tull, Eugene S; Chambers, Earle C; Taylor, Jerome

    2002-03-01

    The current study examined the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance in a population of Afro-Caribbean women aged 18 to 55. Also of interest was whether this relationship would be differentially influenced by the type of body fat distribution or confounded by the level of hostility. A total of 244 women were selected from a systematic sample of households on the island of Dominica, West Indies. Demographic data together with information on internalized racism were collected by questionnaire. Anthropometric information and fasting blood glucose were also measured. Women with high levels of internalized racism exhibited an increased risk of elevated fasting glucose compared to those with low levels of internalized racism (odds ratio (OR) = 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-5.5). There was no difference in mean body mass index (BMI) by level of internalized racism. However those with high internalized racism had a significantly larger waist circumference after adjusting for age, education, hostility, and elevated fasting glucose status. In multivariate analyses controlling for age, education, hostility, and either weight or BMI, internalized racism remained independently associated with elevated fasting glucose. However, once waist circumference was included in the model, the relationship of internalized racism to elevated fasting glucose was not statistically significant. This study demonstrates a significant relationship between internalized racism and abnormal levels of fasting glucose which may be mediated through abdominal fat. The exact nature of the relationship of internalized racism to glucose intolerance may be an important area of future study.

  20. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L.; Keating, Karen D.; Allison, David B.; Nagy, Tim R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Design and Methods Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n=15 male, n=15 female) or high-fat diet (HFD, 45% calories from fat; n=277 male, n=278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake and body composition were routinely measured. Results Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (p=0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P=0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all pbody weight for both sexes (pbody fat (pbody weight. PMID:24942674

  1. Low cardiometabolic risk in Parkinson's disease is independent of nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Emanuele; Cassani, Erica; Barichella, Michela; Spadafranca, Angela; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Bertoli, Simona; Battezzati, Alberto; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2012-10-01

    To investigate if the reduced cardiometabolic risk in Parkinson's disease (PD) is independent of nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution. We designed a case-control study comparing 80 non underweight PD patients with 80 controls matched for sex, age and body mass index (BMI). Nutritional assessment included: anthropometry (BMI and waist circumference [WC]), body composition estimated by impedance and biochemistry (fasting glucose, serum lipids and transaminases). The presence of arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were noted. Compared to controls and independently of gender, PD patients showed lower percentage of body fat (P nutritional status, body composition and fat distribution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  2. [Anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Silva, João Marcos Ferreira de Lima; Grigollo, Leoberto; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    2015-01-01

    To determine the anthropometric indicators of obesity in the prediction of high body fat in adolescents from a Brazilian State. The study included 1,197 adolescents (15-17 years old). The following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (weight and height), waist circumference and skinfolds (triceps and medial calf). The anthropometric indicators analyzed were: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and conicity index (C-Index). Body fat percentage, estimated by the Slaughter et al equation, was used as the reference method. Descriptive statistics, U Mann-Whitney test, and ROC curve were used for data analysis. Of the four anthropometric indicators studied, BMI, WHtR and WC had the largest areas under the ROC curve in relation to relative high body fat in both genders. The cutoffs for boys and girls, respectively, associated with high body fat were BMI 22.7 and 20.1 kg/m(2), WHtR 0.43 and 0.41, WC 75.7 and 67.7 cm and C-Index 1.12 and 1.06. Anthropometric indicators can be used in screening for identification of body fat in adolescents, because they are simple, have low cost and are non-invasive. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Revisions of rump fat and body scoring indices for deer, elk, and moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Rachel C.; Cook, John G.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Myers, Woodrow L.; Mccorquodale, Scott M.; Vales, David J.; Irwin, Larry L.; Hall, P. Briggs; Spencer, Rocky D.; Murphie, Shannon L.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Miller, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Because they do not require sacrificing animals, body condition scores (BCS), thickness of rump fat (MAXFAT), and other similar predictors of body fat have advanced estimating nutritional condition of ungulates and their use has proliferated in North America in the last decade. However, initial testing of these predictors was too limited to assess their reliability among diverse habitats, ecotypes, subspecies, and populations across the continent. With data collected from mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), elk (Cervus elaphus), and moose (Alces alces) during initial model development and data collected subsequently from free-ranging mule deer and elk herds across much of the western United States, we evaluated reliability across a broader range of conditions than were initially available. First, to more rigorously test reliability of the MAXFAT index, we evaluated its robustness across the 3 species, using an allometric scaling function to adjust for differences in animal size. We then evaluated MAXFAT, rump body condition score (rBCS), rLIVINDEX (an arithmetic combination of MAXFAT and rBCS), and our new allometrically scaled rump-fat thickness index using data from 815 free-ranging female Roosevelt and Rocky Mountain elk (C. e. roosevelti and C. e. nelsoni) from 19 populations encompassing 4 geographic regions and 250 free-ranging female mule deer from 7 populations and 2 regions. We tested for effects of subspecies, geographic region, and captive versus free-ranging existence. Rump-fat thickness, when scaled allometrically with body mass, was related to ingesta-free body fat over a 38–522-kg range of body mass (r2 = 0.87; P 12% body fat. This bias translated into a difference between subspecies, because Rocky Mountain elk tended to be fatter than Roosevelt elk in our sample. Effects of observer error with the rBCS also existed for mule deer with moderate to high levels of body fat, and deer body size significantly affected accuracy of the MAXFAT predictor

  4. Negotiating and Navigating my Fat body - feminist autoethnographic encounters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Smailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two years I have been consciously critically engaging with autoethnography as a way of gaining insight into the cultural phenomenon of being a fat woman. Autoethnography is an in-depth and engaged approach which opens up spaces of particular ways of being which have often been colonised by particular discourse in formed by invested situational knowledge. This process has involved me drawing on past journals, memories and re-memory work and present interwoven layers of process and reflection (Ronai 1995. It has been and is challenging, Chatham-Carpenter (2010 writes about the difficulties of being with and exposing vulnerable 'selves' - a self which is still very much part of the present, rather than a neatly contained and managed 'identity'. So part of what I will do in this article is consider the critical process of my feminist autoethnography, interweaving and responding to the literature' in feminist research, feminisms, autoethnography, critical fat studies, and intersectionality.  A key to this exploration is the experience of researching the experiences of being a fat woman, from within a feminist commitment - at some level I want to consider whether and how the experience reflects Averett, Soper's (2011, 371-372 suggestion that "Feminist autoethnography is intended to resist the social and institutional norms that often dictate research. It promotes women's voices and unique experiences".

  5. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor

  6. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zeng

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF and body mass index (BMI for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961, group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381, group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681, and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836. When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45 and 2.06 (1.26-3.35 times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89. Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  7. Percent body fat is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk factors than body mass index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Qiang; Dong, Sheng-Yong; Sun, Xiao-Nan; Xie, Jing; Cui, Yi [International Medical Center, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2012-04-20

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the predictive values of percent body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) for cardiovascular risk factors, especially when PBF and BMI are conflicting. BMI was calculated by the standard formula and PBF was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 3859 ambulatory adult Han Chinese subjects (2173 males and 1686 females, age range: 18-85 years) without a history of cardiovascular diseases were recruited from February to September 2009. Based on BMI and PBF, they were classified into group 1 (normal BMI and PBF, N = 1961), group 2 (normal BMI, but abnormal PBF, N = 381), group 3 (abnormal BMI, but normal PBF, N = 681), and group 4 (abnormal BMI and PBF, N = 836). When age, gender, lifestyle, and family history of obesity were adjusted, PBF, but not BMI, was correlated with blood glucose and lipid levels. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for cardiovascular risk factors in groups 2 and 4 were 1.88 (1.45-2.45) and 2.06 (1.26-3.35) times those in group 1, respectively, but remained unchanged in group 3 (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 0.92-1.89). Logistic regression models also demonstrated that PBF, rather than BMI, was independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors. In conclusion, PBF, and not BMI, is independently associated with cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that PBF is a better predictor.

  8. The Role of Body Adiposity Index in Determining Body Fat Percentage in Colombian Adults with Overweight or Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Jorge Enrique Correa-Bautista; Katherine González-Ruíz; Alejandra Tordecilla-Sanders; Antonio García-Hermoso; Jacqueline Schmidt-RioValle; Emilio González-Jiménez

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the accuracy of body adiposity index (BAI) as a convenient tool for assessing body fat percentage (BF%) in a sample of adults with overweight/obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The study population was composed of 96 volunteers (60% female, mean age 40.6 ?? 7.5 years old). Anthropometric characteristics (body mass index, height, waist-to-height ratio, hip and waist circumference), socioeconomic status, and diet were assessed, and BF% ...

  9. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  10. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  11. Validation of a free software for unsupervised assessment of abdominal fat in MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalo, Michele; Zorza, Ivan; Zubani, Stefano; Nocivelli, Giorgio; Calandra, Giulio; Soldini, Pierantonio; Mascaro, Lorella; Maroldi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    To demonstrate the accuracy of an unsupervised (fully automated) software for fat segmentation in magnetic resonance imaging. The proposed software is a freeware solution developed in ImageJ that enables the quantification of metabolically different adipose tissues in large cohort studies. The lumbar part of the abdomen (19cm in craniocaudal direction, centered in L3) of eleven healthy volunteers (age range: 21-46years, BMI range: 21.7-31.6kg/m 2 ) was examined in a breath hold on expiration with a GE T1 Dixon sequence. Single-slice and volumetric data were considered for each subject. The results of the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue assessments obtained by the unsupervised software were compared to supervised segmentations of reference. The associated statistical analysis included Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots and volumetric differences (VD % ). Values calculated by the unsupervised software significantly correlated with corresponding supervised segmentations of reference for both subcutaneous adipose tissue - SAT (R=0.9996, psoftware is capable of segmenting the metabolically different adipose tissues with a high degree of accuracy. This free add-on software for ImageJ can easily have a widespread and enable large-scale population studies regarding the adipose tissue and its related diseases. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Errors in body composition using fan beam DXA due to variation in fat distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, M.; Pocock, N. [St Vincents Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Bone Densitometry; Noakes, K. [Princess Alexandria Hospital, Brisbane, QLD (Australia). Department of Endocrinology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: DXA while primarily developed and used to determine bone Mineral Density (BMD) and Bone Mineral Content (BMC) can also be used to determine body composition. Fan Beam DXA instruments cause inherent magnification of scanned structures which can lead to significant errors in BMC and geometric measures. We have assessed the magnification effect of fan beam DXA on body composition with alteration of fat distribution in a laboratory model. The phantom consisted of an aluminium bar, water bath and 3 different quantities of animal fat. Scans were performed in triplicate using a Lunar Expert and an Hologic QDR 4500. The fat was positioned either at the same height as the aluminium spine or at a height of 28.5 cm. The results presented (mean of 3 scans) are for the Lunar Expert. The fat mass, % fat and total tissue mass were calculated for the fat at baseline and elevated positions. It is concluded that the use of fan beam DXA for body composition may lead to magnification errors secondary to variation in distribution of fat 1 tab.

  13. Protein intake induced an increase in exercise stimulated fat oxidation during stable body weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenen, Stijn; Plasqui, Guy; Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-12-02

    Protein-rich weight-loss diets spare fat-free mass at the cost of fat mass. The objective was to examine if there is a change in stimulated fat oxidation related to protein intake during stable body weight. Subjects' (BMI 22±2kg/m(2), age 25±8 years) maximal fat oxidation (Fat(max)) was assessed during a graded bicycle test, before and after a 3-month dietary-intervention of 2MJ/day supplements exchanged with 2MJ/d of habitual energy intake. The parallel design consisted of protein-rich supplements in the protein group and an isocaloric combination of carbohydrate and fat supplements in the control group. Daily protein intake was determined according to 24-h urine nitrogen. Body composition was measured according to a 4-compartment model by a combination of underwater-weighing technique, deuterium-dilution technique and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Subjects were weight stable and did not change their physical activity. The protein group (n=12) increased protein intake (11±14g, Pbody weight (Pbody composition or VO(2)max. Increased stimulated fat oxidation was related to increased protein intake. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass and in non-diabetic Asian Indians in north India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Bhatt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine the association of the A55T and K153R polymorphisms of the Myostatin gene with obesity, abdominal obesity and lean body mass (LBM in Asian Indians in north India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 335 subjects (238 men and 97 women were assessed for anthropometry, % body fat (BF, LBM and biochemical parameters. Associations of Myostatin gene polymorphisms were evaluated with anthropometric, body composition and biochemical parameters. In A55T polymorphism, BMI (p=0.04, suprailiac skinfold (p=0.05, total skinfold (p=0.008, %BF (p=0.002 and total fat mass (p=0.003 were highest and % LBM (p=0.03 and total LBM (Kg were lowest (p=0.04 in subjects with Thr/Thr genotype as compared to other genotypes. Association analysis of K153R polymorphism showed that subjects with R/R genotype had significantly higher BMI (p=0.05, waist circumference (p=0.04, %BF (p=0.04 and total fat mass (p=0.03, and lower %LBM (p=0.02 and total LBM [(Kg, (p=0.04] as compared to other genotypes. Using a multivariate logistic regression model after adjusting for age and sex, subjects with Thr/Thr genotype of A55T showed high risk for high %BF (OR, 3.92, 95% Cl: 2.61-12.41, truncal subcutaneous adiposity (OR, 2.9, 95% Cl: 1.57-6.60] and low LBM (OR, 0.64, 95% CI: 0.33-0.89 whereas R/R genotype of K153R showed high risk of obesity (BMI; OR, 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2-12.9; %BF, OR, 3.6, 95% CI: 1.04-12.4, abdominal obesity (OR, 2.12, 95% CI: 2.71-14.23 and low LBM (OR, 0.61, 95% CI: 0.29-0.79. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We report that variants of Myostatin gene predispose to obesity, abdominal obesity and low lean body mass in Asian Indians in north India.

  15. Comparison of estimates of body fat content in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicato, N A; Peres, F A; de Oliveira Peliçari, K; de Oliveira Santos, A; Ramos, C D; Marini, R; Appenzeller, S

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to compare estimates of body fat content with respect to their ability to predict the percentage of body fat, confirmed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We included 64 consecutive childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 64 healthy age and sex-matched controls in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric data, body mass index and body adiposity index were calculated for all subjects. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients were further assessed for clinical and laboratory childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus manifestations and fat mass, lean mass and percentage of body fat evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Elevated waist/hip ratio was observed in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients when compared to controls ( p lupus erythematosus patients and controls. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry as gold standard we observed that all indirect estimates of body fat were correlated with whole body fat mass. We observed a correlation between height and cumulative corticosteroid dose adjusted by weight ( r = 0.429, p = 0.005) in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On whole body analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index scores ( r = -0.395; p = 0.019); percentage of body fat and adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.008), disease duration ( r = -0.370; p = 0.012). On trunk analysis we observed a correlation between lean mass and ACR Damage Index ( r = -0.319; p = 0.042); percentage of body fat with adjusted Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index ( r = 0.402; p = 0.005), disease duration ( r = -0.408; p = 0.005). Conclusions This is the first study analyzing body adiposity index in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus patients. We observed that all indirect

  16. Serum Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4 Concentrations Are Positively and Independently Associated with Blood Pressure and Abdominal Fat among Parameters in Health Check-Ups in Ordinary Middle-Aged Japanese Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masami; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Honma, Kazue; Miyauchi, Rie; Kasezawa, Nobuhiko; Tohyama, Kazushige; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    We wished to examine potential associations among blood concentrations of fatty acid-binding protein (FABP) 4 and parameters in health check-ups such as abdominal fat area (AFA) and blood pressure (BP) in middle-aged Japanese males. We conducted a cross-sectional study of males who participated in health check-ups in Japan. We excluded participants diagnosed with metabolic diseases by the time of their check-up. A total of 305 subjects (30-64 [mean±standard deviation, 47.3±8.5] y) were recruited. Areas of total-abdominal, visceral and subcutaneous fat were measured using computed tomography. We compared the association of serum concentrations of FABP4 with various clinical parameters by Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) analyses, and by step-wise multivariate linear regression analyses (MLRA). PPMCC analyses showed that blood concentrations of FABP4 were positively associated with: body mass index; areas of fat (total abdominal, visceral, subcutaneous); systolic BP; diastolic BP; total cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol; triacylglycerol; activities of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase; white blood cell count; and levels of creatinine. Step-wise MLRA showed that AFAs (visceral and subcutaneous) and diastolic BP were positively and independently associated with serum concentrations of FABP4 among the parameters tested. These data suggest that serum concentrations of FABP4 are independently and positively associated with BP and AFA among parameters measured in health check-ups in middle-aged Japanese males.

  17. Changes in regional body fat, lean body mass and body shape in trans persons using cross-sex hormonal therapy: results from a multicenter prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, M; de Blok, C J M; Wiepjes, C M; Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; de Mutsert, R; Schreiner, T; Fisher, A D; T'Sjoen, G; den Heijer, M

    2018-02-01

    Cross-sex hormonal therapy (CHT) in trans persons affects their total body fat and total lean body mass. However, it is unknown how separate body regions are affected and whether these changes alter body shape. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects on body fat and lean body mass in separate body regions and on body shape after one year of CHT. In a multicenter prospective study at university hospitals, 179 male-to-female gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transwomen, and 162 female-to-male gender dysphoric persons, referred to as transmen, were included. All underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and anthropometric measurements before and after one year of CHT. In transwomen, increases in body fat ranged from +18% (95% CI: 13%;23%) in the android region to +42% (95% CI: 37%;46%) in the leg region and +34% (95% CI: 29%;38%) in the gynoid region. In transmen, changes in body fat ranged from -16% (95% CI: -19;-14%) in the leg region and -14% in the gynoid region (95% CI: -16%;-12) to no change in the android region (+1%, 95% CI: -3%;5%). Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) decreased in transwomen (-0.03, 95% CI: -0.04;-0.02) mainly due to an increase in hip circumference (+3.2 cm, 95% CI: 2.3;4.0). Transmen have a decrease in hip circumference (-1.9 cm, 95% CI: -3.1;-0.7) resulting in an increase in WHR (+0.01, 95% CI: 0.00;0.02). CHT causes a more feminine body fat distribution and a lower WHR in transwomen and a more masculine body fat distribution with a lower hip circumference in transmen. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  18. Oil Bodies Extracted from High-Fat and Low-Fat Soybeans: Stability and Composition During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu Ling; Li Cui, Chun; Jiang, Lian Zhou; Liu, Yue; Liang, Xin Ting; Hou, Jun Cai

    2017-06-01

    Soybeans contain oil bodies (OBs) that encapsulate triacylglycerols (TAGs) with a phospholipid monolayer carrying scattered proteins. In nature, soybean OBs can form natural emulsions in aqueous media and may serve as natural, minimally processed, stable, and pre-emulsified oil for addition into appropriate food systems. In this study, OBs were obtained by aqueous extraction from the mature seeds of 2 soybean crop cultivars, high-fat soybean and low-fat soybeans. The compositions of the extracted OBs were analyzed during storage at room temperature up to 14 d (pH = 7). The oxidative stability of these OBs, stored at 60 °C, was evaluated by measuring the presence of primary (lipid hydroperoxides) and secondary lipid oxidation products (malondialdehyde) by determining the standard peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value. During storage, the contents of unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids, and tocopherols declined in both OBs, while their mean particle diameters (d 32 ) and ζ-potentials increased. The changes in PV and TBARS values exhibited a similar trend for both OBs, but the OBs from low-fat soybeans had significantly lower PV and higher TBARS values than the OBs from high-fat soybean cultivars (P soybean cultivars had good stability during storage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Impact of Genetic Variants on the Individual Potential for Body Fat Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed the discovery of obesity-related genetic variants and their functions through genome-wide association studies. Combinations of risk alleles can influence obesity phenotypes with different degrees of effectiveness across various individuals by interacting with environmental factors. We examined the interaction between genetic variation and changes in dietary habits or exercise that influences body fat loss from a large Korean cohort (n = 8840. Out of 673 obesity-related SNPs, a total of 100 SNPs (37 for carbohydrate intake; 19 for fat intake; 44 for total calories intake; 25 for exercise onset identified to have gene-environment interaction effect in generalized linear model were used to calculate genetic risk scores (GRS. Based on the GRS distribution, we divided the population into four levels, namely, “very insensitive”, “insensitive”, “sensitive”, and “very sensitive” for each of the four categories, “carbohydrate intake”, “fat intake”, “total calories intake”, and “exercise”. Overall, the mean body fat loss became larger when the sensitivity level was increased. In conclusion, genetic variants influence the effectiveness of dietary regimes for body fat loss. Based on our findings, we suggest a platform for personalized body fat management by providing the most suitable and effective nutrition or activity plan specific to an individual.

  20. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao

    1994-01-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author)

  1. A study of percentage body fat in children via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Shoji; Yagi, Shinichi; Fujino, Mitsuyoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morita, Tetsuro; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan))

    1994-05-01

    Percentage body fat was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and skin fold calipers on 26 children (nine in obesity group, 12 in healthy group and 5 in steroid treated group). Mean percent body fat did not differ significantly between methods in the whole subjects as well as the healthy group and the steroid treated group. However, the mean percent body fat using skin fold caliper was higher for the obesity group than the other two. The measurements of all cases in the obesity group by DEXA were higher than those of BIA. There were high correlations among the percent body fat obtained by each technique. According to the analysis of mean regional percent fat, the percent fat of legs was the highest in the healthy and steroid treated group, while there was no regional difference in the obesity group. It should be possible to classify each case in the obesity group into upper segment and lower segment obesity by DEXA. (author).

  2. Body Fat and Breast Cancer Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations between anthropometric indices of obesity and breast cancer risk may fail to capture the true relationship between excess body fat and risk. We used dual-energy-X-ray-absorptiometry- (DXA- derived measures of body fat obtained in the Women’s Health Initiative to examine the association between body fat and breast cancer risk; we compared these risk estimates with those for conventional anthropometric measurements. The study included 10,960 postmenopausal women aged 50–79 years at recruitment, with baseline DXA measurements and no history of breast cancer. During followup (median: 12.9 years, 503 incident breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. All baseline DXA-derived body fat measures showed strong positive associations with breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted HR for the uppermost quintile level (versus lowest ranged from 1.53 (95% CI 1.14–2.07 for fat mass of the right leg to 2.05 (1.50–2.79 for fat mass of the trunk. Anthropometric indices (categorized by quintiles of obesity (BMI (1.97, 1.45–2.68, waist circumference (1.97, 1.46–2.65, and waist : hip ratio (1.91, 1.41–2.58 were all strongly, positively associated with risk and did not differ from DXA-derived measures in prediction of risk.

  3. Body weight homeostat that regulates fat mass independently of leptin in rats and mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, John-Olov; Hägg, Daniel A.; Schéle, Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Anesten, Fredrik; Bake, Tina; Montelius, Mikael; Bellman, Jakob; Johansson, Maria E.; Cone, Roger D.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Wu, Jianyao; Aleksic, Biljana; Törnqvist, Anna E.; Sjögren, Klara; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Windahl, Sara H.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2018-01-01

    Subjects spending much time sitting have increased risk of obesity but the mechanism for the antiobesity effect of standing is unknown. We hypothesized that there is a homeostatic regulation of body weight. We demonstrate that increased loading of rodents, achieved using capsules with different weights implanted in the abdomen or s.c. on the back, reversibly decreases the biological body weight via reduced food intake. Importantly, loading relieves diet-induced obesity and improves glucose tolerance. The identified homeostat for body weight regulates body fat mass independently of fat-derived leptin, revealing two independent negative feedback systems for fat mass regulation. It is known that osteocytes can sense changes in bone strain. In this study, the body weight-reducing effect of increased loading was lost in mice depleted of osteocytes. We propose that increased body weight activates a sensor dependent on osteocytes of the weight-bearing bones. This induces an afferent signal, which reduces body weight. These findings demonstrate a leptin-independent body weight homeostat (“gravitostat”) that regulates fat mass. PMID:29279372

  4. Relationship of the reported intakes of fat and fatty acids to body weight in US adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary fat composition may modulate energy expenditure and body weight. Little is known about the relationship between fatty acid intake and body weight at a population level. The purposes of this study were to compare intakes of energy, macronutrients, and individual fatty acids across BMI categor...

  5. Personality characteristics in adolescence predict long-term changes in body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koppes, Lando L J; de Boer, Michiel R; Samoocha, David

    2008-01-01

    Five personality characteristics were assessed in 312 adolescent boys and girls, and investigated in relation to the change in body fat percentage over 22 years of follow up. Boys with low levels of Social Inadequacy and girls with high levels of Recalcitrance showed relatively large gains in body...

  6. To Be Fat or Thin? Social Representations of the Body among Adolescent Female Students in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Lucia Marques; Saha, Lawrence J.; Guareschi, Pedrinho

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this paper are (a) to investigate how adolescents perceive and represent the body form with respect to being fat or thin, and (b) to describe the process of how they constructed the social representations for these latter two body conditions. The data were collected by means of individual and focus group interviews with adolescent…

  7. Screening for total and abdominal obesity among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of total body fat and distribution has been stressed as a major risk factor for both adults and children. There is paucity of information concerning total and abdominal obesity among university students in South Africa. The purpose of this study was to screen for total and abdominal obesity among university of ...

  8. Genetic risk scores for body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women during dietary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, M; Allin, K H; Sørensen, T I A

    2018-01-01

    suggest that genetic variants influencing body fat distribution attenuate weight loss in women independently on the effect on WHR. The stronger effect of the GRSwomen implies heterogenic effects of the WHRadjBMI variants on weight loss. A strong effect of rs1358980-T in the VEGFA locus suggests......BACKGROUND AND AIM: The well-established link between body fat distribution and metabolic health has been suggested to act through an impact on the remodeling capacity of the adipose tissue. Remodeling of the adipose tissue has been shown to affect body fat distribution and might affect the ability...... to lose weight. We aimed to study the effect of weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) on weight loss based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with waist-hip-ratio adjusted for body mass index (WHRadjBMI). METHOD: We included 707 participants (533 women and 174 men) from the NUGENOB multi...

  9. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order({gamma} = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; {rho} < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order ({gamma} = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; {rho} < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT.

  10. The optimal parameter for radiation dose in pediatric low dose abdominal CT: cross-sectional dimensions versus body weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yoon Young; Goo, Hyun Woo

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the best parameter between cross-sectional dimensions and body weight in pediatric low dose abdominal CT. One hundred and thirty six children consecutively underwent weight-based abdominal CT. The subjects consisted of group 1 (79 children, weight range 10.0-19.9 kg) and group 2 (57 children, weight range 20.0-39.9 kg). Abdominal cross-sectional dimensions including circumference, area, anteroposterior diameters and transverse diameters were calculated. Image noise (standard deviation of CT density) was measured by placing a region of interest in the posterior segment of the right hepatic lobe on a CT image at the celiac axis. The measured image noise was correlated with the cross-sectional abdominal dimensions and body weight for subjects in each group. In group 1 subjects,area, circumference, transverse diameter, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order(γ = 0.63, 0.62, 0.61, 0.51, and 0.49; ρ < 0.0001). In group 2 subjects, transverse diameter, circumference, area, anteroposterior diameter, and body weight showed a significant positive correlation with image noise in descending order (γ = 0.83, 0.82, 0.78, 0.71, and 0.71; ρ < 0.0001). Cross-sectional dimensions such as area, circumference, and transverse diameter showed a higher positive correlation with image noise than body weight for pediatric low dose abdominal CT

  11. Genotype x diet interactions in mice predisposed to mammary cancer. I. Body weight and fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, Ryan R; Hunter, Kent W; Sørensen, Peter

    2008-01-01

    High dietary fat intake and obesity may increase susceptibility to certain forms of cancer. To study the interactions of dietary fat, obesity, and metastatic mammary cancer, we created a population of F(2) mice cosegregating obesity QTL and the MMTV-PyMT transgene. We fed the F(2) mice either...... a very-high-fat or a matched-control-fat diet and measured growth, body composition, age at mammary tumor onset, tumor number and severity, and formation of pulmonary metastases. SNP genotyping across the genome facilitated analyses of QTL and QTL x diet interaction effects. Here we describe development...... for body composition traits that were significant at the genome-wide 0.05 level, likely representing nine distinct loci after accounting for pleiotropic effects. QTL x diet and/or gender interactions were present at 15 of these QTL, indicating that such interactions play a significant role in defining...

  12. DYSREGULATION OF THE HYPOTHALAMIC-PITUITARY-ADRENAL AXIS INCREASES CENTRAL BODY FAT ACCUMULATION IN MALES AFFECTED BY DIABETES MELLITUS AND LATE-ONSET HYPOGONADISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Colao, Annamaria; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2016-04-01

    Functional hypercortisolism (FH) is a condition which occurs in some clinical states, such as major depression, eating disorders, numerous psychiatric conditions, and diabetes mellitus (DM) and which exerts several negative systemic effects. No data exist on the potentially harmful role of FH on body composition. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the influence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation on body composition in men affected by DM-associated late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). Fourteen subjects affected by FH (FH-LOH) and 18 subjects not affected (N-LOH) were studied. Clinical, hormonal, and body composition measures were considered. The 2 groups had comparable age and weight. FH-LOH patients had lower levels of total (2 ± 0.27 ng/mL versus 2.31 ± 0.26 ng/mL; P = .003) and free (39.5 ± 6.44 pg/mL versus 46.8 ± 7.23 pg/mL; P = .005) (median, 38.7 [interquartile range, 36.1 to 41.3] pg/mL versus median, 46.1 [interquartile range, 40.4 to 52.7] pg/mL) testosterone compared to N-LOH patients. Abdominal fat amount was greater in FH-LOH than in N-LOH patients, even after adjustment for total testosterone. None of the bivariate correlations between body composition measures and hormonal variables were significant in N-LOH. Conversely, in FH-LOH, cortisol area under the curve (AUC) was found to be positively and significantly correlated with trunk (r = 0.933; P<.001) and abdominal fat (r = 0.852; P<.001) and negatively with lean leg (r = -0.607; P = .021). All of these associations were further confirmed upon linear regression analysis in FH-LOH (respectively, unstandardized β = 10.988 [P<.001]; β = 1.156 [P<.001]; β = -7.675 [P = .021]). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed AUC cortisol as a predictor of trunk and abdominal fat in FH-LOH. Dysregulation of the HPA axis in LOH-associated DM seems to be involved in abdominal fat accumulation.

  13. Influence of apolipoprotein-E gene on lipid profile, physical activity and body fat relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Boaventura Rachid Nascimento

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and body fat modify lipemia, and this effect seems to be influenced by apolipoprotein-E (APOE gene polymorphism. Thus, the purpose of this article was to review main results of studies that have analyzed the relation of APOE gene with physical activity and body fat on triglycerides, total cholesterol and low (LDL and high density lipoprotein (HDL concentrations. The Scientific Electronic Library Online – SciELO, Web of Science and PubMed database were used to locate the articles. The keywords used in combination were: apoe genotype, apolipoprotein-E polymorphism, physical exercise, physical activity, aerobic exercise, body fat and obesity. Originals scientific investigations performed with humans were included, and excluded those ones which involved samples with diseases, except obesity and/or lipemic disorders. It was observed a trend, that ε2 allele carriers are the ones with the greater improvements on lipemia from physical exercise. In addition, the body fat impact on the elevation of triglycerides and LDL are stronger in carriers of the ε2 and ε4 allele, respectively. Considering the small number of originals scientific investigations and their divergent results, reliable inferences can not be made about the APOE gene polymorphism influences on physical activity and body fat effect on lipemia. Thus, further studies with others populations and more volunteers for allele, as well as others exercise modalities and intensities, are necessary.

  14. The prevalence of low back pain and associations with body fatness, fat distribution and height

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, T.S.; Schouten, J S; Lean, M.E.J.; Seidell, J C

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations of low back pain symptoms with waist circumference, height, waist to hip ratio and body mass index, and to test the interactions between (1) waist circumference and height, and (2) waist to hip ratio and body mass index. SETTING: Cross-sectional study set in

  15. Detection of amyloid in abdominal fat pad aspirates in early amyloidosis: Role of electron microscopy and Congo red stained cell block sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumana Devata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNA of the abdominal fat pad is a minimally invasive procedure to demonstrate tissue deposits of amyloid. However, protocols to evaluate amyloid in fat pad aspirates are not standardized, especially for detecting scant amyloid in early disease. Materials and Methods: We studied abdominal fat pad aspirates from 33 randomly selected patients in whom subsequent tissue biopsy, autopsy, and/or medical history for confirmation of amyloidosis (AL were also available. All these cases were suspected to have early AL, but had negative results on abdominal fat pad aspirates evaluated by polarizing microscopy of Congo Red stained sections (CRPM. The results with CRPM between four reviewers were compared in 12 cases for studying inter observer reproducibility. 24 cases were also evaluated by ultrastructural study with electron microscopy (EM. Results: Nine of thirty-three (27% cases reported negative by polarizing microscopy had amyloidosis. Reanalysis of 12 mixed positive-negative cases, showed considerable inter-observer variability with frequent lack of agreement between four observers by CRPM alone (Cohen′s Kappa index of 0.1, 95% CI -0.1 to 0.36. EM showed amyloid in the walls of small blood vessels in fibroadipose tissue in four out of nine cases (44% with amyloidosis. Conclusion: In addition to poor inter-observer reproducibility, CRPM alone in cases with scant amyloid led to frequent false negative results (9 out of 9, 100%. For improved detection of AL, routine ultrastructural evaluation with EM of fat pad aspirates by evaluating at least 15 small blood vessels in the aspirated fibroadipose tissue is recommended. Given the high false negative rate for CRPM alone in early disease, routine reflex evaluation with EM is highly recommended to avert the invasive option of biopsying various organs in cases with high clinical suspicion for AL.

  16. Transgenic mice with astrocyte-targeted production of interleukin-6 are resistant to high-fat diet-induced increases in body weight and body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidalgo, Juan; Florit, Sergi; Giralt, Mercedes

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a major cytokine involved in both normal physiological brain functions and underlying significant neuropathology. IL-6 has been suggested to play a role in the control of body weight but the results are somewhat controversial. In this study we have challenged transgenic mice...... of increased sympathetic tone. The high-fat diet-induced impaired responses to an insulin tolerance test (ITT), and to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in both genotypes. The GFAP-IL6 mice did not differ from littermate wild-type (WT) mice in ITT, but they were more glucose intolerant following the high......-fat diet feeding. In summary, the present results demonstrate that brain-specific IL-6 controls body weight which may be a significant factor in physiological conditions and/or in diseases causing neuroinflammation....

  17. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; Heitmann, Berit L

    2006-01-01

    , body fat distribution, and body composition in a random group of adult Danes. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsample of men and women from the Danish arm of the Monitoring Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease study. The subsample comprised 185 men and 191 women...... born in 1922, 1932, 1942, or 1952. A baseline health examination and a dietary history interview were carried out in 1987 and 1988; a follow-up health examination was performed in 1993 and 1994. RESULTS: Positive associations between GI and changes in body weight (DeltaBW), percentage body fat (Delta...... observed in men, and no significant associations with GL were observed in either sex. CONCLUSIONS: High-GI diets may lead to increases in BW, body fat mass, and WC in women, especially in sedentary women, which suggests that physical activity may protect against diet-induced weight gain. No associations...

  18. Avaliação da reprodutibilidade ultrassonográfica como método para medida da gordura abdominal e visceral Reproducibility of ultrasonography as a method to measure abdominal and visceral fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Lemos Debs Diniz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo é avaliar a variabilidade interobservador do método ultrassonográfico para medida da gordura subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal por meio de técnica padronizada. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 50 pacientes entre novembro de 2006 e janeiro de 2007. A medida da espessura subcutânea foi realizada com transdutor linear de 7,5 MHz posicionado transversalmente a 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical. Para a gordura visceral foi utilizado transdutor de 3,5 MHz posicionado 1 cm acima da cicatriz umbilical, considerando-se a medida entre a face interna do músculo reto abdominal e a parede posterior da aorta na linha média do abdome. A gordura perirrenal foi medida no terço médio do rim direito, com transdutor posicionado na linha axilar média. RESULTADOS: A reprodutibilidade interobservador foi analisada por meio do teste t de Student, com significância de 95%. Não houve diferença significativa entre as médias das medidas das gorduras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal, com p = 0,7141, 0,7286 e 0,6368, respectivamente. As médias encontradas, com seus respectivos desvios-padrão, foram: 2,64 ± 1,37 para a espessura subcutânea, 6,84 ± 2,38 para a espessura visceral e 4,89 ± 2,6 para a espessura perirrenal. CONCLUSÃO: A ultrassonografia apresentou boa reprodutibilidade interobservador para avaliação da gordura abdominal por meio das medidas das espessuras subcutânea, visceral e perirrenal.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the interobserver variability of ultrasound in the measurement of subcutaneous, visceral and perirenal fat through standard technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From November 2006 to January 2007, 50 patients were evaluated. The subcutaneous fat thickness was measured with a 7.5 MHz linear transducer transversely positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar. For the visceral fat, a 3.5 MHz transducer was also positioned 1 cm above the umbilical scar, considering the

  19. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Audureau, Etienne [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Forensic, Paris (France); Fitton, Isabelle [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  20. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre; Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury; Audureau, Etienne; Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand; Fitton, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  1. REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND DYNAMICS OF ACCUMULATION OF FAT IN BODY CAVITY OF THE CASPIAN SEA GREY MULLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Adueva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article researches fatness of grey mullets during their reproductive cycle. It was established that in spring fat depot is practically absent in grey mullets body-cavity. In summer accumulation of energy substances takes place. In August most of the examined fish had fatness of 2-3 points, but in September the number of fish with minimal fatness increases. Large content of fat in the body-cavity of grey mullets (female is found in the prime of ovogenesis. In the IV stage of ma-turity, when intensive trophoplasmic growth of acolytes takes place, fatness sharply decreases and grey mullets come to the prespawning period practically with waste fat depot. Accumulation of lipids in muscular tissue of grey mullets as against fat depot in body-cavity takes place independently of maturation of ovary. 

  2. New genetic loci link adipose and insulin biology to body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shungin, Dmitry; Winkler, Thomas W; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.

    2015-01-01

    Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall adiposity. To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of body fat distribution and its molecular links to cardiometabolic traits, here we conduct genome......-wide association meta-analyses of traits related to waist and hip circumferences in up to 224,459 individuals. We identify 49 loci (33 new) associated with waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index (BMI), and an additional 19 loci newly associated with related waist and hip circumference measures (P ... adipogenesis, angiogenesis, transcriptional regulation and insulin resistance as processes affecting fat distribution, providing insight into potential pathophysiological mechanisms....

  3. Low physical activity accentuates the effect of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on body fat accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Camilla H; Stender-Petersen, Kirstine L; Mogensen, Mette S

    2008-01-01

    (-16)). Furthermore, obesity-related quantitative traits such as body weight, waist circumference, fat mass, and fasting serum leptin levels were significantly elevated in A-allele carriers. An interaction between the FTO rs9939609 genotype and physical activity (P = 0.007) was found, where physically inactive...... homozygous risk A-allele carriers had a 1.95 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2) increase in BMI compared with homozygous T-allele carriers. CONCLUSIONS: We validate that variation in FTO is associated with type 2 diabetes when not adjusted for BMI and with an overall increase in body fat mass. Furthermore, low physical...... activity seems to accentuate the effect of FTO rs9939609 on body fat accumulation....

  4. COMPARISSON OF DIFFERENT IN VIVO ESTIMATORS OF BODY FAT AND MUSCLE CONTENT IN ADULT CREOLE GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hania Vilar-Martinez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of ultrasound measurements (ULT, body condition score (BCS and body mass index (BMI to predict body fat and muscle in goats. Twenty-four adult, ovariectomized, creole goats were fed individually to achieve dissimilar stable body weights (26 to 66 kg. After a six-week period of stabilization BCS was evaluated (average of 4 separate evaluations and BMI calculated (BW/(length x heightx10; average of 2 independent length and height measurements. Fat and muscle coverage over the dorsal (12-13th, lumbar (1st and coxal (1st vertebrae were measured by ultrasound imaging. Animals were slaughtered and visceral fat dissected and weighed. Left half carcass weights were obtained and muscle and fat were dissected and weighed. Left half carcass data were adjusted to whole carcass data. Simple  regression analyses were performed with ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors and visceral (VF, carcass (CF and total fat (TF, and muscle (MU as response variables. Coefficients of variation (CV were calculated for BCS and BMI estimations. ULT measurement of total tissue (fat + muscle coverage over dorsal vertebrae presented the highest predictive value for ULT measurements; thus this measurement is the only reported. Coefficients of determination (R2 for VF, CF and TF were .55, .76 and .68; .78, .82 and .87; .81, .81 and .88 for ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for MU were .67, .84 and .76 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. R2 for proportions of VF/BW, CF/BW and TF/BW were .47, .73 and .65; .75, .78 and .88; .74, .71 and .85; when ULT, BCS and BMI were used as predictors. R2 for MS/BW were ≤ .10 using ULT, BCS and BMI as predictors. CV was greater in BCS estimation as compared to BMI estimation (9.7 vs. 3.1 %. BCS and BMI were more accurate in vivo predictors than ULT for body fat content, fat as proportion of BW and body muscle content. ULT, BCS and BMI were completely worthless for predicting

  5. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders-Tordecilla, Alejandra; Ojeda-Pardo, Mónica Liliana; Cobo-Mejía, Elisa Andrea; Castellanos-Vega, Rocío del Pilar; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline; González-Ruíz, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS) in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF%) and fat mass index (FMI) for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years). Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001). BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05). ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles. PMID:28902162

  6. Percentage of Body Fat and Fat Mass Index as a Screening Tool for Metabolic Syndrome Prediction in Colombian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available High body fat is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS in all ethnic groups. Based on the International Diabetes Federation (IDF definition of MetS, the aim of this study was to explore thresholds of body fat percentage (BF% and fat mass index (FMI for the prediction of MetS among Colombian University students. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 1687 volunteers (63.4% women, mean age = 20.6 years. Weight, waist circumference, serum lipids indices, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose were measured. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA and FMI was calculated. MetS was defined as including more than or equal to three of the metabolic abnormalities according to the IDF definition. Receiver operating curve (ROC analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points for BF% and FMI in relation to the area under the curve (AUC, sensitivity, and specificity in both sexes. The overall prevalence of MetS was found to be 7.7%, higher in men than women (11.1% vs. 5.3%; p < 0.001. BF% and FMI were positively correlated to MetS components (p < 0.05. ROC analysis indicated that BF% and FMI can be used with moderate accuracy to identify MetS in university-aged students. BF% and FMI thresholds of 25.55% and 6.97 kg/m2 in men, and 38.95% and 11.86 kg/m2 in women, were found to be indicative of high MetS risk. Based on the IDF criteria, both indexes’ thresholds seem to be good tools to identify university students with unfavorable metabolic profiles.

  7. Changes in weight and body fat after use of tetracycline and Lactobacillus gasseri in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge José Marciano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recent studies have shown a role of intestinal microbiota in obesity. The consumption of antibiotics in the last 70 years has led to changes in intestinal microbiota, which has led to weight gain and body fat accumulation. To evaluate the possibility of weight gain induced by antibiotics and the possible protective effect of probiotics, we divided 45 animals (Rattus norvegicus into groups and administered the following treatments over two weeks: tetracycline, tetracycline + Lactobacillus gasseri, and NaCl. The animals were weighed over the course of 8 weeks, and at the end of the treatment period, they were measured and subjected to bioelectrical impedance analysis. The results show that the group receiving tetracycline alone had a higher body mass index (p=0.030, a greater Lee index (p=0.008, and a lower body water percentage than the control group, indicating a greater accumulation of body fat. The group receiving the probiotics with tetracycline presented similar results to the control group, indicating a possible protective effect of body fat accumulation in the group receiving tetracycline alone. The results show that tetracycline increased the concentration of body fat, and the use of probiotics was associated with an ability to protect the animals from the pro-obesity effect.

  8. [Prediction equations for fat percentage from body circumferences in prepubescent children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; De Marco, Ademir; de Arruda, Miguel; Martínez Salazar, Cristian; Margarita Salazar, Ciria; Valgas, Carmen; Fuentes, José Damián; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of body composition through direct and indirect methods allows the study of the various components of the human body, becoming the central hub for assessing nutritional status. The objective of the study was to develop equations for predicting body fat% from circumferential body arm, waist and calf and propose percentiles to diagnose the nutritional status of school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years. We selected intentionally (non-probabilistic) 515 children, 261 children and 254 being girls belonging to Program interaction and development of children and adolescents from the State University of Campinas (Sao Paulo, Brazil). Anthropometric variables were evaluated for weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfolds and body circumferences of arm, waist and calf, and the% fat determined by the equation proposed by Boileau, Lohman and Slaughter (1985). Through regression method 2 were generated equations to predict the percentage of fat from the body circumferences, the equations 1 and 2 were validated by cross validation method. The equations showed high predictive values ranging with a R² = 64-69%. In cross validation between the criterion and the regression equation proposed no significant difference (p > 0.05) and there was a high level of agreement to a 95% CI. It is concluded that the proposals are validated and shown as an alternative to assess the percentage of fat in school children of both sexes aged 4-10 years in the region of Campinas, SP (Brazil). Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of body mass index and visceral fat with aortic valve calcification and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the obesity paradox in severe aortic stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mancio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies showed that metabolic syndrome is associated with aortic valve calcification (AVC and poor outcomes in aortic stenosis (AS. However, if these associations change and how body fat impacts the prognosis of patients in late stage of the disease have been not yet explored. Aims To determine the association of body mass index (BMI and visceral fat with AVC and mortality after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR. Methods This was a prospective cohort of 170 severe AS patients referred to TAVR. We quantified AVC mass score and fat depots including epicardial adipose tissue, intrathoracic fat, and abdominal visceral (VAF and subcutaneous fats by computed tomography. Fat depots were indexed to body surface area. All-cause and cardiovascular-related deaths after TAVR were recorded over a median follow-up of 1.2 years. Results Higher AVC mass was independently associated with low BMI and low VAF. All-cause mortality risk increased with the decrease of BMI and increment of VAF. A stratified analysis by obesity showed that in non-obese, VAF was inversely associated with mortality, whereas in obese, high VAF was associated with higher mortality (p value for interaction < 0.05. At long-term, hazard ratio [HR] with non-obese/low VAF was 2.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–4.9; p = 0.021 and HR with obese/high VAF was 2.5 (95% CI 1.1–5.8; p = 0.031 compared with obese/low VAF patients. Conclusions In AS patients submitted to TAVR, BMI and VAF were inversely associated with AVC. Pre-intervention assessment of VAF by computed tomography may provide a better discrimination of mortality than BMI alone.

  10. Body fat throughout childhood in 2647 healthy Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine; Tinggaard, Jeanette; Winther, K.

    2014-01-01

    to 14 years) and DXA %BF (8-14 years). Age- and sex-specific Z-scores for body mass index (BMI), WC and SF %BF were compared. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for agreement of WC, SF %BF and BMI with DXA %BF to identify obese children (>+1 s.d.). RESULTS: %BF differed with age, sex, pubertal...

  11. Longitudinal associations between television in the bedroom and body fatness in a UK cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Heilmann, A; Rouxel, P; Fitzsimons, E; Kelly, Y; Watt, R G

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal associations between screen-based media use (television (TV) and computer hours, having a TV in the bedroom) and body fatness among UK children. METHODS: Participants were 12 556 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study who were followed from age 7 to age 11 years. Associations were assessed between screen-based media use and the following outcomes: body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), and overweight. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, having a ...

  12. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morinaka Tomoko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity.

  13. Bioelectrical impedance and indicators of body fat and cardiovascular risk in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Forte Freitas Júnior

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n1p19 The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between bioelectric impedance and adiposity and elevated cardiovascular risk indicators, and its effectiveness for detecting appropriate nutritional status, according to the Body Mass Index. A Cross-sectional study. The sample included 900 subjects, both males and females, with ages ranging from 11 to 17 years. Nutritional status was determined according to both Body Mass Index and relative body fat, estimated by bioelectric impedance. For both sexes, bioelectric impedance was signifi cantly correlated (p< 0.05 with all adiposity and cardiovascular risk indicators. Furthermore, it exhibited high specifi city for indicating nutritional status. It can be concluded that bioelectric impedance is a useful tool for body composition assessment. It can also be concluded that in young populations, care musty be taken when choosing equations to estimate relative body fat.

  14. Double standards in body evaluation? The influence of identification with body stimuli on ratings of attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Mona M; Giabbiconi, Claire-Marie; Schöne, Benjamin; Waldorf, Manuel; Hartmann, Andrea S; Vocks, Silja

    2017-10-20

    Although it is well documented that women evaluate their own body differently from other bodies, it remains unclear whether this discrepancy is based on double standards because of identity or on objective differences between these bodies. The aim of this study was therefore to test whether women apply double standards depending on a body's identity when evaluating the same bodies presented with different faces. Average-weight women (N = 104) rated body attractiveness, body fat, and muscle mass of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies with either another female's face or their own face. With their own face, subjects rated overweight bodies as more unattractive, higher in body fat and lower in muscle mass than with another female's face. However, for non-overweight bodies, body ratings did not differ depending on body identity. Based on the self-deprecating double standards for overweight bodies, a body-related identity bias might be considered in theoretical models of body image. Level of evidence Level V, descriptive study.

  15. Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae) fat body persists through metamorphosis with a few apoptotic cells and an increased autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Douglas Elias; Azevedo, Dihego Oliveira; Campos, Lúcio Antônio Oliveira; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Fat body, typically comprising trophocytes, provides energy during metamorphosis. The fat body can be renewed once the larval phase is complete or recycled and relocated to form the fat body of the adult insect. This study aims to identify the class of programmed cell death that occurs within the fat body cells during the metamorphosis of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Using immunodetection techniques, the fat body of the post-defecating larvae and the white-, pink-, brown-, and black-eyed pupae were tested for cleaved caspase-3 and DNA integrity, followed by ultrastructural analysis and identification of autophagy using RT-PCR for the Atg1 gene. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed some apoptotic cells positive for cleaved caspase-3, although without DNA fragmentation. During development, the fat body cells revealed an increased number of mitochondria and free ribosomes, in addition to higher amounts of autophagy Atg1 mRNA, than that of the pupae. The fat body of M. quadrifasciata showed few cells which underwent apoptosis, but there was evidence of increased autophagy at the completion of the larval stage. All together, these data show that some fat body cells persist during metamorphosis in the stingless bee M. quadrifasciata.

  16. Body fat content, fat distribution and adipocytokine production and their correlation with fertility markers in young adult men and women conceived by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belva, F; De Schepper, J; Roelants, M; Tournaye, H; Bonduelle, M; Provyn, S

    2018-02-15

    Differences in body fat content during childhood and adolescence have been described in offspring conceived by in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, data on body fat and its distribution as well as on adipocytokine production in young adults conceived by ICSI are nonexistent. We investigated if young adult men and women conceived by ICSI have a normal body fat patterning and adipocytokine production. Cohort study. One hundred twenty-seven young adults conceived by ICSI and 138 peers born after spontaneous conception. Anthropometric parameters (skinfold thickness, hip and waist circumferences), dual X-ray absorptiometry (whole body and regional) measurements and adipocytokine levels (leptin and adiponectin) were analysed in relation to fertility markers (serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin B). While at age 18 years, a normal body fat distribution and normal leptin and adiponectin production was found in both male and female ICSI offspring, young men conceived by ICSI had a higher peripheral fat deposition in comparison with spontaneously conceived peers. No correlation between AMH and inhibin B with leptin or adiponectin was observed. While men conceived by ICSI, but not women, had a higher peripheral fat deposition, body fat distribution as well as mean levels of adipocytokines were not affected by the mode of conception. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes 1-3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare-Bruun, Helle; Flint, Anne; L. Heitmann, Berit

    2006-01-01

    .Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the relationbetween GI and GL of habitual diets and subsequent 6-y changes inbody weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in a randomgroup of adult Danes.Design: A prospective cohort study was conducted in a subsampleof men and women from the Danish arm...

  18. Variations in body weight, food intake and body composition after long-term high-fat diet feeding in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongbin; Smith, Daniel L; Keating, Karen D; Allison, David B; Nagy, Tim R

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the variations in body weight, food intake, and body composition of both male and female C57BL/6J mice during a diet-induced obesity model with high-fat diet (HFD) feeding. Mice were individually housed and fed ad libitum either a low-fat diet (LFD, 10% calories from fat; n = 15 male, n = 15 female) or HFD (45% calories from fat; n = 277 male, n = 278 female) from 8 to 43 weeks of age. Body weight, food intake, and body composition were routinely measured. Body weight was significantly increased with HFD (vs. LFD) in males from week 14 (P = 0.0221) and in females from week 27 (P = 0.0076). Fat mass and fat-free mass of all groups were significantly increased over time (all P weight for both sexes (P weight. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. Comparison of body fat in Brazilian adult females by bioelectrical impedance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamir, Vaz; Frère, Slaets Annie France; Ramírez Leonardo, López

    2012-12-01

    Body-fat is essential for human body, provided that its amount is at healthy levels. If in-excess body-fat is deleterious, its lack is otherwise also harmful. Estimated percent body-fat performed with commercially available devices measuring bioimpedance have many advantages, such as easy measurement and low cost. However, these measurements are based on standard models and equations that are not disclosed by manufacturers, and this leads to questioning the validity of these estimates for Brazilian females. The aim of this study was to compare electrical tetrapolar and octapolar impedance results obtained with commercially available equipment: Maltron BF-906 and OMRON 510-W. Data analysis involved descriptive and inferential statistics. Devices used in this study to estimate body fat quantity have not shown any significant differences in results; this is a major issue when selecting equipment based on three factors: study focus, available financial resources, and target population. Results obtained from the two devices have not shown any significant differences, which lead to the conclusion that either device may be reliably used.

  20. Association between body fat distribution and androgen deficiency in middle-aged and elderly men in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Y; Wang, B; Liu, X; Li, Z; Yuan, W; Sun, Y; Miao, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the association between body fat distribution and total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) levels among middle-aged and elderly men. A total of 922 male residents aged 40-70 years from a community in Shanghai, China, participated in the study. Their waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), body mass index (BMI), and TT and FT concentrations were measured. Logistic regression models were used to estimate testosterone deficiency risk on the basis of anthropometric indices. BMI, WC and WHtR were all associated with TT deficiency. The participants in the highest quartiles of above-mentioned anthropometric indices had the highest risk of TT deficiency (BMI: odds ratio (OR)=4.40, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.69-7.19; WC: OR=3.47, 95% CI=2.14-5.60; WHtR: OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.76-4.76). WC and WHtR were associated with FT deficiency. The participants in the highest quartiles had the highest risk of FT deficiency (WC: OR=1.87, 95% CI=1.18-2.97; WHtR: OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.04-2.66). The association between BMI and FT deficiency was not statistically significant (OR=1.21 for the highest quartile, 95% CI=0.78-1.87). Our study demonstrated that both general and abdominal obesity were associated with TT deficiency, whereas only abdominal obesity was found to be associated with FT deficiency.

  1. Association of fat mass and obesity-associated gene variant with lifestyle factors and body fat in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S Parthasarthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Common intronic variants of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been associated with obesity-related traits in humans. Aims: (1 The aim of this study is to study the distribution of FTO gene variants across different body mass index (BMI categories and (2 to explore the association between FTO gene variants and lifestyle factors in obese and normal weight Indian children. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-six children (26 boys, mean age 10.3 ± 2.2 years were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumference were measured. Physical activity (questionnaire and food intake (food frequency questionnaire were assessed. Body fat percentage (%BF was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FTO allelic variants at rs9939609 site were detected by SYBR Green Amplification Refractory Mutation System real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific primers. Generalized linear model was used to investigate the simultaneous influence of genetic and lifestyle factors on %BF. Results: Mean height, weight, and BMI of normal and obese children were 130.6 ± 7.1 versus 143.2 ± 15.6, 24.0 ± 5.2 versus 53.1 ± 15.8, and 13.9 ± 2.1 versus 25.3 ± 3.2, respectively. The frequency of AA allele was 57% among obese children and 35% in normal weight children. Children with the AA allele who were obese had least physical activity, whereas children with AT allele and obesity had the highest intake of calories when compared to children who had AT allele and were normal. %BF was positively associated with AA alleles and junk food intake and negatively with healthy food intake and moderate physical activity. Conclusions: Healthy lifestyle with high physical activity and diet low in calories and fat may help in modifying the risk imposed by FTO variants in children.

  2. Lean Body Mass Associated with Upper Body Strength in Healthy Older Adults While Higher Body Fat Limits Lower Extremity Performance and Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Charlton

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impaired strength adversely influences an older person’s ability to perform activities of daily living. A cross-sectional study of 117 independently living men and women (age = 73.4 ± 9.4 year; body mass index (BMI = 27.6 ± 4.8 kg/m2 aimed to assess the association between body composition and: (1 upper body strength (handgrip strength, HGS; (2 lower extremity performance (timed up and go (TUG and sit to stand test (STS; and (3 endurance (6-minute walk (SMWT. Body composition (% fat; lean body mass (LBM was assessed using bioelectrical impedance. Habitual physical activity was measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire (MLTPA and dietary macronutrient intake, assessed using 24 h recalls and 3-day food records. Regression analyses included the covariates, protein intake (g/kg, MLTPA, age and sex. For natural logarithm (Ln of right HGS, LBM (p < 0.001 and % body fat (p < 0.005 were significant (r2 = 46.5%; p < 0.000. For left LnHGS, LBM (p < 0.000, age (p = 0.036, protein intake (p = 0.015 and LnMLTPA (p = 0.015 were significant (r2 = 0.535; p < 0.000. For SMW, % body fat, age and LnMLTPA were significant (r2 = 0.346; p < 0.000. For STS, % body fat and age were significant (r2 = 0.251; p < 0.000. LBM is a strong predictor of upper body strength while higher % body fat and lower physical activity are associated with poorer outcomes on tests of lower extremity performance.

  3. Wholegrain rye, but not wholegrain wheat, lowers body weight and fat mass compared with refined wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, J; Vuholm, Stine; Iversen, K N

    2017-01-01

    compared with refined wheat (RW) affect body weight and composition and appetite sensation. DESIGN: Seventy overweight/obese adults participated in this 6-week randomized parallel study, in which they replaced their habitual cereal foods with RW, WGW or wholegrain rye (WGR). Further, a 4 h postprandial...... test meal challenge was completed with meals corresponding to diet allocation in the beginning and after the intervention. Body weight and composition, fasted blood samples, compliance and 4-day dietary intake were obtained before and after the intervention period. Appetite and breath hydrogen...... excretion was assessed during the postprandial test meal challenge. RESULTS: Diet allocation affected body weight significantly (P=0.013) and tended also to affect fat mass (P=0.065). Both body weight and fat mass decreased more in the WGR group (-1.06±1.60 and -0.75±1.29 kg, respectively) compared...

  4. Adipocytokine responses to acute exercise in athletes with different body fat content and sedentary controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Sumarac Dumanovic

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recent research in the biology of adipose tissue indicates that it is far more than a simply an energy storage organ, and it is in fact an active endocrine organ secreting numerous bioactive mediators, called adipokines, including leptin, adiponectin and visfatin (Galic, 2010. To date, less attention has been focused on the kinetics of adipokines levels during and after high intensity exercise. Several reports pointed at the metabolic role of adipokines during exercise in elite athletes, but the data are currently equivocal (Bouassida et al., 2010; Jürimäe et al., 2011. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate adipocytokine responses to a single bout acute exercise in elite athletes with low percentage of body fat, elite athletes with a high percentage of body fat and sedentary controls. Methods: Sixteen athletes with low percentage of body fat (volleyball players, low fat athletes group, LFAG, fifteen athletes with high percentage of body fat (water polo players, high fat athletes group, HFAG and fifteen sedentary subjects participated in this study (age [years] 20±2; 20±2; 20±1, respectively. All subjects were exposed to: anthropometric measurements; exercise test on treadmill in order to examine acute changes of adipocytokines; blood samples were obtained at baseline levels, immediately after the exercise test and 30 minutes after recovery. Separated serum or plasma were used for hormone (leptin, adiponectin and visfatin ELISA analysis. Results: In athletes in LFAG, baseline leptin concentration was significantly lower, but adiponectin and visfatin concentrations were significantly higher, compared to sedentary controls and athletes in HFAG (p0.05. Conclusions: Our findings show leptin and visfatin levels, but not adiponectin respond to acute exercise. Acute exercise elicited an inverse visfatin response in athletes in HFAG and controls. Also, these results suggest that leptin is altered after acute exercise

  5. Interrelationships between weight loss, body fat distribution and sex hormones in pre- and postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcato, E; Zamboni, M; De Pergola, G; Armellini, F; Zivelonghi, A; Bergamo-Andreis, I A; Giorgino, R; Bosello, O

    1997-05-01

    Relationships between regional body fat distribution and sex hormones as well as changes in sex hormones after weight loss were evaluated. All subjects were hospitalized in the Institute of Internal Medicine of the University of Verona. Twenty-six premenopausal (age 33.7 +/- 10.2 years) and 15 postmenopausal (age 57.9 +/- 5.9 years) obese women. Body weight, body-mass index, waist and hip circumferences, visceral fat by computed tomography and sex hormones were evaluated before and after 4 weeks on a very low energy diet. Body-mass index was higher in pre-than in postmenopausal women, although the difference was not significant. Total and free testosterone were significantly higher in the pre- than in the postmenopausal group (P testosterone (r = -0.65; P testosterone (r = -0.54; P fat and total testosterone (r = -0.41; P testosterone and visceral fat encountered both in the subject group as a whole and in premenopausal women was no longer significant, whilst a significant negative association between visceral fat and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) (r = -0.56; P testosterone, free testosterone and androstenedione levels, whilst menopausal status was the most powerful predictor of FSH and LH levels. Changes in hormones after VLED were analysed separately in pre- and postmenopausal women. None of the hormones changed significantly after VLED in the postmenopausal group, except for FSH values. LH, free testosterone and urinary cortisol excretion values decreased significantly after VLED in the premenopausal group. Our data show that age, to a greater extent than visceral fat, seems to be negatively associated with steroid sex hormones. Weight loss seems to be associated with changes in sex hormones only in premenopausal women.

  6. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla M Friis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. METHODS: The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207 of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA. Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. RESULTS: Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively, gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. CONCLUSION: Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept

  7. Newborn body fat: associations with maternal metabolic state and placental size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Camilla M; Qvigstad, Elisabeth; Paasche Roland, Marie Cecilie; Godang, Kristin; Voldner, Nanna; Bollerslev, Jens; Henriksen, Tore

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal body composition has implications for the health of the newborn both in short and long term perspective. The objective of the current study was first to explore the association between maternal BMI and metabolic parameters associated with BMI and neonatal percentage body fat and to determine to which extent any associations were modified if adjusting for placental weight. Secondly, we examined the relations between maternal metabolic parameters associated with BMI and placental weight. The present work was performed in a subcohort (n = 207) of the STORK study, an observational, prospective study on the determinants of fetal growth and birthweight in healthy pregnancies at Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Fasting glucose, insulin, triglycerides, free fatty acids, HDL- and total cholesterol were measured at week 30-32. Newborn body composition was determined by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA). Placenta was weighed at birth. Linear regression models were used with newborn fat percentage and placental weight as main outcomes. Maternal BMI, fasting glucose and gestational age were independently associated with neonatal fat percentage. However, if placental weight was introduced as a covariate, only placental weight and gestational age remained significant. In the univariate model, the determinants of placenta weight included BMI, insulin, triglycerides, total- and HDL-cholesterol (negatively), gestational weight gain and parity. In the multivariable model, BMI, total cholesterol HDL-cholesterol, gestational weight gain and parity remained independent covariates. Maternal BMI and fasting glucose were independently associated with newborn percentage fat. This effect disappeared by introducing placental weight as a covariate. Several metabolic factors associated with maternal BMI were associated with placental weight, but not with neonatal body fat. Our findings are consistent with a concept that the effects of maternal BMI and a number of BMI

  8. Health effects from exercise versus those from body fat loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2001-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess whether body weight confounds the relationships between physical activity and its health benefits. Data sources: Eighty reports from population based studies (Category C) of physical activity or fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) or coronary heart disease (CHD).Data synthesis: Eleven of 64 reports found no relationship between physical activity and disease. Of the remaining 53 reports, 11 did not address the possible confounding effects of body weight, 9 cited reasons that weight differences should not explain their observed associations, and 32 statistically adjusted for weight (as required). Only 3 of these changed their associations from significant to nonsignificant when adjusted. Ten of 15 reports on cardiorespiratory fitness and CHD or CVD used statistical adjustment, and none of these changed their findings to nonsignificant. Population studies show that vigorously active individuals also have higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration, a major risk factor for CHD and CVD, than sedentary individuals when statistically adjusted for weight. In contrast intervention studies, which relate dynamic changes in weight and HDL, suggest that adjustment for weight loss largely eliminates the increase in HDL-cholesterol in sedentary men who begin exercising vigorously. Adjusting the cross-sectional HDL-cholesterol differences for the dynamic effects of weight loss eliminates most of the HDL-cholesterol difference between active and sedentary men. Conclusion: Thus population studies show that the lower incidence of CHD and CVD and higher HDL of fit, active individuals are not due to lean, healthy individuals choosing to be active (i.e., self-selection bias). Nevertheless, metabolic processed associated weight loss may be primarily responsible for the HDL differences between active and sedentary men, and possibly their differences in CHD and CVD.

  9. Targeting gene expression to the female larval fat body of transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, D C; Vuong, M; Litvinova, O V; Jinwal, U K; Gulia-Nuss, M; Harrell, R A; Beneš, H

    2013-02-01

    As the fat body is a critical tissue for mosquito development, metamorphosis, immune and reproductive system function, the characterization of regulatory modules targeting gene expression to the female mosquito fat body at distinct life stages is much needed for multiple, varied strategies for controlling vector-borne diseases such as dengue and malaria. The hexameric storage protein, Hexamerin-1.2, of the mosquito Aedes atropalpus is female-specific and uniquely expressed in the fat body of fourth instar larvae and young adults. We have identified in the Hex-1.2 gene, a short regulatory module that directs female-, tissue-, and stage-specific lacZ reporter gene expression using a heterologous promoter in transgenic lines of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. Male transgenic larvae and pupae of one line expressed no Escherichia coli β-galactosidase or transgene product; in two other lines reporter gene activity was highly female-biased. All transgenic lines expressed the reporter only in the fat body; however, lacZ mRNA levels were no different in males and females at any stage examined, suggesting that the gene regulatory module drives female-specific expression by post-transcriptional regulation in the heterologous mosquito. This regulatory element from the Hex-1.2 gene thus provides a new molecular tool for transgenic mosquito control as well as functional genetic analysis in aedine mosquitoes. © 2012 Royal Entomological Society.

  10. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the body fat of school adolescents and to compare the performance of triceps SFT with Bioelectrical impedance method in the detection of overweight (OW) and obesity (OB) among the subjects. Methods: The study was cross sectional; involving secondary school students within Sokoto metropolis.

  11. Influence of 12-week jogging on body fat and serum lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriola, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    This study examined the influence of different levels of distance running on percent body fat and serum lipids in untrained male University students (n = 40) with a mean age of 24.1 years. Subjects were assigned randomly to four groups (n = 10) in each group): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (1.6 km joggers), Group 3 (3.2 km joggers) and Group 4 (4.8 km joggers). Subjects in the exercise groups jogged the prescribed distances three times a week for 12 weeks at about 85 percent of maximal heart rate. Percent body fat, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were estimated before and after the training programme. In comparison with control group, exercise groups showed statistically significant (p less than .05) decrease of body fat values (1.6 km joggers 6%; 3.2 km joggers 5.33%; 3.2 km joggers 11%; 4.8 km joggers 9.42%). However, Newman-Keul's post hoc analysis showed a significant (p less than .05) reduction in serum triglyceride only in 3.2 km joggers. This was attributed to the high pre-training level of serum triglyceride in the group. Cholesterol values showed insignificant changes. It was concluded that moderate physical activities of different intensities have lowering effects on body fat and serum lipids. Images p13-a PMID:6722418

  12. Triceps skin fold thickness as a measure of body fat in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... as obese. Conclusion: Triceps SFT remain a fair surrogate for the assessment of adiposity, the component of over- weight that leads to pathology. Key words: Skin fold thickness, bioelectrical impedance analysis, body fat, obesity, adolescents. Introduction. Nutrition transition is increasingly evident in middle.

  13. The Relationship between Endogenous Androgens and Body Fat Distribution in Early and Late Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Yuankui; Zhang, Shaofen; Zou, Shien; Xia, Xian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the relationship between endogenous androgens and body fat distribution in early and late postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods We enrolled postmenopausal women consisting of an early group (?5 years since menopause, n?=?105) and a late group (?10 years since menopause, n?=?107). Each group was subdivided into normal weight (BMI

  14. Changes in body composition and fat distribution in response to weight loss and weight regain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, van der K.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of weight loss and subsequent weight regain on body composition, fat distribution and resting energy expenditure in moderately obese men and moderately obese premenopausal women. Participants were subjected to a controlled 4.2 MJ/day energy deficit diet for

  15. To Study Correlation of Body Fat and Blood Lipids with Autonomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the most significant contributor of worsening of autonomic functions in PM females and regular exercise can improve these parameters significantly. KEY WORDS: Autonomic functions, blood lipids, body fat, menopause. INTRODUCTION ..... gradual reduction of overall fluctuation in autonomic input to the heart as well as ...

  16. BMI and Body Fat Mass Is Inversely Associated with Vitamin D Levels in Older Individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliai Araghi, S.; van Dijk, S. C.; Ham, A. C.; Brouwer-Brolsma, E. M.; Enneman, A. W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K. M. A.; van der Zwaluw, N. L.; van Wijngaarden, J. P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R. A. M.; van Schoor, N. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Lips, P.; de Groot, L.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; van der Velde, N.

    2015-01-01

    To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Cross-sectional analysis of data from 'the B-PROOF study' (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). 2842 participants aged 65 years and older.

  17. BMI and body fat mass is inversely associated with vitamin D levels in older individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araghi, S.O.; Dijk, van S.C.; Ham, A.C.; Brouwer, E.M.; Enneman, A.W.; Sohl, E.; Swart, K.M.A.; Zwaluw, van der N.L.; Wijngaarden, van J.P.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between obesity (measured by Body Mass Index (BMI) and fat percentage) and serum 25(OH)D levels in older persons. Design: Cross-sectional analysis of data from ‘the B-PROOF study’ (B-vitamins for the Prevention Of Osteoporotic Fractures). Participants: 2842

  18. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W.; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M.; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K.; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G.; Iles, Mark M.; Justice, Anne E.; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R. B.; Pers, Tune H.; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Scott, William R.; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Walker, Ryan W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S.; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C.; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E.; de Groot, Lisette C. P. G. M.; de Jager, Philip L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A. M.; Enneman, Anke W.; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S.; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E.; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W.; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G.; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A.; Nielson, Carrie M.; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M. A.; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M.; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F.; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U.; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D.; Ried, Janina S.; Scott, Robert A.; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J.; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; McKnight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C.; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; McKenzie, Colin A.; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Bennett, David A.; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H.; Cummings, Steven R.; Czerwinski, Stefan A.; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M.; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B.; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S.; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T.; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D. C.; Rice, Treva K.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J.; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S.; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F.; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D. Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Chambers, John C.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S.; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J.; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Morris, Andrew P.; Bishop, Julia A. N.; North, Kari E.; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K.; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J. Brent; Schadt, Eric E.; Spector, Tim D.; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J.; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M. Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J. F.

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P <5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  19. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan; Buchkovich, Martin L; Na, Jianbo; Bataille, Veronique; Cousminer, Diana L; Dastani, Zari; Drong, Alexander W; Esko, Tõnu; Evans, David M; Falchi, Mario; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Hedman, Åsa K; Haring, Robin; Hysi, Pirro G; Iles, Mark M; Justice, Anne E; Kanoni, Stavroula; Lagou, Vasiliki; Li, Rui; Li, Xin; Locke, Adam; Lu, Chen; Mägi, Reedik; Perry, John R B; Pers, Tune H; Qi, Qibin; Sanna, Marianna; Schmidt, Ellen M; Scott, William R; Shungin, Dmitry; Teumer, Alexander; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Walker, Ryan W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Zhang, Mingfeng; Zhang, Weihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhu, Zhihong; Afzal, Uzma; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; Bakker, Stephan J L; Bellis, Claire; Bonnefond, Amélie; Borodulin, Katja; Buchman, Aron S; Cederholm, Tommy; Choh, Audrey C; Choi, Hyung Jin; Curran, Joanne E; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; De Jager, Philip L; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Enneman, Anke W; Eury, Elodie; Evans, Daniel S; Forsen, Tom; Friedrich, Nele; Fumeron, Frédéric; Garcia, Melissa E; Gärtner, Simone; Han, Bok-Ghee; Havulinna, Aki S; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hillege, Hans; Ittermann, Till; Kent, Jack W; Kolcic, Ivana; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lahti, Jari; Mateo Leach, Irene; Lee, Christine G; Lee, Jong-Young; Liu, Tian; Liu, Youfang; Lobbens, Stéphane; Loh, Marie; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Michaëlsson, Karl; Nalls, Mike A; Nielson, Carrie M; Oozageer, Laticia; Pascoe, Laura; Paternoster, Lavinia; Polašek, Ozren; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarzynski, Mark A; Shin, Chan Soo; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Spira, Dominik; Srikanth, Priya; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Sung, Yun Ju; Swart, Karin M A; Taittonen, Leena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Tikkanen, Emmi; van der Velde, Nathalie; van Schoor, Natasja M; Verweij, Niek; Wright, Alan F; Yu, Lei; Zmuda, Joseph M; Eklund, Niina; Forrester, Terrence; Grarup, Niels; Jackson, Anne U; Kristiansson, Kati; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Lichtner, Peter; Luan, Jian'an; Mahajan, Anubha; Männistö, Satu; Palmer, Cameron D; Ried, Janina S; Scott, Robert A; Stancáková, Alena; Wagner, Peter J; Demirkan, Ayse; Döring, Angela; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Kiel, Douglas P; Kühnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Mcknight, Barbara; Menni, Cristina; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Oostra, Ben A; Shuldiner, Alan R; Song, Kijoung; Vandenput, Liesbeth; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; White, Charles C; Boehnke, Michael; Boettcher, Yvonne; Cooper, Richard S; Forouhi, Nita G; Gieger, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Hingorani, Aroon; Jørgensen, Torben; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; Langenberg, Claudia; Linneberg, Allan; Luke, Amy; Mckenzie, Colin A; Palotie, Aarno; Pedersen, Oluf; Peters, Annette; Strauch, Konstantin; Tayo, Bamidele O; Wareham, Nicholas J; Bennett, David A; Bertram, Lars; Blangero, John; Blüher, Matthias; Bouchard, Claude; Campbell, Harry; Cho, Nam H; Cummings, Steven R; Czerwinski, Stefan A; Demuth, Ilja; Eckardt, Rahel; Eriksson, Johan G; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H; Froguel, Philippe; Gansevoort, Ron T; Hansen, Torben; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas; Heliövaara, Markku; Hofman, Albert; Jordan, Joanne M; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kajantie, Eero; Knekt, Paul B; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lind, Lars; Liu, Yongmei; Orwoll, Eric S; Osmond, Clive; Perola, Markus; Pérusse, Louis; Raitakari, Olli T; Rankinen, Tuomo; Rao, D C; Rice, Treva K; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Salomaa, Veikko; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Towne, Bradford; Tranah, Gregory J; Tremblay, Angelo; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma S; Vitart, Veronique; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Völzke, Henry; Walker, Mark; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wild, Sarah; Wilson, James F; Yengo, Loïc; Bishop, D Timothy; Borecki, Ingrid B; Chambers, John C; Cupples, L Adrienne; Dehghan, Abbas; Deloukas, Panos; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Fox, Caroline; Furey, Terrence S; Franke, Lude; Han, Jiali; Hunter, David J; Karjalainen, Juha; Karpe, Fredrik; Kaplan, Robert C; Kooner, Jaspal S; McCarthy, Mark I; Murabito, Joanne M; Morris, Andrew P; Bishop, Julia A N; North, Kari E; Ohlsson, Claes; Ong, Ken K; Prokopenko, Inga; Richards, J Brent; Schadt, Eric E; Spector, Tim D; Widén, Elisabeth; Willer, Cristen J; Yang, Jian; Ingelsson, Erik; Mohlke, Karen L; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pospisilik, John Andrew; Zillikens, M Carola; Lindgren, Cecilia; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas Oskari; Loos, Ruth J F

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eight

  20. Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variation in testicular and fat-body weight and plasma testosterone and androstenedione concentration of the lizard Cordylus polyzonus is described. Testicular recrudescence commenced in autumn (April), reaching a peak in early spring (September) and regression followed during mid-spring to early autumn ...

  1. New loci for body fat percentage reveal link between adiposity and cardiometabolic disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Yingchang; Day, Felix R; Gustafsson, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P<5 × 10(-8)), of which eigh...

  2. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness.

  3. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgit M; Bjørnsbo, Kirsten S; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    population comprised 485 children aged 10 years and 364 children aged 16 years from Odense County, Denmark. Dietary GI and GL were estimated using international food tables, and the associations between energy-adjusted dietary GI, GL and body fatness were analysed by multiple linear regression. The mean...

  4. Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in Danish children in relation to body fatness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B. M.; Bjørnsbo, K. B.; Tetens, Inge

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) values in the diets of Danish children, and to examine the associations between dietary GI, GL and body fatness. Data were collected during 1997-8 as part of the European Youth Heart Study. The study...

  5. Body fat distribution as a risk factor for osteoporosis | Blaauw | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the body fat distribution of patients with osteoporosis (GP) with that of an appropriately matched non-GP control group. Design: Case control study. Setting: Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tygerberg Hospital. Participants: A total of 56 patients with histologicatly ...

  6. Optimism and positive body image in women : The mediating role of the feared fat self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Vidal, Jose

    We predicted that an expectancy judgment about acquiring a feared fat self and an expectancy judgment about acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate dispositional optimism on positive body image. We also predicted that the mediation pathway through the feared self would be significantly

  7. Changes in composition of triacylglycerols in the fat body of bumblebee males during their lifetime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiroš, Pavel; Cvačka, Josef; Hanus, Robert; Kindl, Jiří; Kofroňová, Edita; Valterová, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 863-871 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/10/1734 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bombus terrestris * bombus lucorum * fat body * lipids * LC/APCI-MS Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.129, year: 2011

  8. Obesity and body fat distribution : ethnic differences and the role of socio-economic status</